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1

Aggressive Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability Following Community Resettlement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging

Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.

2009-01-01

2

Overcoming the Barriers Experienced in Conducting a Medication Trial in Adults with Aggressive Challenging Behaviour and Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID) is frequently treated with antipsychotic drugs, despite a limited evidence base. Method: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was undertaken to investigate the efficacy, adverse effects and costs of two commonly prescribed antipsychotic drugs…

Oliver-Africano, P.; Dickens, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Bouras, N.; Cooray, S.; Deb, S.; Knapp, M.; Hare, M.; Meade, M.; Reece, B.; Bhaumik, S.; Harley, D.; Piachaud, J.; Regan, A.; Ade Thomas, D.; Karatela, S.; Rao, B.; Dzendrowskyj, T.; Lenotre, L.; Watson, J.; Tyrer, P.

2010-01-01

3

Incidence, Types and Characteristics of Aggressive Behaviour in Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…

Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.

2008-01-01

4

Relational Aggression and Prosocial Behaviours in Australian Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relational aggression is a subtle form of aggressive behaviour that uses dyadic relationships and manipulation as a vehicle of harm. Little is known about relational aggression in preschool-age children in cultural contexts outside the United States. This study examined relationally aggressive behaviours and prosocial behaviours in Australian…

Swit, Cara; McMaugh, Anne

2012-01-01

5

Genetics of aggressive behaviour in Golden Retriever dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs have been living in close proximity to humans since the last Ice Age. Like their progenitor the grey wolf, dogs may respond with aggressive behaviour to certain stimuli. This is natural behaviour in the majority of cases. However, canine aggression can develop into a dangerous problem. There is individual variation in the tendency of dogs to display aggressive behaviour.

L. van den Berg

2006-01-01

6

Machiavellianism, Locus of Control, Aggression, Performance and Precautionary Behaviour in Ice Hockey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sport of hockey served as a setting for the investigation of the relationships between both Machiavellianism and I-E locus of control and three behavioural indices of aggression. Physical aggression, challenge to authority, and total aggression were positively related to Mach V scores and I-E locus of control, the only exception being I-E and physical aggression. Goal scoring, as a

Gordon W. Russell

1974-01-01

7

Thermal Behaviour of Honeybees During Aggressive Interactions.  

PubMed

We report here on the interrelationship of aggressive behaviour and thermoregulation in honeybees. Body temperature measurements were carried out without behavioural disturbance by infrared thermography. Guard bees, foragers, drones, and queens involved in aggressive interactions were always endothermic, i.e. had their flight muscles activated. Guards made differential use of their endothermic capacity. Mean thorax temperature was 34.2-35.1°C during examination of bees but higher during fights with wasps (37°C) or attack of humans (38.6°C). They usually cooled down when examining bees whereas examinees often heated up during prolonged interceptions (maximum >47°C). Guards neither adjusted their thorax temperature (and thus flight muscle function and agility) to that of examined workers, nor to that of drones, which were 2-7°C warmer. Guards examined cool bees (<33°C) longer than warmer ones, supporting the hypothesis that heating of examinees facilitates odour identification by guards, probably because of vapour pressure increase of semiochemicals with temperature. Guards in the core of aggressive balls clinged to the attacked insects to fix them and kill them by heat (maximum 46.5°C). Bees in the outer cluster layers resembled normal guards behaviourally and thermally. They served as active core insulators by heating up to 43.9°C. While balled wasps were cooler (maximum 42.5°C) than clinging guards balled bees behaved like examinees with maximum temperatures of 46.6°C, which further supports the hypothesis that the examinees heat up to facilitate odour identification. PMID:22140291

Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

2007-09-17

8

Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games.  

PubMed

BackgroundMental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children¿s aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS).MethodsIn this mixed methods study, forty-seven British children aged 7¿11 years with behavioural/emotional difficulties attending CAMHS and their carers participated in a survey; twenty purposively-selected children and a parent/carer of theirs participated in a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews, analysed using the Framework Analysis Approach; findings were integrated.ResultsChildren attending CAMHS exhibit clinically significant aggression, of varying types and frequency. They see aggression in multiple real and virtual settings. Verbal aggression was often seen, frequently exhibited and strongly associated with poor peer relationships and low prosocial behaviour. Children did not think seeing aggression influences their own behaviour but believed it influences others. Carers regarded aggression as resulting from a combination of inner and environmental factors and seeing aggression in real-life as having more impact than television/video games.ConclusionsThere is yet no definitive evidence for or against a direct relationship between aggression seen in the media and aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties. Future research should take an ecological perspective, investigating individual, developmental and environmental factors. Carers, professional organisations and policy makers should address aggression seen in all relevant area of children¿s lives, primarily real-life and secondly virtual environments. PMID:25404041

Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas

2014-11-18

9

Enhanced aggressive behaviour in a mouse model of depression.  

PubMed

Depression is one of the most common chronic mental disorders, which is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients. Depression often leads to offensive and defensive behaviours but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We propose that the aggressive behaviours in depression can be modelled in animal experiments. In this study, we successfully established a mouse model of depression using the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) paradigm and detected aggressive and social dominance behaviours in rodents by resident/intruder test and social dominance tube test (SDTT), respectively. The CUMS-exposed mice showed increased defensive, offensive and aggressive behaviours in the resident-intruder test. In the SDTT, these mice showed enhanced social dominance. These alterations were associated with reduced MAP-2 expression in the hippocampus while no difference in ?-tubulin expression was detected. In addition, the treatment of anti-depressant fluoxetine reversed the aggressive behaviours without reducing the social dominance behaviour induced by CUMS. However, fluoxetine did effectively reverted the changes in MAP-2 expression in the hippocampus. In addition, the nonspecific tricyclic antipsychotic drug, clozapine, reversed all symptoms of CUMS-exposed mice including aggressive tendencies, impulsive violence, social dominance behaviour and MAP-2 expression in the hippocampus. The results suggests that social maladjustment such as competition and social dominance are likely related to the dopaminergic system rather than the serotonergic system and the hippocampal dendritic structure protein MAP-2. Thus, dominance can be separated from aggression. This study shows that aggression/hostility and social hierarchy/dominance are increased in the CUMS-exposed mice and thus provide an excellent model for further study in the diagnosis and the treatment of depression-associated aggression. PMID:25367807

Yang, C R; Bai, Y Y; Ruan, C S; Zhou, H F; Liu, D; Wang, X F; Shen, L J; Zheng, H Y; Zhou, X F

2015-02-01

10

Challenging behaviour in HIV services.  

PubMed

'Challenging behaviour' is a label, and one that is often misused in the context of mental health. Using a profile, this article identifies a number of behaviours that may challenge service. Peter has HIV and has developed a related opportunistic illness, affecting brain function. The author stresses the importance of person-centred care, urging providers to audit their services and evaluate the requirement for alterations to assessment documentation to meet the changing needs of individuals, families and children living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:9919237

Gordon, A

11

Implementing the Rating Scale for Aggressive Behaviours in the Elderly: Can it make a difference to nursing management of aggressive behaviours in elderly patients with dementia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Aggressive behaviour is the most common,clinical and nursing management,problem, for patients with dementia. Many elderly patients with dementia show sexual, physical, and verbal aggressive behaviours that complicate their management and make day-to-day nursing care difficult. These behaviours include yelling, hitting,

Bernadette Lidiard

2006-01-01

12

Challenging Behaviours: Prevalence and Topographies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Variations in reported prevalence of challenging behaviour indicate the need for further epidemiological research to support accurate planning of future service provision. Methods: All services providing for people with learning disabilities across seven unitary authorities, with a total population of 1.2 million, were screened to…

Lowe, K.; Allen, D.; Jones, E.; Brophy, S.; Moore, K.; James, W.

2007-01-01

13

Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Treating Aggressive Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Single Blind Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggressive behaviour represents a frequent symptom in people with intellectual disability (PWID). Despite uncertain evidence of effectiveness, the use of antipsychotics (APs) drugs to treat aggressive behaviour is very common. Antipsychotic medication of aggressivity in PWID has recently become one of the most debated issues in mental…

Amore, M.; Bertelli, M.; Villani, D.; Tamborini, S.; Rossi, M.

2011-01-01

14

The impact of non-aggressive behaviour early in aggressive interactions: Sex differences in direct and indirect aggression in response to provocation.  

PubMed

Using an adapted form of the Taylor competitive reaction time task (TCRT: Taylor, 1967), we examined the effect of initially non-aggressive behaviour during aggressive encounters. Specifically, if a person is initially non-aggressive, but becomes more aggressive later, does an opponent respond more or less aggressively in response? Participants (N = 148) played a competitive reaction time task against a bogus partner, who was either initially non-aggressive, or initially moderately aggressive, and then delivered increasingly loud noise blasts to participants on trials when the participant lost. Both direct (noise blasts delivered to the partner) and indirect aggression (damage to partner's reputation) were assessed. The impact of whether or not participants expected to meet the partner on direct and indirect aggression was also examined. All participants reduced their direct aggression towards an initially non-aggressive partner and a partner they expected to meet. However, for females, the switch from initial non-aggression to later aggression generated a negative evaluation of the partner, exhibited by indirect but not direct aggression. PMID:24387100

Lawrence, Claire; Hutchinson, Laura

2014-02-01

15

Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans.  

PubMed

We review the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of early adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between early adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour. PMID:25059307

Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D

2014-10-01

16

Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

2009-01-01

17

Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

2011-01-01

18

Interspecific aggressive behaviour of invasive pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian fresh waters.  

PubMed

Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence, respectively. This study highlights the usefulness of direct observations in the wild for assessing the effects of behavioural interference of invasive fishes on Iberian aquatic communities. PMID:24505367

Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H

2014-01-01

19

Interspecific Aggressive Behaviour of Invasive Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian Fresh Waters  

PubMed Central

Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence, respectively. This study highlights the usefulness of direct observations in the wild for assessing the effects of behavioural interference of invasive fishes on Iberian aquatic communities. PMID:24505367

Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.

2014-01-01

20

Approach to Challenging Behaviour: A Family Affair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 30 years, research in the area of applied behaviour analysis has led to a rich knowledge and understanding of the variables that influence human behaviour. This understanding and knowledge has given rise to a range of assessment and intervention techniques that have been applied to individuals with challenging behaviour.…

Keen, Deb; Knox, Marie

2004-01-01

21

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution  

PubMed Central

Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

Rosvall, K. A.; Bergeon Burns, C. M.; Barske, J.; Goodson, J. L.; Schlinger, B. A.; Sengelaub, D. R.; Ketterson, E. D.

2012-01-01

22

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution.  

PubMed

Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

Rosvall, K A; Bergeon Burns, C M; Barske, J; Goodson, J L; Schlinger, B A; Sengelaub, D R; Ketterson, E D

2012-09-01

23

The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behaviour in Genetic Syndromes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Self-injurious and aggressive behaviours are reported as components of some behavioural phenotypes but there are few studies comparing across syndrome groups. In this study we examined the prevalence of these behaviours and the associated person characteristics in seven genetic syndromes. Methods: Questionnaire data on self-injury and…

Arron, K.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Berg, K.; Burbidge, C.

2011-01-01

24

Children's Aggressive Behaviour and Teacher-Child Conflict in Kindergarten: Is Teacher Perceived Control over Child Behaviour a Mediating Variable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research repeatedly showed young children's aggressive behaviour to predict relationship difficulties with the teacher. Aims: To examine a possible mediating variable in this process and in the stability of relationship difficulties across the school year, namely teacher perceived control over child behaviour. Sample: The sample…

Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien

2009-01-01

25

Perampanel and Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disability and Epilepsy: A Management Dilemma  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of a patient with a diagnosis of moderate learning disability with challenging behaviour and treatment refractory epilepsy. Antiepileptics can increase challenging behaviour; however, antipsychotics can provoke seizures. This results in a difficult balance for patient care. Due to worsening seizures, the patient was prescribed perampanel. This increased her aggression and agitation resulting in admission. We trialled four antipsychotic drugs to reduce her challenging behaviour, two of which worsened her seizures. It was necessary to continue antiepileptic medication to maintain adequate seizure control. However, the resulting uncontrolled challenging behaviour persisted, meaning she was unable to return to her family home on discharge. This case emphasises the difficult scenario clinician's encounter when balancing the use of antipsychotics and antiepileptics. The case demonstrates the significant functional loss due to challenging behaviour, balanced against controlling life threatening seizures. PMID:25580340

Choudry, Ansar

2014-01-01

26

Evaluation of students’ social ability: Greek version of checklists for aggressive behaviour and social insecurity in elementary education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The school environment plays an important role in children’s socialization. The present report was concerned with the study\\u000a of aggressive behaviour and social insecurity among elementary school students in Greece. For this purpose, Petermann and\\u000a Petermann’s (2001; 2003) checklists for structured observation of aggressive behaviour (Checklist of Aggressive Behaviour;\\u000a CAB) and social insecurity (Checklist of Social Insecure Behaviour; CSIB) were

Katerina Mouratidou; Vassilis Barkoukis; Panayotis Zahariadis; Athina Arampatzi

2007-01-01

27

Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement patterns in a passerine bird.  

PubMed

The importance of behaviours as instigators or inhibitors of evolutionary change remains largely unresolved and this is in part because there are very few empirical examples of how behaviours affect evolutionary processes. By determining the environment of breeding, aggressive interactions over territories have the potential to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide a unique opportunity to investigate the evolutionary importance of aggression, since their highly variable breeding habitat favours distinct foraging techniques and they also compete aggressively for nest boxes, a resource that is easy to manipulate. Here, I show experimentally that more aggressive males compete more effectively for territories with a high density of nest boxes and, as a consequence, aggressive and non-aggressive males are sorted into distinct breeding habitats that differ in the strength of selection on morphological traits. Specifically, males with longer tails and tarsi were favoured in open habitats where high agility is required to forage efficiently, whereas in forested habitats, where agility is less important, selection was weak. These results show that aggression can affect selection on a local scale by determining individual settlement patterns. More generally, because territorial interactions are important across a wide variety of taxa, these results suggest that aggressive behaviour has the potential to impact the evolutionary trajectory of many animal populations. PMID:16790412

Duckworth, Renée A

2006-07-22

28

Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement patterns in a passerine bird  

PubMed Central

The importance of behaviours as instigators or inhibitors of evolutionary change remains largely unresolved and this is in part because there are very few empirical examples of how behaviours affect evolutionary processes. By determining the environment of breeding, aggressive interactions over territories have the potential to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide a unique opportunity to investigate the evolutionary importance of aggression, since their highly variable breeding habitat favours distinct foraging techniques and they also compete aggressively for nest boxes, a resource that is easy to manipulate. Here, I show experimentally that more aggressive males compete more effectively for territories with a high density of nest boxes and, as a consequence, aggressive and non-aggressive males are sorted into distinct breeding habitats that differ in the strength of selection on morphological traits. Specifically, males with longer tails and tarsi were favoured in open habitats where high agility is required to forage efficiently, whereas in forested habitats, where agility is less important, selection was weak. These results show that aggression can affect selection on a local scale by determining individual settlement patterns. More generally, because territorial interactions are important across a wide variety of taxa, these results suggest that aggressive behaviour has the potential to impact the evolutionary trajectory of many animal populations. PMID:16790412

Duckworth, Renée A

2006-01-01

29

Testosterone correlates of mate guarding, singing and aggressive behaviour in male barn swallows, Hirundo rustica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual and social behaviour in male birds is largely controlled by gonadal secretions, most notably testosterone. In this paper the relationships between natural testosterone plasma concentrations and mate guarding, singing and rates of aggression in male barn swallows are reported. Behaviour of individually marked male swallows was observed in three breeding colonies. Individual mate-guarding rate was positively correlated with individual

N. SAINO; A. P. MØLLER

1995-01-01

30

Pharmacotherapy for Aggressive Behaviours in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Treatment or Mistreatment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…

Tsiouris, J. A.

2010-01-01

31

Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement patterns in a passerine bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of behaviours as instigators or inhibitors of evolutionary change remains largely unresolved and this is in part because there are very few empirical examples of how behaviours affect evolutionary processes. By determining the environment of breeding, aggressive interactions over territories have the potential to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide a unique

Renée A. Duckworth

2006-01-01

32

Aggression Management Training for Youth in Behaviour Schools: A Quasi-Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 16-week, bi-weekly, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based aggression management training course was conducted with a limited sample of behavioural school students in New South Wales. Attendance, withdrawal and suspension rates over the training period were compared to those of a control period. Parent and teacher feedback, assessed at pre-…

Wheatley, Anna; Murrihy, Rachael; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wuthrich, Viviana; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; Dadds, Mark; Kidman, Antony

2009-01-01

33

Teaching a Child with Challenging Behaviour to Use the Toilet: A Clinical Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to use the toilet is an important developmental step for a child's independence, health and dignity. It can be particularly difficult to teach continence skills to disabled children with aggressive or challenging behaviour. This study showed how Azrin & Foxx's (1971) basic toilet training procedure could be modified to teach a 13-year-old…

Brown, Freddy Jackson; Peace, Natalie

2011-01-01

34

Prevalence, Phenomenology, Aetiology and Predictors of Challenging Behaviour in Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…

Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.

2011-01-01

35

Prevalence of physical and verbal aggressive behaviours and associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB) is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism.

Philippe Voyer; René Verreault; Ginette M Azizah; Johanne Desrosiers; Nathalie Champoux; Annick Bédard

2005-01-01

36

Displays of inappropriate sexual behaviour by patients with progressive cognitive impairment: the forgotten form of challenging behaviour?  

PubMed

Persons with progressive cognitive impairment such as dementia or Alzheimer's disease may display an array of challenging behaviours. For instance, levels of agitation and aggression have been reported as high as 33% in home-dwelling individuals and 80% in those residing in institutions. One form of challenging behaviour that may be displayed by this group is inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB), but it is often overshadowed by other behaviours such as aggression. Inappropriate sexual behaviour involves any verbal of physical action of a sexual nature which is displayed in an inappropriate social context. Examples of ISB include: exposure of genitals in public/ward environments, 'groping' of nurses and masturbation in public areas. It has been estimated that the prevalence of ISB ranges from 2% to 17% of individuals with progressive cognitive impairment. Although it is less frequent than other challenging behaviours, it still may have significant deleterious effects on the victim's health. This paper is a review of the available literature on the nature, effects and management of ISB in persons with progressive cognitive impairment. Possible avenues for future research are also explored. PMID:21848594

Stubbs, B

2011-09-01

37

Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement  

E-print Network

to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide; Sialia mexicana 1. INTRODUCTION Behaviours affect how organisms interact with their environment

Duckworth, Renée

38

Aggressive behaviour in Montagu’s harrier Circus pygargus during the courtship period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behaviour of Montagu’s harrier was observed during the pre-laying period in the 1992–1995 seasons on the calcareous\\u000a marshes of Chelm in Eastern Poland. In total, 435 flights performed by 24 pairs of individually marked harriers were analysed.\\u000a All flights were performed in relation to the territory of defence. Males performed 61% of aggressive interactions while females\\u000a performed 39%. Intraspecific

Jaros?aw Wi?cek

2006-01-01

39

Behavioural Indicators of Motives for Barroom Aggression: Implications for Preventing Bar Violence  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Aims To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivation for prevention. Design/Methods The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the research: gaining compliance, expressing grievances/restoring justice, attaining a favourable social identity, and pursuing fun/excitement. Incidents of aggression from the Safer Bars evaluation research [1] were analysed to identify behavioural indicators of each motivation. Results Compliance-motivated aggression typically takes the form of unwanted social overtures, third party intervention to stop conflicts or staff rule enforcement. Prevention strategies include keeping the aggressor’s focus on compliance to avoid provoking grievance and identity motives which are likely to escalate aggression. Grievance motives are typically elicited by perceived wrongdoing and, therefore, prevention should focus on eliminating sources of grievances and adopting policies/practices to resolve grievances peacefully. Social identity motives are endemic to many drinking establishments especially among male patrons and staff. Prevention involves reducing identity cues in the environment, hiring staff who do not have identity concerns, and training staff to avoid provoking identity concerns. Aggression motivated by fun/excitement often involves low-level aggression where escalation can be prevented by avoiding grievances and attacks on identity. Discussion/Conclusions Knowledge of behavioural indicators of motives can be used to enhance staff hiring and training practices, reduce environmental triggers for aggression, and develop policies to reduce motivation for aggression. PMID:21896078

Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.

2010-01-01

40

Risk of aggression and criminal behaviour among adolescents living in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

Adolescent risk-taking and aggressive behaviours are among the most visible forms of violence in society. A study was carried out to identify the prevalence and risk factors for aggression, violence and criminal behaviour among adolescents in Alexandria, Egypt. Using multistage, cluster sampling of families from all health districts in Alexandria, the mothers of 783 adolescents aged 11-19 years answered an Arabic version of the Mentor Research Institute screening questionnaire. Overall 26.9% of adolescents were assessed to be at high risk and 20.2% at extremely high risk of aggression and criminal behaviour. Living in urban/slum areas, male sex, low level of parents' education/occupation, exposure to violence within the family and changes in behaviour of any family member were associated with risk of aggression/violence. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent variables were adolescents' sex, presence of behavioural changes in the family, violence against brothers and sisters and substance abuse by any family member. PMID:24952124

Wahdan, I; El-Nimr, N; Kotb, R; Wahdan, A

2014-04-01

41

Indirect Genetic Effects and Housing Conditions in Relation to Aggressive Behaviour in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Indirect Genetic Effects (IGEs), also known as associative effects, are the heritable effects that an individual has on the phenotype of its social partners. Selection for IGEs has been proposed as a method to reduce harmful behaviours, in particular aggression, in livestock and aquaculture. The mechanisms behind IGEs, however, have rarely been studied. The objective was therefore to assess aggression in pigs which were divergently selected for IGEs on growth (IGEg). In a one generation selection experiment, we studied 480 offspring of pigs (Sus scrofa) that were selected for relatively high or low IGEg and housed in homogeneous IGEg groups in either barren or enriched environments. Skin lesion scores, a proxy measure of aggression, and aggressive behaviours were recorded. The two distinct IGEg groups did not differ in number of skin lesions, or in amount of reciprocal fighting, both under stable social conditions and in confrontation with unfamiliar pigs in a 24 h regrouping test. Pigs selected for a positive effect on the growth of their group members, however, performed less non-reciprocal biting and showed considerably less aggression at reunion with familiar group members after they had been separated during a 24 h regrouping test. The enriched environment was associated with more skin lesions but less non-reciprocal biting under stable social conditions. Changes in aggression between pigs selected for IGEg were not influenced by G×E interactions with regard to the level of environmental enrichment. It is likely that selection on IGEg targets a behavioural strategy, rather than a single behavioural trait such as aggressiveness. PMID:23762299

Camerlink, Irene; Turner, Simon P.; Bijma, Piter; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

2013-01-01

42

Variation in aggressive behaviour in the poeciliid fish Brachyrhaphis episcopi: population and sex differences.  

PubMed

Aggression is often positively correlated with other behavioural traits such as boldness and activity levels. Comparisons across populations can help to determine factors that promote the evolution of such traits. We quantified these behaviours by testing the responses of wild-caught poeciliid fish, Brachyrhaphis episcopi, to mirror image stimuli. This species occurs in populations that experience either high or low levels of predation pressure. Previous studies have shown that B. episcopi from low predation environments are less bold than those that occur with many predators. We therefore predicted that fish from high predation populations would be more aggressive and more active than fish from low predation populations. However, we found the opposite - low predation fish approached a mirror and a novel object more frequently than high predation fish suggesting that 'boldness' and aggression were higher in low predation populations, and that population-level boldness measures may vary depending on context. When tested individually, low predation fish inspected their mirror image more frequently. Females, but not males, from low predation sites were also more aggressive towards their mirror image. Variation in female aggression may be driven by a trade-off between food availability and predation risk. This suggests that the relationship between aggression and boldness has been shaped by adaptation to environmental conditions, and not genetic constraints. PMID:20850509

Archard, Gabrielle A; Braithwaite, Victoria A

2011-01-01

43

Contextual Variables Affecting Aggressive Behaviour in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities Who Live in a Residential Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…

Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.

2009-01-01

44

Do Social Information-Processing Models Explain Aggressive Behaviour by Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Residential Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…

van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

2006-01-01

45

Changes in testosterone mediate the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour.  

PubMed

Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour. PMID:23587440

Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M

2013-10-01

46

Competition for the home and aggressive behaviour in the chiton Acanthopleura gemmata (Blainville) (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized screening of all the positions recorded during a synodic month on 120 individually marked chitons (Acanthopleura gemmata) pinpointed their preferential resting points. Unlike the majority of intertidal chitons so far studied, A. gemmata rests in well-defined homes actively dug in the rock. Homes proved to be not strictly individual and periodically interchangeable. A complex aggressive behaviour was recorded in

Guido Chelazzi; Stefano Focardi; Jean Louis Deneubourg; Riccardo Innocenti

1983-01-01

47

Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Improves Aggression, but Not Self-Injurious Behaviour, in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…

Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.

2008-01-01

48

Peer Acceptance and Self-Perceptions of Verbal and Behavioural Aggression and Social Withdrawal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a model of maladaptive social interactions that includes both behavioural and communication correlates of peer acceptance and self-perceived social competence. Tested in a sample of 377 Hong Kong secondary school students, verbal and nonverbal aggression contributed concurrently and longitudinally to peer acceptance.…

Chang, Lei; Li, Kin Kit; Lei, Li; Liu, Hongyun; Guo, Boliang; Wang, Yan; Fung, Kitty Y.

2005-01-01

49

Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

2009-01-01

50

School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

2012-01-01

51

Cognitive Enrichment in Piglet Rearing: An Approach to Enhance Animal Welfare and to Reduce Aggressive Behaviour  

PubMed Central

It is known that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. For this reason, a new method of cognitive environmental enrichment was experimented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between a sound given by an electronic feeder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of 8 days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in resident-intruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during 8 days of training and the interest of the piglets increased within training days (P < 0.05). In the resident-intruder test, 79.5% of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7% versus 93.1%) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. We conclude that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in resident-intruder situations. PMID:24198969

Rauterberg, Sally; Viazzi, Stefano; Oczak, Maciej; Bahr, Claudia; Guarino, Marcella; Vranken, Erik; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg

2013-01-01

52

[Nurses' experiences with aggressive behaviour of nursing home residents: a cross sectional study in Swiss nursing homes].  

PubMed

The present exploratory descriptive cross-sectional study with the participation of 814 (51.8%) caregivers in 21 Swiss nursing homes provides insight into caregivers' experiences and handling of residents' aggressive behaviour. Moreover, caregiver burden with regard to resident aggression and the consequences on the caregiver-resident-relationship were investigated. The survey was carried out by means of validated questionnaire. Approximately 38% of participants experienced aggressive incidents during the last seven days prior to data collection. In most cases aggressive behaviour was caused by residents suffering from dementia and/or depression and occurred during nursing interventions involving physical contact. As a trigger for aggressive behaviour participants predominately assumed "non-understanding and excessive demand" of residents. Reassuring conversation and keeping oneself at a distance were most often used to calm the situation. Approximately 40% of participants experienced physical attacks as especially distressing and circa 23% were frightened, particularly when aggressive behaviour occurred without warning. Approximately 4% of caregivers avoided contact with residents after an aggressive incident and 12.3% perceived a disturbed relationship. It can be assumed that caregivers do not adequately perceive emotions possibly underlying aggressive behaviour in the escalation phase and therefore may not identify early signs of beginning aggression. PMID:24088651

Zeller, Adelheid; Needham, Ian; Dassen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Halfens, Ruud J G

2013-10-01

53

Aggressive and Antisocial Behaviours among Secondary School Students in Botswana. The Influence of Family and School Based Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between family factors and secondary school students' aggressive and antisocial behaviours. Participants were 1,478 junior and senior secondary school students from four major urban centres in Botswana, aged 12-20. Results showed significant prevalence of self-reported aggressive tendencies and antisocial…

Malete, Leapetswe

2007-01-01

54

The time course of aggressive behaviour in juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus fed with dietary L-tryptophan supplementation.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of dietary L-tryptophan (TRP) supplementation on the time course of aggressive behaviour and on neuroendocrine and hormonal indicators in juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus. Supplementation with TRP promoted a change in the fight pattern at the beginning of an interaction with an intruder, resulting in decreased aggressive behaviours during the first 20?min. The decrease in aggression did not persist throughout the interaction but increased at 3 and 6?h after the beginning of the fight. Monoamine levels in the hypothalamus were not influenced by TRP before or after the fight; however, the hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) concentration and the 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5HIAA):5-HT ratio were significantly correlated with the reduction in aggressive behaviour at the beginning of the fight. Cortisol was not altered by TRP before the fight. After the fight cortisol increased to higher levels in B. amazonicus fed with supplementary TRP. These results indicate that TRP supplementation alters the aggressive behaviour of B. amazonicus and that this effect is limited to the beginning of the fight, suggesting a transient effect of TRP on aggressive behaviour. This is the first study reporting the effects of TRP supplementation on the time course of aggressive interaction in fishes. PMID:24245775

Wolkers, C P B; Serra, M; Szawka, R E; Urbinati, E C

2014-01-01

55

Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

2011-01-01

56

Aggression in bottlenose dolphins: Evidence for sexual coercion, male-male competition, and female tolerance through analysis of tooth-rake marks and behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aggressive behaviour is rarely observed, but may have a large impact on the social struc- ture, relationships and interactions in animal societies. Long-term behavioural study of Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, suggests that males are more aggressive than females, and use sexual coercion during the breeding season, but age and sex-specific patterns of aggression have not

Erin M. Scott; Janet Mann; Jana J. Watson-Capps; Brooke L. Sargeant; Richard C. Connor

2005-01-01

57

Staff Reactions to Challenging Behaviour: An Observation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff reactions play an important role in the development and maintaining of clients' challenging behaviour. Because there is a paucity of research on staff reactions in naturalistic settings, this study examined sequential associations between challenging behaviour and staff reactions by means of a descriptive analysis. We analysed video…

Lambrechts, Greet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Eeman, Lieve; Maes, Bea

2010-01-01

58

Behavioural adaptations of sheep to repeated acidosis challenges and effect of yeast supplementation.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine whether sheep modify their feeding and general behaviour when they undergo acidosis challenge, whether these modifications are maintained when acidosis challenges are repeated and whether yeast supplementation affects these modifications. Twelve rumen-cannulated wethers fed concentrate (wheat) and forage (hay) were exposed to three 28-day periods consisting of a 23-day recovery phase (20% of wheat) followed by a 5-day acidosis challenge (60% of wheat). Both diets limited food intake to 90% of ad libitum intake. Six sheep received a daily supplementation of a live yeast product, six received a placebo. Ruminal pH was recorded continuously. Daily consumption of wheat, hay, water and weekly consumption of salt were monitored. Behavioural observations were performed twice in each period: once under the recovery phase and once under acidosis challenge. These observations included video recordings over 24 h (time budget), social tests (mixing with another sheep for 5 min) and nociception tests (CO2 hot laser). As expected, sheep spent more time with a ruminal pH below 5.6 during challenges than during recovery phases (12.5 v. 4.7 h/day). Sheep drank more water (3.87 v. 3.27 l/day) and ingested more salt (16 v. 11 g/day) during challenges. They also spent more time standing than during recovery phases, adopting more frequent alarm postures and reacting more slowly to the hot stimulus. More severe behavioural modifications were observed during the first challenge than the two other challenges. Significant concentrate refusals were observed during challenge 1: from days 3 to 5 of this challenge, sheep ate only half of the distributed concentrate. Sheep were also more active and more aggressive towards each other in challenge 1. These behavioural modifications disappeared as the challenges were repeated: no behavioural modifications were observed between challenges and recovery phases during periods 2 and 3, and furthermore, sheep rapidly ate all the concentrate distributed during the third challenge. Focusing on the effects of yeast, the only differences registered between the two groups concerned ruminal pH, that is, mean ruminal pH values in the supplemented group were lower during the first challenge (5.11 v. 5.60) but higher during the third challenge (5.84 v. 5.28). In conclusion, our experiment suggests sheep can adapt to acidosis challenges, especially with yeast supplementation. Otherwise, ruminal pH values remained low during challenges, indicating that the modifications of general and feeding behaviour in subacute ruminal acidosis situations are not due exclusively to low ruminal pH values. PMID:23031140

Commun, L; Silberberg, M; Mialon, M M; Martin, C; Veissier, I

2012-12-01

59

Aggressive Behaviour Among Swazi Upper Primary and Junior Secondary Students: Implications For Ongoing Educational Reforms Concerning Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Swaziland is planning to introduce inclusive education as part of education for all. The innovation may benefit learners with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). A purposive teacher sample (N = 47) was used to generate and identify behavioural problems that are prevalent in Swazi schools. Aggression was one of the many conduct disorders…

Mundia, Lawrence

2006-01-01

60

The Mediating Effects of Verbal Skills in the Relationship between Low Birth Weight and Childhood Aggressive Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prenatal and perinatal risk factors, such as low birth weight, have been linked to higher levels of aggressive and destructive behaviours during childhood. Although low birth weight is associated with childhood externalizing behaviour, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain open to empirical investigation. The current study extends the…

Vaske, Jamie; Newsome, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle

2013-01-01

61

Evaluation of drinking patterns and their impact on alcohol-related aggression: a national survey of adolescent behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background Although there have been a wide range of epidemiological studies examining the impact of patterns of alcohol consumption among adolescents, there remains considerable variability in both defining these patterns and the ability to comprehensively evaluate their relationship to behavioural patterns. This study explores a new procedure for defining and evaluating drinking patterns and integrating well-established indicators. The composite measure is then used to estimate the impact of these patterns on alcohol-related aggressive behaviour among Italian adolescents. Methods Data were collected as part of the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). A national sample of 14,199 students aged 15–19 years was collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire completed in a classroom setting. Drinking patterns were established using principal component analysis. Alcohol-related aggression was analysed as to its relationship to patterns of drinking, behaviour of friends towards alcohol use, substance use/abuse, school performance, family relationships and leisure activities. Results Several specific drinking patterns were identified: “Drinking to Excess” (DE), “Drinking with Intoxication” (DI) and “Drinking but Not to Excess” (DNE). A higher percentage of males were involved in alcohol-related aggression compared with females. In males, the DE and DI patterns significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol-related aggression, whereas the DNE pattern was negatively associated. Similar results were found in females, although the DI pattern was not significantly associated with alcohol-related aggression. Overall, cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, truancy, limited parental monitoring, frequent evenings spent outside of the home and peer influence associated strongly with alcohol-related aggression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that drinking patterns, as uniquely monitored with an integrated metric, can: 1) explain drinking habits better than commonly used indicators of alcohol use and 2) provide a better understanding of behavioural risks such as alcohol-related aggression. Environmental background also appears to strongly associate with this type of aggressive behaviour. PMID:24112134

2013-01-01

62

Addressing challenging behaviour in children with Down syndrome: The use of applied behaviour analysis for assessment and intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with Down syndrome and the examination of behaviourally based strategies to

Kathleen M. Feeley; Emily A. Jones

2006-01-01

63

Indirect genetic effects for growth rate in domestic pigs alter aggressive and manipulative biting behaviour.  

