Sample records for aggressive challenging behaviour

  1. Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) for People with Intellectual Disability and Aggressive Challenging Behaviour: A Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, P. C.; Crawford, M. J.; Rao, B.; Reece, B.; Tyrer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Reliable measures of aggressive challenging behaviour are required if interventions aimed at reducing this behaviour among people with intellectual disability (ID) are to be formally evaluated. The present authors examined the reliability of the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS), an instrument not yet formally tested in those with…

  2. Aggressive Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability Following Community Resettlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging

  3. Incidence, Types and Characteristics of Aggressive Behaviour in Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…

  4. Androgen Receptors, Sex Behaviour, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Lumia, Augustus R.; McGinnis, Marilyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Androgens are intricately involved in reproductive and aggressive behaviours, but the role of the androgen receptor in mediating these behaviours is less defined. Further, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can influence each other at the level of the androgen receptor. Knowledge of the mechanisms for androgens’ effects on behaviours through the androgen receptor will guide future studies in elucidating male reproductive and aggressive behaviour repertoires. PMID:22414851

  5. [Aggressive behaviour and the public health condition].

    PubMed

    Binczycka-Anholcer, Marzena N

    2002-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour should be considered as the feedback in relation with the health condition of society. Aggression may be considered as instinct behaviour or acquired social behaviour. If we are studying the theory of aggressive behaviour, we should take into consideration psychosocial and biological features, the influence of neurotransmitters: seratonin, dopamine and some biochemical markers just like the level of cholesterol, troigliceroids and testosterone. Aggressive behaviour, physical and mental violence has negative influence on physical health, fitness and efficiency. Fright, depression, psychosis and isolation are the irreparable changes in a man's psyche. Autoaggressive behaviours: selfhurting, suicide attempts and committed suicides are external forms of aggression. The suicide rate shows the level of physical and mental health of society. The higher the suicide rate is, the worse the state of health is. 20 per cent of Polish patients are those with autodestructive behaviours. They are treated because of psychical disorders. They are treated because of mental disorders. The state of health, and stress cause social and family isolation. These lead to depression and somatic diseases, like blood circling, breathing and digestive disorders. Violence in family, murders are often result of mental disorders, unbalanced psyche or alcoholism, diseases of nervous system. II person often becomes aggressive because he wants to relieve his emotions caused by bad health condition. PMID:17474574

  6. Relational Aggression and Prosocial Behaviours in Australian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swit, Cara; McMaugh, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Relational aggression is a subtle form of aggressive behaviour that uses dyadic relationships and manipulation as a vehicle of harm. Little is known about relational aggression in preschool-age children in cultural contexts outside the United States. This study examined relationally aggressive behaviours and prosocial behaviours in Australian…

  7. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games.

    PubMed

    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas

    2014-11-18

    BackgroundMental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children¿s aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS).MethodsIn this mixed methods study, forty-seven British children aged 7¿11 years with behavioural/emotional difficulties attending CAMHS and their carers participated in a survey; twenty purposively-selected children and a parent/carer of theirs participated in a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews, analysed using the Framework Analysis Approach; findings were integrated.ResultsChildren attending CAMHS exhibit clinically significant aggression, of varying types and frequency. They see aggression in multiple real and virtual settings. Verbal aggression was often seen, frequently exhibited and strongly associated with poor peer relationships and low prosocial behaviour. Children did not think seeing aggression influences their own behaviour but believed it influences others. Carers regarded aggression as resulting from a combination of inner and environmental factors and seeing aggression in real-life as having more impact than television/video games.ConclusionsThere is yet no definitive evidence for or against a direct relationship between aggression seen in the media and aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties. Future research should take an ecological perspective, investigating individual, developmental and environmental factors. Carers, professional organisations and policy makers should address aggression seen in all relevant area of children¿s lives, primarily real-life and secondly virtual environments. PMID:25404041

  8. Differences in cortisol response affect the distinction of observed reactive and proactive aggression in children with aggressive behaviour disorders.

    PubMed

    Kempes, M; de Vries, H; Matthys, W; van Engeland, H; van Hooff, J

    2008-01-01

    Various researchers distinguished two categories of aggressive behaviour, namely reactive and proactive aggression. Reactive aggression is an aggressive response to a perceived threat or provocation, whereas proactive aggression is behaviour that anticipates a reward. In the present study, including both a sample of disruptive behaviour disordered (DBD) and normal control (NC) children, we observed reactive and proactive aggressive behaviour during an experimental dyadic play session. DBD children showed more observed reactive and proactive aggression. Subsequently, we investigated whether the observed measures correlated with parent-rated measures of reactive and proactive aggression in. We distinguished in both NC and DBD children a subgroup showing a rise in cortisol level, i.e. responders, and a subgroup who did not show a rise in cortisol, i.e. non-responders. Results suggest that differences in the cortisol response affects the correspondence between observed and parent-rated reactive and proactive aggression since only DBD non-responders showed the expected correlations. PMID:17849077

  9. [Challenging behaviour in patients with intellectual disability].

    PubMed

    de Kuijper, Gerda M; Vrijmoeth, P

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behaviour in patients with intellectual disability may be caused by physical, psychological and environmental factors. In 3 case histories, a multidisciplinary assessment in diagnosis and treatment is shown to be needed. A 48-year-old man with mild intellectual disability presented with cognitive deterioration, aggressive behaviour and physical symptoms. The diagnosis was mood disorder and dissociative symptoms. His functioning improved during and after treatment with psychotropic drugs and non-verbal psychotherapy. A 10-year-old girl with moderate intellectual disability who presented with temper tantrums was diagnosed as having no psychiatric disorder, but symptoms caused by environmental factors. After proper support and education for the parents, the patient's challenging behaviour disappeared. A 61-year-old woman with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's dementia presented with screaming, restlessness, struggling during daily care, and confusion. She was prescribed haloperidol and oxazepam and the screaming behaviour decreased. However, she kept on struggling while being cared for and was restless while sitting in her wheelchair. After a proper medical examination it appeared that the problem behaviour was caused by collapsed vertebrae and osteoporosis. PMID:25492732

  10. Baseline Omega-3 Index Correlates with Aggressive and Attention Deficit Disorder Behaviours in Adult Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Barbara J.; Byrne, Mitchell K.; Collier, Carole; Parletta, Natalie; Crawford, Donna; Winberg, Pia C.; Webster, David; Chapman, Karen; Thomas, Gayle; Dally, Jean; Batterham, Marijka; Farquhar, Ian; Martin, Anne-Marie; Grant, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments. Objective To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population. Design 136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC), NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks) from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) and the Brown’s Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS), provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated. Results The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = ?0.21, P = 0.016); total AQ score (r = ?0.234, P = 0.011); Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016); Hostility AQ (r = ?0.239, P = 0.009); indirect aggression (r = ?0.188 p = 0.042); total BADDS (r = ?0.263, p = 0.005); Activation (r = ?0.224, p = 0.016); Attention (r = ?0.192, p = 0.043); Effort (r = ?0.253, p = 0.007); Affect (r = ?0.330, p = 0.000) and Memory (r = ?0.240, p = 0.010). Conclusions There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison population, and inmates with lower omega-3 index were more aggressive and had higher ADD scores. PMID:25793501

  11. Video game playing and its relations with aggressive and prosocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wiegman, O; van Schie, E G

    1998-09-01

    In this study of 278 children from the seventh and eighth grade of five elementary schools in Enschede, The Netherlands, the relationship between the amount of time children spent on playing video games and aggressive as well as prosocial behaviour was investigated. In addition, the relationship between the preference for aggressive video games and aggressive and prosocial behaviour was studied. No significant relationship was found between video game use in general and aggressive behaviour, but a significant negative relationship with prosocial behaviour was supported. However, separate analyses for boys and girls did not reveal this relationship. More consistent results were found for the preference for aggressive video games: children, especially boys, who preferred aggressive video games were more aggressive and showed less prosocial behaviour than those with a low preference for these games. Further analyses showed that children who preferred playing aggressive video games tended to be less intelligent. PMID:9738313

  12. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Treating Aggressive Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Single Blind Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, M.; Bertelli, M.; Villani, D.; Tamborini, S.; Rossi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behaviour represents a frequent symptom in people with intellectual disability (PWID). Despite uncertain evidence of effectiveness, the use of antipsychotics (APs) drugs to treat aggressive behaviour is very common. Antipsychotic medication of aggressivity in PWID has recently become one of the most debated issues in mental…

  13. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  14. Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

  15. Zuclopenthixol in adults with intellectual disabilities and aggressive behaviours: discontinuation study.

    PubMed

    Haessler, Frank; Glaser, Thomas; Beneke, Manfred; Pap, Akos F; Bodenschatz, Ralf; Reis, Olaf

    2007-05-01

    We investigated the effects of zuclopenthixol on aggressive behaviour in patients with intellectual disabilities by randomly withdrawing it after a 6-week period of open treatment. Of the 49 patients responding to the treatment, 39 took part in a randomised withdrawal trial. The placebo subgroup (n=20) showed more aggressive behaviour as indicated by outcomes observed by external raters on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale than did the continuing subgroup (n=19). The results indicate that discontinuation of zuclopenthixolin this population leads to an increase in aggressive behaviour. PMID:17470962

  16. Anti-predator behaviour changes following an aggressive encounter in the lizard

    E-print Network

    Díaz-Uriarte, Ramón

    Anti-predator behaviour changes following an aggressive encounter in the lizard Tropidurus hispidus with males of the territorial lizard Tropidurus hispidus recording approach distance (distance between aggressive interactions a¡ected anti-predator behaviour: lizards re-emerged sooner (compared to a control

  17. Interspecific aggressive behaviour of invasive pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence, respectively. This study highlights the usefulness of direct observations in the wild for assessing the effects of behavioural interference of invasive fishes on Iberian aquatic communities. PMID:24505367

  18. Interspecific Aggressive Behaviour of Invasive Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian Fresh Waters

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence, respectively. This study highlights the usefulness of direct observations in the wild for assessing the effects of behavioural interference of invasive fishes on Iberian aquatic communities. PMID:24505367

  19. Exposure to aggressive behaviour and burnout in direct support providers: The role of positive work factors.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Jennifer M; Lunsky, Yona; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2014-11-11

    Many direct support providers (DSPs) are exposed to aggressive behaviour in their work supporting adults with developmental disabilities service recipients. This is a work environment factor that has been linked to job burnout. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of positive work factors on emotional exhaustion (EE) among DSPs who are exposed to aggressive behaviour. Survey responses from 671 DSPs who were working in community service settings for adults with developmental disabilities, and were exposed to aggressive behaviour at least monthly were examined. Hierarchical linear regression examined the direct contribution and moderating role of positive work factors (self-efficacy for dealing with aggression and work contributions) on EE measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, after controlling for demographics, occupational variables, exposure to aggression and negative emotional reactions to aggression. Results showed that younger age, more experience, more depression/anger emotions in response to aggression, lower self-efficacy and low positive work contributions were significantly associated with EE. Positive work motivation was a moderator of exposure to aggression and EE. When work motivations were low, DSPs were more negatively affected by higher exposure to aggression. These findings suggest that in addition to addressing the negative emotional reactions to the aggressive behaviour encountered at work, it is also important to foster positive work factors which may be protective against EE. PMID:25462500

  20. Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rosvall, K. A.; Bergeon Burns, C. M.; Barske, J.; Goodson, J. L.; Schlinger, B. A.; Sengelaub, D. R.; Ketterson, E. D.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

  1. Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution.

    PubMed

    Rosvall, K A; Bergeon Burns, C M; Barske, J; Goodson, J L; Schlinger, B A; Sengelaub, D R; Ketterson, E D

    2012-09-01

    Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

  2. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behaviour in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arron, K.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Berg, K.; Burbidge, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious and aggressive behaviours are reported as components of some behavioural phenotypes but there are few studies comparing across syndrome groups. In this study we examined the prevalence of these behaviours and the associated person characteristics in seven genetic syndromes. Methods: Questionnaire data on self-injury and…

  3. Dominance, aggression and testosterone in wild chimpanzees: a test of the `challenge hypothesis'

    E-print Network

    Wrangham, Richard W.

    Dominance, aggression and testosterone in wild chimpanzees: a test of the `challenge hypothesis' posits that variation in male testosterone levels is more closely associated with aggression that adult male chimpanzees showed significant testosterone increases during periods when parous females

  4. The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA) study: Design challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug) and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies) timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone) to the effect of the first (stimulant). We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic). Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years) with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder) accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant) was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual comparison was stimulant+parent training versus stimulant+antipsychotic+parent training. Conclusions We hope that the resolutions of the challenges presented here will be useful to other investigators and facilitate much-needed research on child psychiatric polypharmacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00796302 PMID:22074813

  5. [Problems of aggressive behaviour and its measurement in various age levels. Introduction of two questionnaires].

    PubMed

    Csorba, János; Radványi, Katalin; Barthel, Betty; Dinya, Elek

    2013-01-01

    Authors give a detailed overview on aspects of aggressive behaviour in childhood and adolescence especially on the basis of the literature of the last two decades, then. the measurement opportunities of aggression is discussed. The Children's Aggression Scale- parent version (Halperin et al 2002) rated by parents is presented and Hungarian validity data are published. In the second part of the publication, authors focus on the viewpoints of differences between aggressiveness of IQ deficit people and those of having normal intelligence, preliminary experiences are reported about the behavioural dimensions of intellectually disabled (ID) patients rated by the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI, Rojahn et al, 2001) suitable for measuring frequency and severity of behavioural qualities of both ID adolescents and adults. PMID:23689433

  6. Profiles and Correlates of Aggressive Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Allaire, J.-F.; Roy, M.-E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite the heterogeneity in aggressive behaviours observed among individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), little attention has been paid to the identification of typologies of aggression among individuals with mild or moderate ID and their associated factors. Objective: The goal of the present study was to identify profiles of…

  7. Children's Aggressive Behaviour and Teacher-Child Conflict in Kindergarten: Is Teacher Perceived Control over Child Behaviour a Mediating Variable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research repeatedly showed young children's aggressive behaviour to predict relationship difficulties with the teacher. Aims: To examine a possible mediating variable in this process and in the stability of relationship difficulties across the school year, namely teacher perceived control over child behaviour. Sample: The sample…

  8. Perampanel and Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disability and Epilepsy: A Management Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Choudry, Ansar

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a patient with a diagnosis of moderate learning disability with challenging behaviour and treatment refractory epilepsy. Antiepileptics can increase challenging behaviour; however, antipsychotics can provoke seizures. This results in a difficult balance for patient care. Due to worsening seizures, the patient was prescribed perampanel. This increased her aggression and agitation resulting in admission. We trialled four antipsychotic drugs to reduce her challenging behaviour, two of which worsened her seizures. It was necessary to continue antiepileptic medication to maintain adequate seizure control. However, the resulting uncontrolled challenging behaviour persisted, meaning she was unable to return to her family home on discharge. This case emphasises the difficult scenario clinician's encounter when balancing the use of antipsychotics and antiepileptics. The case demonstrates the significant functional loss due to challenging behaviour, balanced against controlling life threatening seizures. PMID:25580340

  9. Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement patterns in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Renée A

    2006-07-22

    The importance of behaviours as instigators or inhibitors of evolutionary change remains largely unresolved and this is in part because there are very few empirical examples of how behaviours affect evolutionary processes. By determining the environment of breeding, aggressive interactions over territories have the potential to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide a unique opportunity to investigate the evolutionary importance of aggression, since their highly variable breeding habitat favours distinct foraging techniques and they also compete aggressively for nest boxes, a resource that is easy to manipulate. Here, I show experimentally that more aggressive males compete more effectively for territories with a high density of nest boxes and, as a consequence, aggressive and non-aggressive males are sorted into distinct breeding habitats that differ in the strength of selection on morphological traits. Specifically, males with longer tails and tarsi were favoured in open habitats where high agility is required to forage efficiently, whereas in forested habitats, where agility is less important, selection was weak. These results show that aggression can affect selection on a local scale by determining individual settlement patterns. More generally, because territorial interactions are important across a wide variety of taxa, these results suggest that aggressive behaviour has the potential to impact the evolutionary trajectory of many animal populations. PMID:16790412

  10. Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement patterns in a passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Renée A

    2006-01-01

    The importance of behaviours as instigators or inhibitors of evolutionary change remains largely unresolved and this is in part because there are very few empirical examples of how behaviours affect evolutionary processes. By determining the environment of breeding, aggressive interactions over territories have the potential to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide a unique opportunity to investigate the evolutionary importance of aggression, since their highly variable breeding habitat favours distinct foraging techniques and they also compete aggressively for nest boxes, a resource that is easy to manipulate. Here, I show experimentally that more aggressive males compete more effectively for territories with a high density of nest boxes and, as a consequence, aggressive and non-aggressive males are sorted into distinct breeding habitats that differ in the strength of selection on morphological traits. Specifically, males with longer tails and tarsi were favoured in open habitats where high agility is required to forage efficiently, whereas in forested habitats, where agility is less important, selection was weak. These results show that aggression can affect selection on a local scale by determining individual settlement patterns. More generally, because territorial interactions are important across a wide variety of taxa, these results suggest that aggressive behaviour has the potential to impact the evolutionary trajectory of many animal populations. PMID:16790412

  11. Measuring Severity of Challenging Behaviours: A Behaviour Disorder Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tustin, D. Ron; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between scores on the Behaviour Disorder Scale (BDS) and other assessments of challenging behavior in 100 adolescent and adult Australians with intellectual disabilities. The study found that the BDS was reliable and could be used to identify people with intellectual disabilities who exhibit behavioral…

  12. Acute and lasting effects of single mineralocorticoid antagonism on offensive aggressive behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aizpurua, Leire; Buwalda, Bauke; De Boer, Sietse F

    2013-09-01

    Aggression is a major component of territorial behaviour. However, different mechanisms evolved to fulfil the defence function while reducing the cost derived from agonistic interactions, as a differential response to the same stimulus, depending on the outcome of past conflicts - priming, which makes the aggressive response adaptable. Aggressive behaviour is facilitated by the stress response, so, we tested the effect of a single injection of a mineralocorticoid antagonist (spironolactone) on the escalation of territorial aggression in a resident-intruder paradigm, and its modulation by social stimulus. We used naïve Wild Type Groningen - WTG - rats as residents, and naïve and previously defeated Wistar rats as intruders. The first encounter was 1h after the injection, and then repeated in 3 consecutive days. When WTG rats were confronted with naïve Wistar rats, single injections of spironolactone completely abolished the attack behaviour in the short term while enhancing it in the long term. When we used defeated Wistar rats, the spironolactone effect was not as great. The short-term reduction in aggressive behaviour was attributable to the blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors during the first encounters, while the enhancement in aggressive behaviour in the long term was suggested to be related to the imbalance between mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors during the stress response associated to the encounters. PMID:23707889

  13. Pharmacotherapy for Aggressive Behaviours in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Treatment or Mistreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiouris, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…

  14. Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement patterns in a passerine bird

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renée A. Duckworth

    2006-01-01

    The importance of behaviours as instigators or inhibitors of evolutionary change remains largely unresolved and this is in part because there are very few empirical examples of how behaviours affect evolutionary processes. By determining the environment of breeding, aggressive interactions over territories have the potential to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide a unique

  15. Teaching a Child with Challenging Behaviour to Use the Toilet: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Peace, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Learning to use the toilet is an important developmental step for a child's independence, health and dignity. It can be particularly difficult to teach continence skills to disabled children with aggressive or challenging behaviour. This study showed how Azrin & Foxx's (1971) basic toilet training procedure could be modified to teach a 13-year-old…

  16. Prevalence, Phenomenology, Aetiology and Predictors of Challenging Behaviour in Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…

  17. IMP3 can predict aggressive behaviour of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lung cancer most often presents as an inoperable tumour and the diagnosis is usually performed on a small biopsy/cytology specimen. In the group of non small cell lung cancer - not otherwise specified, adenocarcinoma phenotype can be determined immunohistochemically using TTF-1 and Napsin A. Expression of oncofetal protein IMP3 in human cancer is associated with poor differentiation and aggressive behaviour. In the present study expression of IMP3 was correlated with expression of TTF-1 and Napsin A, histological subtype and clinical stage of lung adenocarcinoma. We were interested whether distant metastases are associated with IMP3 overexpression, regardless of the histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. Methods In retrospective study, consecutive series of 105 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in Clinical Hospital Center Split, Croatia, were analysed. Clinical data were collected from the Pulmology Department and time of death from the Mortality Registry. Paraffin blocks of bronchoscopic biopsies were collected from the Institute of Pathology and 15 cases excluded from the analysis due to insufficient material. Expression of IMP3, Napsin A and TTF-1 were analysed by indirect enzyme immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed and P values less than 0.05 considered significant. Results Of 90 patients, 71 (78%) were males and 19 (22%) females. Median age for males was 61.5 years (min-max 43–83) and for females 61 years (min-max 44–86). Pleural effusion was found in 15 (16.6%) and distant metastases in 45 (50%) cases. According to histological subtypes, there were 34 acinar, 2 lepidic, 2 papillary and 52 solid subtypes. IMP3 overexpression was found in 63 cases (70%) and was correlated with solid subtype (P?=?0.002) and negative/weak Napsin A expression (P?=?0.004). Strong Napsin A expression correlated with TTF-1 expression (P?=?0.003) and lower histological grades (P?=?0.031). Patients with IMP3 overexpression more often had distant metastases than patients with negative IMP3, 55.5% versus 33.3% (P?=?0.033). Non solid subtypes with IMP3 overexpression developed distant metastasis more common than non solid subtypes with negative IMP3, 72% versus 35% (P?=?0.028). Conclusions Expression of IMP3 correlates with solid subtype and with distant metastases regardless of histological subtype of lung adenocarcinoma. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1966211581795258 Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Das Lungenkarzinom kommt meistens als nicht resektabler Tumor vor und die Diagnose kann nur in kleinen Biopsaten oder zytologisch gestellt werden. In der Gruppe der nicht kleinzelligen Lungenkarzinome kann der nicht anders spezifizierte Adenokarzinom Phänotyp mit Hilfe der Antikörper TTF-1 und Napsin A diagnostiziert werden. Die Expression des onkoföetalen Proteins IMP3 ist bei humanen Karzinomen mit agressivem Verhalten und metastatischem Potential verbunden. In dieser Studie korreliert die Expression von IMP3 mit TTF-1, Napsin A, histologischem Typ und klinischem Staging des Lungenkarzinoms. Wir waren daran interessiert, ob Fernmetastasen mit IMP3 Überexpression assoziiert sind, unabhängig von der histologischen Subtyp von Adenokarzinom. Methode In der retrospektiven Studie wurden die von 2006 bis 2009 im Klinischem Krankenhaus Split, Kroatien diagnostizerte Adenokarzinome der Lunge von 105 Patienten analysiert. Die klinischen Daten stammten aus der Abteilung für Pulmologie und im Falle des Todes vom Todesregister. Die Paraffinblöcke der primären Lungenbiopsate dieser Patienten wurden im Institut für Pathologie mit der indirekter Enzym - Immunohistochemie mittels Kombination der Antikörper gegen IMP3, Napsin A und TTF1 untersucht. 15 Fälle aus der Analyse aufgrund unzureichender Material ausgeschlossen. Es wurde eine statistische Untersuchung durchgeführt und Werte weniger als 0.05 P wurden als stat

  18. Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement

    E-print Network

    Duckworth, Renée

    to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide; Sialia mexicana 1. INTRODUCTION Behaviours affect how organisms interact with their environment

  19. Aggressive behaviour in Montagu’s harrier Circus pygargus during the courtship period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaros?aw Wi?cek

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour of Montagu’s harrier was observed during the pre-laying period in the 1992–1995 seasons on the calcareous\\u000a marshes of Chelm in Eastern Poland. In total, 435 flights performed by 24 pairs of individually marked harriers were analysed.\\u000a All flights were performed in relation to the territory of defence. Males performed 61% of aggressive interactions while females\\u000a performed 39%. Intraspecific

  20. Behavioural Indicators of Motives for Barroom Aggression: Implications for Preventing Bar Violence

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction/Aims To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivation for prevention. Design/Methods The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the research: gaining compliance, expressing grievances/restoring justice, attaining a favourable social identity, and pursuing fun/excitement. Incidents of aggression from the Safer Bars evaluation research [1] were analysed to identify behavioural indicators of each motivation. Results Compliance-motivated aggression typically takes the form of unwanted social overtures, third party intervention to stop conflicts or staff rule enforcement. Prevention strategies include keeping the aggressor’s focus on compliance to avoid provoking grievance and identity motives which are likely to escalate aggression. Grievance motives are typically elicited by perceived wrongdoing and, therefore, prevention should focus on eliminating sources of grievances and adopting policies/practices to resolve grievances peacefully. Social identity motives are endemic to many drinking establishments especially among male patrons and staff. Prevention involves reducing identity cues in the environment, hiring staff who do not have identity concerns, and training staff to avoid provoking identity concerns. Aggression motivated by fun/excitement often involves low-level aggression where escalation can be prevented by avoiding grievances and attacks on identity. Discussion/Conclusions Knowledge of behavioural indicators of motives can be used to enhance staff hiring and training practices, reduce environmental triggers for aggression, and develop policies to reduce motivation for aggression. PMID:21896078

  1. Aggressive behaviour in adolescent psychiatric settings: what are risk factors, possible interventions and implications for nursing practice? A literature review.

    PubMed

    Hage, S; Van Meijel, B; Fluttert, F; Berden, G F M G

    2009-09-01

    This study was aimed to identify the risk factors of aggressive behaviour in adolescents (1318 years), and to describe available intervention strategies. The findings are evaluated on the basis of their implications for nursing practice. Aggressive behaviour in adolescent psychiatric settings is a neglected research area. The consequences of aggressive behaviour on nurses, other patients and the therapeutic environment can be profound. For the development and implementation of innovative intervention strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behaviour in adolescent psychiatric patients, knowledge of risk factors and evidence-based interventions for aggressive behaviour are of the utmost importance. A systematic search of PubMed, Cinahl, PsychINFO and Cochrane Systematic Reviews (19912007) was employed. The risk factors for aggressive behaviour comprise personal and environmental risk factors. Some risk factors can be influenced by nursing intervention strategies. Available intervention programmes range from interpersonal skills training to massage therapy, parent management training, functional family therapy and multi-systemic therapy. The most effective programmes combine interpersonal skills training with parent management training. No specific nursing intervention programmes were found for dealing with aggressive behaviour in adolescent patients. Nursing staff can assist in achieving a systematic improvement in the treatment outcomes of existing intervention programmes for the prevention of aggression. There is a need for specific nursing intervention programmes to deal with aggressive behaviour in adolescent psychiatric settings. PMID:19689560

  2. Aggressive and Antisocial Girls: Research Update and Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candice L. Odgers; Marlene M. Moretti

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that a significant number of young women engage in highly aggressive and antisocial behaviors. This acknowledgement has created demands on both policy and program development. The response to these demands, however, has been delayed due to the fact that we still know relatively little about aggressive and antisocial behavior in girls. In this article, we

  3. Risk of aggression and criminal behaviour among adolescents living in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wahdan, I; El-Nimr, N; Kotb, R; Wahdan, A

    2014-04-01

    Adolescent risk-taking and aggressive behaviours are among the most visible forms of violence in society. A study was carried out to identify the prevalence and risk factors for aggression, violence and criminal behaviour among adolescents in Alexandria, Egypt. Using multistage, cluster sampling of families from all health districts in Alexandria, the mothers of 783 adolescents aged 11-19 years answered an Arabic version of the Mentor Research Institute screening questionnaire. Overall 26.9% of adolescents were assessed to be at high risk and 20.2% at extremely high risk of aggression and criminal behaviour. Living in urban/slum areas, male sex, low level of parents' education/occupation, exposure to violence within the family and changes in behaviour of any family member were associated with risk of aggression/violence. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent variables were adolescents' sex, presence of behavioural changes in the family, violence against brothers and sisters and substance abuse by any family member. PMID:24952124

  4. Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed

    Horth, Lisa

    2003-05-22

    Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892

  5. Do Social Information-Processing Models Explain Aggressive Behaviour by Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Residential Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…

  6. Contextual Variables Affecting Aggressive Behaviour in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities Who Live in a Residential Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…

  7. Finding the Roots of Adolescent Aggressive Behaviour: A Test of Three Developmental Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Boet, Sylvie; Born, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive behaviours in adolescence often originate in early development. This study tested three longitudinal pathways starting in early childhood, in a sample of 325 Belgian participants (162 girls) assessed every 1 or 2 years from birth through age 14. Structural equation models supported the "mother early dissatisfaction" pathway…

  8. Aggressive behaviour is an expression of interference competition for access to resources or mates (King,

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    of pair bonds, or in social systems that have sex-role reversal (Eens and Pinxten, 2000). Under the postulates of game theory, size matched individuals are more likely to fight, especially where adult males). The social dynamics of aggressive behaviour are not only relegated to adulthood, though instances amoung

  9. From conduct disorder to severe mental illness: associations with aggressive behaviour, crime and victimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hodgins; A. Cree; J. Alderton; T. Mak

    2008-01-01

    Background. Conduct disorder (CD) prior to age 15 has been associated with an increased risk of aggressive behaviour and crime among men with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample of severely mentally ill men and women. Method. We examined a cohort of in-patients with severe mental illness in one mental health

  10. Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Improves Aggression, but Not Self-Injurious Behaviour, in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…

  11. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

  12. School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

  13. Competition for the home and aggressive behaviour in the chiton Acanthopleura gemmata (Blainville) (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Chelazzi; Stefano Focardi; Jean Louis Deneubourg; Riccardo Innocenti

    1983-01-01

    Computerized screening of all the positions recorded during a synodic month on 120 individually marked chitons (Acanthopleura gemmata) pinpointed their preferential resting points. Unlike the majority of intertidal chitons so far studied, A. gemmata rests in well-defined homes actively dug in the rock. Homes proved to be not strictly individual and periodically interchangeable. A complex aggressive behaviour was recorded in

  14. From sexual attraction to maternal aggression: when pheromones change their behavioural significance.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Ana; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L; Ayala, Guillermo; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-Garcia, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". This paper reviews the role of chemosignals in the socio-sexual interactions of female mice, and reports two experiments testing the role of pup-derived chemosignals and the male sexual pheromone darcin in inducing and promoting maternal aggression. Female mice are attracted to urine-borne male pheromones. Volatile and non-volatile urine fractions have been proposed to contain olfactory and vomeronasal pheromones. In particular, the male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) MUP20, darcin, has been shown to be rewarding and attractive to females. Non-urinary male chemosignals, such as the lacrimal protein ESP1, promote lordosis in female mice, but its attractive properties are still to be tested. There is evidence indicating that ESP1 and MUPs are detected by vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2R). When a female mouse becomes pregnant, she undergoes dramatic changes in her physiology and behaviour. She builds a nest for her pups and takes care of them. Dams also defend the nest against conspecific intruders, attacking especially gonadally intact males. Maternal behaviour is dependent on a functional olfactory system, thus suggesting a role of chemosignals in the development of maternal behaviour. Our first experiment demonstrates, however, that pup chemosignals are not sufficient to induce maternal aggression in virgin females. In addition, it is known that vomeronasal stimuli are needed for maternal aggression. Since MUPs (and other molecules) are able to promote intermale aggression, in our second experiment we test if the attractive MUP darcin also promotes attacks on castrated male intruders by lactating dams. Our findings demonstrate that the same chemosignal, darcin, promotes attraction or aggression according to female reproductive state. PMID:25161057

  15. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

    1997-04-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation. PMID:24897608

  16. Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

  17. Aggression in bottlenose dolphins: Evidence for sexual coercion, male-male competition, and female tolerance through analysis of tooth-rake marks and behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin M. Scott; Janet Mann; Jana J. Watson-Capps; Brooke L. Sargeant; Richard C. Connor

    2005-01-01

    Summary Aggressive behaviour is rarely observed, but may have a large impact on the social struc- ture, relationships and interactions in animal societies. Long-term behavioural study of Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, suggests that males are more aggressive than females, and use sexual coercion during the breeding season, but age and sex-specific patterns of aggression have not

  18. The Mediating Effects of Verbal Skills in the Relationship between Low Birth Weight and Childhood Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaske, Jamie; Newsome, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal and perinatal risk factors, such as low birth weight, have been linked to higher levels of aggressive and destructive behaviours during childhood. Although low birth weight is associated with childhood externalizing behaviour, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain open to empirical investigation. The current study extends the…

  19. Contest experience enhances aggressive behaviour in a fly: when losers learn to win.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Desneux, Nicolas; Romano, Donato; Conte, Giuseppe; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    In several animal species, aggressive experience influences the characteristics and outcomes of subsequent conflicts, such that winners are more likely to win again (the winner effect) and losers more likely to lose again (the loser effect). We tested the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), as a model system to evaluate the role of the winner and loser effects in male-male territorial contests. Further, we conducted experiments to test if winning and losing probabilities are affected only by the outcome of the previous contests, or whether the fighting experience itself is sufficient to induce an effect. Both winners and losers of two consecutive encounters displayed higher intensity of aggression and fought longer in subsequent contests. In both cases, they achieved higher fighting success than naïve males. The enhanced fighting performance of both winners and losers was stimulated by merely experiencing a contest, not necessarily by the relative outcome of previous fights. Overall, this study highlights the fact that previous victories and defeats both enhance aggressive behaviour in olive fruit flies, allowing them to achieve higher fighting success in subsequent contests against inexperienced males. PMID:25792294

  20. Droperidol v. haloperidol for sedation of aggressive behaviour in acute mental health: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Calver, Leonie; Drinkwater, Vincent; Gupta, Rahul; Page, Colin B; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2015-03-01

    Background Agitation and aggression are significant problems in acute psychiatric units. There is little consensus on which drug is most effective and safest for sedation of these patients. Aims To compare the effectiveness and safety of haloperidol v. droperidol for patients with agitation and aggression. Method In a masked, randomised controlled trial (ACTRN12611000565943) intramuscular droperidol (10 mg) was compared with intramuscular haloperidol (10 mg) for adult patients with acute behavioural disturbance in a psychiatric intensive care unit. The primary outcome was time to sedation within 120 min. Secondary outcomes were use of additional sedation, adverse events and staff injuries. Results From 584 patients, 110 were randomised to haloperidol and 118 to droperidol. Effective sedation occurred in 210 (92%) patients within 120 min. There was no significant difference in median time to sedation: 20 min (interquartile range 15-30, range 10-75) for haloperidol v. 25 min (IQR 15-30, range 10-115) for droperidol (P = 0.89). Additional sedation was used more often with haloperidol (13% v. 5%, P = 0.06), but adverse effects were less common with haloperidol (1% v. 5%, P = 0.12). There were 8 staff injuries. Conclusions Both haloperidol and droperidol were effective for sedation of patients with acute behavioural disturbance. PMID:25395689

  1. Psychometric Comparison of the Functional Assessment Instruments QABF, FACT and FAST for Self-Injurious, Stereotypic and Aggressive/Destructive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaja, Rebecca H.; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychometric properties of three functional assessment rating scales were compared for three types of target behaviours [self-injurious behaviour (SIB), stereotypic behaviour and aggressive/destructive behaviour]. Materials and method: The "Questions about Behavioural Function" (QABF), the "Functional Assessment for Multiple Causality"…

  2. Bayesian analysis of genetic associations of skin lesions and behavioural traits to identify genetic components of individual aggressiveness in pigs.

