Oliver-Africano, P.; Dickens, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Bouras, N.; Cooray, S.; Deb, S.; Knapp, M.; Hare, M.; Meade, M.; Reece, B.; Bhaumik, S.; Harley, D.; Piachaud, J.; Regan, A.; Ade Thomas, D.; Karatela, S.; Rao, B.; Dzendrowskyj, T.; Lenotre, L.; Watson, J.; Tyrer, P.
Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID) is frequently treated with antipsychotic drugs, despite a limited evidence base. Method: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was undertaken to investigate the efficacy, adverse effects and costs of two commonly prescribed antipsychotic drugs…
Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.
Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…
McKay, Ailsa J.
/subsequent to aggressive behaviour suggested specific neural circuits may have significant direct regulatory influence over particular behaviours, and that activation of the V1b vasopressin receptor, in these circuits, may contribute to this putative regulatory signalling...
Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Vela-Avitua, Sergio; Nørstrud, Karoline Sletbak; Aalgaard, Marion; Braastad, Bjarne O.; Höglund, Erik; Øverli, Øyvind
Animals use aggressive behaviour to gain access to resources, and individuals adjust their behaviour relative to resource value and own resource holding potential (RHP). Normally, smaller individuals have inferior fighting abilities compared with larger conspecifics. Affective and cognitive processes can alter contest dynamics, but the interaction between such effects and that of differing RHPs has not been adjudged. We investigated effects of omission of expected reward (OER) on competing individuals with contrasting RHPs. Small and large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conditioned to associate a light with reward. Thereafter, the reward was omitted for half of the fish prior to a contest between individuals possessing a 36–40% difference in RHP. Small control individuals displayed submissive behaviour and virtually no aggression. By contrast, small OER individuals were more aggressive, and two out of 11 became socially dominant. Increased aggression in small OER individuals was accompanied by increased serotonin levels in the dorsomedial pallium (proposed amygdala homologue), but no changes in limbic dopamine neurochemistry were observed in OER-exposed individuals. The behavioural and physiological response to OER in fish indicates that frustration is an evolutionarily conserved affective state. Moreover, our results indicate that aggressive motivation to reward unpredictability affects low RHP individuals strongest. PMID:24759861
Vindas, Marco A; Johansen, Ida B; Vela-Avitua, Sergio; Nørstrud, Karoline Sletbak; Aalgaard, Marion; Braastad, Bjarne O; Höglund, Erik; Øverli, Øyvind
Animals use aggressive behaviour to gain access to resources, and individuals adjust their behaviour relative to resource value and own resource holding potential (RHP). Normally, smaller individuals have inferior fighting abilities compared with larger conspecifics. Affective and cognitive processes can alter contest dynamics, but the interaction between such effects and that of differing RHPs has not been adjudged. We investigated effects of omission of expected reward (OER) on competing individuals with contrasting RHPs. Small and large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conditioned to associate a light with reward. Thereafter, the reward was omitted for half of the fish prior to a contest between individuals possessing a 36-40% difference in RHP. Small control individuals displayed submissive behaviour and virtually no aggression. By contrast, small OER individuals were more aggressive, and two out of 11 became socially dominant. Increased aggression in small OER individuals was accompanied by increased serotonin levels in the dorsomedial pallium (proposed amygdala homologue), but no changes in limbic dopamine neurochemistry were observed in OER-exposed individuals. The behavioural and physiological response to OER in fish indicates that frustration is an evolutionarily conserved affective state. Moreover, our results indicate that aggressive motivation to reward unpredictability affects low RHP individuals strongest. PMID:24759861
Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei
This exploratory study investigated Mainland Chinese children's social networks and peer group affiliations with a particular emphasis on their aggressive behaviour. The participants were 294 elementary school students in Tianjin, P. R. China (mean age 11.5 years; 161 boys). Social network analysis identified relatively large and gender-specific…
Meyer, Barbara J.; Byrne, Mitchell K.; Collier, Carole; Parletta, Natalie; Crawford, Donna; Winberg, Pia C.; Webster, David; Chapman, Karen; Thomas, Gayle; Dally, Jean; Batterham, Marijka; Farquhar, Ian; Martin, Anne-Marie; Grant, Luke
Background There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments. Objective To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population. Design 136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC), NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks) from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) and the Brown’s Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS), provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated. Results The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = ?0.21, P = 0.016); total AQ score (r = ?0.234, P = 0.011); Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016); Hostility AQ (r = ?0.239, P = 0.009); indirect aggression (r = ?0.188 p = 0.042); total BADDS (r = ?0.263, p = 0.005); Activation (r = ?0.224, p = 0.016); Attention (r = ?0.192, p = 0.043); Effort (r = ?0.253, p = 0.007); Affect (r = ?0.330, p = 0.000) and Memory (r = ?0.240, p = 0.010). Conclusions There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison population, and inmates with lower omega-3 index were more aggressive and had higher ADD scores. PMID:25793501
Purwati; Japar, Muhammad
This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…
van Berckelaer-Onnes, I A; van Loon, J; Peelen, A
People with intellectual disability often exhibit severe behavioural problems. Treatment of these problems is frequently very difficult. In The Netherlands, parents, institutes, schools and others can request the services of an independent advisory team with a pool of professionals who have experience with individuals who exhibit challenging behaviour. In this article the methods of the team will be described using a 24-year-old man as an example. The process took almost 7 years. Finally, this man, who had been living full time in one room in total isolation from the rest of the world, fulfilled his heart's desire--visiting the UK by Hovercraft. PMID:12212917
Lowe, K.; Allen, D.; Jones, E.; Brophy, S.; Moore, K.; James, W.
Background: Variations in reported prevalence of challenging behaviour indicate the need for further epidemiological research to support accurate planning of future service provision. Methods: All services providing for people with learning disabilities across seven unitary authorities, with a total population of 1.2 million, were screened to…
Wiegman, O; van Schie, E G
In this study of 278 children from the seventh and eighth grade of five elementary schools in Enschede, The Netherlands, the relationship between the amount of time children spent on playing video games and aggressive as well as prosocial behaviour was investigated. In addition, the relationship between the preference for aggressive video games and aggressive and prosocial behaviour was studied. No significant relationship was found between video game use in general and aggressive behaviour, but a significant negative relationship with prosocial behaviour was supported. However, separate analyses for boys and girls did not reveal this relationship. More consistent results were found for the preference for aggressive video games: children, especially boys, who preferred aggressive video games were more aggressive and showed less prosocial behaviour than those with a low preference for these games. Further analyses showed that children who preferred playing aggressive video games tended to be less intelligent. PMID:9738313
Oliver-Africano, Patricia; Murphy, Declan; Tyrer, Peter
A complex form of aggression, commonly expanded as 'aggressive challenging behaviour', is reported in one in four adults with intellectual disability and is often treated with antipsychotics, mood stabilizers and antidepressants. Psychological treatments, including anger and behavioural management, person-centred planning and manipulation of the environment (nidotherapy), have also been used when available but to a lesser extent. In this article, the evidence for efficacy for each intervention is examined, with data from randomized controlled trials given primacy. Very little evidence, based on limited data, can be found for the interventions of anger and behavioural management and also for the atypical antipsychotic drug, risperidone; the data available on these interventions come primarily from studies conducted in children in whom the behaviour is part of the autistic spectrum. Antipsychotic drugs, particularly the atypical group, have been the most commonly used interventions in recent years, but a recent independent randomized trial showed no benefits for either risperidone or haloperidol compared with placebo, with some evidence of a better response to placebo than either active drug in the reduction of aggression. In the light of this uncertainty, the clinician must return to the task of collecting a careful history and mental state examination, including awareness of the setting in which the behaviour is shown, which will help with diagnosis and appropriate intervention. The choice of intervention should not be a casual one and is not likely to be chosen well if the clinician relies only on standard guidelines. The paucity of randomized trial evidence is preventing progress in the treatment of persistent aggressive behaviour. On present evidence, the use of drug treatment should be much more sparing and reserved for those patients who are putting themselves and others at particular risk as a consequence of their behaviour; such treatment should be regarded as temporary and as adjunctive to other forms of management. There is an urgent need for larger, randomized studies of psychological interventions, which at present appear to have a higher benefit-risk ratio than drug treatment but that also have a poor evidence base. More care should be taken to avoid the term 'aggressive challenging behaviour' being used as a portmanteau diagnostic pseudonym when it merely represents a diverse oppositional repertoire of many aetiologies. PMID:19845412
Amore, M.; Bertelli, M.; Villani, D.; Tamborini, S.; Rossi, M.
Background: Aggressive behaviour represents a frequent symptom in people with intellectual disability (PWID). Despite uncertain evidence of effectiveness, the use of antipsychotics (APs) drugs to treat aggressive behaviour is very common. Antipsychotic medication of aggressivity in PWID has recently become one of the most debated issues in mental…
Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tschernig, Thomas; Qi, Yulin; Volmer, Dietrich A; Bäumer, Wolfgang
Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have recently been developed for allergic diseases. We focused on the 2 different JAK inhibitors, tofacitinib (selective for JAK3) and oclacitinib (selective for JAK1 and 2), to clarify the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and anti-itching potency of these drugs. In the process of detecting anti-itching potency, we observed that tofacitinib treated mice showed aggression behaviour. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the aggressive behaviour induced by tofacitinib by using a mouse model of allergic dermatitis and the resident-intruder test. For the allergic dermatitis model, female BALB/c mice were sensitised and challenged topically with toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI). Vehicle, tofacitinib or oclacitinib, was administered orally 30min before TDI challenge. Scratching, aggression and standing behaviours were monitored in the 60min period immediately following challenge of TDI. Another group of male BALB/c mice treated with vehicle, tofacitinib or oclacitinib was evaluated in the resident-intruder test and brains were obtained to determine blood brain barrier penetration. In the allergic dermatitis model, a significant increase in aggression and standing behaviour was only obvious in the tofacitinib treatment group. There was no effect in non-sensitised mice, but similar aggression was also induced by tofacitinib in male resident-intruder test. Penetration of blood-brain barrier was observed both in tofacitinib and oclacitinib treated mice. These results suggest that aggression was induced by tofacitinib under some kind of stressful environment. This study indicates a possible role of the JAK-STAT pathway in modulation of aggression behaviour. PMID:26164790
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.
Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…
Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe
A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…
Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.
High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…
Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.
Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence, respectively. This study highlights the usefulness of direct observations in the wild for assessing the effects of behavioural interference of invasive fishes on Iberian aquatic communities. PMID:24505367
Arron, K.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Berg, K.; Burbidge, C.
Background: Self-injurious and aggressive behaviours are reported as components of some behavioural phenotypes but there are few studies comparing across syndrome groups. In this study we examined the prevalence of these behaviours and the associated person characteristics in seven genetic syndromes. Methods: Questionnaire data on self-injury and…
Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel
This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…
Fruhen, Laura S; Flin, Rhona
The interaction of car drivers and cyclists is one of the main causes of cycle incidents. The role of attitudes and social norms in shaping car drivers' aggressive behaviour towards cyclists, is not well understood and merits investigation. A sample of 276 drivers completed an online questionnaire concerning their attitudes towards cyclists, attitudes towards risky driving, perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, and the frequency with which they engage in such aggressive driving behaviours. The results showed that attitudes towards cyclists, as well as social norm perceptions concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, were associated with aggressive driving towards cyclists. Negative attitudes towards cyclists were more pronounced in non-cyclists than cyclists and their association with aggressive driving behaviour was stronger in cyclists than non-cyclists. The perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists had a stronger association with aggressive driving in non-cyclists than cyclists. Attitudes towards risk taking did not affect aggressive driving towards cyclists. These findings can inform campaigns that aim to improve cyclist and car driver interaction on the roads, making them safer to use for cyclists. PMID:26275525
Tsiouris, J. A.
Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…
Hensel, Jennifer M; Lunsky, Yona; Dewa, Carolyn S
Experiencing aggressive behaviour has been associated with increased stress and turnover among staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities. Incident perception is a strong predictor of psychological outcomes after trauma but has not been studied in this staff group. This study clustered exposure to aggression and endorsement of emotional difficulties among 386 community residential group home staff and evaluated the contribution of four behavioural topographies to staff-rated perceived severity. Staff exposure varied considerably. Perceived severity correlated with subjective emotional difficulties. High perceived severity was associated with daily exposure, aggression towards others causing injury, and property aggression causing injury or damage. Therefore, the role the staff plays, whether a witness or target, may impact their experience. PMID:23949541
Brown, Freddy Jackson; Peace, Natalie
Learning to use the toilet is an important developmental step for a child's independence, health and dignity. It can be particularly difficult to teach continence skills to disabled children with aggressive or challenging behaviour. This study showed how Azrin & Foxx's (1971) basic toilet training procedure could be modified to teach a 13-year-old…
Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.
Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…
Wahdan, I; El-Nimr, N; Kotb, R; Wahdan, A
Adolescent risk-taking and aggressive behaviours are among the most visible forms of violence in society. A study was carried out to identify the prevalence and risk factors for aggression, violence and criminal behaviour among adolescents in Alexandria, Egypt. Using multistage, cluster sampling of families from all health districts in Alexandria, the mothers of 783 adolescents aged 11-19 years answered an Arabic version of the Mentor Research Institute screening questionnaire. Overall 26.9% of adolescents were assessed to be at high risk and 20.2% at extremely high risk of aggression and criminal behaviour. Living in urban/slum areas, male sex, low level of parents' education/occupation, exposure to violence within the family and changes in behaviour of any family member were associated with risk of aggression/violence. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent variables were adolescents' sex, presence of behavioural changes in the family, violence against brothers and sisters and substance abuse by any family member. PMID:24952124
Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892
Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.
Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.
Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…
Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M
Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour. PMID:23587440
Chang, Lei; Li, Kin Kit; Lei, Li; Liu, Hongyun; Guo, Boliang; Wang, Yan; Fung, Kitty Y.
This study presents a model of maladaptive social interactions that includes both behavioural and communication correlates of peer acceptance and self-perceived social competence. Tested in a sample of 377 Hong Kong secondary school students, verbal and nonverbal aggression contributed concurrently and longitudinally to peer acceptance.…
Zsolnai, Aniko; Lesznyak, Marta; Kasik, Laszlo
The aim of our research was to investigate social and emotional skills that determine pre-schoolers' aggressive and pro-social behaviours in stressful situations. The sample of the empirical study consisted of 119 (36-48, 49-60 and 61-72 months) Hungarian children from six pre-schools. Instruments that were used: Coping strategy self-report and…
Anti-predator behaviour changes following an aggressive encounter in the lizard Tropidurus hispidus,WI 53706^1381, USA (firstname.lastname@example.org) Avoiding predators may con£ict with territorial defence minimize costs from future intrusions at the cost of higher predation risks. I conducted experiments
According to a widespread opinion shared by the vast majority of historians, instances of aggression using pathogen weapons constitute extremely rare events in human history. Similarly, students of human behaviour tend to believe that their science plays no role in explaining this phenomenon, which is held to be exceptional and abnormal. Contrary to this dominant view, I argue that Hamiltonian spite - like Hamiltonian altruism - is an inherent part of the human behavioural repertoire and it includes the use of pathogens for spiteful purposes. This paradigm is supported by the following observations. The use of pathogens as weapons emerged far before the scientific understanding of the nature of infections and epidemics, though it has been underrepresented in written history ever since. It is also present in our expectations concerning the likely behaviour of an enemy and it is also a frequent component of threats. Several languages appear to bear linguistic references to our motivation for biological aggression in profanity. Finally, given that wartime epidemics kill people at a rate comparable to (or exceeding) that of mechanical weapons, all wars fought in recorded history incorporated an element of aggression through biological means. On the basis of these arguments, I claim that the motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of past and present human behaviour. PMID:19006651
Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana
The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…
Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.
Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…
Glowacz, Fabienne; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Boet, Sylvie; Born, Michel
Aggressive behaviours in adolescence often originate in early development. This study tested three longitudinal pathways starting in early childhood, in a sample of 325 Belgian participants (162 girls) assessed every 1 or 2 years from birth through age 14. Structural equation models supported the "mother early dissatisfaction" pathway…
Martín-Sánchez, Ana; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L; Ayala, Guillermo; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-Garcia, Fernando
This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". This paper reviews the role of chemosignals in the socio-sexual interactions of female mice, and reports two experiments testing the role of pup-derived chemosignals and the male sexual pheromone darcin in inducing and promoting maternal aggression. Female mice are attracted to urine-borne male pheromones. Volatile and non-volatile urine fractions have been proposed to contain olfactory and vomeronasal pheromones. In particular, the male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) MUP20, darcin, has been shown to be rewarding and attractive to females. Non-urinary male chemosignals, such as the lacrimal protein ESP1, promote lordosis in female mice, but its attractive properties are still to be tested. There is evidence indicating that ESP1 and MUPs are detected by vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2R). When a female mouse becomes pregnant, she undergoes dramatic changes in her physiology and behaviour. She builds a nest for her pups and takes care of them. Dams also defend the nest against conspecific intruders, attacking especially gonadally intact males. Maternal behaviour is dependent on a functional olfactory system, thus suggesting a role of chemosignals in the development of maternal behaviour. Our first experiment demonstrates, however, that pup chemosignals are not sufficient to induce maternal aggression in virgin females. In addition, it is known that vomeronasal stimuli are needed for maternal aggression. Since MUPs (and other molecules) are able to promote intermale aggression, in our second experiment we test if the attractive MUP darcin also promotes attacks on castrated male intruders by lactating dams. Our findings demonstrate that the same chemosignal, darcin, promotes attraction or aggression according to female reproductive state. PMID:25161057
Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.
Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190
Rittschof, Clare C; Coombs, Chelsey B; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M; Robinson, Gene E
Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ''gets under the skin'' resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee's early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190
Niemeier, V; Fritz, J; Kupfer, J; Gieler, U
The importance of psychosocial factors on the etiology and fluctuating disease activity of psoriasis has been discussed in recent years. The present experiment investigated whether psoriatics in an anger-inducing situation show less aggressive verbal behaviour than average person. Twenty-six psoriatics and 26 matched healthy controls were randomly assigned to either an anger-inducing or a non-anger-inducing social situation. The experimental conditions were arranged so that the persons were confronted with either negative, derogatory, or positive, favorable feedback on eight characteristics (intelligence, appearance, maturity, tolerance, honesty, friendliness, humor, and helpfulness). Standardized feedback was given by a confederate of the experimenter. Immediately after the feedback was received by the subjects the photo hand test (PHT) was applied. The PHT is an item-analyzed, validated projective test for aggression. Two independent raters categorized the subjects' responses into six mutually exclusive categories, including a category for responses with aggressive content. 2 x 2 analysis of variance (psoriatics vs controls; anger-induced vs non-anger induced) were calculated for the aggressive responses and the acting-out score (AOS). The results showed a significant interaction, suggesting that psoriatics did indeed exhibit fewer verbal aggression responses under anger-inducing circumstances than the controls. PMID:10523736
Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid
Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…
Vaske, Jamie; Newsome, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle
Prenatal and perinatal risk factors, such as low birth weight, have been linked to higher levels of aggressive and destructive behaviours during childhood. Although low birth weight is associated with childhood externalizing behaviour, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain open to empirical investigation. The current study extends the…
Background Although there have been a wide range of epidemiological studies examining the impact of patterns of alcohol consumption among adolescents, there remains considerable variability in both defining these patterns and the ability to comprehensively evaluate their relationship to behavioural patterns. This study explores a new procedure for defining and evaluating drinking patterns and integrating well-established indicators. The composite measure is then used to estimate the impact of these patterns on alcohol-related aggressive behaviour among Italian adolescents. Methods Data were collected as part of the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). A national sample of 14,199 students aged 15–19 years was collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire completed in a classroom setting. Drinking patterns were established using principal component analysis. Alcohol-related aggression was analysed as to its relationship to patterns of drinking, behaviour of friends towards alcohol use, substance use/abuse, school performance, family relationships and leisure activities. Results Several specific drinking patterns were identified: “Drinking to Excess” (DE), “Drinking with Intoxication” (DI) and “Drinking but Not to Excess” (DNE). A higher percentage of males were involved in alcohol-related aggression compared with females. In males, the DE and DI patterns significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol-related aggression, whereas the DNE pattern was negatively associated. Similar results were found in females, although the DI pattern was not significantly associated with alcohol-related aggression. Overall, cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, truancy, limited parental monitoring, frequent evenings spent outside of the home and peer influence associated strongly with alcohol-related aggression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that drinking patterns, as uniquely monitored with an integrated metric, can: 1) explain drinking habits better than commonly used indicators of alcohol use and 2) provide a better understanding of behavioural risks such as alcohol-related aggression. Environmental background also appears to strongly associate with this type of aggressive behaviour. PMID:24112134
Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John
Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…
Benelli, Giovanni; Desneux, Nicolas; Romano, Donato; Conte, Giuseppe; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo
In several animal species, aggressive experience influences the characteristics and outcomes of subsequent conflicts, such that winners are more likely to win again (the winner effect) and losers more likely to lose again (the loser effect). We tested the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), as a model system to evaluate the role of the winner and loser effects in male-male territorial contests. Further, we conducted experiments to test if winning and losing probabilities are affected only by the outcome of the previous contests, or whether the fighting experience itself is sufficient to induce an effect. Both winners and losers of two consecutive encounters displayed higher intensity of aggression and fought longer in subsequent contests. In both cases, they achieved higher fighting success than naïve males. The enhanced fighting performance of both winners and losers was stimulated by merely experiencing a contest, not necessarily by the relative outcome of previous fights. Overall, this study highlights the fact that previous victories and defeats both enhance aggressive behaviour in olive fruit flies, allowing them to achieve higher fighting success in subsequent contests against inexperienced males. PMID:25792294
Lambrechts, Greet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Eeman, Lieve; Maes, Bea
Staff reactions play an important role in the development and maintaining of clients' challenging behaviour. Because there is a paucity of research on staff reactions in naturalistic settings, this study examined sequential associations between challenging behaviour and staff reactions by means of a descriptive analysis. We analysed video…
Zaja, Rebecca H.; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.; Rojahn, Johannes
Background: Psychometric properties of three functional assessment rating scales were compared for three types of target behaviours [self-injurious behaviour (SIB), stereotypic behaviour and aggressive/destructive behaviour]. Materials and method: The "Questions about Behavioural Function" (QABF), the "Functional Assessment for Multiple Causality"…
The challenges of behavioural genetics research include: the difficulty in defining and quantifying to generate these behaviour patterns.In addition to these genetic contributions, an organism also experi pushed the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster to the forefront of behavioural genetics research. Model
Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin
The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during parental care after larval hatching, which may have possible implications on reproductive success and population dynamics. PMID:25213287
Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth
Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40% less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27% less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40% less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P < 0.01), with no G × E interactions. These results show opportunities to reduce harmful biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986
Sipal, Rafet Firat; Bayhan, Pinar
Introduction: Relation between constructing complex mental structures and language skills cause delays in development of executive functions of deaf children. When the importance of language skills in development of executive functions and frequency of aggressive behaviours of deaf children are considered, investigation of executive functions of…
Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine
High levels of teacher-child conflict have repeatedly been found to amplify children's aggressive behaviour. Up to now, however, research on possible mechanisms explaining this link is largely lacking. The current study aimed to test whether children's self-esteem is an intervening mechanism. Participants were 139 children (70 boys, M age = 6.18…
Travis, Robert W.; Sturmey, Peter
Background: Previous studies of anger management in people with intellectual disability failed to control for the effects of the number of provocative stimuli presented and lacked direct measures of behaviour and treatment integrity data. Methods: This experiment systematically assessed and presented discriminative stimuli for aggressive…
Chan, Siu Mui
This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…
Chaturvedi, P.K.; Agarwal, A.K.; Gupta, S.C.
SUMMARY Sixty two inmates of a children's home of Lucknow City were examined by using Hindi Adaptation of Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale-Form LM (1960) and a five point rating scale for aggression. A high proportion (69.4%) of the inmates had one or other psychiatric problem. Mild mental retardation (I.Q. 50-70) was most common (41.9%). Intellectual level was correlated with present age, duration of stay and age at entry. Significant correlation was found between Intellectual level and present age, as well as duration of stay. Nearly 39% inmates showed aggressive behaviour. Aggressive behaviour was also correlated with present age, duration of stay, age at entry and psychiatric illness. The children suffering from emotional problems (such as unsocialised disturbance of conduct, adjustment reaction, nail biting, enuresis etc.) showed significantly more aggression than healthy children. Though no significant difference was fourd, but there is a trend that larger number of boys show aggression than girls. PMID:21965972
Feeley, Kathlee M.; Jones, Emily A.
Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with…
Fletcher, Adam; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Jones, Rebecca; Allen, Elizabeth; Viner, Russell M; Bonell, Chris
Relatively little is known about those who cyberbully others, especially in a UK context. We drew on data from 1144 young people aged 12-13 in eight English secondary schools to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with sociodemographics, other behaviours, and health outcomes. Overall, 14.1% of respondents reported ever cyberbullying others with no significant differences by gender or socioeconomic status. Drawing on mixed-effects logistic regression models, first we found a strong, dose-response relationship between aggressive behaviour at school and cyberbullying others, suggesting that cyberbullying may not only be a facet of wider patterns of bullying but also of aggression more broadly. Second, cyberbullying others was associated with poorer quality of life and with psychological difficulties but not with peer/social problems or worse mental wellbeing. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether such associations are causal. PMID:25448835
Hurley, A. D.
