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1

Aggressive Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability Following Community Resettlement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging

Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.

2009-01-01

2

Aggressive behaviour and its prevalence within five typologies.  

PubMed

Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the individual and those around them. Hence, greater consideration regarding intervention, management, person-centred strategies and prevalence and frequency rates are required in service provision for individuals with intellectual disability and aggressive behaviour. This review presents the context of aggressive behaviour and its prevalence within the five typologies of aggressive behaviour: verbal aggression, aggression against others, sexually inappropriate behaviour, self-injurious behaviour and aggression against property, as identified by Crocker et al. (2007). The focus of this review is to report on the prevalence of aggressive behaviour reported for individuals with intellectual disability and consider the ambiguity in defining aggressive behaviour. PMID:24189373

Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

2014-03-01

3

Incidence, Types and Characteristics of Aggressive Behaviour in Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…

Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.

2008-01-01

4

Prevalence and risk factors of inpatient aggression by adults with intellectual disabilities and severe challenging behaviour: a long-term prospective study in two Dutch treatment facilities.  

PubMed

Over five years, various types of aggressive incidents by 421 intellectually disabled inpatients were recorded on a daily basis, using an adapted version of the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Stable patient characteristics (e.g., gender, intelligence, DSM IV classification at the start of treatment) and pre-treatment scores of two treatment outcome measures (e.g., Adult Behavior Checklist and Dynamic Risk Outcome Scale) were used to predict aggression during the treatment. At an overall average of one incident per patient per week, about ten times more aggression occurred on admission compared to resocialisation wards, and the 20% most aggressive individuals caused 50% of the verbal and 80% of the physical incidents. The best predictor of aggressive behaviour was aggression early in treatment, followed by coping skills deficits and impulsiveness. The relevance of the results for the treatment of aggressive behaviour and methodological issues in the recording of inpatient aggression are discussed. PMID:23711630

Drieschner, Klaus H; Marrozos, Isabel; Regenboog, Maarten

2013-08-01

5

Understanding aggressive behaviour across the lifespan.  

PubMed

Aggressive behaviour is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter - and may serve as - both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behaviour in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the aetiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behaviour. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behaviour. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behaviour in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the aetiology of such behaviour in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behaviour across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behaviour, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programmes. PMID:22471771

Liu, J; Lewis, G; Evans, L

2013-03-01

6

Experience influences aggressive behaviour in the Argentine ant.  

PubMed

All animals interact with conspecifics during their life, and nearly all also display some form of aggression. An enduring challenge, however, is to understand how the experiences of an individual animal influence its later behaviours. Several studies have shown that prior winning experience increases the probability of initiating fights in later encounters. Using behavioural assays in the laboratory, we provide evidence that, in Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), the mere exposure to an opponent, without the encounter escalating to a fight, also increases the probability that it will display aggression in later encounters. Argentine ant workers differ in their propensity to attack non-colonymates, with some ants repeatedly aggressive and others consistently more docile. Although 78 per cent of the workers were consistent in their behaviour from one encounter to the next, workers that did change their behaviour after an encounter with a non-colonymate more often changed from non-aggressive to aggressive, rather than the reverse. Surprisingly, a single encounter with a non-colonymate increased a worker's propensity to fight in encounters up to a week later. An encounter with a non-colonymate also increased the probability that a worker would attack ants from a colony that it had not previously encountered. Thus, these interactions lowered the overall aggression threshold, rather than stimulating a specific aggressive response to a particular foreign colony. Finally, our data suggest that aggression towards non-colonymates increases with age. PMID:19793741

Van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Clémencet, Johanna; Tsutsui, Neil D

2010-04-23

7

Relational Aggression and Prosocial Behaviours in Australian Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relational aggression is a subtle form of aggressive behaviour that uses dyadic relationships and manipulation as a vehicle of harm. Little is known about relational aggression in preschool-age children in cultural contexts outside the United States. This study examined relationally aggressive behaviours and prosocial behaviours in Australian…

Swit, Cara; McMaugh, Anne

2012-01-01

8

Changing Care Staff Approaches to the Prevention and Management of Aggressive Behaviour in a Residential Treatment Unit for Persons with Mental Retardation and Challenging Behaviour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of a training procedure to improve staff skills in the preventative and reactive management of severely challenging behaviors in a small residential treatment unit found reduced (though not statistically significant) behavioral incidents, use of major reactive strategies (restraint and emergency medication), and staff and resident…

Allen, David; And Others

1997-01-01

9

Aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia: role of state versus trait factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to elucidate the relative importance of state vs. trait factors in determining aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia. Thirty-one aggressive schizophrenia patients in rehabilitation wards were compared with 31 matched non-aggressive patients with respect to their psychopathology, phenomenologies of hallucinations and delusions, neuroleptic motor side effects, history of aggression and personality traits. Significant differences between the

Peter Cheung; Isaac Schweitzer; Kathleen Crowley; Virginia Tuckwell

1997-01-01

10

Thermal Behaviour of Honeybees During Aggressive Interactions.  

PubMed

We report here on the interrelationship of aggressive behaviour and thermoregulation in honeybees. Body temperature measurements were carried out without behavioural disturbance by infrared thermography. Guard bees, foragers, drones, and queens involved in aggressive interactions were always endothermic, i.e. had their flight muscles activated. Guards made differential use of their endothermic capacity. Mean thorax temperature was 34.2-35.1°C during examination of bees but higher during fights with wasps (37°C) or attack of humans (38.6°C). They usually cooled down when examining bees whereas examinees often heated up during prolonged interceptions (maximum >47°C). Guards neither adjusted their thorax temperature (and thus flight muscle function and agility) to that of examined workers, nor to that of drones, which were 2-7°C warmer. Guards examined cool bees (<33°C) longer than warmer ones, supporting the hypothesis that heating of examinees facilitates odour identification by guards, probably because of vapour pressure increase of semiochemicals with temperature. Guards in the core of aggressive balls clinged to the attacked insects to fix them and kill them by heat (maximum 46.5°C). Bees in the outer cluster layers resembled normal guards behaviourally and thermally. They served as active core insulators by heating up to 43.9°C. While balled wasps were cooler (maximum 42.5°C) than clinging guards balled bees behaved like examinees with maximum temperatures of 46.6°C, which further supports the hypothesis that the examinees heat up to facilitate odour identification. PMID:22140291

Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

2007-09-17

11

Genes and gene networks implicated in aggression related behaviour.  

PubMed

Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selective breeding. This is the first study to offer a global transcriptomic characterization of the prefrontal cortex across all three genetic mouse models of aggression. A systems biology approach has been applied to transcriptomic data across the three pairs of selected inbred mouse strains (Turku Aggressive (TA) and Turku Non-Aggressive (TNA), Short Attack Latency (SAL) and Long Attack Latency (LAL) mice and North Carolina Aggressive (NC900) and North Carolina Non-Aggressive (NC100)), providing novel insight into the neurobiological mechanisms and genetics underlying aggression. First, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify modules of highly correlated genes associated with aggression. Probe sets belonging to gene modules uncovered by WGCNA were carried forward for network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The RankProd non-parametric algorithm was then used to statistically evaluate expression differences across the genes belonging to modules significantly associated with aggression. IPA uncovered two pathways, involving NF-kB and MAPKs. The secondary RankProd analysis yielded 14 differentially expressed genes, some of which have previously been implicated in pathways associated with aggressive behaviour, such as Adrbk2. The results highlighted plausible candidate genes and gene networks implicated in aggression-related behaviour. PMID:25142712

Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sluyter, Frans

2014-10-01

12

Frustrative reward omission increases aggressive behaviour of inferior fighters.  

PubMed

Animals use aggressive behaviour to gain access to resources, and individuals adjust their behaviour relative to resource value and own resource holding potential (RHP). Normally, smaller individuals have inferior fighting abilities compared with larger conspecifics. Affective and cognitive processes can alter contest dynamics, but the interaction between such effects and that of differing RHPs has not been adjudged. We investigated effects of omission of expected reward (OER) on competing individuals with contrasting RHPs. Small and large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conditioned to associate a light with reward. Thereafter, the reward was omitted for half of the fish prior to a contest between individuals possessing a 36-40% difference in RHP. Small control individuals displayed submissive behaviour and virtually no aggression. By contrast, small OER individuals were more aggressive, and two out of 11 became socially dominant. Increased aggression in small OER individuals was accompanied by increased serotonin levels in the dorsomedial pallium (proposed amygdala homologue), but no changes in limbic dopamine neurochemistry were observed in OER-exposed individuals. The behavioural and physiological response to OER in fish indicates that frustration is an evolutionarily conserved affective state. Moreover, our results indicate that aggressive motivation to reward unpredictability affects low RHP individuals strongest. PMID:24759861

Vindas, Marco A; Johansen, Ida B; Vela-Avitua, Sergio; Nørstrud, Karoline Sletbak; Aalgaard, Marion; Braastad, Bjarne O; Höglund, Erik; Øverli, Øyvind

2014-06-01

13

Social networks and aggressive behaviour in Chinese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study investigated Mainland Chinese children’s social networks and peer group affiliations with a particular emphasis on their aggressive behaviour. The participants were 294 elementary school students in Tianjin, P. R. China (mean age 11.5 years; 161 boys). Social network analysis identified relatively large and gender-specific peer groups. Although different measures were used, the pattern of homophily characteristic of

Yiyuan Xu; Jo Ann M. Farver; David Schwartz; Lei Chang

2004-01-01

14

Video game playing and its relations with aggressive and prosocial behaviour.  

PubMed

In this study of 278 children from the seventh and eighth grade of five elementary schools in Enschede, The Netherlands, the relationship between the amount of time children spent on playing video games and aggressive as well as prosocial behaviour was investigated. In addition, the relationship between the preference for aggressive video games and aggressive and prosocial behaviour was studied. No significant relationship was found between video game use in general and aggressive behaviour, but a significant negative relationship with prosocial behaviour was supported. However, separate analyses for boys and girls did not reveal this relationship. More consistent results were found for the preference for aggressive video games: children, especially boys, who preferred aggressive video games were more aggressive and showed less prosocial behaviour than those with a low preference for these games. Further analyses showed that children who preferred playing aggressive video games tended to be less intelligent. PMID:9738313

Wiegman, O; van Schie, E G

1998-09-01

15

Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Treating Aggressive Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Single Blind Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggressive behaviour represents a frequent symptom in people with intellectual disability (PWID). Despite uncertain evidence of effectiveness, the use of antipsychotics (APs) drugs to treat aggressive behaviour is very common. Antipsychotic medication of aggressivity in PWID has recently become one of the most debated issues in mental…

Amore, M.; Bertelli, M.; Villani, D.; Tamborini, S.; Rossi, M.

2011-01-01

16

The development of aggressive behaviour during childhood: What have we learned in the past century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on human aggression has been a flourishing industry in the 20th century. As the attention shifted from an instinctual paradigm to a drive paradigm and a social learning paradigm, what have we learned on the development of aggressive behaviour during childhood? Are children born with an aggressive instinct or do they have to learn to aggress?This question has deep

Richard E. Tremblay

2000-01-01

17

The impact of non-aggressive behaviour early in aggressive interactions: Sex differences in direct and indirect aggression in response to provocation.  

PubMed

Using an adapted form of the Taylor competitive reaction time task (TCRT: Taylor, 1967), we examined the effect of initially non-aggressive behaviour during aggressive encounters. Specifically, if a person is initially non-aggressive, but becomes more aggressive later, does an opponent respond more or less aggressively in response? Participants (N = 148) played a competitive reaction time task against a bogus partner, who was either initially non-aggressive, or initially moderately aggressive, and then delivered increasingly loud noise blasts to participants on trials when the participant lost. Both direct (noise blasts delivered to the partner) and indirect aggression (damage to partner's reputation) were assessed. The impact of whether or not participants expected to meet the partner on direct and indirect aggression was also examined. All participants reduced their direct aggression towards an initially non-aggressive partner and a partner they expected to meet. However, for females, the switch from initial non-aggression to later aggression generated a negative evaluation of the partner, exhibited by indirect but not direct aggression. PMID:24387100

Lawrence, Claire; Hutchinson, Laura

2014-02-01

18

Training Staff to Manage Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A training package for staff working with clients presenting challenging behaviour was developed to (1) increase their knowledge regarding challenging behaviour, and (2) to improve the quality of physical intervention techniques. The latter aim was intended to reduce staff anxiety about dealing with incidents and limit physical risk of…

van Oorsouw, Wietske M. W. J.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Jahoda, Andrew

2010-01-01

19

Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans.  

PubMed

We review the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of early adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between early adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour. PMID:25059307

Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D

2014-10-01

20

Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

2011-01-01

21

Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

2009-01-01

22

Frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.  

PubMed

The main goals of this study were to determine the prevalence, frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Because in the literature several health problems and sensory impairments are associated with the onset and existence of challenging behaviour, this relationship was also examined. This study involved 181 people with PIMD (age: mean: 35; SD: 19, 56% male). The Behaviour Problem Inventory was used to determine prevalence, frequency and severity of self-injurious (SIB), stereotypical and aggressive/destructive behaviour, and an additional questionnaire was used to determine the presence of sensory impairments and health problems among the participants. Results show a prevalence of 82% for SIB and stereotypical behaviour in the sample. Aggressive/destructive behaviour was seen in 45% of the participants. Concerning the frequency, on average SIB occurs on a daily or weekly basis. Stereotypical behaviour is seen on a daily basis and aggressive/destructive behaviour is usually reported once a week. All three types of challenging behaviour also occur on an hourly basis. The severity of challenging behaviour is usually rated by staff as of minor consequence for the person with PIMD. Furthermore, a relationship was found between having visual, tactile or psychiatric problems and the occurrence of challenging behaviour. Participants with visual impairments, tactile impairments or psychiatric problems showed significantly higher mean scores regarding challenging behaviour. Challenging behaviour within the target group of people with PIMD is very common. The prevalence figures are high, but direct support professionals are not inclined to rate such behaviour as of serious consequence. PMID:20728304

Poppes, P; van der Putten, A J J; Vlaskamp, C

2010-01-01

23

Interspecific aggressive behaviour of invasive pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian fresh waters.  

PubMed

Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence, respectively. This study highlights the usefulness of direct observations in the wild for assessing the effects of behavioural interference of invasive fishes on Iberian aquatic communities. PMID:24505367

Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H

2014-01-01

24

Interspecific Aggressive Behaviour of Invasive Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian Fresh Waters  

PubMed Central

Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence, respectively. This study highlights the usefulness of direct observations in the wild for assessing the effects of behavioural interference of invasive fishes on Iberian aquatic communities. PMID:24505367

Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.

2014-01-01

25

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution  

PubMed Central

Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

Rosvall, K. A.; Bergeon Burns, C. M.; Barske, J.; Goodson, J. L.; Schlinger, B. A.; Sengelaub, D. R.; Ketterson, E. D.

2012-01-01

26

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution.  

PubMed

Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

Rosvall, K A; Bergeon Burns, C M; Barske, J; Goodson, J L; Schlinger, B A; Sengelaub, D R; Ketterson, E D

2012-09-01

27

Appropriate treatment targets or products of a demanding environment? The relationship between aggression in a forensic psychiatric hospital with aggressive behaviour preceding admission and violent recidivism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective treatment of aggressive behaviour and accurate release decision making are necessary components of adequate clinical practice in forensic psychiatric units. Unfortunately, methods to identify treatment targets and ameliorate aggressive behaviour have developed at a slower pace than risk assessment technologies. Recent progress on the identification of offence paralleling or functionally equivalent behaviour offers a framework for individually tailored treatment

Michael Daffern; Murray Ferguson; James Ogloff; Lindsay Thomson; Kevin Howells

2007-01-01

28

Contextual variables affecting aggressive behaviour in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities who live in a residential facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. METHOD: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with aggressive behaviour who lived in a residential facility. Staff members completed

P. J. C. M. Embregts; H. C. M. Didden; C. Huitink; N. M. J. Schreuder

2009-01-01

29

Dominance, aggression and testosterone in wild chimpanzees: a test of the `challenge hypothesis'  

E-print Network

Dominance, aggression and testosterone in wild chimpanzees: a test of the `challenge hypothesis' posits that variation in male testosterone levels is more closely associated with aggression that adult male chimpanzees showed significant testosterone increases during periods when parous females

Wrangham, Richard W.

30

The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA) study: Design challenges  

PubMed Central

Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug) and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies) timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone) to the effect of the first (stimulant). We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic). Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years) with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder) accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant) was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual comparison was stimulant+parent training versus stimulant+antipsychotic+parent training. Conclusions We hope that the resolutions of the challenges presented here will be useful to other investigators and facilitate much-needed research on child psychiatric polypharmacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00796302 PMID:22074813

2011-01-01

31

Sex differences in the aggressive behaviour of schoolchildren.  

PubMed

An observational study was carried out to investigate whether sex differences in aggression, found in pre-school children in free-play situations, would also be found at older ages in the classroom. Equal numbers of boys and girls, aged 6 and 11 years, were observed individually in their school classrooms for eight 5 min periods, carried out over several weeks. At 11 years of age, boys showed more physical aggression than girls, a finding which resulted from a few boys showing higher scores than the remaining boys and the girls; girls showed more verbal aggression. These sex differences were not found at 6 years of age. At both ages, there was a higher proportion of same-sex than opposite-sex encounters. These results are discussed in terms of the generality of sex differences in aggression, the possibility of a sex difference in the form of aggressive acts, and the sex of the recipient of aggression. PMID:7237004

Archer, J; Westeman, K

1981-02-01

32

Profiles and Correlates of Aggressive Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite the heterogeneity in aggressive behaviours observed among individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), little attention has been paid to the identification of typologies of aggression among individuals with mild or moderate ID and their associated factors. Objective: The goal of the present study was to identify profiles of…

Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Allaire, J.-F.; Roy, M.-E.

2007-01-01

33

Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement patterns in a passerine bird  

PubMed Central

The importance of behaviours as instigators or inhibitors of evolutionary change remains largely unresolved and this is in part because there are very few empirical examples of how behaviours affect evolutionary processes. By determining the environment of breeding, aggressive interactions over territories have the potential to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide a unique opportunity to investigate the evolutionary importance of aggression, since their highly variable breeding habitat favours distinct foraging techniques and they also compete aggressively for nest boxes, a resource that is easy to manipulate. Here, I show experimentally that more aggressive males compete more effectively for territories with a high density of nest boxes and, as a consequence, aggressive and non-aggressive males are sorted into distinct breeding habitats that differ in the strength of selection on morphological traits. Specifically, males with longer tails and tarsi were favoured in open habitats where high agility is required to forage efficiently, whereas in forested habitats, where agility is less important, selection was weak. These results show that aggression can affect selection on a local scale by determining individual settlement patterns. More generally, because territorial interactions are important across a wide variety of taxa, these results suggest that aggressive behaviour has the potential to impact the evolutionary trajectory of many animal populations. PMID:16790412

Duckworth, Renée A

2006-01-01

34

Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement patterns in a passerine bird.  

PubMed

The importance of behaviours as instigators or inhibitors of evolutionary change remains largely unresolved and this is in part because there are very few empirical examples of how behaviours affect evolutionary processes. By determining the environment of breeding, aggressive interactions over territories have the potential to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide a unique opportunity to investigate the evolutionary importance of aggression, since their highly variable breeding habitat favours distinct foraging techniques and they also compete aggressively for nest boxes, a resource that is easy to manipulate. Here, I show experimentally that more aggressive males compete more effectively for territories with a high density of nest boxes and, as a consequence, aggressive and non-aggressive males are sorted into distinct breeding habitats that differ in the strength of selection on morphological traits. Specifically, males with longer tails and tarsi were favoured in open habitats where high agility is required to forage efficiently, whereas in forested habitats, where agility is less important, selection was weak. These results show that aggression can affect selection on a local scale by determining individual settlement patterns. More generally, because territorial interactions are important across a wide variety of taxa, these results suggest that aggressive behaviour has the potential to impact the evolutionary trajectory of many animal populations. PMID:16790412

Duckworth, Renée A

2006-07-22

35

Predatory behaviour in females of two strains of mice selectively bred for isolation-induced intermale aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study sought to determine whether females of two strains of mice selectively bred for high (Turku Aggressive, TA) and low (Turku Non-Aggressive, TNA) levels of isolation-induced intermale aggression display differences in predatory behaviour. Additional subjects used in the study were females of the parental strain (Normal, N). Another aim of the present research was to investigate whether predatory aggression

N. Kenneth Sandnabba

1995-01-01

36

Testosterone correlates of mate guarding, singing and aggressive behaviour in male barn swallows, Hirundo rustica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual and social behaviour in male birds is largely controlled by gonadal secretions, most notably testosterone. In this paper the relationships between natural testosterone plasma concentrations and mate guarding, singing and rates of aggression in male barn swallows are reported. Behaviour of individually marked male swallows was observed in three breeding colonies. Individual mate-guarding rate was positively correlated with individual

N. SAINO; A. P. MØLLER

1995-01-01

37

Pharmacotherapy for Aggressive Behaviours in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Treatment or Mistreatment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…

Tsiouris, J. A.

2010-01-01

38

Aggression Management Training for Youth in Behaviour Schools: A Quasi-Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 16-week, bi-weekly, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based aggression management training course was conducted with a limited sample of behavioural school students in New South Wales. Attendance, withdrawal and suspension rates over the training period were compared to those of a control period. Parent and teacher feedback, assessed at pre-…

Wheatley, Anna; Murrihy, Rachael; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wuthrich, Viviana; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; Dadds, Mark; Kidman, Antony

2009-01-01

39

Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement patterns in a passerine bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of behaviours as instigators or inhibitors of evolutionary change remains largely unresolved and this is in part because there are very few empirical examples of how behaviours affect evolutionary processes. By determining the environment of breeding, aggressive interactions over territories have the potential to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide a unique

Renée A. Duckworth

2006-01-01

40

Prevalence of physical and verbal aggressive behaviours and associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB) is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism.

Philippe Voyer; René Verreault; Ginette M Azizah; Johanne Desrosiers; Nathalie Champoux; Annick Bédard

2005-01-01

41

Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement  

E-print Network

to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide; Sialia mexicana 1. INTRODUCTION Behaviours affect how organisms interact with their environment

Duckworth, Renée

42

Effect of aggressive behaviour on age-structured population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present an age-structured population model that incorporates individual behaviour. A classical Leslie matrix model is used to describe the population demography. Adults acquire resources required to survive and reproduce by using two contrasted behavioural tactics (hawk versus dove). Individual survival depends on the average cost of fights while individual fecundity depends on the average gain in

Estelle Chambon-Dubreuil; Pierre Auger; Jean-Michel Gaillard; Mohamed Khaladi

2006-01-01

43

Aggressive behaviour in Montagu’s harrier Circus pygargus during the courtship period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behaviour of Montagu’s harrier was observed during the pre-laying period in the 1992–1995 seasons on the calcareous\\u000a marshes of Chelm in Eastern Poland. In total, 435 flights performed by 24 pairs of individually marked harriers were analysed.\\u000a All flights were performed in relation to the territory of defence. Males performed 61% of aggressive interactions while females\\u000a performed 39%. Intraspecific

Jaros?aw Wi?cek

2006-01-01

44

Managing aggression in a psychiatric hospital using a behaviour plan: a case study.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the critical role of nursing in implementing a behaviour plan in a psychiatric hospital. The plan was implemented with a 40-year-old man with a long history of aggression towards others and self. The study used a single-subject research design with baseline and intervention phases (AB Design). Data were collected on (1) frequency of incidents of aggression towards others and self; (2) use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression (i.e. restraints, pro re nata medication, 1:1 special observation); and (3) frequency of staff injury. The data show a decrease in frequency of aggression towards others and self, a concurrent reduction in the use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression, and a decrease in incidents of staff injury. The behaviour plan helped staff maintain a safe and therapeutic milieu. The behaviour plan has given the patient an opportunity to learn positive replacement behaviours and skills, and the opportunity eventually to leave the hospital to live in a less restrictive community home. PMID:16965469

Bisconer, S W; Green, M; Mallon-Czajka, J; Johnson, J S

2006-10-01

45

Risk of aggression and criminal behaviour among adolescents living in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

Adolescent risk-taking and aggressive behaviours are among the most visible forms of violence in society. A study was carried out to identify the prevalence and risk factors for aggression, violence and criminal behaviour among adolescents in Alexandria, Egypt. Using multistage, cluster sampling of families from all health districts in Alexandria, the mothers of 783 adolescents aged 11-19 years answered an Arabic version of the Mentor Research Institute screening questionnaire. Overall 26.9% of adolescents were assessed to be at high risk and 20.2% at extremely high risk of aggression and criminal behaviour. Living in urban/slum areas, male sex, low level of parents' education/occupation, exposure to violence within the family and changes in behaviour of any family member were associated with risk of aggression/violence. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent variables were adolescents' sex, presence of behavioural changes in the family, violence against brothers and sisters and substance abuse by any family member. PMID:24952124

Wahdan, I; El-Nimr, N; Kotb, R; Wahdan, A

2014-04-01

46

Aggressive behaviour and dominance relationships of the dark chub, Zacco temmincki with special reference to their individual recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behaviour and dominance relationships ofZacco temmincki were observed by introducing fish into an enclosed pond. Chase (-flee), lateral display, parallel swim and butt were the\\u000a principal behavioural patterns in aggressive encounters between fish, while chase, resulting in lateral display by the chased\\u000a fish was the most common behavioural sequence. Initially, mutual behavioural patterns such as parallel swim and mutual

Osamu Katano

1985-01-01

47

Changes in testosterone mediate the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour.  

PubMed

Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour. PMID:23587440

Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M

2013-10-01

48

Contextual Variables Affecting Aggressive Behaviour in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities Who Live in a Residential Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…

Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.

2009-01-01

49

Do Social Information-Processing Models Explain Aggressive Behaviour by Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Residential Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…

van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

2006-01-01

50

Acute trazodone and quipazine treatment attenuates apomorphine-induced aggressive behaviour in male rats without major impact on emotional behaviour or monoamine content post mortem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effect of acute trazodone (3–20 mg kg?1) and quipazine (1–3 mg kg?1) treatment on the apomorphine-induced (1 mg kg?1, once daily over 2 weeks) aggressive behaviour in male Wistar rats. All doses of trazodone and quipazine tested attenuated the aggressiveness as evidenced by the abolished intensity of aggressive behaviour and increased time of latency before the

Ruth Rudissaar; Katrin Pruus; Annika Vaarmann; Piret Pannel; Tatjana Skrebuhhova-malmros; Lembit Allikmets; Vallo Matto

2001-01-01

51

Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

2009-01-01

52

Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Improves Aggression, but Not Self-Injurious Behaviour, in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…

Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.

2008-01-01

53

The Relationship between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Aggressive Behaviour in Preschool Boys and Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) among preschoolers is limited. This study explored prevalence rates of AD/HD on a community-based sample of preschoolers in Athens. Moreover, it examined the relationship between AD/HD and aggressive behaviour and explored sex differences in this relationship. Nursery teachers…

Kakouros, Efthymios; Maniadaki, Katerina; Karaba, Rania

2005-01-01

54

School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

2012-01-01

55

From conduct disorder to severe mental illness: associations with aggressive behaviour, crime and victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Conduct disorder (CD) prior to age 15 has been associated with an increased risk of aggressive behaviour and crime among men with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample of severely mentally ill men and women. Method. We examined a cohort of in-patients with severe mental illness in one mental health

S. Hodgins; A. Cree; J. Alderton; T. Mak

2008-01-01

56

Linking nutrition and behavioural dominance: carbohydrate scarcity limits aggression and activity in Argentine ants.  

PubMed

Predicting the outcome of competitive interactions is a fundamental goal in ecology. Ecological stoichiometry, which relates nutrient balance to ecological processes, provides a framework for identifying mechanistic links among macronutrient availability, nutritional physiology and competitive performance. Because carbohydrates serve as a principal metabolic fuel, carbohydrate scarcity may impinge upon behaviours affecting competitive dominance (e.g. aggression, activity) to a greater extent than deficiencies of protein or other nutrients used preferentially for growth. Here, we tested this prediction with a diet manipulation study involving laboratory colonies of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), a widespread and aggressive invasive species. The availability of both sucrose and insect prey influenced brood production and worker survival after three months. However, colonies became less aggressive and less active only when deprived of sucrose (but not prey). Scarcity of sucrose (but not prey) was also associated with reduced fat mass in individual workers. These data provide the first experimental support that carbohydrate scarcity compromises aggression and activity in ants, and illustrate, in principle, how access to carbohydrate-rich resources (e.g. plant exudates, hemipteran honeydew) might influence behavioural investments that contribute to competitive performance. Such investments might be especially important for invasive ants, given their aggressiveness and tendency to interact with honeydew-producing Hemiptera. PMID:17878138

Grover, Crystal D; Kay, Adam D; Monson, Jessica A; Marsh, Thomas C; Holway, David A

2007-12-01

57

Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

2011-01-01

58

Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.  

PubMed

We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation. PMID:24897608

Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

1997-04-01

59

Factors affecting aggressive behaviour of spawning migratory males towards mature male parr in masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou.  