    PubMed

    Turner, S P; Roehe, R; Mekkawy, W; Farnworth, M J; Knap, P W; Lawrence, A B

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in genetic selection against behavioural traits that impact negatively on welfare and productivity in commercial livestock production. Post-mixing aggressiveness in pigs shows wide phenotypic variation, affects health, welfare and growth performance and is a routine feature of production. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the heritability of three traits associated with aggressiveness in pigs during the 24 h post-mixing; duration in reciprocal aggression, and in receipt of, or delivery of non-reciprocal aggression (NRA). For the purposes of genetic selection, recording aggressive behaviour is excessively labour intensive. The genetic correlations were quantified between the behavioural traits and an easily measurable indicator trait; the number of skin lesions following mixing (lesion score, LS). The heritabilities for the three behavioural traits ranged from 0.17 to 0.46 (receipt of NRA and reciprocal aggression respectively). The duration in reciprocal aggression and in delivery of NRA showed a strong genetic correlation (r g = 0.79 with 95% Bayesian credibility interval of 0.62-0.94). The genetic correlation between LS and these two behaviours indicated that selection on breeding values of LS could be used to reduce aggressiveness. The duration in receipt of NRA appeared to be regulated by different genes or genomic effects compared with the other behavioural traits and LS. Although duration in receipt of NRA was not genetically associated with LS, it was lowly but significantly environmentally associated with the residuals of central and caudal LS (r e = 0.28-0.32), indicating that pigs that received NRA also received bites on the central and caudal third of the body. The pen that the animals were mixed into was found to be a very important factor for the analysed traits, in particular those representing behavioural characteristics. Based on the estimated genetic parameters, it is concluded that selection on breeding values for reduced LS (especially central LS) is expected to reduce reciprocal aggression and the delivery of NRA but will not change the receipt of NRA directly. PMID:17987375

  3. Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).

    PubMed

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during parental care after larval hatching, which may have possible implications on reproductive success and population dynamics. PMID:25213287

  4. Indirect genetic effects for growth rate in domestic pigs alter aggressive and manipulative biting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40% less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27% less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40% less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P < 0.01), with no G × E interactions. These results show opportunities to reduce harmful biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986

  5. Teachers' Beliefs about Inappropriate Behaviour: Challenging Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieve, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on taking a first step in the process of influencing teachers' attitudes by building a description of beliefs about inappropriate behaviour that can be used in staff development work to provoke dissonance-led change. It describes a study, undertaken in two parts, exploring teachers' attitudes to inclusion, and ascertaining their…

  6. On the Links between Aggressive Behaviour, Loneliness, and Patterns of Close Relationships among Non-Clinical School-Age Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This study explored multifaceted associations between children's aggressive behaviours and loneliness feelings by identifying sub-groups of children with different individual profiles, and also examined whether profiles associated differently with children's quality of close relationships with mothers and peers. Participants were 145 non-clinical…

  7. Teacher-Child Conflict and Aggressive Behaviour in First Grade: The Intervening Role of Children's Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-01-01

    High levels of teacher-child conflict have repeatedly been found to amplify children's aggressive behaviour. Up to now, however, research on possible mechanisms explaining this link is largely lacking. The current study aimed to test whether children's self-esteem is an intervening mechanism. Participants were 139 children (70 boys, M age = 6.18…

  8. Using Behavioural Skills Training to Treat Aggression in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert W.; Sturmey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of anger management in people with intellectual disability failed to control for the effects of the number of provocative stimuli presented and lacked direct measures of behaviour and treatment integrity data. Methods: This experiment systematically assessed and presented discriminative stimuli for aggressive

  9. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  10. Assessing the Link between Executive Functions and Aggressive Behaviours of Children Who Are Deaf: Impact of Early Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipal, Rafet Firat; Bayhan, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Relation between constructing complex mental structures and language skills cause delays in development of executive functions of deaf children. When the importance of language skills in development of executive functions and frequency of aggressive behaviours of deaf children are considered, investigation of executive functions of…

  11. Addressing Challenging Behaviour in Children with Down Syndrome: The Use of Applied Behaviour Analysis for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Kathlee M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with…

  12. Genetic composition of social groups influences male aggressive behaviour and fitness in natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Julia B.

    2013-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual's behaviour—which is influenced by his or her genotype—can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I introduce the ‘focal interaction’ approach to study IGEs in groups. I illustrate the utility of this approach by studying aggression among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. I chose two natural genotypes as ‘focal interactants’: the behavioural interaction between them was the ‘focal interaction’. One male from each focal interactant genotype was present in every group, and I varied the genotype of the third male—the ‘treatment male’. Genetic variation in the treatment male's aggressive behaviour influenced the focal interaction, demonstrating that IGEs in groups are not a straightforward extension of IGEs measured in dyads. Further, the focal interaction influenced male mating success, illustrating the role of IGEs in behavioural evolution. These results represent the first manipulative evidence for IGEs at the group level. PMID:24068359

  13. Aggressive behaviour in preschool children : Neuropsychological correlates, costs of service use, and preventive efforts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. J. Raaijmakers

    2008-01-01

    At ages two and three the vast majority of children shows a high level of aggression. During the preschool period the level of aggression generally declines. However, some children continue to show a high level of aggression and are at risk for the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), potentially resulting in substance abuse, delinquency and high costs at later

  14. Depression in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Symptoms and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric evaluation of adults with intellectual disability (ID) remains complex because of limitations in verbal abilities, atypical clinical presentation and challenging behaviour. This study examines the clinical presentation of adults with depression compared with bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and non-psychiatric control…

  15. Vertical and lateral workplace bullying in nursing: development of the hospital aggressive behaviour scale.

    PubMed

    Waschgler, Kathrin; Ruiz-Hernández, José Antonio; Llor-Esteban, Bartolomé; Jiménez-Barbero, José Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Healthcare staff is one of the professional groups that suffers the highest exposure to sources of occupational stress such as hostility from coworkers and superiors. In order to contribute to the assessment of bullying behaviors in the healthcare sector and to obtain a brief and manageable instrument for the assessment of this psychosocial risk, we developed the Hospital Aggressive Behaviour Scale-version Co-workers-Superiors (HABS-CS). By means of thorough qualitative analysis, an initial pool of 166 items was obtained, which were reviewed according to precise criteria until concluding with a total of 57 items, which were administered to a sample of 1,484 healthcare professionals from 11 public hospitals. The analyses concluded with the selection of 17 items distributed in two subscales. The internal 5-factor structure is the result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis conducted in two samples. Both the resulting questionnaire and the factors identified present adequate psychometric properties: high-internal consistency (Cronbach's ? of .86) and adequate criterion validity, analyzed by means of significant correlations between the HABS-CS and job satisfaction, burnout components, and psychological well-being. This instrument may be of great utility for the assessment and prevention of psychosocial risks. PMID:23539564

  16. Life-history and hormonal control of aggression in black redstarts: Blocking testosterone does not decrease territorial aggression, but changes the emphasis of vocal behaviours during simulated territorial intrusions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies in behavioural endocrinology attempt to link territorial aggression with testosterone, but the exact relationship between testosterone and territorial behaviour is still unclear and may depend on the ecology of a species. The degree to which testosterone facilitates territorial behaviour is particularly little understood in species that defend territories during breeding and outside the breeding season, when plasma levels of testosterone are low. Here we suggest that species that defend territories in contexts other than reproduction may have lost the direct regulation of territorial behaviour by androgens even during the breeding season. In such species, only those components of breeding territoriality that function simultaneously as sexually selected signals may be under control of sex steroids. Results We investigated black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros), a species that shows periods of territoriality within and outside of the breeding season. We treated territorial males with an anti-androgen and an aromatase inhibitor during the breeding season to block both the direct and indirect effects of testosterone. Three and ten days after the treatment, implanted males were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion. The treatment did not reduce the overall territorial response, but it changed the emphasis of territoriality: experimental males invested more in behaviours addressed directly towards the intruder, whereas placebo-treated males put most effort into their vocal response, a component of territoriality that may be primarily directed towards their mating partner rather than the male opponent. Conclusions In combination with previous findings, these data suggest that overall territoriality may be decoupled from testosterone in male black redstarts. However, high levels of testosterone during breeding may facilitate-context dependent changes in song. PMID:23433033

  17. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  18. Feasibility and initial efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural group programme for managing anger and aggressiveness after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Aboulafia-Brakha, T; Greber Buschbeck, C; Rochat, L; Annoni, J-M

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural group programme for treating anger and aggressiveness after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Five feasibility criteria were considered: demand, implementation, practicality, acceptability and initial efficacy. A self-report questionnaire of aggressiveness (AQ-12) was administered before the intervention (T1), one week following the intervention (T2) and at a four months follow-up (T3). Ten patients with moderate to severe chronic TBI completed the programme through eight once-a-week sessions. The analysis of the feasibility outcomes suggests that: (1) The recruitment, the process of grouping participants and the characterisation of anger and aggressiveness at baseline need to be re-evaluated and improved for future designs. (2) The use of specific strategies for bypassing cognitive and other behavioural dysfunctions related to TBI is crucial for the success of this intervention and merits special attention. (3) The high retention rate, the convenient meeting schedule, cost advantages and the good acceptability by participants are positive arguments for the implementation of a larger trial. (4) The significant reduction of AQ-12 scores at T3 and the high effect size constitute a change in the expected direction and support the initial efficacy of the programme. PMID:23259694

  19. Who's Challenging Who? Changing Attitudes towards Those Whose Behaviour Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, L. M.; Hastings, R. P.; Hunt, P. H.; Bowler, C. L.; Banks, M. E.; Totsika, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although staff attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disability (ID) whose behaviour challenges may be an important part of a positive support culture, very little research has focused on the development of training specifically designed to change staff attitudes. Positive contact is hypothesised to be an effective way to…

  20. Divergent Evolution of Male Aggressive Behaviour: Another Reproductive Isolation Barrier in Extremophile Poeciliid Fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H2S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H2S. PMID:22315695

  1. Reducing aggressive behaviour and staff injuries: a multi-strategy approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Meehan; Kevin Fjeldsoe; Terry Stedman; Vasanthi Duraiappah

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a multi- strategy approach on the management of patient aggression and staff injury rates at a stand-alone mental health facility. Methods: A multi-strategy aggression manage- ment program was developed and introduced over a 2-year period. The program had four compon- ents; staff education\\/training, a staff support pro- gram, risk assessment tools, and a computerised

  2. Impact of a 3-Day Training Course on Challenging Behaviour on Staff Cognitive and Emotional Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Edel; Quinlan, Dave; Hastings, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A range of factors have been suggested as determinants of staff behaviour in the context of working with people with challenging behaviour. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a typical challenging behaviour staff training course had an effect on staff feelings of efficacy, their negative emotional reactions to…

  3. Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2011-01-01

    The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

  4. Metabolic costs of aggressive behaviour in the Siamese fighting fish,Betta splendens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nídia Castro; Albert F. H. Ros; Klaus Becker; Rui F. Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive conflicts between males are often resolved by means of multiple ritualized agonistic displays without damaging escalation. Apparently, in such cases by using those displays opponents exchange important motivational and physical information on which they base a decision to stay or leave the interaction. In the Siamese fighting fish, the time spent spreading the dorsal fin and erecting the gill

  5. Photoperiod Affects Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Aggressive Behaviour in Male Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) J. C. Wen,*a A. K. Hotchkiss,* G. E. Demas and R. J. Nelson* *Departments University, Bloomington, IN, USA. Key words: photoperiod, Siberian hamster, seasonal, aggression, nitric including photoperiod (day length). Male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) housed in short photoperiod

  6. The Relation between Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Staff Behaviour towards Clients with ID and Challenging Behaviour: A Validation Study of the Staff-Client Interactive Behaviour Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Stams, G. J. J. M.; Moonen, X. M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal staff behaviour is one of the instigating factors associated with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are several studies focusing on the influence of intrapersonal staff characteristics--such as beliefs, attributions and emotional reactions--on staff behaviour. Little is known,…

  7. Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111–140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581–604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour. PMID:22826343

  8. The challenge hypothesis and seasonal changes in aggression and steroids in male northern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus).

    PubMed

    Klukowski, M; Nelson, C E

    1998-06-01

    The challenge hypothesis has been very successful in explaining patterns of testosterone secretion in response to social stimuli in avian species. However, there have been few studies in nonavian vertebrates. We tested the challenge hypothesis in male northern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus). These males are highly territorial and nonparental. Consequently, the challenge hypothesis predicts that plasma testosterone concentrations will be insensitive to aggressive interactions. Testosterone concentrations indeed were not significantly affected by either a short (3-15 min) simulated territorial intrusion ("challenge") in June or a longer (50-60 min) intrusion in July. Levels of corticosterone were elevated in challenged males in the long, but not the short, intrusion. Challenged males displayed significantly more intense territorial behaviors than did unchallenged control males. The intensity of territorial behavior changed significantly across the active season and was positively related to testosterone concentrations. Thus, while testosterone concentrations do not appear to be involved in rapid changes in aggressive behavior in the fence lizard, they probably are important in larger-scale behavioral changes throughout the season. PMID:9698502

  9. The aggressive nature of the odontogenic keratocyst: is it a benign cystic neoplasm? Part 1. Clinical and early experimental evidence of aggressive behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mervyn Shear

    2002-01-01

    In this, the first of three articles on the aggressive nature of the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), there is a review of clinical and histological observations which indicated that this was an aggressive lesion with a predilection for recurrence unlike the majority of other jaw cysts. This led to the tentative suggestion that the OKC might be a benign neoplasm. Subsequently

  10. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com A comparison of aggressive and foraging behaviour between

    E-print Network

    Keeley, Ernest R.

    ' introduced species are often thought to cause declines or extinctions of native species through competitive; Yellowstone cutthroat trout When introduced species become established and pro- liferate within a new studies have investigated behavioural mechanisms that may allow introduced species to out- compete

  11. Educational Supports for Students with Disabilities and Significant Behavioural Challenges: Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    This study examined teacher perceptions of educational supports for students with disabilities and significant behavioural problems. Specifically, the study sought to (a) identify the types of behavioural problems displayed by students identified as exhibiting significantly challenging behaviour; (b) ascertain the types of supports and resources…

  12. Changing the Face of Challenging Behaviour Services: The Special Projects Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin; James, Wendy; Doyle, Tony; Andrew, Jock; Davies, Dee; Moore, Kate; Brophy, Sam

    2006-01-01

    The background to an exciting and probably unique initiative for people with challenging behaviour is described. The Special Projects Team (SPT) was established in the context of increasing knowledge of effective treatment responses, but lack of widespread expertise as well as growing crisis within challenging behaviour services. Unlike previous…

  13. Social Inclusion and People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. Method: A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been…

  14. Melatonin Decreases Daytime Challenging Behaviour in Persons with Intellectual Disability and Chronic Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Maas, A. P. H. M.; Korzilius, H.; Smits, M. G.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disability (ID) and sleep problems exhibit more daytime challenging behaviours than persons with ID without sleep problems. Several anecdotal reports suggest that melatonin is not only effective in the treatment of insomnia, but also decreases daytime challenging behaviour. However, the effect of melatonin…

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Effects on Challenging Behaviour among Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, M.; Maes, B.; Onghena, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show challenging behaviour. We review distinct interventions that are applied to treat these challenging behaviours, and analyse intervention effects and moderating variables. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases "ERIC," "PsycINFO," "Web of Science" and…

  16. Physical Conditions and Challenging Behaviour in People with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, C. F.; Jansen, A. A. C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Challenging behaviour is a major problem among people with intellectual disabilities. Physical factors may be an important cause. The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the physical conditions associated with challenging behaviour. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane systematic…

  17. Strategies to Address Challenging Behaviour in Young Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may present problems within community, leisure, and educational settings, and, in many instances, precludes them from accessing these environments. Factors contributing to the occurrence of challenging behaviours include characteristics associated with…

  18. The Analysis of Challenging Relations: Influences on Interactive Behaviour of Staff towards Clients with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Hendriks, A. H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relationships between support staff and clients with intellectual disability (ID) are important for quality of care, especially when dealing with challenging behaviour. Building upon an interpersonal model, this study investigates the influence of client challenging behaviour, staff attitude and staff emotional intelligence on…

  19. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. P Halperin; T Giri; D. W Dunham

    1997-01-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the

  20. Neural responses to aggressive challenge correlate with behavior in nonbreeding sparrows.

    PubMed

    Goodson, James L; Evans, Andrew K; Soma, Kiran K

    2005-10-17

    The present study was conducted on captive male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) during the nonbreeding season in order to (1) examine Fos and Zenk responses of basal forebrain sites to simulated territorial intrusion and (2) determine how those responses relate to aggression. Numerous forebrain areas showed significant Fos and Zenk responses to simulated territorial intrusion, and in several areas of the hypothalamus and lateral septum, these responses were negatively correlated with aggressive behavior. Homologous areas in mammals show greater responses in subordinate subjects than in dominant subjects. Thus, these brain areas may be responsive to social stressors across a wide range of vertebrates. PMID:16189485

  1. Exposure to Client Aggression and Burnout among Community Staff Who Support Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, J. M.; Lunsky, Y.; Dewa, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are exposed to challenging behaviour in their work including client aggression. Exposure to aggressive behaviour has been associated with staff stress and burnout. Study samples have been small however, and there has been very little data exploring…

  2. Nine challenges in incorporating the dynamics of behaviour in infectious diseases models.

    PubMed

    Funk, Sebastian; Bansal, Shweta; Bauch, Chris T; Eames, Ken T D; Edmunds, W John; Galvani, Alison P; Klepac, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, the spread of infectious diseases in human populations has been modelled with static parameters. These parameters, however, can change when individuals change their behaviour. If these changes are themselves influenced by the disease dynamics, there is scope for mechanistic models of behaviour to improve our understanding of this interaction. Here, we present challenges in modelling changes in behaviour relating to disease dynamics, specifically: how to incorporate behavioural changes in models of infectious disease dynamics, how to inform measurement of relevant behaviour to parameterise such models, and how to determine the impact of behavioural changes on observed disease dynamics. PMID:25843377

  3. Psychodynamic Therapy and Intellectual Disabilities: Dealing with Challenging Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four case studies concerning long-term psychodynamic treatment of German individuals with intellectual disabilities are presented: an aggressive young man with a mild intellectual disability; a young man with multiple disabilities with destructive behavior; a withdrawn young woman with self-destructive behavior; and a young man with autism with…

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of Challenging Student Behaviours in Model Inner City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Lance T.; Soloway, Geoffrey B.

    2010-01-01

    Elementary teachers often cite challenging student behaviours and classroom management as areas of concern and therefore priorities for professional development. In this paper, the authors discuss the findings from a two-year research project, Sociocultural Perspectives on Behaviour and Classroom Management (SPBCM). SPBCM examined the social and…

  5. Implementing a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioural Assessment to Understand and Address Challenging Behaviours Demonstrated by Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…

  6. Challenging Behaviour: Principals' Experience of Stress and Perception of the Effects of Challenging Behaviour on Staff in Special Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Aine; Carey, Sean; McCarthy, Siobhan; Coyle, Ciaran

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of stress and the effects of managing challenging behaviour on principals of special schools in Ireland, including schools for pupils with an intellectual disability, emotional disturbance, specific learning disability and physical and sensory disability, and children of traveller families. In this study principals…

  7. Attachment Behaviour towards Support Staff in Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: Associations with Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Schipper, J. C.; Schuengel, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attachment research has shown the importance of attachment behaviour for the prevention of dysregulated behaviour due to emotional distress. The support of an attachment figure may be especially important for people with intellectual disability (ID), because they are less adept in dealing with stressful situations on their own. Our…

  8. Integrating Mindfulness Meditation With Cognitive and Behavioural Therapies: The Challenge of Combining Acceptance and Change-Based Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A Lau; Shelley F McMain

    2005-01-01

    Recent innovations in psychological treatments have integrated mindfulness meditation techniques with traditional cognitive and behavioural therapies, challenging traditional cognitive and behavioural therapists to integrate acceptance- and change-based strategies. This article details how 2 treatments, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and dialectical behaviour therapy, have met this challenge. We review the integration rationale underlying the 2 treatments, how the treatments combine strategies from

  9. Training Emotional Intelligence Related to Treatment Skills of Staff Working with Clients with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zijlmans, L. J. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Derksen, J. J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display challenging behaviour may contribute to the continuation of this behaviour, because it causes emotional reactions such as anxiety, anger and annoyance, which may prohibit adequate response behaviour. To enhance staff behaviour and treatment skills a training…

  10. Surface feeding and aggressive behaviour of diploid and triploid brown trout Salmo trutta during allopatric pair-wise matchings.

    PubMed

    Preston, A C; Taylor, J F; Adams, C E; Migaud, H

    2014-09-01

    Diploid and triploid brown trout Salmo trutta were acclimated for 6 weeks on two feeding regimes (floating and sinking). Thereafter, aggression and surface feeding response were compared between pairs of all diploid, all triploid and diploid and triploid S. trutta in an experimental stream. In each pair-wise matching, fish of similar size were placed in allopatry and rank was determined by the total number of aggressive interactions recorded. Dominant individuals initiated more aggression than subordinates, spent more time defending a territory and positioned themselves closer to the surface food source (Gammarus pulex), whereas subordinates occupied the peripheries. In cross ploidy trials, diploid S. trutta were more aggressive than triploid, and dominated their sibling when placed in pair-wise matchings. Surface feeding, however, did not differ statistically between ploidy irrespective of feeding regime. Triploids adopted a sneak feeding strategy while diploids expended more time defending a territory. In addition, we also tested whether triploids exhibit a similar social dominance to diploids when placed in allopatry. Although aggression was lower in triploid pairs than in the diploid and triploid pairs, a dominance hierarchy was also observed between individuals of the same ploidy. Dominant triploid fish were more aggressive and consumed more feed items than subordinate individuals. Subordinate fish displayed a darker colour index than dominant fish suggesting increased stress levels. Dominant triploid fish, however, appeared to be more tolerant of subordinate individuals and did not display the same degree of invasive aggression as seen in the diploid and diploid or diploid and triploid matchings. These novel findings suggest that sterile triploid S. trutta feed similarly but are less aggressive than diploid trout. Future studies should determine the habitat choice of triploid S. trutta after release and the interaction between wild fish and triploids during the breeding season prior to utilization of triploids as an alternative management strategy within freshwater fisheries. PMID:25082262

  11. The goal to be accepted by friends as underlying function of overt aggressive behaviour in immigrant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Stefanek, Elisabeth; Spiel, Christiane

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated (1) to what extent the goal to be accepted by friends is an underlying function of overt aggressive behavior in adolescents, and (2) whether this function is more predictive than reactive aggression for overt aggressive behavior in first and second generation immigrants compared with natives. The sample comprised 339 native Austrians (51.6% girls), 126 first generation immigrants (48.4% girls), and 175 second generation immigrants (54.3% girls) aged 14 to 19 (M = 15.61). Data were collected via self-assessments. Multiple group latent means and covariance structures (MACS) models revealed that the goal to be accepted by friends was a stronger predictor than reactive aggression for overt aggressive behavior in first generation immigrants compared with second generation immigrants and natives. Furthermore, gender moderated these associations. The goal to be accepted by friends was a very strong predictor of overt aggressive behavior in first generation immigrant boys, but not in first generation immigrant girls. Results are discussed regarding the process of acculturation in first generation immigrant youth. PMID:21883259

  12. Progesterone modulates aggression in sex-role reversed female African black coucals

    PubMed Central

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Wittenzellner, Andrea; Schwabl, Ingrid; Makomba, Musa

    2008-01-01

    Testosterone is assumed to be the key hormone related to resource-defence aggression. While this role has been confirmed mostly in the context of reproduction in male vertebrates, the effect of testosterone on the expression of resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates is not so well established. Furthermore, laboratory work suggests that progesterone inhibits aggressive behaviour in females. In this study, we investigated the hormonal changes underlying territorial aggression in free-living female African black coucals, Centropus grillii (Aves; Cuculidae). Females of this sex-role reversed polyandrous bird species should be particularly prone to be affected by testosterone because they aggressively defend territories similar to males of other species. We show, however, that territorial aggression in female black coucals is modulated by progesterone. After aggressive territorial challenges female black coucals expressed lower levels of progesterone than unchallenged territorial females and females without territories, suggesting that progesterone may suppress territorial aggression and is downregulated during aggressive encounters. Indeed, females treated with physiological concentrations of progesterone were less aggressive than females with placebo implants. This is one of the first demonstrations of a corresponding hormone–behaviour interaction under challenged and experimental conditions in free-living females. We anticipate that our observation in a sex-role reversed species may provide a more general mechanism, by which progesterone—in interaction with testosterone—may regulate resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates. PMID:18252672

  13. The influence of staff training on challenging behaviour in individuals with intellectual disability: A review.

    PubMed

    Cox, Alison D; Dube, Charmayne; Temple, Beverley

    2015-03-01

    Many individuals with intellectual disability engage in challenging behaviour. This can significantly limit quality of life and also negatively impact caregivers (e.g., direct care staff, family caregivers and teachers). Fortunately, efficacious staff training may alleviate some negative side effects of client challenging behaviour. Currently, a systematic review of studies evaluating whether staff training influences client challenging behaviour has not been conducted. The purpose of this article was to identify emerging patterns, knowledge gaps and make recommendations for future research on this topic. The literature search resulted in a total of 19 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Articles were separated into four staff training categories. Studies varied across sample size, support staff involved in training, study design, training duration and data collection strategy. A small sample size (n = 19) and few replication studies, alongside several other procedural limitations prohibited the identification of a best practice training approach. PMID:25395332

  14. Self-injury and aggression in tuberous sclerosis complex: cross syndrome comparison and associated risk markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research reporting prevalence rates of self-injurious and aggressive behaviour in people with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is limited. No studies have compared rates of these behaviours in TSC with those in other syndrome groups matched for degree of disability or investigated risk markers for these behaviours in TSC. Methods Data from the Challenging Behaviour Questionnaire were collected for 37 children, aged 4 to 15 years, with TSC. Odds ratios were used to compare rates of self-injury and aggression in children with TSC with children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X, Cornelia de Lange and Down syndromes. Characteristics were measured using the Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire, the Activity Questionnaire, the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire, the Wessex Behaviour Schedule and the revised Non-communicating Children Pain Checklist. Mann-Whitney U analyses were used to compare characteristics between individuals with self-injury and aggression and those not showing these behaviours. Results Rates of self-injury and aggression in TSC were 27% and 50%, respectively. These are high but not significantly different from rates in children with Down syndrome or other syndrome groups. Both self-injury and aggression were associated with stereotyped and pain-related behaviours, low mood, hyperactivity, impulsivity and repetitive use of language. Children who engaged in self-injury also had lower levels of interest and pleasure and showed a greater degree of ‘insistence on sameness’ than children who did not self-injure. Aggression was associated with repetitive behaviour. The majority of these associations remained significant when the association with level of adaptive functioning was controlled for. Conclusions Behavioural profiles can be used to identify those most at risk of developing self-injury and aggression. Further research is warranted to understand the influence of such internal factors as mood, ASD symptomatology and pain on challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. PMID:24822087

  15. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  16. Staff Judgements of Responsibility for the Challenging Behaviour of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnan, D.; Cairns, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the importance of staff judgements of responsibility for challenging behaviour in predicting their emotional and intended helping responses. Sixty-two carers completed questionnaires rating attributions of internality, stability and controllability, emotions of sympathy and anger, judgements of responsibility for the…

  17. Formal Versus Informal Interventions for Challenging Behaviour in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, M. A.; Atkinson, L.; Foti-Gervais, L.; Condillac, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although effective, humane treatments exist for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) who have challenging behaviour, little research has examined the extent to which clients receive formal, documented vs. undocumented interventions. Caregivers (of 625 persons with ID living in community and institutional residences in Ontario, Canada) were…

  18. The Treatment of Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disabilities: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…

  19. Predictors of Restrictive Reactive Strategy Use in People with Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Lowe, Kathy; Brophy, Sam; Moore, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intrusive reactive strategies (physical restraint, emergency medication and seclusion) are frequently used procedures in the management of challenging behaviour. The present study identifies predictors for reactive strategy use in an attempt to more clearly delineate at risk service users. Method: Eight hundred and thirty-nine agencies…

  20. Self-Efficacy and Stress of Staff Managing Challenging Behaviours of People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudre-Mauroux, Annick

    2011-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been reported to play a significant role in stress levels of parents facing challenging behaviours of their children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has also been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. To understand the implications of staff self-efficacy in…

  1. Health Service Inpatient Units for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour or Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Jim; Ritchie, Fiona; Dyer, Ricinda

    2010-01-01

    Background: As institutions for people with intellectual disabilities have been replaced with community services, health care provision has developed to provide assessment and treatment, low and medium secure units for people with challenging behaviour or mental health problems. These include both public and private sector provision. Little is…

  2. Evaluating an Assertive Outreach Team for Supporting Clients Who Present Behaviour that Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen; Paterson, Marion

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluates an assertive outreach team which aimed to help support people with a learning disability who displayed challenging behaviour in their own environment. The service was evaluated using Maxwell's Multi-dimensional Quality Evaluation Model (Maxwell 1984), which recognises that different stakeholders in a service are likely to…

  3. The Impact of Participation in the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge on Adolescent Resiliency and Health Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunstein, Rose; Nutbeam, Don

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine characteristics of resilience among Australian adolescents, the extent to which resilience might be strengthened through participation in a dance/drama competition, the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge (REC), and the impact participation may have on health related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: …

  4. Student Behaviour and Emotional Challenges for Teachers and Parents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris; Cooper, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Social, emotional, and behavioural disorders of children, within the context of a whole-school approach to inclusion as adopted by Hong Kong, can be challenging for teachers and parents. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and feedback from a range of experts and parent groups in Hong Kong, specific scales were developed to measure…

  5. Staff's Attitudes and Reactions towards Aggressive Behaviour of Clients with Intellectual Disabilities: A Multi-Level Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotter, Maartje H.; Wissink, Inge B.; Moonen, Xavier M. H.; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; Jansen, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    Data were collected from 121 staff members (20 direct support staff teams) on background characteristics of the individual staff members and their teams (gender, age, years of work experience, position and education), the frequency and form of aggression of clients with an intellectual disability (verbal or physical), staff members' attitudes…

  6. Teaching Staff Knowledge, Attributions and Confidence in Relation to Working with Children with an Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Helen; Murray, George; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined Scottish teaching staff knowledge about the definition and management of challenging behaviour displayed by children with an intellectual disability. Knowledge levels were relatively low, and participants were most likely to define challenging behaviour by function or topography. Teaching staff were largely unaware of…

  7. The effect of challenging behaviour, and staff support, on the psychological wellbeing of staff working with older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Cole; S. Scott; M. Skelton-Robinson

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between levels of challenging behaviour in older adults living in residential settings, the degree of staff support and the psychological wellbeing of staff. Fifty-one staff working in mental health and 45 staff working in nursing home settings rated residents on the frequency of 25 challenging behaviours, and completed measures of staff support and

  8. Predictors, Costs and Characteristics of out of Area Placement for People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, D. G.; Lowe, K.; Moore, K.; Brophy, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Out of area placements for people with challenging behaviour represent an expensive and often ineffective strategy for meeting the needs of this service user group. Methods: More than 800 agencies and service settings in a large area of South Wales were screened to identify children and adults with challenging behaviour against a…

  9. The relationship between pre-morbid personality and challenging behaviour in people with dementia: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah Osborne; Jane Simpson; Graham Stokes

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that challenging behaviour in people with dementia reflects a person's pre-morbid personality traits and a number of studies have explored this hypothesis. However, inconsistencies in outcome between studies suggest a need to review the available evidence systematically. As a result, major bibliographic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between pre-morbid personality and challenging behaviour

  10. Electrocommunication behaviour and non invasively-measured androgen changes following induced seasonal breeding in the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Cuddy; Nadia Aubin-Horth; Rüdiger Krahe

    Androgens are known to be involved in reproductive behaviours including courtship and aggression. According to the Challenge Hypothesis, androgen activity upregulates male reproductive behaviour seasonally and also modulates short term adaptation of these behaviours in response to social context. In the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) has been previously implicated in the regulation of electrocommunication behaviours that are

  11. Aggressive behaviour and physiological responses to pheromones are strongly impaired in mice deficient for the olfactory G-protein -subunit G8.