Background: Psychiatric evaluation of adults with intellectual disability (ID) remains complex because of limitations in verbal abilities, atypical clinical presentation and challenging behaviour. This study examines the clinical presentation of adults with depression compared with bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and non-psychiatric control…
Schalke, Esther; Ott, Stefanie; Hirschfeld, Jennifer; Hackbarth, Hansjoachim
The expertise on the interpretation of and 11 b TierSchG assumes that a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour exists in some blood lines of Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers and Pitbull type dogs. This study was carried out to detect whether a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour occurred in a certain Bull Terrier breed line. A total of 38 dogs representing this line were tested according to the guidelines of the Dangerous Animals Act of Lower Saxony, Germany (GefTVO) enacted on July 5th, 2000. Furthermore, the results of their behaviour towards other dogs during the test were compared to those of 347 dogs tested by Böttjer (2003) in order to investigate possible significant differences in the occurrence of inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour. The comparison was aimed at exposing a possible significant accumulation of intraspecific aggressive behaviour. In the situations of dog-dog-contact of the test, 25 threatening behaviour"was displayed by 9 dogs (23.68%). Four dogs (10.53%) responded with "non-stationary threatening behaviour". All Bull Terriers reacted appropriately in every situation. A significant difference when comparing the results of the Bull Terriers to those of the dogs examined by Böttjer (2003) was not found. In conclusion, there were no indications for inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour in this Bull Terrier breed line. Furthermore, the broad majority of dogs proved to possess excellent social skills as well as the ability to communicate competently and to solve conflicts appropriately. PMID:20496824
Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles
People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…
Kim, Eun Young
This study examines an activating mechanism of aggressive behaviour in young children. Many studies on attachment theories have indicated disorganised attachment as a significant risk factor for externalising problems and have explained the aetiology of disorganised attachment in terms of deficits in affect, behaviour and cognitive functions from…
Lambrechts, G.; Kuppens, S.; Maes, B.
Background: Previous research has identified that staff-client interactions play an important role in the origin and maintenance of challenging behaviour. Particularly, the reciprocity between staff behaviour and client behaviour has been considered a key issue. Furthermore, severe challenging behaviour has been found to elicit negative emotional…
Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) J. C. Wen,*a A. K. Hotchkiss,* G. E. Demas and R. J. Nelson* *Departments University, Bloomington, IN, USA. Key words: photoperiod, Siberian hamster, seasonal, aggression, nitric including photoperiod (day length). Male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) housed in short photoperiod
Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana
The goals of this article are to review the major findings from alcohol administration studies that use sexual aggression proxies and to encourage additional experimental research that evaluates hypotheses about the role of alcohol in the etiology of men's sexual aggression. Experiments allow participants to be randomly assigned to drink conditions, therefore ensuring that any differences between drinkers and nondrinkers can be attributed to their alcohol consumption. One of the biggest challenges faced by experimental researchers is the identification of valid operationalizations of key constructs. The tension between internal and external validity is particularly problematic for violence researchers because they cannot allow participants to engage in the target behavior in the laboratory. The strengths and limitations associated with written vignettes, audiotapes, videotapes, and confederate proxies for sexual aggression are described. Suggestions are made for future research to broaden the generalizability of the findings from experimental research. PMID:26048214
Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter
In addition to explaining challenging behaviour by way of behaviour analytic, functional analyses, challenging behaviour is increasingly explained by way of psychiatric symptomatology. According to some researchers, the two approaches complement each other, as psychiatric symptomatology may form a motivational basis for the individual's response…
Butrimaviciute, Rasa; Grieve, Alan
Previous studies have demonstrated that being exposed to challenging behaviour in services of care can have a negative impact on staff. Recently, challenging behaviour has been linked to people with autism spectrum disorders; however, little research has been aimed at exploring staff's experiences of facing such behaviour in services for…
Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.
The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…
Williamson, Andrew Ian
Previous research has explored the applicability of Weiner’s (1986) attributional model of helping behaviour to support workers of people with learning disabilities regarding challenging behaviour using optimism as a measure ...
Canadian Guidelines on Pharmacotherapy for Disruptive and Aggressive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Conduct Disorder
Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara
Objective: To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. Method: A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (??); conditional, in favour (??); conditional, against (??); and strong, against (??). Results: For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone’s major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. Conclusion: When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use. PMID:25886657
Hensel, J. M.; Lunsky, Y.; Dewa, C. S.
Background: Studies have shown that staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are exposed to challenging behaviour in their work including client aggression. Exposure to aggressive behaviour has been associated with staff stress and burnout. Study samples have been small however, and there has been very little data exploring…
Matson, Johnny L.; Rivet, Tessa T.
Background: Challenging behaviours are frequently a problem for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). A better understanding of which individuals display which behaviours, at what rates, and the relationship of these behaviours to comorbid psychopathology would have important implications. Method: A group of…
This paper reports the findings of a study which aimed to elicit teachers' perceptions of pupils' challenging behaviour. Teachers were asked to indicate: which aspects of challenging behaviour concerned them; their responses to it; which strategies they found effective; what they believed to be the causes of it; how stressed they felt; and how…
Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Hendriks, A. H. C.
Background: Relationships between support staff and clients with intellectual disability (ID) are important for quality of care, especially when dealing with challenging behaviour. Building upon an interpersonal model, this study investigates the influence of client challenging behaviour, staff attitude and staff emotional intelligence on…
Mulligan, Bethany; John, Mary; Coombes, Rachel; Singh, Rosemary
Seven per cent of individuals with learning disabilities also display challenging behaviour ("Challenging behaviour: analysis and intervention in people with severe intellectual disabilities," 2001, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press), which has an effect on the whole family. Services need to be developed to support and reflect this…
de Winter, C. F.; Jansen, A. A. C.; Evenhuis, H. M.
Background: Challenging behaviour is a major problem among people with intellectual disabilities. Physical factors may be an important cause. The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the physical conditions associated with challenging behaviour. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane systematic…
Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily
Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may present problems within community, leisure, and educational settings, and, in many instances, precludes them from accessing these environments. Factors contributing to the occurrence of challenging behaviours include characteristics associated with…
Background: Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. Method: A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been…
Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Maas, A. P. H. M.; Korzilius, H.; Smits, M. G.; Curfs, L. M. G.
Background: Persons with intellectual disability (ID) and sleep problems exhibit more daytime challenging behaviours than persons with ID without sleep problems. Several anecdotal reports suggest that melatonin is not only effective in the treatment of insomnia, but also decreases daytime challenging behaviour. However, the effect of melatonin…
McLean, Sara; Kettler, Lisa; Delfabbro, Paul; Riggs, Damien
Background: Challenging and disruptive behaviour is commonly reported among children placed in the out-of-home care sector. Little is known about how stakeholders in this sector understand or manage challenging behaviour. Method: Ninety-two stakeholders in the South Australian out-of-home care sector were interviewed about their approach to…
Heyvaert, M.; Maes, B.; Onghena, P.
Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show challenging behaviour. We review distinct interventions that are applied to treat these challenging behaviours, and analyse intervention effects and moderating variables. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases "ERIC," "PsycINFO," "Web of Science" and…
Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.
Background: Persons with intellectual disability often evince challenging behaviours. Efforts have been underway for some time to develop prosocial or positive skill acquisition treatments to address challenging behaviours. However, physical/mechanical and chemical restraint is still commonly used in many clinical and community settings. Such…
Allen, David; Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin; James, Wendy; Doyle, Tony; Andrew, Jock; Davies, Dee; Moore, Kate; Brophy, Sam
The background to an exciting and probably unique initiative for people with challenging behaviour is described. The Special Projects Team (SPT) was established in the context of increasing knowledge of effective treatment responses, but lack of widespread expertise as well as growing crisis within challenging behaviour services. Unlike previous…
Yu, Lin; Lao, I Weng; Wang, Jian
We present our experience with seven cases of epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) to further characterise its clinicopathological features. There were five males and two females with ages ranging from 19 to 84 years (mean 56 years). Four tumours occurred in the somatic soft tissue, two in organs and one in the bone. The mean tumour size was 10.7?cm (range 3.5-15?cm). Histologically, six tumours were characterised by sheet-like growth of uniform epithelioid cells with large vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, high mitotic activity and moderate to abundant amphophilic-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm. One tumour was composed of dyscohesive cells with rhabdoid appearance embedded in a myxoid matrix. Features suggestive of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation were absent. However, immunohistochemical study revealed skeletal muscle differentiation in all cases. Of note, focal expression of epithelial markers with co-expression of neuroendocrine markers was noted in five and three cases, respectively. Of six patients with follow-up, one experienced local recurrence and three developed metastases. To date, three patients have died of disease within 14 months. This study further demonstrates that epithelioid RMS represents a distinct variant of RMS with an aggressive behaviour. It may be misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma due to co-expression of epithelial and neuroendocrine markers. PMID:26517641
Four case studies concerning long-term psychodynamic treatment of German individuals with intellectual disabilities are presented: an aggressive young man with a mild intellectual disability; a young man with multiple disabilities with destructive behavior; a withdrawn young woman with self-destructive behavior; and a young man with autism with…
Padencheri, Seema; Russell, Paul S. S.
Comparison of levels of hope in parents of children with intellectual disabilities who also exhibited multiple, single, or no challenging behaviors found hopelessness was related to challenging behavior. Parents of children with multiple challenging behaviors had significantly lower hope scores. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)
Kelly, Aine; Carey, Sean; McCarthy, Siobhan; Coyle, Ciaran
This paper examines the sources of stress and the effects of managing challenging behaviour on principals of special schools in Ireland, including schools for pupils with an intellectual disability, emotional disturbance, specific learning disability and physical and sensory disability, and children of traveller families. In this study principals…
Preston, A C; Taylor, J F; Adams, C E; Migaud, H
Diploid and triploid brown trout Salmo trutta were acclimated for 6 weeks on two feeding regimes (floating and sinking). Thereafter, aggression and surface feeding response were compared between pairs of all diploid, all triploid and diploid and triploid S. trutta in an experimental stream. In each pair-wise matching, fish of similar size were placed in allopatry and rank was determined by the total number of aggressive interactions recorded. Dominant individuals initiated more aggression than subordinates, spent more time defending a territory and positioned themselves closer to the surface food source (Gammarus pulex), whereas subordinates occupied the peripheries. In cross ploidy trials, diploid S. trutta were more aggressive than triploid, and dominated their sibling when placed in pair-wise matchings. Surface feeding, however, did not differ statistically between ploidy irrespective of feeding regime. Triploids adopted a sneak feeding strategy while diploids expended more time defending a territory. In addition, we also tested whether triploids exhibit a similar social dominance to diploids when placed in allopatry. Although aggression was lower in triploid pairs than in the diploid and triploid pairs, a dominance hierarchy was also observed between individuals of the same ploidy. Dominant triploid fish were more aggressive and consumed more feed items than subordinate individuals. Subordinate fish displayed a darker colour index than dominant fish suggesting increased stress levels. Dominant triploid fish, however, appeared to be more tolerant of subordinate individuals and did not display the same degree of invasive aggression as seen in the diploid and diploid or diploid and triploid matchings. These novel findings suggest that sterile triploid S. trutta feed similarly but are less aggressive than diploid trout. Future studies should determine the habitat choice of triploid S. trutta after release and the interaction between wild fish and triploids during the breeding season prior to utilization of triploids as an alternative management strategy within freshwater fisheries. PMID:25082262
Rose, D.; Rose, J.
Background: There is a lack of a conceptual framework as to how stress and attribution variables interact and influence staff behaviour in response to challenging behaviour. To address this, a model is tested examining the impact of stress on attributions of challenging behaviour within Weiner's model of helping. Method: A total of 107 staff…
Zijlmans, L. J. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Derksen, J. J. L.
Background: Staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display challenging behaviour may contribute to the continuation of this behaviour, because it causes emotional reactions such as anxiety, anger and annoyance, which may prohibit adequate response behaviour. To enhance staff behaviour and treatment skills a training…
Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert
Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…
McKenzie, Karen; Paterson, Marion
This article evaluates an assertive outreach team which aimed to help support people with a learning disability who displayed challenging behaviour in their own environment. The service was evaluated using Maxwell's Multi-dimensional Quality Evaluation Model (Maxwell 1984), which recognises that different stakeholders in a service are likely to…
Grunstein, Rose; Nutbeam, Don
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine characteristics of resilience among Australian adolescents, the extent to which resilience might be strengthened through participation in a dance/drama competition, the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge (REC), and the impact participation may have on health related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: …
Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.
Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…
Rzepecka, Halina; McKenzie, Karen; McClure, Iain; Murphy, Shona
Children with an intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to suffer from significantly more sleep problems, anxiety and challenging behaviour (CB) than typically developing children (TD), yet little is known about the relationship between these factors in the child ID/ASD population. The study aim was to examine…
Mansell, Jim; Ritchie, Fiona; Dyer, Ricinda
Background: As institutions for people with intellectual disabilities have been replaced with community services, health care provision has developed to provide assessment and treatment, low and medium secure units for people with challenging behaviour or mental health problems. These include both public and private sector provision. Little is…
"Positive handling" has become a popular intervention within education and other services in England in the management of behaviours that challenge. This paper uses a vignette of an observation of the handling of children with autism as a starting point for consideration of whether this practice can ever really be experienced as positive…
In this article Claire Hardman reflects on her work on behaviour management in two Romanian orphanages. Quite apart from the intrinsic interest of the topic, the article serves as a reminder of the number of professionals in this country who regularly take time out to work abroad in unfamiliar and often challenging circumstances and who come back…
Lambrechts, Greet; Petry, Katja; Maes, Bea
This study gives a systematic and recent overview of studies that focus on staff variables that may have an influence on the origin and maintenance of challenging behaviour of clients with an intellectual disability. Thirty three studies were identified through computerized searches of the PsycInfo and ERIC-databases on the basis of specific…
Allen, David; Lowe, Kathy; Brophy, Sam; Moore, Kate
Background: Intrusive reactive strategies (physical restraint, emergency medication and seclusion) are frequently used procedures in the management of challenging behaviour. The present study identifies predictors for reactive strategy use in an attempt to more clearly delineate at risk service users. Method: Eight hundred and thirty-nine agencies…
McEvoy, Jo; While, Geoffrey M.; Jones, Susan M.; Wapstra, Erik
Hormones have been suggested as a key proximate mechanism that organize and maintain consistent individual differences in behavioural traits such as aggression. The steroid hormone testosterone in particular has an important activational role in mediating short-term aggressive responses to social and environmental stimuli within many vertebrate systems. We conducted two complementary experiments designed to investigate the activational relationship between testosterone and aggression in male Egernia whitii, a social lizard species. First, we investigated whether a conspecific aggressive challenge induced a testosterone response and second, we artificially manipulated testosterone concentrations to examine whether this changed aggression levels. We found that at the mean level, plasma T concentration did not appear to be influenced by an aggression challenge. However, there was a slight indication that receiving a challenge may influence intra-individual consistency of plasma T concentrations, with individuals not receiving an aggression challenge maintaining consistency in their circulating testosterone concentrations, while those individuals that received a challenge did not. Manipulating circulating testosterone concentrations had no influence on either mean-level or individual-level aggression. Combined with our previous work, our study adds increasing evidence that the relationship between testosterone and aggression is not straightforward, and promotes the investigation of alternative hormonal pathways and differences in neuro-synthesis and neuroendocrine pathways to account for species variable testosterone - aggression links. PMID:25906149
Allen, D. G.; Lowe, K.; Moore, K.; Brophy, S.
Background: Out of area placements for people with challenging behaviour represent an expensive and often ineffective strategy for meeting the needs of this service user group. Methods: More than 800 agencies and service settings in a large area of South Wales were screened to identify children and adults with challenging behaviour against a…
Lambrechts, Greet; Maes, Bea
The main goal of this study was to investigate whether staff members vary in their frequency reports on challenging behaviour concerning the same client. Because staff's approaches of challenging behaviour are affected by a range of staff characteristics, we hypothesised that these staff characteristics could explain this variability between staff…
Raschle, Nora Maria; Menks, Willeke Martine; Fehlbaum, Lynn Valérie; Tshomba, Ebongo; Stadler, Christina
Recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour (AB) is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities in processes subserving emotion processing and regulation. However, most neuroimaging studies on AB to date only contain relatively small sample sizes. To objectively investigate the consistency of previous structural and functional research in adolescent AB, we performed a systematic literature review and two coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on eight VBM and nine functional neuroimaging studies in a total of 783 participants (408 [224AB/184 controls] and 375 [215 AB/160 controls] for structural and functional analysis respectively). We found 19 structural and eight functional foci of significant alterations in adolescents with AB, mainly located within the emotion processing and regulation network (including orbitofrontal, dorsomedial prefrontal and limbic cortex). A subsequent conjunction analysis revealed that functional and structural alterations co-localize in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left insula. Our results are in line with meta-analytic work as well as structural, functional and connectivity findings to date, all of which make a strong point for the involvement of a network of brain areas responsible for emotion processing and regulation, which is disrupted in AB. Increased knowledge about the behavioural and neuronal underpinnings of AB is crucial for the development of novel and implementation of existing treatment strategies. Longitudinal research studies will have to show whether the observed alterations are a result or primary cause of the phenotypic characteristics in AB. PMID:26339798
DeVries, M Susan; Winters, Caitlin P; Jawor, Jodie M
There is much discrepancy about the relationship between testosterone (T) and male aggressive behavior. For example, in birds, males of many species significantly elevate T levels during inter-male conflict. However, this is not universal, and in species where males typically do not elevate T during aggressive interactions, concentrations of the hormone are often assumed to be circulating at maximum levels. We examined if male northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) significantly elevated T during simulated territorial intrusions (STIs). We also examined if individuals had the capacity to further elevate T levels in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injections immediately after an aggressive encounter. Our results indicate that male cardinals do not significantly elevate T levels in response to STIs, but have the physiological capacity to significantly elevate T in response to GnRH injections following aggressive interactions. This implies that T levels of individuals captured during STIs were not at maximum concentrations. However, additional findings in this study also suggest the possibility that prolonged social instability could elicit significant elevations in T in males of this species, warranting further investigation. PMID:22613708
Davies, Bronwen; Frude, Neil; Jenkins, Rosemary
This review questions whether a relationship exists between emotional recognition ability and challenging behaviour in people with an intellectual disability. A search was completed of a number of databases to identify relevant articles, and these were then evaluated against defined criteria. Eight articles were reviewed and their aims, study methodology, samples, measurement tools and findings are discussed and evaluated. Overall, studies found no significant deficit in the emotional recognition abilities of those with challenging behaviour when they were asked to identify the emotions of others. Two areas for further investigation were identified. Firstly, to ascertain whether a bias for identifying anger or sadness is found in those with challenging behaviour, and secondly, to understand the role of context in recognition of emotions and the degree to which this is different in those who present with challenging behaviour. A critique relating to the research is provided and suggested clinical and research implications are put forward. PMID:25872509
Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n?=?52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n?=?23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n?=?10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs occasionally and is problematic. A range of causative factors contribute to the onset of this behaviour. Attitudes toward the management of aggression are complex and somewhat contradictory and can affect the way staff manage this behaviour; therefore, wide-ranging initiatives are needed to prevent and deal with this type of challenging behaviour. PMID:24642026
Locatello, Lisa; Fiorito, Graziano; Finos, Livio; Rasotto, Maria B
Behavioural and immunological changes consequent to stress and infection are largely unexplored in cephalopods, despite the wide employment of species such as Octopus vulgaris in studies that require their manipulation and prolonged maintenance in captivity. Here we explore O. vulgaris behavioural and immunological (i.e. haemocyte number and serum lysozyme activity) responses to an in vivo immune challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Behavioural changes of immune-treated and sham-injected animals were observed in both sight-allowed and isolated conditions, i.e. visually interacting or not with a conspecific. Immune stimulation primarily caused a significant increase in the number of circulating haemocytes 4h after the treatment, while serum lysozyme activity showed a less clear response. However, the effect of LPS on the circulating haemocytes begins to vanish 24h after injection. Our observations indicate a significant change in behaviour consequent to LPS administration, with treated octopuses exhibiting a decrease of general activity pattern when kept in the isolated condition. A similar decrease was not observed in the sight-allowed condition, where we noticed a specific significant reduction only in the time spent to visually interact with the conspecific. Overall, significant, but lower, behavioural and immunological effects of injection were detected also in sham-injected animals, suggesting a non-trivial susceptibility to manipulation and haemolymph sampling. Our results gain importance in light of changes of the regulations for the use of cephalopods in scientific procedures that call for the prompt development of guidelines, covering many aspects of cephalopod provision, maintenance and welfare. PMID:24021926
An enhanced form of Aggression Replacement Training is being used with children and youth with autism spectrum disorder and particularly those with Asperger's Syndrome who present behavioural challenges. Initial results in a Norwegian centre indicate that, with some modifications and enhancements, the programme is an appropriate strategy for…
Investigating Low Adaptive Behaviour and Presence of the Triad of Impairments Characteristic of Autistic Spectrum Disorder as Indicators of Risk for Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities
Felce, D.; Kerr, M.
Background: Identification of possible personal indicators of risk for challenging behaviour has generally been through association in cross-sectional prevalence studies, but few analyses have controlled for intercorrelation between potential risk factors. The aim was to investigate the extent to which gender, age, presence of the triad of…
Reliability and Utility of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Tool (BSP-QEII) for Auditing and Quality Development in Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour
McVilly, K.; Webber, L.; Paris, M.; Sharp, G.
Background: Having an objective means of evaluating the quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) could assist service providers and statutory authorities to monitor and improve the quality of support provided to people with intellectual disability (ID) who exhibit challenging behaviour. The Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II…
Gerber, F.; Bessero, S.; Robbiani, B.; Courvoisier, D. S.; Baud, M. A.; Traore, M.-C.; Blanco, P.; Giroud, M.; Carminati, G. Galli
Background: Owing to methodological issues, little research has been conducted to examine quality of life (QoL) as a treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID). This study was conducted to combine QoL measures and objective observations of challenging behaviours (CB) in order to evaluate changes over…
Robertson, Janet; Hatton, Chris; Felce, David; Meek, Andrea; Carr, Deborah; Knapp, Martin; Hallam, Angela; Emerson, Eric; Pinkney, Lisa; Caesar, Emma; Lowe, Kathy
Background: There are no studies that have compared outcomes for staff in different types of supported accommodation for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. This study looked at stress, morale and intended job turnover in staff in two types of community-based residential supports: non-congregate settings where the…
Carnaby, Steven; Roberts, Bron; Lang, Janet; Nielsen, Prue
Social inclusion and citizenship form the key objective of "Valuing People Now" (2009), but achieving this meaningfully with people whose behaviour can challenge services remains elusive for many services. This article describes the philosophy, development, operationalisation and evaluation of a person-centred day opportunities and supported…
Hassiotis, Angela; Walters, Kate; Osborn, David; Strydom, André; Horsfall, Laura
Objectives To describe the incidence of recorded mental illness and challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability in UK primary care and to explore the prescription of psychotropic drugs in this group. Design Cohort study. Setting 571 general practices contributing data to The Health Improvement Network clinical database. Participants 33?016 adults (58% male) with intellectual disability who contributed 211?793 person years’ data. Main outcome measures Existing and new records of mental illness, challenging behaviour, and psychotropic drug prescription. Results 21% (7065) of the cohort had a record of mental illness at study entry, 25% (8300) had a record of challenging behaviour, and 49% (16?242) had a record of prescription of psychotropic drugs. During follow-up, the rate of new cases of mental illness in people without a history at cohort entry was 262 (95% confidence interval 254 to 271) per 10?000 person years and the rate of challenging behaviour was 239 (231 to 247) per 10?000 person years. The rate of new psychotropic drug prescription in those without a previous history of psychotropic drug treatment was 518 (503 to 533) per 10?000 person years. Rates of new recording of severe mental illness declined by 5% (95% confidence interval 3% to 7%) per year (P<0.001), and new prescriptions of antipsychotics declined by 4% (3% to 5%) per year P<0.001) between 1999 and 2013. New prescriptions of mood stabilisers also decreased significantly. The rate of new antipsychotic prescribing was significantly higher in people with challenging behaviour (incidence rate ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.90 to 2.27; P<0.001), autism (1.79, 1.56 to 2.04; P<0.001), and dementia (1.42, 1.12 to 1.81; P<0.003) and in those of older age, after control for other sociodemographic factors and comorbidity. Conclusions The proportion of people with intellectual disability who have been treated with psychotropic drugs far exceeds the proportion with recorded mental illness. Antipsychotics are often prescribed to people without recorded severe mental illness but who have a record of challenging behaviour. The findings suggest that changes are needed in the prescribing of psychotropics for people with intellectual disability. More evidence is needed of the efficacy and safety of psychotropic drugs in this group, particularly when they are used for challenging behaviour. PMID:26330451
Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Jansson, Lilian; Lindgren, Britt-Marie
This case study aims to illuminate the interactions between one woman (Alice) with schizophrenia, dementia, and challenging behaviour and her professional caregivers. We performed participant observations of these interactions and conducted informal interviews at the residential home where the woman lived. The transcripts were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The results showed that the interactions between Alice and her caregivers were experienced as hovering between heaven and hell. Alice struggled to bring order into her chaotic life world by splitting herself and others, and her caregivers struggled to protect Alice's and their own dignity by limiting her challenging behaviours. They also strived to understand their own and Alice's behaviour. Current practice in caring for people with challenging behaviour usually focuses on symptom reduction through medication and behavioural modification. Instead, we suggest moving toward an understanding of the experiences behind the challenging behaviours and designing person-centred care based on each patients' reality. PMID:26309174
Huxley, Adam; Van-Schaik, Paul; Witts, Paul
This study investigated the frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in adults with Down's syndrome with and without signs of dementia. Care staff were interviewed using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community version (M.G. Aman & N.N. Singh, Slosson, East Aurora, NY, 1994), to investigate the frequency and severity of challenging…
Felce, D.; Kerr, M.; Hastings, R. P.
Background: Existing studies tend to show a positive association between mental illness and challenging behaviour among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, whether the association is direct or artefactual is less clear. The purpose was to explore the association between psychiatric status and level of challenging behaviour, while…
There is ongoing debate about the best model of service provision for people with an intellectual disability who present severe behavioural challenges. The present paper reviewed research which evaluated a range of UK service provision in terms of impact on challenging behaviour and other quality of life indices. A literature search was carried…
Scott, J. P.
