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1

Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) for People with Intellectual Disability and Aggressive Challenging Behaviour: A Reliability Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Reliable measures of aggressive challenging behaviour are required if interventions aimed at reducing this behaviour among people with intellectual disability (ID) are to be formally evaluated. The present authors examined the reliability of the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS), an instrument not yet formally tested in those with…

Oliver, P. C.; Crawford, M. J.; Rao, B.; Reece, B.; Tyrer, P.

2007-01-01

2

Aggressive Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability Following Community Resettlement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging

Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.

2009-01-01

3

Overcoming the Barriers Experienced in Conducting a Medication Trial in Adults with Aggressive Challenging Behaviour and Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID) is frequently treated with antipsychotic drugs, despite a limited evidence base. Method: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was undertaken to investigate the efficacy, adverse effects and costs of two commonly prescribed antipsychotic drugs…

Oliver-Africano, P.; Dickens, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Bouras, N.; Cooray, S.; Deb, S.; Knapp, M.; Hare, M.; Meade, M.; Reece, B.; Bhaumik, S.; Harley, D.; Piachaud, J.; Regan, A.; Ade Thomas, D.; Karatela, S.; Rao, B.; Dzendrowskyj, T.; Lenotre, L.; Watson, J.; Tyrer, P.

2010-01-01

4

Incidence, Types and Characteristics of Aggressive Behaviour in Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…

Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.

2008-01-01

5

Aggressive behaviour in the elderly.  

PubMed

In this paper, the literature on aggressive behaviour in the elderly is reviewed, with emphasis on: definition; study samples; patient groups; study designs and methodology; data collection; instruments used to measure aggressive behaviour; social, clinical, demographic and biological correlates; prevalence and rates; precipitants; outcome; site; timing; daily and seasonal variation; patterns of usage of hospitals and other institutions; stuffing levels, staff morale, staff attitudes, staff training and other staffing factors. PMID:24941091

Shah, A

1999-01-01

6

Androgen Receptors, Sex Behaviour, and Aggression  

PubMed Central

Androgens are intricately involved in reproductive and aggressive behaviours, but the role of the androgen receptor in mediating these behaviours is less defined. Further, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can influence each other at the level of the androgen receptor. Knowledge of the mechanisms for androgens’ effects on behaviours through the androgen receptor will guide future studies in elucidating male reproductive and aggressive behaviour repertoires.

Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Lumia, Augustus R.; McGinnis, Marilyn Y.

2012-01-01

7

Relational Aggression and Prosocial Behaviours in Australian Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relational aggression is a subtle form of aggressive behaviour that uses dyadic relationships and manipulation as a vehicle of harm. Little is known about relational aggression in preschool-age children in cultural contexts outside the United States. This study examined relationally aggressive behaviours and prosocial behaviours in Australian…

Swit, Cara; McMaugh, Anne

2012-01-01

8

Genetics of aggressive behaviour in Golden Retriever dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs have been living in close proximity to humans since the last Ice Age. Like their progenitor the grey wolf, dogs may respond with aggressive behaviour to certain stimuli. This is natural behaviour in the majority of cases. However, canine aggression can develop into a dangerous problem. There is individual variation in the tendency of dogs to display aggressive behaviour.

L. van den Berg

2006-01-01

9

Challenging Student Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of poor student behaviour within higher education institutions (HEIs) has been well documented in recent years. Although the number of reported cases constitutes a very small percentage of the overall student population in the UK, the impact of student misconduct on the rest of the student body and staff in HEIs can be substantial. For…

Jones, Glyn; Philp, Clare

2011-01-01

10

Challenging behaviour: a challenge to change.  

PubMed

People with intellectual disability often exhibit severe behavioural problems. Treatment of these problems is frequently very difficult. In The Netherlands, parents, institutes, schools and others can request the services of an independent advisory team with a pool of professionals who have experience with individuals who exhibit challenging behaviour. In this article the methods of the team will be described using a 24-year-old man as an example. The process took almost 7 years. Finally, this man, who had been living full time in one room in total isolation from the rest of the world, fulfilled his heart's desire--visiting the UK by Hovercraft. PMID:12212917

van Berckelaer-Onnes, I A; van Loon, J; Peelen, A

2002-09-01

11

Frustrative reward omission increases aggressive behaviour of inferior fighters.  