PubMed

Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40 % less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27 % less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40 % less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P < 0.01), with no G × E interactions. These results show opportunities to reduce harmful biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986

Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

2015-01-01

64

Effects of algal grazing and aggressive behaviour of the fishes Pomacentrus lividus and Acanthurus sohal on coral-reef ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behaviour of the fishes Pomacentrus lividus Bl. Schn. and Acanthurus sohal Forskal from the Red Sea is briefly described, and its effect on intensity of algal grazing by herbivorous fish is demonstrated by settlement experiments. Green filamentous alga settles and grows at shallow depths over large areas of coral reefs, but is cropped by fishes to such an extent

P. J. Vine

1974-01-01

65

Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

Chan, Siu Mui

2010-01-01

66

Teacher-Child Conflict and Aggressive Behaviour in First Grade: The Intervening Role of Children's Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High levels of teacher-child conflict have repeatedly been found to amplify children's aggressive behaviour. Up to now, however, research on possible mechanisms explaining this link is largely lacking. The current study aimed to test whether children's self-esteem is an intervening mechanism. Participants were 139 children (70 boys, M age = 6.18…

Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

2011-01-01

67

Using Behavioural Skills Training to Treat Aggression in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous studies of anger management in people with intellectual disability failed to control for the effects of the number of provocative stimuli presented and lacked direct measures of behaviour and treatment integrity data. Methods: This experiment systematically assessed and presented discriminative stimuli for aggressive

Travis, Robert W.; Sturmey, Peter

2013-01-01

68

Addressing Challenging Behaviour in Children with Down Syndrome: The Use of Applied Behaviour Analysis for Assessment and Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with…

Feeley, Kathlee M.; Jones, Emily A.

2006-01-01

69

Course and predictors of physical aggressive behaviour after discharge from a psychiatric inpatient unit: 1 year follow-up.  

PubMed

The present study analyzes course and predictors of physically aggressive behaviour over a 1-year follow up in a sample of patients discharged from a psychiatric inpatient unit. One hundred and eighty-six patients discharged from a locked short-term Psychiatric Inpatient Unit at the Bologna University Hospital. After discharge, two data collection contacts at 1 month and at 1 year were scheduled. In particular, psychiatrists, nurses, and other professionals were interviewed by the research staff using the Overt Aggression Scale. About 20 % of discharged patients showed physical aggressiveness in subsequent follow-up contacts. Risk factors for physical violence in the short-time period were social problems and a longer time from the first psychiatric contact. Living in residential facilities and physical aggressiveness during hospitalization were correlated to violence in the long-time period. Risk factors for physically violent behaviour differed in the short-term and long-term follow-ups; different causes of violent behaviour could be hypothesized. PMID:22820931

Amore, Mario; Tonti, Cristina; Esposito, William; Baratta, Stefano; Berardi, Domenico; Menchetti, Marco

2013-08-01

70

Depression in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Symptoms and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Psychiatric evaluation of adults with intellectual disability (ID) remains complex because of limitations in verbal abilities, atypical clinical presentation and challenging behaviour. This study examines the clinical presentation of adults with depression compared with bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and non-psychiatric control…

Hurley, A. D.

2008-01-01

71

Danish Teachers' Conception of Challenging Behaviour and DAMP/ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how teachers of young children in Denmark perceived challenging behaviours in children who have characteristics consistent with Deficit in Attention, Motor Control and Perception (DAMP) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study was conducted in schools and kindergartens in three demographically different…

Holst, Jesper

2008-01-01

72

Brief report: Cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with socio-demographics, aggressive behaviour at school, and mental health outcomes.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about those who cyberbully others, especially in a UK context. We drew on data from 1144 young people aged 12-13 in eight English secondary schools to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with sociodemographics, other behaviours, and health outcomes. Overall, 14.1% of respondents reported ever cyberbullying others with no significant differences by gender or socioeconomic status. Drawing on mixed-effects logistic regression models, first we found a strong, dose-response relationship between aggressive behaviour at school and cyberbullying others, suggesting that cyberbullying may not only be a facet of wider patterns of bullying but also of aggression more broadly. Second, cyberbullying others was associated with poorer quality of life and with psychological difficulties but not with peer/social problems or worse mental wellbeing. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether such associations are causal. PMID:25448835

Fletcher, Adam; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Jones, Rebecca; Allen, Elizabeth; Viner, Russell M; Bonell, Chris

2014-12-01

73

Differentiation by morphine of two types of aggressive behaviour in the convict cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum).  

PubMed

Morphie sulfate (5 mg/l and 10 mg/l) significantly decreased the amount of territorial aggression in the convict cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum). The same doses had no effect on predatory aggression (ingestion of brine shrimp). The data suggest that previously demonstrated morphine receptor in the fish has functional properties. PMID:1237915

Avis, H H; Peeke, H V

1975-09-17

74

Staff Variables Associated with the Challenging Behaviour of Clients with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has identified that staff-client interactions play an important role in the origin and maintenance of challenging behaviour. Particularly, the reciprocity between staff behaviour and client behaviour has been considered a key issue. Furthermore, severe challenging behaviour has been found to elicit negative emotional…

Lambrechts, G.; Kuppens, S.; Maes, B.

2009-01-01

75

Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

2014-01-01

76

Behavioural knowledge, causal beliefs and self-efficacy as predictors of special educators' emotional reactions to challenging behaviours.  

PubMed

Theoretical models and emerging empirical data suggest that the emotional reactions of staff to challenging behaviours may affect their responses to challenging behaviours and their psychological well-being. However, there have been few studies focusing on factors related to staff emotional reactions. Seventy staff working in educational environments with children with intellectual disability and/or autism completed a self-report questionnaire that measured demographic factors, behavioural causal beliefs, behavioural knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, and emotional reactions to challenging behaviours. Regression analyses revealed that behavioural causal beliefs were a positive predictor, and self-efficacy and behavioural knowledge were negative predictors of negative emotional reactions to challenging behaviours. Staff with formal qualifications also reported more negative emotional reactions. No other demographic factors emerged as significant predictors. The results suggest that behavioural causal beliefs, low self-efficacy and low behavioural knowledge may make staff vulnerable to experiencing negative emotional reactions to challenging behaviours. Researchers and clinicians need to address these issues in staff who work with people with challenging behaviours. PMID:11869385

Hastings, R P; Brown, T

2002-02-01

77

Melatonin decreases daytime challenging behaviour in persons with intellectual disability and chronic insomnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Persons with intellectual disability (ID) and sleep problems exhibit more daytime challenging behaviours than persons with ID without sleep problems. Several anecdotal reports suggest that melatonin is not only effective in the treatment of insomnia, but also decreases daytime challenging behaviour. However, the effect of melatonin treatment on daytime challenging behaviour in persons with ID has not been investigated

W. J. Braam; H. C. M. Didden; A. P. H. M. Maas; H. P. L. M. Korzilius; M. G. Smits; L. M. G Curfs

2010-01-01

78

Signals and behavioural responses are not coupled in males: aggression affected by replacement of an evolutionarily lost colour signal.  

PubMed Central

Male Sceloporus virgatus lack the blue abdominal patches which are used during aggressive encounters in other Sceloporus lizards. Herein we report that, despite having lost this signal, males have retained a behavioural response to experimentally restored blue abdominal patches. We tested two adaptive hypotheses: selection acted primarily upon signallers or selection acted upon both signallers and receivers. The first predicts that only the signal is lost and that male interactions should be affected by the restoration of blue patches. The latter predicts that both the signal and behavioural response are lost and the display of the restored blue patches should have no effect on male-male interactions. We compared the behaviour of receivers in paired encounters where one male (signaller) had blue-painted abdominal patches to a set of trials where both males had white-painted abdomens, unmanipulated abdomens or a novel-painted pattern. The receivers of the blue-painted signal were more likely to display submissive behaviour. The receivers in either the unmanipulated, white-painted or novel-painted signal trials were more likely to display neutral behaviour. These results support the hypothesis that receivers have retained a behavioural response and selection has acted primarily on the signaller. We believe this is the first documentation of males responding to an evolutionarily lost signal in conspecific males. PMID:10819143

Quinn, V S; Hews, D K

2000-01-01

79

Neural mechanisms of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unchecked aggression and violence exact a significant toll on human societies. Aggression is an umbrella term for behaviours that are intended to inflict harm. These behaviours evolved as adaptations to deal with competition, but when expressed out of context, they can have destructive consequences. Uncontrolled aggression has several components, such as impaired recognition of social cues and enhanced impulsivity. Molecular

Brian C. Trainor; Randy J. Nelson

2007-01-01

80

GH response to intravenous clonidine challenge: absence of relationship with behavioral irritability, aggression, or impulsivity in human subjects.  

PubMed

Previous study suggests a role for post-synaptic alpha(2)-noradrenergic receptor sensitivity in irritability and/or aggression and impulsivity. In this study, we conducted intravenous challenges with the alpha(2)-noradrenergic agonist, clonidine, to assess the relationship between measures of impulsive aggression and post-synaptic alpha(2)-noradrenergic receptor sensitivity in human subjects. Subjects included 38 individuals with personality disorder and 28 healthy volunteer controls. Measures included the Irritability score and the Total Assault score from the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), Aggression score from Life History of Aggression (LHA) assessment, and Impulsivity scores from the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-II (EPQ-II). The Log of Peak DeltaGH[CLON] response was used as the index of post-synaptic alpha(2)-noradrenergic receptor sensitivity. No significant correlations were found between the Log of Peak DeltaGH[CLON] response and any measure used in this study. Unlike a previous investigation, this study provides little support for a role of post-synaptic alpha(2)-noradrenergic receptor sensitivity in aggression in healthy or personality disordered subjects. PMID:20483477

Coccaro, Emil F; Kavoussi, Richard J

2010-07-30

81

Carers' Experiences of Being Exposed to Challenging Behaviour in Services for Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have demonstrated that being exposed to challenging behaviour in services of care can have a negative impact on staff. Recently, challenging behaviour has been linked to people with autism spectrum disorders; however, little research has been aimed at exploring staff's experiences of facing such behaviour in services for…

Butrimaviciute, Rasa; Grieve, Alan

2014-01-01

82

Persistence of Challenging Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disability over a Period of 11 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Challenging behaviours in people with an intellectual disability (ID) often develop early and tend to persist throughout life. This study presents data on the chronicity of challenging behaviours in adults with ID over a period of 11 years, and explores the characteristics of people with persistent serious behaviour problems. Method:…

Totsika, V.; Toogood, S.; Hastings, R. P.; Lewis, S.

2008-01-01

83

Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

2011-01-01

84

The Relation between Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Staff Behaviour towards Clients with ID and Challenging Behaviour: A Validation Study of the Staff-Client Interactive Behaviour Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Interpersonal staff behaviour is one of the instigating factors associated with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are several studies focusing on the influence of intrapersonal staff characteristics--such as beliefs, attributions and emotional reactions--on staff behaviour. Little is known,…

Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Stams, G. J. J. M.; Moonen, X. M. H.

2010-01-01

85

Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour  

PubMed Central

Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111–140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581–604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour. PMID:22826343

Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

2012-01-01

86

Neural Responses to Aggressive Challenge Correlate with Behavior in Non-breeding Sparrows  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted on captive male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) during the nonbreeding season in order to 1) examine Fos and Zenk responses of basal forebrain sites to simulated territorial intrusion (STI), and 2) determine how those responses relate to aggression. Numerous forebrain areas showed significant Fos and Zenk responses to STI, and in several areas of the hypothalamus and lateral septum, these responses were negatively correlated with aggressive behavior. Homologous areas in mammals show greater responses in subordinate subjects than in dominant subjects. Thus these brain areas may be responsive to social stressors across a wide range of vertebrates. PMID:16189485

Goodson, James L.; Evans, Andrew K.; Soma, Kiran K.

2008-01-01

87

Characteristics of Challenging Behaviours in Adults with Autistic Disorder, PDD-NOS, and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Challenging behaviours are frequently a problem for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). A better understanding of which individuals display which behaviours, at what rates, and the relationship of these behaviours to comorbid psychopathology would have important implications. Method: A group of…

Matson, Johnny L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

2008-01-01

88

Expressive Communication of Children with Autism: The Use of Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a lack of empirical research investigating challenging behaviour in children with autism with severe speech impairments in naturalistic settings. The aim of the present study was to investigate challenging behaviour among Australian and Taiwanese children with autism who are non-verbal or have limited speech (i.e. less than…

Chiang, Hsu-Min

2008-01-01

89

Melatonin Decreases Daytime Challenging Behaviour in Persons with Intellectual Disability and Chronic Insomnia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Persons with intellectual disability (ID) and sleep problems exhibit more daytime challenging behaviours than persons with ID without sleep problems. Several anecdotal reports suggest that melatonin is not only effective in the treatment of insomnia, but also decreases daytime challenging behaviour. However, the effect of melatonin…

Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Maas, A. P. H. M.; Korzilius, H.; Smits, M. G.; Curfs, L. M. G.

2010-01-01

90

Frequency and Severity of Challenging Behaviour in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goals of this study were to determine the prevalence, frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Because in the literature several health problems and sensory impairments are associated with the onset and existence of challenging behaviour, this relationship was…

Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A. J. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

2010-01-01

91

The Analysis of Challenging Relations: Influences on Interactive Behaviour of Staff towards Clients with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Relationships between support staff and clients with intellectual disability (ID) are important for quality of care, especially when dealing with challenging behaviour. Building upon an interpersonal model, this study investigates the influence of client challenging behaviour, staff attitude and staff emotional intelligence on…

Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Hendriks, A. H. C.

2014-01-01

92

Physical Conditions and Challenging Behaviour in People with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Challenging behaviour is a major problem among people with intellectual disabilities. Physical factors may be an important cause. The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the physical conditions associated with challenging behaviour. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane systematic…

de Winter, C. F.; Jansen, A. A. C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

2011-01-01

93

Psychodynamic Therapy and Intellectual Disabilities: Dealing with Challenging Behaviour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four case studies concerning long-term psychodynamic treatment of German individuals with intellectual disabilities are presented: an aggressive young man with a mild intellectual disability; a young man with multiple disabilities with destructive behavior; a withdrawn young woman with self-destructive behavior; and a young man with autism with…

Berry, Paul

2003-01-01

94

Relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of the common bream Abramis brama L. in an aquarium environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of common\\u000a bream Abramis brama were examined in an aquarium environment. The breeding tubercles of fish were counted, the number of attacks was quantified\\u000a by male status and circulating rates of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone from blood plasma were analysed using radioimmunoassay\\u000a procedures. The results revealed that

P. Poncin; B. Nzau Matondo; C. Termol; P. Kestemont; J. C. Philippart

2011-01-01

95

Addressing Challenging Behaviours in the General Education Setting: Conducting a Teacher-Based Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a student demonstrates a challenging or problematic behaviour in the classroom, the climate and the instructional experience can change dramatically for both the students and the classroom teacher. Before resorting to sanctions and punitive consequences, there is a series of steps a classroom teacher can conduct to reduce and replace the…

Moreno, Gerardo

2011-01-01

96

Attachment Behaviour towards Support Staff in Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: Associations with Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Attachment research has shown the importance of attachment behaviour for the prevention of dysregulated behaviour due to emotional distress. The support of an attachment figure may be especially important for people with intellectual disability (ID), because they are less adept in dealing with stressful situations on their own. Our…

De Schipper, J. C.; Schuengel, C.

2010-01-01

97

Integrating Mindfulness Meditation With Cognitive and Behavioural Therapies: The Challenge of Combining Acceptance and Change-Based Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent innovations in psychological treatments have integrated mindfulness meditation techniques with traditional cognitive and behavioural therapies, challenging traditional cognitive and behavioural therapists to integrate acceptance- and change-based strategies. This article details how 2 treatments, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and dialectical behaviour therapy, have met this challenge. We review the integration rationale underlying the 2 treatments, how the treatments combine strategies from

Mark A Lau; Shelley F McMain

2005-01-01

98

The presence of aggression cues inverts the relation between digit ratio (2D:4D) and prosocial behaviour in a dictator game.  

PubMed

Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have relatively shorter index (2D) compared to ring (4D) fingers than women. More masculine ratios are thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone levels. In the present paper, we aim to show the context-dependency of the relation between 2D:4D and social behaviour. In two studies, we expose participants either to control or to aggression cues. Afterwards, they make a decision in a dictator game. Participants with low 2D:4D showed higher allocation levels (i.e. they were more prosocial) than participants with high 2D:4D in a neutral situation. However, this relationship inverts after exposure to an aggression cue. It turns out that in high 2D:4D people, aggression cues even increase prosocial behaviour. We call for future research which focuses on other plausible interactions between 2D:4D and context cues rather than on linear relations. PMID:18590604

Millet, Kobe; Dewitte, Siegfried

2009-02-01

99

Training Emotional Intelligence Related to Treatment Skills of Staff Working with Clients with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display challenging behaviour may contribute to the continuation of this behaviour, because it causes emotional reactions such as anxiety, anger and annoyance, which may prohibit adequate response behaviour. To enhance staff behaviour and treatment skills a training…

Zijlmans, L. J. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Derksen, J. J. L.

2011-01-01

100

Progesterone modulates aggression in sex-role reversed female African black coucals  

PubMed Central

Testosterone is assumed to be the key hormone related to resource-defence aggression. While this role has been confirmed mostly in the context of reproduction in male vertebrates, the effect of testosterone on the expression of resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates is not so well established. Furthermore, laboratory work suggests that progesterone inhibits aggressive behaviour in females. In this study, we investigated the hormonal changes underlying territorial aggression in free-living female African black coucals, Centropus grillii (Aves; Cuculidae). Females of this sex-role reversed polyandrous bird species should be particularly prone to be affected by testosterone because they aggressively defend territories similar to males of other species. We show, however, that territorial aggression in female black coucals is modulated by progesterone. After aggressive territorial challenges female black coucals expressed lower levels of progesterone than unchallenged territorial females and females without territories, suggesting that progesterone may suppress territorial aggression and is downregulated during aggressive encounters. Indeed, females treated with physiological concentrations of progesterone were less aggressive than females with placebo implants. This is one of the first demonstrations of a corresponding hormone–behaviour interaction under challenged and experimental conditions in free-living females. We anticipate that our observation in a sex-role reversed species may provide a more general mechanism, by which progesterone—in interaction with testosterone—may regulate resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates. PMID:18252672

Goymann, Wolfgang; Wittenzellner, Andrea; Schwabl, Ingrid; Makomba, Musa

2008-01-01

101

Self-injury and aggression in tuberous sclerosis complex: cross syndrome comparison and associated risk markers  

PubMed Central

Background Research reporting prevalence rates of self-injurious and aggressive behaviour in people with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is limited. No studies have compared rates of these behaviours in TSC with those in other syndrome groups matched for degree of disability or investigated risk markers for these behaviours in TSC. Methods Data from the Challenging Behaviour Questionnaire were collected for 37 children, aged 4 to 15 years, with TSC. Odds ratios were used to compare rates of self-injury and aggression in children with TSC with children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X, Cornelia de Lange and Down syndromes. Characteristics were measured using the Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire, the Activity Questionnaire, the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire, the Wessex Behaviour Schedule and the revised Non-communicating Children Pain Checklist. Mann-Whitney U analyses were used to compare characteristics between individuals with self-injury and aggression and those not showing these behaviours. Results Rates of self-injury and aggression in TSC were 27% and 50%, respectively. These are high but not significantly different from rates in children with Down syndrome or other syndrome groups. Both self-injury and aggression were associated with stereotyped and pain-related behaviours, low mood, hyperactivity, impulsivity and repetitive use of language. Children who engaged in self-injury also had lower levels of interest and pleasure and showed a greater degree of ‘insistence on sameness’ than children who did not self-injure. Aggression was associated with repetitive behaviour. The majority of these associations remained significant when the association with level of adaptive functioning was controlled for. Conclusions Behavioural profiles can be used to identify those most at risk of developing self-injury and aggression. Further research is warranted to understand the influence of such internal factors as mood, ASD symptomatology and pain on challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. PMID:24822087

2014-01-01

102

Huddling behaviour and energetics of Sminthopsis spp. (Marsupialia, Dasyruidae) in response to environmental challenge.  

PubMed

We describe how behavioural responses are an important adjunct to physiological responses for two dunnart marsupials that live in arid environments. Behavioural responses of the stripe-faced dunnart Sminthopsis macroura and the Ooldea dunnart Sminthopsis ooldea differed with acclimation to four ambient temperature (T(a)) regimes, 12 h:12 h of 5-15 °C, 12-22 °C, 18-28 °C and 25-35 °C. Aggression levels were low at regimes 5-15 °C and 12-22 °C, and high at regimes 18-28 °C and 25-35 °C. The proportion of S. macroura huddled in groups increased significantly with decreasing T(a) regime, but there was no aggregation by S. ooldea at low T(a) regimes. The energetic benefit of huddling by S. macroura was highest for pairs of dunnarts (27% saving compared with singles) and only 3% for triplets at T(a)=10 °C. Thermal conductance decreased for pairs but not triplets compared to singles. There were no energetic savings for S. ooldea with increased numbers, and thermal conductance was the same per individual for single, pairs and triplets, reflecting their lack of huddling behaviour. The flexible behavioural (huddling) responses of S. macroura may facilitate their capacity to occupy a broad geographical distribution, unlike S. ooldea, which had inflexible behavioural responses (no huddling) and has a more restricted geographical range. The phylogenetic relationships of the dunnarts suggest that social behaviours may have arisen only once in the most adaptable subgroup of the Sminthopsini. PMID:24524971

Tomlinson, Sean; Withers, Philip C; Maloney, Shane K

2014-04-10

103

Staff's Attitudes and Reactions towards Aggressive Behaviour of Clients with Intellectual Disabilities: A Multi-Level Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were collected from 121 staff members (20 direct support staff teams) on background characteristics of the individual staff members and their teams (gender, age, years of work experience, position and education), the frequency and form of aggression of clients with an intellectual disability (verbal or physical), staff members' attitudes…

Knotter, Maartje H.; Wissink, Inge B.; Moonen, Xavier M. H.; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; Jansen, Gerard J.

2013-01-01

104

Association of Aggressive Behaviours with Psychiatric Disorders, Age, Sex and Degree of Intellectual Disability: A Large-Scale Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The link between aggression and mental disorders has been the focus of diverse studies in persons with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Because of discrepancies in the finding of studies in persons with ID to date, and because of differences in research design, instruments used and the population studied, more research is…

Tsiouris, J. A.; Kim, S. Y.; Brown, W. T.; Cohen, I. L.

2011-01-01

105

Using the Staff Sharing Scheme to Support School Staff in Managing Challenging Behaviour More Effectively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how educational psychologists working in a training/consultative way can enable teachers to manage challenging pupil behaviour more effectively. It sets out a rationale which encourages schools to embrace a group based teacher peer-support system as part of regular school development. It then explores the usefulness of the…

Jones, Daniel; Monsen, Jeremy; Franey, John

2013-01-01

106

Analysing the Management of Challenging Behaviour in Romanian Orphanages: Looking for Ways Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Claire Hardman reflects on her work on behaviour management in two Romanian orphanages. Quite apart from the intrinsic interest of the topic, the article serves as a reminder of the number of professionals in this country who regularly take time out to work abroad in unfamiliar and often challenging circumstances and who come back…

Hardman, Claire

2004-01-01

107

The Impact of Participation in the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge on Adolescent Resiliency and Health Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine characteristics of resilience among Australian adolescents, the extent to which resilience might be strengthened through participation in a dance/drama competition, the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge (REC), and the impact participation may have on health related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: …

Grunstein, Rose; Nutbeam, Don

2007-01-01

108

The Treatment of Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disabilities: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…

Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.

2009-01-01

109

Self-Efficacy and Stress of Staff Managing Challenging Behaviours of People with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy has been reported to play a significant role in stress levels of parents facing challenging behaviours of their children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has also been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. To understand the implications of staff self-efficacy in…

Cudre-Mauroux, Annick

2011-01-01

110

Understanding School Responses to Students' Challenging Behaviour: A Review of Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the varied ways in which schools can respond to students who present with challenging behaviours and who are at risk of disengagement from learning. It sets out a typology of school responses and reflects on the philosophies which underpin each approach. In an effort to rethink the use of suspensions within schools, which…

Michail, Samia

2011-01-01

111

Student Behaviour and Emotional Challenges for Teachers and Parents in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social, emotional, and behavioural disorders of children, within the context of a whole-school approach to inclusion as adopted by Hong Kong, can be challenging for teachers and parents. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and feedback from a range of experts and parent groups in Hong Kong, specific scales were developed to measure…

Forlin, Chris; Cooper, Paul

2013-01-01

112

A prefrontal cortex-brainstem neuronal projection that controls response to behavioural challenge.  

PubMed

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to participate in high-level control of the generation of behaviours (including the decision to execute actions); indeed, imaging and lesion studies in human beings have revealed that PFC dysfunction can lead to either impulsive states with increased tendency to initiate action, or to amotivational states characterized by symptoms such as reduced activity, hopelessness and depressed mood. Considering the opposite valence of these two phenotypes as well as the broad complexity of other tasks attributed to PFC, we sought to elucidate the PFC circuitry that favours effortful behavioural responses to challenging situations. Here we develop and use a quantitative method for the continuous assessment and control of active response to a behavioural challenge, synchronized with single-unit electrophysiology and optogenetics in freely moving rats. In recording from the medial PFC (mPFC), we observed that many neurons were not simply movement-related in their spike-firing patterns but instead were selectively modulated from moment to moment, according to the animal's decision to act in a challenging situation. Surprisingly, we next found that direct activation of principal neurons in the mPFC had no detectable causal effect on this behaviour. We tested whether this behaviour could be causally mediated by only a subclass of mPFC cells defined by specific downstream wiring. Indeed, by leveraging optogenetic projection-targeting to control cells with specific efferent wiring patterns, we found that selective activation of those mPFC cells projecting to the brainstem dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a serotonergic nucleus implicated in major depressive disorder, induced a profound, rapid and reversible effect on selection of the active behavioural state. These results may be of importance in understanding the neural circuitry underlying normal and pathological patterns of action selection and motivation in behaviour. PMID:23160494

Warden, Melissa R; Selimbeyoglu, Aslihan; Mirzabekov, Julie J; Lo, Maisie; Thompson, Kimberly R; Kim, Sung-Yon; Adhikari, Avishek; Tye, Kay M; Frank, Loren M; Deisseroth, Karl

2012-12-20

113

The Relationship between Challenging Behaviour, Burnout and Cognitive Variables in Staff Working with People Who Have Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is evidence to suggest a relationship between the way in which staff perceive challenging behaviour and burnout in staff working with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour. However, the evidence of a direct link is equivocal and it is possible that a number of different variables mediate this…

Mills, S.; Rose, J.

2011-01-01

114

Teaching Staff Knowledge, Attributions and Confidence in Relation to Working with Children with an Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined Scottish teaching staff knowledge about the definition and management of challenging behaviour displayed by children with an intellectual disability. Knowledge levels were relatively low, and participants were most likely to define challenging behaviour by function or topography. Teaching staff were largely unaware of…

Rae, Helen; Murray, George; McKenzie, Karen

2011-01-01

115

The role of physiological arousal in the management of challenging behaviours in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Challenging behaviours restrict opportunities and choices for people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and frequently lead to inappropriate and costly service interventions. Managing challenging behaviours of people with autism is an important area of research. This paper examines some of the evidence for the role of physiological arousal influencing these behaviours. Evidence from the emerging literature about sensory differences is examined. It is proposed that sensory reactivity is associated with hyperarousal; catatonic type behaviours are associated with low levels of reactivity (hypoarousal). A low arousal approach is proposed as a generalised strategy to managing challenging behaviours with ASD. The use of non-contingent reinforcement and antecedent control strategies are recommended for use with challenging behaviours which have a sensory component. Examples are provided to illustrate the approach. The implications of arousal and the use of physical interventions are discussed. It is proposed that arousal is a construct which has significant heuristic value for researchers and practitioners. PMID:25462491

McDonnell, Andrew; McCreadie, Michael; Mills, Richard; Deveau, Roy; Anker, Regine; Hayden, Judy

2014-11-01

116

Angry and Aggressive Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who engage in physical aggression in school present a serious challenge to maintaining a safe and supportive learning environment. Unlike other forms of student aggression, fighting is explicit, is violent, and demands attention. A fight between students in a classroom, hallway, or the lunchroom brings every other activity to a halt and…

Larson, Jim

2008-01-01

117

Aggressive Driving  

MedlinePLUS

Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety Aggressive Driving Main Points Emergency physicians see the tragic consequences of aggressive driving and are dedicated to preventing injuries, including those involving motor vehicles. Aggressive driving is a dangerous problem on the ...

118

Aggressive behaviour and physiological responses to pheromones are strongly impaired in mice deficient for the olfactory G-protein -subunit G8.  

PubMed

Heterotrimeric G-proteins are critical players in the transduction mechanisms underlying odorant and pheromonal signalling. In the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the adult mouse, two different G-protein complexes have been identified. G?o?2?8 is preferentially expressed in the basal neurons and coexpresses with type-2 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V2Rs) whereas G?i2?2?2 is found in the apical neurons and coexpresses with type-1 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V1Rs). V2R-expressing neurons project to the posterior accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) whereas neurons expressing V1Rs send their axon to the anterior AOB. G?8 is also expressed in developing olfactory neurons where this protein is probably associated with Go. Here, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of the G?8 gene and investigated the behavioural effects and the physiological consequences of this mutation. G?8(-/-) mice show a normal development of the main olfactory epithelium; moreover, they do not display major deficits in odour perception. In contrast, the VNO undergoes a slow but remarkable loss of basal neurons starting from the fourth postnatal week, with a 40% reduction of cells at 2 months and 70% at 1 year. This loss is associated with a reduced early-gene expression in the posterior AOB of mice stimulated with pheromones. More interestingly, the G?8 deletion specifically leads to a reduced pheromone-mediated aggressiveness in both males and females, all other socio-sexual behaviours remaining unaltered. This study defines a specific role for G?8 in maintenance of the neuronal population of the VNO and in the mechanisms of pheromonal signalling that involve the aggressive behaviour towards conspecifics. PMID:23836683

Montani, Giorgia; Tonelli, Simone; Sanghez, Valentina; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palanza, Paola; Zimmer, Andreas; Tirindelli, Roberto

2013-08-15

119

Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

2012-01-01

120

Effects of environmental enrichment on growth, aggressive behaviour and brain monoamines of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata reared under different social conditions.  