Research in many fields of the social and biological sciences indicates that there are ecological, cultural, social, psychological, physiological, and genetic causes of aggression. The agonistic behavior system, which adapts to situations of social conflict, includes several patterns of conduct ranging from overt fighting to complete passivity. In…
Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia
Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog–human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication (‘emotional reactivity hypothesis’). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog–wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf–wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog–human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666
Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia
Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog-human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication ('emotional reactivity hypothesis'). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog-wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf-wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666
Willner, Paul; Smith, Mark
Introduction: Attribution theory posits that helping behaviour is determined in part by the potential helper's attributions and emotions regarding the behaviour that requires help. Specifically, helping is considered to be more likely if stability is perceived as low, generating optimism for change, and if controllability is perceived as low,…
Grey, Ian M; Honan, Rita; McClean, Brian; Daly, Michael
Interventions for children with autism based upon Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) has been repeatedly shown to be related both to educational gains and to reductions in challenging behaviours. However, to date, comprehensive training in ABA for teachers and others have been limited. Over 7 months, 11 teachers undertook 90 hours of classroom instruction and supervision in ABA. Each teacher conducted a comprehensive functional assessment and designed a behaviour support plan targeting one behaviour for one child with an autistic disorder. Target behaviours included aggression, non-compliance and specific educational skills. Teachers recorded observational data for the target behaviour for both baseline and intervention sessions. Support plans produced an average 80 percent change in frequency of occurrence of target behaviours. Questionnaires completed by parents and teachers at the end of the course indicated a beneficial effect for the children and the educational environment. The potential benefits of teacher implemented behavioural intervention are discussed. PMID:16144826
and confidence in working with children with a learning disability and challenging behaviour in teaching staff from mainstream primary school settings. In addition, the study aimed to investigate if staff training improved teaching staff’s attitudes towards...
Introduction: Children with a learning disability (LD) and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are known to suffer from significantly more sleep problems, anxiety and challenging behaviour (CB) than typically developing children, yet little is known...
Haug, Lore I
Intraspecific aggression is a common problem in dogs, with such aggression typically due to dominance, fear, and/or territoriality. Some dogs appear to perceive the mere presence of another dog as a challenge or threat. These dogs often show...
Broomhead, Karen E.
This study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers regarding the differential treatment or stigma experienced by pupils with challenging behaviour--more specifically, those with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD), as well as children with visible special educational needs (Down's syndrome and/or profound and multiple…
The Pharmacological Management of Oppositional Behaviour, Conduct Problems, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Part 1: Psychostimulants, Alpha-2 Agonists, and Atomoxetine
Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A
Objective: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression. These symptoms vary in severity, and may be related to a comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Critical evaluation of the efficacy of ADHD medications may guide the clinician regarding the usefulness of medications for these symptoms. Method: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. The quality of evidence for medications was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results: Two systematic reviews and 20 randomized controlled trials were included. There is high-quality evidence that psychostimulants have a moderate-to-large effect on oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is very-low-quality evidence that clonidine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is moderate-quality evidence that guanfacine has a small-to-moderate effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD. There is high-quality evidence that atomoxetine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. Conclusions: Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine can be beneficial for disruptive and aggressive behaviours in addition to core ADHD symptoms; however, psychostimulants generally provide the most benefit. PMID:25886655
Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi
Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal. PMID:25054147
Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter
A sample of 165 adults with mental retardation was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms, mental retardation level, and challenging behavior. Challenging behavior was associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety and psychosis, and not with depression. No association was found between anxiety and…
Webber, Lynne S.; McVilly, Keith R.; Chan, Jeffrey
Background: People with an intellectual disability whose behaviours are perceived to be of serious harm to themselves or others are at risk of being subjected to restrictive interventions. Prevalence rates are difficult to determine, as most research is unable to draw on the results of population-level data. Method: The current study reports on…
The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137
JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.
We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823
Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo
Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.
Shaddock, A. J.; Zilber, D.
This paper examines the principles underlying normalization and social role valorization with respect to the values and directions they offer service providers and the social structures they impose on individuals with disabilities who exhibit challenging behaviors. The paper argues that versions of normalization presented by Bengt Nirje and Wolf…
Challenges with Current Wearable Technology in Monitoring Health Data and Providing Positive There is a current trend of wearable sensing with regards to health. Wearable sensors and devices allow us to mon- itor various aspects of our lives. Through this monitoring, wearable systems can utilise data
Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik
Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients filled in…
to environmental or social conditions. Indeed, a genetic basis of aggression was indicated by behavioural. In the interactions between social parasites and their hosts, aggression is one of the major behavioural traits under-individual differences in behaviour, affect the fitness of an- imals in many species, have been shown to be heritable
Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Vigil-Colet, Andreu
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in indirect aggression as the most common aggressive behaviour in adulthood. Despite this interest, there are not a great many instruments for measuring this behaviour in adults. The aim of our study was to develop the Spanish adaptation of one of the few instruments that does exist: the Indirect Aggression Scale, in its aggressor and target versions. The analysis of these scales in a sample of 935 university students showed that the aggressor and target versions of the scales had good reliabilities, but that a one-factor structure seemed more feasible than the three-factor structure initially proposed. Taking this one-dimensionality, we developed short versions of the scales, which also showed good reliabilities. The aggressor version presented good convergent validity with direct aggression and impulsivity measures. Finally, none of the scales showed differences associated with sex. PMID:21266156
Godbee, Katrina Joy
This research study will investigate if specific personality characteristics predict physical or verbal aggression in an individual. It is significant because it uses common personality traits to predict excessive aggressive behavior. Schools could...
Snow, Alicia Carleen
against their male partner approach the frequency of aggression by men against women, but the nature of women's violence is typically less severe. Research on physical violence has identified verbal aggression and other forms of psychological intimidation...
Bringing "Patient Voice" into Psychological Formulations of In-Patients with Intellectual Disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Severe Challenging Behaviours: Report of a Service Improvement Pilot
Rowe, Gareth; Nevin, Helen
This is a report of a service improvement pilot project undertaken at an inpatient autism service for adults with intellectual disabilities and severe challenging behaviours. Within the service, a key facet of the care pathway was the use of a biopsychosocial case formulation. Formulation meetings were led by psychology and involved a full…
Diaz, Jose Luis
Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…
Ketterson, Ellen D.
Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured
Lennon, Alexia; Watson, Barry
Aggressive driving is increasingly a concern for drivers in highly motorised countries. However, the role of driver intent in this behaviour is problematic and there is little research on driver cognitions in relation to aggressive driving incidents. In addition, while drivers who admit to behaving aggressively on the road also frequently report being recipients of similar behaviours, little is known about the relationship between perpetration and victimisation or about how road incidents escalate into the more serious events that feature in capture media attention. The current study used qualitative interviews to explore driver cognitions and underlying motivations for aggressive behaviours on the road. A total of 30 drivers aged 18-49 years were interviewed about their experiences with aggressive driving. A key theme identified in responses was driver aggression as an attempt to manage or modify the behaviour of other road users. Two subthemes were identified and appeared related to separate motivations for aggressive responses: 'teaching them a lesson' referred to situations where respondents intended to convey criticism or disapproval, usually of unintended behaviours by the other driver, and thus encourage self-correction; and 'justified retaliation' which referred to situations where respondents perceived deliberate intent on the part of the other driver and responded aggressively in return. Mildly aggressive driver behaviour appears to be common. Moreover such behaviour has a sufficiently negative impact on other drivers that it may be worth addressing because of its potential for triggering retaliation in kind or escalation of aggression, thus compromising safety. PMID:21819853
A Comparison of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities with and without ASD on Parallel Measures of Challenging Behaviour: The Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01) and Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Intellectually Disabled Adults (ASD-BPA)
Rojahn, Johannes; Wilkins, Jonathan; Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica
Challenging behaviour may not be part of the diagnostic criteria for Autistic Disorder but they are frequently exhibited by children and adults with this condition. Levels of challenging behaviours are highest in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring intellectual disability (ID). The sample for this study consisted of…
Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C
Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. PMID:20698028
Friedman, Z; Hayter, M A; Everett, T C; Matava, C T; Noble, L M K; Bould, M D
A key factor that may contribute to communication failures is status asymmetry between team members. We examined the effect of a consultant anaesthetist's interpersonal behaviour on trainees' ability to effectively challenge clearly incorrect clinical decisions. Thirty-four trainees were recruited to participate in a video-recorded scenario of an airway crisis. They were randomised to a group in which a confederate consultant anaesthetist's interpersonal behaviour was scripted to recreate either a strict/exclusive or an open/inclusive communication dynamic. The scenario allowed trainees four opportunities to challenge clearly wrong decisions. Performances were scored using the modified Advocacy-Inquiry Score. The highest median (IQR [range]) score was 3.0 (2.2-4.0 [1.0-5.0]) in the exclusive communication group, and 3.5 (3.0-4.5 [2.5-6.0]) in the inclusive communication group (p = 0.06). The study did not show a significant effect of consultant behaviour on trainees' ability to challenge their superior. It did demonstrate trainees' inability to challenge their seniors effectively, resulting in critical communication gaps. PMID:26293587
Tam, Frank Wai-ming; Taki, Mitsuru
One widely accepted explanation of bullying, known as the aggressive-motive thesis, assumes that bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour triggered by external stress. However, recent evidences have suggested a different explanation, known as the frustration-aggression thesis, which asserts that bullying is a psychological defense triggered by…
Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J
Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field. PMID:25936249
Sorvari, Jouni; Eeva, Tapio
A variety of common environmental pollutants are known to affect the animal behaviour, but the occurrence and extent of pollution-induced behavioural changes in wild populations are practically unknown. Here we show that heavy metal pollution reduces the normal intra-specific aggressive behaviour in wild populations of the wood ant, Formica aquilonia, a dominant territorial ant species in boreal forests. Ants exposed to long-term pollution around a copper smelter showed higher heavy metal concentrations and were less aggressive towards the member of foreign unpolluted colony than the ants from an uncontaminated area. A pollution-related decline in the level of aggressiveness in this keystone general predator species may potentially affect the structure of invertebrate community of boreal and temperate forests. Further studies are needed to find out whether the change in aggressiveness is directly caused by metal toxicity or indirectly via secondary pollution effects, such as changed resource levels. PMID:20434195
McClean, Brian; Grey, Ian
Background: Positive behaviour support emphasises the impact of contextual variables to enhance participation, choice, and quality of life. This study evaluates a sequence for implementing changes to key contextual variables for 4 individuals. Interventions were maintained and data collection continued over a 3-year period. Method: Functional…
Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne
This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303
Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey G.
This study tested a model for understanding peer bullying as the product of aggressive attitudes and insecure attachment. A sample of 110 sixth grade students completed self-report measures that assessed attitudes toward the use of aggressive behaviour with peers and distinguished secure from insecure parental attachment. Bullying behaviour was…
Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo
Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects. PMID:25599665
Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…
Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard
Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570
Underwood, Marion K.
Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…
Marler, Catherine A.
degree of variability among species. For example, AVP injections increase aggressive behaviour in golden ochrogaster (Winslow et al. 1993) but decrease aggression in squirrel monkeys Saimiri sciu- reus (Winslow
Moore, Thomas R.
Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)
The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)
Belsare, Prajakta V; Watve, Milind G; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S; Bhat, Dattatraya S; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Jog, Maithili
An upcoming hypothesis about the evolutionary origins of metabolic syndrome is that of a 'soldier' to 'diplomat' transition in behaviour and the accompanying metabolic adaptations. Theoretical as well as empirical studies have shown that similar to the soldier and diplomat dichotomy, physically aggressive and non-aggressive strategists coexist in animal societies with negative frequency dependent selection. Although dominant individuals have a higher reproductive success obtained through means such as greater access to females, subordinate individuals have alternative means such as sneak-mating for gaining a substantial reproductive success. The alternative behavioural strategies are associated with different neurophysiologic and metabolic states. Subordinate individuals typically have low testosterone, high plasma cholesterol and glucocorticoids and elevated serotonin signalling whereas dominant ones are characterized by high testosterone, low brain serotonin and lower plasma cholesterol. Food and sex are the main natural causes of aggression. However, since aggression increases the risk of injury, aggression control is equally crucial. Therefore chronic satiety in the form of fat should induce aggression control. It is not surprising that the satiety hormone serotonin has a major role in aggression control. Further chronically elevated serotonin signalling in the hypothalamus induces peripheral insulin resistance. Meta-analysis shows that most of the anti-aggression signal molecules are pro-obesity and pro-insulin-resistance. Physical aggression is known to increase secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in anticipation of injuries and EGF is important in pancreatic beta cell regeneration too. In anticipation of injuries aggression related hormones also facilitate angiogenesis and angiogenesis dysfunction is the root cause of a number of co-morbidities of insulin resistance syndrome. Reduced injury proneness typical of 'diplomat' life style would also reorient the immune system resulting into delayed wound healing on the one hand and increased systemic inflammation on the other. Diabetes is negatively associated with physically aggressive behaviour. We hypothesize that suppression of physical aggression is the major behavioural cue for the development of metabolic syndrome. Preliminary trials of behavioural intervention indicate that games and exercises involving physical aggression reduce systemic inflammation and improve glycemic control. PMID:19800745
Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C; Baucom, Brian R; Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L
Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and whether attitudes justifying aggression strengthen those associations. College student participants (N = 378, 32% males) self-selected into an online study in which they reported on 2 days of alcohol/drug use and on aggression perpetration and victimization (including physical, psychological and electronic aggression, and sexual coercion) with friends and dating partners. Using regression to test for nonequivalence of predictor and outcome variables, we found bidirectional effects for males only. Males' substance use was associated with an increased likelihood on the same day of aggression perpetration and of aggression victimization; males' aggression perpetration and aggression victimization were associated with an increased likelihood of substance use on the same day. Females did not show significant contingencies between substance use and aggression in either direction. Males' attitudes justifying male-to-female aggression were associated with their aggression perpetration and victimization and their justification of female-to-male aggression strengthened the link between substance use and aggression perpetration. With interpersonal aggression and substance use being significant problems on college campuses, many colleges offer separate preventive intervention programs aimed at these public health challenges; this study suggests possible benefits of an integrated approach that addresses connections between alcohol/drug use and aggression. PMID:23697863
Here are three example documents to help you understand more about behaviour and increase visual communication with your child. 1) There is an ABC chart to use to find out more about what happens before and after a ...
Close-up view of the liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51L taken from camera site 39B-2/T3. From this camera position, a cloud of grey-brown smoke can be seen on the right side of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) on a line directly across from the letter 'U' in United States. This was the first visible sign that an SRB joint breach may have occured. On January 28, 1986 frigid overnight temperatures caused normally pliable rubber O-ring seals and putty that are designed to seal and establish joint integrity between the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) joint segments, to become hard and non- flexible. At the instant of SRB ignition, tremendous stresses and pressures occur within the SRB casing and especially at the joint attachmentment points. The failure of the O-rings and putty to 'seat' properly at motor ignition, caused hot exhaust gases to blow by the seals and putty. During Challenger's ascent, this hot gas 'blow by' ultimately cut a swath completely through the steel booster casing; and like a welder's torch, began cutting into the External Tank (ET). It is believed that the ET was compromised in several locations starting in the aft at the initial point where SRB joint failure occured. The ET hydrogen tank is believed to have been breached first, with continuous rapid incremental failure of both the ET and SRB. A chain reaction of events occurring in milliseconds culminated in a massive explosion. The orbiter Challenger was instantly ejected by the blast and went askew into the supersonic air flow. These aerodynamic forces caused structural shattering and complete destruction of the orbiter. Though it was concluded that the G-forces experienced during orbiter ejection and break-up were survivable, impact with the ocean surface was not. Tragically, all seven crewmembers perished.
Interspecific aggression between hermatypic corals on Bermudian reefs has been investigated by aquarium and field studies, the latter involving induced interactions, observations from 30 m-2 transects and random SCUBA traverses. Resultant hierarchies, constructed by ranking the abilities of species to damage competitors, show close similarities with each other and with the Jamaican hierarchy at the family level, notwithstanding some differences in the ranking of some species. Only 11% of natural-occurring interactions depart from the aquarium-derived results; in terms of species-pair combinations, 30% show partial or complete inversions from aquarium to field, with most changes involving species close together in the field hierarchy. Circular (intransitive) interactions occur mostly within a network of weakly-aggressive species in both aquarium- and fieldderived hierarchies. While number of potential interactions m-2 varies directly with density, frequency of aggression is positively correlated with coral diversity (species richness), while frequency of “no reactions” and conspecific fusion (combined) shows a correspondingly negative correlation with diversity. Frequency of aggression does not appear to be depth related. Comparison of aquarium and field hierarchies suggest that digestion by mesenterial filaments is the most important mechanism of aggression under natural conditions. Sweeper tentacle activity is the most likely cause of field reversals involving Madracis mirabilis and Montastrea cavernosa. Other factors, such as stress caused by seasonal environmental extremes, may be responsible for reversals or inconsistent behaviour in other species.
Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.
Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…
Linden Services for Children is part of Extern, which is a charity within the voluntary sector. The organisation's mission is to promote social inclusion and help reduce the incidence of offending behaviour. Extern operates in both the North and South of Ireland and works with children, families, adults and communities. It aims, through assessment…
Campbell, Martin; McCue, Michael
A new risk assessment tool, "Assessment of Interpersonal Risk" (AIR), was piloted and evaluated to measure risk factors and compatibility between individuals living in an assessment and treatment unit in one NHS area. The adults with learning disabilities in this unit had severe and enduring mental health problems and/or behaviour that is severely…
Kravitz, Edward A; Fernandez, Maria de la Paz
Aggression is used by essentially all species of animals to gain access to desired resources, including territory, food, and potential mates: Fruit flies are no exception. In Drosophila, both males and females compete in same sex fights for resources, but only males establish hierarchical relationships. Many investigators now study aggression using the fruit fly model, mainly because (a) aggression in fruit flies is a quantifiable well-defined and easily evoked behavior; (b) powerful genetic methods allow investigators to manipulate genes of interest at any place or time during embryonic, larval, pupal or adult life, and while flies are behaving; (c) the growth of the relatively new field of optogenetics makes physiological studies possible at single neuron levels despite the small sizes of neurons and other types of cells in fly brains; and (d) the rearing of fly stocks with their short generation times and limited growth space requirements can easily be performed at relatively low cost in most laboratories. This review begins with an examination of the behavior, both from a historical perspective and then from the birth of the "modern" era of studies of aggression in fruit flies including its quantitative analysis. The review continues with examinations of the roles of genes, neurotransmitters and neurohormones, peptides, nutritional and metabolic status, and surface cuticular hydrocarbons in the initiation and maintenance of aggression. It concludes with suggestions for future studies with this important model system. PMID:26348714
Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.
Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p < .001) even controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. PMID:25037891
Nagrodski, A; Murchie, K J; Stamplecoskie, K M; Suski, C D; Cooke, S J
The consequences of stress on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus outside the reproductive period were studied using a single intra-coelomic injection of cortisol, suspended in coconut butter, to experimentally raise plasma cortisol levels. Behaviour between cortisol-treated, sham-treated (injected with coconut butter) and control S. atromaculatus was compared in a mesocosm system, using a passive integrated transponder array, and in a natural stream system (excluding shams), using surgically implanted radio transmitters. While laboratory time-course studies revealed that the cortisol injection provided a physiologically relevant challenge, causing prolonged (c. 3 days) elevations of plasma cortisol similar to that achieved with a standardized chasing protocol, no differences in fine-scale movements were observed between cortisol-treated, sham-treated and control S. atromaculatus nor in the large-scale movements of cortisol-treated and control S. atromaculatus. Moreover, no differences were observed in diel activity patterns among treatments. Differential mortality, however, occurred starting 10 days after treatment where cortisol-treated S. atromaculatus exhibited nearly twice as many mortalities as shams and controls. These results suggest that, although the experimental manipulation of cortisol titres was sufficient to cause mortality in some individuals, there were compensatory mechanisms that maintained behaviours (i.e. including activity and movement) prior to death. This study is one of the first to use experimental cortisol implants outside a laboratory environment and during the non-reproductive period and yields insight into how wild animals respond to additional challenges (in this case elevated cortisol) using ecologically meaningful endpoints. PMID:23557296
Carlini, E. A.; Hamaoui, A.; Märtz, Regina M. W.
1. Aggressive behaviour was elicited in rats that had been deprived of food for 20 h daily (starved), by chronic administration of Cannabis sativa extract or (-)-?9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol. 2. The influence of intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral glucose administration, cold environment, acidosis, and corn, and protein-free diets on this aggressiveness was studied. 3. Intraperitoneal injections of glucose (100-1,600 mg/kg) did not alter the aggressiveness induced by marihuana in starved rats; glucose given orally, however, blocked this behaviour. 4. Low temperature (14° C) strongly potentiated the aggressive behaviour induced by marihuana in the starved rats. 5. Lactic acid in doses capable of potentiating thiopental anaesthesia, failed to alter the marihuana-aggressiveness of starved rats or to facilitate this effect of marihuana in rats fed ad libitum. The same negative results were obtained with ammonium chloride. 6. In rats fed ad libitum with protein-free or corn diets, marihuana administered chronically did not elicit aggressive behaviour. However, aggressiveness appeared when rats were fed for only 2 h daily on those diets. 7. The results suggest that the stress of hunger (and not hypoglycaemia, acidosis or lack of specific nutrients due to starvation) is the factor that facilitates the development of aggressive behaviour by chronic administration of marihuana. PMID:5064930
Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter
For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive forms of periodontal disease. PMID:24738586
Brémault-Phillips, Suzette; Friesen, Steven; Moulton, Lynne; Germani, Tamara; Miciak, Maxi; Parmar, Jasneet; Rogers, Laura G
Challenging responsive behaviours, such as aggression, wandering and social inappropriateness, exhibited by persons with neurological, mental health or developmental disorders are of increasing concern across Canada. These behaviours can cause distress or catastrophic outcomes for the person, others in care, caregivers and healthcare providers, and result in extensive resource utilization. The objective of this paper is to discuss the role and impact of a unique, grassroots provincial initiative aimed at networking among healthcare providers, decision-makers and caregivers across government ministries and service-provider agencies. This collaboration provides a model for informing service provision and policy development across multiple stakeholders. PMID:26358998
Stacks, Ann Michele; Oshio, Toko; Gerard, Jean; Roe, Jacqueline
Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, this study analysed the stability of child aggressive behaviour beginning in infancy and tested whether spanking when the child was 36 months was associated with aggressive child behaviour among three ethnic groups and whether maternal warmth moderated the effect of spanking on…
Jull, Stephen K.
Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…
Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.
Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…
Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling
This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…
Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.
"Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…
Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick
Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…
Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla
This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…
Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Coping with Agitation and Aggression People with Alzheimer’s disease may become agitated or aggressive as the disease gets worse. Agitation means that a person is restless or worried. ...
Prohaska, Jennifer A.
Previous studies have investigated the link between aggression and disordered eating behavior. This study investigated the behavioral and psychological links between disordered eating and relational aggression in a female college-age population. I...
Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...
Giles, Jessica W.
The present paper reviews children's tendency to engage in essentialist reasoning about aggression. First, children's tendency to conceive of aggression as both stable over time and due to intrinsic factors is examined. Then, contextual and social factors that may promote essentialist reasoning about aggression are explored, followed by a…
Demographic and socioeconomic shifts in nation's population and changes in the family structure have placed increasing demands on the schools. There is a pressing need to understand the factors that give rise to and maintain aggressive behaviours across adolescence and also suggest techniques for dealing with the increased incidence of aggression…
Jones, Nicole Tuomi; Sheitman, Brian; Hazelrigg, Mark; Carmel, Harold; Williams, Jim; Paesler, Betty
While there are a number of instruments that assess historical factors related to sexual aggression for the purposes of risk assessment, there is a notable absence of measures that assess change in ongoing, sexually aggressive behaviours engaged in by people who reside in psychiatric hospitals. The purpose of this report is to describe the…
Social Stimuli, Testosterone, and Aggression in Gull Chicks: Support for the Challenge Hypothesis: testosterone; challenge hypothesis; ag- gression; black-headed gull; territorial behavior; chick; ontogeny; priming; sensitization; organizing effects; ex- ternal stimuli. Testosterone is considered to have
This study examined residential care-staff’s personality, attitudes to aggression and coping responses of exposure to extreme behaviour. It aimed to replicate relationships between personality and coping at a factor level and to examine...
Understanding the nature of bullying in schools can assist in understanding aggression between nations. Although there are substantial differences between bullying behaviour practised by school children and bullying attributed to nations, there are some commonalities. This article examines seven basic elements that help in identifying and…
Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie
We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…
Di-Poi, Carole; Lacasse, Jennyfer; Rogers, Sean M; Aubin-Horth, Nadia
Colonisation of novel environments means facing new ecological challenges often resulting in the evolution of striking divergence in phenotypes. However, little is known about behavioural divergence following colonisation, despite the predicted importance of the role of behavioural phenotype-environment associations in adaptive divergence. We studied the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a model system for postglacial colonisation of freshwater habitats largely differing in ecological conditions from the ones faced by the descendants of the marine ancestor. We found that common-environment reared freshwater juveniles were less social, more active and more aggressive than their marine counterparts. This behavioural divergence could represent the result of natural selection that acted on individuals following freshwater colonisation, with predation as a key selection agent. Alternatively, the behavioural profile of freshwater juveniles could represent the characteristics of individuals that preferentially invaded freshwater after the glacial retreat, drawn from the standing variation present in the marine population. PMID:24914554
Nouvian, Morgane; Hotier, Lucie; Claudianos, Charles; Giurfa, Martin; Reinhard, Judith
Honeybees defend their colonies aggressively against intruders and release a potent alarm pheromone to recruit nestmates into defensive tasks. The effect of floral odours on this behaviour has never been studied, despite the relevance of these olfactory cues for the biology of bees. Here we use a novel assay to investigate social and olfactory cues that drive defensive behaviour in bees. We show that social interactions are necessary to reveal the recruiting function of the alarm pheromone and that specific floral odours-linalool and 2-phenylethanol-have the surprising capacity to block recruitment by the alarm pheromone. This effect is not due to an olfactory masking of the pheromone by the floral odours, but correlates with their appetitive value. In addition to their potential applications, these findings provide new insights about how honeybees make the decision to engage into defence and how conflicting information affects this process. PMID:26694599
Davies, Louise Ellen; Oliver, Chris
The prevalence of depression in individuals with an intellectual disability is estimated to lie between 3% and 6%. It has been suggested that symptoms of depression in this population might be atypical and include unusual features such as challenging behavior. However, there is significant disagreement regarding the use of challenging behavior as "depressive equivalent" symptomatology. The aim of this review is to evaluate published research reporting on the association between challenging behavior, specifically aggression and self-injury, and depression in people with an intellectual disability as a first step toward evaluating whether challenging behaviors might be considered as depressive equivalent symptoms. The results of the studies identified indicated that the association between depression and aggression, and depression and self-injury are equivocal and the interpretations of the results limited by threats to validity. Based on this analysis, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of challenging behavior as a depressive equivalent symptom. Further research to examine potentially confounding variables and the association between challenging behaviour and depression using methodologically robust designs and measures is clearly warranted. PMID:25148058
White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.