PubMed

This study examined whether dominant migratory males (adopting fighter tactics) of the masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou would more aggressively attack large mature male parr (adopting sneaker tactics) as large mature male parr are expected to have the potential to cause a greater decrease in fertilization success. The frequency of aggressive behaviour was not related to the body size of males, and it increased with the frequency of interactions with mature male parr. The fertilization success of mature male parr was much lower than migratory males, and no relationship was observed between fertilization success and aggressive behaviour. The low fertilization success of mature male parr, despite infrequent aggressive behaviour by migratory males, indicates that there might be little benefit for migratory males to attack mature male parr more aggressively according to their body size. PMID:20646145

Watanabe, M; Maekawa, K

2010-07-01

60

The Efficacy of Positive Behavioural Support with the Most Challenging Behaviour: The Evidence and Its Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Positive behaviour support (PBS) is behaviour analysis applied in support of people with challenging behaviour. Questions have been raised as to PBS effectiveness, costs, and accessibility. Method: Outcome studies meeting specified criteria for PBS were selected for review. All told, 12 outcome studies encompassing 423 cases were…

LaVigna, Gary W.; Willis, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

61

Aggression in bottlenose dolphins: Evidence for sexual coercion, male-male competition, and female tolerance through analysis of tooth-rake marks and behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aggressive behaviour is rarely observed, but may have a large impact on the social struc- ture, relationships and interactions in animal societies. Long-term behavioural study of Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, suggests that males are more aggressive than females, and use sexual coercion during the breeding season, but age and sex-specific patterns of aggression have not

Erin M. Scott; Janet Mann; Jana J. Watson-Capps; Brooke L. Sargeant; Richard C. Connor

2005-01-01

62

Aggressive Behaviour Among Swazi Upper Primary and Junior Secondary Students: Implications For Ongoing Educational Reforms Concerning Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Swaziland is planning to introduce inclusive education as part of education for all. The innovation may benefit learners with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). A purposive teacher sample (N = 47) was used to generate and identify behavioural problems that are prevalent in Swazi schools. Aggression was one of the many conduct disorders…

Mundia, Lawrence

2006-01-01

63

The Mediating Effects of Verbal Skills in the Relationship between Low Birth Weight and Childhood Aggressive Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prenatal and perinatal risk factors, such as low birth weight, have been linked to higher levels of aggressive and destructive behaviours during childhood. Although low birth weight is associated with childhood externalizing behaviour, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain open to empirical investigation. The current study extends the…

Vaske, Jamie; Newsome, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle

2013-01-01

64

Addressing challenging behaviour in children with Down syndrome: The use of applied behaviour analysis for assessment and intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with Down syndrome and the examination of behaviourally based strategies to

Kathleen M. Feeley; Emily A. Jones

2006-01-01

65

Predatory behaviour in females of two strains of mice selectively bred for isolation-induced intermale aggression.  

PubMed

The study sought to determine whether females of two strains of mice selectively bred for high (Turku Aggressive, TA) and low (Turku Non-Aggressive, TNA) levels of isolation-induced intermale aggression display differences in predatory behaviour. Additional subjects used in the study were females of the parental strain (Normal, N). Another aim of the present research was to investigate whether predatory aggression is associated with the postpartum period in the TA and TNA females. Testing consisted of dropping a live cricket into the home cage of the experimental females. The results showed that the predatory behaviour of individually housed TA and TNA females did not differ significantly. The only difference found between the two groups of females was in digging behaviour, the TA females showing more of this activity element on the first day of testing. Experience was found to affect the behaviour of the mice, attacking and consuming increased over trials whereas sniffing and the latency to attack decreased. In another experiment, TA and TNA females were tested for predatory aggression on the third day postpartum. The TA and TNA females were found to differ in all other observed behaviour variables but sniffing. The TA females spent more time chasing, tail-rattling, attacking, and consuming, as well as showing shorter latencies to the first attack. The TNA females spent more time digging, grooming, and nursing. The results suggest that the mechanisms determining the dispositions for predatory and maternal aggression in females and isolation induced intermale aggression and predatory aggression in males are not entirely different. PMID:24897251

Sandnabba, N K

1995-05-01

66

In your face: facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players  

PubMed Central

Facial characteristics are an important basis for judgements about gender, emotion, personality, motivational states and behavioural dispositions. Based on a recent finding of a sexual dimorphism in facial metrics that is independent of body size, we conducted three studies to examine the extent to which individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio were associated with trait dominance (using a questionnaire) and aggression during a behavioural task and in a naturalistic setting (varsity and professional ice hockey). In study 1, men had a larger facial width-to-height ratio, higher scores of trait dominance, and were more reactively aggressive compared with women. Individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio predicted reactive aggression in men, but not in women (predicted 15% of variance). In studies 2 (male varsity hockey players) and 3 (male professional hockey players), individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio were positively related to aggressive behaviour as measured by the number of penalty minutes per game obtained over a season (predicted 29 and 9% of the variance, respectively). Together, these findings suggest that the sexually dimorphic facial width-to-height ratio may be an ‘honest signal’ of propensity for aggressive behaviour. PMID:18713717

Carre, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

2008-01-01

67

Addressing Challenging Behaviour in Children with Down Syndrome: The Use of Applied Behaviour Analysis for Assessment and Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with…

Feeley, Kathlee M.; Jones, Emily A.

2006-01-01

68

Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).  

PubMed

The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during parental care after larval hatching, which may have possible implications on reproductive success and population dynamics. PMID:25213287

Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

2014-11-01

69

Aggressive, Depressive, and Prosocial Coping with Affective Challenges in Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a coping-competence model that accounts for early adolescent trajectories toward aggressive, depressive, or prosocial coping. Prepared for early adolescence by socialization risk and protective factors, advantaged and resilient youth cope prosocially with affective challenges, have self-confidence and a good reputation, and attain favorable life consequences. Less preparedfor early adolescence, high-risk and overprotected youth rely on a social

Elaine A. Blechman; Sara E. Culhane

1993-01-01

70

Effectiveness of an attachment-focused manualized intervention for parents of teens at risk for aggressive behaviour: The Connect Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. ‘Connect’ is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment: parental sensitivity, cooperation, reflective capacity, and effective dyadic affect regulation. Through didactic

Marlene M. Moretti; Ingrid Obsuth

2009-01-01

71

Depression in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Symptoms and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Psychiatric evaluation of adults with intellectual disability (ID) remains complex because of limitations in verbal abilities, atypical clinical presentation and challenging behaviour. This study examines the clinical presentation of adults with depression compared with bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and non-psychiatric control…

Hurley, A. D.

2008-01-01

72

Teacher-Child Conflict and Aggressive Behaviour in First Grade: The Intervening Role of Children's Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High levels of teacher-child conflict have repeatedly been found to amplify children's aggressive behaviour. Up to now, however, research on possible mechanisms explaining this link is largely lacking. The current study aimed to test whether children's self-esteem is an intervening mechanism. Participants were 139 children (70 boys, M age = 6.18…

Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

2011-01-01

73

Using Behavioural Skills Training to Treat Aggression in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous studies of anger management in people with intellectual disability failed to control for the effects of the number of provocative stimuli presented and lacked direct measures of behaviour and treatment integrity data. Methods: This experiment systematically assessed and presented discriminative stimuli for aggressive

Travis, Robert W.; Sturmey, Peter

2013-01-01

74

Is aggression in children with behavioural and emotional difficulties associated with television viewing and video game playing? A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Possible associations between television viewing and video game playing and children's aggression have become public health concerns. We did a systematic review of studies that examined such associations, focussing on children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties, who are thought to be more susceptible. Methods We did computer-assisted searches of health and social science databases, gateways, publications

O. Mitrofan; M. Paul; N. Spencer

2008-01-01

75

Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

Chan, Siu Mui

2010-01-01

76

Effects of algal grazing and aggressive behaviour of the fishes Pomacentrus lividus and Acanthurus sohal on coral-reef ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behaviour of the fishes Pomacentrus lividus Bl. Schn. and Acanthurus sohal Forskal from the Red Sea is briefly described, and its effect on intensity of algal grazing by herbivorous fish is demonstrated by settlement experiments. Green filamentous alga settles and grows at shallow depths over large areas of coral reefs, but is cropped by fishes to such an extent

P. J. Vine

1974-01-01

77

Health promotion as a behavioural challenge: are we missing attitudes?  

PubMed

Despite the considerable financial and organizational resources of health promotion campaigns, their effectiveness in tackling current health problems is limited. In the following commentary, we argue that health promotion is best understood as a behavioural challenge. Behaviour can be understood in terms of three aspects: knowledge, skills and attitudes. While knowledge and skills have received adequate attention, the attitudinal approach has been significantly underutilized. To this end, we have used the examples of prevention of H1N1 transmission, hand washing in hospitals and prevention of cervical cancer to elucidate our points. We also provide recommendations of how the attitudinal approach can enhance the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. PMID:21744666

Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony; Benos, Alexis

2011-06-01

78

Effect of social group size on aggressive behaviour between unacquainted domestic pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in small groups establish a dominance hierarchy using overt aggression and individual recognition. The impact of a large group size on group social organisation and aggression is poorly understood. The severity of aggression on mixing unacquainted pigs derived from large groups in which individual recognition may be impaired was studied and the implications for recognition of

Simon P Turner; Graham W Horgan; Sandra A Edwards

2001-01-01

79

Staff's attitudes and reactions towards aggressive behaviour of clients with intellectual disabilities: a multi-level study.  

PubMed

Data were collected from 121 staff members (20 direct support staff teams) on background characteristics of the individual staff members and their teams (gender, age, years of work experience, position and education), the frequency and form of aggression of clients with an intellectual disability (verbal or physical), staff members' attitudes towards aggression, and the types of behavioural interventions they executed (providing personal space and behavioural boundary-setting, restricting freedom and the use of coercive measures). Additionally, client group characteristics (age of clients, type of care and client's level of intellectual disability) were assessed. Multilevel analyses (individual and contextual level) were performed to examine the relations between all studied variables and the behavioural interventions. The results showed that for providing personal space and behavioural boundary-setting as well as for restricting freedom, the proportion of variance explained by the context (staff team and client group characteristics) was three times larger than the proportion of variance explained by individual staff member characteristics. For using coercive measures, the context even accounted for 66% of the variance, whereas only 8% was explained by individual staff member characteristics. A negative attitude towards aggression of the direct support team as a whole proved to be an especially strong predictor of using coercive measures. To diminish the use of coercive measures, interventions should therefore be directed towards influencing the attitude of direct support teams instead of individual staff members. PMID:23474992

Knotter, Maartje H; Wissink, Inge B; Moonen, Xavier M H; Stams, Geert-Jan J M; Jansen, Gerard J

2013-05-01

80

Who's Challenging Who? Changing Attitudes towards Those Whose Behaviour Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although staff attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disability (ID) whose behaviour challenges may be an important part of a positive support culture, very little research has focused on the development of training specifically designed to change staff attitudes. Positive contact is hypothesised to be an effective way to…

Hutchinson, L. M.; Hastings, R. P.; Hunt, P. H.; Bowler, C. L.; Banks, M. E.; Totsika, V.

2014-01-01

81

Life-history and hormonal control of aggression in black redstarts: Blocking testosterone does not decrease territorial aggression, but changes the emphasis of vocal behaviours during simulated territorial intrusions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many studies in behavioural endocrinology attempt to link territorial aggression with testosterone, but the exact relationship between testosterone and territorial behaviour is still unclear and may depend on the ecology of a species. The degree to which testosterone facilitates territorial behaviour is particularly little understood in species that defend territories during breeding and outside the breeding season, when plasma levels of testosterone are low. Here we suggest that species that defend territories in contexts other than reproduction may have lost the direct regulation of territorial behaviour by androgens even during the breeding season. In such species, only those components of breeding territoriality that function simultaneously as sexually selected signals may be under control of sex steroids. Results We investigated black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros), a species that shows periods of territoriality within and outside of the breeding season. We treated territorial males with an anti-androgen and an aromatase inhibitor during the breeding season to block both the direct and indirect effects of testosterone. Three and ten days after the treatment, implanted males were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion. The treatment did not reduce the overall territorial response, but it changed the emphasis of territoriality: experimental males invested more in behaviours addressed directly towards the intruder, whereas placebo-treated males put most effort into their vocal response, a component of territoriality that may be primarily directed towards their mating partner rather than the male opponent. Conclusions In combination with previous findings, these data suggest that overall territoriality may be decoupled from testosterone in male black redstarts. However, high levels of testosterone during breeding may facilitate-context dependent changes in song. PMID:23433033

2013-01-01

82

No Need to Count to Ten: Advocating for the Early Implementation of the Functional Behavioural Assessment in Addressing Challenging Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The functional behavioural assessment (FBA) is a process used in identifying the reason (i.e., function) for challenging behaviours when working with students with disabilities and the circumstances and/or environment that reinforce the continued use of the problematic behaviour. However, the procedural definition of the FBA in US federal…

Moreno, Gerardo

2010-01-01

83

Association of HPA axis-related genetic variation with stress reactivity and aggressive behaviour in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Stress, elicited for example by aggressive interactions, has negative effects on various biological functions including immune defence, reproduction, growth, and, in livestock, on product quality. Stress response and aggressiveness are mutually interrelated and show large interindividual variation, partly attributable to genetic factors. In the pig little is known about the molecular-genetic background of the variation in stress responsiveness and

Eduard Muráni; Siriluck Ponsuksili; Richard B D'Eath; Simon P Turner; Esra Kurt; Gary Evans; Ludger Thölking; Ronald Klont; Aline Foury; Pierre Mormède; Klaus Wimmers

2010-01-01

84

Understanding Challenging Behaviour: Perspectives of Children and Adolescents with a Moderate Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The present study examines understanding of challenging behaviour among a sample of children and adolescents with a moderate intellectual disability, and investigates their behavioural intentions towards peers with challenging behaviour. Methods: The study involved the collection of quantitative and qualitative data. In the…

Byrne, Alison; Hennessy, Eilis

2009-01-01

85

Parents' Use of Physical Interventions in the Management of Their Children's Severe Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although training staff supporting people with challenging behaviour in physical interventions has become accepted practice, parents are often left to fend for themselves while managing equivalent behaviours. The study explores parents' experience of managing severe challenging behaviours, their use of physical interventions and access…

Allen, David; Hawkins, Sarah; Cooper, Viv

2006-01-01

86

Impact of a 3-Day Training Course on Challenging Behaviour on Staff Cognitive and Emotional Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A range of factors have been suggested as determinants of staff behaviour in the context of working with people with challenging behaviour. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a typical challenging behaviour staff training course had an effect on staff feelings of efficacy, their negative emotional reactions to…

Tierney, Edel; Quinlan, Dave; Hastings, Richard P.

2007-01-01

87

Carers' Experiences of Being Exposed to Challenging Behaviour in Services for Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have demonstrated that being exposed to challenging behaviour in services of care can have a negative impact on staff. Recently, challenging behaviour has been linked to people with autism spectrum disorders; however, little research has been aimed at exploring staff's experiences of facing such behaviour in services for…

Butrimaviciute, Rasa; Grieve, Alan

2014-01-01

88

Outcome measurement for people with intellectual disability who present challenging behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with challenging behaviour are commonly referred to the National Health Service for assistance and support. Good clinical practice would indicate that such interventions should be routinely monitored and evaluated in order to be maximally effective. Challenging behaviour has many impacts and, while monitoring frequency, duration and severity of behaviour is fundamental, equally key is attention to monitoring the impacts

Peter Baker; Shona Daynes

2010-01-01

89

Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

2014-01-01

90

An Activating Mechanism of Aggressive Behaviour in Disorganised Attachment: A Moment-to-Moment Case Analysis of a Three-Year-Old  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines an activating mechanism of aggressive behaviour in young children. Many studies on attachment theories have indicated disorganised attachment as a significant risk factor for externalising problems and have explained the aetiology of disorganised attachment in terms of deficits in affect, behaviour and cognitive functions from…

Kim, Eun Young

2010-01-01

91

Aggression und Aggressivität im Straßenverkehr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the domains of aggression and aggressiveness are core topics of social psychology research, applications of research findings in the area of driving behaviour are rather scarce. This deficiency is apparent in inadequate definitions of aggressive behaviour in traffic contexts as well as the exploratory character of most studies. However, aggression plays an important role in driving behaviour. Therefore, research

Philipp Yorck Herzberg; Bernhard Schlag

2006-01-01

92

Patterns of Emotional and Behavioural Disturbance Associated with Autistic Traits in Young People with Severe Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional and behavioural disturbance was assessed in 82 individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour using the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II). Levels of disturbance were compared firstly in individuals with and without features of autism as assessed by the DASH-II, and secondly in…

Hill, Jennie; Furniss, Frederick

2006-01-01

93

The interacting roles of testosterone and challenges to status in human male aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on sex and cultural differences in physical aggression and argues that only through understanding the interactions among evolutionary predispositions, hormonal influences, and social\\/situational factors can we possibly make sense of the patterns of human aggression that we see around us. Specifically, it is proposed that the process of natural selection has shaped hormonal responses in

Francis T. McAndrew

2009-01-01

94

Altered aggression in different sized groups of crayfish supports a dynamic social behaviour model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living in groups with conspecifics can increase an animal's fitness in the wild. A social environment may also be imposed by commercial farming industries. One important measure of competition and group dynamics is the level of aggressive interaction. This can also influence the level of damage or injury in cultured populations, a commercial issue at point of sale. There is

Blair W. Patullo; Helena P. Baird; David L. Macmillan

2009-01-01

95

Factors related to aggressive nest protection behaviour: a comparative study of Holarctic waders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on 12 factors presumed to influence the distribution of aggressive nest defence in 111 species of waders (incubation-sharing by the parents, number of parents present near the nest, incubation time, nest habitat, breeding latitude, body mass, wing loading, wing structure, detectability on the nest, predator regime, coloniality and alternative prey) were collected from literature and field researchers. Body mass

TORE LARSEN; TEX A. SORDAHL; INGVAR BYRKJEDAL

1996-01-01

96

The Causal Attributions of Teaching Staff towards Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparison of "Vignettes" Depicting Challenging Behaviour with "Real" Incidents of Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: We examined whether staff attributions, emotions and helping behaviours in reaction to "real" incidents of challenging behaviour (CB) exhibited by children with intellectual disabilities were different from reactions to "vignettes". We also examined whether these reactions are congruent with that predicted by attribution theory.…

Lucas, Victoria L.; Collins, Suzanne; Langdon, Peter E.

2009-01-01

97

Aggression and intentionality in narrative responses to conflict and distress story stems: An investigation of boys with disruptive behaviour problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined whether antisocial boys show evidence of a reduced interpersonal interpretation of events (intentionality) specifically in story stem responses to social challenges that provoke fear and distress responses. Two conflict and two distress stems were administered to 5 – 8 year old boys, 41 referred for disruptive behaviour problems and 25 non-referred boys. Raters blind to group membership

Jonathan Hill; Peter Fonagy; Gillian Lancaster; Nichaela Broyden

2007-01-01

98

Neural mechanisms of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unchecked aggression and violence exact a significant toll on human societies. Aggression is an umbrella term for behaviours that are intended to inflict harm. These behaviours evolved as adaptations to deal with competition, but when expressed out of context, they can have destructive consequences. Uncontrolled aggression has several components, such as impaired recognition of social cues and enhanced impulsivity. Molecular

Brian C. Trainor; Randy J. Nelson

2007-01-01

99

Characteristics of Challenging Behaviours in Adults with Autistic Disorder, PDD-NOS, and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Challenging behaviours are frequently a problem for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). A better understanding of which individuals display which behaviours, at what rates, and the relationship of these behaviours to comorbid psychopathology would have important implications. Method: A group of…

Matson, Johnny L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

2008-01-01

100

The challenge hypothesis and seasonal changes in aggression and steroids in male northern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus).  

PubMed

The challenge hypothesis has been very successful in explaining patterns of testosterone secretion in response to social stimuli in avian species. However, there have been few studies in nonavian vertebrates. We tested the challenge hypothesis in male northern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus). These males are highly territorial and nonparental. Consequently, the challenge hypothesis predicts that plasma testosterone concentrations will be insensitive to aggressive interactions. Testosterone concentrations indeed were not significantly affected by either a short (3-15 min) simulated territorial intrusion ("challenge") in June or a longer (50-60 min) intrusion in July. Levels of corticosterone were elevated in challenged males in the long, but not the short, intrusion. Challenged males displayed significantly more intense territorial behaviors than did unchallenged control males. The intensity of territorial behavior changed significantly across the active season and was positively related to testosterone concentrations. Thus, while testosterone concentrations do not appear to be involved in rapid changes in aggressive behavior in the fence lizard, they probably are important in larger-scale behavioral changes throughout the season. PMID:9698502

Klukowski, M; Nelson, C E

1998-06-01

101

Restraint Procedures and Challenging Behaviours in Intellectual Disability: An Analysis of Causative Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Persons with intellectual disability often evince challenging behaviours. Efforts have been underway for some time to develop prosocial or positive skill acquisition treatments to address challenging behaviours. However, physical/mechanical and chemical restraint is still commonly used in many clinical and community settings. Such…

Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

2009-01-01

102

Frameworks for Understanding Challenging Behaviour in Out-of-Home Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Challenging and disruptive behaviour is commonly reported among children placed in the out-of-home care sector. Little is known about how stakeholders in this sector understand or manage challenging behaviour. Method: Ninety-two stakeholders in the South Australian out-of-home care sector were interviewed about their approach to…

McLean, Sara; Kettler, Lisa; Delfabbro, Paul; Riggs, Damien

2012-01-01

103

The Analysis of Challenging Relations: Influences on Interactive Behaviour of Staff towards Clients with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Relationships between support staff and clients with intellectual disability (ID) are important for quality of care, especially when dealing with challenging behaviour. Building upon an interpersonal model, this study investigates the influence of client challenging behaviour, staff attitude and staff emotional intelligence on…

Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Hendriks, A. H. C.

2014-01-01

104

Social Inclusion and People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. Method: A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been…

Bigby, Christine

2012-01-01

105

[Harassment of personnel in contact with the public: from experiencing aggressive behaviour to preventing it].  

PubMed

The Agricultural Social Mutual Insurance System (MSA) has been mobilised to support a corporate approach in the perspective to decrease mortal acts of violence or aggression. The plan brought together the skills of all the companies' actors (management, hygiene committees, safety and working conditions committee, occupational health and safety at work, and salaried workers). The MSA occupational health departments carried out a situational inventory (through a survey of salaried workers exposed to the risk of aggression). An intervention methodology was addressed to the occupational medical practitioners (PECVAT Protocol). A corporate framework agreement has specified the plan that was developed by company and the actors concerned. Finally, an evaluation enabled them to define the level at which this prevention intervention should be implemented. PMID:18773838

Bernard, Christophe; Lemerle, Brigitte; Bichon, Armelle; Laurent, Phlippe; de Meixmoron, Françoise; André, Dominique; Adjémian, Annie

2008-01-01

106

Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour  

PubMed Central

Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111–140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581–604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour. PMID:22826343

Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

2012-01-01

107

How nursing managers respond to intraprofessional aggression: novel strategies to an ongoing challenge.  

PubMed

Nursing managers are identified as playing a central role in workplace aggression management. In effect, employees' decisions to report unacceptable behavior is said to be directly influenced by how a manager will respond to their claims. Using principles from critical nursing ethnography, data were collected from interviews, organizational documents, and observation of physical environment. Twenty-three semistructured interviews were conducted in both a university-affiliated psychiatric hospital and a community hospital located in a large metropolitan city in Ontario. The study aimed at broadening the understanding of how nurse managers respond to intraprofessional and interprofessional workplace aggression. Several strategies were described by managers including coaching individuals so they feel capable of addressing the issue themselves, acting as mediator to allow both sides to openly and respectfully talk about the issue, and disciplining employees whose actions warrant harsh consequences. As part of the study, managers reported that dealing with workplace aggression could be difficult and time consuming and admitted that they sometimes came to doubt their abilities to be able to positively resolve such a widespread problem. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest that aggression management is not solely the responsibility of managers but must involve several actors including the aggressive individual, peers, human resources department, and unions. PMID:22842760

St-Pierre, Isabelle

2012-01-01

108

Psychodynamic Therapy and Intellectual Disabilities: Dealing with Challenging Behaviour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four case studies concerning long-term psychodynamic treatment of German individuals with intellectual disabilities are presented: an aggressive young man with a mild intellectual disability; a young man with multiple disabilities with destructive behavior; a withdrawn young woman with self-destructive behavior; and a young man with autism with…

Berry, Paul

2003-01-01

109

Neural responses to aggressive challenge correlate with behavior in nonbreeding sparrows.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted on captive male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) during the nonbreeding season in order to (1) examine Fos and Zenk responses of basal forebrain sites to simulated territorial intrusion and (2) determine how those responses relate to aggression. Numerous forebrain areas showed significant Fos and Zenk responses to simulated territorial intrusion, and in several areas of the hypothalamus and lateral septum, these responses were negatively correlated with aggressive behavior. Homologous areas in mammals show greater responses in subordinate subjects than in dominant subjects. Thus, these brain areas may be responsive to social stressors across a wide range of vertebrates. PMID:16189485

Goodson, James L; Evans, Andrew K; Soma, Kiran K

2005-10-17

110

Children's sociable and aggressive behaviour with peers: A comparison of the US and Australia, and contributions of temperament and parenting styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Links between both temperament and parenting, and children's sociable and aggressive behaviour with peers (physical and relational), were examined. The research was undertaken in two Western cultures (the United States and Australia) assumed to be similar in socialisation practices and emphases. The moderating effects of parent sex and child sex were also examined. Parents completed questionnaires on parenting styles and

Alan Russell; Craig H. Hart; Clyde C. Robinson; Susanne F. Olsen

2003-01-01

111

The challenges of behavioural genetics research include: the difficulty in defining and quantifying behaviour  

E-print Network

, and learning and memory specifically con- tribute to their respective behaviours.General principles learned. melanogaster shows many exquisitely performed and complex pat- terns of behaviour. For example, the male fly shows courtship behaviour that is full of sensory stimuli and that requires the female to hear his song

Sokolowski, Marla

112

Challenges Redoubled: Contexts of Risk and Compromised Access to Services for Children with Sexualised Behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical studies indicate that children who engage in coercive or aggressive sexual acts are more likely to come from conditions\\u000a of developmental adversity. Broadly speaking, the context of risk for children engaging in these behaviours aligns with particular\\u000a indicators of social exclusion; geographic disadvantage, compromised family functioning and poverty. Children from such conditions\\u000a of adversity are thought to be doubly

Wendy O’Brien

113

Risperidone reduces aggression in boys with a disruptive behaviour disorder and below average intelligence quotient: analysis of two placebo-controlled randomized trials.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to analyse the effect of risperidone on a priori defined core aggression items. Data were pooled from 163 boys (aged 5-12 years, with or without comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of either conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder who had participated in either of two identical, 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. All received treatment with either placebo or oral risperidone solution (0.01-0.06 mg/kg/day). Subjects had below average intelligence [intelligence quotient (IQ) 36-84] and a score of > or =24 on the Conduct Problem subscale of the Nisonger Child Behaviour Rating Form (N-CBRF). An expert advisory panel selected six core aggression items from the N-CBRF, from which a total Aggression Score (AS, range 0-18) was constructed. Compared to those treated with placebo, risperidone-treated subjects experienced significantly greater mean decreases from baseline in the AS at each of weeks 1-6 (P<0.001). By study endpoint, aggression among risperidone-treated subjects had declined by 56.4% (mean baseline AS 10.1; mean endpoint AS 4.4), which was more than twice that of placebo-treated subjects (mean baseline AS 10.6; mean endpoint AS 8.3; 21.7% reduction). Risperidone was efficacious in reducing symptoms of aggression in boys of below average IQ with disruptive behaviour disorders. PMID:16096518

LeBlanc, John C; Binder, Carin E; Armenteros, Jorge L; Aman, Michael G; Wang, Jenny S; Hew, Huong; Kusumakar, Vivek

2005-09-01

114

Addressing Challenging Behaviours in the General Education Setting: Conducting a Teacher-Based Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a student demonstrates a challenging or problematic behaviour in the classroom, the climate and the instructional experience can change dramatically for both the students and the classroom teacher. Before resorting to sanctions and punitive consequences, there is a series of steps a classroom teacher can conduct to reduce and replace the…

Moreno, Gerardo

2011-01-01

115

Attachment Behaviour towards Support Staff in Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: Associations with Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Attachment research has shown the importance of attachment behaviour for the prevention of dysregulated behaviour due to emotional distress. The support of an attachment figure may be especially important for people with intellectual disability (ID), because they are less adept in dealing with stressful situations on their own. Our…

De Schipper, J. C.; Schuengel, C.

2010-01-01

116

Staff in Services for People with Intellectual Disabilities: The Impact of Stress on Attributions of Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a lack of a conceptual framework as to how stress and attribution variables interact and influence staff behaviour in response to challenging behaviour. To address this, a model is tested examining the impact of stress on attributions of challenging behaviour within Weiner's model of helping. Method: A total of 107 staff…

Rose, D.; Rose, J.