PubMed

The presence of blue or red-brown substrate on the tank bottom has been previously reported as an efficient means of environmental enrichment for gilthead seabream. The present study aimed to investigate whether this enrichment is still beneficial when gilthead seabream is reared under different social conditions (i.e. a lower 4.9 kg m(-3) and a higher 9.7 kg m(-3) density). Water exchange was adjusted according to fish biomass to exclude density effects on water quality. In the enriched tanks single-colour glass gravel was used as substrate (blue and red-brown substrate, or BS and RBS respectively), while control tanks had no gravel. Growth, aggressive behaviour and size distribution results indicated that the lower density created a less favourable social environment. In both densities studied, BS enhanced growth, suppressed aggression and reduced brain serotonergic activity. In the condition of intense social interactions (i.e. the lower density) BS also reduced brain dopaminergic activity. These results along with the negative correlations observed between brain monoamines and fish body mass, indicated that substrate and density effects are socially-induced. However, there may be several biotic and/or abiotic factors interfering with substrate effects that should be investigated before the practical use of a substrate in land-based intensive aquaculture. PMID:24326244

Batzina, Alkisti; Dalla, Christina; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Karakatsouli, Nafsika

2014-03-01

121

Therapeutic drug monitoring of zuclopenthixol in a double-blind placebo-controlled discontinuation study in adults with intellectual disabilities and aggressive behaviour.  

PubMed

The trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison with a discontinuation design. 49 mentally retarded patients with aggressive behaviour were treated with zuclopenthixol at a dose of 2-20?mg/d. At each visit the clinical effect was evaluated. Correlations between dose, serum concentration, and efficacy measures were calculated. The mean dose was 10.0?mg/day (±5.17); the mean serum concentration 4.19?ng/mL (±3.16). Associations of dosage, serum concentration and clinical efficiency did not result in coherent patterns. Correlations with clinical efficiency measures appeared to be contradictory for dosage and serum concentrations, respectively. As no consistent associations between dosage, serum concentration, and clinical efficiency measures were found, different hypotheses explaining the results are discussed. PMID:24307207

Schwarz, V; Reis, O; Glaser, T; Thome, J; Hiemke, C; Haessler, F

2014-01-01

122

Testosterone elevation and response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge by male northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following aggressive behavior.  

PubMed

There is much discrepancy about the relationship between testosterone (T) and male aggressive behavior. For example, in birds, males of many species significantly elevate T levels during inter-male conflict. However, this is not universal, and in species where males typically do not elevate T during aggressive interactions, concentrations of the hormone are often assumed to be circulating at maximum levels. We examined if male northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) significantly elevated T during simulated territorial intrusions (STIs). We also examined if individuals had the capacity to further elevate T levels in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injections immediately after an aggressive encounter. Our results indicate that male cardinals do not significantly elevate T levels in response to STIs, but have the physiological capacity to significantly elevate T in response to GnRH injections following aggressive interactions. This implies that T levels of individuals captured during STIs were not at maximum concentrations. However, additional findings in this study also suggest the possibility that prolonged social instability could elicit significant elevations in T in males of this species, warranting further investigation. PMID:22613708

DeVries, M Susan; Winters, Caitlin P; Jawor, Jodie M

2012-06-01

123

Feeding and aggressive behaviours in juvenile coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch ) under chemically-mediated risk of predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) spend the first year of their lives in their natal streams, where they may often hold feeding territories. They also face significant risk of predation by birds and fish, and should alter their behaviour to reduce risk of mortality when these predators are present. Although there is laboratory evidence that coho react to predator

Guy Martel; Lawrence M. Dill

1993-01-01

124

Intellectual disability, challenging behaviour and cost in care accommodation: what are the links?  

PubMed

The paper examines the links between degree of intellectual disability, challenging behaviour, service utilisation and cost for a group of people with intellectual disabilities living in care accommodation in England. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of people with intellectual disabilities, identified via provider organisations, with supplementary collection of costs data. Multivariate analyses of cost variations were carried out for 930 adults with intellectual disabilities. There were strong, nonlinear, interdependent links between degree of intellectual disability, behaviour, service use and costs. Higher costs were associated with more severe intellectual disabilities and more challenging behaviour. Sector and scale of residence also influenced cost in quite complex ways. Access to and use of services by people with intellectual disabilities were not always appropriately linked to perceived or actual needs. Policy makers and local commissioning agencies need to explore the sources of cost variation between individuals, sectors and types of accommodation in order to achieve national policy objectives on quality, choice, independence and inclusion. PMID:15969700

Knapp, Martin; Comas-Herrera, Adelina; Astin, Jack; Beecham, Jennifer; Pendaries, Claude

2005-07-01

125

Coping with Challenging Behaviours of Children with Autism: Effectiveness of Brief Training Workshop for Frontline Staff in Special Education Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The present study examined the effectiveness of three staff training elements: psychoeducation (PE) on autism, introduction of functional behavioural analysis (FBA) and emotional management (EM), on the reaction of challenging behaviours for frontline staff towards children with autism in Hong Kong special education settings. Methods:…

Ling, C. Y. M.; Mak, W. W. S.

2012-01-01

126

Relationship between leisure time screen activity and aggressive and violent behaviour in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study.  

PubMed

Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between leisure time spent watching television (TV) and at a computer and aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: In this nationwide study, 14,880 school students, aged 6-18 years, were selected by cluster and stratified multi-stage sampling method from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire (WHO-GSHS) was used. Results: Overall, 13,486 children and adolescents (50·8% boys, 75·6% urban residents) completed the study (participation rate 90·6%). The risk of physical fighting and quarrels increased by 29% (OR 1·29, 95% CI 1·19-1·40) with watching TV for >2 hr/day, by 38% (OR 1·38, 95% CI 1·21-1·57) with leisure time computer work of >2 hr/day, and by 42% (OR 1·42, 95% CI 1·28-1·58) with the total screen time of >2 hr/day. Watching TV or leisure time spent on a computer or total screen time of >2 hr/day increased the risk of bullying by 30% (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·18-1·43), 57% (1·57, 95% CI 1·34-1·85) and 62% (OR 1·62, 95% CI 1·43-1·83). Spending >2 hr/day watching TV and total screen time increased the risk of being bullied by 12% (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·02-1·22) and 15% (OR 1·15, 95% CI 1·02-1·28), respectively. This relationship was not statistically significant for leisure time spent on a computer (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·9-1·27). Conclusions: Prolonged leisure time spent on screen activities is associated with violent and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. In addition to the duration of screen time, the association is likely to be explained also by the media content. PMID:25146837

Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Jari, Mohsen

2014-08-21

127

Investigating Low Adaptive Behaviour and Presence of the Triad of Impairments Characteristic of Autistic Spectrum Disorder as Indicators of Risk for Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Identification of possible personal indicators of risk for challenging behaviour has generally been through association in cross-sectional prevalence studies, but few analyses have controlled for intercorrelation between potential risk factors. The aim was to investigate the extent to which gender, age, presence of the triad of…

Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

2013-01-01

128

Aggressive Angiomyxoma  

PubMed Central

Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid) matrix.[1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence.[2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity. PMID:24860748

Padmavathy, L.; Rao, L. Lakshmana; Lakshmi, M. Dhana; Sylvester, N.

2014-01-01

129

Aggressive angiomyxoma.  

PubMed

Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid) matrix.[1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence.[2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity. PMID:24860748

Padmavathy, L; Rao, L Lakshmana; Lakshmi, M Dhana; Sylvester, N

2014-04-01

130

Signaling Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical

Moira J. van Staaden; William A. Searcy; Roger T. Hanlon

2011-01-01

131

Reliability and Utility of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Tool (BSP-QEII) for Auditing and Quality Development in Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Having an objective means of evaluating the quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) could assist service providers and statutory authorities to monitor and improve the quality of support provided to people with intellectual disability (ID) who exhibit challenging behaviour. The Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II…

McVilly, K.; Webber, L.; Paris, M.; Sharp, G.

2013-01-01

132

Community-Based Residential Supports for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: The Views of Neighbours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The issue of the views of neighbours of community-based residential supports for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour has not been examined till date. This study looks at the views of neighbours of two types of community-based residential supports: non-congregate settings where the minority of residents have…

Robertson, Janet; Emerson, Eric; Pinkney, Lisa; Caesar, Emma; Felce, David; Meek, Andrea; Carr, Deborah; Lowe, Kathy; Knapp, Martin; Hallam, Angela

2005-01-01

133

Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: The Costs and Outcomes of In- and Out-of-Area Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: People with severe challenging behaviour are vulnerable to exclusion from local services and removal to out-of-area placements if locally available supported accommodation is insufficient to meet their needs. There are concerns about the high costs and potentially poorer outcomes of out-of-area placements but relatively little is known…

Perry, J.; Allen, D. G.; Pimm, C.; Meek, A.; Lowe, K.; Groves, S.; Cohen, D.; Felce, D.

2013-01-01

134

The Effect of You Can Do It! Education on the Emotional Resilience of Primary School Students with Social, Emotional, Behavioural and Achievement Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of the You Can Do It! Education (YCDI) cognitive-behavioural intervention program on the emotional resilience of students in grades 4 to 6 who were identified with achievement, behavioural, social and\\/or emotional challenges. 61 students were randomly assigned to either small groups receiving an eight week YCDI cognitive-behavioural intervention or small groups receiving \\

Michael E. Bernard

135

Expanding the Test of Counterfeit Deviance: Are Sexual Knowledge, Experience and Needs a Factor in the Sexualised Challenging Behaviour of Adults with Intellectual Disability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is posited within the literature that the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability may be influenced by low levels of sexual knowledge, lack of sexual experience and unmet sexual needs. In this study, individuals with sexualised challenging behaviour were identified and matched for gender, age and ability level…

Lockhart, K.; Guerin, S.; Shanahan, S.; Coyle, K.

2010-01-01

136

Providing Services in the United Kingdom to People with an Intellectual Disability Who Present Behaviour Which Challenges: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is ongoing debate about the best model of service provision for people with an intellectual disability who present severe behavioural challenges. The present paper reviewed research which evaluated a range of UK service provision in terms of impact on challenging behaviour and other quality of life indices. A literature search was carried…

McKenzie, Karen

2011-01-01

137

A Comparison of Challenging Behaviour in an Adult Group with Down's Syndrome and Dementia Compared with an Adult Down's Syndrome Group without Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in adults with Down's syndrome with and without signs of dementia. Care staff were interviewed using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community version (M.G. Aman & N.N. Singh, Slosson, East Aurora, NY, 1994), to investigate the frequency and severity of challenging

Huxley, Adam; Van-Schaik, Paul; Witts, Paul

2005-01-01

138

Aggressive fibromatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients with aggressive fibromatosis are presented as illustrative examples of this rare non-metastasizing fibroblastic soft tissue tumor. The skeleton was involved in all four of these cases. The radiographic and histological appearances are reviewed and a summary of the literature is presented.

Harry J. Griffiths; Kenneth Robinson; Thomas A. Bonfiglio

1983-01-01

139

The challenge for English schools in responding to current debates on behaviour and violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The riots in English cities in August 2011 have brought debates on behaviour of young people into sharper focus. Criticism of softly-softly approaches and the lack of power for head teachers to discipline is a reoccurring theme within the debate on behaviour in schools. Regaining adult authority is also reflected in the tenor of the government’s 2010 White Paper on

Julie Shaughnessy

2012-01-01

140

The Challenge for English Schools in Responding to Current Debates on Behaviour and Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The riots in English cities in August 2011 have brought debates on behaviour of young people into sharper focus. Criticism of softly-softly approaches and the lack of power for head teachers to discipline is a reoccurring theme within the debate on behaviour in schools. Regaining adult authority is also reflected in the tenor of the government's…

Shaughnessy, Julie

2012-01-01

141

Aggressiveness, Anger and Eating Disorders: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anger and aggressive behaviours, especially those self-directed, are frequent in subjects suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They increase the complexity of the clinical features, change the prognosis and cause a more difficult management of these disorders. In order to elucidate the complex relationships between eating disorders, anger and aggressiveness, the history of traumatic experiences, the prevalence of dissociative,

Elisabetta Truglia; Edoardo Mannucci; Stefano Lassi; Carlo Maria Rotella; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca

2006-01-01

142

Aggressive angiomyxoma.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor that most commonly arises in the vulvovaginal region, perineum, and pelvis of women. The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with local recurrence. Patients often present with nonspecific symptoms which are frequently misdiagnosed with more common entities, such as a Bartholin cyst, lipoma, or hernia. Histologic examination reveals a hypocellular and highly vascular tumor with a myxoid stroma containing cytologically bland stellate or spindled cells. The tumor cells are characteristically positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, suggesting a hormonal role in the development of the tumor. Chromosomal translocation of the 12q13-15 band involving the HMGA2 gene has been described. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice, although treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists is an emerging therapy. Metastases are exceedingly rare, and overall, the prognosis is good. PMID:22288973

Sutton, Brian J; Laudadio, Jennifer

2012-02-01

143

Serotonin and aggression in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research consistently indicates that in animals and adults, reduced central serotonergic (5-HT) function is associated with\\u000a increased aggression. This relationship has been elucidated via cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels, hormonal\\u000a responses to pharmacologic challenge using serotonergic probes, platelet receptor binding studies, and, more recently, through\\u000a molecular genetic approaches. In contrast, studies examining the relationship of 5-HT to aggression in children

Effie M. Mitsis; Jeffrey M. Halperin; Jeffrey H. Newcorn

2000-01-01

144

The frontal lobe and aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontal lesions often lead to psychosocial problems. It is not surprising that frontal lobe dysfunctions have been proposed to underlie antisocial behaviour in individuals without apparent lesions. However, physical aggression and violence have never been systematically related to acquired lesions. Whereas, traditional neuropsychological testing identifies problems in cognitive and emotional information processing, recent brain-imaging studies have revealed both the frontal

Jean R. Séguin

2009-01-01

145

Investigation into the relationship between sleep problems, anxiety and challenging behaviour in children and young people with learning disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorder   

E-print Network

Introduction: Children with a learning disability (LD) and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are known to suffer from significantly more sleep problems, anxiety and challenging behaviour (CB) than typically developing children, yet little is known...

Rzepecka, Halina

2009-01-01

146

Preferential Treatment or Unwanted in Mainstream Schools? The Perceptions of Parents and Teachers with Regards to Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers regarding the differential treatment or stigma experienced by pupils with challenging behaviour--more specifically, those with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD), as well as children with visible special educational needs (Down's syndrome and/or profound and multiple…

Broomhead, Karen E.

2013-01-01

147

Challenges associated with the definition and assessment of inappropriate sexual behaviour amongst individuals with an acquired neurological impairment.  

PubMed

The subject of Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour (ISB) amongst clients with neurological impairment, specifically Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) and dementia, has received limited coverage to date within the literature. This paper discusses some of the problems encountered in the definition and quantification of ISB, in particular the absence of standardized measurement tools to record ISB within an inpatient setting. Whilst ISB is reported to be less prevalent than other behavioural sequelae of brain injury or dementia, it is suggested that its impact on patients and carers can be significant. Ill-defined terminology and the absence of relevant assessment tools add to the specific challenges of understanding and managing ISB within a care or rehabilitation setting. As a result, it is argued that the subjective attitudes of staff and the culture of an institution can dominate the approach taken to dealing with ISB for these client groups. PMID:16809200

Johnson, C; Knight, C; Alderman, N

2006-06-01

148

Children's Evaluations of Ambiguous Provocation by Relationally Aggressive, Physically Aggressive and Prosocial Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study assessed children's evaluations of hypothetical peer provocation. Participants (N = 75, ages 8-11) were presented with hypothetical vignettes depicting relationally aggressive, physically aggressive and prosocial peers engaging in provocative behaviours directed at the participant, including (a) relational (not receiving a party…

Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.; Persson, Anna V.; Boxer, Paul

2006-01-01

149

THE BEHAVIOURAL REACTION OF WEANERS TO HANGING TOYS: WOODEN BALL AND AROMATIZED WOODEN BALL - WAY TO REDUCE AGGRESSION AFTER MIXING REAKCJA BEHAWIORALNA WARCHLAKÓW NA DODATKOWE, PODWIESZANE ELEMENTY: DREWNIAN? PI?K? I AROMATYZOWAN? DREWNIAN? PI?K? - MO?LIWO?CI OGRANICZENIA AGRESJI PO PO??CZENIU MIOTÓW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of weaners after mixing housed in pens equipped with hanging wooden ball, aromatized with vanilla fluid hanging wooden ball and without enrichment was evaluated. It was found that both enrichments reduced aggression, however the most interesting for weaners was the aromatized wooden ball.

Jacek NOWICKI; Marcin KOPYRA

150

CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES IN EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL ILLNESS AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOUR AND CRIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a longstanding view within the general population and the criminal justice system that the mentally ill are more prone than the mentally healthy to violence and. This view, however, is not fully supported by empirical research, in particular due to conceptual and methodological challenges that arise when the relationship between mental illness and crime is examined. This paper

Thomas Hugh Richardson

151

Why are small males aggressive?  

PubMed Central

Aggression is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, whenever the interests of individuals conflict. In contests between animals, the larger opponent is often victorious. However, counter intuitively, an individual that has little chance of winning (generally smaller individuals) sometimes initiates contests. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour, including the ‘desperado effect’ according to which, the likely losers initiate aggression due to lack of alternative options. An alternative explanation suggested recently is that likely losers attack due to an error in perception: they mistakenly perceive their chances of winning as being greater than they are. We show that explaining the apparently maladaptive aggression initiated by the likely loser can be explained on purely economic grounds, without requiring either the desperado effect or perception errors. Using a game-theoretical model, we show that if smaller individuals can accurately assess their chance of winning, if this chance is less than, but close to, a half, and if resources are scarce (or the contested resource is of relatively low value), they are predicted to be as aggressive as their larger opponents. In addition, when resources are abundant, and small individuals have some chance of winning, they may be more aggressive than their larger opponents, as it may benefit larger individuals to avoid the costs of fighting and seek alternative uncontested resources. PMID:16024387

Morrell, Lesley J; Lindström, Jan; Ruxton, Graeme D

2005-01-01

152

Parenting Practices and the Early Socialisation of Relational Aggression among Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines parents' responses to their young children's relationally aggressive behaviour and compares these with the responses regarding children's overtly aggressive behaviour. Parents' beliefs about discipline strategies for addressing relational versus overt aggression at home and at school are also…

Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul

2010-01-01

153

Teachers' Perceptions of Physical Aggression among Secondary School Students: A New Zealand View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has found differences between adults' and students' perceptions of adolescents' aggressive behaviour. This study examines teachers' perceptions of physical aggression among New Zealand secondary school students. A survey assessed teachers' perceptions of problematic behaviour, and physical aggression by students towards teachers.…

Marsh, Louise; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

2009-01-01

154

What lies beneath the face of aggression?  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, amygdala reactivity to angry faces was positively correlated with aggression, but only among men with relatively large FWHRs. The patterns of association were specific to angry facial expressions and unique to men. These links may reflect the common influence of pubertal testosterone on craniofacial growth and development of neural circuitry underlying aggression. Amygdala reactivity may also represent a plausible pathway through which FWHR may have evolved to represent an honest indicator of conspecific threat, namely by reflecting the responsiveness of neural circuitry mediating aggressive behavior. PMID:22198969

Murphy, Kelly R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

2013-01-01

155

A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY  

PubMed Central

We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

2013-01-01

156

Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

2015-02-01

157

Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients filled in…

Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

2011-01-01

158

Outcome Values and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the hypothesis that aggressive children attach more value to rewarding outcomes of aggression and less to negative outcomes than do nonaggressive children. Sex differences in outcome values were also examined. (PCB)

Boldizar, Janet P.; And Others

1989-01-01

159

Aggressive Desmoplastic Fibromatosis - A Clinicians Dilemma Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Fibromatoses are a heterogeneous group of distinct entities which differ in biological behaviour, but arehistologically very similar. This group of fibrous tumor or tumor like lesions, present considerable difficulties in pathologic diagnosis. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) of the oral or para-oral structures is a very uncommon finding and its intra-osseous component is even relatively unusual. Such lesions with their origin from within the bone are termed desmoplastic fibromatosis (DF). These lesions must be distinguished from other fibroblastic tumors of the head and neck such as benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), fibrosarcoma, nerve sheath tumors and tumors of muscular origin. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of fibromatosis is to avoid an overdiagnosis of fibrosarcoma or an underdiagnosis of reactive fibrosis.Problems of differential diagnosis concern a wide range of diseases and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful in diagnosis. With respect to the patient’s post-operative well-being and if periodic follow-ups are guaranteed, the tumor should be carefully resected with only narrow safety margins. A rare case of aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis in a 12–year–old girl is presented in this article with emphasis on the need and challenges for diagnosing such lesions as they have to be differentiated from other soft tissue tumors which display borderline pathological features regarding benign or malignant behaviour. Synonyms listed for the same include extra-abdominal desmoids, extra-abdominal fibromatosis, desmoids tumor, aggressive fibromatosis, juvenile desmoids-type fibromatosis, infantile fibromatosis. PMID:24392428

Manchanda, Adesh S; Narang, Ramandeep S; Arora, Preeti Chawla; Singh, Balwinder; Walia, Satinder

2013-01-01

160

Challenger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy.

Allday, Jonathan

2002-09-01

161

Challenger  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

Allday, Jonathan

2002-01-01

162

Olfactory identification dysfunction, aggression and impulsivity in war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder .  

E-print Network

??Background. Due to neuropsychological conceptualizations of orbitoprefrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction underpinning impulsive aggression and the incidence of such behaviour in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this… (more)

BREWER, WARRICK

2008-01-01

163

The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

Diaz, Jose Luis

2010-01-01

164

Anti-predator Aggression in the Common Myna Acridotheres tristis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This note describes aggression by a small group of Common Mynas Acridotheres tristis towards an omnivorous mammal, the Coati Nasua sp. Instances of aggression by Mynas towards other fauna are reviewed. The behavioural characteristics displayed in this interaction are also discussed.

JAMES A. FITZSIMONS

165

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression  

E-print Network

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured

166

Cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol-related aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol-related violence is a serious and common social problem. Moreover, violent behaviour is much more common in alcohol-dependent individuals. Animal experiments and human studies have provided insights into the acute effect of alcohol on aggressive behaviour and into common factors underlying acute and chronic alcohol intake and aggression. These studies have shown that environmental factors, such as early-life stress, interact

Adrienne J. Heinz; Anne Beck; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg; Philipp Sterzer; Andreas Heinz

2011-01-01

167

Challenger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51L taken from camera site 39B-2/T3. From this camera position, a cloud of grey-brown smoke can be seen on the right side of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) on a line directly across from the letter 'U' in United States. This was the first visible sign that an SRB joint breach may have occured. On January 28, 1986 frigid overnight temperatures caused normally pliable rubber O-ring seals and putty that are designed to seal and establish joint integrity between the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) joint segments, to become hard and non- flexible. At the instant of SRB ignition, tremendous stresses and pressures occur within the SRB casing and especially at the joint attachmentment points. The failure of the O-rings and putty to 'seat' properly at motor ignition, caused hot exhaust gases to blow by the seals and putty. During Challenger's ascent, this hot gas 'blow by' ultimately cut a swath completely through the steel booster casing; and like a welder's torch, began cutting into the External Tank (ET). It is believed that the ET was compromised in several locations starting in the aft at the initial point where SRB joint failure occured. The ET hydrogen tank is believed to have been breached first, with continuous rapid incremental failure of both the ET and SRB. A chain reaction of events occurring in milliseconds culminated in a massive explosion. The orbiter Challenger was instantly ejected by the blast and went askew into the supersonic air flow. These aerodynamic forces caused structural shattering and complete destruction of the orbiter. Though it was concluded that the G-forces experienced during orbiter ejection and break-up were survivable, impact with the ocean surface was not. Tragically, all seven crewmembers perished.

1986-01-01

168

An Evaluation of an Intervention Sequence Outline in Positive Behaviour Support for People with Autism and Severe Escape-Motivated Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Positive behaviour support emphasises the impact of contextual variables to enhance participation, choice, and quality of life. This study evaluates a sequence for implementing changes to key contextual variables for 4 individuals. Interventions were maintained and data collection continued over a 3-year period. Method: Functional…

McClean, Brian; Grey, Ian

2012-01-01

169

The Displaced Aggression Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous measures of aggressive personality have focused on direct aggression (i.e., retaliation toward the provoking agent). An original self-report measure of trait displaced aggression is presented. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 3-factor conceptualization of the construct. These analyses identified an affective dimension (angry rumination), a cognitive dimension (revenge planning), and a behavioral dimension (general tendency to

Thomas F. Denson; William C. Pedersen; Norman Miller

2006-01-01

170

REGULATIONS ON UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR RADBOUD UNIVERSITY NIJMEGEN  

E-print Network

, discrimination, sexual harassment, aggression and violence. Article 2 In these regulations, the terms given below to eliminate undesirable behaviour. To prevent and deter such behaviour, the Executive Board has adopted

van Suijlekom, Walter

171

School Aggression and Dispositional Aggression among Middle School Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between dispositional (trait) aggression and administrative reports of school aggression among 100 adolescent male participants from an urban middle school. Aggression was fairly com- mon among the sample; 58 boys had a record of school aggression, and many of those were repeat offenders. Our hypothesis that those higher in dispositional aggression would have more records of

Mary E. Ballard; Kelvin T. Rattley; Willie C. Fleming; Pamela Kidder-Ashley

172

Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

2013-01-01

173

Do human females use indirect aggression as an intrasexual competition strategy?  

PubMed Central

Indirect aggression includes behaviours such as criticizing a competitor's appearance, spreading rumours about a person's sexual behaviour and social exclusion. Human females have a particular proclivity for using indirect aggression, which is typically directed at other females, especially attractive and sexually available females, in the context of intrasexual competition for mates. Indirect aggression is an effective intrasexual competition strategy. It is associated with a diminished willingness to compete on the part of victims and with greater dating and sexual behaviour among those who perpetrate the aggression. PMID:24167310

Vaillancourt, Tracy

2013-01-01

174

Boys and Road Rage: Driving-Related Violence and Aggression in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the results of a population survey of 1208 West Australian drivers designed to measure the prevalence of drivingrelated violence and aggression as well as perceptions of these behaviours. A clear distinction is made between driving-related violence (restricted to criminal acts of violence, threats of violence and vehicle damage) and other aggressive driving behaviours. Although the majority

Lynne Roberts; David Indermaur

2005-01-01

175

Bullying in Middle School as a Function of Insecure Attachment and Aggressive Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested a model for understanding peer bullying as the product of aggressive attitudes and insecure attachment. A sample of 110 sixth grade students completed self-report measures that assessed attitudes toward the use of aggressive behaviour with peers and distinguished secure from insecure parental attachment. Bullying behaviour was…

Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey G.

2009-01-01

176

Neuropsychiatry of Aggression  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

2010-01-01

177

Girls' Aggressive Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

2004-01-01

178

Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly.  

PubMed

Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects. PMID:25599665

Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

2015-02-01

179

Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

2014-03-01

180

Behaviour of dispersing deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The behaviour of dispersing and resident deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was compared in three laboratory tests to determine if dispersers differed behaviourally from residents.2.The hypothesis that behavioural differences have a genetic basis was examined by correlating genotype at three electrophoretically detectable blood protein loci with scores on the behaviour tests. Among resident males, level of aggression (as measured in neutral

Daphne J. Fairbairn

1978-01-01

181

Student behaviour self?monitoring enabling inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school dropout. Schools remain committed to the use of exclusions as response to disruptive behaviours, justified in

Stephen K. Jull

2009-01-01

182

Challenges and Management Frameworks of Residential Schools for Students with Severe Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study by Stella Suk-Ching Chong, an assistant professor, and Ka-wai Leung, a teaching fellow, both at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, focuses on the perspectives of hostel staff from six residential schools for students with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. Individual or focus group interviews were conducted to explore the…

Chong, Stella Suk-ching; Leung, Ka-wai

2012-01-01

183

The role of oxytocin and oxytocin receptor gene variants in childhood-onset aggression.  

PubMed

Aggressive antisocial behaviours are the most common reasons why adolescents are referred to mental health clinics. Antisocial behaviours are costly in social and financial terms. The aetiology of aggressive behaviours is unknown but growing evidence suggests it is heritable, and certain genetic variants have been implicated as contributing factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genes regulating the hormone oxytocin (OXT) were associated with aggressive antisocial behaviour. The case-control study sample consisted of 160 cases of children displaying extreme, persistent and pervasive aggressive behaviour. This case sample was compared with 160 adult controls. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the genotype for three oxytocin gene (OXT) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs3761248, rs4813625 and rs877172; and five oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) SNPs: rs6770632, rs11476, rs1042778, rs237902 and rs53576. Genotypic analyses were performed using stata, while differences in haplotypic and allelic frequencies were analysed using Unphased. We also performed within-case analyses (n = 236 aggressive cases) examining genotypic and allelic associations with callous-unemotional (CU) scores (as measured by the psychopathic screening device). OXTR SNPs rs6770632 and rs1042778 may be associated with extreme, persistent and pervasive aggressive behaviours in females and males, respectively. These and haplotype results suggest gender-specific effects of SNPs. No significant differences were detected with respect to CU behaviours. These results may help to elucidate the biochemical pathways associated with aggressive behaviours, which may aid in the development of novel medications. PMID:22372486

Malik, A I; Zai, C C; Abu, Z; Nowrouzi, B; Beitchman, J H

2012-07-01

184

What can animal aggression research tell us about human aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on endocrinological correlates of aggression in laboratory animals is implicitly motivated by an expectation that the results of such studies may be applicable to human aggression as well. Research with a focus on the stimulus antecedents of aggression, its response characteristics, and its outcomes suggests a number of detailed correspondences between offensive aggression in laboratory rodents and human angry

D. Caroline Blanchard; Robert J Blanchard

2003-01-01

185

School Aggression and Dispositional Aggression among Middle School Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the relationship between dispositional (trait) aggression and administrative reports of school aggression among 100 adolescent male participants from an urban middle school. Aggression was fairly common among the sample; 58 boys had a record of school aggression, and many of those were repeat offenders. Our hypothesis that those higher…

Ballard, Mary E.; Rattley, Kelvin T.; Fleming, Willie C.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela

2004-01-01

186

Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

2013-01-01

187

Effects of an experimental short-term cortisol challenge on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus in mesocosm and stream environments.  

PubMed

The consequences of stress on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus outside the reproductive period were studied using a single intra-coelomic injection of cortisol, suspended in coconut butter, to experimentally raise plasma cortisol levels. Behaviour between cortisol-treated, sham-treated (injected with coconut butter) and control S. atromaculatus was compared in a mesocosm system, using a passive integrated transponder array, and in a natural stream system (excluding shams), using surgically implanted radio transmitters. While laboratory time-course studies revealed that the cortisol injection provided a physiologically relevant challenge, causing prolonged (c. 3 days) elevations of plasma cortisol similar to that achieved with a standardized chasing protocol, no differences in fine-scale movements were observed between cortisol-treated, sham-treated and control S. atromaculatus nor in the large-scale movements of cortisol-treated and control S. atromaculatus. Moreover, no differences were observed in diel activity patterns among treatments. Differential mortality, however, occurred starting 10 days after treatment where cortisol-treated S. atromaculatus exhibited nearly twice as many mortalities as shams and controls. These results suggest that, although the experimental manipulation of cortisol titres was sufficient to cause mortality in some individuals, there were compensatory mechanisms that maintained behaviours (i.e. including activity and movement) prior to death. This study is one of the first to use experimental cortisol implants outside a laboratory environment and during the non-reproductive period and yields insight into how wild animals respond to additional challenges (in this case elevated cortisol) using ecologically meaningful endpoints. PMID:23557296

Nagrodski, A; Murchie, K J; Stamplecoskie, K M; Suski, C D; Cooke, S J

2013-04-01

188

Creatureliness priming reduces aggression and support for war.  