The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K
Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals. PMID:24167314
Burks, Virginia Salzer; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.
Although a multitude of factors may be involved in the development of children's violent behavior, the actual aggressive act is preceded by a decision-making process that serves as the proximal control mechanism. The primary goal of this longitudinal study was to understand the nature of this proximal control mechanism involved in children's aggressive acts by focusing on two aspects of social cognitions: social information processing and stored knowledge (i.e., internal knowledge structures that are the latent memories of past events). It was hypothesized that: (1) children with hostile knowledge structures will display more biased patterns of aggressive social information processing than children whose knowledge structures are less hostile and negative; (2) children who display hostile knowledge structures will behave in chronically aggressive ways; and (3) the development of hostile knowledge structures and hostile patterns of social information processing contribute to the stability of aggressive behavior and thus partially mediate the relation between early and later aggressive behavior. 585 boys and girls (19% African-American) were followed from kindergarten through eighth grade. Results from this investigation support the hypotheses and are discussed in terms of the significance of the inclusion of knowledge structures in our theories of the mental processes involved in children's violent behaviour. PMID:20011226
Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James
Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence. PMID:24331300
Persson, Gun E. B.
Preschoolers' prosocial and aggressive behaviours were explored longitudinally, with a focus on the inferred underlying motives of these behaviours. Forty-four children (initially 22-40 months of age) were observed in naturalistic interactions with peers, during a 2-month period, for each of three consecutive years. Three categories of prosocial…
Hamburg, D. A.; Brodie, H. K. H.
Discusses research relating to the effects of hormones, neurophysiology, and the environment on animal and human aggression. Indicates that the interactions of biological, psychological and social processes in the development of human aggressiveness should constitute one of the principal frontiers for science in the next two decades. (JR)
Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula
Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)
Abrams, Brian J.; Segal, Amiel
This article reviews what teachers can do to prevent aggressive behavior in students with emotional and behavioral disorders. It considers the dynamics of aggression, the role of the therapeutic teacher, creation of the positive classroom climate, functional assessment, and teaching alternative behaviors. (DB)
Verbal aggression against health-care staff can induce considerable stress. Compared to physical aggression, systematic studies on verbal aggression are lacking.A qualitative focus group study was conducted in several clinical settings in north-western Germany: acute mental health care, forensic mental health care, children and adolescent psychiatry, residential care for mentally ill persons, general hospital, and nursing home. 74 staff members from various professions participated in 8 focus groups.Various forms of verbal aggression were reported, from verbal abuse over threats to non-compliant behaviour. Backgrounds for verbal aggression by patients were usually non-satisfaction with the situation or the treatment, organisational problems, and mental disorders. Staff reported about various coping strategies such as ignorance and rationalisation, but also helplessness. Compared to physical aggression, the severity of verbal aggression was rated non-uniformly. A clear boundary between verbal aggression and 'normal' speech acts could not be drawn, as subjective and individual factors play an important role while interpreting aggressive acts.Verbal aggression is a relevant stressor for health-care staff which has been widely neglected in care institutions. Prevention efforts may include situational coping (e.?g., communication training) and psychological coping (e.?g., resilience enhancement). PMID:24452430
Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T
Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921
Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.
This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…
Weltring, Anja; Deschner, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus
A basic premise in behavioural ecology is the cost-benefit arithmetic, which determines both behavioural decisions and evolutionary processes. Aggressive interactions can be costly on an energetic level, demanding increased energy or causing injuries, and on a psychological level, in the form of increased anxiety and damaged relationships between opponents. Here we used urinary glucocorticoid (uGC) levels to assess the costs of aggression in wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda. We collected 169 urine samples from nine adult male chimpanzees following 14 aggressive interactions (test condition) and 10 resting events (control condition). Subjects showed significantly higher uGC levels after single aggressive interactions compared to control conditions, likely for aggressors as well as victims. Higher ranking males had greater increases of uGC levels after aggression than lower ranking males. In contrast, uGC levels showed no significant change in relation to aggression length or intensity, indicating that psychological factors might have played a larger role than mere energetic expenditure. We concluded that aggressive behaviour is costly for both aggressors and victims and that costs seem poorly explained by energetic demands of the interaction. Our findings are relevant for studies of post-conflict interactions, since we provide evidence that both aggressors and victims experience a stress response to conflict. PMID:25714095
Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)
Davari, M.; Lamb, B. W.; Chowdhury, S.; Jameson, C.; Kelly, J. D.; Greenwell, T.
Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumour predominantly affecting the female pelvis and perineum but has also been described in males. This tumour can often present a diagnostic challenge and has a propensity for local recurrence after surgical excision. We present an unusual case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the bladder of a female patient which required local excision and Mitrofanoff formation. PMID:26605101
Aggression is a challenge when pigs are kept in groups. Sows fight at mixing when space is limited but this project sought to determine the amount and type of aggression observed when unacquainted Berkshire sows were mixed in pairs or in two established sub-groups of three in outdoor paddocks. Treat...
Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.
Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.
Ellison, Amy; de Leaniz, Carlos Garcia; Consuegra, Sofia
Aggressive behaviour plays an important role in securing resources, defending against predators and shaping social interactions. Although aggression can have positive effects on growth and reproductive success, it is also energetically costly and may increase injury and compromise survival. Individual genetic diversity has been positively associated with aggression, but the cause for such an association is not clear, and it might be related to the ability to recognize kin. To disentangle the relationships between genetic diversity, kinship and aggression, we quantified aggressive behaviour in a wild, self-fertilizing fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) with naturally variable degrees of genetic diversity, relatedness and familiarity. We found that in contrast to captive fish, levels of aggression among wild K. marmoratus are positively associated with individual homozygosity, but not with relatedness or familiarity. We suggest that the higher aggression shown by homozygous fish could be related to better kin discrimination and may be facilitated by hermaphrodite competition for scarce males, given the fitness advantages provided by outcrossing in terms of parasite resistance. It seems likely that the relationship between aggression and genetic diversity is largely influenced by both the environment and population history. PMID:23402293
Bailey, Corin; Coore-Desai, Charlene
Scholars agree that aggression among children can lead to a host of delinquency issues that can last into adulthood. Research has found that exposure to violence is one of the strongest predictors of aggressive behaviour and the use of violence. Utilizing a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the article seeks to determine the…
Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin
Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences. PMID:18793089
Latalski, M; Opali?ska, E; Skórzy?ska, H
Arrogance and aggressive behaviour occur more and more often in our lives. Especially at school there are observed negative attitudes of school youth. The aim of the study was to estimate the occurrence of aggressive behaviour among school youth towards teachers. Research based on questionnaires was carried out among 156 teachers (63.5% women and 36.5% men), aged 23-60 (mean 40 +/- 8.9) with time of employment ranking from 1-35 years (mean 14 +/- 9.2), working at vocational, technical and secondary schools as well as in the last classes of primary schools. Generally, aggressive behaviour more often occurs among school youth. It mainly includes verbal aggression, disrespectful attitude towards a teacher and refusal to follow his instructions. Other kinds of aggressive behaviour were observed rarely. More than half of the investigated persons did not feel distress at school, some of them only a little. The majority of subjects noticed the growing problem of negative behaviour among school youth during the last few years. Especially women defined their job as stressful and associated stress level with psychosomatic disorders (most often the increasing nervous stress and headache) they suffered from. Therefore, some teachers had to use tranquillizers to reduce stress level at work. PMID:11977362
Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods. For these women, fighting is not seen as antithetical to cultural conceptions of femininity, and female weakness is disparaged. Nonetheless, even where competitive pressures are high, young women's aggression is less injurious and frequent than young men's. From an evolutionary perspective, I argue that the intensity of female aggression is constrained by the greater centrality of mothers, rather than fathers, to offspring survival. This selection pressure is realized psychologically through a lower threshold for fear among women. Neuropsychological evidence is not yet conclusive but suggests that women show heightened amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli, may be better able to exert prefrontal cortical control over emotional behaviour and may consciously register fear more strongly via anterior cingulate activity. The impact of testosterone and oxytocin on the neural circuitry of emotion is also considered. PMID:24167308
This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.
Renouf, Annie; Séguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pérusse, Daniel
This study investigated the relation between theory of mind and reactive and proactive aggression, respectively, as well as the moderating role of peer victimization in this context. The 574 participants were drawn from a longitudinal study of twins. Theory of mind was assessed before school entry, when participants were 5 years old. Reactive and proactive aggression as well as peer victimization were assessed a year later in kindergarten. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed that low theory of mind was related to a high level of reactive aggression, but only in children who experienced average to high levels of peer victimization. In contrast, a high theory of mind was related to a high level of proactive aggression. Again, this relation was especially pronounced in children who experienced high levels of peer victimization. These findings challenge the social skills deficit view of aggression and provide support for a multidimensional perspective of aggressive behavior. PMID:20544385
Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan
This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595
Smith, Carl R.
The author defines classroom aggression, deals with the possible explanations as to why such behavior occurs, looks at possible misconceptions related to classroom aggression, and points out items which need to be looked at when analyzing classroom aggression. Two types of aggression--hostile and instrumental--are considered. Determinants of…
Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit
Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…
Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert C
Male-male aggression can have a large influence on access to mates, particularly in highly territorial animals such as mice. It has been suggested that males with impaired antioxidant defence and a consequential increased susceptibility to oxidative stress may have a reduced ability to invest in aggressive behaviours, which could limit their mating opportunities and reproductive success. Oxidative stress occurs as a result of an uncontrolled over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in relation to defence mechanisms (such as antioxidants), and can cause damage to a variety of different cellular components. Impairments in specific aspects of antioxidant defence, leading to oxidative stress, can limit investment in some reproductive traits in males, such as sperm quality and the production of sexual signals to attract mates. However, a direct effect of impaired antioxidant defence on aggressive behaviour has not, to our knowledge, been reported. In this study, we demonstrate that mice with experimentally elevated sensitivity to oxidative stress (through inhibition of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, Sod1) actually show the opposite response to previous predictions. Males completely deficient in SOD1 are more aggressive than both wild-type males and males that express 50% of this antioxidant enzyme. They are also faster to attack another male. The cause of this increased aggression is unknown, but this result highlights that aggressive behaviour in mice is not highly constrained by inhibited Sod1 expression, in contrast to other reproductive traits known to be impaired in this mouse model. PMID:25524980
Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.
Background Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children’s sex. Methods Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) (N?=?2, 057) were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments. Results The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter. Conclusions Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months. PMID:25375971
Camerlink, Irene; Turner, Simon P.; Ursinus, Winanda W.; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth
Social conflict is mostly studied in relation to aggression. A more integral approach, including aggressive and affiliative behaviour as well as physiology, may however give a better understanding of the animals' experience during social conflict. The experience of social conflict may also be reflected in the spatial distribution between conspecifics. The objective was to assess the relationship between behaviour, physiology, and spatial integration in pigs (Sus scrofa) during social conflict. Hereto, 64 groups of pigs (9 wk of age) were studied in a 24 h regrouping test whereby pairs of familiar pigs were grouped with 2 unfamiliar pairs, in either barren or straw-enriched housing. Data on aggressive and affiliative behaviour, skin lesions, body weight, and haptoglobin could be summarized into three principal component analysis factors. These three factors were analysed in relation to spatial integration, i.e. inter-individual distances and lying in body contact. Pigs stayed up to 24 h after encounter in closer proximity to the familiar pig than to unfamiliar pigs. Pigs with a high factor 1 score were more inactive, gave little social nosing, had many skin lesions and a high body weight. They tended to space further away from the familiar pig (b?=?1.9 cm; P?=?0.08) and unfamiliar ones (b?=?0.7 cm; P?=?0.05). Pigs that were involved in much aggression (factor 2), and that had a strong increase in haptoglobin (factor 3), tended to be relatively most far away from unfamiliar pigs (b?=?0.03 times further; P?=?0.08). Results on lying in body contact were coherent with results on distances. Pigs in enriched housing spaced further apart than pigs in barren housing (P<0.001). The combined analysis of measures revealed animals that may either promote or slow down group cohesion, which may not have become clear from single parameters. This emphasizes the importance of an integral approach to social conflict. PMID:25427249
Smith, Rhiannon L.; Rose, Amanda J.; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.
Research on relational aggression has drawn attention to how girls may be likely to aggress, but the role of gender is not fully understood. There are opposing views regarding whether relational aggression is most common among girls. Current findings demonstrate that when gender differences in relational aggression are assessed with peer nominations, gender differences favoring girls are more likely: a) in adolescence than childhood and b) when statistical overlap with overt aggression is controlled. Results also indicated that associations of relational aggression with peer acceptance depend on the aggressor’s gender, the peer rater’s gender, and whether overlap with overt aggression is controlled. Associations of relational aggression with lower acceptance became non-significant when overt aggression was controlled, suggesting that relational aggression displayed in isolation may not damage acceptance. In fact, in mid-adolescence, girls’ relational aggression predicted greater liking by boys. Reducing relational aggression among adolescent girls may be especially challenging if the behavior is linked with acceptance by boys. PMID:20401342
Pickett, William; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Dostaler, Suzanne; Iannotti, Ronald J.
Background Physical aggression is an important issue in North American populations. The importance of student social environments in the occurrence of physical aggression requires focused study. In this study, reports of physical aggression were examined in relation to social environment factors among national samples of students from Canada and the United States. Methods Students in grades 6–10 from the US (n=14,049) and Canada (n=7,058) who had participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey were studied. Rates of student physical aggression were compared between the two countries. School, family, socioeconomic, and peer-related factors were considered as potential risk factors. A simple social environment risk score was developed using the US data and was subsequently tested in the Canadian sample. Results Risks for physical aggression were consistently higher among US vs. Canadian students, but the magnitude of these differences was modest. The relative odds of physical aggression increased with reported environmental risk. To illustrate, US boys in grades 6 to 8 reporting the highest social-environment risk score (5+) experienced a relative odds of physical aggression 4.02 (95% CI 2.7–5.9) times higher than those reporting the lowest score (adjusted OR for risk scores 0 through 5+: 1.00, 1.19, 2.10, 2.01, 3.71, 4.02; ptrend<0.001). Conclusions Unexpectedly, rates of physical aggression and associations between social environments and student aggression were remarkably similar in Canada and the United States. Family, peer, and school social environments serve as risk or protective factors, with significant cumulative impact on physical aggression in both countries. Given the observed high rates and the many negative effects of aggression on long-term health, school policies aimed at the reduction of such behavior remain a clear priority. PMID:19292848
Pratt, H D
Violence is a growing problem among adolescents all over the world. Exposure to violence can have lasting and pervasive effects on an adolescent's mental and physical health, general well-being, and ability to become a productive adult. Research on adolescent violence in India and Southeast Asia is limited; very little is written in clinical journals. Addressing adolescent violence is currently a low priority for medical practitioners because disease, poverty, and infant maternal health pose more immediate threats to morbidity and mortality in Asia. Physicians, especially in India, have a unique opportunity to take preventative actions now, to stem the tide of morbidity and mortality from gun violence that plagues the United States. Adolescents in Asia are at greatest risk for violence exposure in their homes. Pediatricians who are proactive and educate their patients, families, and the community can help reduce or prevent morbidity and mortality resulting from violence in adolescents. PMID:10798115
Cusimano, Michael D.; Nastis, Sofia; Zuccaro, Laura
Background: The increasing incidence of injuries related to playing ice hockey is an important public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce injuries related to aggressive acts in ice hockey. Methods: We identified relevant articles by searching electronic databases from their inception through July 2012, by using Internet search engines, and by manually searching sports medicine journals, the book series Safety in Ice Hockey and reference lists of included articles. We included studies that evaluated interventions to reduce aggression-related injuries and reported ratings of aggressive behaviour or rates of penalties or injuries. Results: We identified 18 eligible studies. Most involved players in minor hockey leagues. Of 13 studies that evaluated changes in mandatory rules intended to lessen aggression (most commonly the restriction of body-checking), 11 observed a reduction in penalty or injury rates associated with rule changes, and 9 of these showed a statistically significant decrease. The mean number of penalties decreased by 1.2–5.9 per game, and injury rates decreased 3- to 12-fold. All 3 studies of educational interventions showed a reduction in penalty rates, but they were not powered or designed to show a change in injury rates. In 2 studies of cognitive behavioural interventions, reductions in aggressive behaviours were observed. Interpretation: Changes to mandatory rules were associated with reductions in penalties for aggressive acts and in injuries related to aggression among ice hockey players. Effects of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions on injury rates are less clear. Well-designed studies of multifaceted strategies that combine such approaches are required. PMID:23209118
Infante, Dominic A.
Interpersonal communication can be viewed in terms of an aggressive-nonaggressive continuum. Past research has often focused on nonaggressive forms of interpersonal communication, such as understanding how people get to know one another, how trust and intimacy develop, and the role of self-disclosure in relationship development. However,…
Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A
What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26461796
Déaux, Éloïse C.; Clarke, Jennifer A.; Charrier, Isabelle
Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs’ aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks) have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs’ bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual) or bimodal (audio-visual) stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as ‘equivalent’ or ‘enhancing’ as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal’s function. PMID:26571266
aggression towards women indicate that both alcohol consumption and porno- graphy1 exposure, particularly of the relationship between porno- graphy and sexual aggression typically have assessed three types of dependent
Carré, Justin M; Morrissey, Mark D; Mondloch, Catherine J; McCormick, Cheryl M
The facial width-to-height ratio, a size-independent sexually dimorphic property of the human face, is correlated with aggressive behaviour in men. Furthermore, observers' estimates of aggression from emotionally neutral faces are accurate and are highly correlated with the facial width-to-height ratio. We investigated whether observers use the facial width-to-height ratio to estimate propensity for aggression. In experiments 1a-1c, estimates of aggression remained accurate when faces were blurred or cropped, manipulations that reduce featural cues but maintain the facial width-to-height ratio. Accuracy decreased when faces were scrambled, a manipulation that retains featural information but disrupts the facial width-to-height ratio. In experiment 2, computer-modeling software identified eight facial metrics that correlated with estimates of aggression; regression analyses revealed that the facial width-to-height ratio was the only metric that uniquely predicted these estimates. In experiment 3, we used a computer-generated set of faces varying in perceived threat (Oosterhof and Todorov, 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 11087-11092) and found that as emotionally neutral faces became more 'threatening', the facial width-to-height ratio increased. Together, these experiments suggest that the facial width-to-height ratio is an honest signal of propensity for aggressive behaviour. PMID:20465172
Gill, Sharon A; Alfson, Elizabeth D; Hau, Michaela
Testosterone promotes aggressive behaviour in male vertebrates during the breeding season, but the importance of testosterone in female aggression remains unclear. Testosterone has both beneficial and detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology, prompting the hypothesis that selection favours an association between aggression and testosterone only in certain contexts in which intense or persistent aggression may be beneficial. We tested this hypothesis in a year-round territorial female buff-breasted wrens (Thryothorus leucotis), by exposing free-living females to experimental intrusions in different social (either single female or male, or paired decoys) and seasonal (pre-breeding or breeding) contexts. Females responded more aggressively to intrusions by females and pairs than to males. However, female intrusions elicited stronger responses during pre-breeding, whereas responses to pair intrusions were more intense during breeding. Territorial females had elevated testosterone levels after female intrusions and intermediate levels after pair intrusions during pre-breeding, but the levels of testosterone remained low after these intrusions during breeding. These results demonstrate seasonal differences in circulating testosterone following territorial aggression in female buff-breasted wrens and are suggestive of differences according to social context as well. Context-dependent elevation of testosterone implies that selection acts directly on female vertebrates to shape patterns of testosterone secretion. PMID:17609184
Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T.
Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses) to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions) to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT) and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP). We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of tDCS effects might also indicate that the methodological approach of shifting cortical asymmetry by means of bilateral tDCS protocols has failed. PMID:26161664
Zsédel, Krisztina; Gerevich, József
Although recently many studies have indicated close connection between aggressive behaviour and suicide, and we can infer at Attila Jozsef's high trait-aggression from several cases, there is no research so far that would analyse the topic of the poet's aggression. We examine in this study the high trait-aggression and conscious poetic attitude of Attila Jozsef and put the question how could those two contribute to his suicide. Recollections of Attila Jozsef's contemporaries reveal that the poet's life was accompanied along with auto- and heteroaggression. By analysing his Rorschach-test, we can also conclude on the weakness of his aggression-control. During his psychoanalytic treatment from 1931 on, some difficult memories and unacceptable desires became revoked, and his aggressive outbreaks became unmanageable, first of all against some females in his life. His free-association works from this period are full of rude, incestuous, aggressive expressions. In spite of these, there is no trace of aggression in his poems - he masks his aggression in them by keeping precisely to formal criteria. We suppose that behind the masking there are unconscious processes, such as a very strong desire to get attached and fear of solitude that led to his aspiration to consciously form "the myth of the good poet". Art's healing power could not prevail as the spontaneous creative process has been turned into a conscious one. His impulses that came to light in the analytic process and were only partly sublime may have returned thus and became urgent and pressing again. We suppose that his high trait-aggression and his conscious poetic attitude together contributed to his life's tragic ending. PMID:26202624
Kirtley, Donald D.; Sabo, Kenneth T.
Aggressive content of dreams was compared for 11 visually handicapped adult females and normally sighted college females. Dream diaries were content-analyzed by means of the aggression scale of the Hall-Van de Castle content-analysis system. Visually handicapped adults, as a group, exhibited far more verbal and covert aggression. (Author/CL)
Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.
Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…
Martin, Penelope E.
Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…
Fighting violence requires a networking approach among schools, community, and parents. This article advises elementary school counselors: (a) focus on the causes of aggression; (b) identify children with the propensity for behaving aggressively; and (c) prevent aggressive responses in children and adolescents by introducing techniques and…
Margolin, Sydney G.
Reconstructs a picture of aggressive behavior in one tribe's prereservation days and relates it to tribal members' current behavior. Presents a Freudian analysis of the roles of the hunter-gatherer lifestyle and casual child-rearing practices in the development of aggression, and discusses behavioral manifestations of suppressed aggression. (SV)
Gnepp, Eric H.
A three-dimensional theory of frustration-aggression is presented. It is proposed that aggressiveness can be measured by computing the kinetic energy of a response. Aggressiveness is equated with energy state. Experimental and laboratory procedures are outlined. (Author/BEF)
Cummings, Anne L.; Hoffman, Sue; Leschied, Alan W.
This article describes an eight-session psychoeducational group for aggressive adolescent girls. The content of the group sessions is based on research that has identified gender-specific issues related to aggression in adolescent girls, such as gender-role socialization, childhood abuse, relational aggression, horizontal violence, and girl…
Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.
A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…
Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W
Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals. PMID:24862880
Herrmann, A; Rice, M; Lévy, R; Pizer, B L; Losty, P D; Moss, D; Sée, V
Therapies targeting cancer metastasis are challenging owing to the complexity of the metastatic process and the high number of effectors involved. Although tumour hypoxia has previously been associated with increased aggressiveness as well as resistance to radio- and chemotherapy, the understanding of a direct link between the level and duration of hypoxia and the individual steps involved in metastasis is still missing. Using live imaging in a chick embryo model, we have demonstrated that the exposure of neuroblastoma cells to 1% oxygen for 3 days was capable of (1) enabling cell migration towards blood vessels, (2) slowing down their velocity within blood vessels to facilitate extravasation and (3) promoting cell proliferation in primary and secondary sites. We have shown that cells do not have to be hypoxic anymore to exhibit these acquired capabilities as a long-term memory of prior hypoxic exposure is kept. Furthermore, non-hypoxic cells can be influenced by neighbouring hypoxic preconditioned cells and be entrained in the metastatic progression. The acquired aggressive phenotype relies on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent transcription of a number of genes involved in metastasis and can be impaired by HIF inhibition. Altogether, our results demonstrate the need to consider both temporal and spatial tumour heterogeneity because cells can 'remember' an earlier environment and share their acquired phenotype with their close neighbours. As a consequence, it is necessary to monitor the correct hypoxic markers to be able to predict the consequences of the cells' history on their behaviour and their potential response to therapies. PMID:25664931
Hanish, Laura D.; Sallquist, Julie; DiDonato, Matthew; Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn
This study assessed girls’ and boys’ dominance-related behaviors (aggressive, commanding, submissive, and neutral behaviors) as they naturally occurred during interactions with male and female peers and evaluated the possibility that such behaviors elicit aggression from peers. Using a focal observational procedure, young girls’ and boys’ (N = 170; 54% boys) naturally occurring dominance-related behaviors and male and female peers’ aggressive responses to those behaviors were recorded multiple times each week across the academic year. Findings suggested that same-gender aggression occurred at similar rates as other-gender aggression once tendencies toward gender segregated play were controlled. Additionally, there were both gender-based similarities and differences in children’s use of dominance-related behaviors in peer interactions and as antecedents for peers’ aggression. The findings have implications for the literatures on aggression and gendered peer interactions. PMID:22369337
Honig, Alice Sterling
Interpersonal, familial, and situational risk factors that predict young children's aggression and non-compliance are explored. Here examples of specific techniques and provided to help teachers and parents effectively support children's early development of cooperative and prosocial behaviours as well as problem-solving skills in family and…
Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo
The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…
Gundersen, Knut; Svartdal, Frode
Eleven groups of students performed a 24-session intervention based on Aggression Replacement Training (ART) as part of their further education programme. Subjects were 65 children and young people with varying degrees of behavioural problems. Forty-seven subjects received the ART programme. Eighteen received standard social and educational…
Factors affecting individual participation in group-level aggression among non-human primates Dawn explanations for cooperation, and provides testable hypotheses about group-level behaviour based on individual offspring presence. Relatively few studies have examined how factors such as relationships within
Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A
Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals' survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques, e.g., immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here, we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual differences in aggression, using the so-called forward genetics approach. PMID:24318936
de Bruijn, Paula; Burrie, Ingrid; van Wel, Frits
The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongst young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: "verbal", "non-verbal/intimidating" and "physically violent". A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants of unwanted sexual behaviour:…
Introduction This review explores the meaning and origins of aggression in early years. Eight pathways to aggression with origins in early childhood are suggested. These include: the contribution of individual factors; the effects of disturbed family dynamics; parental characteristics and parenting practices; the impact of exposure to violence and the influence of attachment relationships. Other influences such as: aggression relating to psychiatric/medical syndromes; the influence of neurodevelopment pathways and psychodynamic explanations, such as aggressive behavior in relation to mothers’ reflective capacity are also discussed. Conclusion While several routes to aggression have been proposed, no single factor is sufficient to explain the development of aggressive behavior. Longitudinal studies are sorely needed to observe aggressive behavior in children and to monitor their developmental trajectories. PMID:19030496
Itil, T M
In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189
Fite, Paula J.; Raine, Adrian; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.