PubMed

Animals use aggressive behaviour to gain access to resources, and individuals adjust their behaviour relative to resource value and own resource holding potential (RHP). Normally, smaller individuals have inferior fighting abilities compared with larger conspecifics. Affective and cognitive processes can alter contest dynamics, but the interaction between such effects and that of differing RHPs has not been adjudged. We investigated effects of omission of expected reward (OER) on competing individuals with contrasting RHPs. Small and large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conditioned to associate a light with reward. Thereafter, the reward was omitted for half of the fish prior to a contest between individuals possessing a 36-40% difference in RHP. Small control individuals displayed submissive behaviour and virtually no aggression. By contrast, small OER individuals were more aggressive, and two out of 11 became socially dominant. Increased aggression in small OER individuals was accompanied by increased serotonin levels in the dorsomedial pallium (proposed amygdala homologue), but no changes in limbic dopamine neurochemistry were observed in OER-exposed individuals. The behavioural and physiological response to OER in fish indicates that frustration is an evolutionarily conserved affective state. Moreover, our results indicate that aggressive motivation to reward unpredictability affects low RHP individuals strongest. PMID:24759861

Vindas, Marco A; Johansen, Ida B; Vela-Avitua, Sergio; Nørstrud, Karoline Sletbak; Aalgaard, Marion; Braastad, Bjarne O; Höglund, Erik; Overli, Oyvind

2014-01-01

12

Grouping piglets by sex at weaning reduces aggressive behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to reduce aggressive behaviour when piglets are grouped at weaning.The experiment assessed whether it is better to group piglets by sex at weaning or to mix them in male–female groups. Large White piglets were weaned at 28 days and assigned to 4 conditions, with 6 groups of animals\\/condition: (L-MF) 4 males and 4 females

Violaine Colson; Pierre Orgeur; Valérie Courboulay; Sébastien Dantec; Aline Foury; Pierre Mormède

2006-01-01

13

Tackling incidents of violence, aggression and antisocial behaviour.  

PubMed

Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust has developed Sand implemented a strategy to reduce the number of incidents of violence, aggression and antisocial behaviour in its emergency department. The strategy, which includes the introduction of a nurse co-ordinator role and withdrawal of treatment from persistent offenders, has ensured the care environment is safer and calmer for patients and staff. This article discusses different aspects of the strategy and the ethics of withdrawing care from patients. PMID:23691893

Houghton, Natalie; Hughes, Neill

2013-04-01

14

Video game playing and its relations with aggressive and prosocial behaviour.  

PubMed

In this study of 278 children from the seventh and eighth grade of five elementary schools in Enschede, The Netherlands, the relationship between the amount of time children spent on playing video games and aggressive as well as prosocial behaviour was investigated. In addition, the relationship between the preference for aggressive video games and aggressive and prosocial behaviour was studied. No significant relationship was found between video game use in general and aggressive behaviour, but a significant negative relationship with prosocial behaviour was supported. However, separate analyses for boys and girls did not reveal this relationship. More consistent results were found for the preference for aggressive video games: children, especially boys, who preferred aggressive video games were more aggressive and showed less prosocial behaviour than those with a low preference for these games. Further analyses showed that children who preferred playing aggressive video games tended to be less intelligent. PMID:9738313

Wiegman, O; van Schie, E G

1998-09-01

15

Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Treating Aggressive Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Single Blind Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggressive behaviour represents a frequent symptom in people with intellectual disability (PWID). Despite uncertain evidence of effectiveness, the use of antipsychotics (APs) drugs to treat aggressive behaviour is very common. Antipsychotic medication of aggressivity in PWID has recently become one of the most debated issues in mental…

Amore, M.; Bertelli, M.; Villani, D.; Tamborini, S.; Rossi, M.

2011-01-01

16

The impact of non-aggressive behaviour early in aggressive interactions: Sex differences in direct and indirect aggression in response to provocation.  