2005-01-01

117

Integrating Mindfulness Meditation With Cognitive and Behavioural Therapies: The Challenge of Combining Acceptance and Change-Based Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent innovations in psychological treatments have integrated mindfulness meditation techniques with traditional cognitive and behavioural therapies, challenging traditional cognitive and behavioural therapists to integrate acceptance- and change-based strategies. This article details how 2 treatments, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and dialectical behaviour therapy, have met this challenge. We review the integration rationale underlying the 2 treatments, how the treatments combine strategies from

Mark A Lau; Shelley F McMain

2005-01-01

118

The Experience of a Man with Severe Challenging Behaviour Following Resettlement from Hospital: A Single Case Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carers' behaviour is thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of challenging behaviour in people with learning disabilities (Emerson et al. 1995; Hastings & Remington 1994). The present study sought to investigate the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention in the management of such problem behaviours by means of a long-term…

Bissell, Lianne; Phillips, Neil; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

2005-01-01

119

Magnitude, Types and Sex Differentials of Aggressive Behaviour Among School Children in a Rural Area of West Bengal  

PubMed Central

Background: Aggression affects academic learning and emotional development, can damage school climate and if not controlled early and may precipitate extreme violence in the future. Objectives: (1) To determine the magnitude and types of aggressive behavior in school children. (2) To identify the influence of age and sex on aggressive behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anandanagar High School, Singur village, West Bengal. Participants were 161 boys and 177 girls of classes VII to IX. The students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behavior by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to statements indicating verbal/physical aggression. Results: Overall, 66.5% of the children were physically aggressive in the previous month: Boys 75.8%, girls 58.2% (P = 0.001); 56.8% were verbally aggressive: Boys 55.2%, girls 61% (P = 0.97). Verbal indirect passive aggression was more common among girls (55.3%) than among boys (22.3%) (P = 0.000 [1.17E-09]). Boys were more liable to physical aggression, viz. 60.2% of the boys would hit on provocation compared with only 9% of the girls (P = 0.000 [6.6E-23]). Regarding attributes indicating verbal aggression, girls were more argumentative (63.8%) than boys (55.2%) (P = 0.134) and disagreeing (41.8%) compared with boys (33.5%) (P = 0.145). With increasing age/class, physical direct active aggression decreased while physical indirect passive and verbal indirect passive aggression increased. No classes had been taken on anger control/management by school the authorities. Conclusions: Aggressive behavior was common both among boys and girls. Life skills education/counseling/classroom management strategies are recommended. PMID:23878425

Dutt, Debashis; Pandey, Girish Kumar; Pal, Dipak; Hazra, Suprakas; Dey, Tushar Kanti

2013-01-01

120

Challenging Behaviour: Analysis and Intervention in People with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers a British perspective on ways of conceptualizing, assessing, and intervening in the challenging behavior of people with severe learning disabilities, with emphasis on the types of technical support needed. An introductory chapter explains why the term "learning disability" is used rather than mental handicap, mental retardation,…

Emerson, Eric

121

Analysing the Management of Challenging Behaviour in Romanian Orphanages: Looking for Ways Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Claire Hardman reflects on her work on behaviour management in two Romanian orphanages. Quite apart from the intrinsic interest of the topic, the article serves as a reminder of the number of professionals in this country who regularly take time out to work abroad in unfamiliar and often challenging circumstances and who come back…

Hardman, Claire

2004-01-01

122

Analysing the management of challenging behaviour in Romanian orphanages: looking for ways forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article Claire Hardman reflects on her work on behaviour management in two Ro m a n i a n orphanages. Quite apart from the intrinsic interest of the topic, the article serves as a reminder of the number of professionals in this country who regularly take time out to work abroad in unfamiliar and often challenging circumstances and

Claire Hardman

2004-01-01

123

Sleep, Anxiety and Challenging Behaviour in Children with Intellectual Disability and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with an intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to suffer from significantly more sleep problems, anxiety and challenging behaviour (CB) than typically developing children (TD), yet little is known about the relationship between these factors in the child ID/ASD population. The study aim was to examine…

Rzepecka, Halina; McKenzie, Karen; McClure, Iain; Murphy, Shona

2011-01-01

124

Formal Versus Informal Interventions for Challenging Behaviour in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although effective, humane treatments exist for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) who have challenging behaviour, little research has examined the extent to which clients receive formal, documented vs. undocumented interventions. Caregivers (of 625 persons with ID living in community and institutional residences in Ontario, Canada) were…

Feldman, M. A.; Atkinson, L.; Foti-Gervais, L.; Condillac, R.

2004-01-01

125

The Impact of Autism or Severe Challenging Behaviour on Lifestyle Outcome in Community Housing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The triad of impairments characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders and severe challenging behaviours are reasonably common among adults with intellectual disabilities. The aim was to investigate whether they had an impact on lifestyle among such adults living in staff-supported community housing. Methods: Data were collected on the…

Felce, David; Perry, Jonathan; Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin

2011-01-01

126

Evaluating an Assertive Outreach Team for Supporting Clients Who Present Behaviour that Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article evaluates an assertive outreach team which aimed to help support people with a learning disability who displayed challenging behaviour in their own environment. The service was evaluated using Maxwell's Multi-dimensional Quality Evaluation Model (Maxwell 1984), which recognises that different stakeholders in a service are likely to…

McKenzie, Karen; Paterson, Marion

2010-01-01

127

Staff Judgements of Responsibility for the Challenging Behaviour of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the importance of staff judgements of responsibility for challenging behaviour in predicting their emotional and intended helping responses. Sixty-two carers completed questionnaires rating attributions of internality, stability and controllability, emotions of sympathy and anger, judgements of responsibility for the…

Dagnan, D.; Cairns, M.

2005-01-01

128

Health Service Inpatient Units for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour or Mental Health Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As institutions for people with intellectual disabilities have been replaced with community services, health care provision has developed to provide assessment and treatment, low and medium secure units for people with challenging behaviour or mental health problems. These include both public and private sector provision. Little is…

Mansell, Jim; Ritchie, Fiona; Dyer, Ricinda

2010-01-01

129

Self-Efficacy and Stress of Staff Managing Challenging Behaviours of People with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy has been reported to play a significant role in stress levels of parents facing challenging behaviours of their children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has also been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. To understand the implications of staff self-efficacy in…

Cudre-Mauroux, Annick

2011-01-01

130

Predictors of Restrictive Reactive Strategy Use in People with Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Intrusive reactive strategies (physical restraint, emergency medication and seclusion) are frequently used procedures in the management of challenging behaviour. The present study identifies predictors for reactive strategy use in an attempt to more clearly delineate at risk service users. Method: Eight hundred and thirty-nine agencies…

Allen, David; Lowe, Kathy; Brophy, Sam; Moore, Kate

2009-01-01

131

Surface feeding and aggressive behaviour of diploid and triploid brown trout Salmo trutta during allopatric pair-wise matchings.  

PubMed

Diploid and triploid brown trout Salmo trutta were acclimated for 6 weeks on two feeding regimes (floating and sinking). Thereafter, aggression and surface feeding response were compared between pairs of all diploid, all triploid and diploid and triploid S. trutta in an experimental stream. In each pair-wise matching, fish of similar size were placed in allopatry and rank was determined by the total number of aggressive interactions recorded. Dominant individuals initiated more aggression than subordinates, spent more time defending a territory and positioned themselves closer to the surface food source (Gammarus pulex), whereas subordinates occupied the peripheries. In cross ploidy trials, diploid S. trutta were more aggressive than triploid, and dominated their sibling when placed in pair-wise matchings. Surface feeding, however, did not differ statistically between ploidy irrespective of feeding regime. Triploids adopted a sneak feeding strategy while diploids expended more time defending a territory. In addition, we also tested whether triploids exhibit a similar social dominance to diploids when placed in allopatry. Although aggression was lower in triploid pairs than in the diploid and triploid pairs, a dominance hierarchy was also observed between individuals of the same ploidy. Dominant triploid fish were more aggressive and consumed more feed items than subordinate individuals. Subordinate fish displayed a darker colour index than dominant fish suggesting increased stress levels. Dominant triploid fish, however, appeared to be more tolerant of subordinate individuals and did not display the same degree of invasive aggression as seen in the diploid and diploid or diploid and triploid matchings. These novel findings suggest that sterile triploid S. trutta feed similarly but are less aggressive than diploid trout. Future studies should determine the habitat choice of triploid S. trutta after release and the interaction between wild fish and triploids during the breeding season prior to utilization of triploids as an alternative management strategy within freshwater fisheries. PMID:25082262

Preston, A C; Taylor, J F; Adams, C E; Migaud, H

2014-09-01

132

The relationship between pre-morbid personality and challenging behaviour in people with dementia: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that challenging behaviour in people with dementia reflects a person's pre-morbid personality traits and a number of studies have explored this hypothesis. However, inconsistencies in outcome between studies suggest a need to review the available evidence systematically. As a result, major bibliographic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between pre-morbid personality and challenging behaviour

Hannah Osborne; Jane Simpson; Graham Stokes

2010-01-01

133

Teaching Staff Knowledge, Attributions and Confidence in Relation to Working with Children with an Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined Scottish teaching staff knowledge about the definition and management of challenging behaviour displayed by children with an intellectual disability. Knowledge levels were relatively low, and participants were most likely to define challenging behaviour by function or topography. Teaching staff were largely unaware of…

Rae, Helen; Murray, George; McKenzie, Karen

2011-01-01

134

Support for Family Carers of Children and Young People with Developmental Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: What Stops It Being Helpful?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Many family carers find the support they receive in respect of their child's challenging behaviour unhelpful. This study sought to identify carer perceptions of the ways in which support is unhelpful and how it could be more helpful. Methods: Thirteen mothers, caring for a child with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour,…

Wodehouse, G.; McGill, P.

2009-01-01

135

Carers' experiences of being exposed to challenging behaviour in services for autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that being exposed to challenging behaviour in services of care can have a negative impact on staff. Recently, challenging behaviour has been linked to people with autism spectrum disorders; however, little research has been aimed at exploring staff's experiences of facing such behaviour in services for autism spectrum disorders in particular. A qualitative study using interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted. This method involves thorough exploration of experiences revealed by individuals. A purposive sample (N = 10) was used. Participants were involved in semi-structured interviews which were later analysed according to the guidelines by Smith and Osborn. Four themes were discovered: intense mental and physical engagement, importance of adaptive coping, ambiguous experience of failure and achievement and destructive emotional reactions. Being exposed to challenging behaviour in services for autism spectrum disorders is a complex multi-component experience. The present results allow some insight into personal worlds of staff and might be useful for improving their working environment as well as ensuring a higher quality of care for service users. PMID:24142795

Butrimaviciute, Rasa; Grieve, Alan

2014-11-01

136

Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

2012-01-01

137

Multi-Element Behaviour Support as a Model for the Delivery of a Human Rights Based Approach for Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviours that Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the multi-element behaviour support (MEBS) model in meeting the rights of persons with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge. It does this through explicitly linking the multi-element model to the guiding principles of a human rights based approach (HRBA) using a vignette to…

Doody, Christina

2009-01-01

138

An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

2014-01-01

139

Self-injury and aggression in tuberous sclerosis complex: cross syndrome comparison and associated risk markers  

PubMed Central

Background Research reporting prevalence rates of self-injurious and aggressive behaviour in people with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is limited. No studies have compared rates of these behaviours in TSC with those in other syndrome groups matched for degree of disability or investigated risk markers for these behaviours in TSC. Methods Data from the Challenging Behaviour Questionnaire were collected for 37 children, aged 4 to 15 years, with TSC. Odds ratios were used to compare rates of self-injury and aggression in children with TSC with children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X, Cornelia de Lange and Down syndromes. Characteristics were measured using the Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire, the Activity Questionnaire, the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire, the Wessex Behaviour Schedule and the revised Non-communicating Children Pain Checklist. Mann-Whitney U analyses were used to compare characteristics between individuals with self-injury and aggression and those not showing these behaviours. Results Rates of self-injury and aggression in TSC were 27% and 50%, respectively. These are high but not significantly different from rates in children with Down syndrome or other syndrome groups. Both self-injury and aggression were associated with stereotyped and pain-related behaviours, low mood, hyperactivity, impulsivity and repetitive use of language. Children who engaged in self-injury also had lower levels of interest and pleasure and showed a greater degree of ‘insistence on sameness’ than children who did not self-injure. Aggression was associated with repetitive behaviour. The majority of these associations remained significant when the association with level of adaptive functioning was controlled for. Conclusions Behavioural profiles can be used to identify those most at risk of developing self-injury and aggression. Further research is warranted to understand the influence of such internal factors as mood, ASD symptomatology and pain on challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. PMID:24822087

2014-01-01

140

Association of Aggressive Behaviours with Psychiatric Disorders, Age, Sex and Degree of Intellectual Disability: A Large-Scale Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The link between aggression and mental disorders has been the focus of diverse studies in persons with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Because of discrepancies in the finding of studies in persons with ID to date, and because of differences in research design, instruments used and the population studied, more research is…

Tsiouris, J. A.; Kim, S. Y.; Brown, W. T.; Cohen, I. L.

2011-01-01

141

The development of a questionnaire to assess the perceptions of care staff towards people with intellectual disabilities who display challenging behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceptions of staff about challenging behaviour may be a key factor in designing successful behavioural interventions. There is a lack of robust psychometric instruments designed to assess staff attributions towards incidents of challenging behaviour. The aim of this research was to develop a scale based upon the self-regulation theory of illness behaviour. Two staff focus groups identified and clarified

Ruth J. Williams; John L. Rose

2007-01-01

142

Aggressive behaviour and physiological responses to pheromones are strongly impaired in mice deficient for the olfactory G-protein ?-subunit G?8  

PubMed Central

Heterotrimeric G-proteins are critical players in the transduction mechanisms underlying odorant and pheromonal signalling. In the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the adult mouse, two different G-protein complexes have been identified. G?o?2?8 is preferentially expressed in the basal neurons and coexpresses with type-2 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V2Rs) whereas G?i2?2?2 is found in the apical neurons and coexpresses with type-1 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V1Rs). V2R-expressing neurons project to the posterior accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) whereas neurons expressing V1Rs send their axon to the anterior AOB. G?8 is also expressed in developing olfactory neurons where this protein is probably associated with Go. Here, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of the G?8 gene and investigated the behavioural effects and the physiological consequences of this mutation. G?8?/? mice show a normal development of the main olfactory epithelium; moreover, they do not display major deficits in odour perception. In contrast, the VNO undergoes a slow but remarkable loss of basal neurons starting from the fourth postnatal week, with a 40% reduction of cells at 2 months and 70% at 1 year. This loss is associated with a reduced early-gene expression in the posterior AOB of mice stimulated with pheromones. More interestingly, the G?8 deletion specifically leads to a reduced pheromone-mediated aggressiveness in both males and females, all other socio-sexual behaviours remaining unaltered. This study defines a specific role for G?8 in maintenance of the neuronal population of the VNO and in the mechanisms of pheromonal signalling that involve the aggressive behaviour towards conspecifics. PMID:23836683

Montani, Giorgia; Tonelli, Simone; Sanghez, Valentina; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palanza, Paola; Zimmer, Andreas; Tirindelli, Roberto

2013-01-01

143

Staff Attributions about Challenging Behaviours of People with Intellectual Disabilities and Transactional Stress Process: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Staff explanations about challenging behaviours of people with intellectual disabilities are purported to play a significant role in the way they respond to them. Despite attempts made in research to understand the mechanisms of causality, a lack of association between attributions, emotions and behaviours is reported. This study…

Cudre-Mauroux, A.

2010-01-01

144

The Response to Challenging Behaviour by Care Staff: Emotional Responses, Attributions of Cause and Observations of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous studies have attempted to apply Weiner's attributional model of helping behaviour to care staff who work with service users with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviours by using studies based on vignettes. The aims of the current study were to investigate the application of Weiner's model to "real" service users…

Bailey, B. A.; Hare, D. J.; Hatton, C.; Limb, K.

2006-01-01

145

Informing policies in forensic settings: a review of research investigating the effects of exposure to media violence on challenging\\/offending behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review collates the empirical evidence on the behavioural effects of media violence. It assesses the content of different forms of media to which patients in secure services could be exposed. Numerous explanations for behaving aggressively are examined, using a variety of theoretical backgrounds. The effect of viewing different forms of violence on individuals' behaviour is also examined. The review

Joanne Steward; Franco Follina

2006-01-01

146

Effects of environmental enrichment on growth, aggressive behaviour and brain monoamines of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata reared under different social conditions.  

PubMed

The presence of blue or red-brown substrate on the tank bottom has been previously reported as an efficient means of environmental enrichment for gilthead seabream. The present study aimed to investigate whether this enrichment is still beneficial when gilthead seabream is reared under different social conditions (i.e. a lower 4.9 kg m(-3) and a higher 9.7 kg m(-3) density). Water exchange was adjusted according to fish biomass to exclude density effects on water quality. In the enriched tanks single-colour glass gravel was used as substrate (blue and red-brown substrate, or BS and RBS respectively), while control tanks had no gravel. Growth, aggressive behaviour and size distribution results indicated that the lower density created a less favourable social environment. In both densities studied, BS enhanced growth, suppressed aggression and reduced brain serotonergic activity. In the condition of intense social interactions (i.e. the lower density) BS also reduced brain dopaminergic activity. These results along with the negative correlations observed between brain monoamines and fish body mass, indicated that substrate and density effects are socially-induced. However, there may be several biotic and/or abiotic factors interfering with substrate effects that should be investigated before the practical use of a substrate in land-based intensive aquaculture. PMID:24326244

Batzina, Alkisti; Dalla, Christina; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Karakatsouli, Nafsika

2014-03-01

147

Aggression Rituals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines patterns of aggression as culturally sanctioned forms of relationships governed by recognizable rules and voluntarily selected. Results indicated that although uninvolved, spectators of aggression expect, advise, and condone the escalation of aggression to the point of physical violence. (SRT)

Harris, Linda M.; And Others

1986-01-01

148

Feeding and aggressive behaviours in juvenile coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch ) under chemically-mediated risk of predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) spend the first year of their lives in their natal streams, where they may often hold feeding territories. They also face significant risk of predation by birds and fish, and should alter their behaviour to reduce risk of mortality when these predators are present. Although there is laboratory evidence that coho react to predator

Guy Martel; Lawrence M. Dill

1993-01-01

149

Testosterone elevation and response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge by male northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following aggressive behavior.  

PubMed

There is much discrepancy about the relationship between testosterone (T) and male aggressive behavior. For example, in birds, males of many species significantly elevate T levels during inter-male conflict. However, this is not universal, and in species where males typically do not elevate T during aggressive interactions, concentrations of the hormone are often assumed to be circulating at maximum levels. We examined if male northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) significantly elevated T during simulated territorial intrusions (STIs). We also examined if individuals had the capacity to further elevate T levels in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injections immediately after an aggressive encounter. Our results indicate that male cardinals do not significantly elevate T levels in response to STIs, but have the physiological capacity to significantly elevate T in response to GnRH injections following aggressive interactions. This implies that T levels of individuals captured during STIs were not at maximum concentrations. However, additional findings in this study also suggest the possibility that prolonged social instability could elicit significant elevations in T in males of this species, warranting further investigation. PMID:22613708

DeVries, M Susan; Winters, Caitlin P; Jawor, Jodie M

2012-06-01

150

Integrating mindfulness meditation with cognitive and behavioural therapies: the challenge of combining acceptance- and change-based strategies.  

PubMed

Recent innovations in psychological treatments have integrated mindfulness meditation techniques with traditional cognitive and behavioural therapies, challenging traditional cognitive and behavioural therapists to integrate acceptance- and change-based strategies. This article details how 2 treatments, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and dialectical behaviour therapy, have met this challenge. We review the integration rationale underlying the 2 treatments, how the treatments combine strategies from each modality to accomplish treatment goals, implications for therapist training, and treatment effectiveness. In addition, we discuss the challenges of assessing the benefits of incorporating acceptance-based strategies. Both therapies have integrated acceptance-based mindfulness approaches with change-based cognitive and behavioural therapies to create efficacious treatments. PMID:16483122

Lau, Mark A; McMain, Shelley F

2005-11-01

151

Investigating Low Adaptive Behaviour and Presence of the Triad of Impairments Characteristic of Autistic Spectrum Disorder as Indicators of Risk for Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Identification of possible personal indicators of risk for challenging behaviour has generally been through association in cross-sectional prevalence studies, but few analyses have controlled for intercorrelation between potential risk factors. The aim was to investigate the extent to which gender, age, presence of the triad of…

Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

2013-01-01

152

Chronicity of Challenging Behaviours in People with Severe Intellectual Disabilities and\\/or Autism: A Total Population Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skills, social impairments and challenging behaviours of a total population of 166 children, with severe intellectual disabilities and\\/or autism, were assessed through interview with the main carers, when the children were under 15 years old (time 1). Twelve years later, 141 of these individuals were re-assessed, using the same measures (time 2). “Abnormal” behaviours tended to reduce with age and

Glynis H. Murphy; Julie Beadle-Brown; Lorna Wing; Judy Gould; Amitta Shah; Nan Holmes

2005-01-01

153

Research update: Behavioural challenges in children and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term 'behavioural phenotype' is used to describe a strong association between specific behaviours and a genetic syndrome. Understanding the associations between behaviours and genetic syndromes provides very useful information for all people with an intellectual disability as well as those who have specific syndromes. As we continue to study behaviour in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) we often learn

Chris Oliver; Jo Moss; Lisa Collis; Jane Petty

154

Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units  

PubMed Central

Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n?=?52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n?=?23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n?=?10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs occasionally and is problematic. A range of causative factors contribute to the onset of this behaviour. Attitudes toward the management of aggression are complex and somewhat contradictory and can affect the way staff manage this behaviour; therefore, wide-ranging initiatives are needed to prevent and deal with this type of challenging behaviour. PMID:24642026

2014-01-01

155

Reliability and Utility of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Tool (BSP-QEII) for Auditing and Quality Development in Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Having an objective means of evaluating the quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) could assist service providers and statutory authorities to monitor and improve the quality of support provided to people with intellectual disability (ID) who exhibit challenging behaviour. The Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II…

McVilly, K.; Webber, L.; Paris, M.; Sharp, G.

2013-01-01

156

Community-Based Residential Supports for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: The Views of Neighbours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The issue of the views of neighbours of community-based residential supports for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour has not been examined till date. This study looks at the views of neighbours of two types of community-based residential supports: non-congregate settings where the minority of residents have…

Robertson, Janet; Emerson, Eric; Pinkney, Lisa; Caesar, Emma; Felce, David; Meek, Andrea; Carr, Deborah; Lowe, Kathy; Knapp, Martin; Hallam, Angela

2005-01-01

157

Comparing Residential Programmes for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability: Outcomes of Challenging Behaviour and Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Owing to methodological issues, little research has been conducted to examine quality of life (QoL) as a treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID). This study was conducted to combine QoL measures and objective observations of challenging behaviours (CB) in order to evaluate changes over…

Gerber, F.; Bessero, S.; Robbiani, B.; Courvoisier, D. S.; Baud, M. A.; Traore, M.-C.; Blanco, P.; Giroud, M.; Carminati, G. Galli

2011-01-01

158

Assessment and Treatment Units for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour in England: An Exploratory Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Evaluative studies have shown that special units for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) who have challenging behaviour have advantages and disadvantages. There has been no survey of their number or characteristics for nearly 20 years. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all National Health Service trusts that had ID inpatient…

Mackenzie-Davies, N.; Mansell, J.

2007-01-01

159

A Flexible Response: Person-Centred Support and Social Inclusion for People with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social inclusion and citizenship form the key objective of "Valuing People Now" (2009), but achieving this meaningfully with people whose behaviour can challenge services remains elusive for many services. This article describes the philosophy, development, operationalisation and evaluation of a person-centred day opportunities and supported…

Carnaby, Steven; Roberts, Bron; Lang, Janet; Nielsen, Prue

2011-01-01

160

Perceptions of Effective Support Services to Families with Disabled Children whose Behaviour is Severely Challenging: A Multi-Informant Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Specialist short break services aim to provide enhanced support to family carers as a means of preventing children whose behaviours severely challenge from being placed in full-time residential care. To date, there is limited evidence as to the functioning and effectiveness of such services. Methods: In all, 17 children were selected…

McConkey, Roy; Gent, Clare; Scowcroft, Emma

2013-01-01

161

Enhanced Aggression Replacement Training with Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An enhanced form of Aggression Replacement Training is being used with children and youth with autism spectrum disorder and particularly those with Asperger's Syndrome who present behavioural challenges. Initial results in a Norwegian centre indicate that, with some modifications and enhancements, the programme is an appropriate strategy for…

Moynahan, Luke

2003-01-01

162

The Effect of You Can Do It! Education on the Emotional Resilience of Primary School Students with Social, Emotional, Behavioural and Achievement Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of the You Can Do It! Education (YCDI) cognitive-behavioural intervention program on the emotional resilience of students in grades 4 to 6 who were identified with achievement, behavioural, social and\\/or emotional challenges. 61 students were randomly assigned to either small groups receiving an eight week YCDI cognitive-behavioural intervention or small groups receiving \\

Michael E. Bernard

163

A Comparison of Challenging Behaviour in an Adult Group with Down's Syndrome and Dementia Compared with an Adult Down's Syndrome Group without Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in adults with Down's syndrome with and without signs of dementia. Care staff were interviewed using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community version (M.G. Aman & N.N. Singh, Slosson, East Aurora, NY, 1994), to investigate the frequency and severity of challenging

Huxley, Adam; Van-Schaik, Paul; Witts, Paul

2005-01-01

164

A General Practice-Based Study of the Relationship between Indicators of Mental Illness and Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Existing studies tend to show a positive association between mental illness and challenging behaviour among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, whether the association is direct or artefactual is less clear. The purpose was to explore the association between psychiatric status and level of challenging behaviour, while…

Felce, D.; Kerr, M.; Hastings, R. P.

2009-01-01

165

Classroom aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complicated interaction between individual pupils and class groups is highlighted in cases of classroom agression. The author's diagnostic-treatment model aims at examining individual aggressors partly through the use of teachers' assessments of them as members of the class group, at assessing the group's emotional climate, and at identifying the triggering-off stimuli within the group which provoke aggression. The aggressive

Brede Foy

1977-01-01

166

People with learning disabilities admitted to an assessment and treatment unit: impact on challenging behaviours and mental health problems.  

PubMed

This study describes the evaluation of an assessment and treatment unit for people with learning disabilities. Results showed the main reasons for admission for the 48 people admitted to the unit were because of challenging behaviours and mental health problems. Valid and reliable scales were used to measure the behaviours and mental health problems of those admitted across three-time periods: pre-admission, during admission and post-admission. The analysis found significant reductions in challenging behaviours and mental health problems following admission to the unit. The unit was staffed by a multidisciplinary team with nurses making up the largest group of staff. A number of issues of concern are discussed including access to mental health services for people with learning disabilities, the need for robust community services and areas that require further research. In conclusion, the study found evidence supporting the value of the unit and how it may lessen distress in learning disabled people who are behaviourally disturbed. It is suggested that nurses played a key role in the unit but they need to make the support and caring they provide more visible. Nurses need to harness and make explicit the caring they provide for people with learning disabilities. PMID:18768005

Slevin, E; McConkey, R; Truesdale-Kennedy, M; Taggart, L

2008-09-01

167

Oestrogen regulates male aggression in the non-breeding season.  

PubMed Central

Extensive research has focused on territorial aggression during the breeding season and the roles of circulating testosterone (T) and its conversion to 17beta-oestradiol (E2) in the brain. However, many species also defend territories in the non-breeding season, when circulating T-levels are low. The endocrine control of non-breeding territoriality is poorly understood. The male song sparrow of Washington State is highly territorial year-round, but plasma T is basal in the non-breeding season (autumn and winter). Castration has no effect on aggression in autumn, suggesting that autumnal territoriality is independent of gonadal hormones. However, non-gonadal sex steroids may regulate winter territoriality (e.g. oestrogen synthesis by brain aromatase). In this field experiment, we treated wild non-breeding male song sparrows with a specific aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole, FAD) using micro-osmotic pumps. FAD greatly reduced several aggressive behaviours. The effects of FAD were reversed by E2 replacement. Treatment did not affect body condition or plasma corticosterone, suggesting that all subjects were healthy These data indicate that E2 regulates male aggression in the non-breeding season and challenge the common belief that aggression in the non-breeding season is independent of sex steroids. More generally, these results raise fundamental questions about how sexual and/or aggressive behaviours are maintained in a variety of model vertebrate species despite low circulating levels of sex steroids or despite castration. Such non-classical endocrine mechanisms may be common among vertebrates and play an important role in the regulation of behaviour. PMID:10885513

Soma, K K; Tramontin, A D; Wingfield, J C

2000-01-01

168

The Challenge for English Schools in Responding to Current Debates on Behaviour and Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The riots in English cities in August 2011 have brought debates on behaviour of young people into sharper focus. Criticism of softly-softly approaches and the lack of power for head teachers to discipline is a reoccurring theme within the debate on behaviour in schools. Regaining adult authority is also reflected in the tenor of the government's…

Shaughnessy, Julie

2012-01-01

169

Attribution Theory Applied to Helping Behaviour towards People with Intellectual Disabilities Who Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Attribution theory posits that helping behaviour is determined in part by the potential helper's attributions and emotions regarding the behaviour that requires help. Specifically, helping is considered to be more likely if stability is perceived as low, generating optimism for change, and if controllability is perceived as low,…

Willner, Paul; Smith, Mark

2008-01-01

170

Human Aggression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents an approach to human aggression concerned with environmental stimuli. Details of recent studies and analysis of aversive stimuli and reinforcing stimuli are presented. The paper concludes by suggesting some possible generalizations from...

R. E. Ulrich, J. E. Favell

1968-01-01

171

Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.  

PubMed

Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females. PMID:23261497

Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

2013-03-01

172

Preferential Treatment or Unwanted in Mainstream Schools? The Perceptions of Parents and Teachers with Regards to Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers regarding the differential treatment or stigma experienced by pupils with challenging behaviour--more specifically, those with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD), as well as children with visible special educational needs (Down's syndrome and/or profound and multiple…

Broomhead, Karen E.