PubMed

Terror management theory (TMT) posits that humans distance themselves from, or elevate themselves above, other animals as a way of denying their mortality. The present studies assessed whether the salience of aggressive tendencies that humans share with other animals make thoughts of death salient and whether depicting human aggression as animalistic can mitigate aggressive behaviour and support for aggression. In Study 1, participants primed with human-animal similarities (i.e., human creatureliness) exhibited elevated death-thought accessibility (DTA) after hitting a punching bag. In Studies 2a and 2b, creatureliness priming caused participants to hit a punching bag with less frequency, perceived force, and comfort. In Study 3, participants primed to view violence as animalistic exhibited increased DTA and reported less support for war against Iran. These studies suggest that portraying violence as creaturely may reduce the intensity of aggressive actions and support for violent solutions to international conflicts. PMID:22882271

Motyl, Matt; Hart, Joshua; Cooper, Douglas P; Heflick, Nathan; Goldenberg, Jamie; Pyszczynski, Tom

2013-12-01

189

Adult zebrafish as a model organism for behavioural genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has demonstrated the suitability of adult zebrafish to model some aspects of complex behaviour. Studies of reward behaviour, learning and memory, aggression, anxiety and sleep strongly suggest that conserved regulatory processes underlie behaviour in zebrafish and mammals. The isolation and molecular analysis of zebrafish behavioural mutants is now starting, allowing the identification of novel behavioural control genes. As

William Norton; Laure Bally-Cuif

2010-01-01

190

Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.  

PubMed

For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive forms of periodontal disease. PMID:24738586

Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

2014-06-01

191

Managing aggression in global amnesia following herpes simplex virus encephalitis: The case of E.B.  

PubMed

Abstract Aim: This article describes an integrative approach to the case of EB, a 33 year old male who presented with agitation, delusional ideation and global amnesia after contracting herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) while in a state prison in 2004. Case study: Although several prior case studies have described outcome following acute onset of HSVE, this case presents a unique challenge for rehabilitation in several respects. First, EB's pre-morbid history is complicated; in contrast with prior HSVE case studies that have typically involved individuals with a relatively high level of pre-morbid functioning, EB presents with limited educational attainment and a prior history of several incarcerations for violent offenses. Post-injury, his presentation includes significant verbal aggression, threats of harm toward others, physical posturing and occasional physical aggression toward his caretakers. Third, EB presents with a fixed delusion that others are constantly taking advantage of him. These features are present in the context of global amnesia and relatively intact cognitive functioning in other domains. Following a brief review of prior HSVE case studies, this study reviews the outcomes of various pharmacological, cognitive, behavioural and integrative interventions designed for management of EB's aggression and agitation. PMID:25207991

Shannon, Tracy E; Griffin, Stefanie L

2015-01-01

192

The Moderating Effect of Parental Warmth on the Association between Spanking and Child Aggression: A Longitudinal Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, this study analysed the stability of child aggressive behaviour beginning in infancy and tested whether spanking when the child was 36 months was associated with aggressive child behaviour among three ethnic groups and whether maternal warmth moderated the effect of spanking on…

Stacks, Ann Michele; Oshio, Toko; Gerard, Jean; Roe, Jacqueline

2009-01-01

193

Pedophilia and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

While some authors consider pedophiles to be physically harmless individuals who do not attempt intercourse with their often seductive victims, others have identified a minority of child molesters who are aggressively predatory. Data from penitentiary files revealed that 29 of 41 incarcerated pedophiles used threats of violence or actual physical force to secure their sexual goals, and these sexual goals

W. L. Marshall; M. M. Christie

1981-01-01

194

Relational Aggression among Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

2011-01-01

195

Comparison of cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels in dominant-aggressive and non-aggressive dogs.  

PubMed

Aggression has been shown to be related to reduced serotonergic activity in humans and non-human primates, and in rodents. We now studied the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolites and canine aggression in 21 dominant-aggressive dogs (Canis familiaris) and 19 controls. The diagnosis of dominance-related aggression was based upon a history of biting family members in contexts associated with dominance challenges. Post-mortem CSF 5-HIAA, MHPG and HVA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography using electrochemical detection. Concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA (P = 0.01) and HVA (P < 0.001) were lower in the aggressive group (median values: 5-HIAA 202.0 pmol/ml; HVA 318.0 pmol/ml) than in controls (5-HIAA 298.0 pmol/ml; HVA 552.0 pmol/ml). No differences were noted in CSF MHPG levels. Differences in 5-HIAA were maintained after controlling for breed and age of dogs, but HVA differences may have been breed-dependent. Lower levels of 5-HIAA (P = 0.02) and HVA (P = 0.04) were found in the subgroup of aggressive dogs with a history of biting without warning (5-HIAA 196.0 pmol/ml; HVA 302.0 pmol/ml) compared to dogs that warned (5-HIAA 244.0 pmol/ml; HVA 400.0 pmol/ml). This study suggests that reduced serotonergic function is associated with aggressive behavior and impaired impulse control in dogs, a finding that is consistent with observations in primates, and suggests that serotonin modulates aggressive behavior throughout mammals. PMID:8861609

Reisner, I R; Mann, J J; Stanley, M; Huang, Y Y; Houpt, K A

1996-04-01

196

Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

2007-01-01

197

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: An aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma.  

PubMed

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas are a rare and aggressive subtype of chondrosarcoma with a bimorphic pattern on histopathology. Rib is a rare site of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Diagnosis of this subtype preoperatively can be challenging. Treatment options for dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma are limited because they are chemoresistant, and therefore adequate surgery forms the main stay of treatment. We present our experience with a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the rib, and discuss the management of this rare entity. PMID:24585295

Bharath, Gangadhara; Burrah, Rajaram; Shivakumar, Kuppuswamy; Manjunath, Suraj; Bhanumathi, Rao

2015-02-01

198

Relational Aggression and Disordered Eating  

E-print Network

Previous studies have investigated the link between aggression and disordered eating behavior. This study investigated the behavioral and psychological links between disordered eating and relational aggression in a female college-age population. I...

Prohaska, Jennifer A.

2012-05-31

199

Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

200

Getting the Balance Right: The Challenge of Balancing Praise and Correction for Early School Years Children Who Exhibit Oppositional and Defiant Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, early childhood practitioners are faced with children who present with significant levels of oppositional and defiant behaviour. The management of this behaviour is often difficult and stressful. Efforts to minimise disruptive behaviour and to encourage more prosocial behaviour have very much revolved around the teaching of…

Fields, Barry

2012-01-01

201

Neural steroid sensitivity and aggression: comparing individuals of two songbird subspecies  

E-print Network

, particularly among closely related taxa. We compared males of two subspecies of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) for territorial aggression and associations among behaviour, circu- lating testosterone (T that the white-winged junco (J. h. aike- ni) was more aggressive than the smaller, less ornamented Carolina junco

202

Influence of Rapid Tryptophan Depletion on Laboratory-Provoked Aggression in Children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study investigated the effects of rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD), and the ensuing reduction of central nervous system levels of serotonin (5-HT), upon reactive aggression in patients with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, it was asked whether the relation between 5-HT function and behavioural aggression in patients is influenced by their age, the intensity of their attention problems

C. Stadler; F. D. Zepf; L. Demisch; M. Schmitt; M. Landgraf; F. Poustka

2007-01-01

203

Physical Aggression towards Others in Adults with Learning Disabilities: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Many people with learning disabilities (LD) show aggressive behaviour, but the extent of the problem and its associated factors and effects are unclear. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using interview data from 3065 adults with LD on the Leicestershire LD Register. Physical aggression towards others was defined as…

Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.; Thorp, C. F.; Donaldson, M.; Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Hollin, C.

2006-01-01

204

Mothers' and Teachers' Perceptions of Relational and Physical Aggression in Pre-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre-school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an…

Hurd, Heather Doescher; Gettinger, Maribeth

2011-01-01

205

Angry cognitive bias, trait aggression and impulsivity in substance users  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleAccording to cognitive theory, people who are aggressive expect angry responses to ambiguous situations. Increased aggression has been reported a few days or weeks following use of MDMA (ecstasy). This may relate to low 5-HT release, and so a 5-HT challenge may increase cognitive bias towards anger differentially in MDMA users and non-users.ObjectivesTo investigate whether: (1) measures of anger and

Alyson J. Bond; Suzanne L. Verheyden; Janet Wingrove; H. Valerie Curran

2004-01-01

206

Technology, aggression and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper it is shown that although strong evidence exists for the evolution of intelligent life throughout our galaxy, attempts at detecting radio transmissions from extraterrestrial civilizations are doomed to failure unless technological civilizations can exist for periods of the order of 1 million years. If evolving technological civilizations are so driven by aggressive instinctual behaviour that they self?destruct

David G. Blair

1989-01-01

207

Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

2014-01-01

208

Aggressive angiomyxoma in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxoma is a locally aggressive soft tissue tumour mainly arises from perineal, vulval and bladder connective tissue. As it has a tendency for local infiltration and recurrence so long-term follow-up and treatment is required. A case of 24 years old primigravida, 16 weeks pregnant with huge pedunculated lobulated growth arising from right labia majora for the last one month is presented. There was a rapid increase in the size of tumour up to 30 x 26 cm and weight of 18 kg with in a month. The growth was excised with wide margins and tissues sent for histopathology to be diagnosed as an aggressive angiomyxoma. Postoperatively, no chemo or radiotherapy was given. She was regularly followed-up and presented in the 37th week of pregnancy with ruptured membranes and failure of progress of labour. Her caesarean section was done and baby boy delivered. She had a regular follow-up and conceived again after 3 years. No recurrence of the growth has occurred within 5 years. PMID:24717995

Ashraf, Tasneem; Haroon, Samia

2014-03-01

209

Extensive Behavioural Divergence following Colonisation of the Freshwater Environment in Threespine Sticklebacks  

PubMed Central

Colonisation of novel environments means facing new ecological challenges often resulting in the evolution of striking divergence in phenotypes. However, little is known about behavioural divergence following colonisation, despite the predicted importance of the role of behavioural phenotype-environment associations in adaptive divergence. We studied the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a model system for postglacial colonisation of freshwater habitats largely differing in ecological conditions from the ones faced by the descendants of the marine ancestor. We found that common-environment reared freshwater juveniles were less social, more active and more aggressive than their marine counterparts. This behavioural divergence could represent the result of natural selection that acted on individuals following freshwater colonisation, with predation as a key selection agent. Alternatively, the behavioural profile of freshwater juveniles could represent the characteristics of individuals that preferentially invaded freshwater after the glacial retreat, drawn from the standing variation present in the marine population. PMID:24914554

Di-Poi, Carole; Lacasse, Jennyfer; Rogers, Sean M.; Aubin-Horth, Nadia

2014-01-01

210

The Development and Utility of a Program Theory: Lessons from an Evaluation of a Reputed Exemplary Residential Support Service for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour in Victoria, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Adults with severe challenging behaviour can achieve good "quality of life" outcomes in small supported accommodation services. Yet, the research indicates that they typically experience poorer outcomes than other adults with intellectual disability. This raises questions about the degree to which research has informed program design…

Clement, Tim; Bigby, Christine

2011-01-01

211

Serum Fucosylated Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Improves the Differentiation of Aggressive from Non-aggressive Prostate Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinically, it is still challenging to differentiate aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancers (Pca) by non-invasive approaches. Our recent studies showed that overexpression of alpha (1-6) fucosyltransferase played an important role in Pca cells. In this study, we have investigated levels of glycoproteins and their fucosylated glycoforms in sera of Pca patients, as well as the potential utility of fucosylated glycoproteins in the identification of aggressive Pca. Material and Methods: Serum samples from histomorphology-proven Pca cases were included. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and their fucosylated glycoforms were captured by Aleuria Aurantia Lectin (AAL), followed by the multiplex magnetic bead-based immunoassay. The level of fucosylated glycoproteins was correlated with patients' Gleason score of the tumor. Result: Among three fucosylated glycoproteins, the fucosylated PSA was significantly increased and correlated with the tumor Gleason score (p<0.05). The ratio of fucosylated PSA showed a marked increase in aggressive tumors in comparison to non-aggressive tumors. ROC analysis also showed an improved predictive power of fucosylated PSA in the identification of aggressive Pca. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that fucosylated PSA has a better predictive power to differentiate aggressive tumors from non-aggressive tumors, than that of native PSA and two other glycoproteins. The fucosylated PSA has the potential to be used as a surrogate biomarker. PMID:25553114

Li, Qing Kay; Chen, Li; Ao, Ming-Hui; Chiu, Joyce Hanching; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hui; Chan, Daniel W

2015-01-01

212

Verbal and non-verbal behavior immediately prior to aggression by mentally disordered people: enhancing the assessment of risk.  

PubMed

In this study we seek to enhance the assessment of imminent violence risk by providing empirical data on the types of verbal and non-verbal behaviour exhibited by 31 psychiatric inpatients immediately prior to assaulting a staff member, and 31 non-aggressive controls. Verbal abuse, high overall activity level and standing uncomfortably close to the intended victim were the most common behaviours immediately prior to the assault, but most preassault behaviours were also exhibited when patients were not assaulting staff. In the 3 days prior to the assault, aggressive patients differed from non-aggressors in terms of verbal abuse, abnormal activity level (P < 0.05), threatening gestures and threatening stance (P < 0.01). Only one patient was aggressive in the absence of any predictive behaviours. We conclude that most patients exhibit easily identifiable signs of imminent aggression, but that many of these signs occur in the absence of aggression. PMID:8696797

Whittington, R; Patterson, P

1996-01-01

213

The prevalence of aggression in genetic syndromes: a review.  

PubMed

Research into behavioural phenotypes identifies both environmental and organic factors as influencing aggression in children and adults with genetic disorders associated with intellectual disability. However, in contrast to self-injury there is a paucity of research that compares aggression across relevant syndromes. The primary aim of this review is to examine the association between aggression and genetic syndromes by analysis of prevalence studies. The review also examines the literature on the form of the behaviour and influence of environmental factors. Results imply that certain syndrome groups (Cri du Chat, Smith-Magenis, Prader-Willi, Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, and Fragile X syndromes; estimates over 70%) evidence a stronger association with aggression than others (e.g. Williams and Down syndromes; estimates below 15%). However, the strength of association is difficult to quantify due to methodological differences between studies. The results from examining form and environmental influences highlight the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. Research employing group comparison designs is warranted and future work on the assessment and intervention of aggression in genetic syndromes should consider the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. PMID:24594523

Powis, Laurie; Oliver, Chris

2014-05-01

214

Differential serotonergic mediation of aggression in roosters bred for resistance and susceptibility to Marek's disease.  

PubMed

1. Serotonin (5-HT) is a primary regulating neurotransmitter involved in aggressive and impulsive behaviours in mammals. Previous studies have also demonstrated that the function of the serotonergic system in regulating aggression is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. The serotonergic system may display similar functions in chickens. 2. Our objective was to investigate the aggressive and impulsive behavioural response to antagonism of the 5-HT1A and 1B receptors in cocks bred for susceptibility and resistance to Marek's disease (i.e. strain 72 and 63, respectively). 3. Cocks from strain 72 exhibited increased aggressive behaviours and lower brain 5-HT concentrations compared to strain 63 cocks. 4. Antagonism of 5-HT1A receptors increased aggressiveness and reduced serotonin turnover in strain 72, but not strain 63 cocks. 5-HT1B receptor antagonism had no effect on aggression or serotonin turnover in either strain. 5. Levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA, but not absolute central 5-HT levels, were altered in both strains following 5-HT1B antagonism, but only in strain 72 cocks following 5-HT1A antagonism. 6. The data suggest that 5-HT1A and 1B regulate aggression differently in high and low aggressive strains. PMID:24697575

Dennis, Rachel Lynn; Cheng, Heng-Wei

2014-02-01

215

Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, S.A.; Danchin, E.

2010-01-01

216

Aggressive angiomyxoma: an unusual presentation.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxoma is an uncommon mesenchymal myxoid tumor that is characterized by slow growth and frequent local recurrence. It is currently regarded as a nonmetastasizing tumor. We describe a case of recurrent aggressive angiomyxoma with invasion into the veins including the inferior vena cava and the right atrium and with pulmonary metastases. Our case, together with those unusual cases documented in previous reports, may lead to a reappraisal of the nature of aggressive angiomyxoma. PMID:22247641

Geng, Junzu; Cao, Bofeng; Wang, Liping

2012-01-01

217

[Treatment of inter-specific aggression in cats with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine. A case report].  

PubMed

The article describes the redirected, inter-specific aggression of a Maine Coon cat, which was principally directed towards the owners. The cat reacted towards different, nonspecific sounds with abrupt aggressive behaviour and injured the victims at this juncture with moderate scratching and biting. Exclusively using behaviour therapy did not achieve the desired result, thus the therapy was supported with pharmaceuticals. The cat orally received the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluvoxamine at an initial dosage of 0.5mg/kg BW once daily. After 4 weeks the application rate was increased to 1.0 mg/kg BW once daily. The medication did not cause any side effects. Together with the behaviour-modulating therapy, carried out parallel to the medication therapy, the aggressive behaviour problem of the cat was resolved. After administration for a period of 63 weeks the fluvoxamine therapy was discontinued by gradually reducing the dose without recurrence of the aggressive behaviour. PMID:23242225

Sprauer, S

2012-01-01

218

The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in ‘atypical’ mammals  

PubMed Central

Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in ‘atypical’ female mammals. PMID:24167314

French, Jeffrey A.; Mustoe, Aaryn C.; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K.

2013-01-01

219

The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.  

PubMed

Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals. PMID:24167314

French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

2013-01-01

220

Controlling reactive aggression through cognitive evaluation of proactive aggression cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated how the relationship between the acts of proactive and reactive aggression was moderated by the individual differences in cognitive regulation of emotion. An aggression paradigm, a electrocardiogram recording, a cognitive assessment battery, and a short form IQ test were completed by 109 children, aged 8 to 13 years (Juujärvi, Kaartinen, Laitinen, Vanninen, & Pulkkinen, 2006; Juujärvi, Kooistra,

Petri Juujärvi; Jukka Kaartinen; Lea Pulkkinen; Esko Vanninen; Tomi Laitinen

2006-01-01

221

Raiders from the sky: slavemaker founding queens select for aggressive host colonies.  

PubMed

Reciprocal selection pressures in host-parasite systems drive coevolutionary arms races that lead to advanced adaptations in both opponents. In the interactions between social parasites and their hosts, aggression is one of the major behavioural traits under selection. In a field manipulation, we aimed to disentangle the impact of slavemaking ants and nest density on aggression of Temnothorax longispinosus ants. An early slavemaker mating flight provided us with the unique opportunity to study the influence of host aggression and demography on founding decisions and success. We discovered that parasite queens avoided colony foundation in parasitized areas and were able to capture more brood from less aggressive host colonies. Host colony aggression remained consistent over the two-month experiment, but did not respond to our manipulation. However, as one-fifth of all host colonies were successfully invaded by parasite queens, slavemaker nest foundation acts as a strong selection event selecting for high aggression in host colonies. PMID:22809720

Pamminger, Tobias; Modlmeier, Andreas P; Suette, Stefan; Pennings, Pleuni S; Foitzik, Susanne

2012-10-23

222

Aggressive angiomyxoma in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence. PMID:25002951

Goyal, Prashant; Agrawal, Dipti; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

2014-05-13

223

Aggressive Angiomyxoma in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence. PMID:25002951

Goyal, Prashant; Agrawal, Dipti; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

2014-01-01

224

The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

Stacy, Lauri L.

225

Food limitation increases aggression in juvenile meerkats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the rate and severity of sibling aggression are predicted to be higher when food availability is low. Although there is now good evidence that food availability influences sibling aggression in facultatively siblicidal species, where aggression commonly results in the death of a competitor, little is known about the proximate causes of aggression in nonsiblicidal species, where aggression rarely results

S. J. Hodge; A. Thornton; T. P. Flower; T. H. Clutton-Brock

2009-01-01

226

Developmental Perspectives on Prosocial and Aggressive Motives in Preschoolers' Peer Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' prosocial and aggressive behaviours were explored longitudinally, with a focus on the inferred underlying motives of these behaviours. Forty-four children (initially 22-40 months of age) were observed in naturalistic interactions with peers, during a 2-month period, for each of three consecutive years. Three categories of prosocial…

Persson, Gun E. B.

2005-01-01

227

Predictors of naturalistic sexual aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research integrated within a theoretical and empirical framework varied predictor factors pertaining to males' sexual aggression against women. The selection of predictors was guided by theorizing that sexual aggression is caused by the interaction among multiple factors, including those creating the motivation for the act, those reducing internal and external inhibitions, and those providing the op- portunity for the

Neil M. Malamuth

1986-01-01

228

The effects of group size on aggression when mixing unacquainted sows in outdoor paddocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aggression is a challenge when pigs are kept in groups. Sows fight at mixing when space is limited but this project sought to determine the amount and type of aggression observed when unacquainted Berkshire sows were mixed in pairs or in two established sub-groups of three in outdoor paddocks. Treat...

229

Mental Health Correlates of Aggression in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effective interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) behavior management strategies on aggression in a group of…

Talerico, Karen Amann; Evans, Lois K.; Strumpf, Neville E.

2002-01-01

230

Female aggression predicts mode of paternity acquisition in a social lizard  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in behaviour are ubiquitous in nature. Despite the likely role of selection in maintaining these differences, there are few demonstrations of their fitness consequences in wild populations and, consequently, the mechanisms that link behavioural variation to variation in fitness are poorly understood. Specifically, the consequences of consistent individual differences in behaviour for the evolution of social and mating strategies have rarely been considered. We examined the functional links between variation in female aggression and her social and mating strategies in a wild population of the social lizard Egernia whitii. We show that female Egernia exhibit temporally consistent aggressive phenotypes, which are unrelated to body size, territory size or social density. A female's aggressive phenotype, however, has strong links to her mode of paternity acquisition (within- versus extra-pair paternity), with more aggressive females having more offspring sired by extra-pair males than less aggressive females. We discuss the potential mechanisms by which female aggression could underpin mating strategies, such as the pursuit/acceptance of extra-pair copulations. We propose that a deeper understanding of the evolution and maintenance of social and mating systems may result from an explicit focus on individual-level female behavioural phenotypes and their relationship with key reproductive strategies. PMID:19324771

While, Geoffrey M.; Sinn, David L.; Wapstra, Erik

2009-01-01

231

Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

2014-02-01

232

Interspecies aggression and social dominance in crayfish.  

E-print Network

??Interspecies aggressive competition was proposed to exist in closely related species with niche overlap. However, the relationship between inter-intraspecies aggressive competitions is unknown. Specifically, the… (more)

Luan, Xin

2009-01-01

233

Socially responsive effects of brain oxidative metabolism on aggression  

PubMed Central

Despite ongoing high energetic demands, brains do not always use glucose and oxygen in a ratio that produces maximal ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In some cases glucose consumption exceeds oxygen use despite adequate oxygen availability, a phenomenon known as aerobic glycolysis. Although metabolic plasticity seems essential for normal cognition, studying its functional significance has been challenging because few experimental systems link brain metabolic patterns to distinct behavioral states. Our recent transcriptomic analysis established a correlation between aggression and decreased whole-brain oxidative phosphorylation activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), suggesting that brain metabolic plasticity may modulate this naturally occurring behavior. Here we demonstrate that the relationship between brain metabolism and aggression is causal, conserved over evolutionary time, cell type-specific, and modulated by the social environment. Pharmacologically treating honey bees to inhibit complexes I or V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway resulted in increased aggression. In addition, transgenic RNAi lines and genetic manipulation to knock down gene expression in complex I in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) neurons resulted in increased aggression, but knockdown in glia had no effect. Finally, honey bee colony-level social manipulations that decrease individual aggression attenuated the effects of oxidative phosphorylation inhibition on aggression, demonstrating a specific effect of the social environment on brain function. Because decreased neuronal oxidative phosphorylation is usually associated with brain disease, these findings provide a powerful context for understanding brain metabolic plasticity and naturally occurring behavioral plasticity. PMID:25092297

Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Rittschof, Clare C.; Massey, Jonathan H.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Robinson, Gene E.

2014-01-01

234

Socially responsive effects of brain oxidative metabolism on aggression.  

PubMed

Despite ongoing high energetic demands, brains do not always use glucose and oxygen in a ratio that produces maximal ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In some cases glucose consumption exceeds oxygen use despite adequate oxygen availability, a phenomenon known as aerobic glycolysis. Although metabolic plasticity seems essential for normal cognition, studying its functional significance has been challenging because few experimental systems link brain metabolic patterns to distinct behavioral states. Our recent transcriptomic analysis established a correlation between aggression and decreased whole-brain oxidative phosphorylation activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), suggesting that brain metabolic plasticity may modulate this naturally occurring behavior. Here we demonstrate that the relationship between brain metabolism and aggression is causal, conserved over evolutionary time, cell type-specific, and modulated by the social environment. Pharmacologically treating honey bees to inhibit complexes I or V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway resulted in increased aggression. In addition, transgenic RNAi lines and genetic manipulation to knock down gene expression in complex I in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) neurons resulted in increased aggression, but knockdown in glia had no effect. Finally, honey bee colony-level social manipulations that decrease individual aggression attenuated the effects of oxidative phosphorylation inhibition on aggression, demonstrating a specific effect of the social environment on brain function. Because decreased neuronal oxidative phosphorylation is usually associated with brain disease, these findings provide a powerful context for understanding brain metabolic plasticity and naturally occurring behavioral plasticity. PMID:25092297

Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Rittschof, Clare C; Massey, Jonathan H; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Robinson, Gene E

2014-08-26

235

Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females  

PubMed Central

Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

2005-01-01

236

Escalation of aggressive vocal signals: a sequential playback study.  

PubMed

Rival conspecifics often produce stereotyped sequences of signals as agonistic interactions escalate. Successive signals in sequence are thought to convey increasingly pronounced levels of aggressive motivation. Here, we propose and test a model of aggressive escalation in black-throated blue warblers, presenting subjects with two sequential and increasingly elevated levels of threat. From a speaker outside the territorial boundary, we initiated an interaction (low-threat level), and from a second speaker inside the territory, accompanied by a taxidermic mount, we subsequently simulated a territorial intrusion (escalated threat level). Our two main predictions were that signalling behaviours in response to low-threat boundary playback would predict signalling responses to the escalated within-territory threat, and that these latter signalling behaviours would in turn reliably predict attack. We find clear support for both predictions: (i) specific song types (type II songs) produced early in the simulated interaction, in response to boundary playback, predicted later use of low-amplitude 'soft' song, in response to within-territory playback; and (ii) soft song, in turn, predicted attack of the mount. Unexpectedly, use of the early-stage signal (type II song) itself did not predict attack, despite its apparent role in aggressive escalation. This raises the intriguing question of whether type II song can actually be considered a reliable aggressive signal. Overall, our results provide new empirical insights into how songbirds may use progressive vocal signalling to convey increasing levels of threat. PMID:23926156

Hof, David; Podos, Jeffrey

2013-10-01

237

Escalation of aggressive vocal signals: a sequential playback study  

PubMed Central

Rival conspecifics often produce stereotyped sequences of signals as agonistic interactions escalate. Successive signals in sequence are thought to convey increasingly pronounced levels of aggressive motivation. Here, we propose and test a model of aggressive escalation in black-throated blue warblers, presenting subjects with two sequential and increasingly elevated levels of threat. From a speaker outside the territorial boundary, we initiated an interaction (low-threat level), and from a second speaker inside the territory, accompanied by a taxidermic mount, we subsequently simulated a territorial intrusion (escalated threat level). Our two main predictions were that signalling behaviours in response to low-threat boundary playback would predict signalling responses to the escalated within-territory threat, and that these latter signalling behaviours would in turn reliably predict attack. We find clear support for both predictions: (i) specific song types (type II songs) produced early in the simulated interaction, in response to boundary playback, predicted later use of low-amplitude ‘soft’ song, in response to within-territory playback; and (ii) soft song, in turn, predicted attack of the mount. Unexpectedly, use of the early-stage signal (type II song) itself did not predict attack, despite its apparent role in aggressive escalation. This raises the intriguing question of whether type II song can actually be considered a reliable aggressive signal. Overall, our results provide new empirical insights into how songbirds may use progressive vocal signalling to convey increasing levels of threat. PMID:23926156

Hof, David; Podos, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

238

Genetics of aggression in voles.  

PubMed

Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds-a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustrating the neurochemical mechanisms underlying pair bonding-induced aggression. Implications of this research for our understanding of the neurobiology of human violence are also discussed. PMID:22078479

Gobrogge, Kyle L; Wang, Zuoxin W

2011-01-01

239

The Effect of Exposure to Community Violence on Levels of Aggression: Evidence from a Sample of Jamaican Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars agree that aggression among children can lead to a host of delinquency issues that can last into adulthood. Research has found that exposure to violence is one of the strongest predictors of aggressive behaviour and the use of violence. Utilizing a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the article seeks to determine the…

Bailey, Corin; Coore-Desai, Charlene

2012-01-01

240

Parasite-induced aggression and impaired contest ability in a fish host  

PubMed Central

Background Success of trophically transmitted parasites depends to a great extent on their ability to manipulate their intermediate hosts in a way that makes them easier prey for target hosts. Parasite-induced behavioural changes are the most spectacular and diverse examples of manipulation. Most of the studies have been focused on individual behaviour of hosts including fish. We suggest that agonistic interactions and territoriality in fish hosts may affect their vulnerability to predators and thus the transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites. The parasite Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda) and juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were used to study whether infection can alter aggression rates and territorial behaviour of intermediate fish hosts. Results The changes in behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, infected with an eye fluke Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda), was monitored over the course of an experimental infection for 1.5 months. At the beginning of their development, not yet infective D. spathaceum metacercariae decreased the aggressiveness of rainbow trout. By the time that metacercariae were fully infective to their definitive hosts, the aggressiveness increased and exceeded that of control fish. Despite the increased aggressiveness, the experimentally infected fish lost contests for a territory (dark parts of the bottom) against the control fish. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that the parasitized fish pay the cost of aggressiveness without the benefit of acquiring a territory that would provide them with better protection against predators. This behaviour should increase transmission of the parasite as expected by the parasite manipulation hypothesis. PMID:20226098

2010-01-01

241

Territorial meadow pipit males ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes) become more aggressive in female presence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although mate guarding as prevention of extra-pair copulation is common among birds, evidence for aggressive behaviour involving physical contact related to mate guarding in passerines is scarce and cases of the presence of one partner directly influencing the aggressiveness of the other are lacking. We investigated the intra-specific territorial behaviour of male meadow pipits ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes: Motacillidae) at the beginning of the breeding season by placing a pipit model accompanied by an intra-specific song playback in the territory of socially paired males and compared the responses of males whose mates were physically present during trials with those whose females were out of sight. The level of aggression of males was significantly higher in the presence of the female; half of the males in this group physically attacked the model (the most intense and risky aggressive behaviour). Physical attacks did not occur among males whose female was absent during the trial; response to the playback by most of these males was only weak. This pattern may be related to the prevention of extra-pair copulation; if the risks involved in the conflict are outweighed by potential loss of paternity, such aggressive mate guarding may pay off. The apparently overlooked effect on the territorial behaviour of a partner’s passive physical presence during conflict should be further evaluated because it may be important for the design and interpretation of results of behavioural experiments.

Petrusková, Tereza; Petrusek, Adam; Pavel, Václav; Fuchs, Roman

2007-08-01

242

Patient engagement and problematic behaviours in nurse-staffed residential rehabilitation units.  