PubMed

Using an adapted form of the Taylor competitive reaction time task (TCRT: Taylor, 1967), we examined the effect of initially non-aggressive behaviour during aggressive encounters. Specifically, if a person is initially non-aggressive, but becomes more aggressive later, does an opponent respond more or less aggressively in response? Participants (N = 148) played a competitive reaction time task against a bogus partner, who was either initially non-aggressive, or initially moderately aggressive, and then delivered increasingly loud noise blasts to participants on trials when the participant lost. Both direct (noise blasts delivered to the partner) and indirect aggression (damage to partner's reputation) were assessed. The impact of whether or not participants expected to meet the partner on direct and indirect aggression was also examined. All participants reduced their direct aggression towards an initially non-aggressive partner and a partner they expected to meet. However, for females, the switch from initial non-aggression to later aggression generated a negative evaluation of the partner, exhibited by indirect but not direct aggression. PMID:24387100

Lawrence, Claire; Hutchinson, Laura

2014-02-01

17

Training Staff to Manage Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A training package for staff working with clients presenting challenging behaviour was developed to (1) increase their knowledge regarding challenging behaviour, and (2) to improve the quality of physical intervention techniques. The latter aim was intended to reduce staff anxiety about dealing with incidents and limit physical risk of…

van Oorsouw, Wietske M. W. J.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Jahoda, Andrew

2010-01-01

18

Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

2011-01-01

19

Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

2009-01-01

20

Genetics of animal temperament: aggressive behaviour at mixing is genetically associated with the response to handling in pigs.  

PubMed

Aggression when pigs are mixed into new social groups has negative impacts on welfare and production. Aggressive behaviour is moderately heritable and could be reduced by genetic selection. The possible wider impacts of selection for reduced aggressiveness on handling traits and activity in the home pen were investigated using 1663 male and female pedigree pigs (898 purebred Yorkshire and 765 Yorkshire × Landrace). Aggressive behaviour was observed over 24 h after pigs were mixed at 10 weeks of age into groups balanced for unfamiliarity and weight. Aggression was highly heritable (duration of involvement in reciprocal fighting h2 = 0.47 ± 0.03, and duration of delivering one-sided aggression h2 = 0.34 ± 0.03). Three weeks after mixing, home pen inactivity (indicated by the frequency of lying) was observed over 24 h. Inactivity was weakly heritable (h2 = 0.05 ± 0.01) but showed no significant genetic association with aggression. Pigs' behaviour during handling by humans was assessed on entry to, whilst inside and on exit from a weigh crate at both mixing and end of test at 22 weeks. Pigs were generally easy to handle, moving easily into and out of the crate. Scores indicating 'very difficult to move' were rare. Handling scores at weighing were weakly heritable (h2 = 0.03 to 0.17), and moderately correlated across the two weighings (rg = 0.28 to 0.76). Aggressive behaviour at mixing was genetically associated with handling at the end of test weighing: pigs that fought and delivered one-sided aggression had handling scores indicating more active behaviour at weighing (e.g. moving quickly into the crate v. fighting rg = 0.41 ± 0.05 and v. bullying rg = 0.60 ± 0.04). Also, there was a genetic association between receiving one-side aggression at mixing and producing high-pitched vocalisations in the weigh crate (rg = 0.78 ± 0.08). Correlated behavioural responses occurring across different challenging situations (e.g. social mixing and human handling) have been described by the concept of animal temperament (also known as coping styles, personality or behavioural syndromes), but this has rarely been demonstrated at the genetic level in farm animals. These findings may have practical implications for the development of breeding programmes aimed at altering animal temperament. Breeding to reduce aggression could result in some reduction in activity at weighing. This would have consequences for animal production, because pigs which are inactive at weighing take longer to move into and out of the weigh crate, and perhaps also for animal welfare. PMID:22444987

D'Eath, R B; Roehe, R; Turner, S P; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B

2009-11-01

21

Effects of Some Steroids on Aggressive Behaviour in Mice and Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The action of some steroid drugs on aggressive behaviour was studied in mice and rats, using fighting isolated mice and muricide rats for this purpose. It was seen that hydrocortisone increased aggressiveness while hydroxydione decreased it, in both the above-mentioned tests. Desoxycorticosterone decreased the muricide reaction in rats, but failed to change the aggressive responses of isolated mice. In

Wojciech Kostowski; Wojciech Rewerski; Tadeusz Piechocki

1970-01-01

22

Prevalence and Types of Aggressive Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggressive behaviours represent major obstacles to the integration into society of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and pose significant management issues for carers. Methods: The present study assessed the prevalence and severity of five types of aggressive behaviours in 3165 adult men and women with ID receiving services…

Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Lachapelle, Y.; Brunet, A.; Morin, D.; Roy, M. -E.