    PubMed

    Montani, Giorgia; Tonelli, Simone; Sanghez, Valentina; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palanza, Paola; Zimmer, Andreas; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2013-08-15

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are critical players in the transduction mechanisms underlying odorant and pheromonal signalling. In the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the adult mouse, two different G-protein complexes have been identified. G?o?2?8 is preferentially expressed in the basal neurons and coexpresses with type-2 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V2Rs) whereas G?i2?2?2 is found in the apical neurons and coexpresses with type-1 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V1Rs). V2R-expressing neurons project to the posterior accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) whereas neurons expressing V1Rs send their axon to the anterior AOB. G?8 is also expressed in developing olfactory neurons where this protein is probably associated with Go. Here, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of the G?8 gene and investigated the behavioural effects and the physiological consequences of this mutation. G?8(-/-) mice show a normal development of the main olfactory epithelium; moreover, they do not display major deficits in odour perception. In contrast, the VNO undergoes a slow but remarkable loss of basal neurons starting from the fourth postnatal week, with a 40% reduction of cells at 2 months and 70% at 1 year. This loss is associated with a reduced early-gene expression in the posterior AOB of mice stimulated with pheromones. More interestingly, the G?8 deletion specifically leads to a reduced pheromone-mediated aggressiveness in both males and females, all other socio-sexual behaviours remaining unaltered. This study defines a specific role for G?8 in maintenance of the neuronal population of the VNO and in the mechanisms of pheromonal signalling that involve the aggressive behaviour towards conspecifics. PMID:23836683

  12. Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

  13. Therapeutic drug monitoring of zuclopenthixol in a double-blind placebo-controlled discontinuation study in adults with intellectual disabilities and aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, V; Reis, O; Glaser, T; Thome, J; Hiemke, C; Haessler, F

    2014-01-01

    The trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison with a discontinuation design. 49 mentally retarded patients with aggressive behaviour were treated with zuclopenthixol at a dose of 2-20?mg/d. At each visit the clinical effect was evaluated. Correlations between dose, serum concentration, and efficacy measures were calculated. The mean dose was 10.0?mg/day (±5.17); the mean serum concentration 4.19?ng/mL (±3.16). Associations of dosage, serum concentration and clinical efficiency did not result in coherent patterns. Correlations with clinical efficiency measures appeared to be contradictory for dosage and serum concentrations, respectively. As no consistent associations between dosage, serum concentration, and clinical efficiency measures were found, different hypotheses explaining the results are discussed. PMID:24307207

  14. Feeding and aggressive behaviours in juvenile coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch ) under chemically-mediated risk of predation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Martel; Lawrence M. Dill

    1993-01-01

    Summary Juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) spend the first year of their lives in their natal streams, where they may often hold feeding territories. They also face significant risk of predation by birds and fish, and should alter their behaviour to reduce risk of mortality when these predators are present. Although there is laboratory evidence that coho react to predator

  15. THE USE OF TIME BASE LAG SEQUENTIAL ANALYSIS TO LOOK AT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL EVENTS AND CHALLENGING BEHAVIOUR IN PEOPLE WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Whitaker; Tammi Walker; Carolyn McNally

    2004-01-01

    Although low frequency challenging behaviour (that which occurs less than once a day) is common, very little research has been done into its analysis or treatment. It is suggested that the methods of analysing high frequency challenging behaviour, such as experimental functional analysis, will not be applicable with low frequency challenging behaviour. The use of correctional analysis of case records

  16. Informing policies in forensic settings: a review of research investigating the effects of exposure to media violence on challenging\\/offending behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Steward; Franco Follina

    2006-01-01

    This review collates the empirical evidence on the behavioural effects of media violence. It assesses the content of different forms of media to which patients in secure services could be exposed. Numerous explanations for behaving aggressively are examined, using a variety of theoretical backgrounds. The effect of viewing different forms of violence on individuals' behaviour is also examined. The review

  17. Testosterone elevation and response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge by male northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    DeVries, M Susan; Winters, Caitlin P; Jawor, Jodie M

    2012-06-01

    There is much discrepancy about the relationship between testosterone (T) and male aggressive behavior. For example, in birds, males of many species significantly elevate T levels during inter-male conflict. However, this is not universal, and in species where males typically do not elevate T during aggressive interactions, concentrations of the hormone are often assumed to be circulating at maximum levels. We examined if male northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) significantly elevated T during simulated territorial intrusions (STIs). We also examined if individuals had the capacity to further elevate T levels in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injections immediately after an aggressive encounter. Our results indicate that male cardinals do not significantly elevate T levels in response to STIs, but have the physiological capacity to significantly elevate T in response to GnRH injections following aggressive interactions. This implies that T levels of individuals captured during STIs were not at maximum concentrations. However, additional findings in this study also suggest the possibility that prolonged social instability could elicit significant elevations in T in males of this species, warranting further investigation. PMID:22613708

  18. Coping with Challenging Behaviours of Children with Autism: Effectiveness of Brief Training Workshop for Frontline Staff in Special Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, C. Y. M.; Mak, W. W. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the effectiveness of three staff training elements: psychoeducation (PE) on autism, introduction of functional behavioural analysis (FBA) and emotional management (EM), on the reaction of challenging behaviours for frontline staff towards children with autism in Hong Kong special education settings. Methods:…

  19. Behavioural and immunological responses to an immune challenge in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Locatello, Lisa; Fiorito, Graziano; Finos, Livio; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-10-01

    Behavioural and immunological changes consequent to stress and infection are largely unexplored in cephalopods, despite the wide employment of species such as Octopus vulgaris in studies that require their manipulation and prolonged maintenance in captivity. Here we explore O. vulgaris behavioural and immunological (i.e. haemocyte number and serum lysozyme activity) responses to an in vivo immune challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Behavioural changes of immune-treated and sham-injected animals were observed in both sight-allowed and isolated conditions, i.e. visually interacting or not with a conspecific. Immune stimulation primarily caused a significant increase in the number of circulating haemocytes 4h after the treatment, while serum lysozyme activity showed a less clear response. However, the effect of LPS on the circulating haemocytes begins to vanish 24h after injection. Our observations indicate a significant change in behaviour consequent to LPS administration, with treated octopuses exhibiting a decrease of general activity pattern when kept in the isolated condition. A similar decrease was not observed in the sight-allowed condition, where we noticed a specific significant reduction only in the time spent to visually interact with the conspecific. Overall, significant, but lower, behavioural and immunological effects of injection were detected also in sham-injected animals, suggesting a non-trivial susceptibility to manipulation and haemolymph sampling. Our results gain importance in light of changes of the regulations for the use of cephalopods in scientific procedures that call for the prompt development of guidelines, covering many aspects of cephalopod provision, maintenance and welfare. PMID:24021926

  20. The Use of Functional Behavioural Assessment for Students with Challenging Behaviours: Current Patterns and Experience of Australian Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    With the growing adoption of the Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) system state-wide in New South Wales, Australia, it was of interest to determine the readiness of behaviour specialists to conduct Functional Behaviour Assessments (FBA) as part of the third tier of School-wide PBS provision. This article presents the findings from a survey…

  1. The Challenge Hypothesis and Seasonal Changes in Aggression and Steroids in Male Northern Fence Lizards ( Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Klukowski; Craig E. Nelson

    1998-01-01

    The challenge hypothesis has been very successful in explaining patterns of testosterone secretion in response to social stimuli in avian species. However, there have been few studies in nonavian vertebrates. We tested the challenge hypothesis in male northern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus). These males are highly territorial and nonparental. Consequently, the challenge hypothesis predicts that plasma testosterone concentrations will

  2. Investigating Low Adaptive Behaviour and Presence of the Triad of Impairments Characteristic of Autistic Spectrum Disorder as Indicators of Risk for Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identification of possible personal indicators of risk for challenging behaviour has generally been through association in cross-sectional prevalence studies, but few analyses have controlled for intercorrelation between potential risk factors. The aim was to investigate the extent to which gender, age, presence of the triad of…

  3. Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n?=?52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n?=?23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n?=?10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs occasionally and is problematic. A range of causative factors contribute to the onset of this behaviour. Attitudes toward the management of aggression are complex and somewhat contradictory and can affect the way staff manage this behaviour; therefore, wide-ranging initiatives are needed to prevent and deal with this type of challenging behaviour. PMID:24642026

  4. Enhanced Aggression Replacement Training with Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynahan, Luke

    2003-01-01

    An enhanced form of Aggression Replacement Training is being used with children and youth with autism spectrum disorder and particularly those with Asperger's Syndrome who present behavioural challenges. Initial results in a Norwegian centre indicate that, with some modifications and enhancements, the programme is an appropriate strategy for…

  5. Development and effectiveness of an integrated inpatient and community service for challenging behaviour in late life: From Confused and Disturbed Elderly to Transitional Behavioural Assessment and Intervention Service.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Katrina; Bird, Michael; Blair, Annaliese; MacPherson, Sarah

    2014-11-26

    A common method of managing challenging behaviour associated with dementia is long-stay special care units, though models are very diverse. In New South Wales, Australia, the five remaining state-run long-stay special care units for this population were funded to adopt a shorter-term model which had been trialled by one of the units. Transitional Behavioural Assessment and Intervention Service Units, incorporating an integrated outreach team, were to provide multi-disciplinary assessments, develop individualised bio-psychosocial management plans for, and appropriately discharge people with significant levels of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia. The current study assessed both the effects of the change and the clinical effectiveness of the model. PMID:25427787

  6. Reliability and Utility of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Tool (BSP-QEII) for Auditing and Quality Development in Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVilly, K.; Webber, L.; Paris, M.; Sharp, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Having an objective means of evaluating the quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) could assist service providers and statutory authorities to monitor and improve the quality of support provided to people with intellectual disability (ID) who exhibit challenging behaviour. The Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II…

  7. Aggressive angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L Lakshmana; Lakshmi, M Dhana; Sylvester, N

    2014-04-01

    Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid) matrix.[1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence.[2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity. PMID:24860748

  8. Aggressive Angiomyxoma

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathy, L.; Rao, L. Lakshmana; Lakshmi, M. Dhana; Sylvester, N.

    2014-01-01

    Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid) matrix.[1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence.[2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity. PMID:24860748

  9. Aggressive Driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a traffic offense. The exact number of motor vehicle crashes caused by aggressive drivers is unknown, but NHTSA has previously estimated about ... to avoid becoming the victim of an aggressive driver? A. You should: Always merge with ... use obscene gestures. Drive defensively.

  10. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: The Costs and Outcomes of In- and Out-of-Area Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, J.; Allen, D. G.; Pimm, C.; Meek, A.; Lowe, K.; Groves, S.; Cohen, D.; Felce, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People with severe challenging behaviour are vulnerable to exclusion from local services and removal to out-of-area placements if locally available supported accommodation is insufficient to meet their needs. There are concerns about the high costs and potentially poorer outcomes of out-of-area placements but relatively little is known…

  11. Comparing Residential Programmes for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability: Outcomes of Challenging Behaviour and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, F.; Bessero, S.; Robbiani, B.; Courvoisier, D. S.; Baud, M. A.; Traore, M.-C.; Blanco, P.; Giroud, M.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2011-01-01

    Background: Owing to methodological issues, little research has been conducted to examine quality of life (QoL) as a treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID). This study was conducted to combine QoL measures and objective observations of challenging behaviours (CB) in order to evaluate changes over…

  12. Understanding injustice-related aggression in organizations: a cognitive model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constant D. Beugré

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in the literature on workplace aggression emphasized the role of perceived injustice in the occurrence of aggressive behaviours in the workplace. The present article develops a cognitive model, which contends that perceptions of injustice are necessary but not sufficient to trigger aggressive behaviours in the workplace. Rather, retaliatory actions following perceived injustices are embedded in a nexus of

  13. A General Practice-Based Study of the Relationship between Indicators of Mental Illness and Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, D.; Kerr, M.; Hastings, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Existing studies tend to show a positive association between mental illness and challenging behaviour among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, whether the association is direct or artefactual is less clear. The purpose was to explore the association between psychiatric status and level of challenging behaviour, while…

  14. [Neurochemistry of impulsiveness and aggression].

    PubMed

    Vetulani, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is the most frequent social reaction among animals and men, and plays an important role in survival of the fittest. The change of social conditions in the course of development of human civilisation rendered some forms of aggression counter-adaptive, but the neurobiological mechanism of expression of aggression have not fundamentally changed in the last stages of human evolution. The two different kinds of aggression: emotional, serving mainly as a threat, and rational, predatory, serving for the attainment of goal in the most effective way, have different anatomical and neurobiological background and reciprocally inhibit each other. Aggression is modulated by several neurotransmitter and hormonal systems, of which the key role is seemingly played by testosterone, a hormone involved in domination behaviour, and serotonin, whose deficit results in increased impulsiveness. PMID:23888748

  15. Problematic Sexual Behaviour in a Secure Psychiatric Setting: Challenges and Developing Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gareth V.; Hebb, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Sexually abusive behaviours are common in a forensic psychiatric population, both before admission and while hospitalized. A survey of our medium security facility found that 41% of patients had a history of sexually abusive behaviours, ranging from convictions for sexual assault through to current episodes of sexual harassment. Most forensic…

  16. The challenge for English schools in responding to current debates on behaviour and violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Shaughnessy

    2012-01-01

    The riots in English cities in August 2011 have brought debates on behaviour of young people into sharper focus. Criticism of softly-softly approaches and the lack of power for head teachers to discipline is a reoccurring theme within the debate on behaviour in schools. Regaining adult authority is also reflected in the tenor of the government’s 2010 White Paper on

  17. Testing the myth: tolerant dogs and aggressive wolves.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-05-22

    Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog-human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication ('emotional reactivity hypothesis'). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog-wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf-wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666

  18. The effect of auditory versus visual violent media exposure on aggressive behaviour: The role of song lyrics, video clips and musical tone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi I. Brummert Lennings; Wayne A. Warburton

    2011-01-01

    Five decades of research have shown clear links between exposure to violent visual media and subsequent aggression, however there has been little research that directly compares the effects of exposure to violent visual versus auditory media, or which has experimentally tested the effect of violent song lyrics with musical ‘tone’ held constant. In the current study 194 participants heard music

  19. Understanding staff responses to challenging behaviour in adults with a learning disability: the role of knowledge, attributions and emotion regulation style 

    E-print Network

    Wishart, Judith

    2011-11-25

    Introduction: Knowledge and attributions are frequently cited as variables which may help to understand staff responses to challenging behaviour in people with a learning disability. Previous research has found only ...

  20. Investigation into the relationship between sleep problems, anxiety and challenging behaviour in children and young people with learning disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorder 

    E-print Network

    Rzepecka, Halina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Children with a learning disability (LD) and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are known to suffer from significantly more sleep problems, anxiety and challenging behaviour (CB) than typically developing children, yet little is known...

  1. The frontal lobe and aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean R. Séguin

    2009-01-01

    Frontal lesions often lead to psychosocial problems. It is not surprising that frontal lobe dysfunctions have been proposed to underlie antisocial behaviour in individuals without apparent lesions. However, physical aggression and violence have never been systematically related to acquired lesions. Whereas, traditional neuropsychological testing identifies problems in cognitive and emotional information processing, recent brain-imaging studies have revealed both the frontal

  2. Aggressive angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Brian J; Laudadio, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor that most commonly arises in the vulvovaginal region, perineum, and pelvis of women. The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with local recurrence. Patients often present with nonspecific symptoms which are frequently misdiagnosed with more common entities, such as a Bartholin cyst, lipoma, or hernia. Histologic examination reveals a hypocellular and highly vascular tumor with a myxoid stroma containing cytologically bland stellate or spindled cells. The tumor cells are characteristically positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, suggesting a hormonal role in the development of the tumor. Chromosomal translocation of the 12q13-15 band involving the HMGA2 gene has been described. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice, although treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists is an emerging therapy. Metastases are exceedingly rare, and overall, the prognosis is good. PMID:22288973

  3. Evidence from knockout mice that neuropeptide-Y Y2 and Y4 receptor signalling prevents long-term depression-like behaviour caused by immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Painsipp, Evelin; Herzog, Herbert; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) participates in the acute behavioural responses to immune challenge, since Y2 receptor knockout (Y2?/?) mice are particularly sensitive to the short-term anxiogenic-like effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present exploratory study addressed the involvement of Y2 and Y4 receptors in the long-term behavioural responses to immune challenge. A single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0.83 mg/kg) to control mice did not affect open field behaviour 3 h post-treatment but enhanced anxiety-like behaviour in Y2?/? as well as Y4?/? mice. Four weeks post-treatment this behavioural effect of LPS persisted in Y4?/? mice but had gone in Y2?/? mice. Depression-related behaviour in the forced swim test was enhanced 1 day post-LPS in control and Y2?/? mice, but not in Y4?/? mice. Four weeks post-treatment, the depressogenic-like effect of LPS had waned in control mice, persisted in Y2?/? mice and was first observed in Y4?/? mice. In summary, knockout of Y2 and/or Y4 receptors unmasks the ability of a single LPS injection to cause a delayed and prolonged increase in anxiety- and/or depression-like behaviour. These findings suggest that NPY acting via Y2 and Y4 receptors prevents the development of long-term anxiety- and depression-like behaviour caused by acute immune challenge. PMID:19939871

  4. Counter narratives in ‘naughty’ students' accounts: challenges for the discourse of behaviour management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Priyadharshini

    2011-01-01

    The paper is based on a research project that sought to understand schools' behaviour management strategies from the perspective of students who had the most experience of them. It focuses on the contrasting ways in which teacher and student subjectivities are framed and positioned within the discourse. It considers how student accounts were constructed within the framework of the project

  5. Testosterone and 5HIAA in dogs with intraspecific aggression

    E-print Network

    Haug, Lore I

    2003-01-01

    Intraspecific aggression is a common problem in dogs, with such aggression typically due to dominance, fear, and/or territoriality. Some dogs appear to perceive the mere presence of another dog as a challenge or threat. These dogs often show...

  6. Aggression in Huntington's Disease: A Systematic Review of Rates of Aggression and Treatment Methods.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Caroline A; Sewell, Katherine; Brown, Anahita; Churchyard, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Aggression is commonly reported in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). While correlating factors for aggression are often speculated about, features that are associated with, and contribute to, aggression in this population have not been clearly determined. This systematic review investigates rates of aggression and treatment options for aggression in HD. A number of key findings were revealed. Studies reporting on rates of aggression revealed that its prevalence is high, falling between 22 and 66 percent in the majority of studies. Aggression may be more common in males with HD, and is also found in higher rates in individuals who experience frequent falls, have obsessive-compulsive symptoms and suicidal ideation. There is little research investigating antecedents for aggression in HD. A wide variety of psychotropic medications have been reported in the literature to treat individuals with HD and aggressive behaviour. However, due to methodological limitations, no treatment recommendations can be made, based on the current literature. Two non-medication therapies have been investigated, behaviour support and sensory modulation intervention. However, again, due to methodological limitations with these studies, further research is needed before they can be recommended as frontline interventions. This review highlights the need for further methodologically rigorous studies investigating the treatment of aggression in HD. PMID:25575953

  7. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal. PMID:25054147

  8. CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES IN EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL ILLNESS AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOUR AND CRIME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hugh Richardson

    There is a longstanding view within the general population and the criminal justice system that the mentally ill are more prone than the mentally healthy to violence and. This view, however, is not fully supported by empirical research, in particular due to conceptual and methodological challenges that arise when the relationship between mental illness and crime is examined. This paper

  9. Parenting Practices and the Early Socialisation of Relational Aggression among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines parents' responses to their young children's relationally aggressive behaviour and compares these with the responses regarding children's overtly aggressive behaviour. Parents' beliefs about discipline strategies for addressing relational versus overt aggression at home and at school are also…

  10. Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and testosterone in men exposed to an aggressive video stimulus.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Liam P; Hopp, Renato N; Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Manning, John T

    2013-01-01

    The relative lengths of the 2(nd) and 4(th) digits (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in "challenge" situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a "challenge" is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression. PMID:24113579

  11. Why are small males aggressive?

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Lesley J; Lindström, Jan; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2005-01-01

    Aggression is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, whenever the interests of individuals conflict. In contests between animals, the larger opponent is often victorious. However, counter intuitively, an individual that has little chance of winning (generally smaller individuals) sometimes initiates contests. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour, including the ‘desperado effect’ according to which, the likely losers initiate aggression due to lack of alternative options. An alternative explanation suggested recently is that likely losers attack due to an error in perception: they mistakenly perceive their chances of winning as being greater than they are. We show that explaining the apparently maladaptive aggression initiated by the likely loser can be explained on purely economic grounds, without requiring either the desperado effect or perception errors. Using a game-theoretical model, we show that if smaller individuals can accurately assess their chance of winning, if this chance is less than, but close to, a half, and if resources are scarce (or the contested resource is of relatively low value), they are predicted to be as aggressive as their larger opponents. In addition, when resources are abundant, and small individuals have some chance of winning, they may be more aggressive than their larger opponents, as it may benefit larger individuals to avoid the costs of fighting and seek alternative uncontested resources. PMID:16024387

  12. A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

  13. Aggression and Anxiety: Social Context and Neurobiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB) vs. low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB) rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20407578

  14. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  15. Bringing "Patient Voice" into Psychological Formulations of In-Patients with Intellectual Disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Severe Challenging Behaviours: Report of a Service Improvement Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Gareth; Nevin, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This is a report of a service improvement pilot project undertaken at an inpatient autism service for adults with intellectual disabilities and severe challenging behaviours. Within the service, a key facet of the care pathway was the use of a biopsychosocial case formulation. Formulation meetings were led by psychology and involved a full…

  16. Investigating Burnout and Psychological Well-Being of Staff Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: The Role of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Man Cheung; Harding, Carly

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present research extended previous research by broadening the dimensions of personality traits, and focusing on burnout and psychological well-being among staff working with people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey in which 103 staff completed questionnaires…

  17. Challenges.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified plants have the same goal as conventional breeding:: to develop better varieties for farmers, the environment and consumers. "We have the capacity to eliminate hunger from the face of the earth in: our lifetime. We need only the will." John Kennedy, World Food Congress: in 1963. The will is all we need to concur hunger. This is our challenge: at GM crops, our challenge as scientists, and above all our challenge as: human being. PMID:21865870

  18. Experimentally increased aggressiveness reduces population kin structure and subsequent recruitment in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANÇOIS MOUGEOT; STUART B. PIERTNEY; FIONA LECKIE; SHARON EVANS; ROBERT MOSS; STEVE M. REDPATH; PETER J. HUDSON

    2005-01-01

    Summary 1. According to the 'territorial behaviour' hypothesis, red grouse population cycles are caused by delayed density-dependent changes in male aggressiveness influencing recruitment. These lagged changes in aggressiveness might be caused by changes in the kin structuring of male populations and differential aggressive behaviour between kin and non-kin ('kinship' hypothesis). 2. A population-level manipulation of male aggressiveness in autumn affected

  19. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors. Conclusions Thus, through an integrated approach, combining gene expression profiling, behavioural analyses, and pharmacological manipulations, we identified candidate genes and pathways that appear to play significant roles in regulating aggression in fish. Many of these are novel for non-mammalian systems. We further present a validated system for advancing our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of complex behaviours using a fish model. PMID:20846403

  20. Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients filled in…

  1. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Nathan; Runk, Dianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3–0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10–30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumor will recur locally or metastasize. Distinguishing this subset of malignant phyllodes tumor is paramount. Presentation of case We present a case of malignant phyllodes which presented with metastatic disease. What is fascinating about this case is not only the initial presentation but also the aggressiveness of this variation of phyllodes tumor. The patient initially presented with a large mass which encompassed her whole right breast. On surgical pathology the mass measured roughly 31 cm in diameter and weighed over 10 kg. Within 5 weeks from surgery the patient had suffered brain metastases and also 6 local recurrent tumors. The patient passed roughly 11 weeks after her first visit to our office. Conclusion Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation. PMID:25697402

  2. Aggressive Desmoplastic Fibromatosis - A Clinicians Dilemma Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Adesh S; Narang, Ramandeep S; Arora, Preeti Chawla; Singh, Balwinder; Walia, Satinder

    2013-01-01

    Fibromatoses are a heterogeneous group of distinct entities which differ in biological behaviour, but arehistologically very similar. This group of fibrous tumor or tumor like lesions, present considerable difficulties in pathologic diagnosis. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) of the oral or para-oral structures is a very uncommon finding and its intra-osseous component is even relatively unusual. Such lesions with their origin from within the bone are termed desmoplastic fibromatosis (DF). These lesions must be distinguished from other fibroblastic tumors of the head and neck such as benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), fibrosarcoma, nerve sheath tumors and tumors of muscular origin. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of fibromatosis is to avoid an overdiagnosis of fibrosarcoma or an underdiagnosis of reactive fibrosis.Problems of differential diagnosis concern a wide range of diseases and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful in diagnosis. With respect to the patient’s post-operative well-being and if periodic follow-ups are guaranteed, the tumor should be carefully resected with only narrow safety margins. A rare case of aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis in a 12–year–old girl is presented in this article with emphasis on the need and challenges for diagnosing such lesions as they have to be differentiated from other soft tissue tumors which display borderline pathological features regarding benign or malignant behaviour. Synonyms listed for the same include extra-abdominal desmoids, extra-abdominal fibromatosis, desmoids tumor, aggressive fibromatosis, juvenile desmoids-type fibromatosis, infantile fibromatosis. PMID:24392428

  3. Gender and aggression I: Perceptions of aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary B. Harris; Kelly Knight-Bohnhoff

    1996-01-01

    To investigate how gender and ethnicity influence evaluation, perceptions, and stereotyping of aggression, two studies were conducted with 115 college students (56% male; 50% Anglo and 26% Hispanic) and 79 individuals (72% male; 92% Anglo) who worked on a military base. Participants were asked to respond to four scenarios depicting aggressive interactions in which the gender of the protagonists varied,

  4. Aggression Replacement Training in Australia: Youth Justice Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew R. Currie; Catherine E. Wood; Bennedict Williams; Glen W. Bates

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a 10-week pilot programme of aggression replacement training (ART) in an Australian youth justice, custodial setting. Five male subjects (17–18 years old) completed pre- and post-treatment self-report measures of aggression, social skills, and cognitive distortions typically associated with violent and antisocial behaviour. As expected, results showed a significant reduction in overall aggression and improved

  5. Measuring spouse aggression

    E-print Network

    Snow, Alicia Carleen

    1995-01-01

    Relationship aggression has received increasing attention over the past decade. National violence surveys have indicated that nearly 1.6 million women in the United states are beaten by their male partners each year. Rates of aggression by women...

  6. Aggression and Noncompliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Luiselli

    \\u000a Aggression and noncompliance are common problem behaviors displayed by some children with ASD. Aggression in the form of hitting,\\u000a kicking, and biting can cause serious injury to peers and adults, creating an unsafe learning environment. Furthermore, aggressive\\u000a behavior interferes with instruction and skill acquisition. The social consequences of chronic aggression also are untoward:\\u000a the child is avoided, perceived unfavorably, and

  7. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  8. Self-Reported Aggression and Impulsivity in Forensic and Non-Forensic Populations: The Role of Gender and Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Smith; Mitch Waterman

    2006-01-01

    Gender differences in aggressive behavior are traditionally seen as extremely robust. Yet, on closer inspection, the reasons for these differences appear to be incredibly complex as a wide range of moderating variables appears to influence the behaviour. Further, the effect of these variables is often gender specific. We examined aggressive beliefs and self-rated aggressive behaviour and impulsivity in forensic (115

  9. Challenger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-09-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy.