2013-01-01

173

Social Developmental Parameters in Primary Schools: Inclusive Settings' and Gender Differences on Pupils' Aggressive and Social Insecure Behaviour and Their Attitudes towards Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to examine whether gender and inclusion settings are associated with elementary school pupils' aspects of social development such as aggression, social insecurity and attitudes toward disability. The sample consisted of 658 pupils (M[subscript age]=11[plus or minus]1 years) of 15 primary schools (306 boys and 352…

Arampatzi, Athina; Mouratidou, Katerina; Evaggelinou, Christina; Koidou, Eirini; Barkoukis, Vassilis

2011-01-01

174

The Impact of Introducing Legal Punishment on the Frequency of Aggressive Behaviour in Professional Ice Hockey: Using the Todd Bertuzzi Incident as an Ecological Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stiffer punishment has long been heralded as the answer to curbing violence and aggression within the sport of ice hockey. Oddly however, this proposition has never received empirical validation. Rather, it exists on the basis of intuition, anecdotal reports, and theoretical assumptions. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to assess the impact of a high profile legal charge

Chris J. Gee

2007-01-01

175

The Impact of Challenging Student Behaviour upon Teachers' Lives in a Secondary School: Teachers' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Tina Axup, an educational psychologist working in Southend-on-Sea, and Irvine Gersch, director of educational and child psychology programmes at the University of East London, describe a small-scale study of teachers' attitudes regarding the impact of student behaviour on their professional lives. Anecdotal evidence within a local…

Axup, Tina; Gersch, Irvine

2008-01-01

176

Restrictive Interventions for People with a Disability Exhibiting Challenging Behaviours: Analysis of a Population Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: People with an intellectual disability whose behaviours are perceived to be of serious harm to themselves or others are at risk of being subjected to restrictive interventions. Prevalence rates are difficult to determine, as most research is unable to draw on the results of population-level data. Method: The current study reports on…

Webber, Lynne S.; McVilly, Keith R.; Chan, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

177

Counter Narratives in "Naughty" Students' Accounts: Challenges for the Discourse of Behaviour Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper is based on a research project that sought to understand schools' behaviour management strategies from the perspective of students who had the most experience of them. It focuses on the contrasting ways in which teacher and student subjectivities are framed and positioned within the discourse. It considers how student accounts were…

Priyadharshini, Esther

2011-01-01

178

Evidence from knockout mice that neuropeptide-Y Y2 and Y4 receptor signalling prevents long-term depression-like behaviour caused by immune challenge.  

PubMed

Neuropeptide Y participates in the acute behavioural responses to immune challenge, since Y2 receptor knockout (Y2?/?) mice are particularly sensitive to the short-term anxiogenic-like effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The present exploratory study addressed the involvement of Y2 and Y4 receptors in the long-term behavioural responses to immune challenge. A single intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (0.83 mg/kg) to control mice did not affect open field behaviour 3 h post-treatment but enhanced anxiety-like behaviour in Y2?/? as well as Y4?/? mice. Four weeks post-treatment this behavioural effect of lipopolysaccharide persisted in Y4?/? mice but had gone in Y2?/? mice. Depression-related behaviour in the forced swim test was enhanced 1 day post-lipopolysaccharide in control and Y2?/? mice, but not in Y4?/? mice. Four weeks post-treatment, the depressogenic-like effect of lipopolysaccharide had waned in control mice, persisted in Y2?/? mice and was first observed in Y4?/? mice. In summary, knockout of Y2 and/or Y4 receptors unmasks the ability of a single lipopolysaccharide injection to cause a delayed and prolonged increase in anxiety- and/or depression-like behaviour. These findings suggest that neuropeptide Y acting via Y2 and Y4 receptors prevents the development of long-term anxiety- and depression-like behaviour caused by acute immune challenge. PMID:19939871

Painsipp, Evelin; Herzog, Herbert; Holzer, Peter

2010-10-01

179

The psychobiology of aggression and violence: bioethical implications.  

PubMed

Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and justifiable based on causes. Biological research and natural science theories are a basic ingredient for reflections, arguments and decisions on such matters. This study presents the problem of the causes of aggressive behaviour, the evolutionary understanding and definition of aggressive behaviour, the biological basis for this behaviour and the link between emotions and aggression. A growing body of evidence suggests that innate factors of behaviour (be they genetic or neurobiological) do not by themselves define behaviour and nor do acquired factors such as learning, cultural norms or worldviews. Both types of factor interact from the outset to shape a development process that mutually interacts to define beliefs or behaviour. PMID:21898943

Díaz, José Luis

2010-01-01

180

[Biology of aggression in dogs].  

PubMed

The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds. PMID:11314475

Feddersen-Petersen, D U

2001-03-01

181

The frontal lobe and aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontal lesions often lead to psychosocial problems. It is not surprising that frontal lobe dysfunctions have been proposed to underlie antisocial behaviour in individuals without apparent lesions. However, physical aggression and violence have never been systematically related to acquired lesions. Whereas, traditional neuropsychological testing identifies problems in cognitive and emotional information processing, recent brain-imaging studies have revealed both the frontal

Jean R. Séguin

2009-01-01

182

Expanding the test of counterfeit deviance: are sexual knowledge, experience and needs a factor in the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability?  

PubMed

It is posited within the literature that the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability may be influenced by low levels of sexual knowledge, lack of sexual experience and unmet sexual needs. In this study, individuals with sexualised challenging behaviour were identified and matched for gender, age and ability level with individuals recruited to the non-sexualised and no challenging behaviour groups. All (n=24) were interviewed using the Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Tool - Revised (SSKAAT-R) and the Sexual Knowledge, Experience and Needs Scale for Intellectual Disability (Sex-Ken-ID) to assess their sexual knowledge, experience and needs. Adaptive behaviour was measured as a covariate. In the current study, contrary to expectations in the wider literature, the sexualised challenging behaviour group showed significantly higher levels of sexual knowledge in several areas when adaptive behaviour was controlled. Their needs in relation to Dating and Intimacy were also significantly higher but no differences were found between groups in relation to sexual experience. The implications of these findings for service provision are outlined along with the considerations of directions for future research. PMID:19815374

Lockhart, K; Guerin, S; Shanahan, S; Coyle, K

2010-01-01

183

Current Service Ideologies and Responses to Challenging Behaviour: Social Role Valorization or Vaporization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the principles underlying normalization and social role valorization with respect to the values and directions they offer service providers and the social structures they impose on individuals with disabilities who exhibit challenging behaviors. The paper argues that versions of normalization presented by Bengt Nirje and Wolf…

Shaddock, A. J.; Zilber, D.

1991-01-01

184

Aggressive mimicry, prey-specific predatory behaviour and predator-recognition in the predator-prey interactions of Portia fimbriata and Euryattus sp., jumping spiders from Queensland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults and large juveniles of Queensland Portia fimbriata, a salticid spider known to prey on other spiders (including other salticids), are shown to use prey-specific predatory behaviour against Euryattus sp., one of the salticids on which it feeds. Euryattus females are unusual because they nest inside suspended rolled-up leaves. P. fimbriata used vibratory displays to lure Euryattus females from their

Robert R. Jackson; R. Stimson Wilcox

1990-01-01

185

Differential visceral nociceptive, behavioural and neurochemical responses to an immune challenge in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto rat strain.  

PubMed

A highly regulated crosstalk exists between the immune and neuroendocrine systems with the altered immune responses in stress-related disorders being a valid example of this interaction. The Wister Kyoto (WKY) rat is an animal model with a genetic predisposition towards an exaggerated stress response and is used to study disorders such as depression and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where stress plays a substantial role. The impact of a lipopolysaccride (LPS) immune challenge has not yet been investigated in this animal model to date. Hence our aim was to assess if the stress susceptible genetic background of the WKY rat was associated with a differential response to an acute immune challenge. Central and peripheral parameters previously shown to be altered by LPS administration were assessed. Under baseline conditions, WKY rats displayed visceral hypersensitivity compared to Sprague Dawley (SD) control rats. However, only SD rats showed an increase in visceral sensitivity following endotoxin administration. The peripheral immune response to the LPS was similar in both strains whilst the central neurochemistry was blunted in the WKY rats. Sickness behaviour was also abrogated in the WKY rats. Taken together, these data indicate that the genetic background of the WKY rat mitigates the response to infection centrally, but not peripherally. This implies that heightened stress-susceptibility in vulnerable populations may compromise the coordinated CNS response to peripheral immune activation. PMID:23872358

O' Mahony, Siobhain M; Clarke, Gerard; McKernan, Declan P; Bravo, Javier A; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

2013-09-15

186

The effect of a training course in aggression management on mental health nurses’ perceptions of aggression: a cluster randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nurses’ attitudes towards patient aggression may influence their behaviour towards patients. Thus, their enhanced capacity to cope with aggressive patients may nurture more positive attitudes and alleviate adverse feelings emanating from patient aggression. This cluster randomised controlled trial conducted on six psychiatric wards tested the hypotheses that a 5 day training course in aggression management would positively influence the following

I. Needham; C. Abderhalden; R. J. G. Halfens; T. Dassen; H. J. Haug; J. E. Fischer

2005-01-01

187

Bringing "Patient Voice" into Psychological Formulations of In-Patients with Intellectual Disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Severe Challenging Behaviours: Report of a Service Improvement Pilot  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report of a service improvement pilot project undertaken at an inpatient autism service for adults with intellectual disabilities and severe challenging behaviours. Within the service, a key facet of the care pathway was the use of a biopsychosocial case formulation. Formulation meetings were led by psychology and involved a full…

Rowe, Gareth; Nevin, Helen

2014-01-01

188

Characteristics and Experiences of Children and Young People with Severe Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour Attending 52-Week Residential Special Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study sought to gather information about the characteristics and experiences of children and young people with severe intellectual disabilities and severe challenging behaviour attending 52-week residential special schools. Method: Staff of nine schools completed postal questionnaires on the characteristics and experiences of 156…

Pilling, N.; McGill, P.; Cooper, V.

2007-01-01

189

Reactive aggression and suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggression confers risk for suicide. However, “aggression” is a heterogeneous construct, and it is likely that subgroups of individuals with particular types of aggression are at higher risk. We postulate that a subtype of aggression, reactive aggression, underlies the link with suicide with implications for suicide risk-recognition and prevention. The theoretical rationale and empirical evidence for the role of reactive

Kenneth R. Conner; Paul R. Duberstein; Yeates Conwell; Eric D. Caine

2003-01-01

190

Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal. PMID:25054147

Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

2014-01-01

191

Psychopharmacology of Aggression in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The management of aggression in patients with schizophrenia is a complex and challenging clinical dilemma. It also is greatly influenced by prevailing societal and medicolegal considerations regarding the perceived associations between violence and mental illness. This article provides a succinct account of a complex area and offers evidence for available treatments to reduce the occurrence of violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21860038

Buckley, Peter; Citrome, Leslie; Nichita, Carmen; Vitacco, Michael

2011-01-01

192

Parenting Practices and the Early Socialisation of Relational Aggression among Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines parents' responses to their young children's relationally aggressive behaviour and compares these with the responses regarding children's overtly aggressive behaviour. Parents' beliefs about discipline strategies for addressing relational versus overt aggression at home and at school are also…

Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul

2010-01-01

193

A Comparison of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities with and without ASD on Parallel Measures of Challenging Behaviour: The Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01) and Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Intellectually Disabled Adults (ASD-BPA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenging behaviour may not be part of the diagnostic criteria for Autistic Disorder but they are frequently exhibited by children and adults with this condition. Levels of challenging behaviours are highest in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring intellectual disability (ID). The sample for this study consisted of…

Rojahn, Johannes; Wilkins, Jonathan; Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica

2010-01-01

194

Gender and aggression II: Personal aggressiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate how gender, ethnicity, age and education influence aggressiveness, we surveyed 115 male and female college students (56% male; 50% Anglo and 26% Hispanic) and 79 persons (72% male; 92% Anglo) working on a military base. Participants were administered the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and asked about their own aggressive behaviors. In both samples, men scored significantly higher than women

Mary B. Harris; Kelly Knight-Bohnhoff

1996-01-01

195

CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION  

PubMed Central

The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

Liu, Jianghong

2006-01-01

196

Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and testosterone in men exposed to an aggressive video stimulus.  

PubMed

The relative lengths of the 2(nd) and 4(th) digits (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in "challenge" situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a "challenge" is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression. PMID:24113579

Kilduff, Liam P; Hopp, Renato N; Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Manning, John T

2013-01-01

197

Challenger  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

Allday, Jonathan

2002-01-01

198

Endocrine correlates of dominance in chicks of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii): testing the Challenge Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-chick broods of the blue-footed booby develop a dominance relationship during the junior chick’s first 2 weeks of life, when behaviour of the subordinate chick is conditioned through aggression by its 4-day-older sibling. We used natural and experimental situations to test the Challenge Hypothesis, which predicts a rise in testosterone to regulate aggression only in socially unstable situations, and to

G. Ramos-Fernández; A. Núñez-de la Mora; J. C. Wingfield; H. Drummond

2000-01-01

199

A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY  

PubMed Central

We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

2013-01-01

200

High oxygen consumption rates and scale loss indicate elevated aggressive behaviour at low rearing density, while elevated brain serotonergic activity suggests chronic stress at high rearing densities in farmed rainbow trout.  

PubMed

The effect of stocking density on indicators of welfare has been investigated by several studies on farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. However, the densities at which welfare are compromised remain ambiguous. Here three different stocking density treatments were selected based on the results of a previous study, where levels of crowding where determined using the spatial distribution of fish in two-tank systems. An un-crowded low density of 25 kgm(-3), the highest density accepted by the fish without showing indications of crowding stress of 80 kgm(-3) as the intermediate density, and the highest density accepted by the fish showing indications of crowding stress of 140 kgm(-3) as the high density were investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of being held at these densities on indicators of welfare. This was achieved through oxygen consumption measurements using automated respirometry, recording fin erosion, determining scale loss and analysing plasma cortisol and brain serotonergic activity levels. The results obtained in the present study indicated that at the lowest density the fish had the space and opportunity to display their natural aggressive behaviour and that the fish held at the highest density were exposed to a situation of confinement. PMID:24018332

Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Silva, Patricia I M; Larsen, Bodil K; Höglund, Erik

2013-10-01

201

Melanin-based coloration predicts aggressiveness and boldness in captive eastern Hermann's tortoises  

E-print Network

coloration Eurotestudo boettgeri exploration melanin personality tortoise Although body coloration is oftenMelanin-based coloration predicts aggressiveness and boldness in captive eastern Hermann, behavioural patterns covary with eumelanic coloration of the shell. Dark eumelanic males were more aggressive

Alvarez, Nadir

202

Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients filled in…

Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

2011-01-01

203

An Evaluation of an Intervention Sequence Outline in Positive Behaviour Support for People with Autism and Severe Escape-Motivated Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Positive behaviour support emphasises the impact of contextual variables to enhance participation, choice, and quality of life. This study evaluates a sequence for implementing changes to key contextual variables for 4 individuals. Interventions were maintained and data collection continued over a 3-year period. Method: Functional…

McClean, Brian; Grey, Ian

2012-01-01

204

Experimentally increased aggressiveness reduces population kin structure and subsequent recruitment in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. According to the 'territorial behaviour' hypothesis, red grouse population cycles are caused by delayed density-dependent changes in male aggressiveness influencing recruitment. These lagged changes in aggressiveness might be caused by changes in the kin structuring of male populations and differential aggressive behaviour between kin and non-kin ('kinship' hypothesis). 2. A population-level manipulation of male aggressiveness in autumn affected

FRANÇOIS MOUGEOT; STUART B. PIERTNEY; FIONA LECKIE; SHARON EVANS; ROBERT MOSS; STEVE M. REDPATH; PETER J. HUDSON

2005-01-01

205

Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model  

PubMed Central

Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors. Conclusions Thus, through an integrated approach, combining gene expression profiling, behavioural analyses, and pharmacological manipulations, we identified candidate genes and pathways that appear to play significant roles in regulating aggression in fish. Many of these are novel for non-mammalian systems. We further present a validated system for advancing our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of complex behaviours using a fish model. PMID:20846403

2010-01-01

206

Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics.  

PubMed

Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression. PMID:22486899

Stewart, D; Bowers, L

2013-04-01

207

Aggressive Desmoplastic Fibromatosis - A Clinicians Dilemma Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Fibromatoses are a heterogeneous group of distinct entities which differ in biological behaviour, but arehistologically very similar. This group of fibrous tumor or tumor like lesions, present considerable difficulties in pathologic diagnosis. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) of the oral or para-oral structures is a very uncommon finding and its intra-osseous component is even relatively unusual. Such lesions with their origin from within the bone are termed desmoplastic fibromatosis (DF). These lesions must be distinguished from other fibroblastic tumors of the head and neck such as benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), fibrosarcoma, nerve sheath tumors and tumors of muscular origin. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of fibromatosis is to avoid an overdiagnosis of fibrosarcoma or an underdiagnosis of reactive fibrosis.Problems of differential diagnosis concern a wide range of diseases and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful in diagnosis. With respect to the patient’s post-operative well-being and if periodic follow-ups are guaranteed, the tumor should be carefully resected with only narrow safety margins. A rare case of aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis in a 12–year–old girl is presented in this article with emphasis on the need and challenges for diagnosing such lesions as they have to be differentiated from other soft tissue tumors which display borderline pathological features regarding benign or malignant behaviour. Synonyms listed for the same include extra-abdominal desmoids, extra-abdominal fibromatosis, desmoids tumor, aggressive fibromatosis, juvenile desmoids-type fibromatosis, infantile fibromatosis. PMID:24392428

Manchanda, Adesh S; Narang, Ramandeep S; Arora, Preeti Chawla; Singh, Balwinder; Walia, Satinder

2013-01-01

208

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression  

E-print Network

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured

209

Aggressive females become aggressive males in a sex-changing reef fish.  

PubMed

Many animal populations display consistent individual differences in suites of correlated behaviours. While these so called 'animal personalities' can substantially influence the ecology and evolution of populations, little is known about cross-sex correlations of behaviour and thus the potential of personality to limit sex-specific behavioural adaptations. Here, we experimentally induced sex-change in the sequentially hermaphroditic reef fish Parapercis cylindrica and demonstrate the existence of tight cross-sex correlations for two behaviours with presumed different sex-specific optima. Individuals that were relatively more active and aggressive females were found to become relatively more active and aggressive males. By identifying personality as a potential genetic constraint on the resolution of intralocus sexual conflict over behaviour, our findings have important ecological and evolutionary implications for a wide range of species. PMID:22731810

Sprenger, Dennis; Dingemanse, Niels J; Dochtermann, Ned A; Theobald, Jennifer; Walker, Stefan P W

2012-09-01

210

Anti-predator Aggression in the Common Myna Acridotheres tristis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This note describes aggression by a small group of Common Mynas Acridotheres tristis towards an omnivorous mammal, the Coati Nasua sp. Instances of aggression by Mynas towards other fauna are reviewed. The behavioural characteristics displayed in this interaction are also discussed.

JAMES A. FITZSIMONS

211

Early childhood aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and

Lenneke Rosalie Agnes Alink

2006-01-01

212

Testosterone and aggression: Berthold, birds and beyond.  

PubMed

Berthold's classic study of domesticated roosters in 1849 demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for the normal expression of aggressive behaviour. Although this conclusion is undoubtedly correct, field studies of wild songbirds have yielded important modifications and limitations of Berthold's original hypothesis. For example, studies of the North American song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) during the breeding season reveal that not only does testosterone increase aggression, but aggressive interactions also increase plasma testosterone levels. Furthermore, in winter, nonbreeding song sparrows have low plasma testosterone levels but are very aggressive, and castration of nonbreeding song sparrows does not decrease aggression. Interestingly, an aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole) does decrease male aggression in the nonbreeding season, and the effects of fadrozole can be rescued with oestradiol. In winter, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the periphery can be metabolised within the brain to supply oestradiol to specific neural circuits. Additionally, oestradiol might be synthesised de novo from cholesterol entirely within the brain. These mechanisms may have evolved to avoid the 'costs' of circulating testosterone in the nonbreeding season. Recent studies in tropical birds, hamsters, and humans suggest that these neuroendocrine mechanisms are important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species. PMID:16774503

Soma, K K

2006-07-01

213

Testosterone and Aggression: Berthold, Birds and Beyond  

PubMed Central

Berthold’s classic study of domesticated roosters in 1849 demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for the normal expression of aggressive behaviour. Although this conclusion is undoubtedly correct, field studies of wild songbirds have yielded important modifications and limitations of Berthold’s original hypothesis. For example, studies of the North American song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) during the breeding season reveal that not only does testosterone increase aggression, but aggressive interactions also increase plasma testosterone levels. Furthermore, in winter, nonbreeding song sparrows have low plasma testosterone levels but are very aggressive, and castration of nonbreeding song sparrows does not decrease aggression. Interestingly, an aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole) does decrease male aggression in the nonbreeding season, and the effects of fadrozole can be rescued with oestradiol. In winter, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the periphery can be metabolised within the brain to supply oestradiol to specific neural circuits. Additionally, oestradiol might be synthesised de novo from cholesterol entirely within the brain. These mechanisms may have evolved to avoid the ‘costs’ of circulating testosterone in the nonbreeding season. Recent studies in tropical birds, hamsters, and humans suggest that these neuroendocrine mechanisms are important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species. PMID:16774503

Soma, K. K.

2010-01-01

214

Challenges and Management Frameworks of Residential Schools for Students with Severe Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study by Stella Suk-Ching Chong, an assistant professor, and Ka-wai Leung, a teaching fellow, both at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, focuses on the perspectives of hostel staff from six residential schools for students with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. Individual or focus group interviews were conducted to explore the…

Chong, Stella Suk-ching; Leung, Ka-wai

2012-01-01

215

Bullying among Girls in Japan and Hong Kong: An Examination of the Frustration-Aggression Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One widely accepted explanation of bullying, known as the aggressive-motive thesis, assumes that bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour triggered by external stress. However, recent evidences have suggested a different explanation, known as the frustration-aggression thesis, which asserts that bullying is a psychological defense triggered by…

Tam, Frank Wai-ming; Taki, Mitsuru

2007-01-01

216

Bullying among girls in Japan and Hong Kong: An examination of the frustration-aggression model  

Microsoft Academic Search

One widely accepted explanation of bullying, known as the aggressive-motive thesis, assumes that bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour triggered by external stress. However, recent evidences have suggested a different explanation, known as the frustration-aggression thesis, which asserts that bullying is a psychological defense triggered by external stress to reduce anxiety. The present investigation is an attempt to compare

Frank Wai-ming Tam; Mitsuru Taki

2007-01-01

217

A preliminary investigation into patterns of aggression in an Australian forensic psychiatric hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aggressive behaviour of psychiatric inpatients has profound consequences for patients, staff, ward atmosphere and psychiatric hospitals in general. Considerable international research exists, primarily conducted in general psychiatric hospitals, on the prevalence and determinants of aggression. Conclusions drawn from this research contribute valuable information about the clinical and demographic characteristics of aggressive patients. There is little Australian research available, however,

Michael Daffern; Maggie M. Mayer; Trish Martin

2003-01-01

218

Behaviour of dispersing deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The behaviour of dispersing and resident deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was compared in three laboratory tests to determine if dispersers differed behaviourally from residents.2.The hypothesis that behavioural differences have a genetic basis was examined by correlating genotype at three electrophoretically detectable blood protein loci with scores on the behaviour tests. Among resident males, level of aggression (as measured in neutral

Daphne J. Fairbairn

1978-01-01

219

Childhood predictors of adult criminality: are all risk factors reflected in childhood aggressiveness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Early aggressive behaviour is one of the best predictors of adult criminality. Aim To assess the degree to which family background variables, parental beliefs and behaviour and child intelligence predict child aggression and adult criminality. Method Data were used from the Colombia County Longitudinal Study, a longitu- dinal study of 856 children in third grade in New York, in

L. Rowell Huesmann; Leonard D. Eron; Eric F. Dubow

2002-01-01

220

Boys and Road Rage: Driving-Related Violence and Aggression in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the results of a population survey of 1208 West Australian drivers designed to measure the prevalence of drivingrelated violence and aggression as well as perceptions of these behaviours. A clear distinction is made between driving-related violence (restricted to criminal acts of violence, threats of violence and vehicle damage) and other aggressive driving behaviours. Although the majority

Lynne Roberts; David Indermaur

2005-01-01

221

Bullying in Middle School as a Function of Insecure Attachment and Aggressive Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested a model for understanding peer bullying as the product of aggressive attitudes and insecure attachment. A sample of 110 sixth grade students completed self-report measures that assessed attitudes toward the use of aggressive behaviour with peers and distinguished secure from insecure parental attachment. Bullying behaviour was…

Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey G.

2009-01-01

222

Partners with Bad Temper: Reject or Cure? A Study of Chronic Pain and Aggression in Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExperiencing acute pain can affect the social behaviour of both humans and animals and can increase the risk that they exhibit aggressive or violent behaviour. However, studies have focused mainly on the impact of acute rather than chronic painful experiences. As recent results suggest that chronic pain or chronic discomfort could increase aggressiveness in humans and other mammals, we tested

Carole Fureix; Hervé Menguy; Martine Hausberger; Martin Giurfa

2010-01-01

223

The relationship of self-regulation and aggression: an empirical test of personality systems interaction theory.  

PubMed

On the basis of personality systems interaction (PSI) theory, the authors examine self-regulation, conflict behaviour, behavioural resources, and personality disorders in a sample of 83 male offenders and explore the role self-regulatory variables play with respect to aggressive behaviour. Although substantial correlations between self-regulatory functions and aggressive behaviour were found, these variables did not predict aggression in a subsequent regression analysis with measures of self-regulation, conflict behaviour, and personality disorders as independent variables. Antisocial behaviour, behavioural self-control, and affect were among the strongest predictors of aggression. Specific predictions based on PSI theory could not be confirmed. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed and put into relation with treatment issues of offenders. PMID:18025075

Ross, Thomas; Fontao, María Isabel

2008-10-01

224

The Displaced Aggression Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous measures of aggressive personality have focused on direct aggression (i.e., retaliation toward the provoking agent). An original self-report measure of trait displaced aggression is presented. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 3-factor conceptualization of the construct. These analyses identified an affective dimension (angry rumination), a cognitive dimension (revenge planning), and a behavioral dimension (general tendency to

Thomas F. Denson; William C. Pedersen; Norman Miller

2006-01-01

225

Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

2013-01-01

226

Methodological Challenges in Collecting Social and Behavioural Data Regarding the HIV Epidemic among Gay and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Behavioural surveillance and research among gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM) commonly relies on non-random recruitment approaches. Methodological challenges limit their ability to accurately represent the population of adult GMSM. We compared the social and behavioural profiles of GMSM recruited via venue-based, online, and respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and discussed their utility for behavioural surveillance. Methods Data from four studies were selected to reflect each recruitment method. We compared demographic characteristics and the prevalence of key indicators including sexual and HIV testing practices obtained from samples recruited through different methods, and population estimates from respondent-driven sampling partition analysis. Results Overall, the socio-demographic profile of GMSM was similar across samples, with some differences observed in age and sexual identification. Men recruited through time-location sampling appeared more connected to the gay community, reported a greater number of sexual partners, but engaged in less unprotected anal intercourse with regular (UAIR) or casual partners (UAIC). The RDS sample overestimated the proportion of HIV-positive men and appeared to recruit men with an overall higher number of sexual partners. A single-website survey recruited a sample with characteristics which differed considerably from the population estimates with regards to age, ethnically diversity and behaviour. Data acquired through time-location sampling underestimated the rates of UAIR and UAIC, while RDS and online sampling both generated samples that underestimated UAIR. Simulated composite samples combining recruits from time-location and multi-website online sampling may produce characteristics more consistent with the population estimates, particularly with regards to sexual practices. Conclusion Respondent-driven sampling produced the sample that was most consistent to population estimates, but this methodology is complex and logistically demanding. Time-location and online recruitment are more cost-effective and easier to implement; using these approaches in combination may offer the potential to recruit a more representative sample of GMSM. PMID:25409440

Holt, Martin; de Wit, John; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce; Fairley, Christopher; Prestage, Garrett

2014-01-01

227

Reactions to Aggression-Related Stimuli Following Reinforcement of Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four male subjects were reinforced for aggressing with verbal approval from the experimenter, or not reinforced, then presented nine verbs previously scaled for aggressiveness associations as cues for further aggressive responses. Subjects who received approval from the experimenter increased their level of aggressiveness over reinforced trials, whereas nonreinforced subjects did not. Reinforced subjects also reacted with greater aggressiveness to words

Russell G. Geen; David Stonner

1973-01-01

228

Physical and Verbal Aggression in Peer Groups Among Finnish Adolescent Boys and Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 396 15-16-year-old boys and girls were interviewed about their experiences of physical and verbal aggression in their peer group, the circumstances in which aggression had occurred, the perceived reasons for and functions of the aggressive behaviour, and their own responses to it. Clear-cut sex differences were found in most respects, especially in the case of physical aggression.

Maijaliisa Rauste-von Wright

1989-01-01

229

Reliability and utility of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation tool (BSP-QEII) for auditing and quality development in services for adults with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour.  

PubMed

Background? Having an objective means of evaluating the quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) could assist service providers and statutory authorities to monitor and improve the quality of support provided to people with intellectual disability (ID) who exhibit challenging behaviour. The Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II (BSP-QEII) was developed to monitor and assess BSPs prepared by teachers to support children with disability in the school system. This study investigated the application of the BSP-QEII to the assessment of BSPs for adults with ID in community support services. Method? The inter-rater reliability of the BSP-QEII was assessed. The utility of the BPS-QEII was then investigated with reference to a time series study of matched pairs of BSPs, developed for the same clients over a period of approximately 3 years. Differences in plan quality measured across a number of service and systemic variables were also investigated. Results? The BSP-QEII was found to have good inter-rater reliability and good utility for audit purposes. It was able to discriminate changes in plan quality over time. Differences in plan quality were also evident across different service types, where specialist staff had or had not been involved, and in some instances where a statutory format for the plan had or had not been used. There were no differences between plans developed by government and community sector agencies, nor were there any regional differences across the jurisdiction. Conclusions? The BSP-QEII could usefully be adopted as an audit tool for measuring the quality of BSPs for adults with ID. In addition to being used for research and administrative auditing, the principles underpinning the BSP-QEII could also be useful to guide policy and educational activities for staff in community based services for adults with ID. PMID:22845772

McVilly, K; Webber, L; Paris, M; Sharp, G

2012-07-30

230

Characteristics of aggression in a German psychiatric hospital and predictors of patients at risk.  