PubMed

Aims and method To build on previous research findings by examining engagement and problematic behaviours of patients in 10 residential rehabilitation units. Two measures were completed on patients in community rehabilitation, longer-term complex care and high-dependency units (109 patients in total). Data were analysed and categorised into higher-engagement ratings across the domains of engagement and behaviour over the past 6 months and lifetime in terms of presence of the behaviour and likelihood of resulting harm. Results Data were available for 73% of patients. All aspects of engagement were consistently low for all units, with highest levels in community rehabilitation units. Levels of problematic behaviours were similar across all units. Socially inappropriate behaviours and failure to complete everyday activities were evident for over half of all patients and higher for lifetime prevalence. Verbal aggression was at significantly lower levels in community units. Lifetime behaviours likely to lead to harm were much more evident in high-dependency units. Clinical implications Despite some benefits of this type of care, patients continue to present challenges in engagement and problematic behaviours that require new approaches and a change in focus. PMID:25505624

Meaden, Alan; Commander, Martin; Cowan, Colin; Edwards, Tom

2014-12-01

243

The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods. For these women, fighting is not seen as antithetical to cultural conceptions of femininity, and female weakness is disparaged. Nonetheless, even where competitive pressures are high, young women's aggression is less injurious and frequent than young men's. From an evolutionary perspective, I argue that the intensity of female aggression is constrained by the greater centrality of mothers, rather than fathers, to offspring survival. This selection pressure is realized psychologically through a lower threshold for fear among women. Neuropsychological evidence is not yet conclusive but suggests that women show heightened amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli, may be better able to exert prefrontal cortical control over emotional behaviour and may consciously register fear more strongly via anterior cingulate activity. The impact of testosterone and oxytocin on the neural circuitry of emotion is also considered. PMID:24167308

Campbell, Anne

2013-01-01

244

Environmental factors and aggressive behavior  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

Anderson, A.C.

1982-07-01

245

Gene expression in aggressive fibromatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive fibromatosis represents a group of tumors with heterogeneous patterns of biologic behavior. In this study, gene expression in 12 samples of aggressive fibromatosis, as well as that in samples of normal skeletal muscle and a variety of normal tissues, was determined at Gene Logic Inc (Gaithersburg, MD), with the use of Affymetrix GeneChip U_133 arrays containing approximately 33,000 genes.

Keith M Skubitz; Amy P. N Skubitz

2004-01-01

246

Neurotensin inversely modulates maternal aggression  

PubMed Central

Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT’s role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 ?g). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 ?g) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, icv injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 ?g), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 ?g NT or vehicle. 13 of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior. PMID:19118604

Gammie, Stephen C.; D’Anna, Kimberly L.; Gerstein, Hilary; Stevenson, Sharon A.

2008-01-01

247

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase targeting by the ? galactoside binding protein cytokine negates akt gene expression and leads aggressive breast cancer cells to apoptotic death  

PubMed Central

Introduction Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-activated signalling has a critical role in the evolution of aggressive tumourigenesis and is therefore a prime target for anticancer therapy. Previously we have shown that the ? galactoside binding protein (?GBP) cytokine, an antiproliferative molecule, induces functional inhibition of class 1A and class 1B PI3K. Here, we have investigated whether, by targeting PI3K, ?GBP has therapeutic efficacy in aggressive breast cancer cells where strong mitogenic input is fuelled by overexpression of the ErbB2 (also known as HER/neu, for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) oncoprotein receptor and have used immortalised ductal cells and non-aggressive mammary cancer cells, which express ErbB2 at low levels, as controls. Methods Aggressive BT474 and SKBR3 cancer cells where ErbB2 is overexpressed, MCF10A immortalised ductal cells and non-invasive MCF-7 cancer cells which express low levels of ErbB2, both in their naive state and when forced to mimic aggressive behaviour, were used. Class IA PI3K was immunoprecipitated and the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-biphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) assessed by ELISA. The consequences of PI3K inhibition by ?GBP were analysed at proliferation level, by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, by akt gene expression and by apoptosis. Apoptosis was documented by changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, alteration of the plasma membrane, caspase 3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Phosphorylated and total ERK were measured by Western blot analysis and akt mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. The results obtained with the BT474 and SKBR3 cells were validated in the MCF10A ductal cells and in non-invasive MCF-7 breast cancer cells forced into mimicking the in vitro behaviour of the BT474 and SKBR3 cells. Results In aggressive breast cancer cells, where mitogenic signalling is enforced by the ErbB2 oncoprotein receptor, functional inhibition of the catalytic activity of PI3K by the ?GBP cytokine and loss of akt mRNA results in apoptotic death. A functional correlation between ERK and the kt gene was also found. The relationship between ERK, akt mRNA, PI3K and cell vulnerability to ?GBP challenge was sustained both in mammary ductal cells forced to mimic an aggressive behaviour and in non-aggressive breast cancer cells undergoing an enforced shift into an aggressive phenotype. Conclusions ?GBP, a newly discovered physiological inhibitor of PI3K, is a selective and potent inducer of apoptosis in aggressive breast cancer cells. Due to its physiological nature, which carries no chemotherapeutic disadvantages, ?GBP has the potential to be safely tested in clinical trials. PMID:19133120

Wells, Valerie; Mallucci, Livio

2009-01-01

248

Interactive Links Between Theory of Mind, Peer Victimization, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the relation between theory of mind and reactive and proactive aggression, respectively, as well as the moderating role of peer victimization in this context. The 574 participants were drawn from a longitudinal study of twins. Theory of mind was assessed before school entry, when participants were 5 years old. Reactive and proactive aggression as well as peer victimization were assessed a year later in kindergarten. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed that low theory of mind was related to a high level of reactive aggression, but only in children who experienced average to high levels of peer victimization. In contrast, a high theory of mind was related to a high level of proactive aggression. Again, this relation was especially pronounced in children who experienced high levels of peer victimization. These findings challenge the social skills deficit view of aggression and provide support for a multidimensional perspective of aggressive behavior. PMID:20544385

Renouf, Annie; Séguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pérusse, Daniel

2012-01-01

249

Swamp sparrows modulate vocal performance in an aggressive context.  

PubMed

Vocal performance refers to the proficiency with which a bird sings songs that are challenging to produce, and can be measured in simple trilled songs by their deviation from an upper bound regression of frequency bandwidth on trill rate. Here, we show that male swamp sparrows (Melospiza georgiana) increase the vocal performance of individual song types in aggressive contexts by increasing both the trill rate and frequency bandwidth. These results are the first to demonstrate flexible modulation by songbirds of this aspect of vocal performance and are consistent with this signal feature having a role in aggressive communication. PMID:19087921

DuBois, Adrienne L; Nowicki, Stephen; Searcy, William A

2009-04-23

250

Intra- and interspecific agonistic behaviour in sympatric harriers during the breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the temporal and sexual patterns of intra- and interspecific aggression in sympatric harriers during the breeding season, to determine the main resource defended (food, nest sites, mates) and how factors such as body size or breeding system (territorial versus colonial) influence aggressive behaviour. We predicted that if aggression is (at least partly) related to competition for food, the

J. T Garcia; B. E Arroyo

2002-01-01

251

Effects of aggressive driving and driver characteristics on road rage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent is road rage triggered by aggressive driving behavior (frustration-aggression) or by characteristics of an aggressive driver (frustration-selective aggression)? Two scenarios on aggressive driving were presented to 144 undergraduates: impeding traffic (passive aggression) and reckless driving (active aggression). Age, gender, and cell phone use of a fictitious aggressive driver were manipulated in a 2 × 2 × 2

Richard L Dukes; Stephanie L Clayton; Lessie T Jenkins; Thomas L Miller; Susan E Rodgers

2001-01-01

252

Attributional bias and reactive aggression.  

PubMed

This article looks at a cognitive behavioral intervention designed to reduce minority youths' (Latino and African-American boys) levels of reactive peer-directed aggression. The BrainPower Program trains aggressive boys to recognize accidental causation in ambiguous interactions with peers. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of this attribution retraining program in reducing levels of reactive, peer-directed aggression. This research hypothesizes that aggressive young boys' tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others in ambiguous social interactions causes display of inappropriate, peer-directed aggression. A reduction in attributional bias should produce a decrease in reactive physical and verbal aggression directed toward peers. A 12-session, attributional intervention has been designed to reduce aggressive students' tendency to infer hostile intentions in peers following ambiguous peer provocations. The program trains boys to (1) accurately perceive and categorize the available social cues in interactions with peers, (2) attribute negative outcomes of ambiguous causality to accidental or uncontrollable causes, and (3) generate behaviors appropriate to these retrained attributions. African-American and Latino male elementary-school students (N = 384), in grades four-six, served as subjects in one of three groups: experimental attribution retraining program, attention training, and no-attention control group. Three broad categories of outcome data were collected: teacher and administrator reports of behavior, independent observations of behavior, and self-reports from participating students. Process measures to assess implementation fidelity include videotaped training sessions, observations of intervention sessions, student attendance records, and weekly team meetings. The baseline data indicated that students who were evenly distributed across the four sites were not significantly different on the baseline indicators: student cognitions, teacher perceptions of behavior, and student suspension rates. Substantial evidence has shown that aggressive boys tend to attribute hostile intentions to peers, often resulting in inappropriate retaliatory aggression. The BrainPower Program was designed to determine whether psychoeducational strategies in a school context are effective in reducing attributional bias and whether such reductions significantly reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:8909627

Hudley, C; Friday, J

1996-01-01

253

A genetic reduction in antioxidant function causes elevated aggression in mice.  

PubMed

Male-male aggression can have a large influence on access to mates, particularly in highly territorial animals such as mice. It has been suggested that males with impaired antioxidant defence and a consequential increased susceptibility to oxidative stress may have a reduced ability to invest in aggressive behaviours, which could limit their mating opportunities and reproductive success. Oxidative stress occurs as a result of an uncontrolled over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in relation to defence mechanisms (such as antioxidants), and can cause damage to a variety of different cellular components. Impairments in specific aspects of antioxidant defence, leading to oxidative stress, can limit investment in some reproductive traits in males, such as sperm quality and the production of sexual signals to attract mates. However, a direct effect of impaired antioxidant defence on aggressive behaviour has not, to our knowledge, been reported. In this study, we demonstrate that mice with experimentally elevated sensitivity to oxidative stress (through inhibition of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, Sod1) actually show the opposite response to previous predictions. Males completely deficient in SOD1 are more aggressive than both wild-type males and males that express 50% of this antioxidant enzyme. They are also faster to attack another male. The cause of this increased aggression is unknown, but this result highlights that aggressive behaviour in mice is not highly constrained by inhibited Sod1 expression, in contrast to other reproductive traits known to be impaired in this mouse model. PMID:25524980

Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert C

2015-01-15

254

Interferon-induced remission of rapidly growing aggressive fibromatosis in the temporal fossa.  

PubMed

Aggressive fibromatosis is the name for uncommon soft-tissue neoplasms arising within musculoaponeurotic tissue. They show benign histologic features but have an aggressive local behaviour and frequently recur after surgery or radiation. A 48-year-old black woman presented with recurrent aggressive fibromatosis after primary radiotherapy in the left temporal fossa involving the base of the skull. The patient received interferon alpha2a subcutaneously for 6 months. A slow but steady reduction of the tumour was observed, and pre-existing symptoms disappeared. PMID:15308262

Raguse, J-D; Gath, H J; Oettle, H; Bier, J

2004-09-01

255

Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a test of the hypothesis that exposure of children to film-mediated aggressive models would increase the probability of Ss' aggression to subsequent frustration, 1 group of experimental Ss observed real-life aggressive models, a 2nd observed these same models potraying aggression on film, while a 3rd group viewed a film depicting an aggressive cartoon character. Following the exposure treatment, Ss

Albert Bandura; Dorothea Ross; Sheila A. Ross

1963-01-01

256

Physical Aggression and Language Ability from 17 to 72 Months: Cross-Lagged Effects in a Population Sample  

PubMed Central

Background Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children’s sex. Methods Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) (N?=?2, 057) were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments. Results The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter. Conclusions Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months. PMID:25375971

Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.

2014-01-01

257

Suppression of aggression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by dietary L-tryptophan.  

PubMed

Juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were isolated in individual compartments in observation aquaria and allowed to acclimate for 1 week, during which they were fed commercial trout feed. Thereafter, the fish were tested for aggressive behaviour using a resident/intruder test. Following this first resident/intruder test, the feed was exchanged for an experimental wet feed supplemented with 0.15 % or 1.5 % L-tryptophan (by wet mass). Controls received the same feed but without L-tryptophan supplementation. The fish were fed to satiety daily, and their individual feed intake was recorded. Aggressive behaviour was quantified again after 3 and 7 days of L-tryptophan feeding using the resident/intruder test. Feeding the fish L-tryptophan-supplemented feed for 3 days had no effect on aggressive behaviour, whereas feeding the fish L-tryptophan-supplemented feed for 7 days significantly suppressed aggressive behaviour in the fish, an effect seen at both levels of L-tryptophan supplementation. Fish fed L-tryptophan-supplemented feed showed elevated plasma and brain levels of L-tryptophan. The amino acid L-tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin, and supplementary dietary L-tryptophan was found to elevate levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and the 5-HIAA/serotonin concentration ratio in the brain. Neither feed intake nor plasma cortisol level was significantly affected by dietary L-tryptophan. Central serotonin is believed to have an inhibitory effect on aggressive behaviour, and it is suggested that the suppressive effect of dietary L-tryptophan on aggressive behaviour is mediated by an elevation of brain serotonergic activity. PMID:11807104

Winberg, S; Øverli, Ø; Lepage, O

2001-11-01

258

A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.  

PubMed

Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs. PMID:24245908

Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

2015-01-01

259

Meeting the Challenge: Effective Strategies for Challenging Behaviours in Early Childhood Environments = Relever le defi: Strategies efficaces aupres des enfants presentant des problemes de comportement dans les milieux de la petite enfance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describing the frustration felt by early childhood educators when they encounter challenging behaviors that do not respond to their usual guidance and disciplinary measures, this guide, in English and French, is designed to give the information and skills needed to cope with children with challenging behaviors. The guide is based on the view that…

Kaiser, Barbara; Rasminsky, Judy Sklar

260

The generalizability of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire.  

PubMed

Aggressive and hostile behaviours and anger constitute an important problem across cultures. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), a self-rating scale was published in 1992, and has quickly become the gold-standard for the measurement of aggression. The AQ scale has been validated extensively, but the validation focused on various narrowly selected populations, typically, on samples of college students. Individuals, however, who are at risk of displaying aggressive and hostile behaviours may come from a more general population. Therefore, it is important to investigate the scale's properties in such a population. The objective of this study was to examine the factorial structure and the psychometric properties of the AQ scale in a nationally representative sample of the Hungarian adult population.A representative sample of 1200 subjects was selected by a two-step procedure. The dimensionality and factorial composition of the AQ scale was investigated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Since spurious associations and increased factorial complexity can occur when the analysis fails to consider the inherently categorical nature of the item level data, this study, in contrast to most previous studies, estimated the correlation matrices subjected to factor analysis using the polychoric correlations. The resulting factors were validated via sociodemographic characteristics and psychopathological scales obtained from the respondents. The results showed that based on the distribution of factor loadings and factor correlations, in the entire nationally representative sample of 1200 adult subjects, from the original factor structure three of the four factors (Physical and Verbal Aggression and Hostility) showed a good replication whereas the fourth factor (Anger) replicated moderately well. Replication further improved when the sample was restricted in age, i.e. the analysis focused on a sample representing the younger age group, comparable to that used in the original Buss-Perry study. Similar to the Buss-Perry study, and other investigations of the AQ scale, younger age and male gender were robustly related to physical aggression. In addition, level of verbal aggression was different between the two genders (with higher severity in males) whereas hostility and anger were essentially the same in both genders.In conclusion, the current study based on a representative sample of adult population lends support to the use of the AQ scale in the general population. The authors suggest to exclude from the AQ the two inverse items because of the low reliability of these items with regard to their hypothesized constructs. PMID:17849418

Gerevich, József; Bácskai, Erika; Czobor, Pál

2007-01-01

261

Effectiveness of interventions to reduce aggression and injuries among ice hockey players: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: The increasing incidence of injuries related to playing ice hockey is an important public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce injuries related to aggressive acts in ice hockey. Methods: We identified relevant articles by searching electronic databases from their inception through July 2012, by using Internet search engines, and by manually searching sports medicine journals, the book series Safety in Ice Hockey and reference lists of included articles. We included studies that evaluated interventions to reduce aggression-related injuries and reported ratings of aggressive behaviour or rates of penalties or injuries. Results: We identified 18 eligible studies. Most involved players in minor hockey leagues. Of 13 studies that evaluated changes in mandatory rules intended to lessen aggression (most commonly the restriction of body-checking), 11 observed a reduction in penalty or injury rates associated with rule changes, and 9 of these showed a statistically significant decrease. The mean number of penalties decreased by 1.2–5.9 per game, and injury rates decreased 3- to 12-fold. All 3 studies of educational interventions showed a reduction in penalty rates, but they were not powered or designed to show a change in injury rates. In 2 studies of cognitive behavioural interventions, reductions in aggressive behaviours were observed. Interpretation: Changes to mandatory rules were associated with reductions in penalties for aggressive acts and in injuries related to aggression among ice hockey players. Effects of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions on injury rates are less clear. Well-designed studies of multifaceted strategies that combine such approaches are required. PMID:23209118

Cusimano, Michael D.; Nastis, Sofia; Zuccaro, Laura

2013-01-01

262

Aggressive Behaviour, Mental Sub-normality and the XYY Male  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well known that 1 per cent of males in institutions for the mentally sub-normal are chromatin-positive and that the majority of these have an XXY sex chromosome constitution1. In 1963 Forssman and Hambert2 reported on a survey of the nuclear sex of 760 male patients in three Swedish institutions for criminal and `hard-to-manage' males of sub-normal intelligence. They

Patricia A. Jacobs; Muriel Brunton; Marie M. Melville; R. P. BRITTAIN; W. F. MCCLEMONT

1965-01-01

263

Aggressive surgical palliation for advanced girdle tumours  

PubMed Central

Background: The surgical management of advanced, incurable, malignant disease presents particular ethical and technical challenges. The clear goal is palliation and the surgical futility must be avoided. This case series presents some particular challenges in end-of-life surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients referred with advanced malignant disease involving a limb girdle were reviewed. Results: In one case, a patient pleaded for surgery after initially requesting a delay to seek treatment from a Chinese Traditional Herbalist. The increase in tumour bulk led to problems with surgery and the patient died in a hospital a few weeks later. This case illustrates ‘futility’ not recognized and encountered. The remaining 14 patients exhibited positive palliation with improved quality of dying and appreciation expressed by patients, relatives and staff. Conclusion: In selected cases, with a skilled and experienced surgical team, patients with advanced malignant disease can still benefit from aggressive surgical palliation. The margin of error is small between palliation being attempted and futility being achieved. This considerably adds to the challenge of end-of-life surgery. PMID:22754147

Burd, Andrew; Wong, K. C.; Kumta, Shekhar M.

2012-01-01

264

Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behaviour on the roads is reported to be on the increase. This study administered Driving Anger Scale (Deffenbacher et al. (1994). Development of a driving anger scale. Psychological Reports, 74, 83–91.), the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire, and the Driving Skill Inventory to a sample of 270 British drivers. Factor analysis of the Driving Anger Scale items yielded three factors measuring

Timo Lajunen; Dianne Parker; Stephen G Stradling

1998-01-01

265

The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

Whitson, Signe

2013-01-01

266

Aggressive Driving in Young Motorists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road rage is an increasingly prevalent expression of aggression in our society. Its dangers are apparent and understanding its causes may shed light on preventative measures. This study involved a fifteen-minute survey administered to 147 undergraduate students at a North Eastern suburban university. The survey consisted of a demographics section, questions regarding financial investment in respondents' vehicles, experience driving, habits

Suneel M. Agerwala; Ashley Votta; Briana Hogan; John Yannocone; Steven Samuels

2008-01-01

267

Driving Citations and Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anger and driving have been examined in a number of studies of aggressive drivers and in drivers with road rage, using a number of psychological and environmental study variables. However, we are not aware of any study that has examined the number of driving citations (an indication of problematic driving) and various forms of anger not related to driving.Method:

Randy A. Sansone; Justin S. Leung; Michael W. Wiederman

2012-01-01

268

Violent video games and aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main concerns that has constantly been raised against video games is that most of the games feature aggressive elements. This has led many people to assert that this may have a detrimental effect on individuals who play such games. Despite continuing controversy for over 15 years, there has been little in the way of systematic research. This

Mark Griffiths

1999-01-01

269

The relation between video game violence and aggression.  

E-print Network

??Experimental research has shown that playing violent video games produces higher levels of aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior (in the short-term)… (more)

Adachi, Paul

2011-01-01

270

1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc. AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR  

E-print Network

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maternal Aggression During the Mouthbrooding Cycle in the Cichlid Fish, Oreochromis mossambicus Rui F have centered on parental aggression, even more so in the case of females. *Correspondence to: Rui F

271

Estimating aggression from emotionally neutral faces: which facial cues are diagnostic?  

PubMed

The facial width-to-height ratio, a size-independent sexually dimorphic property of the human face, is correlated with aggressive behaviour in men. Furthermore, observers' estimates of aggression from emotionally neutral faces are accurate and are highly correlated with the facial width-to-height ratio. We investigated whether observers use the facial width-to-height ratio to estimate propensity for aggression. In experiments 1a-1c, estimates of aggression remained accurate when faces were blurred or cropped, manipulations that reduce featural cues but maintain the facial width-to-height ratio. Accuracy decreased when faces were scrambled, a manipulation that retains featural information but disrupts the facial width-to-height ratio. In experiment 2, computer-modeling software identified eight facial metrics that correlated with estimates of aggression; regression analyses revealed that the facial width-to-height ratio was the only metric that uniquely predicted these estimates. In experiment 3, we used a computer-generated set of faces varying in perceived threat (Oosterhof and Todorov, 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 11087-11092) and found that as emotionally neutral faces became more 'threatening', the facial width-to-height ratio increased. Together, these experiments suggest that the facial width-to-height ratio is an honest signal of propensity for aggressive behaviour. PMID:20465172

Carré, Justin M; Morrissey, Mark D; Mondloch, Catherine J; McCormick, Cheryl M

2010-01-01

272

Anger, Aggression, and Irrational Beliefs in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether a combination of anger, hostility, and irrational beliefs, i.e., intolerance of rules frustration,\\u000a intolerance of work frustration, demands for fairness, and self-downing would predict physical, verbal, and indirect aggression\\u000a and peer ratings of aggression. Follow-up analysis tested gender as a moderator of the relations between irrational beliefs\\u000a and aggression, and anger and aggression. One hundred thirty-five

Christopher J. Fives; Grace Kong; J. Ryan Fuller; Raymond DiGiuseppe

2011-01-01

273

Proximate perspectives on the evolution of female aggression: good for the gander, good for the goose?  

PubMed

Female-female aggression often functions in competition over reproductive or social benefits, but the proximate mechanisms of this apparently adaptive behaviour are not well understood. The sex steroid hormone testosterone (T) and its metabolites are well-established mediators of male-male aggression, and several lines of evidence suggest that T-mediated mechanisms may apply to females as well. However, a key question is whether mechanisms of female aggression primarily reflect correlated evolutionary responses to selection acting on males, or whether direct selection acting on females has made modifications to these mechanisms that are adaptive in light of female life history. Here, I examine the degree to which female aggression is mediated at the level of T production, target tissue sensitivity to T, or downstream genomic responses in order to test the hypothesis that selection favours mechanisms that facilitate female aggression while minimizing the costs of systemically elevated T. I draw heavily from avian systems, including the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), as well as other organisms in which these mechanisms have been well studied from an evolutionary/ecological perspective in both sexes. Findings reveal that the sexes share many behavioural and hormonal mechanisms, though several patterns also suggest sex-specific adaptation. I argue that greater attention to multiple levels of analysis-from hormone to receptor to gene network, including analyses of individual variation that represents the raw material of evolutionary change-will be a fruitful path for understanding mechanisms of behavioural regulation and intersexual coevolution. PMID:24167313

Rosvall, Kimberly A

2013-01-01

274

Proximate perspectives on the evolution of female aggression: good for the gander, good for the goose?  

PubMed Central

Female–female aggression often functions in competition over reproductive or social benefits, but the proximate mechanisms of this apparently adaptive behaviour are not well understood. The sex steroid hormone testosterone (T) and its metabolites are well-established mediators of male–male aggression, and several lines of evidence suggest that T-mediated mechanisms may apply to females as well. However, a key question is whether mechanisms of female aggression primarily reflect correlated evolutionary responses to selection acting on males, or whether direct selection acting on females has made modifications to these mechanisms that are adaptive in light of female life history. Here, I examine the degree to which female aggression is mediated at the level of T production, target tissue sensitivity to T, or downstream genomic responses in order to test the hypothesis that selection favours mechanisms that facilitate female aggression while minimizing the costs of systemically elevated T. I draw heavily from avian systems, including the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), as well as other organisms in which these mechanisms have been well studied from an evolutionary/ecological perspective in both sexes. Findings reveal that the sexes share many behavioural and hormonal mechanisms, though several patterns also suggest sex-specific adaptation. I argue that greater attention to multiple levels of analysis—from hormone to receptor to gene network, including analyses of individual variation that represents the raw material of evolutionary change—will be a fruitful path for understanding mechanisms of behavioural regulation and intersexual coevolution. PMID:24167313

Rosvall, Kimberly A.

2013-01-01

275

VERBAL AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN DELINQUENT BOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 STUDIES USED A LABORATORY MEASURE OF VERBAL AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN WHICH BOYS COMPETED IN PAIRS AGAINST ONE ANOTHER IN ASSEMBLING A FORMBOARD. IN STUDY I, 80 DELINQUENTS WERE SUBJECTED TO INTENSE OR MILD VERBAL ATTACK BY A DELINQUENT ACCOMPLICE. INTENSE VERBAL AGGRESSION LED TO MORE RETALIATORY VERBAL AGGRESSION THAN DID MILD DISTRACTION. IN STUDY II, 128 DELINQUENTS COMPETED AGAINST

DONALD L. MOSHER; ROWE L. MORTIMER; MARTIN GREBEL

1968-01-01

276

Talking Smack: Verbal Aggression in Professional Wrestling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study presents the results of a content analysis of the verbal aggression found in 36 hours of televised professional wrestling. The coding scheme was adapted from the National Television Violence Study and past research on television verbal aggression. Results show that an abundance of verbal aggression occurs in televised professional wrestling, with swearing, competence attacks, and character attacks

Ron Tamborini; Rebecca M. Chory; Ken Lachlan; David Westerman; Paul Skalski

2008-01-01

277

Treatment of Impulsive Aggression in Correctional  

E-print Network

Treatment of Impulsive Aggression in Correctional Settings Deborah Shelton, Ph.D., R.N.*, Susan (DBT-CM) for difficult to manage, impulsive and/or aggressive correctional populations. Methods will show decreased aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathology, as well as improved coping, after

Oliver, Douglas L.

278

Cellular memory of hypoxia elicits neuroblastoma metastasis and enables invasion by non-aggressive neighbouring cells.  

PubMed

Therapies targeting cancer metastasis are challenging owing to the complexity of the metastatic process and the high number of effectors involved. Although tumour hypoxia has previously been associated with increased aggressiveness as well as resistance to radio- and chemotherapy, the understanding of a direct link between the level and duration of hypoxia and the individual steps involved in metastasis is still missing. Using live imaging in a chick embryo model, we have demonstrated that the exposure of neuroblastoma cells to 1% oxygen for 3 days was capable of (1) enabling cell migration towards blood vessels, (2) slowing down their velocity within blood vessels to facilitate extravasation and (3) promoting cell proliferation in primary and secondary sites. We have shown that cells do not have to be hypoxic anymore to exhibit these acquired capabilities as a long-term memory of prior hypoxic exposure is kept. Furthermore, non-hypoxic cells can be influenced by neighbouring hypoxic preconditioned cells and be entrained in the metastatic progression. The acquired aggressive phenotype relies on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent transcription of a number of genes involved in metastasis and can be impaired by HIF inhibition. Altogether, our results demonstrate the need to consider both temporal and spatial tumour heterogeneity because cells can 'remember' an earlier environment and share their acquired phenotype with their close neighbours. As a consequence, it is necessary to monitor the correct hypoxic markers to be able to predict the consequences of the cells' history on their behaviour and their potential response to therapies. PMID:25664931

Herrmann, A; Rice, M; Lévy, R; Pizer, B L; Losty, P D; Moss, D; Sée, V

2015-01-01

279

The Reduction of Peer Directed Aggression among Highly Aggressive African-American Boys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of highly aggressive African American boys sought to understand the effect of an attribution retraining program designed to reduce aggressive males' tendency to attribute hostile intentions to peers following ambiguous, negative interactions. One hundred and one African American aggressive and non-aggressive elementary school boys in Los…

Hudley, Cynthia Ann

280

DOG AGGRESSION: CANINE BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO AGGRESSION TOWARD HUMANS  

E-print Network

DOG AGGRESSION: CANINE BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO AGGRESSION TOWARD HUMANS J. Kottferova1: kottfer@uvm.sk; Phone: 1421 915 984 670 Our study focused on dog aggression toward people dog owners about their dog's aggression toward unknown persons. More than half of the dogs surveyed

Champagne, Frances A.

281

Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

282

Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, benign neoplasm occurring in 3(rd) to 5(th) decade of life that can be mistaken both clinically and on microscopy for several other conditions, it should be included as a differential diagnosis for any vaginal mass. These lesions have a predilection for female pelvic soft tissues, slow in growth, and are characterized histologically by a predominantly myxoid stroma and an abundance of thin and thick walled vascular channels. This is a deep soft tissue tumor, which as the name suggests, may have a locally aggressive course. Most tumors occur in women and are large, usually greater than 10 cm, slowly growing, and painless. Standard of care treatment for angiomyxoma has been surgery. Some authors believe that it is the only possible treatment, but surgery is often radical and can be mutilating, with massive blood loss. PMID:22923982

Barmon, Debabrata; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Sharma, J D; Bordoloi, Judy

2012-01-01

283

Translational science in action: Hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems  

PubMed Central

A model of the development of hostile attributional style and its role in children's aggressive behavior is proposed, based on the translation of basic science in ethology, neuroscience, social psychology, personality psychology, and developmental psychology. Theory and findings from these domains are reviewed and synthesized in the proposed model, which posits that (a) aggressive behavior and hostile attributions are universal human characteristics, (b) socialization leads to the development of benign attributions, (c) individual differences in attributional style account for differences in aggressive behavior, and (d) interventions to change attributions have the potential to alter antisocial development. Challenges for future research are described. PMID:17152401

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

284

Neurogenetics of Aggressive Behavior – Studies in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques e.g. immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), major inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual differences in aggression, using the so-called forward genetics approach. PMID:24318936

Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.

2014-01-01

285

Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in rodents.  

PubMed

Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals' survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques, e.g., immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here, we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual differences in aggression, using the so-called forward genetics approach. PMID:24318936

Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A

2014-01-01

286

Culture of honour theory and social anxiety: Cross-regional and sex differences in relationships among honour-concerns, social anxiety and reactive aggression.  

PubMed

Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals. PMID:24862880

Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W

2015-04-01

287

Rejection Sensitivity and Girls’ Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Studies of maladaptive behavior in women have traditionally focused on difficulties that are self-destructive in nature, such\\u000a as suicidal behavior, eating disorders, and self-mutilation (e.g., Canetto & Lester, 1995; Cross, 1993; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987). However, in the last several years, there has been a shift toward seeking to understand women’s maladjustment in its aggressive\\u000a and socially harmful forms (Ayduk, Downey, Testa,

Geraldine Downey; Lauren Irwin; Melissa Ramsay; Ozlem Ayduk

288

Geerbte Aggression: Gene und Gewalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Frage nach den Wurzeln von Aggression und Gewalt wird seit langer Zeit als Kontroverse um »Anlage« vs »Umwelt« heft ig\\u000a diskutiert. Wenn sowohl Vater wie auch Sohn wegen Gewalttaten im Gefängnis sitzen, wird in der Öffentlichkeit manchmal über\\u000a ein »Aggressionsgen« spekuliert. Wenn Jugendliche in heruntergekommenen Stadtteilen oder junge Männer aus Migrantenfamilien\\u000a zuschlagen, wird ihre gesellschaft liche Umwelt als Ursache

Klaus Wahl

289

Information and aggression in fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive interactions between fishes commonly take place in a social environment in which uninvolved individuals (bystanders)\\u000a have an opportunity to gather information about interactants. Signals frequently used during such interactions are designed\\u000a to transmit information about resource-holding power and\\/or intention. They are generally related to the level of escalation\\u000a reached and the eventual outcome of a fight. We consider here

Tom M. Peake; Peter K. Mcgregor

2004-01-01

290

Social rank and winter forage quality affect aggressiveness in white-tailed deer fawns  

E-print Network

Social rank and winter forage quality affect aggressiveness in white-tailed deer fawns JOE fawns fed the poor-quality diet decreased it. Our experimental approach revealed that white-tailed deer status; forage intake; Odocoileus virginianus; resource competition; social behaviour; white-tailed deer

Laval, Université

291

The Phenomenon of Aggressive Behavior of Learners in the School Situation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggressive behaviour of learners in the relationship with peers and educators might influence their social, academic performance, professional relationship, and their mental health. Peers are a group of people who socialise together. The educator is a person who is having knowledge and skills therefore responsible for guiding and teaching others.