  10. Testosterone and Aggression: Berthold, Birds and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Soma, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    Berthold’s classic study of domesticated roosters in 1849 demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for the normal expression of aggressive behaviour. Although this conclusion is undoubtedly correct, field studies of wild songbirds have yielded important modifications and limitations of Berthold’s original hypothesis. For example, studies of the North American song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) during the breeding season reveal that not only does testosterone increase aggression, but aggressive interactions also increase plasma testosterone levels. Furthermore, in winter, nonbreeding song sparrows have low plasma testosterone levels but are very aggressive, and castration of nonbreeding song sparrows does not decrease aggression. Interestingly, an aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole) does decrease male aggression in the nonbreeding season, and the effects of fadrozole can be rescued with oestradiol. In winter, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the periphery can be metabolised within the brain to supply oestradiol to specific neural circuits. Additionally, oestradiol might be synthesised de novo from cholesterol entirely within the brain. These mechanisms may have evolved to avoid the ‘costs’ of circulating testosterone in the nonbreeding season. Recent studies in tropical birds, hamsters, and humans suggest that these neuroendocrine mechanisms are important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species. PMID:16774503

  11. Testosterone and aggression: Berthold, birds and beyond.

    PubMed

    Soma, K K

    2006-07-01

    Berthold's classic study of domesticated roosters in 1849 demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for the normal expression of aggressive behaviour. Although this conclusion is undoubtedly correct, field studies of wild songbirds have yielded important modifications and limitations of Berthold's original hypothesis. For example, studies of the North American song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) during the breeding season reveal that not only does testosterone increase aggression, but aggressive interactions also increase plasma testosterone levels. Furthermore, in winter, nonbreeding song sparrows have low plasma testosterone levels but are very aggressive, and castration of nonbreeding song sparrows does not decrease aggression. Interestingly, an aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole) does decrease male aggression in the nonbreeding season, and the effects of fadrozole can be rescued with oestradiol. In winter, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the periphery can be metabolised within the brain to supply oestradiol to specific neural circuits. Additionally, oestradiol might be synthesised de novo from cholesterol entirely within the brain. These mechanisms may have evolved to avoid the 'costs' of circulating testosterone in the nonbreeding season. Recent studies in tropical birds, hamsters, and humans suggest that these neuroendocrine mechanisms are important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species. PMID:16774503

  12. Student psychiatric nurses' approval of containment measures: relationship to perception of aggression and attitudes to personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Len; Alexander, Jane; Simpson, Alan; Ryan, Carl; Carr-Walker, Paola

    2007-03-01

    Difficult and challenging behaviour by inpatients is a feature of acute psychiatric ward life. Different methods are used to contain these behaviours, and there is international variation in which are approved of or used. Previous research suggests that staff attitudes to patients may affect their willingness to use, or choice of, method. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between approval of containment measures, perception of aggression and attitude to personality disorder. A survey of student psychiatric nurses was conducted, and using three attitudinal questionnaires related to aggression and containment. An association was found between positive attitude to patients and the approval of containment methods that involved nurses being in personal contact with patients. There was evidence that students' attitudes to patients deteriorated over time. The results highlighted the importance of (and linkage between) staffs' feelings of anger and fear towards patients, and their preparedness to use containment measures. PMID:17336606

  13. An Evaluation of an Intervention Sequence Outline in Positive Behaviour Support for People with Autism and Severe Escape-Motivated Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Brian; Grey, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positive behaviour support emphasises the impact of contextual variables to enhance participation, choice, and quality of life. This study evaluates a sequence for implementing changes to key contextual variables for 4 individuals. Interventions were maintained and data collection continued over a 3-year period. Method: Functional…

  14. Emerging Trends in the Use of Drugs to Manage the Challenging Behaviour of People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Concerns about the pharmacological management of the behaviour of individuals with intellectual disability have resulted in the development of legislative and procedural controls. Method: This Australian study provided a comparison of 873 reported cases where drugs were administered to manage behaviour in March 2000, with 762 cases…

  15. The implementation of the serial trial intervention for pain and challenging behaviour in advanced dementia patients (STA OP!): a clustered randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pain (physical discomfort) and challenging behaviour are highly prevalent in nursing home residents with dementia: at any given time 45-80% of nursing home residents are in pain and up to 80% have challenging behaviour. In the USA Christine Kovach developed the serial trial intervention (STI) and established that this protocol leads to less discomfort and fewer behavioural symptoms in moderate to severe dementia patients. The present study will provide insight into the effects of implementation of the Dutch version of the STI-protocol (STA OP!) in comparison with a control intervention, not only on behavioural symptoms, but also on pain, depression, and quality of life. This article outlines the study protocol. Methods/Design The study is a cluster randomized controlled trial in 168 older people (aged >65 years) with mild or moderate dementia living in nursing homes. The clusters, Dutch nursing homes, are randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (training and implementation of the STA OP!-protocol) or the control condition (general training focusing on challenging behaviour and pain, but without the step-wise approach). Measurements take place at baseline, after 3 months (end of the STA OP! training period) and after 6 months. Primary outcome measures are symptoms of challenging behaviour (measured with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH)), and pain (measure with the Dutch version of the Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors (PACSLAC-D) and the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS-RAI) pain scale). Secondary outcome measures include symptoms of depression (Cornell and MDS-RAI depression scale), Quality of Live (Qualidem), changes in prescriptions of analgesics and psychotropic drugs, and the use of non-pharmacological comfort interventions (e.g. snoezelen, reminiscence therapy). Discussion The transfer from the American design to the Dutch design involved several changes due to the different organisation of healthcare systems. Specific strengths and limitations of the study are discussed. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR1967 PMID:21435251

  16. Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Close-up view of the liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51L taken from camera site 39B-2/T3. From this camera position, a cloud of grey-brown smoke can be seen on the right side of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) on a line directly across from the letter 'U' in United States. This was the first visible sign that an SRB joint breach may have occured. On January 28, 1986 frigid overnight temperatures caused normally pliable rubber O-ring seals and putty that are designed to seal and establish joint integrity between the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) joint segments, to become hard and non- flexible. At the instant of SRB ignition, tremendous stresses and pressures occur within the SRB casing and especially at the joint attachmentment points. The failure of the O-rings and putty to 'seat' properly at motor ignition, caused hot exhaust gases to blow by the seals and putty. During Challenger's ascent, this hot gas 'blow by' ultimately cut a swath completely through the steel booster casing; and like a welder's torch, began cutting into the External Tank (ET). It is believed that the ET was compromised in several locations starting in the aft at the initial point where SRB joint failure occured. The ET hydrogen tank is believed to have been breached first, with continuous rapid incremental failure of both the ET and SRB. A chain reaction of events occurring in milliseconds culminated in a massive explosion. The orbiter Challenger was instantly ejected by the blast and went askew into the supersonic air flow. These aerodynamic forces caused structural shattering and complete destruction of the orbiter. Though it was concluded that the G-forces experienced during orbiter ejection and break-up were survivable, impact with the ocean surface was not. Tragically, all seven crewmembers perished.

  17. Pollution diminishes intra-specific aggressiveness between wood ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jouni; Eeva, Tapio

    2010-07-15

    A variety of common environmental pollutants are known to affect the animal behaviour, but the occurrence and extent of pollution-induced behavioural changes in wild populations are practically unknown. Here we show that heavy metal pollution reduces the normal intra-specific aggressive behaviour in wild populations of the wood ant, Formica aquilonia, a dominant territorial ant species in boreal forests. Ants exposed to long-term pollution around a copper smelter showed higher heavy metal concentrations and were less aggressive towards the member of foreign unpolluted colony than the ants from an uncontaminated area. A pollution-related decline in the level of aggressiveness in this keystone general predator species may potentially affect the structure of invertebrate community of boreal and temperate forests. Further studies are needed to find out whether the change in aggressiveness is directly caused by metal toxicity or indirectly via secondary pollution effects, such as changed resource levels. PMID:20434195

  18. Pornography and sexual aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Pollard

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews work on the relation between pornography and sexual aggression, covering experimental research on arousal,\\u000a attitudes, and laboratory aggression, and some correlational studies. The termpornography is intended to cover the materials used in the relevant research, although not all of these would necessarily be seen as\\u000a “pornographic.” The main body of the review is divided between “aggressive” and

  19. Do human females use indirect aggression as an intrasexual competition strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Indirect aggression includes behaviours such as criticizing a competitor's appearance, spreading rumours about a person's sexual behaviour and social exclusion. Human females have a particular proclivity for using indirect aggression, which is typically directed at other females, especially attractive and sexually available females, in the context of intrasexual competition for mates. Indirect aggression is an effective intrasexual competition strategy. It is associated with a diminished willingness to compete on the part of victims and with greater dating and sexual behaviour among those who perpetrate the aggression. PMID:24167310

  20. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  1. A Consultative Model for the Provision of Behavioural Supports to Children with Challenging Behaviour: Practical Approaches for the Development of School-Based Support Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, John J.; Hoover, John H.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a consultative model designed for providing behavioral supports to children with challenging behaviors. A rationale for the formation of behavioral support teams within school settings and strategies for promoting the on-going use of such a model are provided. The training of team members is also addressed. (Author/CR)

  2. The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Aggression, Social Stress and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…

  3. Bullying in Middle School as a Function of Insecure Attachment and Aggressive Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a model for understanding peer bullying as the product of aggressive attitudes and insecure attachment. A sample of 110 sixth grade students completed self-report measures that assessed attitudes toward the use of aggressive behaviour with peers and distinguished secure from insecure parental attachment. Bullying behaviour was…

  4. Drosophila as a new model organism for the neurobiology of aggression?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Baier; Britta Wittek; Björn Brembs

    2002-01-01

    We report here the effects of several neurobiological determinants on aggressive behaviour in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. This study combines behavioural, transgenic, genetic and pharmacological techniques that are well established in the fruitfly, in the novel context of the neurobiology of aggression. We find that octopamine, dopamine and a region in the Drosophila brain called the mushroom bodies, all profoundly

  5. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  6. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  7. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  8. Sexually Aggressive College Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanin, Eugene J.

    1971-01-01

    The accumulated evidence of this paper suggests that sex aggression is largely the consequence of a particular type of socialization coupled with appropriate situational factors. These males tend to be generally aggressive; they show a strong tendency to deny love feeling for their mothers; their peers tend to stress sexual activity. (Author/BY)

  9. Treating Sexually Aggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Alexis O.; Biegler, Bryan N.; Davis, Kathleen; Frevert, Vada S.; Taylor, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Although clinical and empirical data have been offered about sexually aggressive children, few have suggested the necessary components of clinical treatment protocols for them. This article reviews the plausible etiologies and the correlates of sexual aggression by children to delineate the necessary treatment elements for them and their families.…

  10. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  11. Metabolic syndrome: aggression control mechanisms gone out of control.

    PubMed

    Belsare, Prajakta V; Watve, Milind G; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S; Bhat, Dattatraya S; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Jog, Maithili

    2010-03-01

    An upcoming hypothesis about the evolutionary origins of metabolic syndrome is that of a 'soldier' to 'diplomat' transition in behaviour and the accompanying metabolic adaptations. Theoretical as well as empirical studies have shown that similar to the soldier and diplomat dichotomy, physically aggressive and non-aggressive strategists coexist in animal societies with negative frequency dependent selection. Although dominant individuals have a higher reproductive success obtained through means such as greater access to females, subordinate individuals have alternative means such as sneak-mating for gaining a substantial reproductive success. The alternative behavioural strategies are associated with different neurophysiologic and metabolic states. Subordinate individuals typically have low testosterone, high plasma cholesterol and glucocorticoids and elevated serotonin signalling whereas dominant ones are characterized by high testosterone, low brain serotonin and lower plasma cholesterol. Food and sex are the main natural causes of aggression. However, since aggression increases the risk of injury, aggression control is equally crucial. Therefore chronic satiety in the form of fat should induce aggression control. It is not surprising that the satiety hormone serotonin has a major role in aggression control. Further chronically elevated serotonin signalling in the hypothalamus induces peripheral insulin resistance. Meta-analysis shows that most of the anti-aggression signal molecules are pro-obesity and pro-insulin-resistance. Physical aggression is known to increase secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in anticipation of injuries and EGF is important in pancreatic beta cell regeneration too. In anticipation of injuries aggression related hormones also facilitate angiogenesis and angiogenesis dysfunction is the root cause of a number of co-morbidities of insulin resistance syndrome. Reduced injury proneness typical of 'diplomat' life style would also reorient the immune system resulting into delayed wound healing on the one hand and increased systemic inflammation on the other. Diabetes is negatively associated with physically aggressive behaviour. We hypothesize that suppression of physical aggression is the major behavioural cue for the development of metabolic syndrome. Preliminary trials of behavioural intervention indicate that games and exercises involving physical aggression reduce systemic inflammation and improve glycemic control. PMID:19800745

  12. Narcissism and unprovoked aggression.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Foster, Joshua D; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that narcissists become aggressive when they experience ego-threat. However, there is surprisingly little empirical research on the relationship between narcissism and aggression. Equivocal findings suggest that aggression in narcissists either occurs only in response to provocation, or regardless of provocation. One-hundred and thirty-seven collegiate men completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory followed by a sham aggression paradigm, which afforded them the opportunity shock, or refrain entirely from shocking an ostensible opponent confederate. Participants were identified as "unprovoked aggressors," "retaliatory aggressors," or "nonaggressors" contingent on when and if they chose to administer electrical shocks to the confederate. Results indicated that participants who were high on narcissistic traits were more likely to be unprovoked aggressors than their low narcissism counterparts. Results are discussed in relation to threatened egotism theory and call for more research on narcissism, aggression, and the moderating effect of provocation. PMID:20623495

  13. Substance use, aggression perpetration, and victimization: temporal co-occurrence in college males and females.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C; Baucom, Brian R; Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L

    2013-09-01

    Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and whether attitudes justifying aggression strengthen those associations. College student participants (N = 378, 32% males) self-selected into an online study in which they reported on 2 days of alcohol/drug use and on aggression perpetration and victimization (including physical, psychological and electronic aggression, and sexual coercion) with friends and dating partners. Using regression to test for nonequivalence of predictor and outcome variables, we found bidirectional effects for males only. Males' substance use was associated with an increased likelihood on the same day of aggression perpetration and of aggression victimization; males' aggression perpetration and aggression victimization were associated with an increased likelihood of substance use on the same day. Females did not show significant contingencies between substance use and aggression in either direction. Males' attitudes justifying male-to-female aggression were associated with their aggression perpetration and victimization and their justification of female-to-male aggression strengthened the link between substance use and aggression perpetration. With interpersonal aggression and substance use being significant problems on college campuses, many colleges offer separate preventive intervention programs aimed at these public health challenges; this study suggests possible benefits of an integrated approach that addresses connections between alcohol/drug use and aggression. PMID:23697863

  14. Juvenile hormone and the ontogeny of cockroach aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Kou; Szu-Ying Chou; Shu-Chun Chen; Zachary Y. Huang

    2009-01-01

    Our previous study [Kou et al., 2008. Juvenile hormone levels are increased in winners of cockroach fights. Horm. Behav. 52, 252–260] showed that the basic principle of the challenge hypothesis (hormone levels can respond to social stimuli to modulate aggression in vertebrates] could be applied to juvenile hormone (JH) levels and aggression in the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. In that

  15. Coping with Agitation and Aggression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... settle down. Agitation may cause pacing, sleeplessness, or aggression , which is when a person lashes out verbally ... hit or hurt someone. Causes of Agitation and Aggression Most of the time, agitation and aggression happen ...

  16. Assessment of Interpersonal Risk (AIR) in Adults with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour--Piloting a New Risk Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Martin; McCue, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A new risk assessment tool, "Assessment of Interpersonal Risk" (AIR), was piloted and evaluated to measure risk factors and compatibility between individuals living in an assessment and treatment unit in one NHS area. The adults with learning disabilities in this unit had severe and enduring mental health problems and/or behaviour that is severely…

  17. Challenges and Management Frameworks of Residential Schools for Students with Severe Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Stella Suk-ching; Leung, Ka-wai

    2012-01-01

    This study by Stella Suk-Ching Chong, an assistant professor, and Ka-wai Leung, a teaching fellow, both at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, focuses on the perspectives of hostel staff from six residential schools for students with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. Individual or focus group interviews were conducted to explore the…

  18. Staff Attributions towards Men with Intellectual Disability Who Have a History of Sexual Offending and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinlay, L.; Langdon, P. E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Staff working within secure services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are likely to work with sexual offenders, but very little attention has been paid to how they think about this sexual offending behaviour. Method: Forty-eight staff working within secure services for people with ID were recruited and completed the…

  19. Parents' aggressive influences and children's aggressive problem solutions with peers.

    PubMed

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-03-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with same-sex parents' actual marital aggression. For children with mothers who exhibited low actual marital aggression, mothers' aggressive solutions to hypothetical situations corresponded with children's tendencies to propose aggressive but not assertive solutions. In a 3-way interaction, fathers' aggressive solutions to peer scenarios and marital aggression, combined, exacerbated girls' aggressive problem solving but had the opposite effect for boys. We address the complexity, particularly with respect to parent and child gender combinations, in understanding parents' aggressive influences on children's peer relationships. PMID:17206880

  20. Effects of an experimental short-term cortisol challenge on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus in mesocosm and stream environments.

    PubMed

    Nagrodski, A; Murchie, K J; Stamplecoskie, K M; Suski, C D; Cooke, S J

    2013-04-01

    The consequences of stress on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus outside the reproductive period were studied using a single intra-coelomic injection of cortisol, suspended in coconut butter, to experimentally raise plasma cortisol levels. Behaviour between cortisol-treated, sham-treated (injected with coconut butter) and control S. atromaculatus was compared in a mesocosm system, using a passive integrated transponder array, and in a natural stream system (excluding shams), using surgically implanted radio transmitters. While laboratory time-course studies revealed that the cortisol injection provided a physiologically relevant challenge, causing prolonged (c. 3 days) elevations of plasma cortisol similar to that achieved with a standardized chasing protocol, no differences in fine-scale movements were observed between cortisol-treated, sham-treated and control S. atromaculatus nor in the large-scale movements of cortisol-treated and control S. atromaculatus. Moreover, no differences were observed in diel activity patterns among treatments. Differential mortality, however, occurred starting 10 days after treatment where cortisol-treated S. atromaculatus exhibited nearly twice as many mortalities as shams and controls. These results suggest that, although the experimental manipulation of cortisol titres was sufficient to cause mortality in some individuals, there were compensatory mechanisms that maintained behaviours (i.e. including activity and movement) prior to death. This study is one of the first to use experimental cortisol implants outside a laboratory environment and during the non-reproductive period and yields insight into how wild animals respond to additional challenges (in this case elevated cortisol) using ecologically meaningful endpoints. PMID:23557296

  1. What can animal aggression research tell us about human aggression?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Caroline Blanchard; Robert J Blanchard

    2003-01-01

    Research on endocrinological correlates of aggression in laboratory animals is implicitly motivated by an expectation that the results of such studies may be applicable to human aggression as well. Research with a focus on the stimulus antecedents of aggression, its response characteristics, and its outcomes suggests a number of detailed correspondences between offensive aggression in laboratory rodents and human angry

  2. Paternal aggression in a biparental mouse: Parallels with maternal aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian C. Trainor; M. Sima Finy; Randy J. Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and social factors have important effects on aggressive behaviors. We examined the effect of reproductive experience on aggression in a biparental species of mouse, Peromyscus californicus. Estrogens are important in mediating aggressive behavior so we also examined estrogen receptor expression and c-fos for insights into possible mechanisms of regulation. Parental males were significantly more aggressive than virgin males, but

  3. School Aggression and Dispositional Aggression among Middle School Boys

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary E. Ballard

    2004-01-01

    We examined the relationship between dispositional (trait) aggression and administrative reports of school aggression among 100 adolescent male participants from an urban middle school. Regression analyses indicated that dispositional aggression accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in administrative reports of school aggression.

  4. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  5. Adult zebrafish as a model organism for behavioural genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Norton; Laure Bally-Cuif

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the suitability of adult zebrafish to model some aspects of complex behaviour. Studies of reward behaviour, learning and memory, aggression, anxiety and sleep strongly suggest that conserved regulatory processes underlie behaviour in zebrafish and mammals. The isolation and molecular analysis of zebrafish behavioural mutants is now starting, allowing the identification of novel behavioural control genes. As

  6. Mental disorder in adults with intellectual disability. 2: The rate of behaviour disorders among a community-based population aged between 16 and 64 years.

    PubMed

    Deb, S; Thomas, M; Bright, C

    2001-12-01

    Despite the difficulty of defining behaviour disorder, most previous studies have reported a high rate of behaviour disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the present study was to establish the overall rate and types of behaviour disorders in a population-based sample of adults with ID. The other aim was to explore the possible risk factors that are associated with the overall rate as well as different types of behaviour disorders. One hundred and one adults with ID aged between 16 and 64 years were randomly selected from a sample of 246 such adults, i.e. those who were known to the Vale of Glamorgan Social Services Department in South Wales, UK. Thirteen behaviour disorders were rated according to the Disability Assessment Schedule. Background data on subjects were also collected, and were subsequently analysed to assess the relationship between different risk factors and behaviour disorders. Sixty-one subjects (60.4%) had at least one behaviour disorder of any severity or frequency. Twenty-three per cent of subjects showed aggression, 24% self-injurious behaviour, 36% temper tantrum, 26% overactivity, 29% screaming, 38% attention-seeking behaviour, 20% objectionable habits, 18% night-time disturbance and 12% of subjects showed destructiveness. Statistically significant associations were seen between the rate of overall behaviour disorder and the use of psychotropic medication, and between family and group home residence. The rate of aggression was significantly associated with the use of psychotropic medication. The rate of self-injurious behaviour was significantly associated with the severity of ID, female gender and poor communication abilities. The rate of temper tantrum was significantly associated with the use of psychotropic medication. Twenty-four subjects showed severe or frequent aggression, destructiveness, self-injury or temper tantrum, and 11 individuals showed real challenging behaviours. Severe behaviour problems were significantly associated with female gender, severity of ID, the presence of a history of epilepsy and attendance at day activities. PMID:11737537

  7. Differential effects of oxazepam and lorazepam on aggressive responding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alyson Bond; Malcolm Lader

    1988-01-01

    Two doses of two very similar benzodiazepines (oxazepam 15 and 30 mg: lorazepam 1 and 2 mg) and placebo were compared 4 h post-administration on a competitive reaction time task designed to measure behavioural aggression. Forty-five subjects were assigned randomly to five independent drug groups. Subjective ratings of mood, anxiety and aggression were completed pre- and post-drug and post-task. Oxazepam

  8. Aggression and Sport: Two Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandy, Ruth E.; Laflin, Joyce

    1973-01-01

    The first theory is that aggression is instinctive, that our society is predisposed to aggressive behavior, and that sports can serve as a catharsis. The second theory is that aggression is learned behavior, that sports teaches aggression and thus contributes to competitiveness and violence in our society. (JA)

  9. Supporting SiblingsEvaluation of Support Groups for Brothers and Sisters of Children with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayne Evans; Jessica Jones; Ian Mansell

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on an aspect of the work of `Facing the Challenge' and the development and evaluation of sibling support groups, designed to help brothers and sisters discuss and explore their relationships with their sibling with learning disabilities. The aims of the support groups were to help siblings identify and use positive strategies for living with brothers and sisters

  10. Aggression in young children with concurrent callous–unemotional traits: can the neurosciences inform progress and innovation in treatment approaches?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Dadds; Tracy Rhodes

    2008-01-01

    Parenting is the 'clean water' of healthy psychological development and parenting interventions remain the number one treatment at the individual and community levels for early-onset aggression and antisocial behaviour in children. However, recent progress in child psychopathology research is specifying a number of biological mechanisms that interact with environmental risk to influence pathways into aggression and antisocial behaviour. After a

  11. The Moderating Effect of Parental Warmth on the Association between Spanking and Child Aggression: A Longitudinal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Ann Michele; Oshio, Toko; Gerard, Jean; Roe, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, this study analysed the stability of child aggressive behaviour beginning in infancy and tested whether spanking when the child was 36 months was associated with aggressive child behaviour among three ethnic groups and whether maternal warmth moderated the effect of spanking on…

  12. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Teughels, Wim; Dhondt, Rutger; Dekeyser, Christel; Quirynen, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Despite etiological differences between aggressive and chronic periodontitis, the treatment concept for aggressive periodontitis is largely similar to that for chronic periodontitis. The goal of treatment is to create a clinical condition that is conducive to retaining as many teeth as possible for as long as possible. When a diagnosis has been made and risk factors have been identified, active treatment is commenced. The initial phase of active treatment consists of mechanical debridement, either alone or supplemented with antimicrobial drugs. Scaling and root planing has been shown to be effective in improving clinical indices, but does not always guarantee long-term stability. Antimicrobials can play a significant role in controlling aggressive periodontitis. Few studies have been published on this subject for localized aggressive periodontitis, but generalized aggressive periodontitis has been subject to more scrutiny. Studies have demonstrated that systemic antibiotics as an adjuvant to scaling and root planing are more effective in controlling disease compared with scaling and root planing alone or with supplemental application of local antibiotics or antiseptics. It has also become apparent that antibiotics ought to be administered with, or just after, mechanical debridement. Several studies have shown that regimens of amoxicillin combined with metronidazole or regimens of clindamycin are the most effective and are preferable to regimens containing doxycycline. Azithromycin has been shown to be a valid alternative to the regimen of amoxicillin plus metronidazole. A limited number of studies have been published on surgical treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but the studies available show that the effect can be comparable with the effect on patients with chronic periodontitis, provided that proper oral hygiene is maintained, a strict maintenance program is followed and modifiable risk factors are controlled. Both access surgery and regenerative techniques have shown good results in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Once good periodontal health has been obtained, patients must be enrolled in a strict maintenance program that is directed toward controlling risk factors for disease recurrence and tooth loss. The most significant risk factors are noncompliance with regular maintenance care, smoking, high gingival bleeding index and poor plaque control. There is no evidence to suggest that daily use of antiseptic agents should be part of the supportive periodontal therapy for aggressive periodontitis. PMID:24738589

  13. Parents’ Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions With Peers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Duman; Gayla Margolin

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents’responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents’actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with same-sex parents’ actual marital aggression. For children with mothers who exhibited low actual marital

  14. Victims of Peer Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A peer nomination scale was designed to assess the degree to which children were subjected to direct physical and verbal abuse by peers. Subjects were 165 third through sixth grade students. Children's victimization scores were uncorrelated with their aggression scores, negatively correlated with peer acceptance, and positively correlated with…

  15. Pedophilia and Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Marshall; M. M. Christie

    1981-01-01

    While some authors consider pedophiles to be physically harmless individuals who do not attempt intercourse with their often seductive victims, others have identified a minority of child molesters who are aggressively predatory. Data from penitentiary files revealed that 29 of 41 incarcerated pedophiles used threats of violence or actual physical force to secure their sexual goals, and these sexual goals

  16. Sports and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Tom

    1976-01-01

    Study of male athletes at Springfield College indicates that while participation in competitive sports reduces feelings of aggression for winners, it may actually increase such feelings for losers. Author concludes that emphasis should be placed on performance rather than winning or losing. (RW)

  17. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  18. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  19. Extensive Behavioural Divergence following Colonisation of the Freshwater Environment in Threespine Sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Di-Poi, Carole; Lacasse, Jennyfer; Rogers, Sean M.; Aubin-Horth, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Colonisation of novel environments means facing new ecological challenges often resulting in the evolution of striking divergence in phenotypes. However, little is known about behavioural divergence following colonisation, despite the predicted importance of the role of behavioural phenotype-environment associations in adaptive divergence. We studied the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a model system for postglacial colonisation of freshwater habitats largely differing in ecological conditions from the ones faced by the descendants of the marine ancestor. We found that common-environment reared freshwater juveniles were less social, more active and more aggressive than their marine counterparts. This behavioural divergence could represent the result of natural selection that acted on individuals following freshwater colonisation, with predation as a key selection agent. Alternatively, the behavioural profile of freshwater juveniles could represent the characteristics of individuals that preferentially invaded freshwater after the glacial retreat, drawn from the standing variation present in the marine population. PMID:24914554

  20. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  1. Effects of aggressive cartoons on children's aggressive play

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mussen; E. Rutherford

    1961-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to aggressive fantasy in an animated cartoon may intensify children's impulses to aggression. Subjects were 36 first grade children, 18 girls and 18 boys, of middle class origin. The intensity of the child's aggressive impulses were inferred from his responses to questions concerning desire to \\

  2. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: an aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bharath, Gangadhara; Burrah, Rajaram; Shivakumar, Kuppuswamy; Manjunath, Suraj; Bhanumathi, Rao

    2015-02-01

    Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas are a rare and aggressive subtype of chondrosarcoma with a bimorphic pattern on histopathology. Rib is a rare site of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Diagnosis of this subtype preoperatively can be challenging. Treatment options for dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma are limited because they are chemoresistant, and therefore adequate surgery forms the main stay of treatment. We present our experience with a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the rib, and discuss the management of this rare entity. PMID:24585295

  3. The psychological impact of aggression on nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue

    Aggression and violence towards nursing staff in UK health care is a growing problem. While the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's (NICE, 2005a) guidelines 'The Short-Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in In-Patient Psychiatric Setting and Emergency Department' offer a way forward in managing aggression for healthcare staff, the psychological impact of aggression remains an area of concern. Post-incident review has been identified as an approach to considering untoward incidents of aggression, yet post-incident support and interventions for staff experiencing the psychological effects of aggression remain inconsistent and curtailed in many areas. This article discusses the care of a nurse who experienced post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of aggression in the workplace. The process of assessment and treatment is presented with underpinning theories of trauma used to illuminate the discussion. Practical use of current recommended treatments of cognitive behavioural therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is offered as a method of addressing a growing problem in UK health care. PMID:17851336

  4. Pair territoriality of wintering stonechats : behaviour, function and hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gwinner; T. Rödl; H. Schwabl

    1994-01-01

    Migratory stonechats (Saxicola torquata) spend the winter in the northern Negev desert in Israel. After arrival in October most birds defend territories throughout the winter either as heterosexual pairs or as single birds. In this population we examined: (1) aggressive behaviour of pairs; (2) the functional significance of pair territoriality; and (3) hormonal correlates of territorial behaviour. Pairs were aggressive

  5. Physical Aggression towards Others in Adults with Learning Disabilities: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.; Thorp, C. F.; Donaldson, M.; Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Hollin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Many people with learning disabilities (LD) show aggressive behaviour, but the extent of the problem and its associated factors and effects are unclear. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using interview data from 3065 adults with LD on the Leicestershire LD Register. Physical aggression towards others was defined as…

  6. Development of a Clinical Instrument to Record Sexual Aggression in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nicole Tuomi; Sheitman, Brian; Hazelrigg, Mark; Carmel, Harold; Williams, Jim; Paesler, Betty

    2007-01-01

    While there are a number of instruments that assess historical factors related to sexual aggression for the purposes of risk assessment, there is a notable absence of measures that assess change in ongoing, sexually aggressive behaviours engaged in by people who reside in psychiatric hospitals. The purpose of this report is to describe the…

  7. Dealing with Conflict and Aggression in Classrooms through Cooperative Learning Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Demographic and socioeconomic shifts in nation's population and changes in the family structure have placed increasing demands on the schools. There is a pressing need to understand the factors that give rise to and maintain aggressive behaviours across adolescence and also suggest techniques for dealing with the increased incidence of aggression

  8. Neural steroid sensitivity and aggression: comparing individuals of two songbird subspecies

    E-print Network

    , particularly among closely related taxa. We compared males of two subspecies of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) for territorial aggression and associations among behaviour, circu- lating testosterone (T that the white-winged junco (J. h. aike- ni) was more aggressive than the smaller, less ornamented Carolina junco

  9. Maternal care in a social lizard: links between female aggression and offspring fitness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Sinn; G. M. While; E. Wapstra

    2008-01-01

    Infanticide is an important mortality factor for juveniles in a wide variety of taxa, and is thought to be an important influence on the evolution of pair bonding and parental care of offspring. Many parents, in response to conspecific infanticide, may alter their behavioural aggressiveness towards conspecifics in an adaptive manner to favour their offsprings' fitness. Research on conspecific aggression

  10. The Development and Utility of a Program Theory: Lessons from an Evaluation of a Reputed Exemplary Residential Support Service for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Tim; Bigby, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adults with severe challenging behaviour can achieve good "quality of life" outcomes in small supported accommodation services. Yet, the research indicates that they typically experience poorer outcomes than other adults with intellectual disability. This raises questions about the degree to which research has informed program design…

  11. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  12. Shifting impairment and aggression in intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Visser, E M; Berger, H J C; Prins, J B; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, H M J; Teunisse, J P

    2014-09-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major problem in individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) as well as in individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). There are indications that suggest a link between cognitive shifting and aggression. In this study, reports of aggressive incidents of adolescents and young adults with different clinical diagnoses (ID, ID+ASD, ASD) were collected during 1 year, using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Whether they were diagnosed with ID, ASD or both; individuals who displayed aggression were found to face more cognitive shifting difficulties than non-aggressive individuals, while no significant differences were found on severity of ASD symptoms. Study results support the assumption that a cognition-based model for aggression may be more adequate than a diagnose-based model. PMID:24881008

  13. [Aggression and composition of conflicting pairs in Green monkeys].