PubMed

This study investigated the aggressive behaviour of all mentally ill patients within a whole psychiatric hospital with a catchment area of 325 000 inhabitants over a 1-year period (i) to assess the 1-year prevalence and characteristics of aggressive episodes and index inpatients, and (ii) to identify predictors of patients at risk by a multivariate approach. Staff Observation of Aggression Scale was used to assess aggressive behaviour. Characteristics of index inpatients were compared with those of non-index inpatients. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors. A total of 171 out of 2210 admitted patients (7.7%) exhibited 441 aggressive incidents (1.7 incidents per bed per year). Logistic regression analyses revealed as major risk factors of aggression: diagnoses (organic brain syndromes OR = 3.6, schizophrenia OR = 2.9), poor psychosocial living conditions (OR = 2.2), and critical behaviour leading to involuntary admission (OR = 3.3). Predictors of aggressive behaviour can be useful to identify inpatients at risk. Nevertheless, additional situational determinants have to be recognized. Training for professionals should include preventive and de-escalating strategies to reduce the incidence of aggressive behaviour in psychiatric hospitals. The application of de-escalating interventions prior to admission might be effective in preventing aggressive behaviour during inpatient treatment especially for patients with severe mental disorders. PMID:17244011

Ketelsen, R; Zechert, C; Driessen, M; Schulz, M

2007-02-01

231

Human Aggression and Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive

Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

1986-01-01

232

Substance use, aggression perpetration, and victimization: temporal co-occurrence in college males and females.  

PubMed

Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and whether attitudes justifying aggression strengthen those associations. College student participants (N = 378, 32% males) self-selected into an online study in which they reported on 2 days of alcohol/drug use and on aggression perpetration and victimization (including physical, psychological and electronic aggression, and sexual coercion) with friends and dating partners. Using regression to test for nonequivalence of predictor and outcome variables, we found bidirectional effects for males only. Males' substance use was associated with an increased likelihood on the same day of aggression perpetration and of aggression victimization; males' aggression perpetration and aggression victimization were associated with an increased likelihood of substance use on the same day. Females did not show significant contingencies between substance use and aggression in either direction. Males' attitudes justifying male-to-female aggression were associated with their aggression perpetration and victimization and their justification of female-to-male aggression strengthened the link between substance use and aggression perpetration. With interpersonal aggression and substance use being significant problems on college campuses, many colleges offer separate preventive intervention programs aimed at these public health challenges; this study suggests possible benefits of an integrated approach that addresses connections between alcohol/drug use and aggression. PMID:23697863

Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C; Baucom, Brian R; Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L

2013-09-01

233

Coping with Agitation and Aggression  

MedlinePLUS

... settle down. Agitation may cause pacing, sleeplessness, or aggression , which is when a person lashes out verbally ... hit or hurt someone. Causes of Agitation and Aggression Most of the time, agitation and aggression happen ...

234

Isochromosome 15 with behaviour disorder.  

PubMed

An isochromosome of 15(q12) was found in a mentally retarded patient with behaviour disorders which included hyperactivity, short attention span, aggression, and autistic behaviour. There were only minor physical anomalies; he did not have the Prader-Willi syndrome. PMID:3943874

Smith, A; Einfeld, S

1986-02-01

235

Isochromosome 15 with behaviour disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isochromosome of 15(q12) was found in a mentally retarded patient with behaviour disorders which included hyperactivity, short attention span, aggression, and autistic behaviour. There were only minor physical anomalies; he did not have the Prader-Willi syndrome.

Arabella Smith; S. Einfeld

1986-01-01

236

Mental disorder in adults with intellectual disability. 2: The rate of behaviour disorders among a community-based population aged between 16 and 64 years.  

PubMed

Despite the difficulty of defining behaviour disorder, most previous studies have reported a high rate of behaviour disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the present study was to establish the overall rate and types of behaviour disorders in a population-based sample of adults with ID. The other aim was to explore the possible risk factors that are associated with the overall rate as well as different types of behaviour disorders. One hundred and one adults with ID aged between 16 and 64 years were randomly selected from a sample of 246 such adults, i.e. those who were known to the Vale of Glamorgan Social Services Department in South Wales, UK. Thirteen behaviour disorders were rated according to the Disability Assessment Schedule. Background data on subjects were also collected, and were subsequently analysed to assess the relationship between different risk factors and behaviour disorders. Sixty-one subjects (60.4%) had at least one behaviour disorder of any severity or frequency. Twenty-three per cent of subjects showed aggression, 24% self-injurious behaviour, 36% temper tantrum, 26% overactivity, 29% screaming, 38% attention-seeking behaviour, 20% objectionable habits, 18% night-time disturbance and 12% of subjects showed destructiveness. Statistically significant associations were seen between the rate of overall behaviour disorder and the use of psychotropic medication, and between family and group home residence. The rate of aggression was significantly associated with the use of psychotropic medication. The rate of self-injurious behaviour was significantly associated with the severity of ID, female gender and poor communication abilities. The rate of temper tantrum was significantly associated with the use of psychotropic medication. Twenty-four subjects showed severe or frequent aggression, destructiveness, self-injury or temper tantrum, and 11 individuals showed real challenging behaviours. Severe behaviour problems were significantly associated with female gender, severity of ID, the presence of a history of epilepsy and attendance at day activities. PMID:11737537

Deb, S; Thomas, M; Bright, C

2001-12-01

237

Psychophysiological correlates of aggression and violence: an integrative review.  

PubMed

This paper reviews existing psychophysiological studies of aggression and violent behaviour including research employing autonomic, electrocortical and neuroimaging measures. Robust physiological correlates of persistent aggressive behaviour evident in this literature include low baseline heart rate, enhanced autonomic reactivity to stressful or aversive stimuli, enhanced EEG slow wave activity, reduced P300 brain potential response and indications from structural and functional neuroimaging studies of dysfunction in frontocortical and limbic brain regions that mediate emotional processing and regulation. The findings are interpreted within a conceptual framework that draws on two integrative models in the literature. The first is a recently developed hierarchical model of impulse control (externalizing) problems, in which various disinhibitory syndromes including aggressive and addictive behaviours of different kinds are seen as arising from common as well as distinctive aetiologic factors. This model represents an approach to organizing these various interrelated phenotypes and investigating their common and distinctive aetiologic substrates. The other is a neurobiological model that posits impairments in affective regulatory circuits in the brain as a key mechanism for impulsive aggressive behaviour. This model provides a perspective for integrating findings from studies employing different measures that have implicated varying brain structures and physiological systems in violent and aggressive behaviour. PMID:18434285

Patrick, Christopher J

2008-08-12

238

Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers  

PubMed Central

This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents’ responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents’ actual marital aggression. The study included 118 9?10 year old children, and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with same-sex parents’ actual marital aggression. For children with mothers who exhibit low actual marital aggression, mothers’ aggressive solutions to hypothetical situations corresponded with children's tendencies to propose aggressive but not assertive solutions. In a 3-way interaction, fathers’ aggressive solutions to peer scenarios and marital aggression, combined, exacerbated girls’ aggressive problem solving, but had the opposite effect for boys. Discussion addresses the complexity, particularly with respect to parent and child gender combinations, in understanding parents’ aggressive influences on children's peer relationships. PMID:17206880

Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

2009-01-01

239

Interspecific aggression in hermatypic corals from Bermuda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interspecific aggression between hermatypic corals on Bermudian reefs has been investigated by aquarium and field studies, the latter involving induced interactions, observations from 30 m-2 transects and random SCUBA traverses. Resultant hierarchies, constructed by ranking the abilities of species to damage competitors, show close similarities with each other and with the Jamaican hierarchy at the family level, notwithstanding some differences in the ranking of some species. Only 11% of natural-occurring interactions depart from the aquarium-derived results; in terms of species-pair combinations, 30% show partial or complete inversions from aquarium to field, with most changes involving species close together in the field hierarchy. Circular (intransitive) interactions occur mostly within a network of weakly-aggressive species in both aquarium- and fieldderived hierarchies. While number of potential interactions m-2 varies directly with density, frequency of aggression is positively correlated with coral diversity (species richness), while frequency of “no reactions” and conspecific fusion (combined) shows a correspondingly negative correlation with diversity. Frequency of aggression does not appear to be depth related. Comparison of aquarium and field hierarchies suggest that digestion by mesenterial filaments is the most important mechanism of aggression under natural conditions. Sweeper tentacle activity is the most likely cause of field reversals involving Madracis mirabilis and Montastrea cavernosa. Other factors, such as stress caused by seasonal environmental extremes, may be responsible for reversals or inconsistent behaviour in other species.

Logan, A.

1984-11-01

240

Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

2013-01-01

241

What can animal aggression research tell us about human aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on endocrinological correlates of aggression in laboratory animals is implicitly motivated by an expectation that the results of such studies may be applicable to human aggression as well. Research with a focus on the stimulus antecedents of aggression, its response characteristics, and its outcomes suggests a number of detailed correspondences between offensive aggression in laboratory rodents and human angry

D. Caroline Blanchard; Robert J Blanchard

2003-01-01

242

School Aggression and Dispositional Aggression among Middle School Boys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We examined the relationship between dispositional (trait) aggression and administrative reports of school aggression among 100 adolescent male participants from an urban middle school. Regression analyses indicated that dispositional aggression accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in administrative reports of school aggression.

Ballard, Mary E.; Fleming, Willie C.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela

2004-01-01

243

Variables in Interracial Aggression: Exposure to Aggressive Interracial Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment employing 90 white male college students examined the influence of observing certain aggressive black-white interactions on subsequent interracial aggression. Before aggressing against a black target themselves, Ss were exposed to a white person aggressing against a black person using high, low, or unspecified electric shocks, and to the black person counteraggressing using one of the same three response

Marcia Donnerstein; Edward Donnerstein

1976-01-01

244

Psychological Aggression Predicts Physical Aggression in Early Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological aggression by self and partner, physical aggression by the partner, and marital dissatisfaction were examined as longitudinal predictors of first instances of physical aggression during marriage. Subjects who were not physically aggressive at a premarital assessment were selected from a sample of 393 engaged couples. Couples participated in three subsequent assessments over the first 30 months of marriage. As

Christopher M. Murphy; K. Daniel OLeary

1989-01-01

245

Sexual and aggressive motives in sexually aggressive college males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative contributions to sexual aggression of general sexual and aggressive motives and their respective inhibitory factors were compared. One hundred forty-three university males responded to self-report measures of sexual and aggressive drives, sex and hostility guilt, social desirability response bias, and history of coercive sexuality. With the effects of social desirability controlled, the only predictor of sexual aggression was

James F. Porter; Joseph W. Critelli; Catherine S. K. Tang

1992-01-01

246

Creatureliness priming reduces aggression and support for war.  

PubMed

Terror management theory (TMT) posits that humans distance themselves from, or elevate themselves above, other animals as a way of denying their mortality. The present studies assessed whether the salience of aggressive tendencies that humans share with other animals make thoughts of death salient and whether depicting human aggression as animalistic can mitigate aggressive behaviour and support for aggression. In Study 1, participants primed with human-animal similarities (i.e., human creatureliness) exhibited elevated death-thought accessibility (DTA) after hitting a punching bag. In Studies 2a and 2b, creatureliness priming caused participants to hit a punching bag with less frequency, perceived force, and comfort. In Study 3, participants primed to view violence as animalistic exhibited increased DTA and reported less support for war against Iran. These studies suggest that portraying violence as creaturely may reduce the intensity of aggressive actions and support for violent solutions to international conflicts. PMID:22882271

Motyl, Matt; Hart, Joshua; Cooper, Douglas P; Heflick, Nathan; Goldenberg, Jamie; Pyszczynski, Tom

2013-12-01

247

REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR OF THE DECORATED CRICKET, GRYLLODES SUPPLICANS  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR OF THE DECORATED CRICKET, GRYLLODES SUPPLICANS (ORTHOPTERA: GRYLLIDAE-1986) Introduction Male crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) compete for females through direct physical aggression (ALEXANDER, 1961; BURK, 1983; BOAKE, 1984; DIXON & CADE, 1986) and acoustic signalling behaviour

Sakaluk, Scott

248

Verbal Aggression in Sibling Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds: (1) verbal aggressiveness negatively related to satisfaction and trust (supporting the destructiveness of verbal aggression); (2) teasing positively related to verbal aggressiveness; (3) sibling satisfaction positively related to being hurt on receiving verbally aggressive messages; and (4) women were more satisfied and reported using less…

Martin, Matthew M.; Anderson, Carolyn M.; Burant, Patricia A.; Weber, Keith

1997-01-01

249

Peripubertal viral-like challenge and social isolation mediate overlapping but distinct effects on behaviour and brain interferon regulatory factor 7 expression in the adult Wistar rat.  

PubMed

A range of adverse, early life environmental influences such as viral infection and social deprivation are thought to increase risk of psychiatric illness later in life. Here, we used peripheral administration of the viral infection mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C) to compare the consequences of peripubertal infection and isolation rearing. Isolation rearing induced deficits in sensorimotor gating and recognition memory while no changes in social interaction or spatial learning were observed. PolyI:C injection during the peripubertal period markedly increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes (Ifit2, Prkr, Mx2 and Irf7) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus demonstrating that peripheral administration of the viral mimic in the adolescent animal does have direct effects in the brain. Peripubertal infection mimicry induced a similar but later emerging behavioural deficit in prepulse inhibition implying the existence of a peripubertal window of opportunity for viral-mediated cytokine increases to impact brain development and function. PolyI:C treatment also impaired novel object recognition but did not alter spatial reference memory or social interaction. Combining the polyI:C challenge with social isolation did not exacerbate the behavioural deficits seen with isolation rearing alone. Using Irf7 as a marker, peripubertal viral infection mimicry, isolation rearing and a combination of both were all seen to produce a long-lasting molecular imprint on the interferon-associated signalling pathway in the principal neuron population of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The data suggest that the sensitivity of brain structure and function to disruption by viral infection extends into the peripubertal period. Moreover, augmented interferon signalling in hippocampus may represent a common molecular imprint of environmental insults associated with neuropsychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia. PMID:23036922

Lukasz, Bartlomiej; O'Sullivan, Niamh C; Loscher, Jennifer S; Pickering, Mark; Regan, Ciaran M; Murphy, Keith J

2013-01-01

250

Relational Aggression and Disordered Eating  

E-print Network

psychopathology models and newer evolutionary psychology models. Two of these behaviors/clusters of behaviors are relational aggression and disordered eating. Relational aggression is defined as “a form of aggression that involves attempts to harm others... social behaviors, although convenient, may lead to inaccurate and too simplistic conclusions about the role of relational aggression in psychopathology. The current study examined the relationships among relational aggression, prosocial behaviors...

Prohaska, Jennifer A.

2012-05-31

251

The Moderating Effect of Parental Warmth on the Association between Spanking and Child Aggression: A Longitudinal Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, this study analysed the stability of child aggressive behaviour beginning in infancy and tested whether spanking when the child was 36 months was associated with aggressive child behaviour among three ethnic groups and whether maternal warmth moderated the effect of spanking on…

Stacks, Ann Michele; Oshio, Toko; Gerard, Jean; Roe, Jacqueline

2009-01-01

252

Social reversal of sex-biased aggression and dominance in a biparental cichlid fish1 (Julidochromis marlieri)2  

E-print Network

- 1 - Social reversal of sex-biased aggression and dominance in a biparental cichlid fish1 species, aggression, dominance and parental care are typically sexually dimorphic.14 While behavioural the contributions of sex and relative20 mate size in these sex-biased behaviours in monogamous J. marlieri pairs

Renn, Susan C.P.

253

The relationship between three types of aggression and peer relations in elementary school children.  

PubMed

Previous studies have repeatedly found that aggression causes various internalizing and externalizing problems. Despite the robust relationship, exactly how aggression causes these problems remains unclear, although it is plausible to postulate that this occurs both directly and indirectly (via other behavioural factors). One possible indirect factor might be the aggravation of peer relations. The poor peer relations of aggressive children could make them isolated psychologically or physically from peers, which in turn might result in depressive or disruptive problems. This study examined the relationships between three types of aggression and peer relations in Japanese elementary school children. The three aggression types comprised reactive-expressive (i.e., verbal and physical aggression), reactive-inexpressive (e.g., hostility), and proactive-relational aggression (i.e., aggression that can break human relationships, for instance, by circulating malicious rumours). Participants were 1581 children in grades 4 to 6 (752 boys and 829 girls), all of whom completed the Proactive-Reactive Aggression Questionnaire for Children to measure three types of aggression and the Peer Relation Questionnaire to measure peer relations (mutual understanding, self-disclosure, and similarity of taste) and number of friends. Hierarchical regression analyses of the data showed that higher scores of relational aggression were significantly associated with higher scores of all of the peer relations and the number of friends, and that higher scores of inexpressive aggression were significantly associated with lower scores of all except for self-disclosure in the peer relations. These findings suggest that among the three types of aggression, relational aggression leads to the best friendship in both dyadic relations and the number of friends, whereas inexpressive aggression to the poorest friendship. The implications of these findings with respect to internalizing and externalizing problem behaviours for aggressive children are discussed. PMID:22029493

Yamasaki, Katsuyuki; Nishida, Noriko

2009-06-01

254

Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.  

PubMed

Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or genetic profile, currently do not exist. Genetic markers have the potential to be implemented as screening tools to identify subjects at risk. This approach may significantly enhance treatment outcome through the early detection and treatment of affected subjects, as well as using future approaches based on gene therapy. At present, the treatment of this disease is directed toward elimination of the subgingival bacterial load and other local risk factors. Adjunctive use of appropriate systemic antibiotics is recommended and may contribute to a longer suppression of the microbial infection. Other aggressive forms of periodontal diseases occur in patients who are affected with certain systemic diseases, including the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Down syndrome. Management of the periodontal component of these diseases is very challenging. Acute gingival and periodontal lesions include a group of disorders that range from nondestructive to destructive forms, and these lesions are usually associated with pain and are a common reason for emergency dental consultations. Some of these lesions may cause a rapid and severe destruction of the periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. Oral infections, particularly acute infections, can spread to extra-oral sites and cause serious medical complications, and even death. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount. PMID:24738583

Albandar, Jasim M

2014-06-01

255

Social Stimuli, Testosterone, and Aggression in Gull Chicks: Support for the  

E-print Network

Social Stimuli, Testosterone, and Aggression in Gull Chicks: Support for the Challenge Hypothesis: testosterone; challenge hypothesis; ag- gression; black-headed gull; territorial behavior; chick; ontogeny; priming; sensitization; organizing effects; ex- ternal stimuli. Testosterone is considered to have

256

Relational Aggression among Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

2011-01-01

257

Cerebral Lateralization and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resurgence of interest in the relationship between cerebral lateralization (the functional asymmetry of the cerebral cortex) and aggression has occurred. Most recent studies have found that individuals with abnormal patterns of lateralization are overrepresented among violent individuals. Intervening variables (such as drug and alcohol abuse)…

Hillbrand, Marc; And Others

1994-01-01

258

Victims of Peer Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A peer nomination scale was designed to assess the degree to which children were subjected to direct physical and verbal abuse by peers. Subjects were 165 third through sixth grade students. Children's victimization scores were uncorrelated with their aggression scores, negatively correlated with peer acceptance, and positively correlated with…

Perry, David G.; And Others

1988-01-01

259

Parents’ Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions With Peers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents’responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents’actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with same-sex parents’ actual marital aggression. For children with mothers who exhibited low actual marital

Sarah Duman; Gayla Margolin

2007-01-01

260

Aggression Replacement Training (ART) in Australia: A Longitudinal Youth Justice Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the findings from a two-year longitudinal evaluation of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) in an Australian youth justice custodial setting. Twenty aggressive juvenile offenders (M = 19.6; SD = .60) were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six-month, and 24-month follow-up. As predicted, participants reported significant reductions in aggressive behaviours and thoughts, cognitive distortions, and impulsivity and some improvement in social problem-solving skills at

Matthew R. Currie; Catherine E. Wood; Benedict Williams; Glen W. Bates

2012-01-01

261

Aggression Replacement Training (ART) in Australia: A Longitudinal Youth Justice Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the findings from a two-year longitudinal evaluation of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) in an Australian youth justice custodial setting. Twenty aggressive juvenile offenders (M = 19.6; SD = .60) were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six-month, and 24-month follow-up. As predicted, participants reported significant reductions in aggressive behaviours and thoughts, cognitive distortions, and impulsivity and some improvement in social problem-solving skills at

Matthew R. Currie; Catherine E. Wood; Benedict Williams; Glen W. Bates

2011-01-01

262

The psychological impact of aggression on nursing staff.  

PubMed

Aggression and violence towards nursing staff in UK health care is a growing problem. While the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's (NICE, 2005a) guidelines 'The Short-Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in In-Patient Psychiatric Setting and Emergency Department' offer a way forward in managing aggression for healthcare staff, the psychological impact of aggression remains an area of concern. Post-incident review has been identified as an approach to considering untoward incidents of aggression, yet post-incident support and interventions for staff experiencing the psychological effects of aggression remain inconsistent and curtailed in many areas. This article discusses the care of a nurse who experienced post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of aggression in the workplace. The process of assessment and treatment is presented with underpinning theories of trauma used to illuminate the discussion. Practical use of current recommended treatments of cognitive behavioural therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is offered as a method of addressing a growing problem in UK health care. PMID:17851336

Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue

263

Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

2007-01-01

264

Effects of aggressive cartoons on children's aggressive play  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to aggressive fantasy in an animated cartoon may intensify children's impulses to aggression. Subjects were 36 first grade children, 18 girls and 18 boys, of middle class origin. The intensity of the child's aggressive impulses were inferred from his responses to questions concerning desire to \\

P. Mussen; E. Rutherford

1961-01-01

265

Children's Normative Beliefs About Aggression and Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary

L. Rowell Huesmann; Nancy G. Guerra

1997-01-01

266

Maternal permissiveness toward aggression and subsequent TAT aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that the effect of permissiveness towards the expression of aggression in childhood extends into adulthood, 2 groups of Ss (100 college girls), distinguished by the degree of maternal permissiveness towards the expression of aggression (derived from questionnaires answered by the mothers), were placed in an aggression-arousing situation (inducted by making highly insulting and deprecating comments to

D. Weatherley

1962-01-01

267

Mothers' and Teachers' Perceptions of Relational and Physical Aggression in Pre-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre-school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an…

Hurd, Heather Doescher; Gettinger, Maribeth

2011-01-01

268

Dealing with Conflict and Aggression in Classrooms through Cooperative Learning Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demographic and socioeconomic shifts in nation's population and changes in the family structure have placed increasing demands on the schools. There is a pressing need to understand the factors that give rise to and maintain aggressive behaviours across adolescence and also suggest techniques for dealing with the increased incidence of aggression

Singh, Vandana

2010-01-01

269

Antecedents of sexual and non-sexual aggression in young Singaporean men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated factors that have previously been implicated in male sexual aggression towards women, using a structural equation modelling approach to assess their relative influence on sexually coercive behaviours in young Singaporean men. Variables were classified under three major headings: childhood experience, personality, and attitudes facilitating violence. Non-sexual aggression against women was included in order to investigate its relationship

Sandy Lim; Rick Howard

1998-01-01

270

Perceiving Classroom Aggression: The Influence of Setting, Intervention Style and Group Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Violence and aggression in the classroom are often cited as a major concern within the teaching community. Teachers' perceptions of the appropriateness of intervention behaviours during aggressive incidents, however, are less often examined (Meyer, Astor, & Behre, 2002), nor how they compare to the perceptions of training teachers…

Lawrence, Claire; Green, Karen

2005-01-01

271

Neural steroid sensitivity and aggression: comparing individuals of two songbird subspecies  

E-print Network

, particularly among closely related taxa. We compared males of two subspecies of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) for territorial aggression and associations among behaviour, circu- lating testosterone (T that the white-winged junco (J. h. aike- ni) was more aggressive than the smaller, less ornamented Carolina junco

272

Injustice and its relations with anger and aggression in organizational and educational settings  

E-print Network

Injustice and its relations with anger and aggression in organizational and educational settings.Didry@psycho-ulp.u-strasbg.fr Among affective factors leading to aggressive behaviour, anger (Granic & Butler, 1998) and injustice). However, few researches have studied the relation between those three factors. Indeed, empirical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

Social Preference, Perceived Popularity and Social Intelligence: Relations to Overt and Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations among social preference, perceived popularity, social intelligence and two types of aggressive behaviour were studied. Peer-estimation techniques were used to measure all major variables. Altogether, 403 Greek schoolchildren from fourth-through sixth-grade classrooms participated in the study. Both overt and relational aggression were…

Andreou, Eleni

2006-01-01

274

Personal and perceived peer attitudes supporting sexual aggression as predictors of male college students' willingness to intervene against sexual aggression.  

PubMed

Male college students ( N = 395) completed anonymous surveys to report personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression and estimated the attitudes of their peers. Participants also indicated their willingness to intervene against a peer if they witnessed sexual aggression. Although both personal and peer attitudes were correlated with willingness to intervene, in regression analyses only perceived peer attitudes emerged as a significant predictor of willingness to intervene. Results suggest that personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression are not as relevant to men's willingness to intervene against sexual aggression as are perceived peer norms regarding sexual aggression. Findings are relevant to sexual assault prevention education with men, suggesting that attempts to encourage bystander intervention may be best presented in the context of challenging perceived norms. PMID:19401602

Brown, Amy L; Messman-Moore, Terri L

2010-03-01

275

Development of sexual behaviour in commercially-housed broiler breeders after mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. It has been reported that broiler breeder males behave aggressively towards females during mating. However, the cause of this aggressive sexual behaviour is not yet clear. In this experiment we studied the development of the sexual behaviour in male and female broiler breeders from mixing (20 weeks of age) until complete development of the behaviour (28 weeks of age)

Jong de I. C; M. Wolthuis; Emous van R. A

2009-01-01

276

Development of sexual behaviour in commercially-housed broiler breeders after mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?It has been reported that broiler breeder males behave aggressively towards females during mating. However, the cause of this aggressive sexual behaviour is not yet clear. In this experiment we studied the development of the sexual behaviour in male and female broiler breeders from mixing (20 weeks of age) until complete development of the behaviour (28 weeks of age) to

I. C. De Jong; M. Wolthuis-Fillerup; R. A. Van Emous

2009-01-01

277

Implications of Bullying in Schools for Aggression between Nations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the nature of bullying in schools can assist in understanding aggression between nations. Although there are substantial differences between bullying behaviour practised by school children and bullying attributed to nations, there are some commonalities. This article examines seven basic elements that help in identifying and…

Rigby, Ken

2006-01-01

278

Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

2014-01-01

279

Technology, aggression and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper it is shown that although strong evidence exists for the evolution of intelligent life throughout our galaxy, attempts at detecting radio transmissions from extraterrestrial civilizations are doomed to failure unless technological civilizations can exist for periods of the order of 1 million years. If evolving technological civilizations are so driven by aggressive instinctual behaviour that they self?destruct

David G. Blair

1989-01-01

280

Testosterone, Physical Aggression, Dominance, and Physical Development in Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations among testosterone, physical development, social dominance, and antisocial behaviour during early adolescence were assessed in a sample of boys followed from 6 to 13 years. Saliva testosterone level was positively correlated with height, and uncorrelated with measures of fatness, including the body mass index. Physical aggression and social dominance were not significantly correlated. Regression analyses revealed that testosterone

Richard E. Tremblay; Benoist Schaal; Bernard Boulerice; Louise Arseneault; Robert G. Soussignan; Daniel Paquette; Denis Laurent

1998-01-01

281

Children's Essentialist Beliefs about Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper reviews children's tendency to engage in essentialist reasoning about aggression. First, children's tendency to conceive of aggression as both stable over time and due to intrinsic factors is examined. Then, contextual and social factors that may promote essentialist reasoning about aggression are explored, followed by a…

Giles, Jessica W.

2003-01-01

282

Assessing Aggression Using Conditional Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a time characterized by wars, students and employees being shot at their desks, and corporate executives raiding pension funds, aggression has taken on considerable prominence in our society. Aggressive people capture our interest because they are the ones who desire to harm others. Considerable progress has been made in recent years in understanding the aggressive personality. Psychology now has

Lawrence R. James; James M. LeBreton

2010-01-01

283

Neurobiology of suicidal behaviour.  

PubMed

It is known that suicidal behaviour has multiple causes. If triggers could be mainly attributed to environmental factors, predisposition could be associated with early stressors on one side such as childhood adversities and genetic predisposition. No convincing animal model of suicide has been produced to date. The study of endophenotypes has been proposed as a good strategy to overcome the methodological difficulties. However, research in suicidal behaviours using endophenotypes entrails important methodological problems. Further, serotoninergic system was studied in patients with suicidal behaviour primary due to its involvement of serotonin in impulsive-aggressive behaviour, which has been shown to be a major risk factor in suicidal behaviour. Not only on the level of neurotransmitters but also the regulation of neurotropic factors could be impaired in suicide victims. Multiple lines of evidence including studies of levels of BDNF in blood cells and plasma of suicidal patients, postmortem brain studies in suicidal subjects with or without depression, and genetic association studies linking BDNF to suicide suggest that suicidal behaviour may be associated with a decrease in BDNF functioning. It seems that especially specific gene variants regulating the serotoninergic system and other neuronal systems involved in stress response are associated with suicidal behaviour. Most genetic studies on suicidal behaviour have considered a small set of functional polymorphisms relevant mostly to monoaminergic neurotransmission. However, genes and epigenetic mechanisms involved in regulation of other factors such as BDNF seem to be even more relevant for further research. PMID:23114813

Pjevac, Milica; Pregelj, Peter

2012-10-01

284

Aggressive Periodontitis with  

E-print Network

Acute streptococcal gingivitis is an acute inflammation of the oral mucosa and also may be seen with the other oral diseases as aggressive periodontitis that is characterized by a considerable attachment loss over a relatively short period of time. Streptococcal infections of gingiva are seen rarely; also the origin of this gingival inflammation is occasionally different from that of routine plaque-associated gingivitis. The clinical features and treatment methods of these diseases are already reported in previous literatures. This case report describes a patient who presented with severe gingival inflammation and attachment loss that was diagnosed as an acute streptococcal infection associated with aggressive periodontitis. In this study a supportive treatment option was demonstrated based on these data and antacid treatment as adjunctive to the recommended treatment modalities was used for streptococcal gingivitis. (Eur J Dent 2007;1:251-255)

Cankat Kara A; Turgut Demir A

285

Weapons and Aggression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

Anderson, Craig; Lane, David M.