Venter, M.; Poggenpoel, M.; Myburgh, C. P. H.

2005-01-01

292

INTERNATIONAL APPLICATIONS OF POLICE ASSESSMENT: PREDICTING AGGRESSION, STRESS AND MENTAL DISORDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social and cultural change can exacerbate stress within law enforcement especially when involving different religious and ethnic groups. During these transitional periods viable measures of police suitability are need to both prevent abuses and assess current stressors. Characterological (aggression, deviant behaviour) and clinical factors (mental illness, potential for alcohol abuse) are critical features to be measured when testing law enforcement

Lawrence Armand French

293

Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

2013-01-01

294

Assessment of strength and willingness to fight during aggressive encounters in crickets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game theory predicts that at least some of the behaviour patterns displayed during aggressive encounters are used to assess asymmetries in variables that indicate fighting ability and resource value. Game theoretical models such as the sequential assessment game see assessment as the major activity during a fight. However, while these models acknowledge the existence of physical and motivational assessment parameters,

HANS A. HOFMANN; Klaus Schildberger

2001-01-01

295

Adult zebrafish as a model organism for behavioural genetics  

PubMed Central

Recent research has demonstrated the suitability of adult zebrafish to model some aspects of complex behaviour. Studies of reward behaviour, learning and memory, aggression, anxiety and sleep strongly suggest that conserved regulatory processes underlie behaviour in zebrafish and mammals. The isolation and molecular analysis of zebrafish behavioural mutants is now starting, allowing the identification of novel behavioural control genes. As a result of this, studies of adult zebrafish are now helping to uncover the genetic pathways and neural circuits that control vertebrate behaviour. PMID:20678210

2010-01-01

296

REACTIVE AND PROACTIVE AGGRESSION IN ADOLESCENT MALES  

PubMed Central

There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of 335 adolescent males. Path analyses indicate that after controlling for the stability of the outcome and the overlap between the two subtypes of aggression, reactive aggression is uniquely associated with negative emotionality, specifically anxiety, in adulthood. In contrast, proactive aggression is uniquely associated with measures of adult psychopathic features and antisocial behavior in adulthood. Both reactive and proactive aggression uniquely predicted substance use in adulthood, but the substances varied by subtype of aggression. Implications for findings are discussed. PMID:20589225

Fite, Paula J.; Raine, Adrian; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

2010-01-01

297

[Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].  

PubMed

In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189

Itil, T M

1978-01-01

298

The pharmacology of impulsive behaviour in rats: the effects of drugs on response choice with varying delays of reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulsive behaviour is an important component of many psychiatric syndromes. It is often expressed as aggressive or violent\\u000a behaviour, but may also be non-violent. One important factor which might lead to aggression or violence is an inability to\\u000a tolerate a delay of gratification, leading to frustration and aggressive outbursts. In animals and in man, tolerance to delay\\u000a of gratification can

J. L. Evenden; C. N. Ryan

1996-01-01

299

Developing cognitive behaviour therapy training in India: Using the Kolb learning cycle to address challenges in applying transcultural models of mental health and mental health training.  

PubMed

Although mental health workers in India across all major professional groups have identified an unmet need for training in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), the uncritical export of models of mental health, therapy provision and training to low- and middle-income countries is a problematic process. This paper describes the context for the first stand-alone CBT training programme in India, based in Chennai. This paper includes an evaluation of the first phase of the training and information from trainees regarding the quality and applicability of the training to their working context. The paper provides an overview of some of the critiques that are pertinent to this process and considers the way that the Kolb learning cycle can be used as a framework within training to go some way to addressing these difficulties. PMID:25343633

Beck, Andrew; Virudhagirinathan, B S; Santosham, Sangita; Begum, Faiz Jahan

2014-10-01

300

Experiment in managing sociopathic behaviour disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ward catering for both sexes admitted patients with aggressive suicidal, or otherwise disturbed behaviour for observation and treatment until decisions could be made about their long-term needs. Patients were referred from the police, special hospitals, and the courts and some were transferred from other wards in the hospital. A third of the first 100 patients were admitted for forensic

M Woodside; A Harrow; J V Basson; J W Affleck

1976-01-01

301

A cross-sectional study of aggression levels in physicians and orthopaedic surgeons: impact on specialty selection and training?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine if current validated psychometric evaluations could determine a difference in basic behavioural characteristics between surgical and medical specialties. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Two district general hospitals and one University teaching hospital in England, UK. Participants Internal medicine (16) and trauma and orthopaedic (20) consultants. Main outcome measures Aggression levels as assessed by the Buss and Warren questionnaire. The self-administered questionnaire assesses aggression in terms of physical, verbal, anger, hostility, indirect hostility and an overall assessment of aggression. Results All participants had aggression scores below the population average. We found a significant difference (P < 0.01) in total level of aggression, with orthopaedic consultants scoring a mean of 61.1 (standard deviation [SD] 9.2) and physicians 51.3 (SD 9.5). When analysis of the five different subtypes of aggression was carried out, orthopaedic surgeons scored significantly higher in terms of verbal aggression (P = 0.005), hostility (P = 0.002) and indirect hostility (P = 0.03). Conclusion This study joins a growing evidence base for aspects of behaviour indicative of a given specialty. Aggression is a relatively stable behavioural characteristic from adolescence, and as such this is the first study of its type to suggest that the differences in behavioural characteristics seen between specialties are inherent, rather than learned. It is unclear if the differences observed represent an attraction of that specialty to the personality type or is required for success within the given specialty. Whether this can be used in terms of selection into higher specialty training, or influence training within specialties, requires further work. PMID:23476726

Barlow, T; Wight, A; Barlow, D

2012-01-01

302

Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.  

PubMed

We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

2013-05-19

303

Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility  

PubMed Central

We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

2013-01-01

304

Aggressive angiomyxoma with perineal herniation.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor involving the pelvic-perineal region. It occurs during the third and fourth decade of life and is predominantly seen in females. It presents clinically as a soft tissue mass in variable locations such as vulva, perianal region, buttock, or pelvis. Assessment of extent of the tumor by radiological evaluation is crucial for surgical planning; however, biopsy is essential to establish diagnosis. We present the radiological and pathological features seen in a 43-year-old female diagnosed with abdominal angiomyxoma with an unusual extension to the perineum. PMID:24987570

Narang, Seema; Kohli, Supreethi; Kumar, Vinod; Chandoke, Raj

2014-01-01

305

Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations\\u000a in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly\\u000a unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal

Nicholas K. Cheung; Xenia Doorenbosch; John G. Christie

2011-01-01

306

Resolving social conflict among females without overt aggression  

PubMed Central

Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression. PMID:24167306

Cant, Michael A.; Young, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

307

Impulsive aggression in borderline personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulsive aggressive behaviors that include physical aggression directed towards others, self-mutilation, suicide attempts,\\u000a domestic violence, substance abuse, and property destruction account for a substantial portion of the morbidity and mortality\\u000a associated with personality disorders, in particular borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent genetic, neurobiologic,\\u000a and diagnostic studies suggest a dimensional approach to BPD symptomatology with impulsive aggression as one of the

Marianne Goodman; Antonia New

2000-01-01

308

The role of serotonergic system at the interface of aggression and suicide  

PubMed Central

Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the mulifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and find new effective therapies for these conditions. PMID:23333677

Bortolato, Marco; Pivac, Nela; Seler, Dorotea Muck; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Pessia, Mauro; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

309

Aggression and coexistence in female caribou  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

2014-01-01

310

Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.  

PubMed

Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

Cardwell, Michael Steven

2013-09-01

311

The relation between aggression and inflated self-concepts in aggressive children: a replication study  

E-print Network

This study examined the relation between inflated self-concepts and levels of aggression in a sample of 167 aggressive second- and third-grade students. Variable-oriented data analyses of children's self- and others' reports of competence...

Meehan, Barbara Theresa

2012-06-07

312

Cooperation and competition: nepotistic tolerance and intrasexual aggression in western bluebird winter groups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Dickinson, J.L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.

2009-01-01

313

Octopamine and occupancy: an aminergic mechanism for intruder–resident aggression in crickets  

PubMed Central

Aggression is a behavioural strategy for securing resources (food, mates and territory) and its expression is strongly influenced by their presence and value. While it is known that resource holders are generally highly aggressive towards intruding consexuals and usually defeat them, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are not known. In a novel intruder–resident paradigm for field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus), we show that otherwise submissive losers of a preceding aggressive encounter readily fight and often defeat aggressive winners after occupying an artificial shelter. This aggression enhancing effect first became evident after 2 min residency, and was maximal after 15 min, but absent 15 min after shelter removal. The residency effect was abolished following non-selective depletion of biogenic amines from the central nervous system using reserpine, or semi-selective depletion of octopamine and dopamine using ?-methyl-tyrosine, but not following serotonin depletion using ?-methyl-tryptophan. The residency effect was also abolished by the treatment with phentolamine, an ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist, or epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, or by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker. We conclude that crickets evaluate residency as a rewarding experience that promotes aggressive motivation via a mechanism involving octopamine, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline. PMID:21106592

Rillich, Jan; Schildberger, Klaus; Stevenson, Paul A.

2011-01-01

314

Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples.  

PubMed

Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level. PMID:24866529

Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria

2014-10-01

315

Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

2011-01-01

316

The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

Lee, Eunju

2009-01-01

317

Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity  

PubMed Central

Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in delinquent boys. Authors’ conclusions The authors consider that the body of evidence summarised in this review is insufficient to allow any firm conclusion to be drawn about the use of antiepileptic medication in the treatment of aggression and associated impulsivity. Four antiepileptics (valproate/ divalproex, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and phenytoin) were effective, compared to placebo, in reducing aggression in at least one study, although for three drugs (valproate, carbamazepine and phenytoin) at least one other study showed no statistically significant difference between treatment and control conditions. Side effects were more commonly noted for the intervention group although adverse effects were not well reported. Absence of information does not necessarily mean that the treatment is safe, nor that the potential gains from the medication necessarily balance the risk of an adverse event occurring. Further research is needed. PMID:20166067

Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah

2014-01-01

318

Children's Moral Reasoning regarding Physical and Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school children's moral reasoning concerning physical and relational aggression was explored. Fourth and fifth graders rated physical aggression as more wrong and harmful than relational aggression but tended to adopt a moral orientation about both forms of aggression. Gender differences in moral judgments of aggression were observed,…

Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Galotti, Kathleen M.

2006-01-01

319

Aggressive treatment of early fistula failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive treatment of early fistula failure.BackgroundFistula failure has been classified as early and late. Early failure refers to those cases in which the arteriovenous (AV) fistula never develops to the point that it can be used or fails within the first 3 months of usage. It has been common practice to abandon these early failures; however, aggressive evaluation and treatment

Gerald A. Beathard; Perry Arnold; Jerry Jackson; Terry Litchfield

2003-01-01

320

How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

2014-01-01

321

Aggressive surgical management for advanced colorectal endometriosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of aggressive surgical management in patients with advanced colorectal endometriosis. METHODS: The medical records of 130 women who had undergone aggressive surgical management of advanced colorectal endometriosis were reviewed. They were then interviewed a mean of 60 months following surgery and asked to rank relief of their symptoms. RESULTS:

H. Randolph Bailey; Michael T. Ott; Paul Hartendorp

1994-01-01

322

Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span  

PubMed Central

Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

2012-01-01

323

Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

2000-01-01

324

Aggressive behavior and opportunities to purchase drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robins, Kellam, and others found robust evidence linking youthful aggression and deviance to later illicit drug use. Some investigators favor the interpretation that drug use is just one manifestation or complication of a more general problem behavior syndrome or conduct disorder. In this work, we test the complementary hypothesis that aggressive youth are more likely to be approached with offers

Marsha F. Rosenberg; James C. Anthony

2001-01-01

325

Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

2010-01-01

326

Geographical variation in agonistic behaviour in a ring species of salamander, Ensatina eschscholtzii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensatina eschscholtziiis a plethodontid salamander with several geographical races distributed in a ring-like series throughout the coastal mountains and inland Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Populations of these salamanders show genetic and morphological divergence, and in this study, we examined divergence in overt aggressive, passive aggressive\\/exploratory, avoidance and sensory behaviours in four populations. Two of the populations represent a zone

ERIKA B. WILTENMUTH; KIISA C. NISHIKAWA

1998-01-01

327

Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.  

PubMed

Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed. PMID:23804408

Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

2013-01-01

328

The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.  

PubMed

Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed. PMID:24014542

Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

2013-12-01

329

Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N?=?90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25460976

Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T

2014-12-01

330

Adaptive walks on behavioural landscapes and the evolution of optimal behaviour by natural selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  One of the main challenges to the adaptationist programme in general and to the use of optimality models in behavioural and evolutionary ecology in particular is that natural selection need not optimise fitness. This challenge is addressed by considering the evolution of optimal patch choice by natural selection. The behavioural model is based on a state variable approach in which

Marc Mangel

1991-01-01

331

The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

2012-01-01

332

ACE: An Aggressive Classifier Ensemble with Error Detection, Correction and Cleansing*  

E-print Network

ACE: An Aggressive Classifier Ensemble with Error Detection, Correction and Cleansing* Yan Zhang1 is a challenging and reality issue for real-world data mining applications. Common practices include data cleansing. In this paper, we present a novel framework that unifies error detection, correction and data cleansing to build

Wu, Xindong

333

Mating Season Aggression and Fecal Testosterone Levels in Male Ring-Tailed Lemurs ( Lemur catta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge hypothesis (J. C. Wingfield, R. E. Hegner, B. G. Ball, and A. M. Duffy, 1990, Am. Nat. 136, 829–846) proposes that in birds, reptiles, and fish, “the frequency or intensity of reproductive aggression as an effect of T[estosterone] is strongest in situations of social instability, such as during the formation of dominance relationships, the establishment of territorial boundaries,

Sonia A. Cavigelli; Michael E. Pereira

2000-01-01

334

Assessment of aggression in inpatient settings.  

PubMed

The threat of violence is a major concern for all individuals working or receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric setting. One major focus in forensic psychology and psychiatry over the past several decades has been the development of risk assessments to aid in the identification of those individuals most at risk of exhibiting violent behavior. So-called second- and third-generation risk assessments were developed to improve the accuracy of decision making. While these instruments were developed for use in the community, many have proven to be effective in identifying patients more likely to exhibit institutional aggression. Because the purpose of risk assessment is the reduction of violence, dynamic factors were included in third-generation risk instruments to provide opportunities for intervention and methods for measuring change. Research with these instruments indicates that both static factors (second-generation) and dynamic factors (third-generation) are important in identifying those patients most likely to engage in institutional aggression, especially when the aggression is categorized by type (impulsive/reactive, organized/predatory/instrumental, psychotic). Recent research has indicated that developing a typology of aggressive incidents may provide insight both into precipitants to assaults as well as appropriate interventions to reduce such aggression. The extant literature suggests that both static and dynamic risk factors are important, but may be differentially related to the type of aggression exhibited and the characteristics of the individuals exhibiting the aggression. PMID:25296966

McDermott, Barbara E; Holoyda, Brian J

2014-10-01

335

[Angiomyxoma: always myxoid, sometimes aggressive].  

PubMed

Angiomyxoma is a distinct soft tissue tumor characterized by the presence of prominent myxoid matrix and numerous thin-walled blood vessels. This tumor has a predilection for the trunk, head and neck, extremities, and genitalia. It is a benign tumor and total excision is curative. Recurrence is rare except for aggressive angiomyxomas. A 12-year-old girl with a 10-year history of a subcutaneous mass on the left gluteus measuring 4.5x4x3 cm had been referred. The tumor was encapsulated and was located in the reticular dermis and subcutaneous tissue, composed of stellate cells with mucinous stroma. Thin-walled blood vessels were prominent. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were immunoreactive for vimentin. No immunoreactivity was present for estrogen receptor, CD34, smooth muscle actin, S-100 protein and desmin. The purpose of this report is to present a classical example of an isolated superficial angiomyxoma and discuss the differential diagnosis, because of its relatively infrequent occurence. PMID:22627635

D?n?z, Gülden; Tem?r, Günyüz; Ortaç, Rag?p

2012-01-01

336

Understanding the personality disorder and aggression relationship: an investigation using contemporary aggression theory.  

PubMed

Research has consistently demonstrated a link between certain personality disorders (PDs) and increased rates of aggression and violence. At present, understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this relationship is limited. This study was designed to examine the contention (Gilbert & Daffern, 2011) that the application of a contemporary psychological aggression theory, the General Aggression Model (GAM; Anderson & Bushman, 2002), may assist in elucidating the PD-aggression relationship. Eighty-seven offenders undergoing presentence evaluation were assessed for Axis II PDs and psychopathy, aggression, and three constructs delineated by the GAM: scripts, normative beliefs, and anger. Regression analyses were undertaken to examine the relative contributions of these variables to aggression. The results upheld a relationship between several PDs and aggression, and suggested that for these PDs, the consideration of scripts, beliefs supportive of aggression, and anger facilitated an improved understanding of aggressiveness. Overall, the findings indicate that the GAM offers valuable insight into the psychological features that characterize individuals with PD who are prone to aggression. PMID:23398093

Gilbert, Flora; Daffern, Michael; Talevski, Diana; Ogloff, James R P

2015-02-01

337

Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman’s (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent’s aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent’s friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members’ likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends’ attitudes, and their friends’ aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores. PMID:25152562

Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

2014-01-01

338

Dopamine and serotonin signaling during two sensitive developmental periods differentially impact adult aggressive and affective behaviors in mice  

PubMed Central

Pharmacologic blockade of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) or serotonin transporter (5-HTT) has antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy in adulthood. Yet, genetically conferred MAOA or 5-HTT hypo-activity is associated with altered aggression and increased anxiety/depression. Here we test the hypothesis that increased monoamine signaling during development causes these paradoxical aggressive and affective phenotypes. We find that pharmacologic MAOA blockade during early postnatal development (P2-P21) but not during peri-adolescence (P22-41) increases anxiety- and depression-like behavior in adult (> P90) mice, mimicking the effect of P2-21 5-HTT inhibition. Moreover, MAOA blockade during peri-adolescence, but not P2-21 or P182-201, increases adult aggressive behavior, and 5-HTT blockade from P22-P41 reduced adult aggression. Blockade of the dopamine transporter, but not the norepinephrine transporter, during P22-41 also increases adult aggressive behavior. Thus, P2-21 is a sensitive period during which 5-HT modulates adult anxiety/depression-like behavior, and P22-41 is a sensitive period during which DA and 5-HT bi-directionally modulate adult aggression. Permanently altered DAergic function as a consequence of increased P22-P41 monoamine signaling might underlie altered aggression. In support of this hypothesis, we find altered aggression correlating positively with locomotor response to amphetamine challenge in adulthood. Proving that altered DA function and aggression are causally linked, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of VTA DAergic neurons increases aggression. It therefore appears that genetic and pharmacologic factors impacting dopamine and serotonin signaling during sensitive developmental periods can modulate adult monoaminergic function and thereby alter risk for aggressive and emotional dysfunction. PMID:24589889

Yu, Qinghui; Teixeira, Cátia M.; Mahadevia, Darshini; Huang, Yung-Yu; Balsam, Daniel; Mann, J John; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S.

2014-01-01

339

Social reversal of sex-biased aggression and dominance in a biparental cichlid fish1 (Julidochromis marlieri)2  

E-print Network

- 1 - Social reversal of sex-biased aggression and dominance in a biparental cichlid fish1 dimorphism is often strongly linked to biological sex, the environment, either15 social or ecological, may influence sex-biased behaviour in some species. In the biparental16 cichlid fish Julidochromis marlieri

Renn, Susan C.P.

340

Lack of Support for the Association between Facial Shape and Aggression: A Reappraisal Based on a Worldwide Population Genetics Perspective  

PubMed Central

Antisocial and criminal behaviors are multifactorial traits whose interpretation relies on multiple disciplines. Since these interpretations may have social, moral and legal implications, a constant review of the evidence is necessary before any scientific claim is considered as truth. A recent study proposed that men with wider faces relative to facial height (fWHR) are more likely to develop unethical behaviour mediated by a psychological sense of power. This research was based on reports suggesting that sexual dimorphism and selection would be responsible for a correlation between fWHR and aggression. Here we show that 4,960 individuals from 94 modern human populations belonging to a vast array of genetic and cultural contexts do not display significant amounts of fWHR sexual dimorphism. Further analyses using populations with associated ethnographical records as well as samples of male prisoners of the Mexico City Federal Penitentiary condemned by crimes of variable level of inter-personal aggression (homicide, robbery, and minor faults) did not show significant evidence, suggesting that populations/individuals with higher levels of bellicosity, aggressive behaviour, or power-mediated behaviour display greater fWHR. Finally, a regression analysis of fWHR on individual's fitness showed no significant correlation between this facial trait and reproductive success. Overall, our results suggest that facial attributes are poor predictors of aggressive behaviour, or at least, that sexual selection was weak enough to leave a signal on patterns of between- and within-sex and population facial variation. PMID:23326328

Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Hünemeier, Tábita; Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Paschetta, Carolina; de Azevedo, Soledad; González, Marina F.; Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Esparza, Mireia; Pucciarelli, Héctor M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bau, Claiton H. D.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; González-José, Rolando

2013-01-01

341

Aggression and dominance in matched groups of subadult Icelandic horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied sex differences in the nature of aggression and dominance behaviour in two newly formed groups of 1-year-old Icelandic\\u000a horses. One herd contained nine geldings, the other nine mares. The groups were matched with regard to dominance-determining\\u000a traits such as age, weaning age, composition of native herd, social experience, genetic origin, body condition and maternal\\u000a dominance status. High-ranking individuals

Hilde Vervaecke; Jeroen M. G. Stevens; Harold Vandemoortele; Hrefna Sigurjónsdóttir; Han De Vries

2007-01-01

342

The Effect of an Attachment-Based Behaviour Therapy for Children with Visual and Severe Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A combination of an attachment-based therapy and behaviour modification was investigated for children with persistent challenging behaviour. Method: Six clients with visual and severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behaviour and with a background of pathogenic care were treated. Challenging behaviour was recorded…

Sterkenburg, P. S.; Janssen, C. G. C.; Schuengel, C.

2008-01-01

343

Altering an extended phenotype reduces intraspecific male aggression and can maintain diversity in cichlid fish  

PubMed Central

Reduced male aggression towards different phenotypes generating negative frequency-dependent intrasexual selection has been suggested as a mechanism to facilitate the invasion and maintenance of novel phenotypes in a population. To date, the best empirical evidence for the phenomenon has been provided by laboratory studies on cichlid fish with different colour polymorphisms. Here we experimentally tested the hypothesis in a natural population of Lake Malawi cichlid fish, in which males build sand-castles (bowers) to attract females during seasonal leks. We predicted that if bower shape plays an important role in male aggressive interactions, aggression among conspecific males should decrease when their bower shape is altered. Accordingly, we allocated randomly chosen bowers in a Nyassachromis cf. microcephalus lek into three treatments: control, manipulated to a different shape, and simulated manipulation. We then measured male behaviours and bower shape before and after these treatments. We found that once bower shape was altered, males were involved in significantly fewer aggressive interactions with conspecific males than before manipulation. Mating success was not affected. Our results support the idea that an extended phenotype, such as bower shape, can be important in maintaining polymorphic populations. Specifically, reduced male conspecific aggression towards males with different extended phenotypes (here, bower shapes) may cause negative frequency-dependent selection, allowing the invasion and establishment of a new phenotype (bower builder). This could help our understanding of mechanisms of diversification within populations, and in particular, the overall diversification of bower shapes within Lake Malawi cichlids. PMID:24349896

Croft, Guy E.; Joyce, Domino A.

2013-01-01

344

The Effect of Online Violent Video Games on Levels of Aggression  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM), has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. Methods/Principal Findings Participants (N?=?101) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game—offline, neutral video game—online, violent video game—offline and violent video game—online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression. PMID:25391143

Hollingdale, Jack; Greitemeyer, Tobias

2014-01-01

345

Dementia and aggressiveness: video recorded morning care from different care units.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to illuminate, from video recorded sequences, interactions between individuals with dementia and aggressive behaviour and caregivers who reported problems dealing with such behaviour and caregivers who did not. Nine caregivers and two residents participated. The video recordings were later transcribed into text and analysed by using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's philosophy. The main themes that emerged from the analysis were 'Being involved and developing a positive interaction' and 'Being confined to routines and remaining in negative interaction'. The findings indicated the interactions either to be in a positive or negative spiral. Caregivers who had reported problems dealing with behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in dementia focused on accomplishing the task, where the main focus was on 'the goal itself'. In other sequences with caregivers who had been satisfied with their capability the focus was placed on 'how' the caregivers could reach their goal. Power was central in the material, in different ways, either as a possible way to handle the situation or as a possible way of defending oneself. Parts of Kitwood's framework and Fromm's theory about power 'over' and power 'to', has been used in the comprehensive understanding. Our conclusion is that caregivers should use power 'to' when they have to help persons with dementia and aggressive behaviour, as a part of behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia, for being able to give help in the best possible way. They should also act in a sensitive and reflective manner, with the individual in focus. PMID:14632982

Skovdahl, Kirsti; Kihlgren, Annica Larsson; Kihlgren, Mona

2003-11-01

346

Antibiotics in the management of aggressive periodontitis.  

PubMed

Aggressive periodontitis, although not rare, is a fairly unknown condition. Little is known about its optimal management. While majority of patients with common forms of periodontal disease respond predictably well to conventional therapy (oral hygiene instructions (OHI), non-surgical debridement, surgery, and Supportive Periodontal therapy (SPT)), patients diagnosed with aggressive form of periodontal disease often do not respond predictably/favorably to conventional therapy owing to its complex multi-factorial etiology. Protocols for treating aggressive periodontitis are largely empirical. There is compelling evidence that adjunctive antibiotic treatment frequently results in more favorable clinical response than conventional therapy alone. This article mainly focuses on the role of adjunct use of pharmacological agents in improving the prognosis and treatment outcome of aggressive periodontitis patients. PMID:23066264

Prakasam, Abinaya; Elavarasu, S Sugumari; Natarajan, Ravi Kumar

2012-08-01

347

Antibiotics in the management of aggressive periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Aggressive periodontitis, although not rare, is a fairly unknown condition. Little is known about its optimal management. While majority of patients with common forms of periodontal disease respond predictably well to conventional therapy (oral hygiene instructions (OHI), non-surgical debridement, surgery, and Supportive Periodontal therapy (SPT)), patients diagnosed with aggressive form of periodontal disease often do not respond predictably/favorably to conventional therapy owing to its complex multi-factorial etiology. Protocols for treating aggressive periodontitis are largely empirical. There is compelling evidence that adjunctive antibiotic treatment frequently results in more favorable clinical response than conventional therapy alone. This article mainly focuses on the role of adjunct use of pharmacological agents in improving the prognosis and treatment outcome of aggressive periodontitis patients. PMID:23066264

Prakasam, Abinaya; Elavarasu, S. Sugumari; Natarajan, Ravi Kumar

2012-01-01

348

Revisiting the Serotonin-Aggression Relation in Humans: A Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

The inverse relation between serotonin and human aggression is often portrayed as “reliable,” “strong,” and “well-established” despite decades of conflicting reports and widely recognized methodological limitations. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we evaluate the evidence for and against the serotonin deficiency hypothesis of human aggression across four methods of assessing serotonin: (a) cerebrospinal fluid levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (CSF 5-HIAA), (b) acute tryptophan depletion, (c) pharmacological challenge, and (d) endocrine challenge. Results across 175 independent samples and over 6,500 total participants were heterogeneous, but, in aggregate, revealed a small, inverse correlation between central serotonin functioning and aggression, anger, and hostility, r = ?.12. Pharmacological challenge studies had the largest mean weighted effect size, r = ?.21, and CSF 5-HIAA studies had the smallest, r = ?.06, p = .21. Potential methodological and demographic moderators largely failed to account for variability in study outcomes. Notable exceptions included year of publication (effect sizes tended to diminish with time) and self-versus other-reported aggression (other-reported aggression was positively correlated to serotonin functioning). We discuss four possible explanations for the pattern of findings: unreliable measures, ambient correlational noise, an unidentified higher-order interaction, and a selective serotonergic effect. Finally, we provide four recommendations for bringing much needed clarity to this important area of research: acknowledge contradictory findings and avoid selective reporting practices; focus on improving the reliability and validity of serotonin and aggression measures; test for interactions involving personality and/or environmental moderators; and revise the serotonin deficiency hypothesis to account for serotonin’s functional complexity. PMID:23379963

Duke, Aaron A.; Bègue, Laurent; Bell, Rob; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory

2013-01-01

349

Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or indirectly (e.g. BDNF, nNOS, ?CaMKII, Neuropeptide Y). The future agenda delineates specific receptor subpopulations for GABA, glutamate and neuropeptides as they modulate the canonical aminergic neurotransmitters in brainstem, limbic and cortical regions with the ultimate outcome of attenuating or escalating aggressive behavior. PMID:22297576

Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

2013-01-01

350

Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the 1990s, childhood aggression was generally thought to be the province of males. Theories and research developed either\\u000a based mostly on male samples or without regard to gender. Since 1990, however, researchers have focussed considerably more\\u000a interest on antisocial behavior in girls. Some have questioned whether definitions of aggression shouldbe constrained to examinations\\u000a of harm to people and property,

Sharon L. Foster

351

Aggressive and Foraging Behavioral Interactions Among Ruffe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100?cm diameter, 15?cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low=2, medium=4, high=6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated

Jacqueline F. Savino; Melissa J. Kostich

2000-01-01

352

Staff-reported antecedents to aggression in a post-acute brain injury treatment programme: What are they and what implications do they have for treatment?  

PubMed Central

Research in psychiatric settings has found that staff attribute the majority of inpatient aggression to immediate environmental stressors. We sought to determine if staff working with persons with brain injury-related severe and chronic impairment make similar causal attributions. If immediate environmental stressors precipitate the majority of aggressive incidents in this client group, it is possible an increased focus on the management of factors that initiate client aggression may be helpful. The research was conducted in a low-demand treatment programme for individuals with chronic cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury. Over a six-week period, 63 staff and a research assistant reported on 508 aggressive incidents. Staff views as to the causes of client aggression were elicited within 72 hours of observing an aggressive incident. Staff descriptions of causes were categorised using qualitative methods and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aggression towards staff was predominantly preceded by (a) actions that interrupted or redirected a client behaviour, (b) an activity demand, or (c) a physical intrusion. The majority of aggressive incidents appeared hostile/angry in nature and were not considered by staff to be pre-meditated. Common treatment approaches can be usefully augmented by a renewed focus on interventions aimed at reducing antecedents that provoke aggression. Possible approaches for achieving this are considered. PMID:23782342

Giles, Gordon Muir; Scott, Karen; Manchester, David

2013-01-01

353

Aggressive disease, aggressive treatment: the adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Transplant is often the only curative therapy for cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Between 40% and 80% of patients who receive transplant become long-term survivors, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission rates are between 24% and 44% during the peritransplant period. The aggressive nature of hematopoietic stem cell transplant has a drastic impact on the physical and emotional state of the patient and family. From the day of diagnosis of any blood cancer, patients and families are faced with decisions and challenges ranging from quality of life and mortality to insurance coverage and financial concerns. The purpose of this article is to provide the experienced ICU nurse with background on the hematopoietic stem cell transplant process as a basis for interventions that can improve patient- and family-centered care, to provide tools that improve the transitions between the transplant and ICU teams, and to support communication between nursing teams for patients who survive the ICU stay and for those at the end of life. Collaboration between 2 separate nursing units can result in exceptional care for this complex patient population. PMID:22064584

Kasberg, Heather; Brister, Lauren; Barnard, Brooke

2011-01-01

354

The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

355

Gender, Race, and Aggression in Television Commercials That Feature Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television commercials in programming aimed at young children were content analyzed. Over one-third of the commercials that featured children contained aggression. More than half of the aggressive incidents occurred in commercials that featured only White children, thus offering them many models for possible imitation or for later use in cognitive scripts. The predominant type of aggression was “fortuitous,” i.e., aggression

Mary Strom Larson

2003-01-01

356

When Customers Exhibit Verbal Aggression, Employees Pay Cognitive Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability

Anat Rafaeli; Amir Erez; Shy Ravid; Rellie Derfler-Rozin; Dorit Efrat Treister; Ravit Scheyer

2012-01-01

357

Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

2012-01-01

358

Quantitative Genomics of Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behavior is important for animal survival and reproduction, and excessive aggression is an enormous social and economic burden for human society. Although the role of biogenic amines in modulating aggressive behavior is well characterized, other genetic mechanisms affecting this complex behavior remain elusive. Here, we developed an assay to rapidly quantify aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, and generated replicate

Alexis C. Edwards; Stephanie M. Rollmann; Theodore J. Morgan; Trudy F. C. Mackay

2006-01-01

359

Aggression in humans: what is its biological foundation?  