    PubMed

    Chalian, V G; Me?shvili, N B

    2006-08-01

    The aggressive behaviour of Green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) maintained in corrals of Adler Primate Center was studied. The influence of the composition conflicting pairs, the quality of their relationships as well as the relatedness and hierarchic relations between the antagonists on the intensity and structure of aggressive relationships was investigated. It was found that the frequency of contact forms of aggression was not dependent on the composition of conflicting pairs of animals. At the same time, the frequency of non-contact forms of aggression was influenced by such parameters as the membership of antagonists in the same or different gender categories, belonging to one or different matrilines, as well as the quality of relationships and the rank of antagonists. PMID:17217249

  14. Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

  15. Technology, aggression and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Blair

    1989-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that although strong evidence exists for the evolution of intelligent life throughout our galaxy, attempts at detecting radio transmissions from extraterrestrial civilizations are doomed to failure unless technological civilizations can exist for periods of the order of 1 million years. If evolving technological civilizations are so driven by aggressive instinctual behaviour that they self?destruct

  16. Aggression in Persons With Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William I. Gardner

    Aggression and related disruptive acts represent the most frequently occurring behavioral challenges of persons with intellectual\\u000a disabilities (ID) (Eyman & Call, 1977; Jacobson, 1982; Schroeder, Rojahn, & Olenquist, 1991). Even though aggression occurs\\u000a in a social context and is maintained to a major extent by social contingencies, medical, genetic, psychiatric, neuropsychiatric,\\u000a and psychological conditions also are reported to represent significant

  17. Brief mindfulness induction could reduce aggression after depletion.

    PubMed

    Yusainy, Cleoputri; Lawrence, Claire

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments have shown that one's ability to refrain from acting on aggressive impulses is likely to decrease following a prior act of self-control. This temporary state of self-control failure is known as ego-depletion. Although mindfulness is increasingly used to treat and manage aggressive behaviour, the extent to which mindfulness may counteract the depletion effect on aggression is yet to be determined. This study (N=110) investigated the effect of a laboratory induced one-time mindfulness meditation session on aggression following depletion. Aggression was assessed by the intensity of aversive noise blast participants delivered to an opponent on a computerised task. Depleted participants who received mindfulness induction behaved less aggressively than depleted participants with no mindfulness induction. Mindfulness also improved performance on a second measure of self-control (i.e., handgrip perseverance); however, this effect was independent of depletion condition. Motivational factors may help explain the dynamics of mindfulness, self-control, and aggression. PMID:25562288

  18. Personality and neurocognitive correlates of impulsive aggression in long-term survivors of severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Greve, K W; Sherwin, E; Stanford, M S; Mathias, C; Love, J; Ramzinski, P

    2001-03-01

    This study addresses a common outcome of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), disinhibited aggressive behaviour. This behaviour has been classified in aggression literature as 'impulsive aggression' (IA). The purpose was to: (1) characterize those TBI patients who are likely to be an aggression risk, and (2) determine if TBI patients with IA demonstrate personality style and neurocognitive performance similar to that seen in other IA groups. Participants were 45 survivors of severe TBI (26 of whom had persisting problems with IA), who were clients of a residential brain injury treatment facility. IA participants had a higher incidence of pre-morbid aggressive behaviour, were younger, had a shorter tenure in the programine, and were more impulsive, irritable, and antisocial than the non-aggressive control participants. Unlike past research, no neurocognitive differences were found. The results are discussed in terms of the conceptualization, identification, and treatment of persisting IA in severe TBI. PMID:11260773

  19. Weapons and Aggression

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson, Craig

    Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

  20. Paravaginal aggressive angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Abu Saadeh, Feras; Galvin, Daniel; Alsharbaty, Mohammed J; Gleeson, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old nulliparous woman with a long-standing history of uterine fibroids and infertility had undergone prior open myomectomy, then uterine artery embolisation in treatment of an apparent large fibroid. Imaging on referral revealed an atypical 12×11×10?cm pelvic mass with the appearance of a fibroid. At laparotomy, the lesion was encapsulated but softer than a fibroid and located deep in the paravaginal space. The histopathological outcome was an aggressive angiomyxoma. PMID:25833906

  1. Aggressive angiomyxoma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Tasneem; Haroon, Samia

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a locally aggressive soft tissue tumour mainly arises from perineal, vulval and bladder connective tissue. As it has a tendency for local infiltration and recurrence so long-term follow-up and treatment is required. A case of 24 years old primigravida, 16 weeks pregnant with huge pedunculated lobulated growth arising from right labia majora for the last one month is presented. There was a rapid increase in the size of tumour up to 30 x 26 cm and weight of 18 kg with in a month. The growth was excised with wide margins and tissues sent for histopathology to be diagnosed as an aggressive angiomyxoma. Postoperatively, no chemo or radiotherapy was given. She was regularly followed-up and presented in the 37th week of pregnancy with ruptured membranes and failure of progress of labour. Her caesarean section was done and baby boy delivered. She had a regular follow-up and conceived again after 3 years. No recurrence of the growth has occurred within 5 years. PMID:24717995

  2. Serum Fucosylated Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Improves the Differentiation of Aggressive from Non-aggressive Prostate Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing Kay; Chen, Li; Ao, Ming-Hui; Chiu, Joyce Hanching; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hui; Chan, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinically, it is still challenging to differentiate aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancers (Pca) by non-invasive approaches. Our recent studies showed that overexpression of alpha (1-6) fucosyltransferase played an important role in Pca cells. In this study, we have investigated levels of glycoproteins and their fucosylated glycoforms in sera of Pca patients, as well as the potential utility of fucosylated glycoproteins in the identification of aggressive Pca. Material and Methods: Serum samples from histomorphology-proven Pca cases were included. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and their fucosylated glycoforms were captured by Aleuria Aurantia Lectin (AAL), followed by the multiplex magnetic bead-based immunoassay. The level of fucosylated glycoproteins was correlated with patients' Gleason score of the tumor. Result: Among three fucosylated glycoproteins, the fucosylated PSA was significantly increased and correlated with the tumor Gleason score (p<0.05). The ratio of fucosylated PSA showed a marked increase in aggressive tumors in comparison to non-aggressive tumors. ROC analysis also showed an improved predictive power of fucosylated PSA in the identification of aggressive Pca. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that fucosylated PSA has a better predictive power to differentiate aggressive tumors from non-aggressive tumors, than that of native PSA and two other glycoproteins. The fucosylated PSA has the potential to be used as a surrogate biomarker. PMID:25553114

  3. Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, S.A.; Danchin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  4. The prevalence of aggression in genetic syndromes: a review.

    PubMed

    Powis, Laurie; Oliver, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Research into behavioural phenotypes identifies both environmental and organic factors as influencing aggression in children and adults with genetic disorders associated with intellectual disability. However, in contrast to self-injury there is a paucity of research that compares aggression across relevant syndromes. The primary aim of this review is to examine the association between aggression and genetic syndromes by analysis of prevalence studies. The review also examines the literature on the form of the behaviour and influence of environmental factors. Results imply that certain syndrome groups (Cri du Chat, Smith-Magenis, Prader-Willi, Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, and Fragile X syndromes; estimates over 70%) evidence a stronger association with aggression than others (e.g. Williams and Down syndromes; estimates below 15%). However, the strength of association is difficult to quantify due to methodological differences between studies. The results from examining form and environmental influences highlight the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. Research employing group comparison designs is warranted and future work on the assessment and intervention of aggression in genetic syndromes should consider the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. PMID:24594523

  5. Mentality and behaviour in India.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthi, B

    1995-01-01

    Based on a historical survey of the origins and development of the Hindu religion and its absorption of Buddhism the author outlines that tolerance, gentle behaviour, profound optimism and a lack of obsession with time are the main features of Indian mentality and behaviour. But with industrial revolution, urbanisation and population explosion many old values have been eroded and even aggression of different degrees found its way into the Indian psyche. PMID:8571791

  6. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals. PMID:24167314

  7. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in ‘atypical’ mammals

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Mustoe, Aaryn C.; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in ‘atypical’ female mammals. PMID:24167314

  8. Aggressive angiomyxoma: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Geng, Junzu; Cao, Bofeng; Wang, Liping

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is an uncommon mesenchymal myxoid tumor that is characterized by slow growth and frequent local recurrence. It is currently regarded as a nonmetastasizing tumor. We describe a case of recurrent aggressive angiomyxoma with invasion into the veins including the inferior vena cava and the right atrium and with pulmonary metastases. Our case, together with those unusual cases documented in previous reports, may lead to a reappraisal of the nature of aggressive angiomyxoma. PMID:22247641

  9. Behavioural interactions and use of feeding areas by nymphs of Coenagrion resolutum (Coenagrionidae: Odonata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Baker

    1981-01-01

    Behaviour of Coenagrion resolutum nymphs was studied in the laboratory. Based on characteristics of the behaviour, analysis of the effects of inter-nymph distance on behaviour, and association analysis between behaviours, some of the observed behaviours were classified as grooming, feeding\\/aggression, retreat, or defense.

  10. Psychopathic personality traits in relational aggression among young adults.

    PubMed

    Czar, Katherine A; Dahlen, Eric R; Bullock, Emily E; Nicholson, Bonnie C

    2011-01-01

    Psychopathy is a robust predictor of overt physical aggression that may also be relevant to relational aggression (RA). This study was conducted to investigate the utility of psychopathic personality traits in the prediction of RA in a sample of 291 college students. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that both primary and secondary psychopathic traits explained additional variance in general/peer and romantic RA beyond physical aggressiveness. Consistent with previous research, no gender differences were found on either form of RA, challenging the popular stereotype of RA as a female behavior. Moreover, psychopathic traits were not differentially predictive of RA by gender or level of physical aggressiveness. Implications of these findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:21274856

  11. Adolescent peer aggression and its association with mental health and substance use in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James

    2014-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence. PMID:24331300

  12. Parental attitude and child behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. L. Sharma

    1956-01-01

    Behaviour is an integral function which derives its existence, its, form and meaning from the total setting of the life situation. The setting is the resultant of relationships and experiences which have begun to exert themselves from the beginning of the child's life and towards which a.child ha~s formed his own accepting or rejecting, aggressive or submissive reaction tendencies The

  13. Developmental Perspectives on Prosocial and Aggressive Motives in Preschoolers' Peer Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Gun E. B.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' prosocial and aggressive behaviours were explored longitudinally, with a focus on the inferred underlying motives of these behaviours. Forty-four children (initially 22-40 months of age) were observed in naturalistic interactions with peers, during a 2-month period, for each of three consecutive years. Three categories of prosocial…

  14. Attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iranian preschool students with regard to gender differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa Sheikhzade; Arezoo Assemi

    2012-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were collected using a questionnaire about behavioural disorders and social threats. The

  15. Undergraduate Military Training and Measures of Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth P. Kirchner

    1971-01-01

    Seventy-eight male undergraduates with ROTC training and 98 male undergraduates without ROTC training were compared in order to explore possible effects of education in aggressive expression and control. Utilized were inventories of aggression and guilt in addition to measures of aggressive mood, projection of aggression, and identification of aggressive percepts. Also assessed were changes following the presentation of a film

  16. Aggressive Angiomyxoma in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Prashant; Agrawal, Dipti; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence. PMID:25002951

  17. Aggressive angiomyxoma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Prashant; Agrawal, Dipti; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

    2014-05-13

    Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence. PMID:25002951

  18. [Verbal aggression against health-care staff: results of a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Richter, D

    2014-09-01

    Verbal aggression against health-care staff can induce considerable stress. Compared to physical aggression, systematic studies on verbal aggression are lacking.A qualitative focus group study was conducted in several clinical settings in north-western Germany: acute mental health care, forensic mental health care, children and adolescent psychiatry, residential care for mentally ill persons, general hospital, and nursing home. 74 staff members from various professions participated in 8 focus groups.Various forms of verbal aggression were reported, from verbal abuse over threats to non-compliant behaviour. Backgrounds for verbal aggression by patients were usually non-satisfaction with the situation or the treatment, organisational problems, and mental disorders. Staff reported about various coping strategies such as ignorance and rationalisation, but also helplessness. Compared to physical aggression, the severity of verbal aggression was rated non-uniformly. A clear boundary between verbal aggression and 'normal' speech acts could not be drawn, as subjective and individual factors play an important role while interpreting aggressive acts.Verbal aggression is a relevant stressor for health-care staff which has been widely neglected in care institutions. Prevention efforts may include situational coping (e.?g., communication training) and psychological coping (e.?g., resilience enhancement). PMID:24452430

  19. Prepubertal social subjugation and anabolic androgenic steroid-induced aggression in male rats.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, R L; McGinnis, M Y

    2008-08-01

    Abused children are more prone to abuse drugs, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), as teenagers and display violence as adults. AAS use has been linked with elevated aggression. Thus, exposure to child abuse and AAS may potentiate aggression. A social subjugation paradigm was used as an animal model of childhood abuse to determine whether prior subjugation increases AAS-induced aggression in male rats. Prepubertal gonadally intact male rats were exposed to social subjugation, a novel cage experience, or remained undisturbed in their home cages. Experimental males were socially subjugated by being placed in the home cage of an adult male. At puberty, both subjugated and nonsubjugated rats were injected with either the AAS testosterone or vehicle. AAS treatment continued for 5 weeks. Aggression was measured during the last week of AAS exposure. AAS was then discontinued. Aggression was again tested 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. Aggression was tested under three conditions: (i) physical provocation of the experimental male; (ii) provocation of the intruder male; and (iii) without provocation. Both AAS-treated males and socially subjugated males displayed significantly more aggression than did controls. Elevated aggression by subjugated males was still present 17 weeks after social subjugation. AAS males also showed increased aggression 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. However, exposure to both social subjugation and AAS had no long-term effects on aggression. The results of the present study indicate that social subjugation may have lasting consequences on the expression of adaptive social behaviours. PMID:18510706

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…

  1. Aggressive Displays in Nonbreeding Canvasbacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM C. ALEXANDER

    The classical works of Heinroth (1911), Hochbaum (1944), Lorenz (1951, 1952, 1953), and Johnsgard (1965) have documented the reproductive displays of most members of the family Anatidae. Although the reproductive displays of ducks have been described thoroughly, much less is known about their aggressive displays during the nonbreeding period. Here I describe three aggressive displays that occur in nonbreed- ing

  2. “Ladettes,” Social Representations, and Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Muncer; Anne Campbell; Victoria Jervis; Rachel Lewis

    2001-01-01

    The increasing share of arrests for violent offences by young women in Britain has prompted the media to brand such offenders as “ladettes.” Their behavior is argued to result from their adoption of “laddish” attitudes that in turn is derived from new, aggressive images of women in the media. These images explicitly portray female aggression as an instrumental act in

  3. Imaging Features of Aggressive Angiomyxoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N Jeyadevan; S. A. A Sohaib; J. M Thomas; A Jeyarajah; J. H Shepherd; C Fisher

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and

  4. Aggressive Angiomyxoma of the Scrotum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Sakata; Shinya Ishikawa; Akihiko Tokue; Norio Hirota

    1997-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare benign tumor, arising in the pelvic soft tissues and perineum. It occurs almost exclusively in adult females. It is locally infiltrative and exhibiting a high risk of local recurrence. However, it is slow growing and does not metastatize. We report a case of aggressive angiomyxoma in an adult male which arose in the scrotum.

  5. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  6. Colour biases in territorial aggression in a Neotropical cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K

    2014-05-01

    Discrete colour morphs have provided important insights into the evolution of phenotypic diversity. One of the mechanisms that can help to explain coexistence of ecologically similar colour morphs and incipient species is (colour) biased aggression, which has the potential to promote continued existence of the morphs in a frequency-dependent manner. I addressed colour biases in territorial aggression in a field-based study on a Neotropical cichlid fish species, Amphilophus sagittae, which has two ecologically indistinguishable colour morphs that mate assortatively. I found that A. sagittae, in particular females, were more aggressive towards models of their own colour than those mimicking colours of the other morph. Such a behavioural pattern should result in a selection regime that benefits the rarer morph, and hence could help explain how novel, rare phenotypes may avoid competitive exclusion. PMID:24414236

  7. Single Aggressive Interactions Increase Urinary Glucocorticoid Levels in Wild Male Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Weltring, Anja; Deschner, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A basic premise in behavioural ecology is the cost-benefit arithmetic, which determines both behavioural decisions and evolutionary processes. Aggressive interactions can be costly on an energetic level, demanding increased energy or causing injuries, and on a psychological level, in the form of increased anxiety and damaged relationships between opponents. Here we used urinary glucocorticoid (uGC) levels to assess the costs of aggression in wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda. We collected 169 urine samples from nine adult male chimpanzees following 14 aggressive interactions (test condition) and 10 resting events (control condition). Subjects showed significantly higher uGC levels after single aggressive interactions compared to control conditions, likely for aggressors as well as victims. Higher ranking males had greater increases of uGC levels after aggression than lower ranking males. In contrast, uGC levels showed no significant change in relation to aggression length or intensity, indicating that psychological factors might have played a larger role than mere energetic expenditure. We concluded that aggressive behaviour is costly for both aggressors and victims and that costs seem poorly explained by energetic demands of the interaction. Our findings are relevant for studies of post-conflict interactions, since we provide evidence that both aggressors and victims experience a stress response to conflict. PMID:25714095

  8. Patient engagement and problematic behaviours in nurse-staffed residential rehabilitation units

    PubMed Central

    Meaden, Alan; Commander, Martin; Cowan, Colin; Edwards, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To build on previous research findings by examining engagement and problematic behaviours of patients in 10 residential rehabilitation units. Two measures were completed on patients in community rehabilitation, longer-term complex care and high-dependency units (109 patients in total). Data were analysed and categorised into higher-engagement ratings across the domains of engagement and behaviour over the past 6 months and lifetime in terms of presence of the behaviour and likelihood of resulting harm. Results Data were available for 73% of patients. All aspects of engagement were consistently low for all units, with highest levels in community rehabilitation units. Levels of problematic behaviours were similar across all units. Socially inappropriate behaviours and failure to complete everyday activities were evident for over half of all patients and higher for lifetime prevalence. Verbal aggression was at significantly lower levels in community units. Lifetime behaviours likely to lead to harm were much more evident in high-dependency units. Clinical implications Despite some benefits of this type of care, patients continue to present challenges in engagement and problematic behaviours that require new approaches and a change in focus. PMID:25505624

  9. The impact of structured risk assessments followed by management recommendations on aggression in patients with personality disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Daffern; Kevin Howells; Laura Hamilton; Aisling Mannion; Richard Howard; Mary Lilly

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the proposition that structured risk assessments followed immediately by the risk assessment results and recommendations for management can reduce the frequency of aggression in high-risk personality-disordered patients. The study included three phases during which aggressive behaviour was recorded: (a) baseline, (b) daily risk assessment using the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA) and HCR-20 Clinical Scale, and

  10. Behavioural correlates of testosterone and seasonal changes of steroids in red-winged blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Johnsen

    1998-04-01

    I studied the relationship between behaviour and plasma testosterone level (T) and the seasonal changes in T and plasma corticosterone levels (B) in male red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. I measured T and B using radioimmunoassay, and on the day after taking blood, I observed each male's behaviour for 60 min. The time that males spent conspicuously perched and the number of songs were positively correlated with T, but the proportion of time spent conspicuously perched and the frequency of song were not correlated with T. The frequency of aggressive encounters, sexual chases, epaulet exposure when singing and flights within the territory were positively correlated with T, suggesting a direct role for circulating testosterone influencing male aggressive behaviour. Both T and B increased early in the breeding season, peaked when the first females were receptive, and decreased through the remainder of the breeding season. Late in the season, the presence of a receptive female caused males to have increased T. The peak in T when the first females were receptive, the positive correlation between aggression and T, and the response to a receptive female with increased T support predictions of the challenge hypothesis. T was positively correlated with B, suggesting a cost to the males of maintaining high T. When a receptive female was present on the male's territory, T was negatively correlated with date. Male red-winged blackbirds in Indiana may respond less to receptive females late in the season when benefits associated with protecting paternity and gaining extra-pair fertilizations decrease.Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9632481

  11. The effects of group size on aggression when mixing unacquainted sows in outdoor paddocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression is a challenge when pigs are kept in groups. Sows fight at mixing when space is limited but this project sought to determine the amount and type of aggression observed when unacquainted Berkshire sows were mixed in pairs or in two established sub-groups of three in outdoor paddocks. Treat...

  12. Aggressive Maneuvering of Small Autonomous Helicopters: A Human-Centered Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladislav Gavrilets; Emilio Frazzoli; Bernard Mettler; M. Piedmonte; Eric Feron

    2001-01-01

    Unmanned small autonomous helicopters can perform aggressive maneuvers that will be useful for operations in challenging condi- tions. This paper presents an analysis of the pilot's execution of aggressive maneuvers from flight test data, collected on an instru- mented small-scale acrobatic helicopter. A full-envelope nonlinear dynamic model of the helicopter was developed and validated for ag- gressive maneuvering. This model

  13. Mental Health Correlates of Aggression in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talerico, Karen Amann; Evans, Lois K.; Strumpf, Neville E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effective interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) behavior management strategies on aggression in a group of…

  14. Female aggression predicts mode of paternity acquisition in a social lizard

    PubMed Central

    While, Geoffrey M.; Sinn, David L.; Wapstra, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in behaviour are ubiquitous in nature. Despite the likely role of selection in maintaining these differences, there are few demonstrations of their fitness consequences in wild populations and, consequently, the mechanisms that link behavioural variation to variation in fitness are poorly understood. Specifically, the consequences of consistent individual differences in behaviour for the evolution of social and mating strategies have rarely been considered. We examined the functional links between variation in female aggression and her social and mating strategies in a wild population of the social lizard Egernia whitii. We show that female Egernia exhibit temporally consistent aggressive phenotypes, which are unrelated to body size, territory size or social density. A female's aggressive phenotype, however, has strong links to her mode of paternity acquisition (within- versus extra-pair paternity), with more aggressive females having more offspring sired by extra-pair males than less aggressive females. We discuss the potential mechanisms by which female aggression could underpin mating strategies, such as the pursuit/acceptance of extra-pair copulations. We propose that a deeper understanding of the evolution and maintenance of social and mating systems may result from an explicit focus on individual-level female behavioural phenotypes and their relationship with key reproductive strategies. PMID:19324771

  15. Children's social cognition about proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Nesdale, Drew; Killen, Melanie; Duffy, Amanda

    2013-11-01

    In this study, 6- and 9-year-old children (N=258) observed two instances of proactive aggression (one relational and the other direct aggression) that were committed by members of a group toward out-group members. Participants were either members of the group or independent observers. Analyses of participants' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression (cause of aggression, moral judgment of aggression, attitudes toward the aggressor, and exclusion of the aggressor) indicated that, overall, group members were more positive toward aggressors than were independent observers. Although intergroup competition was perceived to be the cause of the aggression, participants disapproved of both types of aggression (especially direct aggression), disapproval increased with age, and girls disapproved of relational aggression more than did boys. Group members' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression comprised a coherent cognitive process for both types of aggression, but the observers' process was simpler and differed by aggression type. PMID:24001607

  16. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

  17. Aggression Replacement Training[R] Stands the Test of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, Mark; Oliver, Robert

    2010-01-01

    There have been longstanding debates in the scientific community regarding what qualifies as evidence for programs that work with challenging youth. There are also a variety of levels of evidence on a continuum from promising to proven. Aggression Replacement Training[R] has stood the test of time in terms of its scientific underpinning and…

  18. kNOw workplace violence: developing programs for managing the risk of aggression in the health care setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A Forster; Mark T Petty; Colin Schleiger; Helen C Walters

    2005-01-01

    Strategies to prevent and manage violence and aggression in the health care setting have become a primary health and safety issue. • A series of vignettes are provided to highlight key elements in developing a program for preventing behavioural violence and aggression in a tertiary hospital.

  19. The Effect of Exposure to Community Violence on Levels of Aggression: Evidence from a Sample of Jamaican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Corin; Coore-Desai, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Scholars agree that aggression among children can lead to a host of delinquency issues that can last into adulthood. Research has found that exposure to violence is one of the strongest predictors of aggressive behaviour and the use of violence. Utilizing a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the article seeks to determine the…

  20. Escalation of aggressive vocal signals: a sequential playback study

    PubMed Central

    Hof, David; Podos, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Rival conspecifics often produce stereotyped sequences of signals as agonistic interactions escalate. Successive signals in sequence are thought to convey increasingly pronounced levels of aggressive motivation. Here, we propose and test a model of aggressive escalation in black-throated blue warblers, presenting subjects with two sequential and increasingly elevated levels of threat. From a speaker outside the territorial boundary, we initiated an interaction (low-threat level), and from a second speaker inside the territory, accompanied by a taxidermic mount, we subsequently simulated a territorial intrusion (escalated threat level). Our two main predictions were that signalling behaviours in response to low-threat boundary playback would predict signalling responses to the escalated within-territory threat, and that these latter signalling behaviours would in turn reliably predict attack. We find clear support for both predictions: (i) specific song types (type II songs) produced early in the simulated interaction, in response to boundary playback, predicted later use of low-amplitude ‘soft’ song, in response to within-territory playback; and (ii) soft song, in turn, predicted attack of the mount. Unexpectedly, use of the early-stage signal (type II song) itself did not predict attack, despite its apparent role in aggressive escalation. This raises the intriguing question of whether type II song can actually be considered a reliable aggressive signal. Overall, our results provide new empirical insights into how songbirds may use progressive vocal signalling to convey increasing levels of threat. PMID:23926156

  1. Escalation of aggressive vocal signals: a sequential playback study.

    PubMed

    Hof, David; Podos, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Rival conspecifics often produce stereotyped sequences of signals as agonistic interactions escalate. Successive signals in sequence are thought to convey increasingly pronounced levels of aggressive motivation. Here, we propose and test a model of aggressive escalation in black-throated blue warblers, presenting subjects with two sequential and increasingly elevated levels of threat. From a speaker outside the territorial boundary, we initiated an interaction (low-threat level), and from a second speaker inside the territory, accompanied by a taxidermic mount, we subsequently simulated a territorial intrusion (escalated threat level). Our two main predictions were that signalling behaviours in response to low-threat boundary playback would predict signalling responses to the escalated within-territory threat, and that these latter signalling behaviours would in turn reliably predict attack. We find clear support for both predictions: (i) specific song types (type II songs) produced early in the simulated interaction, in response to boundary playback, predicted later use of low-amplitude 'soft' song, in response to within-territory playback; and (ii) soft song, in turn, predicted attack of the mount. Unexpectedly, use of the early-stage signal (type II song) itself did not predict attack, despite its apparent role in aggressive escalation. This raises the intriguing question of whether type II song can actually be considered a reliable aggressive signal. Overall, our results provide new empirical insights into how songbirds may use progressive vocal signalling to convey increasing levels of threat. PMID:23926156

  2. Socially responsive effects of brain oxidative metabolism on aggression

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Rittschof, Clare C.; Massey, Jonathan H.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite ongoing high energetic demands, brains do not always use glucose and oxygen in a ratio that produces maximal ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In some cases glucose consumption exceeds oxygen use despite adequate oxygen availability, a phenomenon known as aerobic glycolysis. Although metabolic plasticity seems essential for normal cognition, studying its functional significance has been challenging because few experimental systems link brain metabolic patterns to distinct behavioral states. Our recent transcriptomic analysis established a correlation between aggression and decreased whole-brain oxidative phosphorylation activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), suggesting that brain metabolic plasticity may modulate this naturally occurring behavior. Here we demonstrate that the relationship between brain metabolism and aggression is causal, conserved over evolutionary time, cell type-specific, and modulated by the social environment. Pharmacologically treating honey bees to inhibit complexes I or V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway resulted in increased aggression. In addition, transgenic RNAi lines and genetic manipulation to knock down gene expression in complex I in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) neurons resulted in increased aggression, but knockdown in glia had no effect. Finally, honey bee colony-level social manipulations that decrease individual aggression attenuated the effects of oxidative phosphorylation inhibition on aggression, demonstrating a specific effect of the social environment on brain function. Because decreased neuronal oxidative phosphorylation is usually associated with brain disease, these findings provide a powerful context for understanding brain metabolic plasticity and naturally occurring behavioral plasticity. PMID:25092297

  3. Territorial meadow pipit males ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes) become more aggressive in female presence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrusková, Tereza; Petrusek, Adam; Pavel, Václav; Fuchs, Roman

    2007-08-01

    Although mate guarding as prevention of extra-pair copulation is common among birds, evidence for aggressive behaviour involving physical contact related to mate guarding in passerines is scarce and cases of the presence of one partner directly influencing the aggressiveness of the other are lacking. We investigated the intra-specific territorial behaviour of male meadow pipits ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes: Motacillidae) at the beginning of the breeding season by placing a pipit model accompanied by an intra-specific song playback in the territory of socially paired males and compared the responses of males whose mates were physically present during trials with those whose females were out of sight. The level of aggression of males was significantly higher in the presence of the female; half of the males in this group physically attacked the model (the most intense and risky aggressive behaviour). Physical attacks did not occur among males whose female was absent during the trial; response to the playback by most of these males was only weak. This pattern may be related to the prevention of extra-pair copulation; if the risks involved in the conflict are outweighed by potential loss of paternity, such aggressive mate guarding may pay off. The apparently overlooked effect on the territorial behaviour of a partner’s passive physical presence during conflict should be further evaluated because it may be important for the design and interpretation of results of behavioural experiments.

  4. Integrating personality research and animal contest theory: aggressiveness in the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alastair J; de Boer, Marloes; Arnott, Gareth; Grimmer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Aggression occurs when individuals compete over limiting resources. While theoretical studies have long placed a strong emphasis on context-specificity of aggression, there is increasing recognition that consistent behavioural differences exist among individuals, and that aggressiveness may be an important component of individual personality. Though empirical studies tend to focus on one aspect or the other, we suggest there is merit in modelling both within- and among-individual variation in agonistic behaviour simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate how this can be achieved using multivariate linear mixed effect models. Using data from repeated mirror trials and dyadic interactions of male green swordtails, Xiphophorus helleri, we show repeatable components of (co)variation in a suite of agonistic behaviour that is broadly consistent with a major axis of variation in aggressiveness. We also show that observed focal behaviour is dependent on opponent effects, which can themselves be repeatable but were more generally found to be context specific. In particular, our models show that within-individual variation in agonistic behaviour is explained, at least in part, by the relative size of a live opponent as predicted by contest theory. Finally, we suggest several additional applications of the multivariate models demonstrated here. These include testing the recently queried functional equivalence of alternative experimental approaches, (e.g., mirror trials, dyadic interaction tests) for assaying individual aggressiveness. PMID:22140502

  5. Mechanisms of experience dependent control of aggression in crickets.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Paul A; Schildberger, Klaus

    2013-06-01

    Aggression is a highly plastic behaviour, shaped by numerous experiences, and potential costs and benefits of competing, to optimize fitness and survival. Recent studies on crickets provide insights into how nervous systems achieve this. Their fighting behaviour is promoted by physical exertion, winning disputes and possession of resources. These effects are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline. Submissive behaviour, in less well understood. It is induced when the accumulated sum of the opponent's agonistic signals surpass some critical level, and probably mediated by nitric oxide, serotonin and other neuromodulators. We propose that animals can make the decision to fight or flee by modulating the respective behavioural thresholds in response to potentially rewarding and aversive attributes of experiences. PMID:23537901

  6. Varenicline: aggression and homicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    2012-02-01

    Varenicline, a drug used for smoking cessation, carries a risk of neuropsychological adverse effects, including depression and suicide. Analysis of a series of detailed reports of aggression and homicidal ideation attributed to varenicline showed that most patients had no psychiatric history. These symptoms were often preceded by sleep disorders. Suicide and suicidal ideation were associated with signs of aggression in nearly one-third of cases. Aggressive symptoms recurred in patients who restarted varenicline. In practice, it is better to avoid using varenicline for smoking cessation and to use nicotine replacement instead when drug therapy is considered necessary. PMID:22413719

  7. The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods. For these women, fighting is not seen as antithetical to cultural conceptions of femininity, and female weakness is disparaged. Nonetheless, even where competitive pressures are high, young women's aggression is less injurious and frequent than young men's. From an evolutionary perspective, I argue that the intensity of female aggression is constrained by the greater centrality of mothers, rather than fathers, to offspring survival. This selection pressure is realized psychologically through a lower threshold for fear among women. Neuropsychological evidence is not yet conclusive but suggests that women show heightened amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli, may be better able to exert prefrontal cortical control over emotional behaviour and may consciously register fear more strongly via anterior cingulate activity. The impact of testosterone and oxytocin on the neural circuitry of emotion is also considered. PMID:24167308

  8. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  9. Prejudice and truth about the effect of testosterone on human bargaining behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Eisenegger; M. Naef; R. Snozzi; M. Heinrichs; E. Fehr

    2010-01-01

    Both biosociological and psychological models, as well as animal research, suggest that testosterone has a key role in social interactions. Evidence from animal studies in rodents shows that testosterone causes aggressive behaviour towards conspecifics. Folk wisdom generalizes and adapts these findings to humans, suggesting that testosterone induces antisocial, egoistic, or even aggressive human behaviours. However, many researchers have questioned this

  10. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  11. Gender Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel F. Connor; Ronald J. Steingard; Jennifer J. Anderson; Richard H. Melloni

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study gender differences in proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of 323 clinically referred children and adolescents (68 females and 255 males). Proactive aggression and reactive aggression were assessed using the Proactive\\/Reactive Aggression Scale. Demographic, historical, family, diagnostic, and treatment variables were entered into stepwise regression analyses to determine correlates of proactive

  12. Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Lauren P.; Bertram, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

  13. Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Lauren P; Bertram, Susan M

    2013-08-23

    Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

  14. The developmental origins of chronic physical aggression: biological pathways triggered by early life adversity.

    PubMed

    Provençal, Nadine; Booij, Linda; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal epidemiological studies with birth cohorts have shown that physical aggression in humans does not appear suddenly in adolescence as commonly thought. In fact, physically aggressive behaviour is observed as early as 12 months after birth, its frequency peaks around 2-4 years of age and decreases in frequency until early adulthood. However, a minority of children (3-7%) maintain a high frequency of physical aggression from childhood to adolescence and develop serious social adjustment problems during adulthood. Genetic factors and early social experiences, as well as their interaction, have been shown to play an important role in the development of chronic aggressive behaviour. However, the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are just beginning to be uncovered. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are responsive to adverse environments and could be involved in the development of chronic aggression. Using both gene candidate and genomic approaches, recent studies have identified epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation alterations in genes involved in the stress response and the serotonin and immune systems to be partly responsible for the long-lasting effects of early adversity. Further longitudinal studies with biological, environmental and behavioural assessments from birth onwards are needed to elucidate the sequence of events that leads to these long-lasting epigenetic marks associated with early adversity and aggression. PMID:25568459

  15. A genetic reduction in antioxidant function causes elevated aggression in mice.

    PubMed

    Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert C

    2015-01-15

    Male-male aggression can have a large influence on access to mates, particularly in highly territorial animals such as mice. It has been suggested that males with impaired antioxidant defence and a consequential increased susceptibility to oxidative stress may have a reduced ability to invest in aggressive behaviours, which could limit their mating opportunities and reproductive success. Oxidative stress occurs as a result of an uncontrolled over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in relation to defence mechanisms (such as antioxidants), and can cause damage to a variety of different cellular components. Impairments in specific aspects of antioxidant defence, leading to oxidative stress, can limit investment in some reproductive traits in males, such as sperm quality and the production of sexual signals to attract mates. However, a direct effect of impaired antioxidant defence on aggressive behaviour has not, to our knowledge, been reported. In this study, we demonstrate that mice with experimentally elevated sensitivity to oxidative stress (through inhibition of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, Sod1) actually show the opposite response to previous predictions. Males completely deficient in SOD1 are more aggressive than both wild-type males and males that express 50% of this antioxidant enzyme. They are also faster to attack another male. The cause of this increased aggression is unknown, but this result highlights that aggressive behaviour in mice is not highly constrained by inhibited Sod1 expression, in contrast to other reproductive traits known to be impaired in this mouse model. PMID:25524980

  16. Physical Aggression and Language Ability from 17 to 72 Months: Cross-Lagged Effects in a Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children’s sex. Methods Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) (N?=?2, 057) were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments. Results The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter. Conclusions Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months. PMID:25375971

  17. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  18. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.