2009-03-06

286

How animals alter their behaviour in order to respond to the demands of a changing external environment remains a central  

E-print Network

. Octopamine levels in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus increased during aggressive (agonistic) behaviour from, such as feeding and aggression, by using invertebrate systems as models (e.g. Kupfermann and Weiss, 1982; Kravitz, 1990). As has been shown for aggressive (agonistic) behaviour in lobsters (Kravitz, 1988) and during

Indiana University

287

A multivariate investigation of dating aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the following variables for their unique and combined contributions to dating aggression: exposure to aggression in the family of origin (witnessing interparental aggression or being the victim of aggressive parenting); attitudes justifying dating aggression (when humiliated or in selfdefense); child-to-parent aggression; child sexual abuse; violent sexual victimization; alcohol use; and socioeconomic status. One hundred and eleven male

Louise Foo; Gayla Margolin

1995-01-01

288

Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

1993-01-01

289

Behavioural interactions and use of feeding areas by nymphs of Coenagrion resolutum (Coenagrionidae: Odonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviour of Coenagrion resolutum nymphs was studied in the laboratory. Based on characteristics of the behaviour, analysis of the effects of inter-nymph distance on behaviour, and association analysis between behaviours, some of the observed behaviours were classified as grooming, feeding\\/aggression, retreat, or defense.

Robert L. Baker

1981-01-01

290

Parental attitude and child behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviour is an integral function which derives its existence, its, form and meaning from the total setting of the life situation. The setting is the resultant of relationships and experiences which have begun to exert themselves from the beginning of the child's life and towards which a.child ha~s formed his own accepting or rejecting, aggressive or submissive reaction tendencies The

N. L. Sharma

1956-01-01

291

Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, H.; Hatch, S. A.; Danchin, E.

2010-01-01

292

The prevalence of aggression in genetic syndromes: a review.  

PubMed

Research into behavioural phenotypes identifies both environmental and organic factors as influencing aggression in children and adults with genetic disorders associated with intellectual disability. However, in contrast to self-injury there is a paucity of research that compares aggression across relevant syndromes. The primary aim of this review is to examine the association between aggression and genetic syndromes by analysis of prevalence studies. The review also examines the literature on the form of the behaviour and influence of environmental factors. Results imply that certain syndrome groups (Cri du Chat, Smith-Magenis, Prader-Willi, Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, and Fragile X syndromes; estimates over 70%) evidence a stronger association with aggression than others (e.g. Williams and Down syndromes; estimates below 15%). However, the strength of association is difficult to quantify due to methodological differences between studies. The results from examining form and environmental influences highlight the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. Research employing group comparison designs is warranted and future work on the assessment and intervention of aggression in genetic syndromes should consider the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. PMID:24594523

Powis, Laurie; Oliver, Chris

2014-05-01

293

Psychological trauma and fear for personal safety as a result of behaviours that challenge in dementia: The experiences of healthcare workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have systematically documented the psychological effects of exposure to aggression on healthcare workers. In 2007 an exploratory study invited 96 nurses and 228 care assistants from nine care homes to complete a questionnaire that incorporated the Impact Events Score — Extended (IES-E). Of the 112 returned (response rate 34.56%), 77 (68.8%) staff had been involved in an incident

Ann Scott; Assumpta Ryan; Ian A. James; Elizabeth A. Mitchell

2011-01-01

294

Aggression anxiety, perception of aggressive cues, and expected retaliation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected 15 male and 16 female parochial school 3rd graders rated as high or low on aggression anxiety. Each S was presented with 30 male and female angry, neutral, and friendly faces. Ss rated the pictures on a scale of anger-friendliness and on intensity of retaliation which could be expected following an aggressive act by the S. High aggression-anxiety Ss

Mary E. Hebda; Rolf A. Peterson; Leon K. Miller

1972-01-01

295

Effects of need aggression, stress, and aggressive behavior on humor preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the effects of stress and the commission of an aggressive act on ratings of aggressive, sexual, and nonsense cartoons by high- (HA) and low-aggressive (LA) Ss. Stress had little influence on ratings of aggressive cartoons. However, ratings of aggressive cartoons by HA Ss increased, and ratings of aggressive and sexual cartoons by LA Ss decreased, following aggressive behavior. The

E. Mavis Hetherington; Nancy P. Wray

1966-01-01

296

Aggression in Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examined aggressive behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and its management in adults. Aggression\\u000a against self or against others is a core component of BPD. Impulsiveness is a clinical hallmark (as well as a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic\\u000a criterion) of BPD, and aggressive acts by BPD patients are largely of the impulsive type. BPD has high comorbidity rates with\\u000a substance

K. Latalova ´; J. Praško

2010-01-01

297

Knowledge Structures, Social Information Processing, and Children's Aggressive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Although a multitude of factors may be involved in the development of children's violent behavior, the actual aggressive act is preceded by a decision-making process that serves as the proximal control mechanism. The primary goal of this longitudinal study was to understand the nature of this proximal control mechanism involved in children's aggressive acts by focusing on two aspects of social cognitions: social information processing and stored knowledge (i.e., internal knowledge structures that are the latent memories of past events). It was hypothesized that: (1) children with hostile knowledge structures will display more biased patterns of aggressive social information processing than children whose knowledge structures are less hostile and negative; (2) children who display hostile knowledge structures will behave in chronically aggressive ways; and (3) the development of hostile knowledge structures and hostile patterns of social information processing contribute to the stability of aggressive behavior and thus partially mediate the relation between early and later aggressive behavior. 585 boys and girls (19% African-American) were followed from kindergarten through eighth grade. Results from this investigation support the hypotheses and are discussed in terms of the significance of the inclusion of knowledge structures in our theories of the mental processes involved in children's violent behaviour. PMID:20011226

Burks, Virginia Salzer; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

2009-01-01

298

Adolescent peer aggression and its association with mental health and substance use in an Australian cohort.  

PubMed

Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence. PMID:24331300

Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James

2014-01-01

299

Behavioural correlates of testosterone and seasonal changes of steroids in red-winged blackbirds.  

PubMed

I studied the relationship between behaviour and plasma testosterone level (T) and the seasonal changes in T and plasma corticosterone levels (B) in male red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. I measured T and B using radioimmunoassay, and on the day after taking blood, I observed each male's behaviour for 60 min. The time that males spent conspicuously perched and the number of songs were positively correlated with T, but the proportion of time spent conspicuously perched and the frequency of song were not correlated with T. The frequency of aggressive encounters, sexual chases, epaulet exposure when singing and flights within the territory were positively correlated with T, suggesting a direct role for circulating testosterone influencing male aggressive behaviour. Both T and B increased early in the breeding season, peaked when the first females were receptive, and decreased through the remainder of the breeding season. Late in the season, the presence of a receptive female caused males to have increased T. The peak in T when the first females were receptive, the positive correlation between aggression and T, and the response to a receptive female with increased T support predictions of the challenge hypothesis. T was positively correlated with B, suggesting a cost to the males of maintaining high T. When a receptive female was present on the male's territory, T was negatively correlated with date. Male red-winged blackbirds in Indiana may respond less to receptive females late in the season when benefits associated with protecting paternity and gaining extra-pair fertilizations decrease.Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9632481

Johnsen

1998-04-01

300

Mothers' Reactions to the Aggressive Play of Their Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Young Children: Implications for Caregivers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined differences in reactions to children's aggressive play of mothers with aggressive or nonaggressive preschoolers. Found that mothers of aggressive preschoolers were more likely than other mothers to stop aggressive play, make value judgments, withdraw when aggressive play occurred, and make no effort to join or modulate the play. Findings…

Landy, Sarah; Menna, Rosanne

1997-01-01

301

Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

2003-01-01

302

Controlling reactive aggression through cognitive evaluation of proactive aggression cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated how the relationship between the acts of proactive and reactive aggression was moderated by the individual differences in cognitive regulation of emotion. An aggression paradigm, a electrocardiogram recording, a cognitive assessment battery, and a short form IQ test were completed by 109 children, aged 8 to 13 years (Juujärvi, Kaartinen, Laitinen, Vanninen, & Pulkkinen, 2006; Juujärvi, Kooistra,

Petri Juujärvi; Jukka Kaartinen; Lea Pulkkinen; Esko Vanninen; Tomi Laitinen

2006-01-01

303

Effects of External Incentive and Aggressive Predisposition on Aggression Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female undergraduates (N = 40) received four counteraggression strategies (0%, 10%, 50%, and 150% retaliation) in response to their aggression in a complex reaction time task. They either were or were not offered a monetary incentive to beat their opponent and were divided into those low and high in their initial predisposition to aggression. Four major findings resulted: 1) escalation

Don Fitz; Charles Kimble; Katie Heidenfelder

1979-01-01

304

Aggressive humor as a stimulus to aggressive responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the notion that the witnessing of aggressive humor can produce a cathartic purge of the O's aggressive inclinations, 80 female undergraduates were 1st either angered or not aroused by having them hear a job applicant's statements about university women. In a factorial design, Ss then listened to a 4-min tape recording, either of a nonhostile or a hostile

Leonard Berkowitz

1970-01-01

305

A model for group-size-dependent behaviour decisions in insects using an oscillator network.  

PubMed

Aggressive behaviour within pairs of male crickets leads to the establishment of a dominance hierarchy. Defeated males avoid their victorious adversaries for several hours before regaining aggressiveness. However, the defeated male does not regain aggressiveness if repeated fighting occurs. Loss of individual aggressiveness is limited by group size, which constrains the number of crickets fighting at any given time. Thus, group aggressive behaviour is modulated by an environmental factor, group size, which is ultimately determined by individual actions, i.e. fighting between two individuals. We developed a robot model to elucidate the mechanism of group-size-dependent behaviour alternation in crickets. The behaviour of individual robots was evaluated experimentally with mobile robots and the group behaviour of the robots was evaluated by computer simulation. We demonstrated that the group-size-dependent strategy in crickets could be generated by local interactions between robots, where the behaviour was governed by an oscillator and memory of the outcome of previous fights. PMID:21697435

Funato, Tetsuro; Nara, Masahito; Kurabayashi, Daisuke; Ashikaga, Masatoshi; Aonuma, Hitoshi

2011-07-15

306

The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

Stacy, Lauri L.

307

Aggressive Displays in Nonbreeding Canvasbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical works of Heinroth (1911), Hochbaum (1944), Lorenz (1951, 1952, 1953), and Johnsgard (1965) have documented the reproductive displays of most members of the family Anatidae. Although the reproductive displays of ducks have been described thoroughly, much less is known about their aggressive displays during the nonbreeding period. Here I describe three aggressive displays that occur in nonbreed- ing

WILLIAM C. ALEXANDER

308

Predictors of naturalistic sexual aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research integrated within a theoretical and empirical framework varied predictor factors pertaining to males' sexual aggression against women. The selection of predictors was guided by theorizing that sexual aggression is caused by the interaction among multiple factors, including those creating the motivation for the act, those reducing internal and external inhibitions, and those providing the op- portunity for the

Neil M. Malamuth

1986-01-01

309

Predictors of Naturalistic Sexual Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research integrated within a theoretical and empirical framework varied predictor factors pertaining to males' sexual aggression against women. The selection of predictors was guided by theorizing that sexual aggression is caused by the interaction among multiple factors, including those creating the motivation for the act, those reducing internal and external inhibitions, and those providing the opportunity for the act

Neil M. Malamuth

1986-01-01

310

More aggressive cartoons are funnier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent rankings of humor and aggressiveness were obtained for sets of cartoons drawn randomly from 2 magazines. The correlation of median humor and median aggressiveness rankings ranged from .49 to .90 in 6 studies involving 6 sets of cartoons and 6 different groups of Ss, including children and adults, high and low SES individuals, and native- and foreign-born Ss. It

Clark McCauley; Kathryn Woods; Christopher Coolidge; William Kulick

1983-01-01

311

The corpus callosum: a commissural road to anger and aggression.  

PubMed

According to the frontal cortical asymmetry model of motivational direction, anger and aggression are associated with approach motivation and a dominant left frontal hemisphere. Functional interhemispheric connectivity has been proposed as a possible mechanism that could explain the frontal cortical asymmetry of anger and aggression. Reciprocal interactions between the cerebral hemispheres are primarily established by the corpus callosum which is the largest white matter bundle of the human brain. Experimental brain research has now provided evidence for callosal involvement in approach-motivation. In line with the frontal cortical asymmetry model of motivational direction, differences in the direction of interhemispheric signal transfer are proposed to contribute to anger and aggression. It is concluded that the human corpus callosum provides a possible neuroanatomical correlate for frontal cortical asymmetries and that interhemispheric signal transfer plays a role in the emergence of approach-related motivation and behaviour. PMID:23911937

Schutter, Dennis J L G; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

2013-12-01

312

In search of Winnicott's aggression.  

PubMed

Going beyond Winnicott's widely known ideas about creativity, in this paper the authors ask why some people are able to live creatively while others suffer recurrent feelings of anger, futility, and depression. Examining Winnicott's reframing of aggression as a life force, it attempts to answer this question by tracing the evolution of his thinking on the nature and origin of aggression. It argues that because he saw aggression as inherent and as central to emotional development, interference in its expression compromises psychic maturation. The paper explores how Winnicott arrived at the conception of a combined love-strife drive and demonstrates that for him, there is no love without aggression, no subject, no object, no reality, and no creativity. That is, for Winnicott, aggression is an achievement that leads to the capacity to live creatively and to experience authenticity. Clinical vignettes illustrate the therapeutic use of these conclusions and their value for psychoanalytic theory. PMID:12102012

Posner, B M; Glickman, R W; Taylor, E C; Canfield, J; Cyr, F

2001-01-01

313

The impact of structured risk assessments followed by management recommendations on aggression in patients with personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the proposition that structured risk assessments followed immediately by the risk assessment results and recommendations for management can reduce the frequency of aggression in high-risk personality-disordered patients. The study included three phases during which aggressive behaviour was recorded: (a) baseline, (b) daily risk assessment using the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA) and HCR-20 Clinical Scale, and

Michael Daffern; Kevin Howells; Laura Hamilton; Aisling Mannion; Richard Howard; Mary Lilly

2009-01-01

314

Intra- and interspecific agonistic behaviour in sympatric harriers during the breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the temporal and sexual patterns of intra- and interspecific aggression in sympatric harriers during the breeding season, to determine the main resource defended (food, nest sites, mates) and how factors such as body size or breeding system (territorial versus colonial) influence aggressive behaviour. We predicted that if aggression is (at least partly) related to competition for food, the

J. T Garcia; B. E Arroyo

2002-01-01

315

Mental Health Correlates of Aggression in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effective interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) behavior management strategies on aggression in a group of…

Talerico, Karen Amann; Evans, Lois K.; Strumpf, Neville E.

2002-01-01

316

Female aggression predicts mode of paternity acquisition in a social lizard  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in behaviour are ubiquitous in nature. Despite the likely role of selection in maintaining these differences, there are few demonstrations of their fitness consequences in wild populations and, consequently, the mechanisms that link behavioural variation to variation in fitness are poorly understood. Specifically, the consequences of consistent individual differences in behaviour for the evolution of social and mating strategies have rarely been considered. We examined the functional links between variation in female aggression and her social and mating strategies in a wild population of the social lizard Egernia whitii. We show that female Egernia exhibit temporally consistent aggressive phenotypes, which are unrelated to body size, territory size or social density. A female's aggressive phenotype, however, has strong links to her mode of paternity acquisition (within- versus extra-pair paternity), with more aggressive females having more offspring sired by extra-pair males than less aggressive females. We discuss the potential mechanisms by which female aggression could underpin mating strategies, such as the pursuit/acceptance of extra-pair copulations. We propose that a deeper understanding of the evolution and maintenance of social and mating systems may result from an explicit focus on individual-level female behavioural phenotypes and their relationship with key reproductive strategies. PMID:19324771

While, Geoffrey M.; Sinn, David L.; Wapstra, Erik

2009-01-01

317

The Difficult Parent: An Educator's Guide to Handling Aggressive Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents are a vital source of support for our schools. School personnel interact with parents on a daily basis and fortunately, most of these interactions are pleasant and helpful, keeping students' needs in mind. Instances of parental aggression, however, do occur. Volatile or confrontational parents present many unique challenges for educators…

Jaksec, Charles M., III

2004-01-01

318

Aggression Replacement Training[R] Stands the Test of Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been longstanding debates in the scientific community regarding what qualifies as evidence for programs that work with challenging youth. There are also a variety of levels of evidence on a continuum from promising to proven. Aggression Replacement Training[R] has stood the test of time in terms of its scientific underpinning and…

Amendola, Mark; Oliver, Robert

2010-01-01

319

The Effect of Exposure to Community Violence on Levels of Aggression: Evidence from a Sample of Jamaican Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars agree that aggression among children can lead to a host of delinquency issues that can last into adulthood. Research has found that exposure to violence is one of the strongest predictors of aggressive behaviour and the use of violence. Utilizing a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the article seeks to determine the…

Bailey, Corin; Coore-Desai, Charlene

2012-01-01

320

Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

Donnerstein, Edward

1980-01-01

321

Children's social cognition about proactive aggression.  

PubMed

In this study, 6- and 9-year-old children (N=258) observed two instances of proactive aggression (one relational and the other direct aggression) that were committed by members of a group toward out-group members. Participants were either members of the group or independent observers. Analyses of participants' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression (cause of aggression, moral judgment of aggression, attitudes toward the aggressor, and exclusion of the aggressor) indicated that, overall, group members were more positive toward aggressors than were independent observers. Although intergroup competition was perceived to be the cause of the aggression, participants disapproved of both types of aggression (especially direct aggression), disapproval increased with age, and girls disapproved of relational aggression more than did boys. Group members' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression comprised a coherent cognitive process for both types of aggression, but the observers' process was simpler and differed by aggression type. PMID:24001607

Nesdale, Drew; Killen, Melanie; Duffy, Amanda

2013-11-01

322

Escalation of aggressive vocal signals: a sequential playback study  

PubMed Central

Rival conspecifics often produce stereotyped sequences of signals as agonistic interactions escalate. Successive signals in sequence are thought to convey increasingly pronounced levels of aggressive motivation. Here, we propose and test a model of aggressive escalation in black-throated blue warblers, presenting subjects with two sequential and increasingly elevated levels of threat. From a speaker outside the territorial boundary, we initiated an interaction (low-threat level), and from a second speaker inside the territory, accompanied by a taxidermic mount, we subsequently simulated a territorial intrusion (escalated threat level). Our two main predictions were that signalling behaviours in response to low-threat boundary playback would predict signalling responses to the escalated within-territory threat, and that these latter signalling behaviours would in turn reliably predict attack. We find clear support for both predictions: (i) specific song types (type II songs) produced early in the simulated interaction, in response to boundary playback, predicted later use of low-amplitude ‘soft’ song, in response to within-territory playback; and (ii) soft song, in turn, predicted attack of the mount. Unexpectedly, use of the early-stage signal (type II song) itself did not predict attack, despite its apparent role in aggressive escalation. This raises the intriguing question of whether type II song can actually be considered a reliable aggressive signal. Overall, our results provide new empirical insights into how songbirds may use progressive vocal signalling to convey increasing levels of threat. PMID:23926156

Hof, David; Podos, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

323

Escalation of aggressive vocal signals: a sequential playback study.  

PubMed

Rival conspecifics often produce stereotyped sequences of signals as agonistic interactions escalate. Successive signals in sequence are thought to convey increasingly pronounced levels of aggressive motivation. Here, we propose and test a model of aggressive escalation in black-throated blue warblers, presenting subjects with two sequential and increasingly elevated levels of threat. From a speaker outside the territorial boundary, we initiated an interaction (low-threat level), and from a second speaker inside the territory, accompanied by a taxidermic mount, we subsequently simulated a territorial intrusion (escalated threat level). Our two main predictions were that signalling behaviours in response to low-threat boundary playback would predict signalling responses to the escalated within-territory threat, and that these latter signalling behaviours would in turn reliably predict attack. We find clear support for both predictions: (i) specific song types (type II songs) produced early in the simulated interaction, in response to boundary playback, predicted later use of low-amplitude 'soft' song, in response to within-territory playback; and (ii) soft song, in turn, predicted attack of the mount. Unexpectedly, use of the early-stage signal (type II song) itself did not predict attack, despite its apparent role in aggressive escalation. This raises the intriguing question of whether type II song can actually be considered a reliable aggressive signal. Overall, our results provide new empirical insights into how songbirds may use progressive vocal signalling to convey increasing levels of threat. PMID:23926156

Hof, David; Podos, Jeffrey

2013-10-01

324

Mechanisms of experience dependent control of aggression in crickets.  

PubMed

Aggression is a highly plastic behaviour, shaped by numerous experiences, and potential costs and benefits of competing, to optimize fitness and survival. Recent studies on crickets provide insights into how nervous systems achieve this. Their fighting behaviour is promoted by physical exertion, winning disputes and possession of resources. These effects are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline. Submissive behaviour, in less well understood. It is induced when the accumulated sum of the opponent's agonistic signals surpass some critical level, and probably mediated by nitric oxide, serotonin and other neuromodulators. We propose that animals can make the decision to fight or flee by modulating the respective behavioural thresholds in response to potentially rewarding and aversive attributes of experiences. PMID:23537901

Stevenson, Paul A; Schildberger, Klaus

2013-06-01

325

Adolescents’ Social Reasoning About Relational Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined early adolescents’ reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own\\u000a relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression,\\u000a conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated the acceptability of relational aggression, physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior,\\u000a and justified their ratings. Results

Sara E. GoldsteinMarie; Marie S. Tisak

2010-01-01

326

Parasite-induced aggression and impaired contest ability in a fish host  

PubMed Central

Background Success of trophically transmitted parasites depends to a great extent on their ability to manipulate their intermediate hosts in a way that makes them easier prey for target hosts. Parasite-induced behavioural changes are the most spectacular and diverse examples of manipulation. Most of the studies have been focused on individual behaviour of hosts including fish. We suggest that agonistic interactions and territoriality in fish hosts may affect their vulnerability to predators and thus the transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites. The parasite Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda) and juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were used to study whether infection can alter aggression rates and territorial behaviour of intermediate fish hosts. Results The changes in behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, infected with an eye fluke Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda), was monitored over the course of an experimental infection for 1.5 months. At the beginning of their development, not yet infective D. spathaceum metacercariae decreased the aggressiveness of rainbow trout. By the time that metacercariae were fully infective to their definitive hosts, the aggressiveness increased and exceeded that of control fish. Despite the increased aggressiveness, the experimentally infected fish lost contests for a territory (dark parts of the bottom) against the control fish. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that the parasitized fish pay the cost of aggressiveness without the benefit of acquiring a territory that would provide them with better protection against predators. This behaviour should increase transmission of the parasite as expected by the parasite manipulation hypothesis. PMID:20226098

2010-01-01

327

Territorial meadow pipit males ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes) become more aggressive in female presence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although mate guarding as prevention of extra-pair copulation is common among birds, evidence for aggressive behaviour involving physical contact related to mate guarding in passerines is scarce and cases of the presence of one partner directly influencing the aggressiveness of the other are lacking. We investigated the intra-specific territorial behaviour of male meadow pipits ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes: Motacillidae) at the beginning of the breeding season by placing a pipit model accompanied by an intra-specific song playback in the territory of socially paired males and compared the responses of males whose mates were physically present during trials with those whose females were out of sight. The level of aggression of males was significantly higher in the presence of the female; half of the males in this group physically attacked the model (the most intense and risky aggressive behaviour). Physical attacks did not occur among males whose female was absent during the trial; response to the playback by most of these males was only weak. This pattern may be related to the prevention of extra-pair copulation; if the risks involved in the conflict are outweighed by potential loss of paternity, such aggressive mate guarding may pay off. The apparently overlooked effect on the territorial behaviour of a partner’s passive physical presence during conflict should be further evaluated because it may be important for the design and interpretation of results of behavioural experiments.

Petrusková, Tereza; Petrusek, Adam; Pavel, Václav; Fuchs, Roman

2007-08-01

328

Socially responsive effects of brain oxidative metabolism on aggression.  

PubMed

Despite ongoing high energetic demands, brains do not always use glucose and oxygen in a ratio that produces maximal ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In some cases glucose consumption exceeds oxygen use despite adequate oxygen availability, a phenomenon known as aerobic glycolysis. Although metabolic plasticity seems essential for normal cognition, studying its functional significance has been challenging because few experimental systems link brain metabolic patterns to distinct behavioral states. Our recent transcriptomic analysis established a correlation between aggression and decreased whole-brain oxidative phosphorylation activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), suggesting that brain metabolic plasticity may modulate this naturally occurring behavior. Here we demonstrate that the relationship between brain metabolism and aggression is causal, conserved over evolutionary time, cell type-specific, and modulated by the social environment. Pharmacologically treating honey bees to inhibit complexes I or V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway resulted in increased aggression. In addition, transgenic RNAi lines and genetic manipulation to knock down gene expression in complex I in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) neurons resulted in increased aggression, but knockdown in glia had no effect. Finally, honey bee colony-level social manipulations that decrease individual aggression attenuated the effects of oxidative phosphorylation inhibition on aggression, demonstrating a specific effect of the social environment on brain function. Because decreased neuronal oxidative phosphorylation is usually associated with brain disease, these findings provide a powerful context for understanding brain metabolic plasticity and naturally occurring behavioral plasticity. PMID:25092297

Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Rittschof, Clare C; Massey, Jonathan H; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Robinson, Gene E

2014-08-26

329

Interspecies aggression and social dominance in crayfish.  

E-print Network

??Interspecies aggressive competition was proposed to exist in closely related species with niche overlap. However, the relationship between inter-intraspecies aggressive competitions is unknown. Specifically, the… (more)

Luan, Xin

2009-01-01

330

Agonistic Behavior: Descriptive, Aggression Aggressive Resource Defense: Functional Significance  

E-print Network

defense > costs Territoriality: defense of resources in bounded area Individuals: food, mating opportunities Breeding pairs: food, safety for offspring Groups: food, habitat manipulation #12;Individuals gonadotropins Less aggressive, less colorful, lower metabolism (?) Regulation of status-dependent physiology

Caraco, Thomas

331

Genetics of aggression in voles.  

PubMed

Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds-a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustrating the neurochemical mechanisms underlying pair bonding-induced aggression. Implications of this research for our understanding of the neurobiology of human violence are also discussed. PMID:22078479

Gobrogge, Kyle L; Wang, Zuoxin W

2011-01-01

332

Facial width-to-height ratio predicts self-reported dominance and aggression in males and females, but a measure of masculinity does not.  

PubMed

Recently, associations between facial structure and aggressive behaviour have been reported. Specifically, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is thought to link to aggression, although it is unclear whether this association is related to a specific dimension of aggression, or to a more generalized concept of dominance behaviour. Similarly, an association has been proposed between facial masculinity and dominant and aggressive behaviour, but, to date, this has not been formally tested. Because masculinity and fWHR are negatively correlated, it is unlikely that both signal similar behaviours. Here, we thus tested these associations and show that: (i) fWHR is related to both self-reported dominance and aggression; (ii) physical aggression, verbal aggression and anger, but not hostility are associated with fWHR; (iii) there is no evidence for a sex difference in associations between fWHR and aggression; and (iv) the facial masculinity index does not predict dominance or aggression. Taken together, these results indicate that fWHR, but not a measure of facial masculinity, cues dominance and specific types of aggression in both sexes. PMID:25339656

Lefevre, Carmen E; Etchells, Peter J; Howell, Emma C; Clark, Andrew P; Penton-Voak, Ian S

2014-10-01

333

Behavioural phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural phenotypes are specific psychological characteristics with a known genetic aetiology. Like their somatic counterparts, the identification of behavioural phenotypes is potentially of clinical value. Various genetic mechanisms are associated with characteristic cognitive and behavioural profiles. These include: normal functional variations (polymorphisms); genetic mutations (with associated loss of function); structural anomalies and chromosomal deletions. Most descriptions of behavioural phenotypes concern

Kate Lawrence

2005-01-01

334

Interactive Links Between Theory of Mind, Peer Victimization, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the relation between theory of mind and reactive and proactive aggression, respectively, as well as the moderating role of peer victimization in this context. The 574 participants were drawn from a longitudinal study of twins. Theory of mind was assessed before school entry, when participants were 5 years old. Reactive and proactive aggression as well as peer victimization were assessed a year later in kindergarten. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed that low theory of mind was related to a high level of reactive aggression, but only in children who experienced average to high levels of peer victimization. In contrast, a high theory of mind was related to a high level of proactive aggression. Again, this relation was especially pronounced in children who experienced high levels of peer victimization. These findings challenge the social skills deficit view of aggression and provide support for a multidimensional perspective of aggressive behavior. PMID:20544385

Renouf, Annie; Seguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

2012-01-01

335

Environmental factors and aggressive behavior  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

Anderson, A.C.

1982-07-01

336

Swamp sparrows modulate vocal performance in an aggressive context  

PubMed Central

Vocal performance refers to the proficiency with which a bird sings songs that are challenging to produce, and can be measured in simple trilled songs by their deviation from an upper bound regression of frequency bandwidth on trill rate. Here, we show that male swamp sparrows (Melospiza georgiana) increase the vocal performance of individual song types in aggressive contexts by increasing both the trill rate and frequency bandwidth. These results are the first to demonstrate flexible modulation by songbirds of this aspect of vocal performance and are consistent with this signal feature having a role in aggressive communication. PMID:19087921

DuBois, Adrienne L.; Nowicki, Stephen; Searcy, William A.