2006-01-01

23

Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviour in Young Greek Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used observations of 28 preschoolers and questionnaire responses of 286 parents to examine how Greek preschoolers express aggressiveness and altruism, respectively. Found that aggression was expressed in a variety of ways, with boys being more aggressive than girls. Parents reported that comforting and cooperating were observed more than sharing…

Kakavoulis, Alexandros

1998-01-01

24

Photoperiod Affects Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Aggressive Behaviour in Male Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many nontropical animals display physiological and behavioural changes in response to seasonal envi- ronmental cues including photoperiod (day length). Male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) housed in short photoperiod undergo testicular regression accompanied by reduced circulating testosterone and decreased reproductive behaviour. By contrast to the majority of small mammals studied, aggressive behaviour is elevated in short-day Siberian hamsters when blood testosterone

J. C. Wen; A. K. Hotchkiss; G. E. Demas; R. J. Nelson

2004-01-01

25

The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behaviour in Genetic Syndromes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Self-injurious and aggressive behaviours are reported as components of some behavioural phenotypes but there are few studies comparing across syndrome groups. In this study we examined the prevalence of these behaviours and the associated person characteristics in seven genetic syndromes. Methods: Questionnaire data on self-injury and…

Arron, K.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Berg, K.; Burbidge, C.

2011-01-01

26

Soft drinks, aggression and suicidal behaviour in US high school students.  

PubMed

Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been rising among teens, and recent research has identified potential links to violence, depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal behaviour. We analyse a national data-set, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to examine the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggression, depression and suicidal behaviours among US adolescents. We find that higher soft drink consumption is associated with a range of undesirable behaviours: being in a physical fight, feeling sad or hopeless and having suicidal thoughts and actions. The data display a 'dose-response' relationship, with the percentage engaged in aggression or suicidal behaviour increasing steadily with greater quantities of soft drinks consumed. While further research is needed to determine if the association is causal, soft drink consumption may be a useful indicator for both aggression and suicidal behaviours among American high school students. PMID:23829470

Solnick, Sara J; Hemenway, David

2014-09-01

27

Teaching a Child with Challenging Behaviour to Use the Toilet: A Clinical Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to use the toilet is an important developmental step for a child's independence, health and dignity. It can be particularly difficult to teach continence skills to disabled children with aggressive or challenging behaviour. This study showed how Azrin & Foxx's (1971) basic toilet training procedure could be modified to teach a 13-year-old…

Brown, Freddy Jackson; Peace, Natalie

2011-01-01

28

Prevalence, Phenomenology, Aetiology and Predictors of Challenging Behaviour in Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…

Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.

2011-01-01

29

Pharmacotherapy for Aggressive Behaviours in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Treatment or Mistreatment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…

Tsiouris, J. A.