    PubMed

    Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs. PMID:24245908

  19. Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Bandura; Dorothea Ross; Sheila A. Ross

    1963-01-01

    In a test of the hypothesis that exposure of children to film-mediated aggressive models would increase the probability of Ss' aggression to subsequent frustration, 1 group of experimental Ss observed real-life aggressive models, a 2nd observed these same models potraying aggression on film, while a 3rd group viewed a film depicting an aggressive cartoon character. Following the exposure treatment, Ss

  20. Aggression and Affiliation during Social Conflict in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Camerlink, Irene; Turner, Simon P.; Ursinus, Winanda W.; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Social conflict is mostly studied in relation to aggression. A more integral approach, including aggressive and affiliative behaviour as well as physiology, may however give a better understanding of the animals' experience during social conflict. The experience of social conflict may also be reflected in the spatial distribution between conspecifics. The objective was to assess the relationship between behaviour, physiology, and spatial integration in pigs (Sus scrofa) during social conflict. Hereto, 64 groups of pigs (9 wk of age) were studied in a 24 h regrouping test whereby pairs of familiar pigs were grouped with 2 unfamiliar pairs, in either barren or straw-enriched housing. Data on aggressive and affiliative behaviour, skin lesions, body weight, and haptoglobin could be summarized into three principal component analysis factors. These three factors were analysed in relation to spatial integration, i.e. inter-individual distances and lying in body contact. Pigs stayed up to 24 h after encounter in closer proximity to the familiar pig than to unfamiliar pigs. Pigs with a high factor 1 score were more inactive, gave little social nosing, had many skin lesions and a high body weight. They tended to space further away from the familiar pig (b?=?1.9 cm; P?=?0.08) and unfamiliar ones (b?=?0.7 cm; P?=?0.05). Pigs that were involved in much aggression (factor 2), and that had a strong increase in haptoglobin (factor 3), tended to be relatively most far away from unfamiliar pigs (b?=?0.03 times further; P?=?0.08). Results on lying in body contact were coherent with results on distances. Pigs in enriched housing spaced further apart than pigs in barren housing (P<0.001). The combined analysis of measures revealed animals that may either promote or slow down group cohesion, which may not have become clear from single parameters. This emphasizes the importance of an integral approach to social conflict. PMID:25427249

  1. Meeting the Challenge: Effective Strategies for Challenging Behaviours in Early Childhood Environments = Relever le defi: Strategies efficaces aupres des enfants presentant des problemes de comportement dans les milieux de la petite enfance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Barbara; Rasminsky, Judy Sklar

    Describing the frustration felt by early childhood educators when they encounter challenging behaviors that do not respond to their usual guidance and disciplinary measures, this guide, in English and French, is designed to give the information and skills needed to cope with children with challenging behaviors. The guide is based on the view that…

  2. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests. PMID:12763268

  3. Quantitative trait loci for aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexis C; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2009-07-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed across animal taxa and is likely to be evolutionarily conserved. Although potentially advantageous, aggression can have social and health consequences in humans, and is a component of a number of psychiatric disorders. As a complex genetic trait, it is modulated by numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) with allelic effects that can vary in direction and magnitude and that are sensitive to environmental perturbations. Assays to quantify aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster have been developed, making this an ideal model system in which to dissect the genomic architecture underlying manifestation of and variation in aggressive behavior. Here, we map QTL affecting variation in aggression between two wild-type Drosophila strains. We identified a minimum of five QTL in a genomewide scan: two on chromosome 2 and three on chromosome 3. At least three and possibly all five of these QTL interact epistatically. We used deficiency complementation mapping to subdivide two linked, epistatically interacting QTL of large effect on chromosome 3 into at least six QTL, and complementation tests to mutations identified four candidate quantitative trait genes. Extensive epistasis poses a serious challenge for understanding the genetic basis of complex traits. PMID:19414563

  4. Accuracy in Judgments of Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, David A.; West, Tessa V.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Schwartz, David

    2009-01-01

    Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver’s view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

  5. Multicentric synchronous recurrent aggressive fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Kavita; Kawatra, Vibha; Khurana, Nita; Jain, Shyama

    2012-01-01

    Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors are known as aggressive fibromatosis (AFM). Synchronous and metachronous multicentric aggressive fibromatosis are rare lesions and pose dilemma in diagnosis and management. A rare and interesting case of recurrent multicentric, synchronous AFM is presented which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported earlier. A young male presented with well defined, hard, fixed swelling on the thigh. Resected tumor mass on histopathology was diagnosed as an extra abdominal fibromatosis. He presented again after two months with swelling at the same site; and two more swellings on the foot. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from all three sites was performed; and was suggestive of benign spindle cell lesion of fibrogenic origin with the possibility of multicentric synchronous recurrent aggressive fibromatosis. PMID:22438620

  6. Accuracy in judgments of aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Kenny, David A; West, Tessa V; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Coie, John D; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hubbard, Julie A; Schwartz, David

    2007-09-01

    Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver's accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver's view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver's accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

  7. Social environments and physical aggression among 21,107 students in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, William; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Dostaler, Suzanne; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical aggression is an important issue in North American populations. The importance of student social environments in the occurrence of physical aggression requires focused study. In this study, reports of physical aggression were examined in relation to social environment factors among national samples of students from Canada and the United States. Methods Students in grades 6–10 from the US (n=14,049) and Canada (n=7,058) who had participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey were studied. Rates of student physical aggression were compared between the two countries. School, family, socioeconomic, and peer-related factors were considered as potential risk factors. A simple social environment risk score was developed using the US data and was subsequently tested in the Canadian sample. Results Risks for physical aggression were consistently higher among US vs. Canadian students, but the magnitude of these differences was modest. The relative odds of physical aggression increased with reported environmental risk. To illustrate, US boys in grades 6 to 8 reporting the highest social-environment risk score (5+) experienced a relative odds of physical aggression 4.02 (95% CI 2.7–5.9) times higher than those reporting the lowest score (adjusted OR for risk scores 0 through 5+: 1.00, 1.19, 2.10, 2.01, 3.71, 4.02; ptrend<0.001). Conclusions Unexpectedly, rates of physical aggression and associations between social environments and student aggression were remarkably similar in Canada and the United States. Family, peer, and school social environments serve as risk or protective factors, with significant cumulative impact on physical aggression in both countries. Given the observed high rates and the many negative effects of aggression on long-term health, school policies aimed at the reduction of such behavior remain a clear priority. PMID:19292848

  8. Cognitive social learning mediators of aggression.

    PubMed

    Perry, D G; Perry, L C; Rasmussen, P

    1986-06-01

    This research explored links between aggression in elementary school children and 2 classes of social cognitions that might influence children's decisions about whether to behave aggressively. Aggressive and nonaggressive children (mean age 11.3 years) responded to 2 questionnaires. One questionnaire measured children's perceptions of their abilities to perform aggression and related behaviors (perceptions of self-efficacy), and the other measured children's beliefs about the reinforcing and punishing consequences of aggression (response-outcome expectancies). Compared to nonaggressive children, aggressive subjects reported that it is easier to perform aggression and more difficult to inhibit aggressive impulses. Aggressive children also were more confident that aggression would produce tangible rewards and would reduce aversive treatment by others. There were negligible sex differences in perceived self-efficacy for aggression but large sex differences in anticipated social and personal consequences for aggression, with girls expecting aggression to cause more suffering in the victim and to be punished more severely by the peer group and by the self. It was concluded that children's knowledge of their capabilities and children's knowledge of the consequences of their actions are factors that need to be taken into account by cognitive models of aggression. PMID:3720399

  9. Symbiont infection affects aphid defensive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Dion, Emilie; Polin, Sarah Erika; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Outreman, Yannick

    2011-10-23

    Aphids harbour both an obligate bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, and a wide range of facultative ones. Facultative symbionts can modify morphological, developmental and physiological host traits that favour their spread within aphid populations. We experimentally investigated the idea that symbionts may also modify aphid behavioural traits to enhance their transmission. Aphids exhibit many behavioural defences against enemies. Despite their benefits, these behaviours have some associated costs leading to reduction in aphid reproduction. Some aphid individuals harbour a facultative symbiont Hamiltonella defensa that provides protection against parasitoids. By analysing aphid behaviours in the presence of parasitoids, we showed that aphids infected with H. defensa exhibited reduced aggressiveness and escape reactions compared with uninfected aphids. The aphid and the symbiont have both benefited from these behavioural changes: both partners reduced the fitness decrements associated with the behavioural defences. Such symbiont-induced changes of behavioural defences may have consequences for coevolutionary processes between host organisms and their enemies. PMID:21490007

  10. Cyproterone to treat aggressivity in dementia: a clinical case and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca M; Davies, Simon J C; Christmas, David M; Baxter, Hazel; Cullum, Sarah; Nutt, David J

    2011-01-01

    Aggressivity is a common problem in the management of elderly patients with dementia. Medications currently used to diminish aggressive behaviour in dementia can have problematic side effects. We present a case and systematic review of the current knowledge about the use of cyproterone acetate to treat aggressivity (excluding hypersexuality related behaviours) in dementia. An 82-year-old man required psychiatric inpatient admission due to agitation and aggressivity and was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. After failed trials of atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine 100?mg/day and risperidone 1?mg/day), drugs for dementia (memantine 20?mg/day and rivastigmine 9?mg/day) and benzodiazepines (lorazepam 0.5-1?mg prn) he was started on cyproterone acetate titrated up to 50?mg twice daily. After two weeks he was calmer and did not express aggressivity. Two months later he was discharged to a community placement where he subsequently remained settled on cyproterone. We reviewed literature on the use of cyproterone in aggressivity (excluding hypersexuality) associated with dementia. We searched the main medical databases including articles in English, Spanish, French and Italian. Only one randomized double-blind trial was found, comparing cyproterone with haloperidol (n?=?27). Cyproterone was more effective controlling aggressivity and had lower incidence of side effects. In the one uncontrolled naturalistic observational study identified (n?=?19), cyproterone was associated with significant reductions in aggressivity without causing major side effects. Further literature was limited to theoretical discussions. Despite there being evidence to support our observations of a useful role for cyproterone in aggressivity in dementia, further studies are needed to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic option. PMID:19942637

  11. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  12. Corticolimbic function in impulsive aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Coccaro, Emil F; Sripada, Chandra Sekhar; Yanowitch, Rachel N; Phan, K Luan

    2011-06-15

    Building on animal and human lesion evidence, neuroimaging studies are increasingly identifying abnormalities in corticolimbic circuits mediating aggressive behavior. This review focuses on three neural systems involved in impulsive/reactive aggression: 1) subcortical neural systems that support the production of aggressive impulses; 2) decision-making circuits and social-emotional information processing circuits that evaluate the consequences of aggressing or not aggressing; and 3) frontoparietal regions that are involved in regulating emotions and impulsive motivational urges. We review psychiatric disorders, including borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder, characterized by elevated reactive aggression, focusing on abnormalities in these three neural systems. PMID:21531387

  13. Adult zebrafish as a model organism for behavioural genetics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the suitability of adult zebrafish to model some aspects of complex behaviour. Studies of reward behaviour, learning and memory, aggression, anxiety and sleep strongly suggest that conserved regulatory processes underlie behaviour in zebrafish and mammals. The isolation and molecular analysis of zebrafish behavioural mutants is now starting, allowing the identification of novel behavioural control genes. As a result of this, studies of adult zebrafish are now helping to uncover the genetic pathways and neural circuits that control vertebrate behaviour. PMID:20678210

  14. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vagina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Amr; K. O. El-Mallah

    1995-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a recently described pathological condition which affects mainly the soft tissues of the pelvis and perineum in women. It is neither encapsulated nor circumscribed and has a tendency for local recurrence. We report a 50-year-old woman who presented with a mass arising within the vaginal wall and extending to the perineum which appeared cystic on ultrasound. The

  15. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  16. A Conceptualization of Aggressive Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infante, Dominic A.

    Interpersonal communication can be viewed in terms of an aggressive-nonaggressive continuum. Past research has often focused on nonaggressive forms of interpersonal communication, such as understanding how people get to know one another, how trust and intimacy develop, and the role of self-disclosure in relationship development. However,…

  17. Violent video games and aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Griffiths

    1999-01-01

    One of the main concerns that has constantly been raised against video games is that most of the games feature aggressive elements. This has led many people to assert that this may have a detrimental effect on individuals who play such games. Despite continuing controversy for over 15 years, there has been little in the way of systematic research. This

  18. Male Responses to Female Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 60 male undergraduates to view film clip of professional lady wrestlers or of mud wrestling, or to no-film control. Both films produced negative changes in mood states, principally increase in aggression and decrease in social affection. Viewing films did not produce changes in men's acceptance of interpersonal violence against…

  19. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  20. The Power of Behavioural Approaches--We Need a Revival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural approaches can be used effectively to teach new skills and to change behaviours that are challenging and not socially adaptive. The behaviour modification approach--now called applied behaviour analysis--is based on the assumption that all behaviours are learned, both the useful ones (new skills) and the ones that are not so useful…

  1. Consequences of hyper-aggressiveness in Siamese fighting fish: cheaters seldom prospered

    PubMed

    Halperin; Giri; Elliott; Dunham

    1998-01-01

    Zahavi's handicap theory, formalized by Grafen, suggests that 'cheaters' must be at a disadvantage if a communication system such as ritualized aggression is to evolve (Grafen 1991, In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (Ed. by J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies), pp. 5-31. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific). To determine whether cheating is disadvantageous in Betta splendens, we held a series of live interactions, after inducing hyper-aggression by socially isolating and then briefly 'priming' the fish. Primed isolates, which were no stronger than their rivals, 'cheated' by escalating rapidly to tailbeating and biting. These cheaters, however, usually lost fights to non-isolated opponents. Unprimed isolates, i.e. socially isolated fish that were not primed, were not initially hyper-aggressive and thus did not cheat. They lost fewer fights than the cheaters. Results suggested that cheaters lost because they exhausted themselves by their hyper-aggressiveness, allowing their non-hyper-aggressive opponents to win. This result is consistent with the Zahavi-Grafen model of how an 'honest' level of ritualized aggression can be stabilized in a population. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9480675

  2. Proximate perspectives on the evolution of female aggression: good for the gander, good for the goose?

    PubMed

    Rosvall, Kimberly A

    2013-01-01

    Female-female aggression often functions in competition over reproductive or social benefits, but the proximate mechanisms of this apparently adaptive behaviour are not well understood. The sex steroid hormone testosterone (T) and its metabolites are well-established mediators of male-male aggression, and several lines of evidence suggest that T-mediated mechanisms may apply to females as well. However, a key question is whether mechanisms of female aggression primarily reflect correlated evolutionary responses to selection acting on males, or whether direct selection acting on females has made modifications to these mechanisms that are adaptive in light of female life history. Here, I examine the degree to which female aggression is mediated at the level of T production, target tissue sensitivity to T, or downstream genomic responses in order to test the hypothesis that selection favours mechanisms that facilitate female aggression while minimizing the costs of systemically elevated T. I draw heavily from avian systems, including the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), as well as other organisms in which these mechanisms have been well studied from an evolutionary/ecological perspective in both sexes. Findings reveal that the sexes share many behavioural and hormonal mechanisms, though several patterns also suggest sex-specific adaptation. I argue that greater attention to multiple levels of analysis-from hormone to receptor to gene network, including analyses of individual variation that represents the raw material of evolutionary change-will be a fruitful path for understanding mechanisms of behavioural regulation and intersexual coevolution. PMID:24167313

  3. Proximate perspectives on the evolution of female aggression: good for the gander, good for the goose?

    PubMed Central

    Rosvall, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Female–female aggression often functions in competition over reproductive or social benefits, but the proximate mechanisms of this apparently adaptive behaviour are not well understood. The sex steroid hormone testosterone (T) and its metabolites are well-established mediators of male–male aggression, and several lines of evidence suggest that T-mediated mechanisms may apply to females as well. However, a key question is whether mechanisms of female aggression primarily reflect correlated evolutionary responses to selection acting on males, or whether direct selection acting on females has made modifications to these mechanisms that are adaptive in light of female life history. Here, I examine the degree to which female aggression is mediated at the level of T production, target tissue sensitivity to T, or downstream genomic responses in order to test the hypothesis that selection favours mechanisms that facilitate female aggression while minimizing the costs of systemically elevated T. I draw heavily from avian systems, including the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), as well as other organisms in which these mechanisms have been well studied from an evolutionary/ecological perspective in both sexes. Findings reveal that the sexes share many behavioural and hormonal mechanisms, though several patterns also suggest sex-specific adaptation. I argue that greater attention to multiple levels of analysis—from hormone to receptor to gene network, including analyses of individual variation that represents the raw material of evolutionary change—will be a fruitful path for understanding mechanisms of behavioural regulation and intersexual coevolution. PMID:24167313

  4. Two Types of Aggression Are Differentially Related to Serotonergic Activity and the A779C TPH Polymorphism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hennig; M. Reuter; P. Netter; C. Burk; O. Landt

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether different types of aggression relate to the A779C tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) polymorphism and to serotonergic activity in volunteers. A factor analysis of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory yielded 2 factors representing Neurotic Hostility (NH) and Aggressive Hostility (AH). The authors used a neuroendocrine challenge with Citalopram in 48 volunteers and increased cortisol concentrations only in those with

  5. AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR Volume 32, pages 581589 (2006)

    E-print Network

    aggression towards women indicate that both alcohol consumption and porno- graphy1 exposure, particularly of the relationship between porno- graphy and sexual aggression typically have assessed three types of dependent

  6. Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resource Center Press Room Social Media Publications Electronic Aggression Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... used to describe this type of violence, electronic aggression is the term that most accurately captures all ...

  7. A Risky Boundary: Unwanted Sexual Behaviour among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Paula; Burrie, Ingrid; van Wel, Frits

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongst young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: "verbal", "non-verbal/intimidating" and "physically violent". A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants of unwanted sexual behaviour:…

  8. Aberrant driving behaviours amongst New Zealand truck drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. M Sullman; Michelle L Meadows; Karl B Pajo

    2002-01-01

    Research using the driver behaviour questionnaire (DBQ) has found that aberrant driving behaviours can be categorised into: errors, lapses and violations (and aggressive violations, depending on the version of the DBQ used). There is also extensive evidence that it is only the `violations' score which is significantly correlated with, and predictive of, crash involvement. This consistency has been found both

  9. Stability of aggression over time and generations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Rowell Huesmann; Leonard D. Eron; Monroe M. Lefkowitz; Leopold O. Walder

    1984-01-01

    In a study spanning 22 years, data were collected on the aggressiveness of over 600 subjects, their parents, and their children. Subjects who were the more aggressive 8-year-olds at the beginning of the study were discovered to be the more aggressive 30-year-olds at the end of the study. The stability of aggressive behavior was shown to be very similar to

  10. Cellular memory of hypoxia elicits neuroblastoma metastasis and enables invasion by non-aggressive neighbouring cells

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, A; Rice, M; Lévy, R; Pizer, B L; Losty, P D; Moss, D; Sée, V

    2015-01-01

    Therapies targeting cancer metastasis are challenging owing to the complexity of the metastatic process and the high number of effectors involved. Although tumour hypoxia has previously been associated with increased aggressiveness as well as resistance to radio- and chemotherapy, the understanding of a direct link between the level and duration of hypoxia and the individual steps involved in metastasis is still missing. Using live imaging in a chick embryo model, we have demonstrated that the exposure of neuroblastoma cells to 1% oxygen for 3 days was capable of (1) enabling cell migration towards blood vessels, (2) slowing down their velocity within blood vessels to facilitate extravasation and (3) promoting cell proliferation in primary and secondary sites. We have shown that cells do not have to be hypoxic anymore to exhibit these acquired capabilities as a long-term memory of prior hypoxic exposure is kept. Furthermore, non-hypoxic cells can be influenced by neighbouring hypoxic preconditioned cells and be entrained in the metastatic progression. The acquired aggressive phenotype relies on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent transcription of a number of genes involved in metastasis and can be impaired by HIF inhibition. Altogether, our results demonstrate the need to consider both temporal and spatial tumour heterogeneity because cells can 'remember' an earlier environment and share their acquired phenotype with their close neighbours. As a consequence, it is necessary to monitor the correct hypoxic markers to be able to predict the consequences of the cells' history on their behaviour and their potential response to therapies. PMID:25664931

  11. Antisocial Personality Disorder, Alcohol, and Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gerard Moeller; Donald M. Dougherty

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol- related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related

  12. Female Aggression and Violence: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Penelope E.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…

  13. Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

  14. Predicting and Preventing Supervisory Workplace Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryne E. Dupré; Julian Barling

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined factors that lead to and prevent aggression toward supervisors at work using two samples: doctoral students and correctional service guards. The results supported that perceived interpersonal injustice mediates the relationship between perceptions of supervisory control over work performance and psychological aggression directed at supervisors, and further that psychological aggression toward supervisors is positively associated with physical acts

  15. Juvenile delinquency and adult aggression against women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Kalra

    1996-01-01

    The present research assessed whether males who exhibited delinquent acts in their youth would be likely to demonstrate aggression against women as adults. Attitudinal information was also collected to see whether attitudes supporting aggression would mediate the relation between juvenile delinquency and adult aggression against women. Male undergraduates (N = 185) responded to a 68-item, comprehensive measure of delinquency that

  16. Aggressive Rejected Children: Implications for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waas, Gregory A.

    1987-01-01

    Used sociometric rating procedure to classify third and fifth grade boys (N=64) as peer-rejected. Standardized teacher ratings classified students as aggressive. Significant portion of rejected students were rated as highly aggressive. Aggressive rejected groups were rated as exhibiting lower achievement motivation and higher levels of hostile…

  17. Importance of Early Neglect for Childhood Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan B. Kotch; Terri Lewis; Jon M. Hussey; Diana English; Richard Thompson; Alan J. Litrownik; Desmond K. Runyan; Shrikant I. Bangdiwala; Benyamin Margolis; Howard Dubowitz

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE. The goal was to examine,the association between,early childhood,neglect (birth to age 2 years) and later childhood aggression at ages 4, 6, and 8 years, compared,with aggression’s associations with early childhood,abuse and later abuse and neglect. METHODS. A prospective cohort of 1318 predominantly at-risk children, recruited from 4

  18. Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

    1985-01-01

    Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

  19. Physical aggression in relation to different frustrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold H. Buss

    1963-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 3 kinds of frustration on college students' aggression: task failure, interference with winning money, and interference with attaining a better course grade. The different frustrations did not generally lead to different intensities of aggresion, but all 3 led to more aggression than a control. Although frustration did elicit aggression, the effect was slight. This

  20. [Relationships among empathy, prosocial behavior, aggressiveness, self-efficacy and pupils' personal and social responsibility].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Sanmartín, Melchor; Escartí Carbonell, Amparo; Pascual Baños, Carminal

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to present/display the Spanish version of diverse instruments that assess Empathy, Prosocial behavior, Aggressiveness, Self-efficacy and Personal and social responsibility, and, on the other hand, to analyze which of these variables could predict responsibility. Participants were 822 pupils, ages 8 to 15 years, who studied in 11 educational centres of the Valencian Community. Measures include Spanish versions of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents, Prosocial Behaviour, and Physical and Verbal Aggression, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Self-Efficacy, and the Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire. Through structural equation modelling (SEM), the results showed positive relationships between Prosocial behaviour, Empathy, Self-efficacy, and Responsibility; and negative relationships between Aggressiveness and Responsibility. The results and implications for education are discussed. PMID:21266136

  1. The Reduction of Peer Directed Aggression among Highly Aggressive African-American Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudley, Cynthia Ann

    A study of highly aggressive African American boys sought to understand the effect of an attribution retraining program designed to reduce aggressive males' tendency to attribute hostile intentions to peers following ambiguous, negative interactions. One hundred and one African American aggressive and non-aggressive elementary school boys in Los…

  2. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  3. DOG AGGRESSION: CANINE BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO AGGRESSION TOWARD HUMANS

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    DOG AGGRESSION: CANINE BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO AGGRESSION TOWARD HUMANS J. Kottferova1: kottfer@uvm.sk; Phone: 1421 915 984 670 Our study focused on dog aggression toward people dog owners about their dog's aggression toward unknown persons. More than half of the dogs surveyed

  4. Acrorhagi, catch tentacles and sweeper tentacles: a synopsis of ‘aggression’ of actiniarian and scleractinian Cnidaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Williams

    1991-01-01

    Three types of organ (acrorhagi and catch tentacles in sea anemones, and sweeper tentacles in corals) are described with regard to both morphology and ‘aggressive’ function. Species known to possess such organs are listed. Research on the functions of these particular organs is reviewed and some exceptions to their usual behaviour patterns are highlighted. Further research on allogeneic recognition might

  5. Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

  6. Assessment of strength and willingness to fight during aggressive encounters in crickets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HANS A. HOFMANN; Klaus Schildberger

    2001-01-01

    Game theory predicts that at least some of the behaviour patterns displayed during aggressive encounters are used to assess asymmetries in variables that indicate fighting ability and resource value. Game theoretical models such as the sequential assessment game see assessment as the major activity during a fight. However, while these models acknowledge the existence of physical and motivational assessment parameters,

  7. European American and Mainland Chinese Mothers' Responses to Aggression and Social Withdrawal in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine European American and Mainland Chinese mothers' responses to preschoolers' social behaviours (aggression and social withdrawal) within a cultural framework. Participants were 103 European American mothers from Washington DC, and 100 Mainland Chinese mothers from Beijing and Baoding cities, China. The…

  8. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  9. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  10. Aggression By Whom–Aggression Toward Whom: Behavioral Predictors of Same- and Other-Gender Aggression in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hanish, Laura D.; Sallquist, Julie; DiDonato, Matthew; Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed girls’ and boys’ dominance-related behaviors (aggressive, commanding, submissive, and neutral behaviors) as they naturally occurred during interactions with male and female peers and evaluated the possibility that such behaviors elicit aggression from peers. Using a focal observational procedure, young girls’ and boys’ (N = 170; 54% boys) naturally occurring dominance-related behaviors and male and female peers’ aggressive responses to those behaviors were recorded multiple times each week across the academic year. Findings suggested that same-gender aggression occurred at similar rates as other-gender aggression once tendencies toward gender segregated play were controlled. Additionally, there were both gender-based similarities and differences in children’s use of dominance-related behaviors in peer interactions and as antecedents for peers’ aggression. The findings have implications for the literatures on aggression and gendered peer interactions. PMID:22369337

  11. Excessive Aggression as Model of Violence: A Critical Evaluation of Current Preclinical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Haller, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Preclinical experimental models of pathological aggressive behavior are a sorely understudied and difficult research area. Objectives How valid, reliable, productive and informative are the most frequently used animal models of excessive aggressive behavior? Methods The rationale, key methodological features, supporting data and arguments as well as their disadvantages and limitations of the most frequently used animal models for excessive aggressive behavior are summarized and their validity and reliability are evaluated. Results Excessive aggressive behavior is validly and reliably seen in (1) a proportion of feral-derived rats and selectively bred mice, (2) rats with compromised adrenal function resulting in a hypoglucocorticoid state, (3) a significant minority of mice, rats and monkeys after consumption of a moderate dose of alcohol, and (4) resident animals of various species after social instigation. Limitations of these procedures include restrictive animal research regulations, the requirement of expertise in surgical, pharmacological and behavioral techniques, and the behaviorally impoverished mouse strains that are used in molecular genetics research. Promising recent initiatives for novel experimental models include aggressive behaviors that are evoked by optogenetic stimulation and induced by the manipulation of early social experiences such as isolation rearing or social stress. Conclusions One of the most significant challenges for animal models of excessive, potentially abnormal aggressive behavior is the characterization of distinctive neurobiological mechanisms that differ from those governing species-typical aggressive behavior. Identifying novel targets for effective intervention requires increased understanding of the distinctive molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms for each type of abnormal aggressive behavior. PMID:23430160

  12. First-degree relatives with behavioural adverse effects on statins

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, David; Cham, Stephanie; Golomb, Beatrice Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Irritability, aggression and other adverse behavioural effects have been associated with the use of statins (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) and other drug classes. A number of studies have also linked low cholesterol with aggression and violence. This paper presents the cases of two first-degree male relative patients (father and son) identified by self-referral to the University of California in San Diego Statin Effects Study. Both patients experienced behavioural adverse effects on statins including irritability and aggression, however neither patient recognised a significant change in their behaviour. This may be the first report of behavioural adverse effects manifested on statins by first-degree male relatives, which may suggest possible familial/biological predisposition. These cases also highlight the issue of externalisation by patients of the origin of interpersonal discord, which may serve as an obstacle to adverse effects reporting and lead to negative outcomes for patients, and for those around them. PMID:22675104

  13. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. PMID:24810384

  14. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Barmon, Debabrata; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Sharma, J D; Bordoloi, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, benign neoplasm occurring in 3(rd) to 5(th) decade of life that can be mistaken both clinically and on microscopy for several other conditions, it should be included as a differential diagnosis for any vaginal mass. These lesions have a predilection for female pelvic soft tissues, slow in growth, and are characterized histologically by a predominantly myxoid stroma and an abundance of thin and thick walled vascular channels. This is a deep soft tissue tumor, which as the name suggests, may have a locally aggressive course. Most tumors occur in women and are large, usually greater than 10 cm, slowly growing, and painless. Standard of care treatment for angiomyxoma has been surgery. Some authors believe that it is the only possible treatment, but surgery is often radical and can be mutilating, with massive blood loss. PMID:22923982

  15. Highly aggressive extraocular sebaceous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moreno, C; Jacyk, W K; Judd, M J; Requena, L

    2001-10-01

    Extraocular sebaceous carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm usually localized on the head and neck. We report a case of sebaceous carcinoma of the axillary skin with a highly aggressive behavior. The patient was a 43-year-old black man who developed multiple cutaneous and lymph node metastases shortly after the excision of primary sebaceous carcinoma of the axillary skin. Many neoplastic aggregations were identified within the lumina of the dermal lymphatic vessels in the excised specimen of the primary neoplasm. Although extraocular sebaceous carcinoma has been traditionally considered a less aggressive neoplasm than its ocular counterpart, a review of the literature and this case demonstrate that extraocular sebaceous carcinoma may also lead to disseminated metastatic disease. PMID:11801779

  16. Geerbte Aggression: Gene und Gewalt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Wahl

    Die Frage nach den Wurzeln von Aggression und Gewalt wird seit langer Zeit als Kontroverse um »Anlage« vs »Umwelt« heft ig\\u000a diskutiert. Wenn sowohl Vater wie auch Sohn wegen Gewalttaten im Gefängnis sitzen, wird in der Öffentlichkeit manchmal über\\u000a ein »Aggressionsgen« spekuliert. Wenn Jugendliche in heruntergekommenen Stadtteilen oder junge Männer aus Migrantenfamilien\\u000a zuschlagen, wird ihre gesellschaft liche Umwelt als Ursache

  17. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the thigh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Heffernan; M. M. Hayes; F. O. Alkubaidan; P. W. Clarkson; P. L. Munk

    2008-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare tumour that typically occurs in the perineum in women of reproductive age. A small number\\u000a of cases occurring in men have been reported, all of which were located in the low pelvis, perineum or scrotum. While benign,\\u000a the tumour is locally infiltrative and consequently has a high rate of local recurrence following surgery; therefore, accurate

  18. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y D Choi; J H Kim; J H Nam; C Choi; K J Na; S Y Song

    2008-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that usually occurs in the pelvic–perineal region. Only two cases of AAM occurring outside this region have been reported. The case of AAM reported here originated from lung. A 70-year-old woman was admitted for evaluation of an incidentally detected pulmonary mass on chest radiography. Tumour resection under the thoracoscopy was performed. Pathological

  19. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast–slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed–accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes. PMID:22927575

  20. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities. PMID:25205545

  1. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  2. Aggression after Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevalence & Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vani; Rosenberg, Paul; Bertrand, Melaine; Salehinia, Saeed; Spiro, Jennifer; Vaishnavi, Sandeep; Rastogi, Pramit; Noll, Kathy; Schretlen, David J; Brandt, Jason; Cornwell, Edward; Makley, Michael; Miles, Quincy Samus

    2010-01-01

    Aggression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but not well defined. Sixty-seven participants with first-time TBI were seen within three months of injury and evaluated for aggression. The prevalence of aggression was found to be 28.4% and to be predominantly verbal aggression. Post-TBI aggression was associated with new-onset major depression (p=0.02), poorer social functioning (p=0.04), and increased dependency on activities of daily living (p=0.03), but not with a history of substance abuse or adult/childhood behavioral problems. Implications of the study include early screening for aggression, evaluation for depression, and consideration of psychosocial support in aggressive patients. PMID:19996251

  3. Hopelessness and risk behaviour among adolescents living in high-poverty inner-city neighbourhoods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Bolland

    2003-01-01

    Ethnographic literature on inner-city life argues that adolescents react to their uncertain futures by abandoning hope, leading them to engage in high levels of risk behaviour. However, few quantitative studies demonstrate this relationship. This study tests this relationship using a survey of 2468 inner-city adolescents, asking them questions about hopelessness, violent and aggressive behaviour, substance use, sexual behaviour, and accidental

  4. Heritable variation underlies behavioural types in the mating context in male bluefin killifish

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, Katie E.; Travis, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In many species, consistent behavioural differences among individuals are linked to fitness variation. Determining the environmental and genetic factors that mould these behavioural types is crucial to understanding how behaviours might respond to selection. Male bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, show extensive consistent behavioural variation in their levels of courtship, male-directed aggression and female-directed aggression, resulting in a range of fitness-related behavioural types coexisting within a population. To determine whether the behavioural components underlying a male’s stable behavioural type in the mating context are heritable and genetically correlated, we performed paternal half-sib crosses. Using animal models, we found that all three of these mating behaviours were moderately heritable (h2 = 0.17–0.29) and courtship behaviour was also heritable as a binomial trait (court yes/no: h2 = 0.50). Including effects of dam identity/common rearing environment experienced by full sibs decreased model fit, suggesting that early social interactions might contribute to behavioural types. In addition, we found evidence consistent with the possibility that the positive phenotypic correlations among mating behaviours are underlain by positive genetic correlations. Thus, it is possible that the seemingly maladaptive aggression that males direct towards females during social interactions persist due to genetic constraints and direct selection on both male-directed aggression and courtship behaviour. PMID:24187377

  5. MicroRNA122 is a key regulator of alpha-fetoprotein expression and influences the aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kentaro Kojima; Akemi Takata; Charles Vadnais; Motoyuki Otsuka; Takeshi Yoshikawa; Masao Akanuma; Yuji Kondo; Young Jun Kang; Takahiro Kishikawa; Naoya Kato; Zhifang Xie; Weiping J. Zhang; Haruhiko Yoshida; Masao Omata; Alain Nepveu; Kazuhiko Koike

    2011-01-01

    alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is not only a widely used biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance, but is also clinically recognized as linked with aggressive tumour behaviour. Here we show that deregulation of microRNA122, a liver-specific microRNA, is a cause of both AFP elevation and a more biologically aggressive phenotype in HCC. We identify CUX1, a direct target of microRNA122, as a

  6. The brief aggression questionnaire: psychometric and behavioral evidence for an efficient measure of trait aggression.