There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of 335 adolescent males. Path analyses indicate that after controlling for the stability of the outcome and the overlap between the two subtypes of aggression, reactive aggression is uniquely associated with negative emotionality, specifically anxiety, in adulthood. In contrast, proactive aggression is uniquely associated with measures of adult psychopathic features and antisocial behavior in adulthood. Both reactive and proactive aggression uniquely predicted substance use in adulthood, but the substances varied by subtype of aggression. Implications for findings are discussed. PMID:20589225
Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco
With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast–slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed–accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes. PMID:22927575
Webster, Gregory D; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Deckman, Timothy; Jonason, Peter K; Le, Bonnie M; Nichols, Austin Lee; Schember, Tatiana Orozco; Crysel, Laura C; Crosier, Benjamin S; Smith, C Veronica; Paddock, E Layne; Nezlek, John B; Kirkpatrick, Lee A; Bryan, Angela D; Bator, Renée J
A key problem facing aggression research is how to measure individual differences in aggression accurately and efficiently without sacrificing reliability or validity. Researchers are increasingly demanding brief measures of aggression for use in applied settings, field studies, pretest screening, longitudinal, and daily diary studies. The authors selected the three highest loading items from each of the Aggression Questionnaire's (Buss & Perry, 1992) four subscales--Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, anger, and hostility--and developed an efficient 12-item measure of aggression--the Brief Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ). Across five studies (N?=?3,996), the BAQ showed theoretically consistent patterns of convergent and discriminant validity with other self-report measures, consistent four-factor structures using factor analyses, adequate recovery of information using item response theory methods, stable test-retest reliability, and convergent validity with behavioral measures of aggression. The authors discuss the reliability, validity, and efficiency of the BAQ, along with its many potential applications. PMID:24115185
Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P
Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress. PMID:16250627
Spiegel, Orr; Leu, Stephan T; Sih, Andrew; Godfrey, Stephanie S; Bull, C Michael
Understanding space use remains a major challenge for animal ecology, with implications for species interactions, disease spread, and conservation. Behavioural type (BT) may shape the space use of individuals within animal populations. Bolder or more aggressive individuals tend to be more exploratory and disperse further. Yet, to date we have limited knowledge on how space use other than dispersal depends on BT. To address this question we studied BT-dependent space-use patterns of sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) in southern Australia. We combined high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) tracking of 72 free-ranging lizards with repeated behavioural assays, and with a survey of the spatial distributions of their food and refuge resources. Bayesian generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) showed that lizards responded to the spatial distribution of resources at the neighbourhood scale and to the intensity of space use by other conspecifics (showing apparent conspecific avoidance). BT (especially aggressiveness) affected space use by lizards and their response to ecological and social factors, in a seasonally dependent manner. Many of these effects and interactions were stronger later in the season when food became scarce and environmental conditions got tougher. For example, refuge and food availability became more important later in the season and unaggressive lizards were more responsive to these predictors. These findings highlight a commonly overlooked source of heterogeneity in animal space use and improve our mechanistic understanding of processes leading to behaviourally driven disease dynamics and social structure. PMID:26609082
Jahoda, A.; Wanless, L. K.
Staff attributions concerning challenging behaviour have been found to play a role in determining their responses. The emphasis in the literature has been on staff beliefs about the challenging behaviour itself. However, staff are also likely to be responding to the person engaging in the behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore workers'…
Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita
Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041
Cant, Michael A.; Young, Andrew J.
Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression. PMID:24167306
Bortolato, Marco; Pivac, Nela; Seler, Dorotea Muck; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Pessia, Mauro; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe
Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the mulifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and find new effective therapies for these conditions. PMID:23333677
Cardwell, Michael Steven
Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556
LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick
Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818
Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.
Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.
Dickinson, J.L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.
Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Meehan, Barbara Theresa
This study examined the relation between inflated self-concepts and levels of aggression in a sample of 167 aggressive second- and third-grade students. Variable-oriented data analyses of children's self- and others' reports of competence...
Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa
Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…
Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael
Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…
With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…
Examined the relations between aggressive problem-solving strategies and aggressive behavior and the intervening role of social acceptance in that relation in early and late adolescents. Subjects were 1,655 11- and 17-year-olds in Finland. Results show that aggressive problem-solving strategies were significantly, but not very highly, associated…
Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi
This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…
Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah
Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in delinquent boys. Authors’ conclusions The authors consider that the body of evidence summarised in this review is insufficient to allow any firm conclusion to be drawn about the use of antiepileptic medication in the treatment of aggression and associated impulsivity. Four antiepileptics (valproate/ divalproex, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and phenytoin) were effective, compared to placebo, in reducing aggression in at least one study, although for three drugs (valproate, carbamazepine and phenytoin) at least one other study showed no statistically significant difference between treatment and control conditions. Side effects were more commonly noted for the intervention group although adverse effects were not well reported. Absence of information does not necessarily mean that the treatment is safe, nor that the potential gains from the medication necessarily balance the risk of an adverse event occurring. Further research is needed. PMID:20166067
The previous article in this series introduced the triune brain, the three components of which handle specialized life tasks. The survival brain, or brain stem, directs automatic physiological functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, and mobilizes fight/flight behaviour in times of threat. The emotional (or limbic) brain activates positive or…
Murphy, Jack; Arkins, Sean
Scientists and equestrians continually seek to achieve a clearer understanding of equine learning behaviour and its implications for training. Behavioural and learning processes in the horse are likely to influence not only equine athletic success but also the usefulness of the horse as a domesticated species. However given the status and commercial importance of the animal, equine learning behaviour has received only limited investigation. Indeed most experimental studies on equine cognitive function to date have addressed behaviour, learning and conceptualization processes at a moderately basic cognitive level compared to studies in other species. It is however, likely that the horses with the greatest ability to learn and form/understand concepts are those, which are better equipped to succeed in terms of the human-horse relationship and the contemporary training environment. Within equitation generally, interpretation of the behavioural processes and training of the desired responses in the horse are normally attempted using negative reinforcement strategies. On the other hand, experimental designs to actually induce and/or measure equine learning rely almost exclusively on primary positive reinforcement regimes. Employing two such different approaches may complicate interpretation and lead to difficulties in identifying problematic or undesirable behaviours in the horse. The visual system provides the horse with direct access to immediate environmental stimuli that affect behaviour but vision in the horse is of yet not fully investigated or understood. Further investigations of the equine visual system will benefit our understanding of equine perception, cognitive function and the subsequent link with learning and training. More detailed comparative investigations of feral or free-ranging and domestic horses may provide useful evidence of attention, stress and motivational issues affecting behavioural and learning processes in the horse. The challenge for scientists is, as always, to design and commission experiments that will investigate and provide insight into these processes in a manner that withstands scientific scrutiny. PMID:17400403
Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja
This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935
Cappella, Elise; Weinstein, Rhona
This study represents the first systematic attempt to examine a theory-based program designed to reduce girls' social aggression and increase positive leadership among peers. Fifth-grade girls from six public schools were randomly assigned within classrooms to the social aggression prevention program (SAPP) and the comparison reading clubs. A…
Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.
The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.
Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)
Weiss, Michael G.; Miller, Patricia H.
Examines early phases of understanding of causes of moderately and extremely displaced aggression. Preschool and kindergarten children three to five years of age viewed eight videotaped episodes of displaced aggression. Comprehension was assessed by means of open-ended questions and forced-choice picture selections. (Author/RH)
Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others
American society is violent, a fact which is well-reflected in schools. This book, designed specifically for school personnel, presents the primary techniques currently being employed by educators to prevent, manage, and replace student aggression. The volume opens with a description of the origins of aggressive behavior and offers some…
Dill, Lawrence M.
Aggressive distanceinjuvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchuskisutch) LAWRENCEM. DILL Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C., Canada V5A IS6 Received November 18,1977 DILL defendirhility theory of territorial~tv. DILL,-L.M. 1978. Aggressive distance injuvenile coho salmon
Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.
How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609
Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois
Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771
Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii
The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…
Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo
This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively. PMID:24211562
Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy
For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…
Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min
I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N?=?148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N?=?180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory. Aggr. Behav. 41:544-555, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26075351
Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa M M; Kravitz, Edward A; Rissman, Emilie F; de Boer, Sietse F; Raine, Adrian
Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and its escalation with greater precision; second, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and brainstem structures emerge as pivotal nodes in the limbic circuitry mediating escalated aggressive behavior. The neurochemical and molecular work focuses on the genes that enable invertebrate aggression in males and females and genes that are expressed or suppressed as a result of aggressive experiences in mammals. The fruitless gene, immediate early genes in discrete serotonin neurons, or sex chromosome genes identify sexually differentiated mechanisms for escalated aggression. Male, but not female, fruit flies establish hierarchical relationships in fights and learn from previous fighting experiences. By manipulating either the fruitless or transformer genes in the brains of male or female flies, patterns of aggression can be switched with males using female patterns and vice versa. Work with Sts or Sry genes suggests so far that other genes on the X chromosomes may have a more critical role in female mouse aggression. New data from feral rats point to the regulatory influences on mesocortical serotonin circuits in highly aggressive animals via feedback to autoreceptors and via GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. Imaging data lead to the hypothesis that antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior may in part be attributable to impairments in some of the brain structures (dorsal and ventral PFC, amygdala, and angular gyrus) subserving moral cognition and emotion. PMID:17978016
Hofmann, Hans A.
ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2001, 62, 337348 doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1746, available online at http The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Over the last quarter of a century, fighting behaviour has been that at least some of the behaviour patterns displayed during aggressive encounters are used to assess
Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M
Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed. PMID:23804408
Knox, Michele; Carey, Michael; Kim, Wun Jung
Examined differences in aggressive behavior among predominantly white adolescent inpatients with and without depression. Survey data indicated that depression and gender interacted significantly. Depressed females demonstrated more physical aggression than nondepressed females, and depressed males demonstrated less aggression than nondepressed…
Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…
Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique
We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…
Batrinos, Menelaos L.
Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine influence on the brain process of aggression forms a triad. Testosterone activates the subcortical areas of the brain to produce aggression, while cortisol and serotonin act antagonistically with testosterone to reduce its effects. PMID:23843821
Bakker, C B; Bakker-Rabdau, M K; Breit, S
The Bakker Assertiveness-Aggressiveness Inventory is a 36-item self-report inventory designed to measure two separate aspects of what has previously been subsumed under the rubric "assertiveness", namely, (a) defensive, responsive behaviors which protect territory and privileges, and (b) initiating behaviors which augment the person's territory or status. Assertiveness scores increases significantly above aggressiveness scores in a class which focused on the defensive, responsive aspects of behavior. Aggressiveness was found to correlate with occupation level and amount of schooling sought, while assertiveness did not correlate with either of these. Normative, reliability and validity data are presented. PMID:660400
Renn, Susan C.P.
- 1 - Social reversal of sex-biased aggression and dominance in a biparental cichlid fish1 dimorphism is often strongly linked to biological sex, the environment, either15 social or ecological, may influence sex-biased behaviour in some species. In the biparental16 cichlid fish Julidochromis marlieri
Hollingdale, Jack; Greitemeyer, Tobias
Background In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM), has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. Methods/Principal Findings Participants (N?=?101) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game—offline, neutral video game—online, violent video game—offline and violent video game—online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression. PMID:25391143
Thuppil, Vivek; Coss, Richard G
Prey species exhibit antipredator behaviours such as alertness, aggression and flight, among others, in response to predators. The nature of this response is variable, with animals reacting more strongly in situations of increased vulnerability. Our research described here is the first formal study to investigate night-time antipredator behaviour in any species of elephants, Asian or African. We examined the provocative effects of elephant-triggered tiger and leopard growls while elephants attempted to crop-raid. Tigers opportunistically prey on elephant calves, whereas leopards pose no threat; therefore, we predicted that the elephant response would be reflective of this difference. Elephants reacted similarly cautiously to the simulated presence of felids of both species by eventually moving away, but differed markedly in their more immediate behavioural responses. Elephants retreated silently to tiger-growl playbacks, whereas they responded with aggressive vocalizations, such as trumpets and grunts, to leopard-growl playbacks. Elephants also lingered in the area and displayed alert or investigative behaviours in response to leopard growls when compared with tiger growls. We anticipate that the methods outlined here will promote further study of elephant antipredator behaviour in a naturalistic context, with applications for conservation efforts as well. PMID:24026347
Skovdahl, Kirsti; Kihlgren, Annica Larsson; Kihlgren, Mona
The aim of the study was to illuminate, from video recorded sequences, interactions between individuals with dementia and aggressive behaviour and caregivers who reported problems dealing with such behaviour and caregivers who did not. Nine caregivers and two residents participated. The video recordings were later transcribed into text and analysed by using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's philosophy. The main themes that emerged from the analysis were 'Being involved and developing a positive interaction' and 'Being confined to routines and remaining in negative interaction'. The findings indicated the interactions either to be in a positive or negative spiral. Caregivers who had reported problems dealing with behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in dementia focused on accomplishing the task, where the main focus was on 'the goal itself'. In other sequences with caregivers who had been satisfied with their capability the focus was placed on 'how' the caregivers could reach their goal. Power was central in the material, in different ways, either as a possible way to handle the situation or as a possible way of defending oneself. Parts of Kitwood's framework and Fromm's theory about power 'over' and power 'to', has been used in the comprehensive understanding. Our conclusion is that caregivers should use power 'to' when they have to help persons with dementia and aggressive behaviour, as a part of behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia, for being able to give help in the best possible way. They should also act in a sensitive and reflective manner, with the individual in focus. PMID:14632982
Ang, Tzo Zen; Manica, Andrea
Central to our understanding of social group formation and maintenance is the question of how within-group conflict resolution is achieved in the face of asymmetrical competition over resources and reproduction. A crucial yet implicit assumption of many conflict resolution models dealing with reproductive skew is that subordinates have perfect knowledge of the extent of conflict between themselves and their dominants, enabling behavioural responses on an individual rather than evolutionary scale. However, a mechanism enabling subordinates to accurately assess their relative conflict levels has yet to be empirically demonstrated. Here, we show in the angelfish Centropyge bicolor that the rate of overt mild aggression from dominants to subordinates acts as a signal of increasing rank conflict. The clarity of this signal can be reduced by spatial segregation, causing subordinates to be less able to respond appropriately by regulation of their foraging rates. A reduced signal ultimately leads to a less well-defined dominance hierarchy and destabilization of the social group. Our study suggests that, contrary to previous suggestions, dominant aggression rates play a crucial role as an accurate information signal required for the evolutionary stability of skew models. PMID:20053647
Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; de la Escalera, Arturo; Armingol, José María
A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios. PMID:26473875
Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José María
A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios. PMID:26473875
Collie, Claire Futamase
This study examined a measure of children's memory for information from a story about a hypothetical mother and child, the Story Task, as a potential tool to delineate subtypes of aggressive children based on the pattern of information processing...
Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.
Giles, Gordon Muir; Scott, Karen; Manchester, David
Research in psychiatric settings has found that staff attribute the majority of inpatient aggression to immediate environmental stressors. We sought to determine if staff working with persons with brain injury-related severe and chronic impairment make similar causal attributions. If immediate environmental stressors precipitate the majority of aggressive incidents in this client group, it is possible an increased focus on the management of factors that initiate client aggression may be helpful. The research was conducted in a low-demand treatment programme for individuals with chronic cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury. Over a six-week period, 63 staff and a research assistant reported on 508 aggressive incidents. Staff views as to the causes of client aggression were elicited within 72 hours of observing an aggressive incident. Staff descriptions of causes were categorised using qualitative methods and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aggression towards staff was predominantly preceded by (a) actions that interrupted or redirected a client behaviour, (b) an activity demand, or (c) a physical intrusion. The majority of aggressive incidents appeared hostile/angry in nature and were not considered by staff to be pre-meditated. Common treatment approaches can be usefully augmented by a renewed focus on interventions aimed at reducing antecedents that provoke aggression. Possible approaches for achieving this are considered. PMID:23782342
Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M; de Almeida, Rosa M M; Miczek, Klaus A
Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of aspecific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to "phasic" effects of pharmacological agents versus "trait"-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene-environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT (e.g., MAOA) determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsalraphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides(arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or indirectly[e.g., BDNF, neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS), aCaMKII, Neuropeptide Y].The future agenda delineates specific receptor subpopulations for GABA, glutamate and neuropeptides as they modulate the canonical aminergic neurotransmitters in brainstem, limbic and cortical regions with the ultimate outcome of attenuating or escalating aggressive behavior. PMID:22297576
Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.
Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or indirectly (e.g. BDNF, nNOS, ?CaMKII, Neuropeptide Y). The future agenda delineates specific receptor subpopulations for GABA, glutamate and neuropeptides as they modulate the canonical aminergic neurotransmitters in brainstem, limbic and cortical regions with the ultimate outcome of attenuating or escalating aggressive behavior. PMID:22297576
Ageranioti-Bélanger, Stacey; Brunet, Suzanne; D’Anjou, Guy; Tellier, Geneviève; Boivin, Johanne; Gauthier, Marie
Behaviour disorders are frequent in children with an intellectual disability, regardless of the underlying etiology. They are often disabling, and can create problems in everyday life and can mask, or reveal, an organic or psychiatric illness. Such behaviours are often chronic and more than one may be present in the same individual. This is further complicated by the fact that parents often do not seek help for the problem, perhaps believing that it is due to the child’s disability and cannot be treated. The present review describes some general concepts dealing with the management of behaviour disorders commonly seen in children and youth with an intellectual disability, and gives a high level overview of behaviours commonly problematic in this patient population including sleep disturbances, agitated and aggressive behaviours, and self-injury behaviour. In general, while pharmacological treatment is possible, behavioural intervention is a more effective and better tolerated form of treatment. PMID:23372399
Duke, Aaron A.; Bègue, Laurent; Bell, Rob; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory
The inverse relation between serotonin and human aggression is often portrayed as “reliable,” “strong,” and “well-established” despite decades of conflicting reports and widely recognized methodological limitations. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we evaluate the evidence for and against the serotonin deficiency hypothesis of human aggression across four methods of assessing serotonin: (a) cerebrospinal fluid levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (CSF 5-HIAA), (b) acute tryptophan depletion, (c) pharmacological challenge, and (d) endocrine challenge. Results across 175 independent samples and over 6,500 total participants were heterogeneous, but, in aggregate, revealed a small, inverse correlation between central serotonin functioning and aggression, anger, and hostility, r = ?.12. Pharmacological challenge studies had the largest mean weighted effect size, r = ?.21, and CSF 5-HIAA studies had the smallest, r = ?.06, p = .21. Potential methodological and demographic moderators largely failed to account for variability in study outcomes. Notable exceptions included year of publication (effect sizes tended to diminish with time) and self-versus other-reported aggression (other-reported aggression was positively correlated to serotonin functioning). We discuss four possible explanations for the pattern of findings: unreliable measures, ambient correlational noise, an unidentified higher-order interaction, and a selective serotonergic effect. Finally, we provide four recommendations for bringing much needed clarity to this important area of research: acknowledge contradictory findings and avoid selective reporting practices; focus on improving the reliability and validity of serotonin and aggression measures; test for interactions involving personality and/or environmental moderators; and revise the serotonin deficiency hypothesis to account for serotonin’s functional complexity. PMID:23379963
Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate
Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats. PMID:25637071
Oliveira, Tânia F.; Ros, Albert F. H.; Oliveira, Rui F.
In many territorial species androgen hormones are known to increase in response to territorial intrusions as a way to adjust the expression of androgen-dependent behaviour to social challenges. The dear enemy effect has also been described in territorial species and posits that resident individuals show a more aggressive response to intrusions by strangers than by other territorial neighbours. Therefore, we hypothesized that the dear enemy effect may also modulate the androgen response to a territorial intrusion. Here we tested this hypothesis in male cichlid fish (Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus) using a paradigm of four repeated territorial intrusions, either by the same neighbour or by four different unfamiliar intruders. Neighbour intruders elicited lower aggression and a weaker androgen response than strangers on the first intrusion of the experiment. With repeated intrusions, the agonistic behaviour of the resident males against familiar intruders was similar to that displayed towards strangers. By the fourth intrusion the androgen response was significantly reduced and there was no longer a difference between the responses to the two types of intruders. These results suggest that the dear enemy effect modulates the androgen response to territorial intrusions and that repeated intrusions lead to a habituation of the androgen response. PMID:26379045
Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.
This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…
The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...
Risser, Scott D.
To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…
Lochman, John E.
Secondary prevention programs for aggressive children should be based on research about processes which mediate children's expression of aggressive behavior. The relative importance of perceived competence, self-esteem, and social problem solving processes was investigated in 20 aggressive and 18 non-aggressive fourth and fifth grade boys. Teacher…
Savina, Elena; Coulacoglou, Carina; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Zhang, Jianxin
The present study investigated externalizing and internalizing behaviours in Greek (n = 599), Russian (n = 596), Indian (n = 571), and Chinese (n = 376) 7- to 12-year-old children. The Fairy Tale Test was used to measure impulsive and motivated aggression, fear of aggression, anxiety, and depression. The results indicated culture-specific patterns…
Katko, Nicholas J; Meyer, Gregory J; Mihura, Joni L; Bombel, George
We examined the structure of 9 Rorschach variables related to hostility and aggression (Aggressive Movement, Morbid, Primary Process Aggression, Secondary Process Aggression, Aggressive Content, Aggressive Past, Strong Hostility, Lesser Hostility) in a sample of medical students (N= 225) from the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study (The Johns Hopkins University, 1999). Principal components analysis revealed 2 dimensions accounting for 58% of the total variance. These dimensions extended previous findings for a 2-component model of Rorschach aggressive imagery that had been identified using just 5 or 6 marker variables (Baity & Hilsenroth, 1999; Liebman, Porcerelli, & Abell, 2005). In light of this evidence, we draw an empirical link between the historical research literature and current studies of Rorschach aggression and hostility that helps organize their findings. We also offer suggestions for condensing the array of aggression-related measures to simplify Rorschach aggression scoring. PMID:20954061
Theories: Behaviour Change | Forestry, sustainable behaviours and behaviour change: Theories | 20121 Theories and models of behaviour and behaviour change 1 Contents Theories and models of behaviour .............................................................................................4 3. Theories of Individual Behaviour and Behaviour Change................................5 3
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…
Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline
The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…
Taylor, L.; Oliver, C.
Background: Behaviour problems and a preference for adult contact are reported to be prominent in the phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this study we examined the relationship between social interactions and self-injurious and aggressive/disruptive behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome to explore potential operant reinforcement of problem…
Glucocorticoids and the Development of Agonistic Behaviour during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters J hamsters undergoes a transition from play fighting to adult aggression. Repeated exposure to social stress investigated the effects of stress hormones on the matur- ation of agonistic behaviour. Male hamsters were
Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria
Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…
Pugh, Roger; Chitiyo, Morgan
Bullying in schools is recognised as a global problem. In the USA, school shootings and increasing school aggression focused research on the causes of bullying and interventions that could reduce or eliminate bullying behaviours. A variety of bullying programs have generated mixed results with some actually increasing bullying behaviours. There…
Geuens, Nina; Leemans, Annemie; Bogaerts, Annick; Van Bogaert, Peter; Franck, Erik
Organisational and work-related challenges faced by midwives make them vulnerable to burnout, but individual factors, such as interpersonal behaviour, can also contribute. A study in eight hospitals in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium investigated the prevalence of burnout among Flemish midwives, assessed their interpersonal behaviour, and explored the relationship between interpersonal behaviour, burnout, job satisfaction and intention to leave. This article describes the study and reports the findings. PMID:26602486
Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.
Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…
Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles
Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. PMID:26158924
Lee, Eunju J.