2010-01-01

30

IMP3 can predict aggressive behaviour of lung adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer most often presents as an inoperable tumour and the diagnosis is usually performed on a small biopsy/cytology specimen. In the group of non small cell lung cancer - not otherwise specified, adenocarcinoma phenotype can be determined immunohistochemically using TTF-1 and Napsin A. Expression of oncofetal protein IMP3 in human cancer is associated with poor differentiation and aggressive behaviour. In the present study expression of IMP3 was correlated with expression of TTF-1 and Napsin A, histological subtype and clinical stage of lung adenocarcinoma. We were interested whether distant metastases are associated with IMP3 overexpression, regardless of the histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. Methods In retrospective study, consecutive series of 105 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in Clinical Hospital Center Split, Croatia, were analysed. Clinical data were collected from the Pulmology Department and time of death from the Mortality Registry. Paraffin blocks of bronchoscopic biopsies were collected from the Institute of Pathology and 15 cases excluded from the analysis due to insufficient material. Expression of IMP3, Napsin A and TTF-1 were analysed by indirect enzyme immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed and P values less than 0.05 considered significant. Results Of 90 patients, 71 (78%) were males and 19 (22%) females. Median age for males was 61.5 years (min-max 43–83) and for females 61 years (min-max 44–86). Pleural effusion was found in 15 (16.6%) and distant metastases in 45 (50%) cases. According to histological subtypes, there were 34 acinar, 2 lepidic, 2 papillary and 52 solid subtypes. IMP3 overexpression was found in 63 cases (70%) and was correlated with solid subtype (P?=?0.002) and negative/weak Napsin A expression (P?=?0.004). Strong Napsin A expression correlated with TTF-1 expression (P?=?0.003) and lower histological grades (P?=?0.031). Patients with IMP3 overexpression more often had distant metastases than patients with negative IMP3, 55.5% versus 33.3% (P?=?0.033). Non solid subtypes with IMP3 overexpression developed distant metastasis more common than non solid subtypes with negative IMP3, 72% versus 35% (P?=?0.028). Conclusions Expression of IMP3 correlates with solid subtype and with distant metastases regardless of histological subtype of lung adenocarcinoma. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1966211581795258 Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Das Lungenkarzinom kommt meistens als nicht resektabler Tumor vor und die Diagnose kann nur in kleinen Biopsaten oder zytologisch gestellt werden. In der Gruppe der nicht kleinzelligen Lungenkarzinome kann der nicht anders spezifizierte Adenokarzinom Phänotyp mit Hilfe der Antikörper TTF-1 und Napsin A diagnostiziert werden. Die Expression des onkoföetalen Proteins IMP3 ist bei humanen Karzinomen mit agressivem Verhalten und metastatischem Potential verbunden. In dieser Studie korreliert die Expression von IMP3 mit TTF-1, Napsin A, histologischem Typ und klinischem Staging des Lungenkarzinoms. Wir waren daran interessiert, ob Fernmetastasen mit IMP3 Überexpression assoziiert sind, unabhängig von der histologischen Subtyp von Adenokarzinom. Methode In der retrospektiven Studie wurden die von 2006 bis 2009 im Klinischem Krankenhaus Split, Kroatien diagnostizerte Adenokarzinome der Lunge von 105 Patienten analysiert. Die klinischen Daten stammten aus der Abteilung für Pulmologie und im Falle des Todes vom Todesregister. Die Paraffinblöcke der primären Lungenbiopsate dieser Patienten wurden im Institut für Pathologie mit der indirekter Enzym - Immunohistochemie mittels Kombination der Antikörper gegen IMP3, Napsin A und TTF1 untersucht. 15 Fälle aus der Analyse aufgrund unzureichender Material ausgeschlossen. Es wurde eine statistische Untersuchung durchgeführt und Werte weniger als 0.05 P wurden als stat

2012-01-01

31

Association of HPA axis-related genetic variation with stress reactivity and aggressive behaviour in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Stress, elicited for example by aggressive interactions, has negative effects on various biological functions including immune defence, reproduction, growth, and, in livestock, on product quality. Stress response and aggressiveness are mutually interrelated and show large interindividual variation, partly attributable to genetic factors. In the pig little is known about the molecular-genetic background of the variation in stress responsiveness and aggressiveness. To identify candidate genes we analyzed association of DNA markers in each of ten genes (CRH g.233C>T, CRHR1 c.*866_867insA, CRHBP c.51G>A, POMC c.293_298del, MC2R c.306T>G, NR3C1 c.*2122A>G, AVP c.207A>G, AVPR1B c.1084A>G, UCN g.1329T>C, CRHR2 c.*13T>C) related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, one of the main stress-response systems, with various stress- and aggression-related parameters at slaughter. These parameters were: physiological measures of the stress response (plasma concentrations of cortisol, creatine kinase, glucose, and lactate), adrenal weight (which is a parameter reflecting activity of the central branch of the HPA axis over time) and aggressive behaviour (measured by means of lesion scoring) in the context of psychosocial stress of mixing individuals with different aggressive temperament. Results The SNP NR3C1 c.*2122A>G showed association with cortisol concentration (p = 0.024), adrenal weight (p = 0.003) and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.012; total lesion score p = 0.045). The SNP AVPR1B c.1084A>G showed a highly significant association with aggressive behaviour (middle lesion score, p = 0.007; total lesion score p = 0.003). The SNP UCN g.1329T>C showed association with adrenal weight (p = 0.019) and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.029). The SNP CRH g.233C>T showed a significant association with glucose concentration (p = 0.002), and the polymorphisms POMC c.293_298del and MC2R c.306T>G with adrenal weight (p = 0.027 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions The multiple and consistent associations shown by SNP in NR3C1 and AVPR1B provide convincing evidence for genuine effects of their DNA sequence variation on stress responsiveness and aggressive behaviour. Identification of the causal functional molecular polymorphisms would not only provide markers useful for pig breeding but also insight into the molecular bases of the stress response and aggressive behaviour in general.