    PubMed

    Webster, Gregory D; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Deckman, Timothy; Jonason, Peter K; Le, Bonnie M; Nichols, Austin Lee; Schember, Tatiana Orozco; Crysel, Laura C; Crosier, Benjamin S; Smith, C Veronica; Paddock, E Layne; Nezlek, John B; Kirkpatrick, Lee A; Bryan, Angela D; Bator, Renée J

    2014-01-01

    A key problem facing aggression research is how to measure individual differences in aggression accurately and efficiently without sacrificing reliability or validity. Researchers are increasingly demanding brief measures of aggression for use in applied settings, field studies, pretest screening, longitudinal, and daily diary studies. The authors selected the three highest loading items from each of the Aggression Questionnaire's (Buss & Perry, 1992) four subscales--Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, anger, and hostility--and developed an efficient 12-item measure of aggression--the Brief Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ). Across five studies (N?=?3,996), the BAQ showed theoretically consistent patterns of convergent and discriminant validity with other self-report measures, consistent four-factor structures using factor analyses, adequate recovery of information using item response theory methods, stable test-retest reliability, and convergent validity with behavioral measures of aggression. The authors discuss the reliability, validity, and efficiency of the BAQ, along with its many potential applications. PMID:24115185

  7. Commentary: Integrating callous and unemotional traits into the definition of antisocial behaviour--a commentary on Frick et al. (2014).

    PubMed

    Rowe, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Heterogeneity in the presentation, antecedents, prognosis and treatment response of antisocial behaviour has long provided a challenge to developmental psychopathology researchers. As illustrated in the incisive Frick and colleagues' Annual Research Review, there is growing evidence that the presence of high callous-unemotional (CU) traits identifies a subgroup of antisocial young people with a particularly aggressive and pervasive form of disorder. Frick and colleagues extend their developmental psychopathology approach to CU traits by linking in theories of conscience development and considering evidence on the stability of CU traits. This commentary addresses these themes and the area more generally, considering (1) comparison of a CU specifier to alternative approaches to antisocial heterogeneity (2) high CU traits in the absence of antisocial behaviour and (3) aspects of the measurement of CU traits. PMID:24840170

  8. Frequency, Characteristics and Management of Adolescent Inpatient Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, Immaculada; Saito, Ema; Amanbekova, Dinara; Ramani, Meena; Kapoor, Sandeep; Chekuri, Raja; De Hert, Marc; Carbon, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Inpatient aggression is a serious challenge in pediatric psychiatry. Methods A chart review study in adolescent psychiatric inpatients consecutively admitted over 24 months was conducted, to describe aggressive events requiring an intervention (AERI) and to characterize their management. AERIs were identified based on specific institutional event forms and/or documentation of as-needed (STAT/PRN) medication administration for aggression, both recorded by nursing staff. Results Among 408 adolescent inpatients (age: 15.2±1.6 years, 43.9% male), 1349 AERIs were recorded, with ?1 AERI occurring in 28.4% (n=116; AERI+). However, the frequency of AERIs was highly skewed (median 4, range: 1–258). In a logistical regression model, the primary diagnosis at discharge of disruptive behavior disorders and bipolar disorders, history of previous inpatient treatment, length of hospitalization, and absence of a specific precipitant prior to admission were significantly associated with AERIs (R2=0.32; p<0.0001). The first line treatment of patients with AERIs (AERI+) was pharmacological in nature (95.6%). Seclusion or restraint (SRU) was used at least once in 59.4% of the AERI+ subgroup (i.e., in 16.9% of all patients; median within-group SRU frequency: 3). Treatment and discharge characteristics indicated a poorer prognosis in the AERI+ (discharge to residential care AERI+: 22.8%, AERI?: 5.6%, p<0.001) and a greater need for psychotropic polypharmacy (median number of psychotropic medications AERI+: 2; AERI?: 1, p<0.001). Conclusions Despite high rates of pharmacological interventions, SRU continue to be used in adolescent inpatient care. As both of these approaches lack a clear evidence base, and as adolescents with clinically significant inpatient aggression have increased illness acuity/severity and service needs, structured research into the most appropriate inpatient aggression management is sorely needed. PMID:23647136

  9. Aggressive angiomyxoma with perineal herniation.

    PubMed

    Narang, Seema; Kohli, Supreethi; Kumar, Vinod; Chandoke, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor involving the pelvic-perineal region. It occurs during the third and fourth decade of life and is predominantly seen in females. It presents clinically as a soft tissue mass in variable locations such as vulva, perianal region, buttock, or pelvis. Assessment of extent of the tumor by radiological evaluation is crucial for surgical planning; however, biopsy is essential to establish diagnosis. We present the radiological and pathological features seen in a 43-year-old female diagnosed with abdominal angiomyxoma with an unusual extension to the perineum. PMID:24987570

  10. Aggressive Angiomyxoma with Perineal Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Seema; Kohli, Supreethi; Kumar, Vinod; Chandoke, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor involving the pelvic-perineal region. It occurs during the third and fourth decade of life and is predominantly seen in females. It presents clinically as a soft tissue mass in variable locations such as vulva, perianal region, buttock, or pelvis. Assessment of extent of the tumor by radiological evaluation is crucial for surgical planning; however, biopsy is essential to establish diagnosis. We present the radiological and pathological features seen in a 43-year-old female diagnosed with abdominal angiomyxoma with an unusual extension to the perineum. PMID:24987570

  11. Equine learning behaviour.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack; Arkins, Sean

    2007-09-01

    Scientists and equestrians continually seek to achieve a clearer understanding of equine learning behaviour and its implications for training. Behavioural and learning processes in the horse are likely to influence not only equine athletic success but also the usefulness of the horse as a domesticated species. However given the status and commercial importance of the animal, equine learning behaviour has received only limited investigation. Indeed most experimental studies on equine cognitive function to date have addressed behaviour, learning and conceptualization processes at a moderately basic cognitive level compared to studies in other species. It is however, likely that the horses with the greatest ability to learn and form/understand concepts are those, which are better equipped to succeed in terms of the human-horse relationship and the contemporary training environment. Within equitation generally, interpretation of the behavioural processes and training of the desired responses in the horse are normally attempted using negative reinforcement strategies. On the other hand, experimental designs to actually induce and/or measure equine learning rely almost exclusively on primary positive reinforcement regimes. Employing two such different approaches may complicate interpretation and lead to difficulties in identifying problematic or undesirable behaviours in the horse. The visual system provides the horse with direct access to immediate environmental stimuli that affect behaviour but vision in the horse is of yet not fully investigated or understood. Further investigations of the equine visual system will benefit our understanding of equine perception, cognitive function and the subsequent link with learning and training. More detailed comparative investigations of feral or free-ranging and domestic horses may provide useful evidence of attention, stress and motivational issues affecting behavioural and learning processes in the horse. The challenge for scientists is, as always, to design and commission experiments that will investigate and provide insight into these processes in a manner that withstands scientific scrutiny. PMID:17400403

  12. The role of serotonergic system at the interface of aggression and suicide

    PubMed Central

    Bortolato, Marco; Pivac, Nela; Seler, Dorotea Muck; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Pessia, Mauro; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the mulifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and find new effective therapies for these conditions. PMID:23333677

  13. Human aggression in evolutionary psychological perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. Shackelford

    1997-01-01

    This article proposes an evolutionary psychological account of human aggression. The psychological mechanisms underlying aggression are hypothesized to be context-sensitive solutions to particular adaptive problems of social living. Seven adaptive problems are proposed for which aggression might have evolved as a solution — co-opting the resources of others, defending against attack, inflicting costs on same-sex rivals, negotiating status and power

  14. [Treatment of paraphilia and sexually aggressive impulsive behavior with the LHRH-agonist leuprolide acetate].

    PubMed

    Briken, P; Berner, W; Noldus, J; Nika, E; Michl, U

    2000-05-01

    Up to now there are no published results of therapy of paraphilia (Pedophilia, Sadism) and sexual aggressive impulsiveness with LHRH-(luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) Agonists in the Germanspeaking countries. In this report we describe 11 patients which were treated with the LHRH-Agonist Leuprolide Acetate in a period of 12 months. The patients showed no tendency of sexual aggressive behaviour and reported an evident reduction of penile erection, ejaculation, masturbation, sexual deviant impulsiveness and fantasies. One patient died from suicide. In combination with other treatments LHRH-Agonists seem to be a very promising alternative to cyproterone acetate and its possible carcinogene effects. PMID:10846713

  15. Transgressive aggression in Sceloporus hybrids confers fitness through advantages in male agonistic encounters.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Travis R; Pruitt, Jonathan N; Straub, Lorelei E; McCoy, Earl D; Mushinsky, Henry R

    2010-01-01

    1. We investigated agonistic behaviour and associated characteristics of Sceloporus woodi (Florida scrub lizard), Sceloporus undulatus (Eastern fence lizard) and their hybrids using staged territorial encounters. 2. These Sceloporus hybrids exhibit transgressive aggression and transgressive head-girth relative to the parental species and the transgressive aggression was specifically associated with an advantage in agonistic encounters. Our results suggest a hybrid advantage in natural habitats when defending and invading territories against either parental species. 3. We further analysed general advantages in agonistic encounters across the entire three-group system to elucidate characteristics that may be advantageous under specific circumstances. Individuals with larger body size (SVL) and greater aggression had an overall advantage in agonistic encounters; however, smaller individuals could win when slightly more aggressive and fatter, and less aggressive individuals could win when slightly larger, especially with greater head-girth. 4. The extreme hybrid phenotypes likely occurred through transgressive segregation, which has been implicated as a process through which homoploid, hybrid speciation can occur. Some form of ecological divergence is necessary, however, to impede parental gene flow. Our data suggest that ecological divergence could manifest in territorial species through transgressive aggression. PMID:19682141

  16. Cooperation and competition: nepotistic tolerance and intrasexual aggression in western bluebird winter groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, J.L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. Grooming and aggression in captive Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Schino, Gabriele; Ventura, Raffaella; Troisi, Alfonso

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the relations between allogrooming and aggression in a captive group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Our aim was to test whether evidence of an interchange between allogrooming and a reduction in aggression could be identified at a group level. Female Japanese macaques did not direct less aggression to those group mates that groomed them most. Although generally they did not direct more grooming to those group mates that attacked them most, they did show increased grooming towards those nonkin group mates that showed the most aggression. These results are interpreted in light of the conflicting processes that are likely to underlie macaque social choices. PMID:15688120

  18. Men’s Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790

  19. Aggressive situational cues among israeli security personnel.

    PubMed

    Bensimon, Moshe

    2015-05-01

    The present study enriches our knowledge on the relationship between security personnel and situational cues that may provoke aggression, such as arms and uniforms. The study examined 259 security personnel who completed an aggression questionnaire (AGQ). The study aimed (a) to compare the tendency toward aggression of security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform and (b) to compare the tendency toward aggression of men and women security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform. The findings indicated no main effect for aggression cueing classification. However, uniformed men had higher scores of physical aggression than women, and women scored significantly higher on anger than men when not carrying any aggressive cues. The findings also revealed that in general, men security personnel reported much higher physical aggression than women, while women showed slightly higher means of verbal aggression than men. The findings are discussed in light of the gender theory and research. PMID:24997099

  20. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

  1. Pain, aggression, fantasy, and concepts of sadomasochism.

    PubMed

    Grossman, W I

    1991-01-01

    Traumatized infants and children may exhibit syndromes of aggressive, pain-seeking, and self-destructive behavior resembling the so-called sadomasochism seen in adults. Three hypotheses are offered to account for the repetition of sadomasochistic phenomena in childhood and later character disorders: 1) pain and painful affects are sources of aggression; 2) the need to control aggression plays an important role in the development of psychic structure; 3) child abuse and trauma impair the ability to use fantasy for the mastery of impulses. Difficulty in expression and control of aggression are central issues in character disorders. PMID:2017540

  2. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  3. Athletic Ability and Physical Attractiveness differences between aggressive-rejected and aggressive-nonrejected children

    E-print Network

    Oxman, Danielle Louise

    2001-01-01

    This study explored differences between aggressive-rejected and aggressive-nonrejected children on measures of Athletic Ability (AA) and Physical Attractiveness (PA). A main goal of the study was to explore possible differences within this sample...

  4. The relation between aggression and inflated self-concepts in aggressive children: a replication study

    E-print Network

    Meehan, Barbara Theresa

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relation between inflated self-concepts and levels of aggression in a sample of 167 aggressive second- and third-grade students. Variable-oriented data analyses of children's self- and others' reports of competence...

  5. Instrumentality of aggression, feedback, and frustration as determinants of physical aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold H. Buss

    1966-01-01

    Physical aggression was studied in relation to 5 variables, using 2 intensities of frustration plus a control group. The aggression (delivery of electric shock) was either of instrumental value in overcoming the frustration or of no instrumental value. The \\

  6. Territorial behaviour and population dynamics in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. I. Population experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francois Mougeot; Steve M. Redpath; Robert Moss; Jason Matthiopoulos; Peter J. Hudson

    2003-01-01

    Summary 1. According to the 'territorial behaviour' hypothesis, population cycles of red grouse are caused by delayed density-dependent changes in the aggressiveness of territorial cocks. We report here on a replicated population experiment testing assumptions of this hypothesis. 2. We used testosterone implants to increase aggressiveness of cocks for 3 months during autumn, when recruitment and territory establishment take place.

  7. Wiring Pathways to Replace Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The previous article in this series introduced the triune brain, the three components of which handle specialized life tasks. The survival brain, or brain stem, directs automatic physiological functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, and mobilizes fight/flight behaviour in times of threat. The emotional (or limbic) brain activates positive or…

  8. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  9. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  10. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  11. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  12. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Krahé; Ingrid Möller; L. Rowell Huesmann; Lucyna Kirwil; Juliane Felber; Anja Berger

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a

  13. Adaptive walks on behavioural landscapes and the evolution of optimal behaviour by natural selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Mangel

    1991-01-01

    Summary  One of the main challenges to the adaptationist programme in general and to the use of optimality models in behavioural and evolutionary ecology in particular is that natural selection need not optimise fitness. This challenge is addressed by considering the evolution of optimal patch choice by natural selection. The behavioural model is based on a state variable approach in which

  14. Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in delinquent boys. Authors’ conclusions The authors consider that the body of evidence summarised in this review is insufficient to allow any firm conclusion to be drawn about the use of antiepileptic medication in the treatment of aggression and associated impulsivity. Four antiepileptics (valproate/ divalproex, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and phenytoin) were effective, compared to placebo, in reducing aggression in at least one study, although for three drugs (valproate, carbamazepine and phenytoin) at least one other study showed no statistically significant difference between treatment and control conditions. Side effects were more commonly noted for the intervention group although adverse effects were not well reported. Absence of information does not necessarily mean that the treatment is safe, nor that the potential gains from the medication necessarily balance the risk of an adverse event occurring. Further research is needed. PMID:20166067

  15. Child-to-Parent Violence: Challenging Perspectives on Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogan, Declan

    2011-01-01

    Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…

  16. Isolation Associated Aggression – A Consequence of Recovery from Defeat in a Territorial Animal

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Paul A.; Rillich, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Population density has profound influences on the physiology and behaviour of many animal species. Social isolation is generally reported to lead to increased aggressiveness, while grouping lowers it. We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of isolation and grouping on aggression in a territorial insect, the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllusbimaculatus. Substantiating early observations, we show that dyadic contests between weight-matched, adult male crickets taken from groups rarely escalate beyond threat displays, whereas interactions between pairs of previously isolated crickets typically escalate to physical fights lasting several seconds. No significant differences were found between 1, 2 and 6-day isolates, or between individuals grouped for a few hours or lifelong. Unexpectedly, crickets grouped in immediate proximity within individual mesh cages that precluded fighting while permitting visual, olfactory and mechanical, antennal contact, were as aggressive as free isolates. This suggests that reduced aggression of grouped animals may be an acquired result of fighting. Supporting this notion, isolated crickets initially engage in vigorous fights when first grouped, but fighting intensity and duration rapidly decline to the level of life-long grouped crickets within only 10 min. Furthermore, grouped crickets become as aggressive as life-long isolates after only 3 hours of isolation, and on the same time course required for crickets to regain their aggressiveness after social defeat. We conclude that the reduced aggressiveness of grouped crickets is a manifestation of the loser effect resulting from social subjugation, while isolation allows recovery to a state of heightened aggressiveness, which in crickets can be considered as the default condition. Given the widespread occurrence of the loser effect in the Animal Kingdom, many effects generally attributed to social isolation are likely to be a consequence of recovery from social subjugation. PMID:24040368

  17. Isolation associated aggression--a consequence of recovery from defeat in a territorial animal.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Paul A; Rillich, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Population density has profound influences on the physiology and behaviour of many animal species. Social isolation is generally reported to lead to increased aggressiveness, while grouping lowers it. We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of isolation and grouping on aggression in a territorial insect, the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Substantiating early observations, we show that dyadic contests between weight-matched, adult male crickets taken from groups rarely escalate beyond threat displays, whereas interactions between pairs of previously isolated crickets typically escalate to physical fights lasting several seconds. No significant differences were found between 1, 2 and 6-day isolates, or between individuals grouped for a few hours or lifelong. Unexpectedly, crickets grouped in immediate proximity within individual mesh cages that precluded fighting while permitting visual, olfactory and mechanical, antennal contact, were as aggressive as free isolates. This suggests that reduced aggression of grouped animals may be an acquired result of fighting. Supporting this notion, isolated crickets initially engage in vigorous fights when first grouped, but fighting intensity and duration rapidly decline to the level of life-long grouped crickets within only 10 min. Furthermore, grouped crickets become as aggressive as life-long isolates after only 3 hours of isolation, and on the same time course required for crickets to regain their aggressiveness after social defeat. We conclude that the reduced aggressiveness of grouped crickets is a manifestation of the loser effect resulting from social subjugation, while isolation allows recovery to a state of heightened aggressiveness, which in crickets can be considered as the default condition. Given the widespread occurrence of the loser effect in the Animal Kingdom, many effects generally attributed to social isolation are likely to be a consequence of recovery from social subjugation. PMID:24040368

  18. Varying Forms of Husband Sexual Aggression: Predictors and Subgroup Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy D. Marshall; Amy Holtzworth-Munroe

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between two forms of husband sexual aggression (coercion and threatened\\/forced sex) and husband physical and psychological aggression were examined among a community sample of 164 couples. A stronger relationship between physical and sexual aggression was obtained than in previous research. Husbands' physical and psychological aggression predicted husbands' sexual coercion, but only physical aggression predicted threatened\\/forced sex. The more

  19. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  20. Correlates of verbally aggressive communication in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Atkin; Sandi Smith; Anthony Roberto; Thomas Fediuk; Thomas Wagner

    2002-01-01

    This investigation identifies demographic, media, and social correlates of verbally aggressive communication in adolescence. Mail surveys were completed and returned by 2,300 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15. These adolescents were asked about the prevalence of verbal and physical aggression, the context in which it occurred, demographics, and the interpersonal and media influences in their lives. The results

  1. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva and vagina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tayfun Güngör; Sema Zengero?lu; Asl? Kaleli; Gamze Mocan Kuzey

    2004-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare myofibroblastic tumor, usually affecting young women. Two patients, one with a vaginal and the other with a vulvar mass underwent surgical intervention with different preoperative diagnoses; the former as vaginal cyst and the latter as vulvar hernia. Unfortunately, the pathological evaluation of the specimens revealed aggressive angiomyxoma. Misdiagnosis of this tumor is a common

  2. Recurrent Aggressive Angiomyxoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. May; A. Luther; W. Mohr; R. Bachor; R. E. Hautmann

    2000-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare neoplasm which predominantly involves the female pelvis and perineum. Forty-four cases have been reported in the world literature, including 10 cases in men. To the best of our knowledge, the first case of recurrent aggressive angiomyxoma of the urinary bladder is presented here. Operative management, radiologic features and pathological findings are discussed.

  3. Aggressive’ angiomyxoma: a distinct clinical entity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A Behranwala; J. M Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Aim: An aggressive angiomyxoma is a mesenchymal tumour arising from connective tissues of the perineum or lower pelvis. They cause very little symptoms despite their large size.Methods: All patients with a diagnosis of aggressive angiomyxoma were studied retrospectively from a prospective database at the Royal Marsden Hospital between January 1990 and July 2001.Results: There were seven female patients with a

  4. Rorschach Indices of Love, Aggression and Happiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya Mukerji

    1969-01-01

    This study enumerates the Rorschach variables used for rating the eight dimensions of love, aggression and happiness, as proposed by the Indian psychologist and psychoanalyst Das Gupta. The purpose of this presentation was to examine, refine and expand the existing principles of interpretation of the Rorschach as they relate to the love and aggressive affect of an individual. The interpretations

  5. Digital Aggression: Cyberworld Meets School Bullies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mickie Wong-Lo; Lyndal M. Bullock

    2011-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a category of bullying that occurs in the digital realm and affects students at astonishing rates. Unlike traditional bullying, in which displays of aggression may be evident to bystanders, the ramification of cyberbullying occurs through unconventional strategies (e.g., text messaging, online Web logs, video sharing). As a result, episodes of digital aggression may be camouflaged by the advancement

  6. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  7. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  8. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  9. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  10. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

  11. Children's responses to overt and relational aggression.

    PubMed

    Phelps, C E

    2001-06-01

    Investigated children's responses for coping with overt and relational aggression. Children in Grades 3 through 6 (N = 491) in a rural Midwestern public school district completed a survey designed to assess how students cope when they are the targets of peer aggression. Children endorsed greater use of internalizing and distancing strategies for coping with relational aggression and greater use of externalizing strategies for coping with overt aggression. In addition, older children reported greater use of externalizing and less use of internalizing and distancing strategies than younger children. Significant differences were also found between boys and girls. Regardless of type of aggression, girls endorsed greater use of problem-solving and support strategies and less use of externalizing strategies than boys. Coping of high target children and of children who frequently received prosocial treatment from peers were also examined. PMID:11393924

  12. “Hotspots” for Aggression in Licensed Drinking Venues

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Osgood, D. Wayne; Wells, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Aims In order to better understand the social context of barroom aggression, the aim was to identify common locations (“hotspots”) for aggression in bars and examine the association of hotspots with aggression severity and environmental characteristics. Design and Methods Aggression hotspots were identified using narrative descriptions and data recorded on premises’ floor plans for 1057 incidents of aggression collected in the Safer Bars evaluation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to identify bar-level and night-level characteristics associated with each hotspot. Results The most common location for aggression was the dance floor (20.0% of incidents) or near the dance floor (11.5%), followed by near the serving bar (15.7%), at tables (13.1%), aisles, hallways and other areas of movement (6.2%), entrance (4.5%) and the pool playing area (4.1%). Hotspots were predicted mainly by bar-level characteristics, with dance floor aggression associated with crowded bars, a high proportion of female and young patrons, lots of sexual activity, a large number of patrons and staff, security staff present, better monitoring and coordination by staff, and people hanging around at closing. Incidents at tables and pool tables tended to occur in bars with the opposite characteristics. Nightly variations in patron intoxication and rowdiness were associated with aggression at tables while variations in crowding and sexual activity were associated with aggression in areas of movement. Incidents outside tended to be more severe. Discussion and Conclusions Each aggression location and their associated environments have somewhat different implications for staff training, premises design, policy and prevention. PMID:22050319

  13. Not all aggressions are created equal: a multifoci approach to workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Lyons, Brent J

    2012-01-01

    Types of perpetrators of workplace aggression can vary considerably, and recent research has demonstrated that aggression from different perpetrator categories has different implications for victims. We extended research on multifoci aggression and explored affective and cognitive pathways linking verbal aggression from four perpetrator types--supervisors, coworkers, customers, and significant others--and employee morale and turnover intention. Data from a sample of 446 working adults indicated that both emotional strain and employees' corresponding judgments of their social exchange relationships with these perpetrators served as the mechanisms for the association between aggression from supervisors, coworkers, and customers and morale and turnover intention. Coworker aggression had a direct association with turnover intention and significant other aggression was related to turnover intention only through emotional strain. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22122549

  14. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N?=?90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25460976

  15. The Effect of an Attachment-Based Behaviour Therapy for Children with Visual and Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterkenburg, P. S.; Janssen, C. G. C.; Schuengel, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A combination of an attachment-based therapy and behaviour modification was investigated for children with persistent challenging behaviour. Method: Six clients with visual and severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behaviour and with a background of pathogenic care were treated. Challenging behaviour was recorded…

  16. Central V1b receptor antagonism in lactating rats: impairment of maternal care but not of maternal aggression.

    PubMed

    Bayerl, D S; Klampfl, S M; Bosch, O J

    2014-12-01

    Maternal behaviour in rodents is mediated by the central oxytocin and vasopressin systems, amongst others. The role of vasopressin, acting via the V1a receptor (V1aR), on maternal care and maternal aggression has recently been described. However, a potential involvement of the V1b receptor (V1bR) in maternal behaviour has only been demonstrated in knockout mice. The present study aimed to examine the effects of central pharmacological manipulation of the V1bR on maternal behaviour in lactating Wistar rats. On pregnancy day 18, female rats were implanted with a guide cannula targeting the lateral ventricle. After parturition, dams received an acute central infusion of a specific V1bR agonist (d[Leu4,Lys8]VP) or V1bR antagonist (SSR149415) once daily, followed by observations of maternal care [lactation day (LD) 1], maternal motivation in the pup retrieval test (LD 2), anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus-maze (LD 3) and maternal aggression in the maternal defence test followed by maternal care monitoring (LD 4). Our data demonstrate that, under nonstress conditions, the V1bR antagonist decreased the occurrence of both nursing and mother-pup interaction, whereas the V1bR agonist did not affect either parameter. Under stress conditions (i.e. after the maternal defence test), mother-pup interaction was decreased by infusion of the V1bR antagonist. During the maternal defence test, neither treatment affected aggressive or non-aggressive behaviour. Finally, neither treatment altered maternal motivation or anxiety. In conclusion, central V1bR antagonism modulates aspects of maternal care but not of maternal aggression or maternal motivation in lactating rats. These findings further extend our knowledge on the vasopressin system as a vital mediator of maternal behaviour. PMID:25283607

  17. Brain oxytocin correlates with maternal aggression: Link to anxiety 

    E-print Network

    Meddle, S. L.; Beiderbeck, D. I.; Douglas, A. J.; Neumann, I. D.; Bosch, O. J.

    2005-01-01

    The oxytocinergic system is critically involved in the regulation of maternal behavior, which includes maternal aggression. Because aggression has been linked to anxiety, we investigated the maternal aggression and the ...

  18. ACE: An Aggressive Classifier Ensemble with Error Detection, Correction and Cleansing*

    E-print Network

    Wu, Xindong

    ACE: An Aggressive Classifier Ensemble with Error Detection, Correction and Cleansing* Yan Zhang1 is a challenging and reality issue for real-world data mining applications. Common practices include data cleansing. In this paper, we present a novel framework that unifies error detection, correction and data cleansing to build

  19. The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

  20. Indirect genetic effects and the evolution of aggression in a vertebrate system

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alastair J.; Gelin, Uriel; Perron, Marie-Claude; Réale, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Aggressive behaviours are necessarily expressed in a social context, such that individuals may be influenced by the phenotypes, and potentially the genotypes, of their social partners. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that indirect genetic effects (IGEs) arising from the social environment will provide a major source of heritable variation on which selection can act. However, there has been little empirical scrutiny of this to date. Here we test this hypothesis in an experimental population of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Using quantitative genetic models of five aggression traits, we find repeatable and heritable differences in agonistic behaviours of focal individuals when presented with an opponent mouse. For three of the traits, there is also support for the presence of IGEs, and estimated correlations between direct and indirect genetic (rAO,F) effects were high. As a consequence, any selection for aggression in the focal individuals should cause evolution of the social environment as a correlated response. In two traits, strong positive rAO,F will cause the rapid evolution of aggression, while in a third case changes in the phenotypic mean will be constrained by negative covariance between direct and IGEs. Our results illustrate how classical analyses may miss important components of heritable variation, and show that a full understanding of evolutionary dynamics requires explicit consideration of the genetic component of the social environment. PMID:18842544

  1. Perceptions of instructor's verbal aggressiveness and physical education students' affective learning.

    PubMed

    Bekiari, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    The study examined the effects of perceptions of instructor's verbal aggressiveness on students' affective learning, and, in particular, students' affect toward the course, course-related behaviour, the instructor, as well as students' satisfaction as a function of perceived verbal aggressiveness by the instructor. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine the psychometric integrity of the affective learning scale employed. The sample comprised 146 physical education undergraduate students (18-22 years old, M = 18.9, SD = 1.0). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the factorial validity of the affective learning measure. Correlational analysis revealed a negative relationship between perceived verbal aggressiveness of the instructor and students' affect toward the course, course-related behaviour and the instructor, and students' satisfaction. The results of regression analysis revealed that perceived verbal aggression could significantly predict all the dependent variables; the prediction was particularly high for students' affect towards the instructor and students' satisfaction. Findings and implications for teachers' type of communication were discussed and future research suggestions were made. PMID:23033767

  2. Do right-biased boxers do it better? Population-level asymmetry of aggressive displays enhances fighting success in blowflies.