PubMed

Although human aggression is frequently inferred to parallel aggression based on testosterone in nonprimate mammals, there is little concrete support for this position. High- and low-aggression individuals do not consistently differ in serum testosterone. Aggression does not change at puberty when testosterone levels increase. Aggression does not increase in hypogonadal males (or females) when exogenous testosterone is administered to support sexual activity. Similarly, there are no reports that aggression increases in hirsute females even though testosterone levels may rise to 200% above normal. Conversely, castration or antiandrogen administration to human males is not associated with a consistent decrease in aggression. Finally, changes in human aggression associated with neuropathology are not consistent with current knowledge of the neural basis of testosterone-dependent aggression. In contrast, human aggression does have a substantial number of features in common with defensive aggression seen in nonprimate mammals. It is present at all age levels, is displayed by both males and females, is directed at both males and females, and is not dependent on seasonal changes in hormone levels or experiential events such as sexual activity. As would be expected from current knowledge of the neural system controlling defensive aggression, aggression in humans increases with tumors in the medial hypothalamus and septal region, and with seizure activity in the amygdala. It decreases with lesions in the amygdala. The inference that human aggression has its roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate mammals is in general agreement with evidence on the consistency of human aggressiveness over age, with similarities in male and female aggressiveness in laboratory studies, and with observations that some neurological disturbances contribute to criminal violence. This evidence suggests that human aggression has its biological roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate mammals and not in hormone-dependent aggression based on testosterone. PMID:8309650

Albert, D J; Walsh, M L; Jonik, R H

1993-01-01

360

A Targetable GATA2-IGF2 Axis Confers Aggressiveness in Lethal Prostate Cancer.  

PubMed

Elucidating the determinants of aggressiveness in lethal prostate cancer may stimulate therapeutic strategies that improve clinical outcomes. We used experimental models and clinical databases to identify GATA2 as a regulator of chemotherapy resistance and tumorigenicity in this context. Mechanistically, direct upregulation of the growth hormone IGF2 emerged as a mediator of the aggressive properties regulated by GATA2. IGF2 in turn activated IGF1R and INSR as well as a downstream polykinase program. The characterization of this axis prompted a combination strategy whereby dual IGF1R/INSR inhibition restored the efficacy of chemotherapy and improved survival in preclinical models. These studies reveal a GATA2-IGF2 aggressiveness axis in lethal prostate cancer and identify a therapeutic opportunity in this challenging disease. PMID:25670080

Vidal, Samuel J; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Quinn, S Aidan; Rodriguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Lujambio, Amaia; Williams, Estrelania; Sun, Xiaochen; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Lee, Albert; Readhead, Ben; Chen, Xintong; Galsky, Matthew; Esteve, Berta; Petrylak, Daniel P; Dudley, Joel T; Rabadan, Raul; Silva, Jose M; Hoshida, Yujin; Lowe, Scott W; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep

2015-02-01

361

The Aggression Scale: A Self-Report Measure of Aggressive Behavior for Young Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated psychometric properties of the Aggression Scale, a self-report measure of aggressive behaviors for middle school students. Found that reliability scores were high. Found no significant variations by gender, ethnicity, or grade level. Also found stability through 2 years, and positive association with independent ratings of student…

Orpinas, Pamela; Frankowski, Ralph

2001-01-01

362

Aggressive personality traits in the effects of violent imagery on unprovoked impulsive aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a three-factor design varying the aggressive-behavior subtraits of physical aggression (low, high) and hostility (low, high) with exposure to film content (innocuous, violent imagery), respondents were exposed to film segments and thereafter engaged in a teaching task that involved the administration of noxious feedback for unproductive efforts by the learner. A display informed respondents of the intensity of delivered

Dolf Zillmann; James B. Weaver III

2007-01-01

363

The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

Lee, Eunju J.

2014-01-01

364

Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

2009-01-01

365

Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

Parsonson, Barry S.

2012-01-01

366

A High Aggression Strategy for Smaller Males  

PubMed Central

Male-male conflict is common among animals, but questions remain as to when, how and by whom aggression should be initiated. Factors that affect agonistic strategies include residency, the value of the contested resource and the fighting ability of the two contestants. We quantified initiation of aggression in a fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, by exposing nest-holding males to a male intruder. The perceived value of the resource (the nest) was manipulated by exposing half of the residents to sexually receptive females for two days before the trial. Resident male aggression, however, was unaffected by perceived mating opportunities. It was also unaffected by the absolute and relative size of the intruder. Instead resident aggression was negatively related to resident male size. In particular, smaller residents attacked sooner and with greater intensity compared to larger residents. These results suggest that resident desert goby males used set, rather than conditional, strategies for initiating aggression. If intruders are more likely to flee than retaliate, small males may benefit from attacking intruders before these have had an opportunity to assess the resident and/or the resource. PMID:22905213

Svensson, P. Andreas; Lehtonen, Topi K.; Wong, Bob B. M.

2012-01-01

367

The Behavioural Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Behaviour problems and a preference for adult contact are reported to be prominent in the phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this study we examined the relationship between social interactions and self-injurious and aggressive/disruptive behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome to explore potential operant reinforcement of problem…

Taylor, L.; Oliver, C.

2008-01-01

368

Fear of Failure and Student Athletes' Interpersonal Antisocial Behaviour in Education and Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…

Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria

2011-01-01

369

The Association between Repetitive Behaviours, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity in People with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a need for assessments of psychological difference and disorder in people who have more severe intellectual disability (ID). Hyperactivity and impulsivity are two behavioural domains of importance as they are correlated with self-injury and aggression and this alludes to a shared cognitive correlate of compromised behavioural

Burbidge, C.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Arron, K.; Berg, K.; Furniss, F.; Hill, L.; Trusler, K.; Woodcock, K.

2010-01-01

370

Maternal aggression in rodents: brain oxytocin and vasopressin mediate pup defence  

PubMed Central

The most significant social behaviour of the lactating mother is maternal behaviour, which comprises maternal care and maternal aggression (MA). The latter is a protective behaviour of the mother serving to defend the offspring against a potentially dangerous intruder. The extent to which the mother shows aggressive behaviour depends on extrinsic and intrinsic factors, as we have learned from studies in laboratory rodents. Among the extrinsic factors are the pups’ presence and age, as well as the intruders’ sex and age. With respect to intrinsic factors, the mothers’ innate anxiety and the prosocial brain neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important roles. While OXT is well known as a maternal neuropeptide, AVP has only recently been described in this context. The increased activities of these neuropeptides in lactation are the result of remarkable brain adaptations peripartum and are a prerequisite for the mother to become maternal. Consequently, OXT and AVP are significantly involved in mediating the fine-tuned regulation of MA depending on the brain regions. Importantly, both neuropeptides are also modulators of anxiety, which determines the extent of MA. This review provides a detailed overview of the role of OXT and AVP in MA and the link to anxiety. PMID:24167315

Bosch, Oliver J.

2013-01-01

371

High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.  

PubMed

High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society. PMID:24740321

Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

2014-01-01

372

Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.  

PubMed

Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near future represent a low-cost, noninvasive tool to assess the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:21796377

Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

2012-02-01

373

Managing Complex Environmental Remediation amidst Aggressive Facility Revitalization Milestones  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the final closure projects at Rocky Flats and Fernald, many of the Department of Energy's future CERCLA and RCRA closure challenges will take place at active facilities, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) central campus. ORNL has aggressive growth plans for a Research Technology Park and cleanup must address and integrate D and D, soil and groundwater remediation, and on-going and future business plans for the Park. Different planning and tracking tools are needed to support closures at active facilities. To support some large Airport redevelopment efforts, we created tools that allowed the Airline lease-holder to perform environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and new building construction, which in turn allowed them to migrate real estate from unusable to usable within an aggressive schedule. In summary: The FIM and OpenGate{sup TM} spatial analysis system were two primary tools developed to support simultaneous environmental remediation, D and D, and construction efforts at an operating facility. These tools helped redevelopers to deal with environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and construction, thereby meeting their goals of opening gates, restarting their revenue streams, at the same time complying with all environmental regulations. (authors)

Richter Pack, S. [PMP Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2008-07-01

374

Aggressive mimicry coexists with mutualism in an aphid.  

PubMed

Understanding the evolutionary transition from interspecific exploitation to cooperation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Ant-aphid relationships represent an ideal system to this end because they encompass a coevolutionary continuum of interactions ranging from mutualism to antagonism. In this study, we report an unprecedented interaction along this continuum: aggressive mimicry in aphids. We show that two morphs clonally produced by the aphid Paracletus cimiciformis during its root-dwelling phase establish relationships with ants at opposite sides of the mutualism-antagonism continuum. Although one of these morphs exhibits the conventional trophobiotic (mutualistic) relationship with ants of the genus Tetramorium, aphids of the alternative morph are transported by the ants to their brood chamber and cared for as if they were true ant larvae. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses reveal that the innate cuticular hydrocarbon profile of the mimic morph resembles the profile of ant larvae more than that of the alternative, genetically identical nonmimic morph. Furthermore, we show that, once in the brood chamber, mimic aphids suck on ant larva hemolymph. These results not only add aphids to the limited list of arthropods known to biosynthesize the cuticular chemicals of their deceived hosts to exploit their resources but describe a remarkable case of plastic aggressive mimicry. The present work adds a previously unidentified dimension to the classical textbook paradigm of aphid-ant relationships by showcasing a complex system at the evolutionary interface between cooperation and exploitation. PMID:25583474

Salazar, Adrián; Fürstenau, Benjamin; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Hidalgo, Nicolás; Carazo, Pau; Font, Enrique; Martínez-Torres, David

2015-01-27

375

Mouse behavioural analysis in systems biology  

PubMed Central

Molecular techniques allowing in vivo modulation of gene expression have provided unique opportunities and challenges for behavioural studies aimed at understanding the function of particular genes or biological systems under physiological or pathological conditions. Although various animal models are available, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has unique features and is therefore a preferred animal model. The mouse shares a remarkable genetic resemblance and aspects of behaviour with humans. In this review, first we describe common mouse models for behavioural analyses. As both genetic and environmental factors influence behavioural performance and need to be carefully evaluated in behavioural experiments, considerations for designing and interpretations of these experiments are subsequently discussed. Finally, common behavioural tests used to assess brain function are reviewed, and it is illustrated how behavioural tests are used to increase our understanding of the role of histaminergic neurotransmission in brain function. PMID:16035954

van Meer, Peter; Raber, Jacob

2005-01-01

376

A solitary encapsulated pelvic aggressive angiomyxoma.  

PubMed Central

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) was first reported in 1983 as a distinct, slow growing, benign but locally infiltrative, soft tissue tumour. It usually arises in the pelvic and perineal organs, mostly in women. A 47-year-old woman was found to have a large encapsulated retroperitoneal aggressive angiomyxoma. The mass was completely excised via abdomino-perineal approach, and no recurrence noted on MRI at 19 months' follow-up. The encapsulation of this tumour together with other reported rare presentations, suggest an isolated mesenchymal cell origin. A review of the literature is provided. PMID:16749950

Adwan, Hussamuddin; Patel, Bijendra; Kamel, Dia; Glazer, Geoffrey

2004-01-01

377

Siblicidal aggression and resource monopolization in birds.  

PubMed

In Texas, great egret Casmerodius albus chicks attack younger nestmates, often fatally (siblicide). By contrast, the young of neighboring great blue herons Ardea herodias seldom strike or kill siblings. These interspecific differences seem related to prey size: only fish provided by egret parents are small enough for chicks to monopolize (a process facilitated by aggression). Experimentally cross-fostered heron chicks raised on small prey by egret parents became siblicidal, but the reverse procedure of cross-fostering egret chicks did not reduce aggression or siblicide. PMID:17810292

Mock, D W

1984-08-17

378

Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries  

PubMed Central

Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, gender differences in, and associations between relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7 to 10 years (N = 1410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. Unsurprisingly, boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; surprisingly, there were no significant gender differences in relational aggression. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). The countries differed significantly in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Despite mean level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression, as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227

Lansford, Jennifer E.; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei

2012-01-01

379

Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture. PMID:25561845

Carter, Chris G.; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

2014-01-01

380

Subjective and objective components of resource value additively increase aggression in parasitoid contests  

PubMed Central

Two major categories of factors are predicted to influence behaviour in dyadic contests; differences in the abilities of the contestants to acquire and retain resources (resource holding potential), and the value of the contested resource (resource value, RV; which comprises objective and subjective components). Recent studies indicate that subjective components affect contest behaviour in several animal taxa but few have simultaneously investigated objective RV components. We find that both an objective (host size) and a subjective (contestant age) component of RV affect contest intensity in the parasitoid wasp Goniozus legneri. These additively influence aggressiveness, with a larger effect from the subjective component than the objective component. The greater influence of subjective RV adds weight to the recent surge of recognition of this RV component's importance in contest behaviour. PMID:23697643

Stockermans, Bernard C.; Hardy, Ian C. W.

2013-01-01

381

Pre-orbital gland opening during aggressive interactions in rusa deer (Rusa timorensis).  

PubMed

The opening of the preorbital gland in cervids has a visual meaning and is frequently associated with agonistic and/or stress related situations. Apart from in red deer, this behaviour has scarcely been studied and the range of situations when it may occur remains unclear. In this study we report the unusual case of preorbital gland opening in rusa deer, Rusa timorensis, associated to direct aggressive agonistic interaction (biting/kicking) between two adult hinds. This case observed in Tierpark Berlin (Germany) is the first one ever recorded in female-female interactions in cervids. Preorbital gland opening was also studied in 116 social interactions in Plze? Zoo (Czech Republic). Preorbital gland opening by the dominant adult male was twice observed with relation to alert behaviour, which is also rare. In order to contextualise our observations we summarise the current knowledge about the behaviour associated with preorbital gland opening in R. timorensis and in cervids in general. PMID:25481309

Ceacero, Francisco; Pluhá?ek, Jan; Komárková, Martina; Zábranský, Martin

2015-02-01

382

Does war beget child aggression? Military violence, gender, age and aggressive behavior in two Palestinian samples.  

PubMed

We examined, first, the relations between children's exposure to military violence and their aggressive behavior and the role of age and gender in that relation in two Palestinian samples. Second, we tested parenting practices as a moderator of the relation between exposure to military violence and aggressive behavior, and third, whether exposure to military violence of different nature (direct victimization versus witnessing) has specific associations with different forms of aggression (reactive, proactive and aggression-enjoyment). Study I was conducted in a relatively calm military-political atmosphere in Palestine-Gaza, and included 640 children, aged 6-16 years whose parents (N=622) and teachers (N=457) provided reports. Older children (> or =12 years) provided self-reports (N=211). Study II included 225 Palestinian children aged 10-14-year, who participated during a high-violence period of the Al Aqsa Intifada characterized by air raids, killing and destruction. Results showed that witnessing severe military violence was associated with children's aggressive and antisocial behavior (parent-reported) in study I, and with proactive, reactive and aggression-enjoyment (child-reported) in the study II. As hypothesized, good and supporting parenting practices could moderate the link between exposure to military violence and aggressive behavior. Aggr. PMID:17985361

Qouta, Samir; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Miller, Thomas; El-Sarraj, Eyad

2008-01-01

383

Chemical Camouflage– A Frog's Strategy to Co-Exist with Aggressive Ants  

PubMed Central

Whereas interspecific associations receive considerable attention in evolutionary, behavioural and ecological literature, the proximate bases for these associations are usually unknown. This in particular applies to associations between vertebrates with invertebrates. The West-African savanna frog Phrynomantis microps lives in the underground nest of ponerine ants (Paltothyreus tarsatus). The ants usually react highly aggressively when disturbed by fiercely stinging, but the frog is not attacked and lives unharmed among the ants. Herein we examined the proximate mechanisms for this unusual association. Experiments with termites and mealworms covered with the skin secretion of the frog revealed that specific chemical compounds seem to prevent the ants from stinging. By HPLC-fractionation of an aqueous solution of the frogs' skin secretion, two peptides of 1,029 and 1,143 Da were isolated and found to inhibit the aggressive behaviour of the ants. By de novo sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry, the amino acid sequence of both peptides consisting of a chain of 9 and 11 residues, respectively, was elucidated. Both peptides were synthesized and tested, and exhibited the same inhibitory properties as the original frog secretions. These novel peptides most likely act as an appeasement allomone and may serve as models for taming insect aggression. PMID:24349157

Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Brede, Christian; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Schmitt, Thomas; Favreau, Philippe; Stöcklin, Reto; Wunder, Cora; Mebs, Dietrich

2013-01-01

384

A neurotoxic pesticide changes the outcome of aggressive interactions between native and invasive ants  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxic pesticides, such as neonicotinoids, negatively affect the cognitive capacity and fitness of non-target species, and could also modify interspecific interactions. We tested whether sublethal contamination with neonicotinoid could affect foraging, colony fitness and the outcome of behavioural interactions between a native (Monomorium antarcticum) and an invasive ant species (Linepithema humile). The foraging behaviour of both ants was not affected by neonicotinoid exposure. Colonies of the invasive species exposed to the neonicotinoid produced significantly fewer brood. In interspecific confrontations, individuals of the native species exposed to the neonicotinoid lowered their aggression towards the invasive species, although their survival probability was not affected. Exposed individuals of the invasive species interacting with non-exposed native ants displayed increased aggression and had their survival probability reduced. Non-exposed individuals of the invasive species were less aggressive but more likely to survive when interacting with exposed native ants. These results suggest that non-target exposure of invaders to neonicotinoids could either increase or decrease the probability of survival according to the exposure status of the native species. Given that, in any community, different species have different food preferences, and thus different exposure to pesticides, non-target exposure could potentially change the dynamics of communities and influence invasion success. PMID:24266038

Barbieri, Rafael F.; Lester, Philip J.; Miller, Alexander S.; Ryan, Ken G.

2013-01-01

385

The Impact of Patient Aggression on Carers Scale: instrument derivation and psychometric testing.  

PubMed

Patient aggression towards carers constitutes a problem for patients and carers alike. Patients' aggressive behaviour often leads to adverse consequences for carers, especially nurses. Various extensive instruments have been developed to measure such adverse effects on carers. The 'Impact of Patient Aggression on Carers Scale' (IMPACS) is a short instrument intended for use in monitoring negative consequences of such incidents. The items of the IMPACS were derived basically from a review of the literature on negative effects of patient aggression on nurses. The IMPACS was administered to a convenience sample of nurses working on 14 psychiatric acute admission wards in the German speaking part of Switzerland. Factor analysis led to the exclusion of three of the original items and to an interpretable three-factor solution with all factors demonstrating eigen values higher than 1. The factors demonstrate moderate to good internal consistency. Canonical correlation analysis using the dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) produced a correlation coefficient of 0.457, thus demonstrating external reliability. In spite of some caveats such as possible response bias and the necessity of the investigation of the test-retest stability of the scale this study suggests that the IMPACS is a good measure of adverse effects and thus merits further development. PMID:16101859

Needham, Ian; Abderhalden, Chris; Halfens, Rudolph J G; Dassen, Theo; Haug, Hans-Joachim; Fischer, Joachim E

2005-09-01

386

Controlling Aggressive Students. Fastback Series, No. 387.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coping with aggressive student behavior is crucial to providing a safe and orderly classroom and school environment. Approaches for improving student behavior, ranging from enhancing a student's interpersonal skills to restraint techniques (such as the prudent use of physical force) are covered in this booklet. The material blends information in…

Blendinger, Jack; And Others

387

Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

2010-01-01

388

Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

2013-01-01

389

Aggressive Adolescents Benefit from Massage Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventeen aggressive adolescents were assigned to a massage therapy group or a relaxation therapy group to receive 20-minute therapy sessions, twice a week for five weeks. The massaged adolescents had lower anxiety after the first and last sessions. By the end of the study, they also reported feeling less hostile and they were perceived by their…

Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Shaw, Jon A.; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Castellanos, Daniel; Mesner, Linda

2002-01-01

390

The Volucellæ as Examples of Aggressive Mimicry  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN interesting point in the Volucellæ as examples of aggressive mimicry is the fact that they were first used to support the teleological theories of an earlier day, and were subsequently claimed by natural selection. Thus Messrs. Kirby and Spence speak of them (Second Edition, 1817, vol. ii., p. 223) as affording ``a beautiful instance of the wisdom of Providence

Edward B. Poulton

1892-01-01

391

A jagged road to lymphoma aggressiveness.  

PubMed

In this issue of Cancer Cell, Cao and colleagues identify an FGF4/Jagged1-driven crosstalk between tumor cells and their vascular niche that activates Notch signaling, sustaining the aggressiveness of certain mouse and human B cell lymphomas. These findings identify new therapeutic opportunities to target pathogenic angiocrine functions in cancer. PMID:24651005

Radojcic, Vedran; Maillard, Ivan

2014-03-17

392

Everyday Marital Conflict and Child Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period. Child responses to analog presentations

E. Mark Cummings; Marcie C. Goeke-Morey; Lauren M. Papp

2004-01-01

393

Gaze Patterns, Verbal Insult and Instrumental Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of three gaze patterns-staring, normal looking, glancing and avoiding eye contact-and verbal insult on instrumental aggression. It was hypothesized that the experimental manipulation of verbal insult will: (1) not affect shock intensity or duration (2) not increase the subjects self-reported hostility, and (3)…

Kotsch, William E.

394

Electromagnetic optimization exploiting aggressive space mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a significantly improved space mapping (SM) strategy for electromagnetic (EM) optimization. Instead of waiting for upfront EM analyses at several base points, our new approach aggressively exploits every available EM analysis, producing dramatic results right from the first step. We establish a relationship between the novel SM optimization and the quasi-Newton iteration for solving a system of nonlinear

John W. Bandler; R. M. Biernacki; Shao Hua Chen; Ronald H. Hemmers; Kaj Madsen

1995-01-01

395

Prosocial video games reduce aggressive cognitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that playing violent video games increased aggressive tendencies. However, as pointed out by the General Learning Model (GLM) [Buckley, K. E., & Anderson, C. A. (2006). A theoretical model of the effects and consequences of playing video games. In: P. Vorderer & J. Bryant (Eds.), Playing video games motives responses and consequences (pp. 363–378). Mahwah, NJ:

Tobias Greitemeyer; Silvia Osswald

2009-01-01

396

Aggression: tachykinin is all the rage.  

PubMed

Animals are constantly receiving information about their environment that must be filtered to ensure that they respond in the appropriate manner. New data have revealed how neurons in male Drosophila promote a heightened state of aggression in response to a rival male. PMID:24650914

Pavlou, Hania J; Neville, Megan C; Goodwin, Stephen F

2014-03-17

397

Aggression Exposure and Mental Health among Nurses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the extent of aggression exposure and the effects of exposure on the psychological health of nursing staff in hospitals. Results suggested that nearly 40% of staff experienced psychological distress, while nearly 10% experienced moderate to severe depression. Results of the logistic analyses indicated that frequent exposure to…

Lam, Lawrence T.

2002-01-01

398

Aggression and the EEG: A Quantitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that aggressive offenders have a greater amount of theta activity in their electrocortical rhythms than nonaggressive offenders, and also to examine the more general question of whether such individuals are cortically underaroused, underreactive, or more easily dearoused. (Author)

Blackburn, Ronald

1975-01-01

399

How Becoming Mediators Affects Aggressive Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a nine-month study conducted in an urban middle school to attempt to reduce the level of aggression of a small group of seventh graders by assigning them a positive role as mediators to fifth- and sixth-grade disputants. Pretest and posttest measures of self-concept and teacher's perception of problem behavior showed dramatic…

Fast, Jonathan; Fanelli, Frank; Salen, Louis

2003-01-01

400

Neurochemical and psychopharmacologic aspects of aggressive behavior.  

PubMed

The clinical treatment of violent behavior shows a remarkable congruence with preclinical research concerning the modulations of central neurotransmitter systems and their influence upon human aggressive behavior. Moreover, systematic alterations of central neurotransmitter activity in patients offer substantial promise of increasing the successful biological modification of violent behavior. PMID:1970469

Eichelman, B S

1990-01-01

401

Siblicidal Aggression and Resource Monopolization in Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Texas, great egret Casmerodius albus chicks attack younger nestmates, often fatally (siblicide). By contrast, the young of neighboring great blue herons Ardea herodias seldom strike or kill siblings. These interspecific differences seem related to prey size: only fish provided by egret parents are small enough for chicks to monopolize (a process facilitated by aggression). Experimentally cross-fostered heron chicks raised

Douglas W. Mock

1984-01-01

402

Corrosion fatigue in simulated aggressive marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a trend for high-strength steels to be increasingly used as the structural components of large constructions in the marine environment, particularly for selected critical structural ones. It is well known that the steels used in the marine environment are corroded most aggressively in the splash zone rather than in the fully immersed zone [1-3], but there have been

N. Maruyama; S. Horibe; M. Sumita

1986-01-01

403

Alexithymia and attachment insecurities in impulsive aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to develop a new measure of impulsive aggressiveness, and to assess whether this measure was associated with deficits in mentalized affectivity and adult attachment styles in a sample of 637 non-clinical participants. Extending Fonagy and Bateman's (2004) hypothesis, the mediating role of poor affectivity mentalization in the relationship between insecure attachment styles and impulsive

Andrea Fossati; Elena Acquarini; Judith A. Feeney; Serena Borroni; Federica Grazioli; Laura E. Giarolli; Gianluca Franciosi; Cesare Maffei

2009-01-01

404

Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

2009-01-01

405

Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

2012-01-01

406

BENEFITS OF AGGRESSIVE ACCELEROMETRY DATA COLLECTION?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose: To examine whether the completeness of accelerometer data obtained from elementary and high school students is enhanced when an aggressive data collection approach is employed. Methods: Participants were 149 elementary school (9.9+/-0.4 yrs) and 153 high school (17.7+/-0.4 yrs) students. ...

407

Ethics Case Studies: The Aggressive Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the second in a series reporting the results of YOUNG CHILDREN's May 1987 survey on recurring early childhood education ethical dilemmas. Presented are readers' replies to the case of "The Aggressive Child" and accompanying commentaries. (Author/RWB)

Feeney, Stephanie; And Others

1988-01-01

408

Proactive and reactive sibling aggression and adjustment in adolescence.  

PubMed

Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment. PMID:25006024

Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F

2015-03-01

409

Update on Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Morphological, Molecular, and Genetic Features of the Most Aggressive Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It shows a wide spectrum of morphological presentations and the diagnosis could be challenging due to its high degree of dedifferentiation. Molecular and genetic features of ATC are widely heterogeneous as well and many efforts have been made to find a common profile in order to clarify its cancerogenetic process. A comprehensive review of the current literature is here performed, focusing on histopathological and genetic features. PMID:25214840

Ragazzi, Moira; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Piana, Simonetta

2014-01-01

410

Athletic Ability and Physical Attractiveness differences between aggressive-rejected and aggressive-nonrejected children  

E-print Network

ATHLETIC ABILITY AND PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AGGRESSIVE-REJECTED AND AGGRESSIVE-NONREJECTED CHILDREN A Thesis by DANIELLE LOUISE OXMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... LOUISE OXMAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved s to style and content by: Tim A. Cavell (Co-Chair of Committee) William G. raziano (Co-Chair of Committee) J...

Oxman, Danielle Louise

2012-06-07

411

Indirect reciprocity: song sparrows distrust aggressive neighbours based on eavesdropping  

E-print Network

sparrows, Melospiza melodia, fight rigorously during territory establishment, they decrease aggression of mutual restraint in aggression (Dear Enemy cooperation) between territorial male song sparrows, Melospiza melodia. We found that territory owners eavesdropped on simulated defections by a neighbour (intrusions

Beecher, Michael

412

Subtypes of aggressive children based on parent ratings  

E-print Network

The existence of subtypes of aggressive children based on their parents' ratings of their aggressive behavior was examined in this study. The subjects' raw scores from the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1991) were used to perform a...

Rodman, Jennifer K

2013-02-22

413

Parental provisioning behaviour plays a key role in linking personality with reproductive success  

PubMed Central

Repeatable behavioural traits (‘personality’) have been shown to covary with fitness, but it remains poorly understood how such behaviour–fitness relationships come about. We applied a multivariate approach to reveal the mechanistic pathways by which variation in exploratory and aggressive behaviour is translated into variation in reproductive success in a natural population of blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus. Using path analysis, we demonstrate a key role for provisioning behaviour in mediating the link between personality and reproductive success (number of fledged offspring). Aggressive males fed their nestlings at lower rates than less aggressive individuals. At the same time, their low parental investment was associated with increased female effort, thereby positively affecting fledgling production. Whereas male exploratory behaviour was unrelated to provisioning behaviour and reproductive success, fast-exploring females fed their offspring at higher rates and initiated breeding earlier, thus increasing reproductive success. Our findings provide strong support for specific mechanistic pathways linking components of behavioural syndromes to reproductive success. Importantly, relationships between behavioural phenotypes and reproductive success were obscured when considering simple bivariate relationships, underlining the importance of adopting multivariate views and statistical tools as path analysis to the study of behavioural evolution. PMID:23782885

Mutzel, A.; Dingemanse, N. J.; Araya-Ajoy, Y. G.; Kempenaers, B.

2013-01-01

414

The Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Differential Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescent Boys  

PubMed Central

This study reports the development of the Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), and the differential correlates of these two forms of aggression. Antisocial, psychosocial and personality measures were obtained at ages 7 and 16 years in schoolboys, while the RPQ was administered to 334 of the boys at age 16 years. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a significant fit for a two-factor proactive–reactive model that replicated from one independent subsample to another. Proactive aggression was uniquely characterized at age 7 by initiation of fights, strong-arm tactics, delinquency, poor school motivation, poor peer relationships, single-parent status, psychosocial adversity, substance-abusing parents, and hyperactivity, and at age 16 by a psychopathic personality, blunted affect, delinquency, and serious violent offending. Reactive aggression was uniquely characterized at age 16 by impulsivity, hostility, social anxiety, lack of close friends, unusual perceptual experiences, and ideas of reference. Findings confirm and extend the differential correlates of proactive–reactive aggression, and demonstrate that this brief but reliable and valid self-report instrument can be used to assess proactive and reactive aggression in child and adolescent samples. PMID:20798781

Raine, Adrian; Dodge, Kenneth; Loeber, Rolf; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Lynam, Don; Reynolds, Chandra; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Liu, Jianghong

2009-01-01

415

Oxytocin microinjected into the central amygdaloid nuclei exerts anti-aggressive effects in male rats.  

PubMed

We recently demonstrated that acute and chronic intracerebroventricular enhancement of brain OXT levels induces potent anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects during social challenges. However, the exact anatomical location in the brain where OXT exerts its action is still elusive. In the present study, we targeted two critical brain areas, i.e. the central amygdala (CeA) and the dorsal raphe (DR), both containing high levels of OXT receptors (OXTRs) and constituting important nodes of the neural circuitry related to aggression. Behavioral effects of local micro-infusion of OXT and OXTR antagonist, L368.899, (alone and combined) were evaluated in resident male rats during confrontations with an unfamiliar male intruder. Our results show that OXT microinjected into the CeA markedly reduced resident's offensive behavior and facilitated social exploration, without affecting other non-aggressive behaviors. The receptor specificity of the behavioral effects was verified when a micro-infusion of a selective OXTR antagonist nullified the changes. Pharmacological blockade of CeA OXTRs per se was without clear behavioral effects suggesting that endogenous OXT within the CeA does not play a major inhibitory role on offensiveness. Anatomical specificity was also supported by the absence of relevant behavioral effects when OXT was microinjected into more medial sub-regions of the amygdala. Likewise, within the DR neither OXT nor OXTR exerted significant effects on offensive aggression, while microinjection of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor agonist in this region significantly suppressed aggression. In conclusion, our results point at the CeA as an important brain site of action for the anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects induced by exogenous enhancement of brain OXT levels. PMID:25437825

Calcagnoli, Federica; Stubbendorff, Christine; Meyer, Neele; de Boer, Sietse F; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jaap M

2015-03-01

416

Aggression, suicidality, and intermittent explosive disorder: serotonergic correlates in personality disorder and healthy control subjects.  