2010-01-01

32

Staff perception of aggressive behaviour in community services for adults with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Experiencing aggressive behaviour has been associated with increased stress and turnover among staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities. Incident perception is a strong predictor of psychological outcomes after trauma but has not been studied in this staff group. This study clustered exposure to aggression and endorsement of emotional difficulties among 386 community residential group home staff and evaluated the contribution of four behavioural topographies to staff-rated perceived severity. Staff exposure varied considerably. Perceived severity correlated with subjective emotional difficulties. High perceived severity was associated with daily exposure, aggression towards others causing injury, and property aggression causing injury or damage. Therefore, the role the staff plays, whether a witness or target, may impact their experience. PMID:23949541

Hensel, Jennifer M; Lunsky, Yona; Dewa, Carolyn S

2014-08-01

33

Behavioural Indicators of Motives for Barroom Aggression: Implications for Preventing Bar Violence  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Aims To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivation for prevention. Design/Methods The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the research: gaining compliance, expressing grievances/restoring justice, attaining a favourable social identity, and pursuing fun/excitement. Incidents of aggression from the Safer Bars evaluation research [1] were analysed to identify behavioural indicators of each motivation. Results Compliance-motivated aggression typically takes the form of unwanted social overtures, third party intervention to stop conflicts or staff rule enforcement. Prevention strategies include keeping the aggressor’s focus on compliance to avoid provoking grievance and identity motives which are likely to escalate aggression. Grievance motives are typically elicited by perceived wrongdoing and, therefore, prevention should focus on eliminating sources of grievances and adopting policies/practices to resolve grievances peacefully. Social identity motives are endemic to many drinking establishments especially among male patrons and staff. Prevention involves reducing identity cues in the environment, hiring staff who do not have identity concerns, and training staff to avoid provoking identity concerns. Aggression motivated by fun/excitement often involves low-level aggression where escalation can be prevented by avoiding grievances and attacks on identity. Discussion/Conclusions Knowledge of behavioural indicators of motives can be used to enhance staff hiring and training practices, reduce environmental triggers for aggression, and develop policies to reduce motivation for aggression.

Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.

2010-01-01

34

Risk of aggression and criminal behaviour among adolescents living in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

Adolescent risk-taking and aggressive behaviours are among the most visible forms of violence in society. A study was carried out to identify the prevalence and risk factors for aggression, violence and criminal behaviour among adolescents in Alexandria, Egypt. Using multistage, cluster sampling of families from all health districts in Alexandria, the mothers of 783 adolescents aged 11-19 years answered an Arabic version of the Mentor Research Institute screening questionnaire. Overall 26.9% of adolescents were assessed to be at high risk and 20.2% at extremely high risk of aggression and criminal behaviour. Living in urban/slum areas, male sex, low level of parents' education/occupation, exposure to violence within the family and changes in behaviour of any family member were associated with risk of aggression/violence. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent variables were adolescents' sex, presence of behavioural changes in the family, violence against brothers and sisters and substance abuse by any family member. PMID:24952124

Wahdan, I; El-Nimr, N; Kotb, R; Wahdan, A

2014-04-01

35

The St Andrew's Sexual Behaviour Assessment (SASBA): Development of a standardised recording instrument for the measurement and assessment of challenging sexual behaviour in people with progressive and acquired neurological impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) as a sequela of neurological impairment is often overlooked in comparison to other challenging behaviours such as agitation and aggression, yet the impact on patients and carers can be equally significant and pervasive. Inconsistencies in terminology and lack of standardised measurement tools for ISB limit the degree to which such behaviour can be objectively and consistently

Caroline Knight; Nick Alderman; Chrissie Johnson; Sharon Green; Louise Birkett-Swan; Graeme Yorstan

2008-01-01

36

Changes in testosterone mediate the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour.  