2008-01-01

337

Mothers’ Reactions to the Aggressive Play of their Aggressive and Non?Aggressive Young Children: Implications for Caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a great deal of concern in child care centers and with parents about both the meaning of aggressive play in young children and how caregivers should respond to it. This article describes a study which measured the differences between the reactions to their children's aggressive play of mothers of aggressive (n = 30) and mothers of non?aggressive (n

Sarah Landy; Rosanne Menna

1997-01-01

338

The Pleasure of Aggressiveness Among Inmates in Preventive and Long-Term Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

To a large degree, humans use pleasure (hedonicity) maximization to guide decision making, thereby optimiz- ing their behaviour, as shown by research on either sensory or purely mental pleasure (e.g., pleasure from video-game playing or mathematical problem-solving). Our group has now found that pleasure determines decision making in situa- tions of interpersonal aggression, i.e., people tend to behave aggressively in

Michel Cabanac; J. Martin Ramirez; Luis Millana; Maria P. Toldos-Romero; M.-Claude Bonniot-Cabanac

2008-01-01

339

Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays  

PubMed Central

Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

Fitzsimmons, Lauren P.; Bertram, Susan M.

2013-01-01

340

Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays.  

PubMed

Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

Fitzsimmons, Lauren P; Bertram, Susan M

2013-08-23

341

Effects of aggressive driving and driver characteristics on road rage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent is road rage triggered by aggressive driving behavior (frustration-aggression) or by characteristics of an aggressive driver (frustration-selective aggression)? Two scenarios on aggressive driving were presented to 144 undergraduates: impeding traffic (passive aggression) and reckless driving (active aggression). Age, gender, and cell phone use of a fictitious aggressive driver were manipulated in a 2 × 2 × 2

Richard L Dukes; Stephanie L Clayton; Lessie T Jenkins; Thomas L Miller; Susan E Rodgers

2001-01-01

342

Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

2013-01-01

343

GRAND CHALLENGE 5: The Architecture of Brain and Mind: Integrating Low-Level Neuronal Brain Processes with High-Level Cognitive Behaviours  

E-print Network

GRAND CHALLENGE 5: The Architecture of Brain and Mind: Integrating Low-Level Neuronal Brain and model mechanisms of brain and mind in the context of an ambitious project to design a robot with a sig- nificant subset of the capabilities of a young child. This is a long term project, with no specific

Sloman, Aaron

344

Working with an Adult Male with Down's Syndrome, Autism and Challenging Behaviour: Evaluation of a Programme of Staff Support and Organizational Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the case of a male with Down syndrome who has been referred to a clinical psychology service due to challenging behaviors. It provides a case history and rationale for the assessment of autism, and describes the positive effects of an intervention for increasing staff awareness of autism. (Contains references.) (CR)

Newman, David W.; Summerhill, Lisa; Mosley, Ellis; Tooth, Claire

2003-01-01

345

The WellingTONNE Challenge Toolkit: Using the RE-AIM Framework to Evaluate a Community Resource Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The RE-AIM framework has been recognized as a tool to evaluate the adoption, delivery, and sustainability of an intervention, and estimate its potential public health impact. In this study four dimensions of the RE-AIM framework (adoption, implementation, effectiveness, and maintenance) were used to evaluate the WellingTONNE Challenge

Caperchione, Cristina; Coulson, Fiona

2010-01-01

346

Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

2010-01-01

347

Physical Aggression and Language Ability from 17 to 72 Months: Cross-Lagged Effects in a Population Sample  

PubMed Central

Background Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children’s sex. Methods Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) (N?=?2, 057) were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments. Results The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter. Conclusions Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months. PMID:25375971

Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.

2014-01-01

348

Aggression and Affiliation during Social Conflict in Pigs.  

PubMed

Social conflict is mostly studied in relation to aggression. A more integral approach, including aggressive and affiliative behaviour as well as physiology, may however give a better understanding of the animals' experience during social conflict. The experience of social conflict may also be reflected in the spatial distribution between conspecifics. The objective was to assess the relationship between behaviour, physiology, and spatial integration in pigs (Sus scrofa) during social conflict. Hereto, 64 groups of pigs (9 wk of age) were studied in a 24 h regrouping test whereby pairs of familiar pigs were grouped with 2 unfamiliar pairs, in either barren or straw-enriched housing. Data on aggressive and affiliative behaviour, skin lesions, body weight, and haptoglobin could be summarized into three principal component analysis factors. These three factors were analysed in relation to spatial integration, i.e. inter-individual distances and lying in body contact. Pigs stayed up to 24 h after encounter in closer proximity to the familiar pig than to unfamiliar pigs. Pigs with a high factor 1 score were more inactive, gave little social nosing, had many skin lesions and a high body weight. They tended to space further away from the familiar pig (b?=?1.9 cm; P?=?0.08) and unfamiliar ones (b?=?0.7 cm; P?=?0.05). Pigs that were involved in much aggression (factor 2), and that had a strong increase in haptoglobin (factor 3), tended to be relatively most far away from unfamiliar pigs (b?=?0.03 times further; P?=?0.08). Results on lying in body contact were coherent with results on distances. Pigs in enriched housing spaced further apart than pigs in barren housing (P<0.001). The combined analysis of measures revealed animals that may either promote or slow down group cohesion, which may not have become clear from single parameters. This emphasizes the importance of an integral approach to social conflict. PMID:25427249

Camerlink, Irene; Turner, Simon P; Ursinus, Winanda W; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

2014-01-01

349

Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

2007-01-01

350

Persuasibility in young children as a function of aggressive motivation and aggression conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigating the dynamic bases of the reported negative relationship of overt aggression to persuasibility postulated that low persuasibility is associated with an overtly aggressive orientation, high persuasibility with a defensive need to inhibit strong aggressive motivation, and medium presuasibility with a relative absence of aggressive motivation and inhibitions against aggression. 3 groups of 15 were selected from an

Alan Roland

1963-01-01

351

Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a test of the hypothesis that exposure of children to film-mediated aggressive models would increase the probability of Ss' aggression to subsequent frustration, 1 group of experimental Ss observed real-life aggressive models, a 2nd observed these same models potraying aggression on film, while a 3rd group viewed a film depicting an aggressive cartoon character. Following the exposure treatment, Ss

Albert Bandura; Dorothea Ross; Sheila A. Ross

1963-01-01

352

Adult zebrafish as a model organism for behavioural genetics  

PubMed Central

Recent research has demonstrated the suitability of adult zebrafish to model some aspects of complex behaviour. Studies of reward behaviour, learning and memory, aggression, anxiety and sleep strongly suggest that conserved regulatory processes underlie behaviour in zebrafish and mammals. The isolation and molecular analysis of zebrafish behavioural mutants is now starting, allowing the identification of novel behavioural control genes. As a result of this, studies of adult zebrafish are now helping to uncover the genetic pathways and neural circuits that control vertebrate behaviour. PMID:20678210

2010-01-01

353

Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Aggressive Lymphomas  

PubMed Central

The role of high-dose therapy (HDT) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in the treatment armamentarium of aggressive B- and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is still a matter of debate. In the pre-Rituximab era, the PARMA study demonstrated the superiority of HDT/ASCT over conventional salvage chemotherapy in chemosensitive, relapsed patients. Subsequently, HDT/ASCT has become a standard approach for relapsed NHL. With the advent of Rituximab in the landscape of NHL, transplantation as part of first-line therapy has been challenged. However, no benefit in terms of disease-free or overall survival of HDT/ASCT over standard therapy was shown when Rituximab was added to both arms. Moreover, the superiority of HDT/ASCT over conventional salvage therapy in patients relapsing from first-line therapy including Rituximab was not confirmed. From these disappointing results, novel strategies, which can enhance the anti-lymphoma effect, at the same time reducing toxicity have been developed, with the aim of improving the outcome of HDT/ASCT in aggressive NHL. In T-cell lymphoma, few publications demonstrated that consolidation of complete remission with HDT/ASCT is safe and feasible. However, up to one-third of patients may never receive transplant, mostly due to progressive disease, and relapse still remains a major concern even after transplant. PMID:23205263

Visani, Giuseppe; Picardi, Paola; Tosi, Patrizia; Gonella, Roberta; Loscocco, Federica; Ricciardi, Teresa; Malerba, Lara; Guiducci, Barbara; Tomassetti, Simona; Barulli, Sara; Isidori, Alessandro

2012-01-01

354

Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behaviour on the roads is reported to be on the increase. This study administered Driving Anger Scale (Deffenbacher et al. (1994). Development of a driving anger scale. Psychological Reports, 74, 83–91.), the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire, and the Driving Skill Inventory to a sample of 270 British drivers. Factor analysis of the Driving Anger Scale items yielded three factors measuring

Timo Lajunen; Dianne Parker; Stephen G Stradling

1998-01-01

355

Accuracy in Judgments of Aggressiveness  

PubMed Central

Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver’s view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

Kenny, David A.; West, Tessa V.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Schwartz, David

2009-01-01

356

Accuracy in judgments of aggressiveness.  

PubMed

Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver's accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver's view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver's accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

Kenny, David A; West, Tessa V; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Coie, John D; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hubbard, Julie A; Schwartz, David

2007-09-01

357

Effectiveness of interventions to reduce aggression and injuries among ice hockey players: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: The increasing incidence of injuries related to playing ice hockey is an important public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce injuries related to aggressive acts in ice hockey. Methods: We identified relevant articles by searching electronic databases from their inception through July 2012, by using Internet search engines, and by manually searching sports medicine journals, the book series Safety in Ice Hockey and reference lists of included articles. We included studies that evaluated interventions to reduce aggression-related injuries and reported ratings of aggressive behaviour or rates of penalties or injuries. Results: We identified 18 eligible studies. Most involved players in minor hockey leagues. Of 13 studies that evaluated changes in mandatory rules intended to lessen aggression (most commonly the restriction of body-checking), 11 observed a reduction in penalty or injury rates associated with rule changes, and 9 of these showed a statistically significant decrease. The mean number of penalties decreased by 1.2–5.9 per game, and injury rates decreased 3- to 12-fold. All 3 studies of educational interventions showed a reduction in penalty rates, but they were not powered or designed to show a change in injury rates. In 2 studies of cognitive behavioural interventions, reductions in aggressive behaviours were observed. Interpretation: Changes to mandatory rules were associated with reductions in penalties for aggressive acts and in injuries related to aggression among ice hockey players. Effects of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions on injury rates are less clear. Well-designed studies of multifaceted strategies that combine such approaches are required. PMID:23209118

Cusimano, Michael D.; Nastis, Sofia; Zuccaro, Laura

2013-01-01

358

P300 wave: a comparative study of impulsive aggressive criminals.  

PubMed

Event-Related potentials are a simple non-invasive neurophysiological method enabling to comprehend certain aspects of the cognitive processing of information in humans. The best-known component of Event-Related Potentials is the so-called P3 wave. Alterations in the parameters of P300 wave have been discovered in certain personality disorders and in persons with impulsively aggressive behaviour. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of these parameters, especially an amplitude and latency in the place of Pz electrode. We examined 15 persons with the impulsive aggressive behaviour and compared them to a population comparable of normal age, gender and approximate degree of education. We used P300 auditory and a neuropsychological Eysenck IVE battery. The results showed that significantly lower amplitudes had been found in the aggressive impulsive subjects as compared to the control group. No statistically significant differences have been discovered in the latency. These results seem to confirm previous studies. PMID:18580845

Zukov, Ilja; Hrubý, Tomás; Kozelek, Petr; Ptácek, Radek; Paclt, Ivo; Harsa, Pavel

2008-06-01

359

Social environments and physical aggression among 21,107 students in the United States and Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Physical aggression is an important issue in North American populations. The importance of student social environments in the occurrence of physical aggression requires focused study. In this study, reports of physical aggression were examined in relation to social environment factors among national samples of students from Canada and the United States. Methods Students in grades 6–10 from the US (n=14,049) and Canada (n=7,058) who had participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey were studied. Rates of student physical aggression were compared between the two countries. School, family, socioeconomic, and peer-related factors were considered as potential risk factors. A simple social environment risk score was developed using the US data and was subsequently tested in the Canadian sample. Results Risks for physical aggression were consistently higher among US vs. Canadian students, but the magnitude of these differences was modest. The relative odds of physical aggression increased with reported environmental risk. To illustrate, US boys in grades 6 to 8 reporting the highest social-environment risk score (5+) experienced a relative odds of physical aggression 4.02 (95% CI 2.7–5.9) times higher than those reporting the lowest score (adjusted OR for risk scores 0 through 5+: 1.00, 1.19, 2.10, 2.01, 3.71, 4.02; ptrend<0.001). Conclusions Unexpectedly, rates of physical aggression and associations between social environments and student aggression were remarkably similar in Canada and the United States. Family, peer, and school social environments serve as risk or protective factors, with significant cumulative impact on physical aggression in both countries. Given the observed high rates and the many negative effects of aggression on long-term health, school policies aimed at the reduction of such behavior remain a clear priority. PMID:19292848

Pickett, William; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Dostaler, Suzanne; Iannotti, Ronald J.

2008-01-01

360

Predatory aggression in male mice selectively bred for isolation-induced intermale aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male mice differing in their genetically determined disposition for isolation-induced intermale aggression were compared on behaviors related to predatory aggression. An ongoing sequence of selective breeding established high-aggressive (Turku Aggressive: TA) and low-aggressive (Turku Non-Aggressive: TNA) lines from an outbred Swiss albino foundation stock. The parental strain, designated the Normal (N) strain, has been kept as a control line and

N. Kenneth Sandnabba

1995-01-01

361

Aggressive cunninghamella pneumonia in an adolescent.  

PubMed

Children with hematologic malignancies may be challenged with life-threatening, invasive fungal infections by organisms that would otherwise have a low potential for virulence in healthy hosts. Presented is a case of a 15-year-old adolescent with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who was receiving steroids and chemotherapy. He developed cough associated with left chest pain with suspicion for fungal pneumonia. He began systemic antifungal therapy, underwent computed tomography of the chest demonstrating a large cavitary lesion (reversed halo sign) in the left lung. Over a 48-hour period the patient clinically deteriorated with worsening pneumonia and required left thoracotomy with nonanatomic pulmonary resection. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of Cunninghamella pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies, and the multidisciplinary approach required to have the greatest possible outcome. PMID:25089609

Malkan, Alpin D; Wahid, Fazal N; Rao, Bhaskar N; Sandoval, John A

2014-10-01

362

Development of structure-mediated behaviour selector using oscillator network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects have only a small brain but their behaviour is highly adaptive; this adaptive feature leads us to expect their brain to possess a simple adaptation mechanism. This research focuses attention on the phenomenon of crickets varying their aggression depending on their global neural connection, and proposes a behaviour selection mechanism controlled by network transformation. The controller is composed of

Tetsuro Funato; Daisuke Kurabayashi; Masahito Nara; Hitoshi Aonuma

2007-01-01

363

Time, Space and Gender: Understanding "Problem" Behaviour in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following article reports on a small-scale, exploratory study of aggressive and "problem" behaviour in pre-school children. This project was conceived in the wider context of anxieties about childhood and New Labour's policy focus on "anti-social" behaviour in children. Based on interviews with nursery staff and parents in addition to…

Brown, Jane

2007-01-01

364

BEHAVIOUR OF BRIDGE DECKS REINFORCED BY GFRP  

E-print Network

-scale highway bridge deck model reinforced by glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforcements and tested of the reinforcement ratio and type of reinforcement on the behaviour ofbridge decks are presented. KEYWORDS: bridge structures subjected to aggressive environmental conditions is attributed to the corrosion of the steel

365

Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility  

PubMed Central

We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

2013-01-01

366

Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

2012-01-01

367

Agonistic behaviour in male and female field crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus, and how behavioural context influences its expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous interactions with conspecifics influenced the pattern, frequency and intensity of agonistic behaviour in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Tactile contact appeared to be the most important sensory cue responsible for the observed shifts in behaviour. Contact with other adult males promoted the production of aggressive song both during and after fights between males. However, individually housed males and males

Shelley A. Adamo; Ronald R. Hoy

1995-01-01

368

Driving Citations and Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anger and driving have been examined in a number of studies of aggressive drivers and in drivers with road rage, using a number of psychological and environmental study variables. However, we are not aware of any study that has examined the number of driving citations (an indication of problematic driving) and various forms of anger not related to driving.Method:

Randy A. Sansone; Justin S. Leung; Michael W. Wiederman

2012-01-01

369

Aggressive Driving in Young Motorists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road rage is an increasingly prevalent expression of aggression in our society. Its dangers are apparent and understanding its causes may shed light on preventative measures. This study involved a fifteen-minute survey administered to 147 undergraduate students at a North Eastern suburban university. The survey consisted of a demographics section, questions regarding financial investment in respondents' vehicles, experience driving, habits

Suneel M. Agerwala; Ashley Votta; Briana Hogan; John Yannocone; Steven Samuels

2008-01-01

370

Violent video games and aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main concerns that has constantly been raised against video games is that most of the games feature aggressive elements. This has led many people to assert that this may have a detrimental effect on individuals who play such games. Despite continuing controversy for over 15 years, there has been little in the way of systematic research. This

Mark Griffiths

1999-01-01

371

Individualizing management of aggressive fibromatoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine prognostic indicators in aggressive fibromatoses that may be used to optimize case-specific management strategy.Methods and Materials: One hundred and seven fibromatoses presenting between 1971 and 1992 were analyzed. The following treatment modalities were utilized: (a) surgery alone for 51 tumors; (b) radiation alone for 15 tumors; and (c) radiation and surgery (combined modality) for 41 tumors. Outcome

Matthew A. Spear; L. Candace Jennings; Henry J. Mankin; Ira J. Spiro; Dempsy S. Springfield; Mark C. Gebhardt; Andrew E. Rosenberg; James T. Efird; Herman D. Suit

1998-01-01

372

Social Skills: Alternatives to Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this unit is to assist students in understanding and practicing pro-social skills as alternatives to aggressive behavior. Intended for grades four to seven, the unit contains seven modules: (1) "Self-Appraisal"; (2) "Relaxation"; (3) "How to Listen"; (4) "Communicating Your Wants to Others"; (5) "Controlling Your Anger"; (6)…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

373

Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective  

PubMed Central

With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast–slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed–accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes. PMID:22927575

Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

2012-01-01

374

Proximate perspectives on the evolution of female aggression: good for the gander, good for the goose?  

PubMed

Female-female aggression often functions in competition over reproductive or social benefits, but the proximate mechanisms of this apparently adaptive behaviour are not well understood. The sex steroid hormone testosterone (T) and its metabolites are well-established mediators of male-male aggression, and several lines of evidence suggest that T-mediated mechanisms may apply to females as well. However, a key question is whether mechanisms of female aggression primarily reflect correlated evolutionary responses to selection acting on males, or whether direct selection acting on females has made modifications to these mechanisms that are adaptive in light of female life history. Here, I examine the degree to which female aggression is mediated at the level of T production, target tissue sensitivity to T, or downstream genomic responses in order to test the hypothesis that selection favours mechanisms that facilitate female aggression while minimizing the costs of systemically elevated T. I draw heavily from avian systems, including the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), as well as other organisms in which these mechanisms have been well studied from an evolutionary/ecological perspective in both sexes. Findings reveal that the sexes share many behavioural and hormonal mechanisms, though several patterns also suggest sex-specific adaptation. I argue that greater attention to multiple levels of analysis-from hormone to receptor to gene network, including analyses of individual variation that represents the raw material of evolutionary change-will be a fruitful path for understanding mechanisms of behavioural regulation and intersexual coevolution. PMID:24167313

Rosvall, Kimberly A

2013-01-01

375

Consequences of hyper-aggressiveness in Siamese fighting fish: cheaters seldom prospered  

PubMed

Zahavi's handicap theory, formalized by Grafen, suggests that 'cheaters' must be at a disadvantage if a communication system such as ritualized aggression is to evolve (Grafen 1991, In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (Ed. by J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies), pp. 5-31. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific). To determine whether cheating is disadvantageous in Betta splendens, we held a series of live interactions, after inducing hyper-aggression by socially isolating and then briefly 'priming' the fish. Primed isolates, which were no stronger than their rivals, 'cheated' by escalating rapidly to tailbeating and biting. These cheaters, however, usually lost fights to non-isolated opponents. Unprimed isolates, i.e. socially isolated fish that were not primed, were not initially hyper-aggressive and thus did not cheat. They lost fewer fights than the cheaters. Results suggested that cheaters lost because they exhausted themselves by their hyper-aggressiveness, allowing their non-hyper-aggressive opponents to win. This result is consistent with the Zahavi-Grafen model of how an 'honest' level of ritualized aggression can be stabilized in a population. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9480675

Halperin; Giri; Elliott; Dunham

1998-01-01

376

First-degree relatives with behavioural adverse effects on statins  

PubMed Central

Irritability, aggression and other adverse behavioural effects have been associated with the use of statins (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) and other drug classes. A number of studies have also linked low cholesterol with aggression and violence. This paper presents the cases of two first-degree male relative patients (father and son) identified by self-referral to the University of California in San Diego Statin Effects Study. Both patients experienced behavioural adverse effects on statins including irritability and aggression, however neither patient recognised a significant change in their behaviour. This may be the first report of behavioural adverse effects manifested on statins by first-degree male relatives, which may suggest possible familial/biological predisposition. These cases also highlight the issue of externalisation by patients of the origin of interpersonal discord, which may serve as an obstacle to adverse effects reporting and lead to negative outcomes for patients, and for those around them. PMID:22675104

Reilly, David; Cham, Stephanie; Golomb, Beatrice Alexandra

2011-01-01

377

The relation between video game violence and aggression.  

E-print Network

??Experimental research has shown that playing violent video games produces higher levels of aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior (in the short-term)… (more)

Adachi, Paul

2011-01-01

378

Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for marriage licenses. Couples completed assessments at the

Julie A. Schumacher; Kenneth E. Leonard

2005-01-01

379

Aggression By Whom–Aggression Toward Whom: Behavioral Predictors of Same and Other-Gender Aggression in Early Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed girls' and boys' dominance-related behaviors (aggressive, commanding, submissive, and neutral behaviors) as they naturally occurred during interactions with male and female peers and evaluated the possibility that such behaviors elicit aggression from peers. Using a focal observational procedure, young girls' and boys' (N = 170; 54% boys) naturally occurring dominance-related behaviors and male and female peers' aggressive

Laura D. Hanish; Julie Sallquist; Matthew DiDonato; Richard A. Fabes; Carol Lynn Martin

2012-01-01

380

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR Volume 32, pages 581589 (2006)  

E-print Network

aggression towards women indicate that both alcohol consumption and porno- graphy1 exposure, particularly of the relationship between porno- graphy and sexual aggression typically have assessed three types of dependent

381

Study Links Vasectomy to Aggressive Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Study Links Vasectomy to Aggressive Prostate Cancer But the finding doesn't prove ... a vasectomy may be at increased risk for aggressive prostate cancer, a new study suggests. But the ...

382

Aggressive People May Process Violence's Impact Differently  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aggressive People May Process Violence's Impact Differently Brain scans ... to violence in the media depends on how aggressive they are naturally, a new study contends. "How ...

383

Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Injury Prevention & Control Share Compartir Electronic Aggression On this Page Publications Additional CDC Resources Additional ... used to describe this type of violence, electronic aggression is the term that most accurately captures all ...

384

Evolutionary Aspects of Aggression: The Importance of  

E-print Network

Evolutionary Aspects of Aggression: The Importance of Sexual Selection Patrik Lindenfors and the Mammalian Pattern Acknowledgment References ABSTRACT Aggressive behaviors in animals, for example, threat, attack, and defense, are commonly related to competition over resources, competition over mating

Lindenfors, Patrik

385

[Relationships among empathy, prosocial behavior, aggressiveness, self-efficacy and pupils' personal and social responsibility].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to present/display the Spanish version of diverse instruments that assess Empathy, Prosocial behavior, Aggressiveness, Self-efficacy and Personal and social responsibility, and, on the other hand, to analyze which of these variables could predict responsibility. Participants were 822 pupils, ages 8 to 15 years, who studied in 11 educational centres of the Valencian Community. Measures include Spanish versions of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents, Prosocial Behaviour, and Physical and Verbal Aggression, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Self-Efficacy, and the Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire. Through structural equation modelling (SEM), the results showed positive relationships between Prosocial behaviour, Empathy, Self-efficacy, and Responsibility; and negative relationships between Aggressiveness and Responsibility. The results and implications for education are discussed. PMID:21266136

Gutiérrez Sanmartín, Melchor; Escartí Carbonell, Amparo; Pascual Baños, Carminal

2011-02-01

386

Involvement in Internet Aggression During Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents’ involvement in Internet aggression.\\u000a Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time\\u000a using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline\\u000a relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and

Nicole E. Werner; Matthew F. Bumpus; Daquarii Rock

2010-01-01

387

Stability of aggression over time and generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study spanning 22 years, data were collected on the aggressiveness of over 600 subjects, their parents, and their children. Subjects who were the more aggressive 8-year-olds at the beginning of the study were discovered to be the more aggressive 30-year-olds at the end of the study. The stability of aggressive behavior was shown to be very similar to

L. Rowell Huesmann; Leonard D. Eron; Monroe M. Lefkowitz; Leopold O. Walder

1984-01-01

388

Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

2013-01-01

389

Interactions between Arctic and Red Foxes in Scandinavia - Predation and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) populations in Scandinavia are small and restricted to alpine regions, while red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are common throughout both Norway and Sweden. The two species are similar in behaviour and diet, and thus competition between them is likely. This study provides seven observations of aggressive interactions between the two species. One adult arctic fox and one

KARL FRAFJORD; DENNIS BECKER; ANDERS ANGERBJORN

390

Communication networks and loser effects interact to influence the outcome of aggressive interactions in  

E-print Network

Communication networks and loser effects interact to influence the outcome of aggressive. Specifically, loser effects have a greater influence on fight dynamics than elements of communication networks social history may be masking any effects that visual communication networks have on agonistic behaviour

Moore, Paul A.

391

Understanding and Working with Non-Compliant and Aggressive Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpersonal, familial, and situational risk factors that predict young children's aggression and non-compliance are explored. Here examples of specific techniques and provided to help teachers and parents effectively support children's early development of cooperative and prosocial behaviours as well as problem-solving skills in family and…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2009-01-01

392

Behavioural Change Techniques For Chronic Low Back Pain: A Physiotherapy Practice Study.  

E-print Network

??Chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) is prevalent in the Canadian Forces. Physiotherapists use behavioural change techniques (BCT) to challenge maladaptive cognitions and behaviours in… (more)

MacRae, Marsha

2011-01-01

393

Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

Dallape, Aprille

2008-01-01

394

Aggressive Behavior of the Preschool Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study found significant correlations between parental perceptions of aggression and teachers' ratings of aggression by three- to five-year-old preschool children. Variables examined included belligerent behavior, constant motion, destructive behavior, and an overall level of aggression. Results indicate a need for early intervention and…

Maselli, David; And Others

1984-01-01

395

Anger and Aggression among Filipino Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the extent of anger and aggression in a sample of secondary school students in the southern Philippines. A total of 650 students in both public and private schools completed a self-report survey of levels of anger and aggression, and homeroom teachers rated them on aggression. Results indicated that their overall levels of…

Campano, Jessica P.; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

2004-01-01

396

Talking Smack: Verbal Aggression in Professional Wrestling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study presents the results of a content analysis of the verbal aggression found in 36 hours of televised professional wrestling. The coding scheme was adapted from the National Television Violence Study and past research on television verbal aggression. Results show that an abundance of verbal aggression occurs in televised professional wrestling, with swearing, competence attacks, and character attacks

Ron Tamborini; Rebecca M. Chory; Ken Lachlan; David Westerman; Paul Skalski

2008-01-01

397

The neuropharmacology of aggression: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature on aggression from a multidisciplinary standpoint reveals evidence for differentiating several kinds of aggression. This differentiation can be seen in the psychopharmacological literature, where some compounds have been effective in altering some forms of aggressive behaviors but ineffective in altering others. Differences in endogenous levels of neurotransmitters have also been reported, but there was little

Harry H. Avis

1974-01-01

398

P3 and provoked aggressive behavior.  

PubMed

Cognitive and biological processes play a role in human aggression. However, relatively little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive processes in aggressive individuals, particularly as they unfold during an aggressive encounter. We investigated whether the P3 event-related potential (ERP) discriminates aggressive versus nonaggressive individuals during a provocative, aggressive encounter. Forty-eight participants (23 men and 25 women) were classified as aggressive or nonaggressive based on self-reported life history of aggression. Aggressive behavior was assessed using a modification of a well-validated laboratory task during which the participant and a fictitious opponent ostensibly delivered and received noise blasts of low, medium, and high intensity. Provocation was manipulated by altering the level of noise set by the opponent. Aggression was defined as the number of high-intensity noise blasts the participant set for the opponent. As predicted, P3 amplitude in response to provocation differed as a function of aggressive history. Nonaggressive individuals showed enhanced P3 when provoked by the opponent relative to low provocation, but this effect was absent in aggressive individuals. The results suggest that aggressive individuals engage fewer neural processing resources in response to provoking social cues, which may reflect aberrant cognitive and emotional processes. PMID:24410372

Fanning, Jennifer R; Berman, Mitchell E; Long, James M

2014-01-01

399

Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin

1973-01-01

400

Juvenile delinquency and adult aggression against women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research assessed whether males who exhibited delinquent acts in their youth would be likely to demonstrate aggression against women as adults. Attitudinal information was also collected to see whether attitudes supporting aggression would mediate the relation between juvenile delinquency and adult aggression against women. Male undergraduates (N = 185) responded to a 68-item, comprehensive measure of delinquency that

Michelle Kalra

1996-01-01

401

Female Aggression and Violence: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…

Martin, Penelope E.