This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…
Vidal, Samuel J; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Quinn, S Aidan; Rodriguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Lujambio, Amaia; Williams, Estrelania; Sun, Xiaochen; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Lee, Albert; Readhead, Ben; Chen, Xintong; Galsky, Matthew; Esteve, Berta; Petrylak, Daniel P; Dudley, Joel T; Rabadan, Raul; Silva, Jose M; Hoshida, Yujin; Lowe, Scott W; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep
Elucidating the determinants of aggressiveness in lethal prostate cancer may stimulate therapeutic strategies that improve clinical outcomes. We used experimental models and clinical databases to identify GATA2 as a regulator of chemotherapy resistance and tumorigenicity in this context. Mechanistically, direct upregulation of the growth hormone IGF2 emerged as a mediator of the aggressive properties regulated by GATA2. IGF2 in turn activated IGF1R and INSR as well as a downstream polykinase program. The characterization of this axis prompted a combination strategy whereby dual IGF1R/INSR inhibition restored the efficacy of chemotherapy and improved survival in preclinical models. These studies reveal a GATA2-IGF2 aggressiveness axis in lethal prostate cancer and identify a therapeutic opportunity in this challenging disease. PMID:25670080
Vidal, Samuel J.; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Quinn, S. Aidan; Rodriguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Lujambio, Amaia; Williams, Estrelania; Sun, Xiaochen; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Lee, Albert; Readhead, Ben; Chen, Xintong; Galsky, Matthew; Esteve, Berta; Petrylak, Daniel P.; Dudley, Joel T.; Rabadan, Raul; Silva, Jose M.; Hoshida, Yujin; Lowe, Scott W.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep
SUMMARY Elucidating the determinants of aggressiveness in lethal prostate cancer may stimulate therapeutic strategies that improve clinical outcomes. We used experimental models and clinical databases to identify GATA2 as a regulator of chemotherapy resistance and tumorigenicity in this context. Mechanistically, direct upregulation of the growth hormone IGF2 emerged as a mediator of the aggressive properties regulated by GATA2. IGF2 in turn activated IGF1R and INSR as well as a downstream polykinase program. The characterization of this axis prompted a combination strategy whereby dual IGF1R/INSR inhibition restored the efficacy of chemotherapy and improved survival in preclinical models. These studies reveal a GATA2-IGF2 aggressiveness axis in lethal prostate cancer and identify a therapeutic opportunity in this challenging disease. PMID:25670080
The proposal of Every Child Matters: The Green Paper (2003), to locate the protection and support of children, with an emphasis on those who may be the most vulnerable, in a strengthened universal service, has provided the impetus for a radical and transformational response at both national and local levels. Local education authorities have been…
Parsonson, Barry S.
This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…
Hare, Andrew Francis
It is surprising to students to learn that a natural combination of simple functions, the function sin(1/x), exhibits behaviour that is a great challenge to visualize. When x is large the function is relatively easy to draw; as x gets smaller the function begins to behave in an increasingly wild manner. The sin(1/x) function can serve as one of…
Wignall, Anne E.; Taylor, Phillip W.
Assassin bugs (Stenolemus bituberus) hunt web-building spiders by invading the web and plucking the silk to generate vibrations that lure the resident spider into striking range. To test whether vibrations generated by bugs aggressively mimic the vibrations generated by insect prey, we compared the responses of spiders to bugs with how they responded to prey, courting male spiders and leaves falling into the web. We also analysed the associated vibrations. Similar spider orientation and approach behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from bugs and prey, whereas different behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from male spiders and leaves. Peak frequency and duration of vibrations generated by bugs were similar to those generated by prey and courting males. Further, vibrations from bugs had a temporal structure and amplitude that were similar to vibrations generated by leg and body movements of prey and distinctly different to vibrations from courting males or leaves, or prey beating their wings. To be an effective predator, bugs do not need to mimic the full range of prey vibrations. Instead bugs are general mimics of a subset of prey vibrations that fall within the range of vibrations classified by spiders as ‘prey’. PMID:20980305
New, Antonia S.; Hazlett, Erin A.; Newmark, Randall E.; Zhang, Jane; Triebwasser, Joseph; Meyerson, David; Lazarus, Sophie; Trisdorfer, Roanna; Goldstein, Kim E.; Goodman, Marianne; Koenigsberg, Harold W.; Flory, Janine D.; Siever, Larry J.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.
Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often associated with symptoms of impulsive aggression, which pose a threat to patients themselves and to others. Preclinical studies show that orbital frontal cortex (OFC) plays a role in regulating impulsive aggression. Prior work has found OFC dysfunction in BPD. Methods We employed a task to provoke aggressive behavior, the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP), which has never previously been used during functional brain imaging. Thirty-eight BPD patients with impulsive aggression (BPD-IED) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (HC) received 18FDG-PET on two occasions with a provocation and non-provocation version of the PSAP. For each participant, we measured mean relative glucose metabolism in cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) in each hemisphere; difference scores (Provoked–Non-provoked) were calculated. A whole brain exploratory analysis for the double difference of BPD-IED–HC for Provoked–Non-provoked was also conducted. Results BPD-IED patients were significantly more aggressive than HC on the PSAP. BPD-IED patients also increased relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) in OFC and amygdala when provoked, while HC decreased rGMR in these areas. However, HC increased rGMR in anterior, medial, and dorsolateral prefrontal regions during provocation more than BPD-IED patients. Conclusions Patients responded aggressively and showed heightened rGMR in emotional brain areas, including amygdala and OFC in response to provocation, but not in more dorsal brain regions associated with cognitive control of aggression. In contrast, HC increased rGMR in dorsal regions of PFC during aggression provocation, brain regions involved in top-down cognitive control of aggression and, more broadly, of emotion. PMID:19748078
Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R.; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne
High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society. PMID:24740321
Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne
High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society. PMID:24740321
Carter, Chris G.; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig
Abstract The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture. PMID:25561845
Eichelman, B; Hartwig, A
General attempts have been made to catalog or categorize research literature on aggressive behavior. In the animal literature this category has been delineated by clearly observed and described patterns of behavior. These include offensive and defensive expressions in animals and the characterization of attack behaviors by typography into defensive and offensive. The human literature is considerably deficient in the description and categorization of human aggressive behavior. Current nosologies offer no utilitarian schema for characterizing violent behavior in clinical populations regarding the typography of the violence, its prediction, or guidance as to its treatment. The generation of databased nosologies may provide a mechanism for the development of research and clinically relevant nosologies based upon cluster analyses of treatment outcomes and behavioral characteristics. This strategy may provide a more effective approach for further research concerning clinical aggressive or destructive behaviors. PMID:8378513
Salazar, Adrián; Fürstenau, Benjamin; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Hidalgo, Nicolás; Carazo, Pau; Font, Enrique; Martínez-Torres, David
Understanding the evolutionary transition from interspecific exploitation to cooperation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Ant–aphid relationships represent an ideal system to this end because they encompass a coevolutionary continuum of interactions ranging from mutualism to antagonism. In this study, we report an unprecedented interaction along this continuum: aggressive mimicry in aphids. We show that two morphs clonally produced by the aphid Paracletus cimiciformis during its root-dwelling phase establish relationships with ants at opposite sides of the mutualism–antagonism continuum. Although one of these morphs exhibits the conventional trophobiotic (mutualistic) relationship with ants of the genus Tetramorium, aphids of the alternative morph are transported by the ants to their brood chamber and cared for as if they were true ant larvae. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses reveal that the innate cuticular hydrocarbon profile of the mimic morph resembles the profile of ant larvae more than that of the alternative, genetically identical nonmimic morph. Furthermore, we show that, once in the brood chamber, mimic aphids suck on ant larva hemolymph. These results not only add aphids to the limited list of arthropods known to biosynthesize the cuticular chemicals of their deceived hosts to exploit their resources but describe a remarkable case of plastic aggressive mimicry. The present work adds a previously unidentified dimension to the classical textbook paradigm of aphid–ant relationships by showcasing a complex system at the evolutionary interface between cooperation and exploitation. PMID:25583474
Hallikainen, Tero; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila
Risk for violence in psychosis is associated with the subject's history of early-onset antisocial behavior, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, lack of insight, and non-adherence to antipsychotic medication. These risk factors can be managed by effective treatment for psychosis, with the exception of predatory antisocial aggression. Generally, this group of patients is at considerable risk for untreated conditions. There is, however, no pharmacological treatment indicated solely for aggression. Physical violence can often be avoided by alertness and risk monitoring, and by attentive customer service skills. Safety at work is our shared responsibility. PMID:26427235
Elias, Damian O.; Kasumovic, Michael M.; Punzalan, David; Andrade, Maydianne C. B.; Mason, Andrew C.
Assessment strategies are an important component in game theoretical models of contests. Strategies can be either based on one’s own abilities (self assessment) or on the relative abilities of two opponents (mutual assessment). Using statistical methodology that allows discrimination between assessment types, we examined contests in the jumping spider Phiddipus clarus. In this species, aggressive interactions can be divided into ‘pre-contact’ and ‘contact’ phases. Pre-contact phases consist of bouts of visual and vibratory signaling. Contact phases follow where males physically contact each other (leg fencing). Both weight and vibratory signaling differences predicted winners with heavier and more actively signaling males winning more contests. Vibratory behaviour predicted pre-contact phase duration, with higher signaling rates and larger differences between contestants leading to longer pre-contact interaction times. Contact phase duration was predicted most strongly by the weight of losing males relative to that of winning males, suggesting that P. clarus males use self-assessment in determining contest duration. While a self-assessment strategy was supported, our data suggest a secondary role for mutual assessment (“partial mutual assessment”). After initial contest bouts, male competitors changed their behaviour. Pre-contact and contact phase durations were reduced while vibratory signaling behaviour in winners was unchanged. In addition, only vibratory signaling differences predicted winners in subsequent bouts suggesting a role of experience in determining contest outcomes. We suggest that the rules and assessment strategies males use can change depending on experience and that assessment strategies are likely a continuum between self- and mutual assessment. PMID:19727331
Ceacero, Francisco; Pluhá?ek, Jan; Komárková, Martina; Zábranský, Martin
The opening of the preorbital gland in cervids has a visual meaning and is frequently associated with agonistic and/or stress related situations. Apart from in red deer, this behaviour has scarcely been studied and the range of situations when it may occur remains unclear. In this study we report the unusual case of preorbital gland opening in rusa deer, Rusa timorensis, associated to direct aggressive agonistic interaction (biting/kicking) between two adult hinds. This case observed in Tierpark Berlin (Germany) is the first one ever recorded in female-female interactions in cervids. Preorbital gland opening was also studied in 116 social interactions in Plze? Zoo (Czech Republic). Preorbital gland opening by the dominant adult male was twice observed with relation to alert behaviour, which is also rare. In order to contextualise our observations we summarise the current knowledge about the behaviour associated with preorbital gland opening in R. timorensis and in cervids in general. PMID:25481309
Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Brede, Christian; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Schmitt, Thomas; Favreau, Philippe; Stöcklin, Reto; Wunder, Cora; Mebs, Dietrich
Whereas interspecific associations receive considerable attention in evolutionary, behavioural and ecological literature, the proximate bases for these associations are usually unknown. This in particular applies to associations between vertebrates with invertebrates. The West-African savanna frog Phrynomantis microps lives in the underground nest of ponerine ants (Paltothyreus tarsatus). The ants usually react highly aggressively when disturbed by fiercely stinging, but the frog is not attacked and lives unharmed among the ants. Herein we examined the proximate mechanisms for this unusual association. Experiments with termites and mealworms covered with the skin secretion of the frog revealed that specific chemical compounds seem to prevent the ants from stinging. By HPLC-fractionation of an aqueous solution of the frogs' skin secretion, two peptides of 1,029 and 1,143 Da were isolated and found to inhibit the aggressive behaviour of the ants. By de novo sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry, the amino acid sequence of both peptides consisting of a chain of 9 and 11 residues, respectively, was elucidated. Both peptides were synthesized and tested, and exhibited the same inhibitory properties as the original frog secretions. These novel peptides most likely act as an appeasement allomone and may serve as models for taming insect aggression. PMID:24349157
Needham, Ian; Abderhalden, Chris; Halfens, Rudolph J G; Dassen, Theo; Haug, Hans-Joachim; Fischer, Joachim E
Patient aggression towards carers constitutes a problem for patients and carers alike. Patients' aggressive behaviour often leads to adverse consequences for carers, especially nurses. Various extensive instruments have been developed to measure such adverse effects on carers. The 'Impact of Patient Aggression on Carers Scale' (IMPACS) is a short instrument intended for use in monitoring negative consequences of such incidents. The items of the IMPACS were derived basically from a review of the literature on negative effects of patient aggression on nurses. The IMPACS was administered to a convenience sample of nurses working on 14 psychiatric acute admission wards in the German speaking part of Switzerland. Factor analysis led to the exclusion of three of the original items and to an interpretable three-factor solution with all factors demonstrating eigen values higher than 1. The factors demonstrate moderate to good internal consistency. Canonical correlation analysis using the dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) produced a correlation coefficient of 0.457, thus demonstrating external reliability. In spite of some caveats such as possible response bias and the necessity of the investigation of the test-retest stability of the scale this study suggests that the IMPACS is a good measure of adverse effects and thus merits further development. PMID:16101859
Metgud, Renuka; Kumar, Ajay; Bhat, Kishore
Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care. PMID:25810600
Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline
The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was assessed by an interview including questions about their moral judgments and emotion attributions. Aggressive children judged retaliations as less serious than did nonaggressive children. They also referred less often to the harmful consequences of retaliation and were more likely to excuse the retaliation because of the provocation. In unprovoked aggressive situations younger aggressive children, compared with the younger nonaggressive children, attributed more happiness to transgressors, more anger to victims, and less sadness to transgressors and victims. The results are discussed in terms of previous research on aggressive children's moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression. PMID:23264993
Rick, Ingolf P.; Bakker, Theo C. M.
Animal colour signals serve important functions in intraspecific interactions, including species recognition, mate choice and agonistic behaviour. An increasing interest concerns ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, for instance studies on the effect of UV in mating decisions. More recently, some studies also established that UV signals affect intrasexual interactions. We studied the role of UV during aggressive encounters between male three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus), a species in which UV has an effect on female and male mate choice and shoaling behaviour. To that aim, we compared the aggressive response of a territorial male to male intruders, either seen in UV-including (UV+) or UV-lacking (UV-) conditions. Our prediction was that, if UV wavelengths are used in male-male competition, a territorial male should show less competitive behaviour towards an intruder representing a lower threat, i.e. the one presented without UV light. Male sticklebacks showed significantly lower levels of aggression towards male opponents lacking an UV component to their coloration than male opponents possessing this colour component. Discrimination was not influenced by a difference in brightness between the UV+ and UV- stimuli. Finally, we present some reflectance-spectrophotometrical data of two skin regions (cheek and abdomen) of the experimental males and analysed relationships between colorimetric variables, body variables and behaviour. Our study emphasises that UV visual cues are of importance in different communicational tasks in the three-spined stickleback.
Lees, Daniel; Sherman, Craig D. H.; Maguire, Grainne S.; Dann, Peter; Cardilini, Adam P. A.; Weston, Michael A.
Simple Summary We studied the defensive behaviour of 94 pairs of nesting Masked Lapwings, Vanellus miles, in response to two types of human stimuli: a pedestrian and a person pushing a lawn mower. We also examined the effectiveness of a commonly promoted deterrent to swooping (the presence of mock eyes placed on the back of a person’s head) for each stimulus type. Masked Lapwings responded more aggressively to a person pushing a lawn mower compared with pedestrians. Birds also remained closer to the nest in the presence of a lawn mower. The presence of eye stickers on the back of a pedestrian’s head decreased swooping behaviour; however, the presence of eye stickers worn by a person pushing a lawn mower increased swooping behaviour. Abstract Masked Lapwings, Vanellus miles, often come into ‘conflict’ with humans, because they often breed in close proximity to humans and actively defend their ground nests through aggressive behaviour, which typically involves swooping. This study examined whether defensive responses differed when nesting birds were confronted with different human stimuli (‘pedestrian alone’ vs. ‘person pushing a lawn mower’ approaches to nests) and tested the effectiveness of a commonly used deterrent (mock eyes positioned on the top or back of a person’s head) on the defensive response. Masked Lapwings did not swoop closer to a person with a lawn mower compared with a pedestrian, but flushed closer and remained closer to the nest in the presence of a lawn mower. The presence of eye stickers decreased (pedestrians) and increased (lawn mowers) swooping behaviour. Masked Lapwings can discriminate between different human activities and adjust their defensive behaviour accordingly. We also conclude that the use of eye stickers is an effective method to mitigate the human-lapwing ‘conflict’ in some, but not all, circumstances. PMID:26479532
Forbes, Gordon B; Adams-Curtis, Leah E; Pakalka, Alexis H; White, Kay B
Aggressive male sports have been criticized as bastions of sexism and training grounds for aggression against women, but there have been few empirical demonstrations of these alleged relationships. The authors studied self-reported dating aggression and sexual coercion in 147 college men. Men who had participated in aggressive high school sports, as compared with other men, engaged in more psychological aggression, physical aggression, and sexual coercion toward their dating partners, caused their partners more physical injury, were more accepting of violence, had more sexist attitudes and hostility toward women, were more accepting of rape myths, and were less tolerant of homosexuality. Results indicate that participation in aggressive high school sports is one of the multiple developmental pathways leading to relationship violence. PMID:16617170
Tsamis, Vasiliki J.; Rebok, George W.; Montague, David R.
While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an “encoding score,” was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education. PMID:19953190
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F
Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment. PMID:25006024
Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta
The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…
Wong-Lo, Mickie; Bullock, Lyndal M.
Cyberbullying is a category of bullying that occurs in the digital realm and affects students at astonishing rates. Unlike traditional bullying, in which displays of aggression may be evident to bystanders, the ramification of cyberbullying occurs through unconventional strategies (e.g., text messaging, online Web logs, video sharing). As a…
Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.
Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…
Lam, Lawrence T.
Investigates the extent of aggression exposure and the effects of exposure on the psychological health of nursing staff in hospitals. Results suggested that nearly 40% of staff experienced psychological distress, while nearly 10% experienced moderate to severe depression. Results of the logistic analyses indicated that frequent exposure to…
Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz
Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…
Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Shaw, Jon A.; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Castellanos, Daniel; Mesner, Linda
Seventeen aggressive adolescents were assigned to a massage therapy group or a relaxation therapy group to receive 20-minute therapy sessions, twice a week for five weeks. The massaged adolescents had lower anxiety after the first and last sessions. By the end of the study, they also reported feeling less hostile and they were perceived by their…
Purpose: To examine whether the completeness of accelerometer data obtained from elementary and high school students is enhanced when an aggressive data collection approach is employed. Methods: Participants were 149 elementary school (9.9+/-0.4 yrs) and 153 high school (17.7+/-0.4 yrs) students. ...
Eichelman, B S
The clinical treatment of violent behavior shows a remarkable congruence with preclinical research concerning the modulations of central neurotransmitter systems and their influence upon human aggressive behavior. Moreover, systematic alterations of central neurotransmitter activity in patients offer substantial promise of increasing the successful biological modification of violent behavior. PMID:1970469
Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura
The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…
Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit
To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…
Blendinger, Jack; And Others
Coping with aggressive student behavior is crucial to providing a safe and orderly classroom and school environment. Approaches for improving student behavior, ranging from enhancing a student's interpersonal skills to restraint techniques (such as the prudent use of physical force) are covered in this booklet. The material blends information in…
Mutzel, A.; Dingemanse, N. J.; Araya-Ajoy, Y. G.; Kempenaers, B.
Repeatable behavioural traits (‘personality’) have been shown to covary with fitness, but it remains poorly understood how such behaviour–fitness relationships come about. We applied a multivariate approach to reveal the mechanistic pathways by which variation in exploratory and aggressive behaviour is translated into variation in reproductive success in a natural population of blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus. Using path analysis, we demonstrate a key role for provisioning behaviour in mediating the link between personality and reproductive success (number of fledged offspring). Aggressive males fed their nestlings at lower rates than less aggressive individuals. At the same time, their low parental investment was associated with increased female effort, thereby positively affecting fledgling production. Whereas male exploratory behaviour was unrelated to provisioning behaviour and reproductive success, fast-exploring females fed their offspring at higher rates and initiated breeding earlier, thus increasing reproductive success. Our findings provide strong support for specific mechanistic pathways linking components of behavioural syndromes to reproductive success. Importantly, relationships between behavioural phenotypes and reproductive success were obscured when considering simple bivariate relationships, underlining the importance of adopting multivariate views and statistical tools as path analysis to the study of behavioural evolution. PMID:23782885
Tur-Porcar, Ana; Mestre, Vicenta; Samper, Paula; Malonda, Elisabeth
Child rearing provides messages and rules that mediate the children's personality. These messages have a positive or negative influence on their behaviour. The objective of this empirical study was to analyse the relationship between physical and verbal aggression of sons and daughters and parenting style practiced by the father and the mother. The sample consisted of 2,788 students, aged 10 to 15 years, studying either the third cycle of Primary Education (44%) or the first cycle of Secondary Education (56%). Of them, 1,412 were boys (50.6%) and 1,375 were girls (49.3%). The results show that children's aggressiveness is more related to factors associated with the mother's parenting. In the case of daughters, the influence of parenting factors are caused by both parents (father and mother). PMID:22420358
Cardoso, Gerusa O M; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N R; Niccoli-Filho, Walter
Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence. PMID:24964453
Cardoso, Gerusa O.M.; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N. R.; Niccoli-Filho, Walter
Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence. PMID:24964453
Oxman, Danielle Louise
of aggressive children. Variables that were examined included child's gender, ethnicity, and rejected status. A total of 173 elementary school-aged children participated in the study. The results concerning AA supported previous findings that boys were rated...
Kivisto, Aaron J; Swan, Scott A
This study sought to complement the archival research designs that have established the empirical foundations of Rorschach aggression scores, including Exner's ( 2003 ) Aggressive Movement (AG) score and Meloy and Gacono's ( 1992 ) Aggressive Content (AgC), Aggressive Past (AgPast), and Aggressive Potential (AgPot) variables. Utilizing a highly controlled laboratory-based aggression paradigm and self-report measures of violence history in a sample of 35 undergraduate males with an average age of 19.38 (SD = 2.11), this study found that only AgC was positively associated with in vivo aggression (r = .40, p = .02). None of the Rorschach measures of aggression were significantly associated with self-reported violence history, although there were several trends approaching significance. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. PMID:22906090
Rodman, Jennifer K
subtypes of aggressive children were revealed. Without hyperactivity (ADD/WO), with hyperactivity (ADHD), and with hyperactivity and aggression (ADDHA) were found to correlate highly with oppositional and conduct behaviors (those with ADDHA) as well...
are rampant. Konrad Lorenz, the Austrian ethologist who won the Nobel Prize in 1973 for his studies of animal biologists these days share Lorenz's views on aggression. Aggression is neither necessary nor inevitable
Mussweiler, T; Förster, J
Four studies suggest that priming may yield directionally different effects on social perception and behavior if perceptual and behavioral experiences with the stimulus diverge. This seems true for sex and aggression: Men are more likely to behave aggressively than women, whereas women are more likely to perceive aggressive behavior than men. Using a sequential priming paradigm, Study 1 demonstrates that a basic semantic link between sex and aggression exists for both genders. This link, however, has opposing behavioral and perceptual consequences for men and women. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that sex priming facilitates aggressive behavior only for men. Study 4 shows that only women perceive the ambiguously aggressive behavior of a male target person as more aggressive after sex priming. Thus, the perceptual and behavioral responses to sex priming are consistent with the experiences men and women typically have with sex and aggression. PMID:11045736
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Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.
The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.
Ragazzi, Moira; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Piana, Simonetta
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It shows a wide spectrum of morphological presentations and the diagnosis could be challenging due to its high degree of dedifferentiation. Molecular and genetic features of ATC are widely heterogeneous as well and many efforts have been made to find a common profile in order to clarify its cancerogenetic process. A comprehensive review of the current literature is here performed, focusing on histopathological and genetic features. PMID:25214840
Felthous, Alan R; Stanford, Matthew S
A rational algorithm for effective pharmacotherapy for impulsive aggression takes into account five factors: sufficiently defined and characterized aggressive behavior; availability of agents studied by trials of sufficient quality; risks, side effects, and contraindications; severity of aggressive outbursts; and co-occurring mental and medical conditions. Clinicians in forensic and correctional treatment centers, indeed in any treatment setting, should be able to optimize their effectiveness in treating impulsive aggression by using methods that consider these five factors. PMID:26668223
Background Former combatants have frequently reported that aggressive behaviour can be appetitive and appealing. This appetitive aggression (AA) may be adaptive for survival in a violent environment, as it is associated with a reduced risk of combat-related psychological traumatization. At the same time, AA might impair motivation for re-integration to civil life after ending active duty. Whereas in Colombia those combatants who volunteered for demobilization were mostly tired of fighting, those who demobilized collectively did so mainly by force of the government. We predicted those who were demobilized collectively would still be attracted to violence, and benefit from the resilience against trauma-related mental suffering, moderated by appetitive aggression, as they would have continued fighting had they not been forced to stop. Method A sample of 252 former Colombian former combatants from paramilitary and guerrilla forces was investigated. Appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I). We distinguished between individual and group demobilization and assessed reasons for disarmament. Results Most of the guerrilla troops who demobilized individually and were tired of fighting reported both an attraction to violence as well as increased trauma symptoms, owing to their former engagement in violent behaviour. In contrast, among those who were demobilized collectively, appetitive aggression was associated with a reduced risk of PTSD. However, this effect was not present in those combatants in the upper quartile of PTSD symptom severity. Conclusion The influence of combat experience on traumatization, as well as the motivation for demobilization, differs remarkably between those combatants who demobilized individually and those who were members of a group that was forced to demobilize. This has important implications for the implementation of re-integration programmes and therapeutic interventions. PMID:23575192
Dryier, Kimberly J.
The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…
Kalis, Pamela; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.