    PubMed

    Romano, Donato; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. left-right asymmetries in brain and behaviour) of aggressive traits has been deeply studied in a number of vertebrates, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. We investigated lateralisation of boxing behaviour in the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), where males fight for non-resource based spaces. We found a population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays: three repeated testing phases confirmed the preferential use of right legs over left ones. Duration of contests and number of boxing acts per fighting event were not different between males using left and right legs. The use of right legs for boxing acts lead to higher fighting success over males using left legs. Lateralised aggressive displays at population-level may be connected to the prolonged social interactions occurring among males searching for food and mates. PMID:25659526

  3. Predicting aggression in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk. PMID:24860616

  4. Animal personality as a cause and consequence of contest behaviour.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; Sneddon, Lynne U; Wilson, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    We review the evidence for a link between consistent among-individual variation in behaviour (animal personality) and the ability to win contests over limited resources. Explorative and bold behaviours often covary with contest behaviour and outcome, although there is evidence that the structure of these 'behavioural syndromes' can change across situations. Aggression itself is typically repeatable, but also subject to high within-individual variation as a consequence of plastic responses to previous fight outcomes and opponent traits. Common proximate mechanisms (gene expression, endocrine control and metabolic rates) may underpin variation in both contest behaviour and general personality traits. Given the theoretical links between the evolution of fighting and of personality, we suggest that longitudinal studies of contest behaviour, combining behavioural and physiological data, would be a useful context for the study of animal personalities. PMID:25808004

  5. Reactive Aggression and Peer Victimization from Pre-Kindergarten to First Grade: Accounting for Hyperactivity and Teacher-Child Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of reactive aggression in the development of peer victimization remains unclear due in part to a failure to account for confounding problems of behavioural undercontrol (e.g., hyperactivity). As well, the school social context has rarely been examined to see whether these risks are mediated by relationships with teachers.…

  6. Social reversal of sex-biased aggression and dominance in a biparental cichlid fish1 (Julidochromis marlieri)2

    E-print Network

    Renn, Susan C.P.

    - 1 - Social reversal of sex-biased aggression and dominance in a biparental cichlid fish1 dimorphism is often strongly linked to biological sex, the environment, either15 social or ecological, may influence sex-biased behaviour in some species. In the biparental16 cichlid fish Julidochromis marlieri

  7. Verbal versus physical aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Look, Amy E; McCloskey, Michael S; Coccaro, Emil F

    2015-02-28

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study compared individuals who met IED criteria with either frequent verbal aggression without physical aggression (IED-V), physical aggression without frequent verbal aggression (IED-P), or both frequent verbal aggression and physical aggression (IED-B) as well as a non-aggressive personality-disordered (PD) comparison group using behavioral and self-report measures of aggression, anger, impulsivity, and affective lability, and psychosocial impairment. Results indicate all IED groups showed increased anger/aggression, psychosocial impairment, and affective lability relative to the PD group. The IED-B group showed greater trait anger, anger dyscontrol, and aggression compared to the IED-V and IED-P groups. Overall, the IED-V and IED-P groups reported comparable deficits and impairment. These results support the inclusion of verbal aggression within the IED criteria and suggest a more severe profile for individuals who engage in both frequent verbal arguments and repeated physical aggression. PMID:25534757

  8. Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man

    PubMed Central

    Batrinos, Menelaos L.

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine influence on the brain process of aggression forms a triad. Testosterone activates the subcortical areas of the brain to produce aggression, while cortisol and serotonin act antagonistically with testosterone to reduce its effects. PMID:23843821

  9. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine influence on the brain process of aggression forms a triad. Testosterone activates the subcortical areas of the brain to produce aggression, while cortisol and serotonin act antagonistically with testosterone to reduce its effects. PMID:23843821

  10. Dopamine and serotonin signaling during two sensitive developmental periods differentially impact adult aggressive and affective behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qinghui; Teixeira, Cátia M.; Mahadevia, Darshini; Huang, Yung-Yu; Balsam, Daniel; Mann, J John; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologic blockade of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) or serotonin transporter (5-HTT) has antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy in adulthood. Yet, genetically conferred MAOA or 5-HTT hypo-activity is associated with altered aggression and increased anxiety/depression. Here we test the hypothesis that increased monoamine signaling during development causes these paradoxical aggressive and affective phenotypes. We find that pharmacologic MAOA blockade during early postnatal development (P2-P21) but not during peri-adolescence (P22-41) increases anxiety- and depression-like behavior in adult (> P90) mice, mimicking the effect of P2-21 5-HTT inhibition. Moreover, MAOA blockade during peri-adolescence, but not P2-21 or P182-201, increases adult aggressive behavior, and 5-HTT blockade from P22-P41 reduced adult aggression. Blockade of the dopamine transporter, but not the norepinephrine transporter, during P22-41 also increases adult aggressive behavior. Thus, P2-21 is a sensitive period during which 5-HT modulates adult anxiety/depression-like behavior, and P22-41 is a sensitive period during which DA and 5-HT bi-directionally modulate adult aggression. Permanently altered DAergic function as a consequence of increased P22-P41 monoamine signaling might underlie altered aggression. In support of this hypothesis, we find altered aggression correlating positively with locomotor response to amphetamine challenge in adulthood. Proving that altered DA function and aggression are causally linked, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of VTA DAergic neurons increases aggression. It therefore appears that genetic and pharmacologic factors impacting dopamine and serotonin signaling during sensitive developmental periods can modulate adult monoaminergic function and thereby alter risk for aggressive and emotional dysfunction. PMID:24589889

  11. Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman’s (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent’s aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent’s friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members’ likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends’ attitudes, and their friends’ aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores. PMID:25152562

  12. Understanding the personality disorder and aggression relationship: an investigation using contemporary aggression theory.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Flora; Daffern, Michael; Talevski, Diana; Ogloff, James R P

    2015-02-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between certain personality disorders (PDs) and increased rates of aggression and violence. At present, understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this relationship is limited. This study was designed to examine the contention (Gilbert & Daffern, 2011) that the application of a contemporary psychological aggression theory, the General Aggression Model (GAM; Anderson & Bushman, 2002), may assist in elucidating the PD-aggression relationship. Eighty-seven offenders undergoing presentence evaluation were assessed for Axis II PDs and psychopathy, aggression, and three constructs delineated by the GAM: scripts, normative beliefs, and anger. Regression analyses were undertaken to examine the relative contributions of these variables to aggression. The results upheld a relationship between several PDs and aggression, and suggested that for these PDs, the consideration of scripts, beliefs supportive of aggression, and anger facilitated an improved understanding of aggressiveness. Overall, the findings indicate that the GAM offers valuable insight into the psychological features that characterize individuals with PD who are prone to aggression. PMID:23398093

  13. Aggressive renal angiomyolipoma extending into the renal vein and inferior vena cava - an uncommon entity.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, S S; Vishal, K; Kalia, V; Gill, J S

    2011-08-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is recognised as a benign hamartomatous lesion with no obvious malignant potential. However, the tumour may show extrarenal/perinephric extension at times. Rarely, the lesion may extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) indicating aggressive behaviour. We present a case of an angiomyolipoma of the kidney with sonographic, CT and MRI evidence of extension into the renal vein and IVC. PMID:21750135

  14. [Angiomyxoma: always myxoid, sometimes aggressive].

    PubMed

    D?n?z, Gülden; Tem?r, Günyüz; Ortaç, Rag?p

    2012-01-01

    Angiomyxoma is a distinct soft tissue tumor characterized by the presence of prominent myxoid matrix and numerous thin-walled blood vessels. This tumor has a predilection for the trunk, head and neck, extremities, and genitalia. It is a benign tumor and total excision is curative. Recurrence is rare except for aggressive angiomyxomas. A 12-year-old girl with a 10-year history of a subcutaneous mass on the left gluteus measuring 4.5x4x3 cm had been referred. The tumor was encapsulated and was located in the reticular dermis and subcutaneous tissue, composed of stellate cells with mucinous stroma. Thin-walled blood vessels were prominent. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were immunoreactive for vimentin. No immunoreactivity was present for estrogen receptor, CD34, smooth muscle actin, S-100 protein and desmin. The purpose of this report is to present a classical example of an isolated superficial angiomyxoma and discuss the differential diagnosis, because of its relatively infrequent occurence. PMID:22627635

  15. Urocortin 2 modulates aspects of social behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Breu, Johannes; Touma, Chadi; Hölter, Sabine M; Knapman, Alana; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M

    2012-08-01

    Urocortin 2 (UCN2), a member of the corticotropin-releasing hormone family, is involved in the regulation of stress-related behaviours in rodents. To determine its physiological function we generated mice lacking UCN2 by applying a classical knockout strategy. We examined hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, anxiety- and depression-related behaviours without finding significant differences between mutant and wild-type littermates. Investigating social abilities we observed, that male, but not female, UCN2 knockout animals showed an altered social behaviour. Here we report that male UCN2 null mice showed more passive social interactions and reduced aggressiveness in comparison to wild-type animals. In conclusion, UCN2 seems to modulate aggressive behaviour in male mice. Furthermore, our findings provide additional evidence for previously reported sex-specific effects of UCN2. PMID:22640813

  16. Preventing aggression in persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vi T; Love, Almer Ray; Kunik, Mark E

    2008-11-01

    Persons with dementia often present with non-cognitive clinical symptoms, such as aggression, which can be distressing and dangerous to both caregiver and patient. Depression, pain, caregiver burden, and the quality of the caregiver-patient relationship can contribute to the onset of aggression. Given the risks involved with medication, there is a strong need for preventive and nonpharmacological interventions before such behaviors occur. This article gives practical recommendations for primary care physicians on how to prevent aggression in dementia patients by screening for and treating predictive factors. Clinically useful assessment instruments and treatment options are discussed, in addition to referral sources. PMID:18998764

  17. Altering an extended phenotype reduces intraspecific male aggression and can maintain diversity in cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Guy E.; Joyce, Domino A.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced male aggression towards different phenotypes generating negative frequency-dependent intrasexual selection has been suggested as a mechanism to facilitate the invasion and maintenance of novel phenotypes in a population. To date, the best empirical evidence for the phenomenon has been provided by laboratory studies on cichlid fish with different colour polymorphisms. Here we experimentally tested the hypothesis in a natural population of Lake Malawi cichlid fish, in which males build sand-castles (bowers) to attract females during seasonal leks. We predicted that if bower shape plays an important role in male aggressive interactions, aggression among conspecific males should decrease when their bower shape is altered. Accordingly, we allocated randomly chosen bowers in a Nyassachromis cf. microcephalus lek into three treatments: control, manipulated to a different shape, and simulated manipulation. We then measured male behaviours and bower shape before and after these treatments. We found that once bower shape was altered, males were involved in significantly fewer aggressive interactions with conspecific males than before manipulation. Mating success was not affected. Our results support the idea that an extended phenotype, such as bower shape, can be important in maintaining polymorphic populations. Specifically, reduced male conspecific aggression towards males with different extended phenotypes (here, bower shapes) may cause negative frequency-dependent selection, allowing the invasion and establishment of a new phenotype (bower builder). This could help our understanding of mechanisms of diversification within populations, and in particular, the overall diversification of bower shapes within Lake Malawi cichlids. PMID:24349896

  18. The Effect of Online Violent Video Games on Levels of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hollingdale, Jack; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM), has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. Methods/Principal Findings Participants (N?=?101) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game—offline, neutral video game—online, violent video game—offline and violent video game—online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression. PMID:25391143

  19. Wild Asian elephants distinguish aggressive tiger and leopard growls according to perceived danger

    PubMed Central

    Thuppil, Vivek; Coss, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Prey species exhibit antipredator behaviours such as alertness, aggression and flight, among others, in response to predators. The nature of this response is variable, with animals reacting more strongly in situations of increased vulnerability. Our research described here is the first formal study to investigate night-time antipredator behaviour in any species of elephants, Asian or African. We examined the provocative effects of elephant-triggered tiger and leopard growls while elephants attempted to crop-raid. Tigers opportunistically prey on elephant calves, whereas leopards pose no threat; therefore, we predicted that the elephant response would be reflective of this difference. Elephants reacted similarly cautiously to the simulated presence of felids of both species by eventually moving away, but differed markedly in their more immediate behavioural responses. Elephants retreated silently to tiger-growl playbacks, whereas they responded with aggressive vocalizations, such as trumpets and grunts, to leopard-growl playbacks. Elephants also lingered in the area and displayed alert or investigative behaviours in response to leopard growls when compared with tiger growls. We anticipate that the methods outlined here will promote further study of elephant antipredator behaviour in a naturalistic context, with applications for conservation efforts as well. PMID:24026347

  20. The role of androgen receptors in regulating territorial aggression in male song sparrows.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Todd S; Wacker, Douglas W; Wingfield, John C

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role that androgen receptors (ARs) play in modulating aggressive behavior in male song sparrows, Melospiza melodia morphna. Song sparrows are seasonally breeding, territorial birds that maintain year-round territories with male-female pair bonds formed during the spring breeding season. Plasma testosterone levels peak as territories are established and mates acquired. In late summer, testosterone levels fall and remain basal during the non-breeding season. We examined the role of ARs in regulating territorial aggression in captive song sparrows under short- and long-day conditions as well as just prior to, and at the start of the breading season in freely living birds using the nonsteroidal antiandrogen flutamide to block AR function. Birds were implanted with either empty or drug filled silastic implants for 18 to 42 days and then challenged with a novel male decoy to assess the individual birds level of male-male aggression. Freely living birds remained on their home territory and underwent a simulated territorial intrusion, whereas laboratory-held birds were assessed using a laboratory simulated territorial intrusion and remained in their home cage. Experimental treatment of male song sparrows decreased aggressive behavior during the pre-breeding life history substage (March-April) in freely living birds as well as in laboratory-held birds under long-day (16L:8D) conditions. During the early breeding substage (April-May) there was no measurable effect of flutamide treatment on aggressive behavior, nor was there a difference in behavior in the (8L:16D) laboratory birds. This demonstrates that ARs are an important component of the neuroendocrine control of aggressive behavior. Given that flutamide only affected aggression during the pre-breeding substage and in LD birds, the results suggest that AR dependent control of aggressive behavior changes as song sparrow life history states change. PMID:19799905

  1. Risk Assessment for suicide behaviour : Clinical Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amresh Srivastava; Charles Nelson

    2009-01-01

    This is an audio-visual about risk assessment of suicide behavior. Part 1. Reformulating the concept of RISK and a New instrument for assessment: Risk assessment is an important clinical responsibility, which can be ‘life-saving’. Literature on risk factors has become voluminous; however a traditional risk assessment does not take into account the most relevant factors. This reflects the prevailing conceptualization

  2. Better Behaviour. Building Success through Better Behaviour Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Many children have all sorts of difficulties in their lives, which set up barriers to learning. This book demonstrates how teachers can help them face personal challenges. It contains: ideas for stress proofing children; guidance on teaching problem-solving skills; and explanations of cognitive behaviour therapy.

  3. Trajectories of change in physical aggression and marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2007-06-01

    Physical aggression and marital satisfaction were assessed in 172 newlywed couples annually over the first 4 years of marriage to examine (a) stability of aggression over time and (b) the degree to which fluctuations in aggression precede versus follow fluctuations in marital satisfaction. The stability of aggression varied as a function of initial levels of severity; spouses who were most aggressive early in marriage had greater fluctuations in aggression. Rates of change in aggression predicted changes in satisfaction more than dissatisfaction predicted aggression. Husbands' physical aggression predicted marital discord, whereas wives' aggression predicted marital dissolution. By indicating that aggression (a) is a precursor to adverse marital outcomes and (b) varies across spouses in initial levels and in patterns of temporal change, the present findings highlight the need to understand the contextual factors that govern within-person and within-couple fluctuations in intimate violence. PMID:17605546

  4. Revisiting the Serotonin-Aggression Relation in Humans: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Aaron A.; Bègue, Laurent; Bell, Rob; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory

    2013-01-01

    The inverse relation between serotonin and human aggression is often portrayed as “reliable,” “strong,” and “well-established” despite decades of conflicting reports and widely recognized methodological limitations. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we evaluate the evidence for and against the serotonin deficiency hypothesis of human aggression across four methods of assessing serotonin: (a) cerebrospinal fluid levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (CSF 5-HIAA), (b) acute tryptophan depletion, (c) pharmacological challenge, and (d) endocrine challenge. Results across 175 independent samples and over 6,500 total participants were heterogeneous, but, in aggregate, revealed a small, inverse correlation between central serotonin functioning and aggression, anger, and hostility, r = ?.12. Pharmacological challenge studies had the largest mean weighted effect size, r = ?.21, and CSF 5-HIAA studies had the smallest, r = ?.06, p = .21. Potential methodological and demographic moderators largely failed to account for variability in study outcomes. Notable exceptions included year of publication (effect sizes tended to diminish with time) and self-versus other-reported aggression (other-reported aggression was positively correlated to serotonin functioning). We discuss four possible explanations for the pattern of findings: unreliable measures, ambient correlational noise, an unidentified higher-order interaction, and a selective serotonergic effect. Finally, we provide four recommendations for bringing much needed clarity to this important area of research: acknowledge contradictory findings and avoid selective reporting practices; focus on improving the reliability and validity of serotonin and aggression measures; test for interactions involving personality and/or environmental moderators; and revise the serotonin deficiency hypothesis to account for serotonin’s functional complexity. PMID:23379963

  5. Staff-reported antecedents to aggression in a post-acute brain injury treatment programme: What are they and what implications do they have for treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Gordon Muir; Scott, Karen; Manchester, David

    2013-01-01

    Research in psychiatric settings has found that staff attribute the majority of inpatient aggression to immediate environmental stressors. We sought to determine if staff working with persons with brain injury-related severe and chronic impairment make similar causal attributions. If immediate environmental stressors precipitate the majority of aggressive incidents in this client group, it is possible an increased focus on the management of factors that initiate client aggression may be helpful. The research was conducted in a low-demand treatment programme for individuals with chronic cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury. Over a six-week period, 63 staff and a research assistant reported on 508 aggressive incidents. Staff views as to the causes of client aggression were elicited within 72 hours of observing an aggressive incident. Staff descriptions of causes were categorised using qualitative methods and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aggression towards staff was predominantly preceded by (a) actions that interrupted or redirected a client behaviour, (b) an activity demand, or (c) a physical intrusion. The majority of aggressive incidents appeared hostile/angry in nature and were not considered by staff to be pre-meditated. Common treatment approaches can be usefully augmented by a renewed focus on interventions aimed at reducing antecedents that provoke aggression. Possible approaches for achieving this are considered. PMID:23782342

  6. Aggressive children's memory for attachment relevant information

    E-print Network

    Collie, Claire Futamase

    2004-09-30

    This study examined a measure of children's memory for information from a story about a hypothetical mother and child, the Story Task, as a potential tool to delineate subtypes of aggressive children based on the pattern of information processing...

  7. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in primates.

    PubMed

    Barr, Christina S; Driscoll, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior can have adaptive value in certain environmental contexts, but when extreme or executed inappropriately, can also lead to maladaptive outcomes. Neurogenetic studies performed in nonhuman primates have shown that genetic variation that impacts reward sensitivity, impulsivity, and anxiety can contribute to individual differences in aggressive behavior. Genetic polymorphisms in the coding or promoter regions of the Mu-Opioid Receptor (OPRM1), Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA), Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4), and Serotonin Transporter (SLC6A4) genes have been shown to be functionally similar in humans and rhesus macaques and have been demonstrated to contribute to individual differences in aggression. This body of literature suggests mechanisms by which genetic variation that promotes aggressivity could simultaneously increase evolutionary success while making modern humans more vulnerable to psychopathology. PMID:24368617

  8. Aggressive interactions rapidly increase androgen synthesis in the brain during the non-breeding season

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Newman, Amy E.M.; Wacker, Douglas W.; Wingfield, John C.; Schlinger, Barney A.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2010-01-01

    In male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), territorial challenges during the breeding season can rapidly increase circulating levels of testosterone (T). During the non-breeding season, male song sparrows are highly aggressive, but the gonads are regressed and plasma T levels are non-detectable and unaffected by territorial challenges. The pro-hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is elevated in song sparrow plasma and brain during the non-breeding season and may be locally converted to sex steroids in the brain to regulate aggression. The enzyme 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4 isomerase (3?-HSD) converts DHEA to androstenedione (AE) using the cofactor NAD+, and this is a critical rate-limiting step. We predicted that brain 3?-HSD activity varies seasonally and is rapidly modulated by aggressive challenges. In the first study, brain 3?-HSD activity was highest in the non-breeding season in specific regions. In the second study, a simulated territorial challenge rapidly increased aggressive behavior in non-breeding song sparrows. Brain 3?-HSD activity, when measured without exogenous NAD+, increased by ?250 to 500% in telencephalic regions of challenged subjects. When brain 3?-HSD activity was measured with exogenous NAD+, these effects of territorial challenges were not observed. These data suggest that territorial challenges rapidly increase endogenous NAD+levels or increase 3?-HSD activity specifically within a NAD-rich subcellular compartment. Together, these two studies suggest a shift from systemic to local sex steroid signaling in the non-breeding season. Local steroid signaling produces high spatial and temporal specificity of steroid signals and avoids the costs of high systemic T levels during the non-breeding season. PMID:20116379

  9. Aggressive interactions rapidly increase androgen synthesis in the brain during the non-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Devaleena S; Newman, Amy E M; Wacker, Douglas W; Wingfield, John C; Schlinger, Barney A; Soma, Kiran K

    2010-04-01

    In male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), territorial challenges during the breeding season can rapidly increase circulating levels of testosterone (T). During the non-breeding season, male song sparrows are highly aggressive, but the gonads are regressed and plasma T levels are non-detectable and unaffected by territorial challenges. The pro-hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is elevated in song sparrow plasma and brain during the non-breeding season and may be locally converted to sex steroids in the brain to regulate aggression. The enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4 isomerase (3beta-HSD) converts DHEA to androstenedione (AE) using the cofactor NAD(+), and this is a critical rate-limiting step. We predicted that brain 3beta-HSD activity varies seasonally and is rapidly modulated by aggressive challenges. In the first study, brain 3beta-HSD activity was highest in the non-breeding season in specific regions. In the second study, a simulated territorial challenge rapidly increased aggressive behavior in non-breeding song sparrows. Brain 3beta-HSD activity, when measured without exogenous NAD(+), increased by approximately 250 to 500% in telencephalic regions of challenged subjects. When brain 3beta-HSD activity was measured with exogenous NAD(+), these effects of territorial challenges were not observed. These data suggest that territorial challenges rapidly increase endogenous NAD(+) levels or increase 3beta-HSD activity specifically within a NAD-rich subcellular compartment. Together, these two studies suggest a shift from systemic to local sex steroid signaling in the non-breeding season. Local steroid signaling produces high spatial and temporal specificity of steroid signals and avoids the costs of high systemic T levels during the non-breeding season. PMID:20116379

  10. Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or indirectly (e.g. BDNF, nNOS, ?CaMKII, Neuropeptide Y). The future agenda delineates specific receptor subpopulations for GABA, glutamate and neuropeptides as they modulate the canonical aminergic neurotransmitters in brainstem, limbic and cortical regions with the ultimate outcome of attenuating or escalating aggressive behavior. PMID:22297576

  11. Cognitive Antecedents of Violence and Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrienne K. Elliott; Allan F. Mirsky

    \\u000a Research on the antecedents of aggression and violence has increased considerably in recent years, as parents, researchers,\\u000a and policy makers endeavor to understand this phenomenon. Many theories have been proposed (e.g., Pincus, 2001) and numerous intervention strategies have been tried (see Elliott & Tolan 1999), with varying degrees of success. Many factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior, and

  12. Cosmic Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Philip S.

    2010-10-01

    1. Meeting the challenge; 2. Naked eye challenges; 3. Binocular challenges; 4. Small scope challenges: giant binoculars, 3- to 5-inch telescopes; 5. Medium scope challenges: 6- to 9.25-inch telescopes; 6. Large scope challenges: 10- to 14-inch telescopes; 7. Monster scope challenges: 15-inch and larger telescopes; Appendices.

  13. Neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in rats-Implications for abnormal intraspecific aggression.

    PubMed

    Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate

    2015-04-15

    Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats. PMID:25637071

  14. Fear of Failure and Student Athletes' Interpersonal Antisocial Behaviour in Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…

  15. The Problem of Bullying in Schools and the Promise of Positive Behaviour Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Roger; Chitiyo, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Bullying in schools is recognised as a global problem. In the USA, school shootings and increasing school aggression focused research on the causes of bullying and interventions that could reduce or eliminate bullying behaviours. A variety of bullying programs have generated mixed results with some actually increasing bullying behaviours. There…

  16. The Behavioural Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, L.; Oliver, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems and a preference for adult contact are reported to be prominent in the phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this study we examined the relationship between social interactions and self-injurious and aggressive/disruptive behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome to explore potential operant reinforcement of problem…

  17. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in thyroid proliferative lesions: relationship to type and tumour behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Buley; J A H Wass; H E Turner

    The role of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in thyroid cancer pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Patterns for tumour behaviour and metastasic spread vary according to tumour type and whether differences in the angiogenic or lymphangiogenic phenotype influence the route for tumour metastases or determine a more aggressive behaviour has not been fully explored. The angiogenic and lymphangiogenic phenotypes of a large

  18. The Association between Repetitive Behaviours, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity in People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbidge, C.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Arron, K.; Berg, K.; Furniss, F.; Hill, L.; Trusler, K.; Woodcock, K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a need for assessments of psychological difference and disorder in people who have more severe intellectual disability (ID). Hyperactivity and impulsivity are two behavioural domains of importance as they are correlated with self-injury and aggression and this alludes to a shared cognitive correlate of compromised behavioural

  19. The behavioural ecology of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary W. Roemer; Deborah A. Smith; David K. Garcelon; Robert K. Wayne

    2001-01-01

    Insular populations typically occur at higher densities, have higher survivorship, reduced fecundity, decreased dispersal, and reduced aggression compared to their mainland counterparts. Insularity may also affect mating system and genetic population structure. However, these factors have not been examined simultaneously in any island vertebrate. Here we report on the ecological, behavioural and genetic characteristics of a small carnivore, the island

  20. Evaluative factors in social problem solving by aggressive boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy G. Guerra; Ronald G. Slaby

    1989-01-01

    Components of social problem solving (problem definition, generation and prioritization of solutions, and generation and evaluation of consequences) were assessed in high aggressive and low aggressive boys from grades 2– 3 and 5–6. When compared with their low aggressive peers, high aggressive boys at both grade levels were more likely to (1) define social problems based on the perception that

  1. Nonagonistic familiarity decreases aggression in male Turkish hamsters, Mesocricetus brandti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier delBarco-Trillo; M. Elsbeth McPhee; Robert E. Johnston

    2009-01-01

    In laboratory studies, hamsters (Mesocricetus spp.) show intense male-male aggression, thus making them an excellent model system for studies of the functional and mechanistic bases of aggression. In a field study of golden hamsters, M. auratus, in the wild, however, the few documented male-male interactions were not highly aggressive. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that familiarity modulates aggression in hamsters.

  2. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  3. Normative Influences on Aggression in Urban Elementary School Classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Henry; Nancy Guerra; Rowell Huesmann; Patrick Tolan; Richard VanAcker; Leonard Eron

    2000-01-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive

  4. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  5. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  6. Measuring physical aggressiveness in heterosexual, homosexual, and transsexual males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Blanchard; James G. McConkey; Vincent Roper; Betty W. Steiner

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the development of a self-report measure of boyhood aggressiveness for use with adult males. Aggressiveness was defined as a generalized disposition to engage in physically combative or competitive interactions with male peers. This attribute is of sexological interest because of the reported difference in physical aggressiveness between heterosexual and homosexual boys. A physical aggressiveness

  7. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Chris G.; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture. PMID:25561845

  8. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  9. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  10. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  11. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  12. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  13. Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

  14. Assassin bug uses aggressive mimicry to lure spider prey.

    PubMed

    Wignall, Anne E; Taylor, Phillip W

    2011-05-01

    Assassin bugs (Stenolemus bituberus) hunt web-building spiders by invading the web and plucking the silk to generate vibrations that lure the resident spider into striking range. To test whether vibrations generated by bugs aggressively mimic the vibrations generated by insect prey, we compared the responses of spiders to bugs with how they responded to prey, courting male spiders and leaves falling into the web. We also analysed the associated vibrations. Similar spider orientation and approach behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from bugs and prey, whereas different behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from male spiders and leaves. Peak frequency and duration of vibrations generated by bugs were similar to those generated by prey and courting males. Further, vibrations from bugs had a temporal structure and amplitude that were similar to vibrations generated by leg and body movements of prey and distinctly different to vibrations from courting males or leaves, or prey beating their wings. To be an effective predator, bugs do not need to mimic the full range of prey vibrations. Instead bugs are general mimics of a subset of prey vibrations that fall within the range of vibrations classified by spiders as 'prey'. PMID:20980305

  15. Assassin bug uses aggressive mimicry to lure spider prey

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Anne E.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2011-01-01

    Assassin bugs (Stenolemus bituberus) hunt web-building spiders by invading the web and plucking the silk to generate vibrations that lure the resident spider into striking range. To test whether vibrations generated by bugs aggressively mimic the vibrations generated by insect prey, we compared the responses of spiders to bugs with how they responded to prey, courting male spiders and leaves falling into the web. We also analysed the associated vibrations. Similar spider orientation and approach behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from bugs and prey, whereas different behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from male spiders and leaves. Peak frequency and duration of vibrations generated by bugs were similar to those generated by prey and courting males. Further, vibrations from bugs had a temporal structure and amplitude that were similar to vibrations generated by leg and body movements of prey and distinctly different to vibrations from courting males or leaves, or prey beating their wings. To be an effective predator, bugs do not need to mimic the full range of prey vibrations. Instead bugs are general mimics of a subset of prey vibrations that fall within the range of vibrations classified by spiders as ‘prey’. PMID:20980305

  16. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society. PMID:24740321

  17. High Fat, Low Carbohydrate Diet Limit Fear and Aggression in Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R.; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society. PMID:24740321

  18. Effects of aggressive remediation on soil properties and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, Christine; Zihms, Stephanie; Pape, Andrew; Robson, Andrew; Knapp, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Aggressive remediation processes such as thermal desorption, smouldering, and chemical oxidiation remediation processes have significant promise to deliver substantial contaminant reduction in short periods of time, effecting as much as 95-99+% mass removal from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones. In situ thermal remediation exposes soils to temperatures of 100+°C for periods of weeks or months. In situ smouldering exposes soils to 600-1000+°C for hours to days. Chemical oxidation exposes soils to harsh oxidizing chemicals for weeks or months effecting reactive degradation of chemical contaminants but also surrounding soils. These processes have the potential to result in significant changes to the soil properties, particularly at the particle surface and grain interfaces. The dynamic effects of these changes have important implications in soil management practice. The mobilisation of soil nutrients may challenge rehabilitation or biological "polishing" after aggressive remediation. Plant germination and growth are inhibited and water dynamics are affected as well. Although permeability remains unaffected, infiltration is more rapid and capillary rise is reduced after smouldering remediation. Mobilisation of fines does not explain the change in infiltration and capillary rise; these effects persist after removal of the smaller half of the particle size distribution. Some separation of the soil column is observed in water infiltration after both thermal and smouldering remediation, indicating that erosion and subsidence are potential problems. These effects may be manifestations of subcritical water repellency. Based on the retention of capillary rise and lack of effects on other soil properties, the soil should be amenable to improvement measures. This presentation will place the effects of aggressive remediation into context within real soils and model materials.

  19. Quantitative genetic analyses of complex behaviours in Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trudy F. C. Mackay; Robert R. H. Anholt

    2004-01-01

    Behaviours are exceptionally complex quantitative traits. Sensitivity to environmental variation and genetic background, the presence of sexual dimorphism, and the widespread functional pleiotropy that is inherent in behavioural phenotypes pose daunting challenges for unravelling their underlying genetics. Drosophila melanogaster provides an attractive system for elucidating the unifying principles of the genetic architectures that drive behaviours, as genetically identical individuals can

  20. Maternal Depression and Childhood Aggression: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Katherine; Liu, Jianghong

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Childbearing depression (CBD) and childhood aggression are serious and international problems that encumber public health. Although maternal depression has received much attention in the literature in the last three decades, clinically it remains under-diagnosed and under-treated, especially during pregnancy. As a result, many mothers and families are left to suffer its long-lasting physical and psychosocial effects. This article's aim is to review the current literature on whether CBD increases the likelihood of childhood aggression in children ages six years and younger. Methods Using keywords, an electronic search was performed using Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Search limits included the following: 2000-2010, English, peer-review, human, All Child: 0-18. From more than 2,000 search results, 13 articles were reviewed based on relevance to paper's inquiry and sample size greater than 50. Results In all, the articles agreed that depression in women increases the likelihood of early childhood aggression by causing negative parenting behaviors. However, this finding is tempered by a number of weaknesses in the quality of articles reviewed and by the complexity of the topic. Conclusion More research is needed to determine the etiology and interplay of mediating factors between CBD and childhood aggression. This could inform the study and implementation of effective and early prevention, screening, and treatment measures and programs for maternal depression and childhood aggression. PMID:22739482