2012-01-01

402

Antisocial Personality Disorder, Alcohol, and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol- related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related

F. Gerard Moeller; Donald M. Dougherty

2001-01-01

403

Aggression and delinquency: Family and environmental factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile delinquency has become an increasing concern to society; aggressive behaviors are particularly harmful. This study examined parent and youth behaviors and personality types that may influence delinquent and aggressive behaviors. Youths were referred by the court to an intervention program; ratings of delinquency and aggression were derived from parent reports, self-reports, and court referral data. Results showed that high

Lisabeth Fisher DiLalla; Christina M. Mitchell; Michael W. Arthur; Pauline M. Pagliocca

1988-01-01

404

Hopelessness and risk behaviour among adolescents living in high-poverty inner-city neighbourhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnographic literature on inner-city life argues that adolescents react to their uncertain futures by abandoning hope, leading them to engage in high levels of risk behaviour. However, few quantitative studies demonstrate this relationship. This study tests this relationship using a survey of 2468 inner-city adolescents, asking them questions about hopelessness, violent and aggressive behaviour, substance use, sexual behaviour, and accidental

John M. Bolland

2003-01-01

405

Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

406

Adolescent aggression: The role of peer group status motives, peer aggression, and group characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different

Robert Faris; Susan Ennett

2010-01-01

407

DOG AGGRESSION: CANINE BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO AGGRESSION TOWARD HUMANS  

E-print Network

DOG AGGRESSION: CANINE BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO AGGRESSION TOWARD HUMANS J. Kottferova1: kottfer@uvm.sk; Phone: 1421 915 984 670 Our study focused on dog aggression toward people dog owners about their dog's aggression toward unknown persons. More than half of the dogs surveyed

Champagne, Frances A.

408

Social Status of Aggressive and Aggressive/Withdrawn Boys: A Replication across Age and Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between aggressive child behavior and social status. Replicated a study that separated boys (N=238) into aggressive versus aggressive/withdrawn groups. Results found that aggressive/withdrawn boys were less popular and more rejected than boys in other groups. (BH)

Landau, Steven; Milich, Richard

1985-01-01

409

Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the psychometric properties of the instrument. In Studies 1 and 2, the unique

Nicole E. Werner; Charisse L. Nixon

2005-01-01

410

A Longitudinal Study of Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Children's Social–Psychological Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although great strides have recently been made in our understanding of relational aggression and its consequences, one significant limitation has been the lack of prospective studies. The present research addressed this issue by identifying and assessing groups of relationally aggressive, physically aggressive, relationally plus physically aggressive (co-morbid), and nonaggressive children during their third grade year in elementary school and then

Nicki R. Crick; Jamie M. Ostrov; Nicole E. Werner

2006-01-01

411

Aggression and heat: Mediating effects of prior provocation and exposure to an aggressive model  

Microsoft Academic Search

64 male undergraduates participated in an experiment designed to examine the effects of level of prior anger arousal, exposure to an aggressive model, and ambient temperature on physical aggression. On the basis of A. Bandura's (1973) social learning theory of aggression, it was predicted that uncomfortably hot environmental conditions would be most effective in facilitating later aggression when Ss had

Robert A. Baron; Paul A. Bell

1975-01-01

412

Moderating Role of Trait Aggressiveness in the Effects of Violent Media on Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that high trait aggressive individuals are more affected by violent media than are low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 1, participants read film descriptions and then chose a film to watch. High trait aggressive individuals were more likely to choose a violent film to watch than were low trait aggressive individuals. In

Brad J. Bushman

1995-01-01

413

Not All Aggressions Are Created Equal: A Multifoci Approach to Workplace Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Types of perpetrators of workplace aggression can vary considerably, and recent research has demonstrated that aggression from different perpetrator categories has different implications for victims. We extended research on multifoci aggression and explored affective and cognitive pathways linking verbal aggression from four perpetrator types—supervisors, coworkers, customers, and significant others—and employee morale and turnover intention. Data from a sample of 446

Brent J. Lyons

2012-01-01

414

Aggression as a function of expected retaliation and aggression level of target and aggressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the effects of previous aggression level of aggressor and target persons, along with level of threatened retaliation, in an experimental situation which required aggressive responding. 4 male aggressors and 2 male targets, classified as high or low in aggressiveness, were selected from each of 10 3rd grade classrooms. Each aggressor responded to a high and low aggressive target; 1\\/2

Rolf A. Peterson

1971-01-01

415

Husbands’ Aggression Toward Wives and Mothers’ and Fathers’ Aggression Toward Children: Moderating Effects of Child Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the role of child gender in moderating the association between husbands’ aggression toward wives and parental aggression toward children. Participants were 73 mothers who experienced at least one incident of marital aggression during the past 12 months. Each mother had a child between 5 and 16 years of age. Hierarchical regression analyses indicate that the Husbands’ Aggression

Ernest N. Jouriles; Stephanie H. LeCompte

1991-01-01

416

Translational science in action: Hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems  

PubMed Central

A model of the development of hostile attributional style and its role in children's aggressive behavior is proposed, based on the translation of basic science in ethology, neuroscience, social psychology, personality psychology, and developmental psychology. Theory and findings from these domains are reviewed and synthesized in the proposed model, which posits that (a) aggressive behavior and hostile attributions are universal human characteristics, (b) socialization leads to the development of benign attributions, (c) individual differences in attributional style account for differences in aggressive behavior, and (d) interventions to change attributions have the potential to alter antisocial development. Challenges for future research are described. PMID:17152401

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

417

[Biological-psychiatric aspects of delinquency and aggression].  

PubMed

After a historical introduction, the author summarizes the findings of biologically oriented psychiatric research on delinquency and aggression. In the field of genetics, twin and adoption studies prove that there must be a strong hereditary factor in the genesis of criminality, although so far only two chromosomal abnormalities have been found which seem to show a comparatively increased tendency to criminal behaviour. In addition, minimal cerebral dysfunction caused by early acquired brain damage, and attention deficit disorder combined with hyperactivity (two types of infantile mental disorder that seem hard to tell apart) are thought to be high risk conditions for criminality. PMID:8322053

Knecht, T

1993-06-01

418

Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in rodents.  

PubMed

Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals' survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques, e.g., immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here, we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual differences in aggression, using the so-called forward genetics approach. PMID:24318936

Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A

2014-01-01

419

Interpersonal Aggression among Aka Hunter-Gatherers of the Central African Republic  

E-print Network

anger, strength, and aggression. Keywords Physical aggression . Indirect aggression . Social norms . Sex, and young adults. In contrast, nonphysical forms of physical aggression, such as gossiping and ostracism indirect aggression, relational aggression, and social aggression; in accordance with Archer and Coyne

420

Methodological Structure for Aggression Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kendler’s seminal essay listed 8 major propositions outlining a philosophical framework for the entire field of psychiatry\\u000a [Kendler (American Journal of Psychiatry 162:433–440, 2005)]. These propositions have grounded psychiatric research on a coherent\\u000a conceptual basis. The field of aggression research needs a general conceptual framework that would help us to integrate the\\u000a contributions of neurobiology, sociology, criminology, and other areas.

Jan Volavka; Karen A. Nolan

2008-01-01

421

Geerbte Aggression: Gene und Gewalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Frage nach den Wurzeln von Aggression und Gewalt wird seit langer Zeit als Kontroverse um »Anlage« vs »Umwelt« heft ig\\u000a diskutiert. Wenn sowohl Vater wie auch Sohn wegen Gewalttaten im Gefängnis sitzen, wird in der Öffentlichkeit manchmal über\\u000a ein »Aggressionsgen« spekuliert. Wenn Jugendliche in heruntergekommenen Stadtteilen oder junge Männer aus Migrantenfamilien\\u000a zuschlagen, wird ihre gesellschaft liche Umwelt als Ursache

Klaus Wahl

422

Mating Resets Male Cricket Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

An animal’s motivational state can significantly impact its behavior. We examined the effects of mating on the aggression\\u000a of male Acheta domesticus crickets. Pairs of males were allowed to establish dominance and subordinance and were then physically separated. Subordinate\\u000a males were then allowed to either copulate with a female or to have chemo-tactile contact with, but to not copulate with,

Kathleen A. Killian; Janelle R. Allen

2008-01-01

423

Lateralization of aggression in fish.  

PubMed

Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

2003-05-15

424

Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.  

PubMed

Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities. PMID:25205545

Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

2014-12-01

425

Neurobiology of Aggression and Violence  

PubMed Central

Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of “top-down” control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of “top-down” control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/ gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance “top-down” control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic. PMID:18346997

Siever, Larry J.

2014-01-01

426

REACTIVE AND PROACTIVE AGGRESSION IN ADOLESCENT MALES  

PubMed Central

There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of 335 adolescent males. Path analyses indicate that after controlling for the stability of the outcome and the overlap between the two subtypes of aggression, reactive aggression is uniquely associated with negative emotionality, specifically anxiety, in adulthood. In contrast, proactive aggression is uniquely associated with measures of adult psychopathic features and antisocial behavior in adulthood. Both reactive and proactive aggression uniquely predicted substance use in adulthood, but the substances varied by subtype of aggression. Implications for findings are discussed. PMID:20589225

Fite, Paula J.; Raine, Adrian; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

2010-01-01

427

Aggression During Early Years -- Infancy and Preschool  

PubMed Central

Introduction This review explores the meaning and origins of aggression in early years. Eight pathways to aggression with origins in early childhood are suggested. These include: the contribution of individual factors; the effects of disturbed family dynamics; parental characteristics and parenting practices; the impact of exposure to violence and the influence of attachment relationships. Other influences such as: aggression relating to psychiatric/medical syndromes; the influence of neurodevelopment pathways and psychodynamic explanations, such as aggressive behavior in relation to mothers’ reflective capacity are also discussed. Conclusion While several routes to aggression have been proposed, no single factor is sufficient to explain the development of aggressive behavior. Longitudinal studies are sorely needed to observe aggressive behavior in children and to monitor their developmental trajectories. PMID:19030496

Reebye, Pratibha

2005-01-01

428

Recurrent aggressive chondrosarcoma of the middle phalanx of the index finger: excision and reconstruction with an osteocartilaginous allograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionChondrosarcomas are malignant tumours and need to be treated aggressively including ablative surgery. Bovée et al. and Mankin have recently drawn attention to a less aggressive behaviour of chondrosarcomas of the phalanges compared with those of other localizations including the metacarpals.Materials and methodsAn 12 year follow-up of a patient with a chondrosarcoma of the middle phalanx of the index finger is

G. Ulrich Exner; Charles E. Dumont; Theodore I. Malinin; Arthur R. von Hochstetter

2003-01-01

429

MicroRNA122 is a key regulator of alpha-fetoprotein expression and influences the aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is not only a widely used biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance, but is also clinically recognized as linked with aggressive tumour behaviour. Here we show that deregulation of microRNA122, a liver-specific microRNA, is a cause of both AFP elevation and a more biologically aggressive phenotype in HCC. We identify CUX1, a direct target of microRNA122, as a

Kentaro Kojima; Akemi Takata; Charles Vadnais; Motoyuki Otsuka; Takeshi Yoshikawa; Masao Akanuma; Yuji Kondo; Young Jun Kang; Takahiro Kishikawa; Naoya Kato; Zhifang Xie; Weiping J. Zhang; Haruhiko Yoshida; Masao Omata; Alain Nepveu; Kazuhiko Koike

2011-01-01

430

Type A behaviour pattern: a concept revisited.  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that the type A behaviour pattern is a risk factor in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Type A people have been characterized as hard-driving, competitive, aggressive and hurried. A number of investigators have attempted to correlate these facets of type A behaviour with increased risks of CAD. However, there have been conflicting results, primarily owing to differences in methods and CAD outcomes and inconsistencies associated with measuring the type A behaviour pattern. As a result, researchers have begun to focus on subcomponents of the type A behaviour pattern, particularly hostility and anger, that appear to be more reliable predictors of CAD outcome. A reconceptualization of the type A behaviour pattern is required. PMID:3815195

Rose, M I

1987-01-01

431

Child-to-Parent Violence: Challenging Perspectives on Family Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…

Coogan, Declan

2011-01-01

432

Managing disruptive behaviour disorders in children.  

PubMed

The age at which individuals are most physically aggressive is 22 months. However, some children fail to inhibit this normal aggression and by the time they are three or four are showing signs of oppositional defiant disorder. In older children persistent antisocial behaviour is classified as conduct disorder. At any age, antisocial behaviour is on a continuum, and while the most severe 5% or so will meet diagnostic criteria, those falling short are often described as having conduct problems. Epidemiological follow-up surveys show that the risk of poor outcomes in antisocial children is very high. The causes are multiple but two sets of factors stand out. First, genetic predisposition. Even children adopted away from violent or criminal parents have three or four times the rate of antisocial behaviour and second, poor parenting. Watching and waiting is a reasonable strategy if the antisocial behaviour is not very severe. It is important to be vigilant for severe tantrums or aggression occurring almost every day, harsh, rough, or inconsistent parenting and coexistent ADHD. If severity is moderate, referral to an evidence-based parenting group would be a good first move. If this fails to make things better, or if the child or parent has a comorbid condition, referral to CAMHS is indicated. For older children, aged 10 to 17, there are effective interventions such as anger management CBT and parenting groups for adolescents. PMID:23808127

Stephen, Scott; Bailey, Clare

2013-05-01

433

ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2001, 62, 337348 doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1746, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on  

E-print Network

://www.idealibrary.com on Assessment of strength and willingness to fight during aggressive encounters in crickets* HANS A. HOFMANN that at least some of the behaviour patterns displayed during aggressive encounters are used to assess male Mediterranean field crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus, fighting behaviour follows a stereotyped

Hofmann, Hans A.

434

Resolving social conflict among females without overt aggression  

PubMed Central

Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression. PMID:24167306

Cant, Michael A.; Young, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

435

Resolving social conflict among females without overt aggression.  

PubMed

Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression. PMID:24167306

Cant, Michael A; Young, Andrew J

2013-01-01

436

Play, Aggression, the Preschool Child, and the Family: A Review of Literature to Guide Empirically Informed Play Therapy With Aggressive Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preschool-aged children displaying high levels of aggression repeatedly have been shown to be at significant risk for continued behavior problems and other social and emotional challenges throughout their lifetimes. The present literature review seeks to summarize and integrate findings across the fields of developmental psychology, family studies, child development, and play therapy to inform play therapists' practices with this population.

Becky R. Davenport; Nicole M. Bourgeois

2008-01-01

437

Territorial behaviour and population dynamics in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. I. Population experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. According to the 'territorial behaviour' hypothesis, population cycles of red grouse are caused by delayed density-dependent changes in the aggressiveness of territorial cocks. We report here on a replicated population experiment testing assumptions of this hypothesis. 2. We used testosterone implants to increase aggressiveness of cocks for 3 months during autumn, when recruitment and territory establishment take place.

Francois Mougeot; Steve M. Redpath; Robert Moss; Jason Matthiopoulos; Peter J. Hudson

2003-01-01

438

Aggressive Angiomyxoma with Perineal Herniation  

PubMed Central

Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor involving the pelvic-perineal region. It occurs during the third and fourth decade of life and is predominantly seen in females. It presents clinically as a soft tissue mass in variable locations such as vulva, perianal region, buttock, or pelvis. Assessment of extent of the tumor by radiological evaluation is crucial for surgical planning; however, biopsy is essential to establish diagnosis. We present the radiological and pathological features seen in a 43-year-old female diagnosed with abdominal angiomyxoma with an unusual extension to the perineum. PMID:24987570

Narang, Seema; Kohli, Supreethi; Kumar, Vinod; Chandoke, Raj

2014-01-01

439

Structural Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bonded cement-based material overlays and their substrates constitute a hybrid or composite structural system. The interaction of these two material layers (with different ages), with each other, with the external boundary conditions\\u000a (foundations, supports) and possible joints, and under loading, defines the structural behaviour of this composite system. The main actions governing this structural behaviour are (1) the differential deformations

E. Denarié; J. Silfwerbrand; H. Beushausen

440

Managing "Challenging" Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which elementary school principals in Israel deal with teachers who are "challenging" in their behaviour, that is those who are perceived as under-performing. This is an important and under-researched area of educational management. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews were…

Yariv, Eliezer; Coleman, Marianne

2005-01-01

441

Impulsive aggression in borderline personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulsive aggressive behaviors that include physical aggression directed towards others, self-mutilation, suicide attempts,\\u000a domestic violence, substance abuse, and property destruction account for a substantial portion of the morbidity and mortality\\u000a associated with personality disorders, in particular borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent genetic, neurobiologic,\\u000a and diagnostic studies suggest a dimensional approach to BPD symptomatology with impulsive aggression as one of the

Marianne Goodman; Antonia New

2000-01-01

442

Trait Aggression and Hostility in Recovered Alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long-recognized association between alcohol consumption and aggressive behavior. This study was designed to examine aggression in a group of socially well-adapted recovered alcoholics (RA). The question addressed was whether the treatment, together with long-term abstinence from alcohol, could reduce aggression and hostility in RA. A group of male RA (n = 64), who did not meet the

Slavko Ziherl; Martina Tomori; Bojan Zalar

2007-01-01

443

Octopamine and occupancy: an aminergic mechanism for intruder-resident aggression in crickets.  

PubMed

Aggression is a behavioural strategy for securing resources (food, mates and territory) and its expression is strongly influenced by their presence and value. While it is known that resource holders are generally highly aggressive towards intruding consexuals and usually defeat them, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are not known. In a novel intruder-resident paradigm for field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus), we show that otherwise submissive losers of a preceding aggressive encounter readily fight and often defeat aggressive winners after occupying an artificial shelter. This aggression enhancing effect first became evident after 2 min residency, and was maximal after 15 min, but absent 15 min after shelter removal. The residency effect was abolished following non-selective depletion of biogenic amines from the central nervous system using reserpine, or semi-selective depletion of octopamine and dopamine using ?-methyl-tyrosine, but not following serotonin depletion using ?-methyl-tryptophan. The residency effect was also abolished by the treatment with phentolamine, an ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist, or epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, or by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker. We conclude that crickets evaluate residency as a rewarding experience that promotes aggressive motivation via a mechanism involving octopamine, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline. PMID:21106592

Rillich, Jan; Schildberger, Klaus; Stevenson, Paul A

2011-06-22

444

Octopamine and occupancy: an aminergic mechanism for intruder-resident aggression in crickets  

PubMed Central

Aggression is a behavioural strategy for securing resources (food, mates and territory) and its expression is strongly influenced by their presence and value. While it is known that resource holders are generally highly aggressive towards intruding consexuals and usually defeat them, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are not known. In a novel intruder–resident paradigm for field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus), we show that otherwise submissive losers of a preceding aggressive encounter readily fight and often defeat aggressive winners after occupying an artificial shelter. This aggression enhancing effect first became evident after 2 min residency, and was maximal after 15 min, but absent 15 min after shelter removal. The residency effect was abolished following non-selective depletion of biogenic amines from the central nervous system using reserpine, or semi-selective depletion of octopamine and dopamine using ?-methyl-tyrosine, but not following serotonin depletion using ?-methyl-tryptophan. The residency effect was also abolished by the treatment with phentolamine, an ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist, or epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, or by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker. We conclude that crickets evaluate residency as a rewarding experience that promotes aggressive motivation via a mechanism involving octopamine, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline. PMID:21106592

Rillich, Jan; Schildberger, Klaus; Stevenson, Paul A.

2011-01-01

445

Cooperation and competition: nepotistic tolerance and intrasexual aggression in western bluebird winter groups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Dickinson, J. L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.

2009-01-01

446

Risk Assessment for suicide behaviour : Clinical Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an audio-visual about risk assessment of suicide behavior. Part 1. Reformulating the concept of RISK and a New instrument for assessment: Risk assessment is an important clinical responsibility, which can be ‘life-saving’. Literature on risk factors has become voluminous; however a traditional risk assessment does not take into account the most relevant factors. This reflects the prevailing conceptualization

Amresh Srivastava; Charles Nelson

2009-01-01

447

Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000aPersistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial

Marielle E. Abrahamse; Marianne Junger; E. Lidewei Chavannes; Frederique J. G. Coelman; Frits Boer; Ramon J. L. Lindauer

2012-01-01

448

Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.  

PubMed

Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

Cardwell, Michael Steven

2013-09-01

449

Tendency to Aggressive Driving and Road Rage.  

E-print Network

?? In the present study possible associations between driver characteristics and aggressive driving were examined. 210 participants responded to a questionnaire consisting of self-report measures… (more)

Teräsvirta, Jukka

2011-01-01

450

Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.  

PubMed

Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25068818

LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

2014-10-01

451

Aggression and violence in mood disorders.  

PubMed

As a common component of mood disorders, aggression can have many adverse effects on the child's or adolescent's life, including disrupting school performance and causing personal rejection by family, peers, and teachers. The problems of children and adolescents with mood disorders are compounded by comorbid aggressiveness. Without effective treatment for both problems, many of these aggressive, depressed children and adolescents go on to experience multiple failures in life leading to disturbances in character and the inability to establish fulfilling interpersonal relationships. This article is intended to heighten clinician awareness of the complex relationship between mood disorders and aggression. PMID:12222088

Weisbrot, Deborah M; Ettinger, Alan B

2002-07-01

452

Aggression and coexistence in female caribou  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

2014-01-01

453

Does Parenting Predict Child Relational Aggression?.  

E-print Network

??Relational aggression is associated with significant psychosocial consequences for children including anxiety, depression, and delinquency. Few research studies have examined the relationship between parenting and… (more)

Marshall, Nastassja A

2011-01-01

454

The relation between aggression and inflated self-concepts in aggressive children: a replication study  

E-print Network

as more aggressive by mothers than children in the remaining two clusters. Explanations for partial replication of previous findings and implications for the utility of aggressive children's self-report data are discussed....

Meehan, Barbara Theresa

2012-06-07

455

Instrumentality of aggression, feedback, and frustration as determinants of physical aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical aggression was studied in relation to 5 variables, using 2 intensities of frustration plus a control group. The aggression (delivery of electric shock) was either of instrumental value in overcoming the frustration or of no instrumental value. The \\

Arnold H. Buss

1966-01-01

456

The relationship between overt and fantasy aggression as a function of maternal response to aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

44 boys and their mothers were studied in order to explore the relationship between fantasy and overt expressions of aggression as a function of maternal attitudes and practices towards aggression. \\

Gerald S. Lesser

1957-01-01

457

Wiring Pathways to Replace Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The previous article in this series introduced the triune brain, the three components of which handle specialized life tasks. The survival brain, or brain stem, directs automatic physiological functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, and mobilizes fight/flight behaviour in times of threat. The emotional (or limbic) brain activates positive or…

Bath, Howard

2006-01-01

458

Automatic Effects of Alcohol and Aggressive Cues on Aggressive Thoughts and Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have shown that alcohol increases aggression. In this article it is proposed that the link between alcohol and aggression is so strong that mere exposure to alcohol-related cues will automatically activate aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Two experiments tested this automaticity theory of alcohol-related aggression. In Experiment 1, participants exposed to alcohol- or weapon-related primes made faster lexical decisions

Baptiste Subra; Dominique Muller; L. Begue; Brad J. Bushman; Florian Delmas

2010-01-01

459

Harm, Intent, and the Nature of Aggressive Behavior: Measuring Naturally Occurring Aggression in Barroom Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research goals were to use the constructs of harm and intent to quantify the severity of aggression in the real-world setting of the bar/club, to describe the range of aggressive behaviors and their relationship to harm and intent, and to examine gender differences in the form and severity of aggression. Systematic observations were conducted…

Graham, Kathryn; Tremblay, Paul F.; Wells, Samantha; Pernanen, Kai; Purcell, John; Jelley, Jennifer

2006-01-01

460

Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

2011-01-01

461

Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.  

PubMed

Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women. PMID:21046605

Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

2011-01-01

462

Strength and Duration of the Effect of Aggressive,, Violent, and Erotic Communications On Subsequent Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the aggression-modifying, immediate effect on provoked individuals of exposure to a neutral, an aggressive, a violent, or an erotic communication. All communications were followed by a common, non-involving, nonaggressive communication. Under these conditions, neither the effect of the aggressive nor that of the violent communication differed appreciably from the effect of the neutral communication. In contrast, the

Dolf Zillmann; James L. Hoyt; Kenneth D. Day

1974-01-01

463

Behavior Genetics of Canine Aggression: Behavioral Phenotyping of Golden Retrievers by Means of an Aggression Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular genetic analysis of complex traits such as aggression strongly depends on careful phenotyping of individuals. When studying canine aggression, the information provided by the owners of the dogs is often not detailed and reliable enough for this purpose. Therefore we subjected 83 golden retrievers, both aggressive and nonaggressive individuals, to a behavioral test. These tests were analyzed with help

L. van den Berg; M. B. H. Schilder; B. W. Knol

2003-01-01

464

Characterizing Aggressive Behavior with the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale among Adolescents with Conduct Disorder  

PubMed Central

This study extends the use of the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale for subtyping aggressive behavior among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. Of the Conduct Disorder symptoms, aggression has the strongest prognostic and treatment implications. While aggression is a complex construct, convergent evidence supports a dichotomy of impulsive and premeditated aggressive subtypes that are qualitatively different from one another in terms of phenomenology and neurobiology. Previous attempts at measuring subtypes of aggression in children and adults are not clearly generalizable to adolescents. Sixty-six adolescents completed a questionnaire for characterizing aggression (Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale), along with standard measures of personality and general functioning. Principal components analysis demonstrated two stable factors of aggression with good internal consistency and construct validity. Compared to the premeditated aggression factor, the impulsive aggression factor was associated with a broader range of personality, thought, emotional, and social problems. As in the adult and child literature, characterization of aggressive behavior into two subtypes appears to be relevant to understanding individual differences among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. PMID:17383014

Mathias, Charles W.; Stanford, Matthew S.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Frick, Paul J.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Swann, Alan C.; Dougherty, Donald M.

2007-01-01

465

The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

Lee, Eunju

2009-01-01

466

Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

2012-01-01

467

Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples.  

PubMed

Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24866529

Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria

2014-10-01

468

Author's personal copy Paternal aggression in a biparental mouse: Parallels with maternal aggression  

E-print Network

preoptic area is generally considered to be relatively less important for male-male aggression in rodentsAuthor's personal copy Paternal aggression in a biparental mouse: Parallels with maternal aggression Brian C. Trainor a,b,, M. Sima Finy b , Randy J. Nelson b a Department of Psychology, University

Trainor, Brian

469

Characteristics of Men Who Aggress Sexually and of Men Who Imagine Aggressing: Risk and Moderating Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors showed that the extent to which men's personalities were self-centered rather than sensitive to others’ needs moderated the connection between risk factors and sexually aggressive behavior. Men who were at risk for committing aggression but who were also sensitive to others’ feelings aggressed less than the corresponding group, who had relatively self-centered personalities. However, both groups showed high

Karol E. Dean; Neil M. Malamuth

1997-01-01

470

Effects of frustration, attack, and prior aggressive training on overt aggression and vascular processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforced 64 male undergraduates for aggressive or nonaggressive verbalizations prior to being subjected to test failure and\\/or E insult. Changes in aggressive (electric shocks) and nonaggressive (light signals) behavior were noted along with changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Results indicate that: (a) insult led to a greater increase in the amount and intensity of aggression than did no

William D. Gentry

1970-01-01

471

Alcohol and Aggressive Personality Styles: Potentiators of Serious Physical Aggression Against Wives?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between alcohol consumption and marital aggression in a community sample (N = 272) assessed in a longitudinal study at premarriage and at 6, 18, and 30 months of marriage. Participants completed self-report measures of alcohol problems and total alcohol consumption, aggressive personality style, marital aggression, marital adjustment, and divorce potential. Husbands' alcohol problems were associated

Richard E. Heyman; K. Daniel OLeary; Ernest N. Jouriles

1995-01-01

472

Witnessed aggression: Influence of an observer's sex and values on aggressive responding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted 2 experiments with a total of 56 male undergraduates to investigate the effects of the presence of an O on aggressive responding. In Exp I, Ss observed by a male aggressed more than those observed by a female. When the male O was removed from the situation, Ss' level of aggressiveness more closely matched the level mainfested by the

Richard J. Borden

1975-01-01

473

Naturalistic studies of aggressive behavior: Aggressive stimuli, victim visibility, and horn honking  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 studies extended laboratory research on aggression to a naturalistic setting which involved horn honking from drivers as a measure of aggression; the studies were adapted from A. N. Doob and A. E. Gross . Results from a survey (Study 1) of 59 drivers suggest that Ss were frequently irritated by and aggressive toward other drivers. Study 2 (using a

Charles W. Turner; John F. Layton; Lynn S. Simons

1975-01-01

474

Aggressiveness and Frequency-of-Aggressive-Use Ratings for Pejorative Epithets by Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 316 pejorative epithets from American English is presented as the basis of a procedure for the quantitative manipulation of verbal aggression. Such a procedure is needed, since the intuitively based procedures currently in use are often of questionable validity and preclude comparisons across different experiments. Epithets were rated for aggressiveness and frequency-of-aggressive-use by 96 American college men

James M. Driscoll

1981-01-01

475

Isolation associated aggression--a consequence of recovery from defeat in a territorial animal.  

PubMed

Population density has profound influences on the physiology and behaviour of many animal species. Social isolation is generally reported to lead to increased aggressiveness, while grouping lowers it. We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of isolation and grouping on aggression in a territorial insect, the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Substantiating early observations, we show that dyadic contests between weight-matched, adult male crickets taken from groups rarely escalate beyond threat displays, whereas interactions between pairs of previously isolated crickets typically escalate to physical fights lasting several seconds. No significant differences were found between 1, 2 and 6-day isolates, or between individuals grouped for a few hours or lifelong. Unexpectedly, crickets grouped in immediate proximity within individual mesh cages that precluded fighting while permitting visual, olfactory and mechanical, antennal contact, were as aggressive as free isolates. This suggests that reduced aggression of grouped animals may be an acquired result of fighting. Supporting this notion, isolated crickets initially en