Explores the content and structure of music videos, focusing on the pervasiveness of aggressive cues (objects or events representing physical harm or the threat of harm), gender portrayals within a context of aggression, and the pacing of music videos. Finds that aggressive cues in music videos are less prominent than critics indicate. (MM)
Aggressive Chemotherapy and the Selection of Drug Resistant Pathogens Silvie Huijben1¤a *, Andrew S. Aggressive chemotherapy thus generates opposing evolutionary forces which together determine the rate of drug, Bell AS, Sim DG, Tomasello D, Mideo N, et al. (2013) Aggressive Chemotherapy and the Selection of Drug
Loveland, James M.; Lounsbury, John W.; Welsh, Deborah; Buboltz, Walter C.
Background: Aggression has a long history in academic research as both a criterion and a predictor variable and it is well documented that aggression is related to a variety of poor academic outcomes such as: lowered academic performance, absenteeism and lower graduation rates. However, recent research has implicated physical aggression as being…
Wienir, Paul L.
Seven hypotheses regarding the role of anger for aggressive behavior were testes in an experimental exchange situation using male children as subjects. In previous studies, anger had not actually been employed as the intervening variable in a provocation/aggressive cue-aggression model. The results indicate a strong relationship between…
Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.
Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…
Kurtyilmaz, Yildiz; Can, Gurhan
This research was carried out to investigate preservice teachers' aggressive behaviors. In addition, the contributions of variables to the aggressive behaviors were explored, including females' and males' patterns of explaining aggressive behaviors. Out of 3366 preservice teachers at Education Faculty of Anadolu University and Osmangazi…
Arsenault, Darin J.; Foster, Sharon L.
This study examined attention and memory processes assumed by the social information-processing model to be biased in aggressive children. We also explored whether similar biases were associated with overt and relational aggression. A total of 96 fourth through sixth graders saw videos of overtly and relationally aggressive child actors and…
Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.
Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…
Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...
Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia
The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of boys between…
Sex differences in indirect aggression Psychological evidence from young adults Nicole H. Hessa theories of sex differences in indirect aggression propose selection pressures that would have acted on older teenagers and adults. Evidence for sex differences in indirect aggression in adults, however
Kuhns, Clarissa Ivette
This study examined the joint effects of the quality of teacher-student relationship support (TSRS) and normative levels of classroom aggression on individual aggression in a sample of 687 second-grade children who entered first grade...
Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Schofield, Paul N
The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain. PMID:26215546
Osher, David; VanAcker, Richard; Morrison, Gale M.; Gable, Robert; Dwyer, Kevin; Quinn, Mary
One need not look hard to find evidence of concern related to the nature of student behavior in our schools. School violence, aggression, bullying, and harassment (e.g., racial or sexual) are often cited as challenging behaviors confronting educators and community leaders. Unfortunately, most schools address these concerns with aversive…
Mann, J John
A stress-diathesis explanatory model of suicidal behaviour has proved to be of heuristic value, and both clinical and neurobiological components can be integrated into such a model. A trait deficiency in serotonin input to the anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is found in association with suicide, and more recently non-fatal suicidal behaviour, and is linked to decision-making and suicide intent by imaging and related studies in vivo. The same neural circuitry and serotonin deficiency may contribute to impulsive aggressive traits that are part of the diathesis for suicidal behaviour and are associated with early onset mood disorders and greater risk for suicidal behaviour. Other brain areas manifest deficient serotonin input, that is, a trait related to recurrent major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Thus the serotonin system is involved in both the diathesis for suicidal behaviour in terms of decision-making, and to a major stressor, namely episodes of major depression. PMID:23440471
Tapp, Alan; Pressley, Ashley; Baugh, Mike; White, Paul
Young men from poorer backgrounds are associated with high road traffic collision levels. However, solving this problem has proven very difficult. Hence this paper summarises the findings of a UK government funded two-year trial of a cross-discipline intervention to reduce aggressive driving amongst this group. The intervention reported on here departed from traditional approaches such as fear appeals, stand-alone educational approaches, or punitive measures. Instead, the discipline of social marketing was used to provide overarching direction and structure for the trial, with a key focus on motivation and engagement. The project rested on a strong education and training platform and included a bespoke coaching programme, incentives, and an in-vehicle measurement and feedback device. The project had three development phases leading to the final trial. First, a literature and case study review identified possible design strategies. Second, these strategies were explored using primary research in the form of a qualitative inquiry. Third, a pre-trial design phase sought to introduce key components of the intervention to the trial cohort, retaining some flexibility before committing to the final design. Young males with a history of challenging behaviour (e.g. criminal records, driving convictions) from an economically deprived area within a UK city were recruited. Of 42 recruits, 23 successfully completed the trial. Behaviour changes were measured pre-, during and post-trial through a combination of driver performance data measured by in-vehicle data recorders (IVDRs), assessments of driving undertaken by trained observers, and self-assessment surveys and interviews with trial participants. Results indicate a significant average improvement in driving skills amongst participants who completed the trial. Given the difficulty in engaging and changing behaviour of this specific group, this is regarded as a significant finding. In summary the study provides an indication of proof of concept for the intervention in improving driving skills. However the limited sample size and lack of control group mean that further work will be required to validate these findings. It is recommended that a feasibility study with higher cohort volumes is undertaken, before attempting a full scale trial. PMID:24001339
Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling
In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered. PMID:26415598
Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng
This research is comprised of two studies designed to explore the effects of online discussion forum aggressive messages and Internet cognitive distortion on users' negative affect and aggression. The results of study 1 revealed 69 users could perceive both disgust and hostility feelings toward aggressive messages conducted by the authors, and…
Anliak, Sakire; Sahin, Derya
The present observational study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) programme on behavioural change from aggression to pro-social behaviours by using the DECB rating scale. Non-participant observation method was used to collect data in pretest-training-posttest design. It was hypothesised that the ICPS…
Kohn, Y; Fahum, T; Ratzoni, G; Apter, A
Asperger's Syndrome is one of the diagnostic subcategories of pervasive developmental disorders. It is characterized by a defect in reciprocal social interaction, lack of empathy for others and poor non-verbal communication. Antisocial acts, including aggression and sexual offense, are not considered to be common in this disorder. We describe an adolescent with Asperger's Syndrome whose main problems are his violence and sexual offenses. We assume that these symptoms are secondary to his diagnosis of Asperger's as a manifestation of his difficulties with the "theory of mind" of others. This atypical case report is in contrast with the low prevalence of aggression and sexual offense in Asperger's, as reported in the literature. We discuss the reasons for this low prevalence. Our conclusions are based on one case history and a literature review. We call for further research in this field. PMID:9988987
Raskauskas, Juliana; Stoltz, Ann D
Chronic victimization by bullies has been associated with academic failure in adolescence, as well as adjustment difficulties, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relational aggression is a form of bullying that is a problem for adolescent girls. It often takes the form of damaging peer relationships and includes verbal assaults such as teasing or name calling, as well as psychological attacks such as gossip, social exclusion, and strategic friendship manipulations. A girl's ability to identify these indirect attacks may be imperative for her to enact an effective defense. Because many students do not recognize relational aggression as a form of bullying, their experiences often go unreported to parents or teachers. School nurses may be the front line of defense. With this in mind, school nurses must be informed about bullying behaviors, equipped to identify these behaviors, and prepared to intervene with victims as well as perpetrators of bullying. PMID:15283614
Researchers led by Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Ph.D., in DCEG's Laboratory of Translational Genomics, have identified the first genetic variant associated with risk of aggressive bladder cancer. The variant, rs7257330, is in the promoter region of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes for cyclin E protein, a cell cycle regulator. This result comes from a fine-mapping analysis of data from two bladder cancer genome-wide association studies and functional studies.
Schiavi, R C; Theilgaard, A; Owen, D R; White, D
This double-blind, controlled study of XYY and XXY men found in a birth cohort of 4,591 tall men born in Copenhagen assessed evidence of delinquent and aggressive behavior and explored the role of hormonal determinants in the behavioral and psychological differences noted among groups. Information from social records, a structured psychological interview, and projective tests did not support the notion that men with sex chromosome anomalies are particularly violent or aggressive. Hormonally, XYY men had significantly higher concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) than matched control groups. In contrast, XXY men had higher levels of LH, FSH, and prolactin, but low concentrations of testosterone. There was a significantly positive relation among all subjects as well as XY controls alone between plasma testosterone level and evidence of criminal convictions. A proportionate increase in testosterone levels was noted when subjects were divided into nondelinquents, delinquents without violent convictions, and delinquents with violent convictions. The relation between testosterone level and criminal behavior was not reflected in measures of aggression derived from the psychological interview and projective tests. There was no specific evidence that testosterone is a mediating factor in the criminal behavior of XYY men. PMID:6419709
The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer’s sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection. PMID:22359467
Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Parks, Robin J.; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen
Ongoing mouse studies of a proposed therapy for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutated for accelerated cocaine hydrolysis have yielded surprising effects on aggression. Further investigation has linked these effects to a reduction in circulating ghrelin, driven by BChE at levels ?100-fold above normal. Tests with human BChE showed ready ghrelin hydrolysis at physiologic concentrations, and multiple low-mass molecular dynamics simulations revealed that ghrelin’s first five residues fit sterically and electrostatically into BChE’s active site. Consistent with in vitro results, male BALB/c mice with high plasma BChE after gene transfer exhibited sharply reduced plasma ghrelin. Unexpectedly, such animals fought less, both spontaneously and in a resident/intruder provocation model. One mutant BChE was found to be deficient in ghrelin hydrolysis. BALB/c mice transduced with this variant retained normal plasma ghrelin levels and did not differ from untreated controls in the aggression model. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice with BChE gene deletion exhibited increased ghrelin and fought more readily than wild-type animals. Collectively, these findings indicate that BChE-catalyzed ghrelin hydrolysis influences mouse aggression and social stress, with potential implications for humans. PMID:25646463
McDonald, Kristina L; Benish-Weisman, Maya; O'Brien, Christopher T; Ungvary, Stephen
Recent research has identified youth who utilize both aggressive and prosocial behavior with peers. Although the social values and motivations associated with aggression and prosocial behavior have been well studied, the values of youth who utilize both aggression and prosocial behavior are unknown. The current study identified groups of adolescents based on peer nominations of aggression and prosocial behavior from both Israel (n = 569; 56.94 % Arab, 43.06 % Jewish; 53.78 % female) and the United States (n = 342; 67.54 % African-American; 32.46 % European-American; 50.88 % female). Self-enhancement, self-transcendence, openness-to-change, and conservation values predicted behavioral group membership. Power values predicted membership in the aggressive group relative to the aggressive-prosocial, prosocial, and low-both groups. For Israeli boys, openness-to-change values predicted membership in the aggressive-prosocial group relative to the prosocial group. The values of aggressive-prosocial youth were more similar to the values of prosocial peers than to aggressive peers, suggesting that motivational interventions for aggressive-prosocial youth should differ in important ways than those for aggressive youth. PMID:25559413
Logue, David M; Takahashi, April D; Cade, William H
Individual variation in aggressive behavior in animals might be caused by adaptive covariation with body size. We developed a model that predicts the benefits of aggressiveness as a function of body size. The model indicated that individuals of intermediate sizes would derive the greatest benefits from being aggressive. If we assume that the cost of aggression is approximately uniform with respect to body size, selection should favor higher aggression in intermediate-sized individuals than in large or small individuals. This prediction was tested by stimulating male Madagascar hissing cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa, with disembodied antennae and recording the males' aggressive responses. Antennae from larger males evoked weaker responses in subjects, suggesting that males obtained information about their opponents' size from the opponents' antennae alone. After accounting for this effect, we found support for the key prediction of our model: aggressiveness peaked at intermediate sizes. Data from actual male-male interactions validated that the antenna assay accurately measured aggressiveness. Analysis of an independent data set generated by staging male-male interactions also supported the prediction that intermediate-sized males were most aggressive. We conclude that adaptive covariation between body size and aggressiveness explains some interindividual variation in aggressiveness. PMID:21460556
Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T
Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991
Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.
The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377
Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Burns, Sharyn; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly
Introduction Covert bullying in schools is associated with a range of academic, social, emotional and physical health problems. Much research has focused on bullying, but there remains a gap in understanding about covert aggression and how to most accurately and reliably measure children's own reports of this behaviour. This paper reviews relevant literature and outlines a research project that aims to develop a self-report instrument that effectively measures covert aggression and bullying. It is anticipated that this research will result in a standardised instrument that is suitable for exploring preadolescent children's experiences of covert aggressive behaviour. The data collected by the instrument will enhance health and education professionals understanding of covert bullying behaviours and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions. Methods and analysis Relational developmental systems theory will guide the design of an online self-report instrument. The first phase of the project will include a critical review of the research literature, focus groups with children aged 8–12?years (grades 4–6) in Perth, Western Australia, and expert review. The instrument will be explored for content and face validity prior to the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Curtin University of Human Research Ethics Committee (RDHS-38-15) and by the Executive Principal of the participating school. PMID:26553834
Balas, Benjamin; Thomas, Laura
Observers use facial appearance to predict social behavior and individuals' personality traits. We examined the possibility that social contexts can also influence face perception. To investigate the relationship between competitive social contexts and perceived appearance, we leveraged a known link between aggression and a simple physiognomic cue: the facial width-to-height ratio (WHR). Faces with higher WHRs are perceived as being more aggressive (Carre, McCormick, & Mondloch, 2009) and individuals with naturally higher WHRs exhibit more aggressive behavior (Carre & McCormick, 2008). Participants played a simple skill game either in competition (N=30) or cooperation (N=30) with a confederate prior to reconstructing the facial appearance of their opponent/partner and a refereeing third party by arranging segmented facial features on a screen until they had produced a best likeness of the target individual. We anticipated that higher perceived aggression during competition would lead to higher reconstructed WHRs than cooperation. The results supported this prediction: participants' reconstructions had significantly higher WHRs (p< 0.01) following a competitive interaction for both the observer's opponent and the referee. A follow-up experiment that included competitive (N=30) and cooperative interaction (N=30), as well as a baseline condition with no salient social component (N=30) replicated and extended this result. In this second task, we observed a main effect of social context (F(1,87)=5.14, p=0.008) and post-hoc tests revealed that competition led to higher WHRs than cooperation (p=0.013) or the baseline condition (p=0.026), while WHRs in the cooperation group did not differ from those in the baseline group (p=0.96). This suggests that competition and subsequent perceived aggression systematically bias perceived appearance, while cooperation has little direct effect. These results demonstrate that the social perception of faces is not merely a feed-forward process, but instead that the social contexts in which people interact can shape face perception. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326905
Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming; Mou, Yi
ABSTRACT This study investigates whether individual difference influences idiosyncratic experience of game playing. In particular, we examine the relationship between the game player's physical-aggressive personality and the aggressiveness of the player's game playing in violence-oriented video games. Screen video stream of 40 individual participants' game playing was captured and content analyzed. Participants' physical aggression was measured before the game play. The results suggest that people with more physical-aggressive personality engage in a more aggressive style of playing, after controlling the differences of gender and previous gaming experience. Implications of these findings and direction for future studies are discussed. PMID:18422407
Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Marelli, Sara; Galbiati, Andrea
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by loss of the muscle atonia that typically occurs during REM sleep, therefore allowing patients to act out their dreams. RBD manifests itself clinically as a violent behaviour occurring during the night, and is detected at the polysomnography by phasic and/or tonic muscle activity on the electromyography channel. In absence of neurological signs or central nervous system lesions, RBD is defined as idiopathic. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the development of neurodegenerative diseases in RBD patients has been described, with the duration of the follow-up representing a fundamental aspect. A growing number of clinical, neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies aimed to detect early markers of neurodegenerative dysfunction in RBD patients. Anyway, the evidence of impaired cortical activity, subtle neurocognitive dysfunction, olfactory and autonomic impairment and neuroimaging brain changes in RBD patients is challenging the concept of an idiopathic form of RBD, supporting the idea of RBD as an early manifestation of a more complex neurodegenerative process. PMID:26427638
Gschwind, Michael K
Mechanisms for aggressively optimizing computer code are provided. With these mechanisms, a compiler determines an optimization to apply to a portion of source code and determines if the optimization as applied to the portion of source code will result in unsafe optimized code that introduces a new source of exceptions being generated by the optimized code. In response to a determination that the optimization is an unsafe optimization, the compiler generates an aggressively compiled code version, in which the unsafe optimization is applied, and a conservatively compiled code version in which the unsafe optimization is not applied. The compiler stores both versions and provides them for execution. Mechanisms are provided for switching between these versions during execution in the event of a failure of the aggressively compiled code version. Moreover, predictive mechanisms are provided for predicting whether such a failure is likely.
Pagani, L; Boulerice, B; Tremblay, R E; Vitaro, F
We employed an autoregressive modelling technique with data from the Québec Longitudinal Study to prospectively examine the developmental impact of family transition on behaviour while controlling for predivorce and preremarriage effects. Teachers rated children's anxious, hyperactive, physically aggressive, oppositional, and prosocial behaviour every 2 years from kindergarten through to the end of elementary school. Once individual and parental characteristics and antecedent family events were controlled, children who experienced parental divorce before age 6 exhibited comparatively more behavioural disturbance than their peers whose parents divorced later. With the exception of a protective effect on hyperactive behaviour, remarriage did not have a significant impact on children's behaviour when the legacy of divorce was controlled. Although the results suggest that children of divorced parents show difficulty in many areas of functioning, the effects of family transition on behavioural development were dependent on the child's age and the specific behavioural dimension assessed. Compared to other points in development, early childhood divorce was associated with long-term increases in anxious, hyperactive, and oppositional behaviour during later childhood. The effects of divorce on children's fighting were short-lived. Unlike previous prospective studies that suggest predivorce effects, we did not observe behavioural disturbance prior to divorce or remarriage. PMID:9363576
Coccaro, Emil F
Comments on the article by F. Mancke et al. (see record 2015-31349-001). The article by Mancke et al. is an excellent review and synthesis of extant data to reformulate the phenomenon of aggression in borderline personality disorder (BPD) into a multidimensional model. It attempts to conceptualize aggression from the biobehavioral dimensions of affect dysregulation, impulsivity, threat hypersensitivity, and cognitive empathy based on data from self-reports and behavioral tasks, neuroimaging, neurochemistry, and psychophysiology. This is a clear contribution to the field. In this commentary, I will focus on some issues that reinforce the points they make in their excellent paper and/or add to them. PMID:26191823
Chen, Yan; Di Grappa, Marco A; Molyneux, Sam D; McKee, Trevor D; Waterhouse, Paul; Penninger, Josef M; Khokha, Rama
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone cancer, which occurs primarily in children and adolescents, severely affecting survivors' quality of life. Despite its chemosensitivity and treatment advances, long-term survival rates for OS patients have stagnated over the last 20 years. Thus, it is necessary to develop new molecularly targeted therapies for this metastatic bone cancer. Mutations in TP53 and RB are linked to OS predisposition and to the evolution of spontaneous OS. We established receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) as a therapeutic target for suppression and prevention of OS. Combined conditional osteoblast-specific deletions of Rb, p53, and the protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit Prkar1? genes in genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) generate aggressive osteosarcomas, characterized by PKA, RANKL, and osteoclast hyperactivity. Whole-body Rankl deletion completely abrogates tumorigenesis. Although osteoblastic Rank deletion has little effect, osteoclastic Rank deletion delays tumorigenesis and prolongs life span. The latter is associated with inactivation of osteoclastogenesis and up-regulation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Further, we use these GEMMs as preclinical platforms to show that RANKL blockade with RANK-Fc arrests tumor progression and improves survival and also inhibits lung metastasis. Moreover, preemptive administration of RANK-Fc completely prevents tumorigenesis in mice highly predisposed to this aggressive cancer. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, is currently used to treat patients with osteoporosis or bone metastases. Our studies provide a strong rationale to consider RANKL blockade for the treatment and prevention of aggressive RANKL-overexpressing OS in humans. PMID:26659571
Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul
Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) presents as a lytic lesion of epiphyseometaphyseal regions of the long bones usually during the second to the fourth decade with female predilection. Histologically, they are formed of neoplastic mononuclear cells with a higher receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression responsible for the aggressive osteolytic nature of the tumour. RANKL helps in the formation and functioning of osteoclasts. A newer molecule, Denosumab, is a monoclonal antibody directed against RANKL and thus prevents the formation and function of osteoclasts. Management of refractory, multicentric, recurrent, or metastatic GCTB remains challenging as achieving a tumor-free margin surgically is not always possible. Denosumab may play a crucial role, especially in the management of such difficult lesions. We present three cases of locally aggressive GCTB (involving proximal humerus, sacrum, and proximal femur) that were treated and responded very well to Denosumab therapy. PMID:26251767
Møller, S E; Mortensen, E L; Breum, L; Alling, C; Larsen, O G; Bøge-Rasmussen, T; Jensen, C; Bennicke, K
Associations in 52 normal individuals were examined between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine, and concentrations of monoamine metabolites in the CSF, and scores on an aggression questionnaire, the Kinsey Institute Reaction List II, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. There was a significantly positive correlation between CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels and extroverted aggression scores, and a significantly negative correlation between CSF 5-HIAA levels and introverted aggression scores. Males showed higher plasma Trp concentrations than females, and significantly positive correlations between plasma Trp concentrations and scores on extroverted aggression and the Eysenck E scale. Males, furthermore, showed a significantly negative correlation between CSF Trp levels and scores on the Eysenck P scale, and a significantly positive correlation between concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol in CSF and scores on moral aggression. These results suggest that central serotonin influences aggression in normal individuals through effects on personality. PMID:8685288
Webster, Gregory D; DeWall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Deckman, Timothy; Jonason, Peter K; Le, Bonnie M; Nichols, Austin Lee; Schember, Tatiana Orozco; Crysel, Laura C; Crosier, Benjamin S; Smith, C Veronica; Paddock, E Layne; Nezlek, John B; Kirkpatrick, Lee A; Bryan, Angela D; Bator, Renée J
In contexts that increasingly demand brief self-report measures (e.g., experience sampling, longitudinal and field studies), researchers seek succinct surveys that maintain reliability and validity. One such measure is the 12-item Brief Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ; Webster et al., 2014), which uses 4 3-item subscales: Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, and Hostility. Although prior work suggests the BAQ's scores are reliable and valid, we addressed some lingering concerns. Across 3 studies (N = 1,279), we found that the BAQ had a 4-factor structure, possessed long-term test-retest reliability across 12 weeks, predicted differences in behavioral aggression over time in a laboratory experiment, generalized to a diverse nonstudent sample, and showed convergent validity with a displaced aggression measure. In addition, the BAQ's 3-item Anger subscale showed convergent validity with a trait anger measure. We discuss the BAQ's potential reliability, validity, limitations, and uses as an efficient measure of aggressive traits. PMID:26055531
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar
We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health. PMID:26473945
Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.
Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829
MIN, KYUENG-WHAN; CHAE, SEOUNG WAN; KIM, DONG-HOON; DO, SUNG-IM; KIM, KYUNGEUN; LEE, HYUN JOO; SOHN, JIN HEE; PYO, JUNG-SOO; KIM, DONG HYUN; OH, SUKJOONG; CHOI, SEON HYEONG; PARK, YONG LAI; PARK, CHAN HEUN
Fascin is an actin cross-linking protein, which regulates actin dynamics and filopodia or spike formation, as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and has been implicated in cell motility. Although, fascin is pivotal in mediating the aggressive behaviour of various types of cancer, its prognostic significance according to tumour stage has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, the present study investigated fascin expression in 194 patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast between 2000 and 2005. Fascin protein expression levels were evaluated by immunostaining on a tissue microarray, and the association between fascin expression and various clinicopathological parameters was analysed. Fascin expression was significantly correlated with various clinicopathological parameters, including high histological grade, tumour necrosis, resistance to adjuvant therapy, high expression of p53 and Ki-67 and specific therapeutic markers (oestrogen and progesterone receptor negativity; all P<0.05). Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses identified a significant association between fascin expression, and poor disease-free and overall survival, in late-stage breast cancer (all P<0.05). Therefore, fascin may be crucial in predicting aggressive tumour behaviour, particularly in patients with advanced-stage disease that has acquired the properties of migration and invasion. PMID:26170987
Eaton, L; Edmonds, E J; Henry, T B; Snellgrove, D L; Sloman, K A
Maternal stress has been shown to affect behaviour of offspring in a wide range of animals, but this evidence has come from studies that exposed gestating mothers to acute or severe stressors, such as restraint or exposure to synthetic stress hormones. Here we show that exposure of mothers to even a mild stressor reduces associative learning and increases aggression in offspring. Female guppies were exposed to routine husbandry procedures that produced only a minimal, non-significant, elevation of the stress hormone cortisol. In contrast to controls, offspring from mothers that experienced this mild stress failed to learn to associate a colour cue and food reward, and showed a greater amount of inter-individual variation in behaviour compared with control offspring. This mild stress also resulted in offspring that were more aggressive towards their own mirror image than controls. While it is possible that these results could represent the transmission of beneficial maternal characteristics to offspring born into unpredictable environments, the potential for mild maternal stress to affect offspring performance also has important implications for research into the trans-generational effects of stress. PMID:25840012
Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa
Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…
Helm, Bob; And Others
Sixty males received either one, 5, or 9 electric shocks of varying magnitude from a confederate during a 10-trial probability estimation task. Following initial trials, subject and confederate reversed roles, and subjects were permitted equal opportunity to counter-aggress against the confederate. One-half the subjects had been forewarned of role…
Smorti, Andrea; Ciucci, Enrica; McKeough, Anne; Malcolm, Jennifer; Bremner, Dawn
The impact of persistent aggression on youths' social and psychological well being is well documented. What is less well understood is the shaping effect of cultural differences on how such conflict is experienced and responded to. In this study, we asked youth to write a story about a conflict they experienced and describe their associated…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how language functions to construct relevance at moments of articulation and how language functions as an aggressive marketing practice to promote a self-regulated (production-oriented) system of accreditation. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on the political theory of Laclau and Lacanian…
Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum) is the most common cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Aggressiveness is the most important fungal trait affecting disease severity and stability of host resistance. Objectives were to analyze in two field exper...
Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus
Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine. PMID:23501053
Alekseyenko, Olga V; Chan, Yick-Bun; Fernandez, Maria de la Paz; Bülow, Torsten; Pankratz, Michael J; Kravitz, Edward A
Monoamine serotonin (5HT) has been linked to aggression for many years across species. However, elaboration of the neurochemical pathways that govern aggression has proven difficult because monoaminergic neurons also regulate other behaviors. There are approximately 100 serotonergic neurons in the Drosophila nervous system, and they influence sleep, circadian rhythms, memory, and courtship. In the Drosophila model of aggression, the acute shut down of the entire serotonergic system yields flies that fight less, whereas induced activation of 5HT neurons promotes aggression. Using intersectional genetics, we restricted the population of 5HT neurons that can be reproducibly manipulated to identify those that modulate aggression. Although similar approaches were used recently to find aggression-modulating dopaminergic and Fru(M)-positive peptidergic neurons, the downstream anatomical targets of the neurons that make up aggression-controlling circuits remain poorly understood. Here, we identified a symmetrical pair of serotonergic PLP neurons that are necessary for the proper escalation of aggression. Silencing these neurons reduced aggression in male flies, and activating them increased aggression in male flies. GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) analyses suggest that 5HT-PLP neurons form contacts with 5HT1A receptor-expressing neurons in two distinct anatomical regions of the brain. Activation of these 5HT1A receptor-expressing neurons, in turn, caused reductions in aggression. Our studies, therefore, suggest that aggression may be held in check, at least in part, by inhibitory input from 5HT1A receptor-bearing neurons, which can be released by activation of the 5HT-PLP neurons. PMID:25447998
Madkins, Jeanette Patricia
there seem to be few empirical studies addressing the relational risk factors of female perpetrated partner aggression, attachment theory and the saliency of relational bonds to female development speak to the significance that relational dimensions... manner. Additional predictive factors implicated in psychological aggression include lowered self-esteem and higher relationship involvement. Gender equality in perpetration of psychological aggression was further confirmed through the work of Straus...
Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.
The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36?=?7.43, p?=?0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184
Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624
Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald
This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.
Hay, William W
Nutrition of preterm infants should result in growth similar to that of normally growing fetuses of the same gestational age. Unfortunately, most preterm infants are not fed enough to achieve this objective; as a result they are growth restricted by term gestation. Recent studies have demonstrated that early and enhanced "aggressive" nutrition of preterm infants can reduce postnatal growth failure and improve longer-term outcomes, particularly for the brain and its cognitive functions. When preterm infants are fed more aggressively (earlier onset of intravenous and enteral feeding, earlier achievement of full enteral feeding) cumulative energy and protein deficits are reduced and they consistently regain birth weight sooner, the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis is unchanged or reduced, and they achieve discharge criteria and go home sooner, with overall shorter hospital stays, and have improved anthropometrics by term gestation. More research is needed, however, to determine optimum feeding of preterm infants, particularly during periods of illness and physiological instability. PMID:24386613
Sandidge, S; Friedland, S J
Effects of sex-role standards on the expression of aggression were examined in a task requiring 40 boys and girls aged nine to 10 to take the role of boys or girls portrayed in a set of cartoon figures. Subjects were asked to respond to aggressive statements attributed to cartoon figures varying in sex. The expectation that subjects taking the role of male figures would display more antisocial aggression was confirmed. In addition, subjects gave more anti-social aggression responses for boys interacting with boys. Findings are taken as support for a role interpretation of sex differences in expression of agression. PMID:1141869
Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane
The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games predicted automatic aggressive self-concept, above and beyond self-reported aggression. Results suggest that playing violent video games can lead to the automatic learning of aggressive self-views. PMID:15013259
Alcorn, Joseph L; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D
This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24?IU of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30?min before and 30, 60, and 90?min after dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indication of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson's r=0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153
Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E; Rosenbaum, Jill; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis Alberto
Hostile attributions are an important predictor of aggression in children, but few studies have measured hostile attributions as they occur in real-time. The current study uses an interactive video racing game to measure hostile attributions while children played against a presumed peer. A sample of 75 children, ages 10-13, used nonverbal and verbal procedures to respond to ambiguous provocation by their opponent. Hostile attributions were significantly positively related to parent-rated reactive aggression, when controlling for proactive aggression. Hostile attributions using a nonverbal response procedure were negatively related to proactive aggression, when controlling for reactive aggression. Results suggest hostile attributions in real-time occur quickly and simultaneously with social interaction, which differs from the deliberative, controlled appraisals measured with vignette-based instruments. The relation between real-time hostile attributions and reactive aggression could be accounted for by the impulsive response style that is characteristic of reactive aggression, whereas children exhibiting proactive aggression may be more deliberate and intentional in their responding, resulting in a negative relation with real-time hostile attributions. These findings can be used both to identify children at risk for aggression and to enhance preventive interventions. PMID:24604776
Edwards, Alexis C; Rollmann, Stephanie M; Morgan, Theodore J; Mackay, Trudy F. C
Aggressive behavior is important for animal survival and reproduction, and excessive aggression is an enormous social and economic burden for human society. Although the role of biogenic amines in modulating aggressive behavior is well characterized, other genetic mechanisms affecting this complex behavior remain elusive. Here, we developed an assay to rapidly quantify aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, and generated replicate selection lines with divergent levels of aggression. The realized heritability of aggressive behavior was approximately 0.10, and the phenotypic response to selection specifically affected aggression. We used whole-genome expression analysis to identify 1,539 probe sets with different expression levels between the selection lines when pooled across replicates, at a false discovery rate of 0.001. We quantified the aggressive behavior of 19 mutations in candidate genes that were generated in a common co-isogenic background, and identified 15 novel genes affecting aggressive behavior. Expression profiling of genetically divergent lines is an effective strategy for identifying genes affecting complex traits. PMID:17044737
Zhou, Zhiqing E; Yang, Liu-Qin; Spector, Paul E
In the current study we examined the role of 4 dimensions of political skill (social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking ability, and apparent sincerity) in predicting subsequent workplace aggression exposure based on the proactive coping framework. Further, we investigated their buffering effects on the negative outcomes of experienced workplace aggression based on the transactional stress model. Data were collected from nurses at 3 time points: before graduation (Time 1, n = 346), approximately 6 months after graduation (Time 2, n = 214), and approximately 12 months after graduation (Time 3, n = 161). Results showed that Time 1 interpersonal influence and apparent sincerity predicted subsequent physical aggression exposure. Exposure to physical and/or psychological workplace aggression was related to increased anger and musculoskeletal injury, and decreased job satisfaction and career commitment. Further, all dimensions of political skill but networking ability buffered some negative effects of physical aggression, and all dimensions but social astuteness buffered some negative effects of psychological aggression. PMID:25798720
Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M
Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed. PMID:25929138
Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias
Three studies examined the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. In Study 1, the authors directly manipulated whether male or female participants listened to misogynous or neutral song lyrics and measured actual aggressive behavior. Male participants who were exposed to misogynous song lyrics administered more hot chili sauce to a female than to a male confederate. Study 2 shed some light on the underlying psychological processes: Male participants who heard misogynous song lyrics recalled more negative attributes of women and reported more feelings of vengeance than when they heard neutral song lyrics. In addition, men-hating song lyrics had a similar effect on aggression-related responses of female participants toward men. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of the previous two studies with an alternative measure of aggressive behavior as well as a more subtle measure of aggressive cognitions. The results are discussed in the framework of the General Aggression Model. PMID:16902237
Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G; Dingemanse, Niels J
Biologists often study phenotypic evolution assuming that phenotypes consist of a set of quasi-independent units that have been shaped by selection to accomplish a particular function. In the evolutionary literature, such quasi-independent functional units are called 'evolutionary characters', and a framework based on evolutionary principles has been developed to characterize them. This framework mainly focuses on 'fixed' characters, i.e. those that vary exclusively between individuals. In this paper, we introduce multi-level variation and thereby expand the framework to labile characters, focusing on behaviour as a worked example. We first propose a concept of 'behavioural characters' based on the original evolutionary character concept. We then detail how integration of variation between individuals (cf. 'personality') and within individuals (cf. 'individual plasticity') into the framework gives rise to a whole suite of novel testable predictions about the evolutionary character concept. We further propose a corresponding statistical methodology to test whether observed behaviours should be considered expressions of a hypothesized evolutionary character. We illustrate the application of our framework by characterizing the behavioural character 'aggressiveness' in wild great tits, Parus major. PMID:24335984
Schild, Sarah-Lina Aa; Rousing, Tine; Jensen, Henrik E; Barington, Kristiane; Herskin, Mette S
This study focused on behavioural and clinical effects of umbilical outpouchings (UOs) in pigs. Matched pairs of pigs with UOs (diameter 12 cm; range 4-20; diagnosed p.m. as hernia or non-hernia) and controls (N=28) were compared during a 6-h stay in a pick-up facility. Overall, skin lesion scores were increased after the 6-h stay. Behaviour of the UO-pigs differed from the controls (a shorter latency to lie down (P<0.05) and decreased aggression (P<0.05)). Pigs with umbilical hernia showed e.g. increased sitting (P<0.05) and decreased lying (P<0.05) compared to pigs with non-hernia UOs. No effects of the size of the OUs were found. These results are among the first to establish knowledge about UO-pigs and suggest that a stay in a pick-up facility can be challenging for pig welfare. The behavioural findings suggest that UO-pigs, and especially pigs with hernia, may be less fit for mixing and housing in barren environments. PMID:26267102
Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J
Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666
Alekseyenko, Olga V.; Chan, Yick-Bun; de la Paz Fernandez, Maria; Bülow, Torsten; Pankratz, Michael J.; Kravitz, Edward A.
SUMMARY Monoamine serotonin (5HT) has been linked to aggression for many years across species [1–3]. However, elaboration of the neurochemical pathways that govern aggression has proven difficult because monoaminergic neurons also regulate other behaviors [4, 5]. There are about 100 serotonergic neurons in the Drosophila nervous system and they influence sleep , circadian rhythms , memory [8, 9] and courtship . In the Drosophila model of aggression  the acute shut down of the entire serotonergic system yields flies that fight less, while induced activation of 5HT neurons promotes aggression . Using intersectional genetics we restricted the population of 5HT neurons that can be reproducibly manipulated to identify those that modulate aggression. Although similar approaches were used recently to find aggression-modulating dopaminergic  and FruM –positive peptidergic  neurons, the downstream anatomical targets of the neurons that make up aggression-controlling circuits remain poorly understood. Here we identified a symmetrical pair of serotonergic PLP neurons that are necessary for the proper escalation of aggression. Silencing these neurons reduced, and activating them increased aggression in male flies. GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP)  analyses suggests that 5HT-PLP neurons form contacts with 5HT1A receptor - expressing neurons in two distinct anatomical regions of the brain. Activation of these 5HT1A receptor-expressing neurons, in turn, caused reductions in aggression. Our studies, therefore, suggest that aggression may be held in check, at least in part, by inhibitory input from 5HT1A receptor-bearing neurons, which can be released by activation of the 5HT-PLP neurons. PMID:25447998
Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha
Background Meeting potential sexual/romantic partners for mutual pleasure is one of the main reasons young adults go to bars. However, not all sexual contacts are positive and consensual, and aggression related to sexual advances is a common experience. Sometimes such aggression is related to misperceptions in making and receiving sexual advances while other times aggression reflects intentional harassment or other sexually aggressive acts. The present study uses objective observational research to assess quantitatively gender of initiators and targets and the extent that sexual aggression involves intentional aggression by the initiator, the nature of responses by targets, and the role of third parties and intoxication. Methods We analyzed 258 aggressive incidents involving sexual advances observed as part of a larger study on aggression in large capacity bars and clubs, using variables collected as part of the original research (gender, intoxication, intent) and variables coded from narrative descriptions (invasiveness, persistence, targets’ responses, role of third parties). Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses were used to account for nesting on incidents in evening and bars. Results 90% of incidents involved male initiators and female targets, with almost all incidents involving intentional or probably intentional aggression. Targets mostly responded nonaggressively, usually using evasion to end the incident. Staff rarely intervened; patron third parties intervened in 21% of incidents, usually to help the target but sometimes to encourage the initiator. Initiators’ level of invasiveness was related to intoxication of the targets but not their own intoxication, suggesting intoxicated women were being targeted. Conclusions Sexual aggression is a major problem in bars often reflecting intentional sexual invasiveness and unwanted persistence rather than misperceptions in sexual advances. Prevention needs to focus on addressing masculinity norms of male patrons and staff that support sexual aggression and better management of the highly sexualized and sexist environments of most bars. PMID:24588839
Boudet, H; Ardoin, NM; Flora, J; Armel, KC; Desai, M; Robinson, TN
Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls' choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zwanziger, Denise; Badziong, Julia; Ting, Saskia; Moeller, Lars Christian; Kurt Werner, Schmid; Siebolts, Udo; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Dralle, Henning; Fuehrer, Dagmar
CLAUDIN-1 belongs to the family of transmembrane tight junction proteins tightening the paracellular cleft of epithelial cells. In human malignancies, CLAUDIN-1 is often dysregulated and located in subcellular compartments, particularly in the nucleus where it may influence cellular behaviour. Here, we studied CLAUDIN-1 in relation to the biological characteristics of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). CLAUDIN-1 immuno-staining showed loss of membrane expression and increased nuclear CLAUDIN-1 localization in FTC metastases. CLAUDIN-1 function was further investigated in two different follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines: FTC-133 isolated from a regional lymph node metastasis and FTC-238 derived from a lung metastasis. In both cell lines CLAUDIN-1 expression was demonstrated in the cell nuclei with a significantly higher protein expression in FTC-238 compared to FTC-133 cells. Interestingly, in vitro scratch assay revealed enriched nuclear CLAUDIN-1 expression near the scratch. Furthermore, the increase of the pathogenic character of FTC-133 cells by RASV12 transfection was associated with elevated CLAUDIN-1 expression and enhanced cell migration, invasion and proliferation. Likewise over-expression of nuclear CLAUDIN-1 in FTC-133 cells resulted in increased cell migration and invasion. Conversely, CLAUDIN-1 downregulation in FTC-238 cells by siRNA resulted in decreased cell migration and invasion and was accompanied by reduced phosphoPKC expression. Moreover, activation and inhibition of PKC resulted in CLAUDIN-1 up- and downregulation in FTC cells respectively. These data suggest an impact of CLAUDIN-1 on follicular thyroid carcinoma aggressiveness, which could potentially be influenced by PKC activity. PMID:26219679
Irwin, A. Roland; Gross, Alan M.
Assesses interpersonal aggression and aggression toward inanimate objects in a free-play setting where children played video games. Results indicated that subjects who played video games with aggressive content exhibited more object aggression during free-play and more interpersonal aggression during the frustrating situation than youngsters who…
Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A
Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction. PMID:26221831
Dubovikova, Nataliia; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Karcher, Christian
Two non-contact experimental methods of flow rate measurements for aggressive conductive liquids are described. The techniques are based on electromagnetic forces and Faraday's law: Lorentz force is induced inside moving conductive liquid under influence of variable magnetic field of permanent magnets. They are mounted along a liquid metal channel or (in case of the second method) inserted into rotated metal wheels. The force acts in the opposite of fluids' velocity direction and hence it is possible to measure reaction force of it that takes place according to Newton's law on magnetic field source - permanent magnets. And by knowing the force, which linearly depends on velocity, one can calculate mean flow rate of liquid. In addition experimental "dry" calibration and its results are described for one of the measurements' techniques.
Managing practical science activities effectively is demanding for any teacher and especially so for inexperienced practitioners. Add the problems posed by integrating children with learning and behavioural difficulties and one has the sort of challenge that makes working in education rewarding--but not easy! As a newly qualified teacher, the…
Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Politti, Ugo; Materazzi, Gabriele; Baldini, Enke; Ulisse, Salvatore; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro
Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) that arise from follicular cells account >90% of thyroid cancer (TC) [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts <5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC, and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts toward the development of new drugs. Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the past few decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the aforementioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local, and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds and to personalize the therapy in each TC patient. PMID:26635725
Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen
Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…
May, Michael E.
From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in…
Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron; Fite, Paula J.
Two subtypes of aggression--reactive and proactive--were examined to see how they relate to suicidal behaviors among young children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care. The children and their parents completed self-report questionnaires/interviews. Regression analyses revealed that depressed girls who scored higher on reactive aggression…
Catanzaro, Mary F.
This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…
Babu, N Aravindha; Sankari, S Leena; Anitha, N; Mohideen, Gouse
Granular cell ameloblastoma is a slow growing odontogenic ectodermal tumor. The tumor shows typical ameloblastoma with the cells showing eosinophilic granularity. This variant of ameloblastoma is aggressive with high recurrence rates. We report a case of aggressive ameloblastoma of granular cell variant. PMID:26015731
Smith Slep, Amy M.; O'Leary, Susan G.
Multivariate, biopsychosocial, explanatory models of mothers' and fathers' psychological and physical aggression toward their 3- to 7-year-old children were fitted and cross-validated in 453 representatively sampled families. Models explaining mothers' and fathers' aggression were substantially similar. Surprisingly, many variables identified as…
Tanaka, Akiho; Raishevich, Natoshia; Scarpa, Angela
Family conflict and childhood anxiety has been implicated in the development of aggressive behaviors, but the nature of these relationships has not been fully explored. Thus, the present study examined the role of anxiety in moderating the relationship between family conflict and childhood aggression in 50 children aged 7 to 13 years.…
Culver, Mary K.
This study looks at female relational aggression in an effort to illustrate factors involved in selecting appropriate responses for the situation. This ethnographic case study analyzes a principal's interview, personal journal, and artifact file to describe the situations and reactions present in a severe case of female relational aggression.…
Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.
This study used mixed methods to compare perceptions of relational aggression (RA) of adolescent girls (n = 282) and their teachers (n = 15) in New Zealand, and to explore strategies for teachers to effectively manage RA in the classroom. Results indicated that younger adolescent girls view physical aggression as more acceptable than older girls,…
Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben
The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…
Hudley, Cynthia; Novac, Andrei
In this article the authors review research on highly stressful environments that are known to support the development and display of aggressive behavior in childhood, adolescence, and beyond. They also examine some of the mechanisms through which such stressful environments may influence adolescents' aggressive behavior. The review concentrates…
Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.
Does exposure to symbolically modeled aggression (aggression in cartoons, movies, stories and simulated television programs) increase children's willingness to engage in behavior which might actually harm another human being? This paper presents a summary of three recent experiments offering affirmative answers to the question. A fourth experiment…
Examines aggression and violence from an interdisciplinary perspective. Humanistic psychologist Rollo May sees violence as the end product of power deprivation. Anthropologists Konrad Lorenz and Robert Ardrey regard aggression as an innate biological drive. Anthropologist Richard Leakey views it as a learned, culturally determined response.…
Kahane, Joel C.; Mayo, Robert
Childhood voice disorders require aggressive management that includes early identification, prevention, and treatment. This aggressive approach calls for re-examining incidence trends and norms; developing a better understanding of laryngologists' expectations; and developing programs for mass voice screening, prevention, and public and…
Traclet, Alan; Rascle, Olivier; Souchon, Nicolas; Coulomb-Cabagno, Genevieve; Petrucci, Carrie; Ohbuchi, Ken-Ichi
Most researchers have defined aggression in sport as overt acts violating the formal rules and intentionally causing harm. Such conduct in team sports may also be conceptualized as a kind of social interaction, which would suggest aggression is not judged as an isolated act but as a set of actions and reactions between individuals. In many…
Although eliminating school violence is no easy task, understanding the biological basis of aggressive adolescent behavior and discussing it with colleagues is essential. Societal influences can trigger a predisposition for aggressive response in alienated, testosterone-elevated teens. Early-intervention programs that stress social and coping…
Atkin, Charles K.; And Others
This 2-wave panel survey of young people was conducted to explore the relationship between attitudes and viewing over time, examining aggressiveness and viewing of programs portraying physical and verbal aggression. Questionnaires were administered to 227 children in the fourth, sixth, and eighth grades in 1976 and again one year later. The…
Cochrane, Lorna J.; Saroyan, Alenoush
This study investigated the effectiveness of an educational intervention designed to assist university staff in dealing with aggressive incidents. Participants in the study included 18 Admissions Office staff of a large Canadian research oriented university who had noted an increase in the number of aggressive incidents by rejected applicants. An…
Colbert, Kent R.; Dorff, Todd
A study focused on the effects of forensic participation on two specific traits--argumentativeness and verbal aggression. Two hundred eighty-one high school forensic students participating at a large western forensic tournament in the beginning of the 1990 academic year completed D. A. Infante's Argumentative and Verbal Aggression Scales. Results…
Guivernau, Marta; Duda, Joan L.
Examines the moral atmosphere of athletic teams to athletes' self-described likelihood to be aggressive (SLA). Reports athletes indicated they would be more aggressive if they thought their coach supported such behavior. Argues the findings show that the influence of others can shape the moral atmosphere operating on youth sports teams. (CAJ)
De la Torre-Cruz, M. J.; García-Linares, M. C.; Casanova-Arias, P. F.
Introduction: Physical and aggressive behavior which children and adolescents show toward peers is associated to parenting styles. The aim of this research was to examine the relation between perceived parenting styles (from mothers and fathers) and the level of physical and verbal aggressive behavior, anger and hostility showed towards the peers.…
Babu, N. Aravindha; Sankari, S. Leena; Anitha, N.; Mohideen, Gouse
Granular cell ameloblastoma is a slow growing odontogenic ectodermal tumor. The tumor shows typical ameloblastoma with the cells showing eosinophilic granularity. This variant of ameloblastoma is aggressive with high recurrence rates. We report a case of aggressive ameloblastoma of granular cell variant PMID:26015731
Kaartinen, Miia; Puura, Kaija; Helminen, Mika; Salmelin, Raili; Pelkonen, Erja; Juujärvi, Petri
Twenty-seven boys and eight girls with ASD and thirty-five controls matched for gender, age and total score intelligence were studied to ascertain whether boys and girls with ASD display stronger reactive aggression than boys and girls without ASD. Participants performed a computerized version of the Pulkkinen aggression machine that examines the…
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aggressive collection actions; documentation. 13.10 Section 13.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Collection § 13.10 Aggressive collection actions; documentation. (a) EPA takes actions and effective follow-up on a timely...
van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert
Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…
O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others
Predicted spousal physical aggression at 30 months after marriage for 393 young couples. Prerelationship predictor variables were history of violence in family of origin, aggression against others during childhood and adolescence, and personality characteristics. Relationship predictor variables were marital discord and spouse-specific…
Mauger, Paul A.; And Others
The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…
Storksen, Svein; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling
This study investigated whether secondary schools in Norway had deviant subcultures, which could be labelled "schoolyard corner society", and how gender and age were related to membership. We also studied levels of reactive and proactive aggressiveness in students, and the relationship between these types of aggressiveness and participation in…
Aronson, David W.; And Others
To investigate sexual aggressiveness in college-age males, a sexual experiences questionnaire was used for preselection of university males high, moderate and low in sexual aggressiveness. High and moderate males were individually interviewed by a trained male graduate psychology student, and all three groups were administered a variety of…
Rancer, Andrew S.; Avtgis, Theodore A.; Kosberg, Roberta L.
Recently, training efforts have been undertaken to reduce the negative outcomes associated with increased verbal aggressiveness and accentuate the positive outcomes associated with increased argumentativeness within adolescent populations. This paper presents both positive and negative aspects of assessing aggressive communication predispositions…
Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.
This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.
Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…
van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.
The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…
Holmes, Barbara; Gibson, Jamel; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich
Student aggression and violent behavior, especially among males, is pervasive and problematic in the classroom. When incorporated in the lesson design, promising practices (music, movement, and visual stimulation) are evidence-based strategies that may reduce male aggression in the classroom.
Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.
Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…
Joussemet, Mireille; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Cote, Sylvana; Nagin, Daniel S.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.
The goal of the present study was to examine whether controlling parenting contributes to the problem of physical aggression. Developmental trajectories of children's physical aggression were modeled from yearly teachers' ratings, from ages 6 to 12. Multinomial logistic regressions (N = 1,508) served to identify risk factors that distinguish…
Hapkiewicz, Walter G.; Roden, Aubrey H.
Sixty second grade children were randomly assigned to same sex pairs and each pair was randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: aggressive cartoon, nonaggressive cartoon, and no cartoon. Results indicated that there was no difference among the groups on measures of interpersonal aggression although boys exhibited significantly more…
Sandidge, Susanne; Friedland, Seymour J.
A total of 40 boys and girls, ages 9-10 years, were asked to respond to aggressive statements attributed to cartoon figures varying in sex. Findings are interpreted as support for a role interpretation of sex differences in expression of aggression. (Author/ED)
de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Ferreira, Annabel; Agrati, Daniella
We review existing knowledge of the neural, hormonal, and sensory basis of maternal aggression in the female rat. Although females may express different kinds of aggression, such as defense or dominance, the most frequent and conspicuous form of aggressive behavior among females is the one associated with motherhood. Maternal aggression occurs in various vertebrate and invertebrate species; however, our emphasis will be on maternal aggression in rats because most of the physiological investigations have been performed in this species. Firstly, we address those factors that predispose the female to attack, such as the endocrine profile, the maternal state, and the stimulation provided by the pups, as well as those that trigger the aggressive response, as the intruder's characteristics and the context. As the postpartum aggression is a fundamental component of the maternal repertoire, we emphasize its association with maternal motivation and the reduction of fear and anxiety in dams. Finally, we outline the neurocircuitry involved in the control of maternal aggression, stressing the role of the ventro-orbital region of prefrontal cortex and the serotoninergic system. PMID:24841427
Ozkol, Hivren; Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph
This study examined the pathways from violence exposure to aggressive behaviors in urban, elementary school youth. We utilized structural equation modeling to examine putative causal pathways between children's exposure to violence, development of posttraumatic stress symptoms, permissive attitudes towards violence, and engagement in aggressive…