PubMed

Central serotonergic (5-HT) activity has long been implicated in the regulation of impulsive aggressive behavior. This study was performed to use a highly selective agent for 5-HT (d-Fenfluramine, d-FEN) in a large group of human subjects to further explore this relationship dimensionally and categorically. One hundred and fifty healthy subjects (100 with personality disorder, PD and 50 healthy volunteer controls, HV) underwent d-FEN challenge studies. Residual peak delta prolactin (DeltaPRL[d-FEN]-R; ie, after the removal of potentially confounding variables) was used as the primary 5-HT response variable. Composite measures of aggression and impulsivity were used as dimensional measures, and history of suicidal/self-injurious behavior as well as the presence of intermittent explosive disorder (IED) were used as categorical variables. DeltaPRL[d-FEN]-R responses correlated inversely with composite aggression, but not composite impulsivity, in all subjects and in males and females examined separately. The correlation with composite aggression was strongest in male PD subjects. DeltaPRL[d-FEN]-R values were reduced in PD subjects with a history of suicidal behavior but not, self-injurious behavior. DeltaPRL[d-FEN]-R values were also reduced in patients meeting Research Criteria for IED. Physiologic responses to 5-HT stimulation are reduced as a function of aggression (but not generalized impulsivity) in human subjects. The same is true for personality disordered subjects with a history of suicidal, but not self-injurious, behavior and for subjects with a diagnosis of IED by research criteria. These data have particular relevance to the notion of impulsive aggression and the biological validity of IED. PMID:19776731

Coccaro, Emil F; Lee, Royce; Kavoussi, Richard J

2010-01-01

417

Risky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence.  

PubMed

New genetic technologies promise to generate valuable insights into the aetiology of several psychiatric conditions, as well as a wider range of human and animal behaviours. Advances in the neurosciences and the application of new brain imaging techniques offer a way of integrating DNA analysis with studies that are looking at other biological markers of behaviour. While candidate 'genes for' certain conditions, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, are said to be 'un-discovered' at a faster rate than they are discovered, many studies are being conducted on personality traits such as aggressiveness and anti-social traits. The clinical applicability and implications of these studies are often discussed within the scientific community. However, little attention has so far been paid to their possible policy implications in relation to criminality management and to Criminal Law itself. Similarly, the related ethical issues arising in the field of crime control, and the tensions between enhancing security for society and protecting civil liberties, are currently under-explored. This paper investigates these ethical issues by focusing on the views of those professionals - including judges, lawyers, probation officers and social workers - who work with individuals 'deemed at risk' of violent and aggressive behaviours. It also discusses and problematizes mainstream rhetoric and arguments around the notion of 'risky individuals'. PMID:18959733

Pieri, Elisa; Levitt, Mairi

2008-11-01

418

Is broodmate aggression really associated with direct feeding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Feeding Method hypothesis (FMH) proposes that the way parents transfer food to chicks influences whether broodmates compete for it aggressively or non-aggressively. The FMH assumes that aggression is more efficient for securing a large share of food when prey items pass from bill to bill (direct feeds) than when prey is deposited on the nest floor (indirect feeds).

Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer; Hugh Drummond

2007-01-01

419

The Relation between Toy Gun Play and Children's Aggressive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 3-5 year olds in child care focused on the children's real and pretend aggression, rough-and-tumble play, and nonaggressive pretend play. Results suggest that toy gun play and parental punishment are positively associated with a high level of real aggression but not of pretend aggression. (LB)

Watson, Malcolm W.; Peng, Ying

1992-01-01

420

The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

421

Caffeine Expectancies but Not Caffeine Reduce Depletion-Induced Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine is the most widely consumed central nervous system stimulant in the world, yet little is known about its effects on aggressive behavior. Individuals often consume caffeine to increase energy and ward off mental depletion. Because mental depletion increases aggression when people are provoked, caffeine might reduce aggression by ameliorating the negative effects of depletion. In 2 experiments, participants consumed

Thomas F. Denson; Mandi Jacobson; William von Hippel; Richard I. Kemp; Tinnie Mak

2012-01-01

422

Aggression-Related Characteristics and the Selection of Media Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 341 undergraduate students (118 males, 223 females) assessed five aggression-related personality characteris- tics and their relationships to the preference for violent media. Positive relationships were predicted for aggression, impulsivity and sensation seeking with exposure to media violence and negative relationships for empathy and guilt. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed consistent results only for aggression, where significant positive relationships

Sarah F. Rosaen; Aaron R. Boyson; Stacy L. Smith

2006-01-01

423

Mothers' Responses to Preschoolers' Relational and Physical Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on mothers' affective and behavioral responses to hypothetical displays of preschoolers' relational and physical aggression. We hypothesized that lower levels of negative affect and a lower likelihood of intervening in conflicts would occur for relational aggression than for physical aggression. We also expected significant…

Werner, Nicole E.; Senich, Samantha; Przepyszny, Kathryn A.

2006-01-01

424

Exploring Parental Aggression toward Teachers in a Public School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost all of the extant research examining aggressive activity uses data from student populations. In this study, we extend that literature by examining teacher perceptions of parental aggression in public schools in Kentucky. Using data from a sample of 5,971 public school teachers, we determine that parental aggression directed at public school…

May, David C.; Johnson, Jerry; Chen, Yanfen; Hutchinson, Lisa; Ricketts, Melissa

2010-01-01

425

The Validity of Physical Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggression has a long history in academic research as both a criterion and a predictor variable and it is well documented that aggression is related to a variety of poor academic outcomes such as: lowered academic performance, absenteeism and lower graduation rates. However, recent research has implicated physical aggression as being…

Loveland, James M.; Lounsbury, John W.; Welsh, Deborah; Buboltz, Walter C.

2007-01-01

426

Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

2010-01-01

427

A subset of octopaminergic neurons are important for Drosophila aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggression is an innate behavior that is important for animal survival and evolution. We examined the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying aggression in Drosophila. Reduction of the neurotransmitter octopamine, the insect equivalent of norepinephrine, decreased aggression in both males and females. Mutants lacking octopamine did not initiate fighting and did not fight other flies, although they still provoked other flies

Chuan Zhou; Yong Rao; Yi Rao

2008-01-01

428

Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of boys between…

Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

2012-01-01

429

Violent video games and anger as predictors of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research has demonstrated that playing violent video games can increase aggression. The theoretical framework upon which a good deal of this research has rested is known as the General Aggression Model (GAM; [Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51]). The current study tested an assumption of the GAM by examining

Gary W. Giumetti; Patrick M. Markey

2007-01-01

430

Automatic processes and individual differences in aggressive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a context in which aggressive behavior has been predominantly predicted by self-reports, this paper considers how a theoretical and empirical examination of automatic and deliberative processes in information processing and decision making may contribute to our understanding of aggressive behavior. We review research devoted to distinguishing two types of aggression with regard to the level of automaticity or control

Juliette Richetin; Deborah South Richardson

2008-01-01

431

An Investigation of Turkish Preservice Teachers' Aggression Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was carried out to investigate preservice teachers' aggressive behaviors. In addition, the contributions of variables to the aggressive behaviors were explored, including females' and males' patterns of explaining aggressive behaviors. Out of 3366 preservice teachers at Education Faculty of Anadolu University and Osmangazi…

Kurtyilmaz, Yildiz; Can, Gurhan

2010-01-01

432

Attentional Processes in Children's Overt and Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined attention and memory processes assumed by the social information-processing model to be biased in aggressive children. We also explored whether similar biases were associated with overt and relational aggression. A total of 96 fourth through sixth graders saw videos of overtly and relationally aggressive child actors and…

Arsenault, Darin J.; Foster, Sharon L.

2012-01-01

433

Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

2011-01-01

434

Wheels, skills and thrills: a social marketing trial to reduce aggressive driving from young men in deprived areas.  

PubMed

Young men from poorer backgrounds are associated with high road traffic collision levels. However, solving this problem has proven very difficult. Hence this paper summarises the findings of a UK government funded two-year trial of a cross-discipline intervention to reduce aggressive driving amongst this group. The intervention reported on here departed from traditional approaches such as fear appeals, stand-alone educational approaches, or punitive measures. Instead, the discipline of social marketing was used to provide overarching direction and structure for the trial, with a key focus on motivation and engagement. The project rested on a strong education and training platform and included a bespoke coaching programme, incentives, and an in-vehicle measurement and feedback device. The project had three development phases leading to the final trial. First, a literature and case study review identified possible design strategies. Second, these strategies were explored using primary research in the form of a qualitative inquiry. Third, a pre-trial design phase sought to introduce key components of the intervention to the trial cohort, retaining some flexibility before committing to the final design. Young males with a history of challenging behaviour (e.g. criminal records, driving convictions) from an economically deprived area within a UK city were recruited. Of 42 recruits, 23 successfully completed the trial. Behaviour changes were measured pre-, during and post-trial through a combination of driver performance data measured by in-vehicle data recorders (IVDRs), assessments of driving undertaken by trained observers, and self-assessment surveys and interviews with trial participants. Results indicate a significant average improvement in driving skills amongst participants who completed the trial. Given the difficulty in engaging and changing behaviour of this specific group, this is regarded as a significant finding. In summary the study provides an indication of proof of concept for the intervention in improving driving skills. However the limited sample size and lack of control group mean that further work will be required to validate these findings. It is recommended that a feasibility study with higher cohort volumes is undertaken, before attempting a full scale trial. PMID:24001339

Tapp, Alan; Pressley, Ashley; Baugh, Mike; White, Paul

2013-09-01

435

Neural steroid sensitivity and aggression: comparing individuals of two songbird subspecies.  

PubMed

Hormones coordinate the expression of complex phenotypes and thus may play important roles in evolutionary processes. When populations diverge in hormone-mediated phenotypes, differences may arise via changes in circulating hormones, sensitivity to hormones or both. Determining the relative importance of signal and sensitivity requires consideration of both inter- and intrapopulation variation in hormone levels, hormone sensitivity and phenotype, but such studies are rare, particularly among closely related taxa. We compared males of two subspecies of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) for territorial aggression and associations among behaviour, circulating testosterone (T), and gene expression of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor ? in three behaviourally relevant brain regions. Thus, we examined the degree to which evolution may shape behaviour via changes in plasma T as compared with key sex steroid binding/converting molecules. We found that the white-winged junco (J. h. aikeni) was more aggressive than the smaller, less ornamented Carolina junco (J. h. carolinensis). The subspecies did not differ in circulating testosterone, but did differ significantly in the abundance of AR and AROM mRNA in key areas of the brain. Within populations, both gene expression and circulating T co-varied significantly with individual differences in aggression. Notably, the differences identified between populations were opposite to those predicted by the patterns among individuals within populations. These findings suggest that hormone-phenotype relationships may evolve via multiple pathways, and that changes that have occurred over evolutionary time do not necessarily reflect standing physiological variation on which current evolutionary processes may act. PMID:23517519

Bergeon Burns, C M; Rosvall, K A; Ketterson, E D

2013-04-01

436

Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents),

Ae-Na Choi; Myeong Soo Lee; Jung-Sook Lee

2008-01-01

437

Psychological Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Injury in Nonpartner Relationships Among Men and Women in Treatment for Substance-Use Disorders*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study focused on the prevalence and predictors of psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury rates in nonintimate partner relationships in a substance-use disorder treatment sample. Method: The sample included 489 (76% men, 24% women) participants who completed screening measures for inclusion in a randomized control trial for an aggression-prevention treatment. Primary outcome measures included rates of past-year psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury (both from the participant to nonpartners and from nonpartners to the participant). Potential predictors included individual factors (e.g., age, gender), developmental factors (e.g., family history of drug use, childhood physical abuse), and recent factors (e.g., depression, cocaine use). Results: Rates of participant-tononpartner psychological aggression (83%), physical aggression (61%), and injury (47%) were high, as were rates of nonpartner-to-participant aggression. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relationships between the aggression outcomes and most of the individual, developmental, and recent factors. However, multivariate analyses (zero-inflated Poisson regression) revealed that age, treatment status, current symptoms of depression, heavy periods of drinking, and cocaine use were related most frequently to the occurrence of aggression to and from nonpartners. Conclusions: Nonpartner aggression may be as common within a substance-use disorder sample as partner aggression, and it is associated with heavy drinking episodes, cocaine use, and depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the need for the development of effective violence interventions addressing violence in nonpartner relationship types. PMID:18925348

Murray, Regan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.; Winters, Jamie; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

2008-01-01

438

The Effects of Online Discussion Forum Aggressive Messages and Cognitive Distortion on Users' Negative Affect and Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is comprised of two studies designed to explore the effects of online discussion forum aggressive messages and Internet cognitive distortion on users' negative affect and aggression. The results of study 1 revealed 69 users could perceive both disgust and hostility feelings toward aggressive messages conducted by the authors, and…

Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

2012-01-01

439

Emotions in social information processing and their relations with reactive and proactive aggression in referred aggressive boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied emotional aspects of social information processing (SIP) and their spe- cific relations with reactive and proactive aggression in 54 boys ages 7 to 13 who had been referred for aggressive behavior problems and a comparison group. Partici- pants listened to vignettes concerning provocations by peers and answered questions concerning SIP, own and peer's emotions, and emotion regulation. Aggressive

Bram Orobio de Castro; Welmoet Merk; Willem Koops; Jan Veerman; Joop Bosch

2005-01-01

440

Behavior of Brick Samples in Aggressive Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weathering of different brick samples ina range of aggressive environments has been studied.Brick samples were prepared using two clay types (fromGranada, Spain), different additives, and a range offiring temperatures (850–1100 °C). The brickscompositional and textural characteristics wereevaluated using XRD, SEM, hydric tests and mercuryintrusion porosimetry (MIP). The samples weresubjected to accelerate aging, including wet-dry,freeze-thaw and salt crystallization cycles. The

G. Cultrone; M. J. De la Torre; E. M. Sebastian; O. Cazalla; C. Rodriguez-Navarro

2000-01-01

441

The Aggressive Patient\\/Inmate: Beyond Denial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public is no longer willing to tolerate being repeatedly victimized by a small group of sexually and\\/or physically aggressive predators. These predators may be found among much larger groups of non-predatory inpatients in psychiatric hospitals or inmates in prisons. These institutionalized people deserve to be treated or incarcerated without fear of being victimized, as well. The U.S. Supreme Court

Gary J. Maier

1999-01-01

442

Genetic Marker Identified for Aggressive Bladder Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers led by Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Ph.D., in DCEG's Laboratory of Translational Genomics, have identified the first genetic variant associated with risk of aggressive bladder cancer. The variant, rs7257330, is in the promoter region of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes for cyclin E protein, a cell cycle regulator. This result comes from a fine-mapping analysis of data from two bladder cancer genome-wide association studies and functional studies.

443

The Challenge of Stroke Prevention with Intracranial Arterial Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) have a high risk of recurrent stroke and secondary prevention in these patients remains a challenge. Aggressive medical management of vascular risk factors is safe and effective for most high risk patients, but the role of endovascular and surgical therapies still remain uncertain. Future studies may identify novel therapeutic strategies for patients with ICAD, but aggressive risk factor control remains the mainstay of evidenced-based treatment at this time. PMID:24105641

Turan, Tanya N.; Smock, Alison; Chimowitz, Marc I.

2013-01-01

444

The challenge of stroke prevention with intracranial arterial stenosis.  

PubMed

Patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease have a high risk of recurrent stroke, and secondary prevention in these patients remains a challenge. Aggressive medical management of vascular risk factors is safe and effective for most high risk patients, but the role of endovascular and surgical therapies still remain uncertain. Future studies may identify novel therapeutic strategies for patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease, but aggressive risk factor control remains the mainstay of evidenced-based treatment at this time. PMID:24105641

Turan, Tanya N; Smock, Alison; Chimowitz, Marc I

2013-12-01

445

Aggressive angiomyxoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases with long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsTo report the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features and longer term biological behaviour of aggressive angiomyxoma, an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm occurring predominantly in the pelvi-perineal region of adults. Using immunohistochemistry, possible overexpression of CDK4 and MDM2 was analysed, which might point to (cyto)genetic alteration(s) in chromosome region 12q13–15, an area reported to be altered in this tumour entity.Methods and resultsCases (

J. F. Graadt van Roggen; J. A. M. van Unnik; I. H. Briaire-de Bruijn; P. C. W. Hogendoorn

2005-01-01

446

Plasma butyrylcholinesterase regulates ghrelin to control aggression.  

PubMed

Ongoing mouse studies of a proposed therapy for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutated for accelerated cocaine hydrolysis have yielded surprising effects on aggression. Further investigation has linked these effects to a reduction in circulating ghrelin, driven by BChE at levels ?100-fold above normal. Tests with human BChE showed ready ghrelin hydrolysis at physiologic concentrations, and multiple low-mass molecular dynamics simulations revealed that ghrelin's first five residues fit sterically and electrostatically into BChE's active site. Consistent with in vitro results, male BALB/c mice with high plasma BChE after gene transfer exhibited sharply reduced plasma ghrelin. Unexpectedly, such animals fought less, both spontaneously and in a resident/intruder provocation model. One mutant BChE was found to be deficient in ghrelin hydrolysis. BALB/c mice transduced with this variant retained normal plasma ghrelin levels and did not differ from untreated controls in the aggression model. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice with BChE gene deletion exhibited increased ghrelin and fought more readily than wild-type animals. Collectively, these findings indicate that BChE-catalyzed ghrelin hydrolysis influences mouse aggression and social stress, with potential implications for humans. PMID:25646463

Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Parks, Robin J; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

2015-02-17

447

Sexual aggression among Asian Americans: risk and protective factors.  

PubMed

Rates of sexual aggression among Asian Americans are relatively low. It is possible that these low rates are because Asian Americans are less likely than other groups to develop developmental, motivational, and situational risk factors associated with sexual aggression. Moreover, an emphasis in Asian cultures on self-control of sexual and aggressive behavior may serve as a protective factor. Nevertheless, patriarchal aspects of Asian cultures may place some Asian Americans at risk for sexual victimization or perpetration of sexually aggressive behavior. Although Asian Americans may be at less risk for sexual aggression than other groups, interventions that counteract the patriarchal aspects of Asian cultures may further reduce risk. PMID:9818520

Hall, G C; Windover, A K; Maramba, G G

1998-01-01

448

The lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution.  

PubMed

Caring for good people is difficult enough; to care for people who are either aggressive or violent is even more difficult. This is what psychiatric nurses working in the psychiatric institution in which research was done are exposed to on a daily basis. The aim of the research was to explore and describe the lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual study design was utilised. Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews and naïve sketches. Tesch 's (Creswell, 2004: 256) method of open coding and an independent coder were utilised for data analysis. This study shed some light on the lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution. The findings show that the level of violence and aggression to which psychiatric nurses are exposed is overwhelming and the consequences are alarming. The contributing factors to this violence and aggression are: the mental status and the conditions in which patients are admitted; the staff shortage; the lack of support among the members of the multidisciplinary team (MDT); and the lack of structured and comprehensive orientation among newly appointed staff members. As a result, psychiatric nurses are emotionally, psychologically, and physically affected. They then respond with the following emotions and behaviour: fear, anger, frustration, despair, hopelessness and helplessness, substance abuse, absenteeism, retaliation and the development of an "I don't care" attitude. PMID:20225739

Bimenyimana, E; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C; van Niekerk, V

2009-09-01

449

The serotonergic system in mood disorders and suicidal behaviour  

PubMed Central

A stress-diathesis explanatory model of suicidal behaviour has proved to be of heuristic value, and both clinical and neurobiological components can be integrated into such a model. A trait deficiency in serotonin input to the anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is found in association with suicide, and more recently non-fatal suicidal behaviour, and is linked to decision-making and suicide intent by imaging and related studies in vivo. The same neural circuitry and serotonin deficiency may contribute to impulsive aggressive traits that are part of the diathesis for suicidal behaviour and are associated with early onset mood disorders and greater risk for suicidal behaviour. Other brain areas manifest deficient serotonin input, that is, a trait related to recurrent major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Thus the serotonin system is involved in both the diathesis for suicidal behaviour in terms of decision-making, and to a major stressor, namely episodes of major depression. PMID:23440471

Mann, J. John

2013-01-01

450

Genetic influences on brain gene expression in rats selected for tameness and aggression.  

PubMed

Interindividual differences in many behaviors are partly due to genetic differences, but the identification of the genes and variants that influence behavior remains challenging. Here, we studied an F2 intercross of two outbred lines of rats selected for tame and aggressive behavior toward humans for >64 generations. By using a mapping approach that is able to identify genetic loci segregating within the lines, we identified four times more loci influencing tameness and aggression than by an approach that assumes fixation of causative alleles, suggesting that many causative loci were not driven to fixation by the selection. We used RNA sequencing in 150 F2 animals to identify hundreds of loci that influence brain gene expression. Several of these loci colocalize with tameness loci and may reflect the same genetic variants. Through analyses of correlations between allele effects on behavior and gene expression, differential expression between the tame and aggressive rat selection lines, and correlations between gene expression and tameness in F2 animals, we identify the genes Gltscr2, Lgi4, Zfp40, and Slc17a7 as candidate contributors to the strikingly different behavior of the tame and aggressive animals. PMID:25189874

Heyne, Henrike O; Lautenschläger, Susann; Nelson, Ronald; Besnier, François; Rotival, Maxime; Cagan, Alexander; Kozhemyakina, Rimma; Plyusnina, Irina Z; Trut, Lyudmila; Carlborg, Örjan; Petretto, Enrico; Kruglyak, Leonid; Pääbo, Svante; Schöneberg, Torsten; Albert, Frank W

2014-11-01

451

Profilin 1 is a Potential Biomarker for Bladder Cancer Aggressiveness*  

PubMed Central

Of the most important clinical needs for bladder cancer (BC) management is the identification of biomarkers for disease aggressiveness. Urine is a “gold mine” for biomarker discovery, nevertheless, with multiple proteins being in low amounts, urine proteomics becomes challenging. In the present study we applied a fractionation strategy of urinary proteins based on the use of immobilized metal affinity chromatography for the discovery of biomarkers for aggressive BC. Urine samples from patients with non invasive (two pools) and invasive (two pools) BC were subjected to immobilized metal affinity chromatography fractionation and eluted proteins analyzed by 1D-SDS-PAGE, band excision and liquid chromatography tandem MS. Among the identified proteins, multiple corresponded to proteins with affinity for metals and/or reported to be phosphorylated and included proteins with demonstrated association with BC such as MMP9, fibrinogen forms, and clusterin. In agreement to the immobilized metal affinity chromatography results, aminopeptidase N, profilin 1, and myeloblastin were further found to be differentially expressed in urine from patients with invasive compared with non invasive BC and benign controls, by Western blot or Elisa analysis, nevertheless exhibiting high interindividual variability. By tissue microarray analysis, profilin 1 was found to have a marked decrease of expression in the epithelial cells of the invasive (T2+) versus high risk non invasive (T1G3) tumors with occasional expression in stroma; importantly, this pattern strongly correlated with poor prognosis and increased mortality. The functional relevance of profilin 1 was investigated in the T24 BC cells where blockage of the protein by the use of antibodies resulted in decreased cell motility with concomitant decrease in actin polymerization. Collectively, our study involves the application of a fractionation method of urinary proteins and as one main result of this analysis reveals the association of profilin 1 with BC paving the way for its further investigation in BC stratification. PMID:22159600

Zoidakis, Jerome; Makridakis, Manousos; Zerefos, Panagiotis G.; Bitsika, Vasiliki; Esteban, Sergio; Frantzi, Maria; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Anagnou, Nikolaos P.; Roubelakis, Maria G.; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Vlahou, Antonia

2012-01-01

452

Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy  

PubMed Central

This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marker system or the social response reversal system) are related to reactive aggression shown by patients with "acquired sociopathy" due to orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Impairment in the capacity to form associations between emotional unconditioned stimuli, particularly distress cues, and conditioned stimuli (the violence inhibition mechanism model) is related to the instrumental aggression shown by persons with developmental psychopathy.?? PMID:11723191

Blair, R

2001-01-01

453

Psychopharmacologic strategies for the treatment of aggression in juveniles.  

PubMed

Maladaptive aggression in youth is one of the most common and troublesome reasons for referrals to child psychiatrists. It has a complex relationship with psychopathology. There are several syndromes, which are primary disturbances of clustered maladaptive aggression, most notably oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. However, problems with aggression also appear in a wide range of other disturbances, such as bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and mood disorders. Additionally, aggression is normative, serves an adaptive purpose and can be situationally induced. These complexities need to be carefully addressed before targeting maladaptive aggression psychopharmacologically. We summarize the literature on the psychopharmacology of maladaptive aggression in youth, focusing on disorders without cognitive impairment. We delineate the subtypes of aggression which are most likely to respond to medication (reactive-affective-defensive-impulsive in their acute and chronic form) and conclude with a discussion of specific medication strategies which are supported by controlled clinical trials and clinical experience. PMID:12679744

Steiner, Hans; Saxena, Kirti; Chang, Kiki

2003-04-01

454

An Observational Study for Evaluating the Effects of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills Training on Behavioural Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present observational study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) programme on behavioural change from aggression to pro-social behaviours by using the DECB rating scale. Non-participant observation method was used to collect data in pretest-training-posttest design. It was hypothesised that the ICPS…

Anliak, Sakire; Sahin, Derya

2010-01-01

455

Cognitive tempo, violent video games, and aggressive behavior in young boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a factorial design, impulsive and reflective children played video games with aggressive or nonaggressive themes. Interpersonal aggression and aggression toward inanimate objects were assessed in a free-play setting and interpersonal aggression was assessed during a frustrating situation. Results indicated that subjects who played the video game with aggressive content exhibited significantly more object aggression during free-play and more interpersonal

A. Roland Irwin; Alan M. Gross

1995-01-01

456

Do aggressive people play violent computer games in a more aggressive way? Individual difference and idiosyncratic game-playing experience.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT This study investigates whether individual difference influences idiosyncratic experience of game playing. In particular, we examine the relationship between the game player's physical-aggressive personality and the aggressiveness of the player's game playing in violence-oriented video games. Screen video stream of 40 individual participants' game playing was captured and content analyzed. Participants' physical aggression was measured before the game play. The results suggest that people with more physical-aggressive personality engage in a more aggressive style of playing, after controlling the differences of gender and previous gaming experience. Implications of these findings and direction for future studies are discussed. PMID:18422407

Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming; Mou, Yi

2008-04-01

457

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY & BEHAVIOURAL  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY & BEHAVIOURAL NEUROSCIENCES LILLIAN ROSE STEGNE MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP $5, pursuing studies related to Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences. Deadline Four copies of the completed: Psychiatry Education Office c/o Nancy Devlin Department of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences St. Joseph

Hitchcock, Adam P.

458

A cancer-causing gene is positively correlated with male aggression in Xiphophorus cortezi  

PubMed Central

The persistence of seemingly maladaptive genes in organisms challenges evolutionary biological thought. In Xiphophorus fishes, certain melanin patterns form malignant melanomas due to a cancer-causing gene (Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase; Xmrk), which arose several millions years ago from unequal meiotic recombination. Xiphophorus melanomas are male biased and induced by androgens however male behavior and Xmrk genotype has not been investigated. This study found that male X. cortezi with the spotted caudal (Sc) pattern, from which melanomas originate, displayed increased aggression in mirror image trials. Furthermore, Xmrk males (regardless of Sc phenotype) bit and performed more agonistic displays than Xmrk deficient males. Male aggressive response decreased when males viewed their Sc image as compared to their non-Sc image. Collectively, these results indicate that Xmrk males experience a competitive advantage over wild-type males and that intrasexual selection could be an important component in the evolutionary maintenance of this oncogene within Xiphophorus. PMID:20021547

Fernandez, André A.

2010-01-01

459

Impact of nutrition on canine behaviour: current status and possible mechanisms.  

PubMed

Each year, millions of dogs worldwide are abandoned by their owners, relinquished to animal shelters, and euthanised because of behaviour problems. Nutrition is rarely considered as one of the possible contributing factors of problem behaviour. This contribution presents an overview of current knowledge on the influence of nutrition on canine behaviour and explores the underlying mechanisms by which diet may affect behaviour in animals. Behaviour is regulated by neurotransmitters and hormones, and changes in the availability of their precursors may influence behaviour. Tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin, may affect the incidence of aggression, self-mutilation and stress resistance. The latter may also be influenced by dietary tyrosine, a precursor to catecholamines. As diet composition, nutrient availability and nutrient interactions affect the availability of these precursors in the brain, behaviour or stress resistance may be affected. PUFA, especially DHA, have an important role as structural constituents in brain development, and dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 PUFA could modify aspects of the dopaminergic and serotonergic system and, consequently, cognitive performance and behaviour. Finally, persistent feeding motivation between meals can increase stereotyped behaviour and aggression and decrease resting time. This feeding motivation may be altered by dietary fibre content and source. At present, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the role of nutrition in canine (problem) behaviour through the above mentioned mechanisms. Studies that explore this relationship may help to improve the welfare of dogs and their owners. PMID:19079869

Bosch, G; Beerda, B; Hendriks, W H; van der Poel, A F B; Verstegen, M W A

2007-12-01

460

Variation and Transgression of Aggressiveness Among Two Gibberella Zeae Crosses Developed from Highly Aggressive Parental Isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum) is the most common cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Aggressiveness is the most important fungal trait affecting disease severity and stability of host resistance. Objectives were to analyze in two field exper...

461

The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

2011-01-01

462

Developing psychodynamic group treatment methods for aggressive male inpatients.  

PubMed

Group psychotherapy is one intervention that can be used for aggressive male inpatients. This paper reports relevant literature and clinical applications for conducting a psychodynamic psychotherapy group designed to help patients (a) identify, understand, and deal with underlying problems resulting in aggressive behavior; (b) improve interpersonal relationships; and (c) find more appropriate ways of expressing feelings, particularly those associated with aggressive behavior. The review of literature focuses on therapeutic approaches for dealing with aggressive feelings in group therapy; men's issues in group psychotherapy, including stages of group development for men and the expression of aggression; and the outcome of aggressive behavior in response to group therapy. Clinical applications discussed are preparation for the group; the group contract, including the "group as a whole" approach; patient selection; modeling authority; and countertransference and projective identification. PMID:8920340

Lanza, M L; Satz, H; Stone, J; Kayne, H L

1996-01-01

463

Aggression and personality: association with amino acids and monoamine metabolites.  

PubMed

Associations in 52 normal individuals were examined between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine, and concentrations of monoamine metabolites in the CSF, and scores on an aggression questionnaire, the Kinsey Institute Reaction List II, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. There was a significantly positive correlation between CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels and extroverted aggression scores, and a significantly negative correlation between CSF 5-HIAA levels and introverted aggression scores. Males showed higher plasma Trp concentrations than females, and significantly positive correlations between plasma Trp concentrations and scores on extroverted aggression and the Eysenck E scale. Males, furthermore, showed a significantly negative correlation between CSF Trp levels and scores on the Eysenck P scale, and a significantly positive correlation between concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol in CSF and scores on moral aggression. These results suggest that central serotonin influences aggression in normal individuals through effects on personality. PMID:8685288

Møller, S E; Mortensen, E L; Breum, L; Alling, C; Larsen, O G; Bøge-Rasmussen, T; Jensen, C; Bennicke, K

1996-03-01

464

Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: A longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802

Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

2015-02-01

465

Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM; Willard, Gerald [Department of Defense, Ft. Meade, MD

2008-10-01

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Extragenital aggressive angiomyxoma of the axilla and the chest wall.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxomas are uncommon mesenchymal tumours which most often arise in the perineal and the pelvic regions in women. Extragenital aggressive angiomyxonas are extremely rare. We are reporting a young male with an aggressive angiomyxoma which involved the axillary region and extended into the anterior chest wall, which demonstrated its characteristic histomorphological features. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A careful histological examination, along with immunohistochemistry, aids in diagnosing this lesion and differentiating it from tumours which have similar histologies. PMID:23730656

Nayal, Bhavna; Rao, Lakshmi; Rao, Anuradha C K; Sharma, Swati; Shenoy, Rajgopal