PubMed

Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour. PMID:23587440

Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M

2013-10-01

37

Contextual Variables Affecting Aggressive Behaviour in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities Who Live in a Residential Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…

Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.

2009-01-01

38

Do Social Information-Processing Models Explain Aggressive Behaviour by Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Residential Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…

van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

2006-01-01

39

Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Improves Aggression, but Not Self-Injurious Behaviour, in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…

Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.

2008-01-01

40

Pre-School Children's Aggressive and Pro-Social Behaviours in Stressful Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of our research was to investigate social and emotional skills that determine pre-schoolers' aggressive and pro-social behaviours in stressful situations. The sample of the empirical study consisted of 119 (36-48, 49-60 and 61-72 months) Hungarian children from six pre-schools. Instruments that were used: Coping strategy self-report and…

Zsolnai, Aniko; Lesznyak, Marta; Kasik, Laszlo

2012-01-01

41

From conduct disorder to severe mental illness: associations with aggressive behaviour, crime and victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Conduct disorder (CD) prior to age 15 has been associated with an increased risk of aggressive behaviour and crime among men with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample of severely mentally ill men and women. Method. We examined a cohort of in-patients with severe mental illness in one mental health

S. Hodgins; A. Cree; J. Alderton; T. Mak

2008-01-01

42

Peer Acceptance and Self-Perceptions of Verbal and Behavioural Aggression and Social Withdrawal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a model of maladaptive social interactions that includes both behavioural and communication correlates of peer acceptance and self-perceived social competence. Tested in a sample of 377 Hong Kong secondary school students, verbal and nonverbal aggression contributed concurrently and longitudinally to peer acceptance.…

Chang, Lei; Li, Kin Kit; Lei, Li; Liu, Hongyun; Guo, Boliang; Wang, Yan; Fung, Kitty Y.

2005-01-01

43

School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

2012-01-01

44

Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

2009-01-01

45

Aggressive behaviour in the high-secure forensic setting: the perceptions of patients.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven patients undergoing treatment in a high-secure forensic facility participated in focus group interviews to elicit their perceptions of (1) the factors leading to aggressive behaviour; and (2) strategies to reduce the risk of such behaviour. The focus group interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using content analysis. The participants identified that a combination of patient, staff and environmental factors contributed to violence in the study wards. The cause of aggressive behaviour centred around five major themes: the environment; empty days; staff interactions; medication issues; and patient-centred factors. Potential strategies identified by patients to reduce aggressive behaviour included: early intervention; the provision of meaningful activities to reduce boredom; separation of acutely disturbed patients; improved staff attitudes; implementation of effective justice procedures; and a patient advocate to mediate during times of conflict. Findings suggested that social and organizational factors need to be addressed to change the punitive subculture inherent in forensic psychiatric facilities, and to ensure a balance between security and effective therapy. PMID:16441389

Meehan, T; McIntosh, W; Bergen, H

2006-02-01

46

Intraoperative microrecordings in the posterior hypothalamus of anaesthetized humans with aggressive behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients with uncontrollable aggressive behaviour underwent the placement of stimulating leads in the posterior hypothalamus\\u000a (pHyp). One patient had also multifocal refractory epilepsy. Microrecordings were obtained in both patients during surgery\\u000a under general anaesthesia. Firing rate, interspike intervals and oscillatory discharge patterns were analysed in 14 neurons.\\u000a A mean discharge rate of 19 Hz, and oscillatory activity at 7–8 Hz were

Roberto CordellaF; F. Carella; A. Franzini; C. Marras; F. Villani; G. Messina; G. Tringali; G. Broggi

2010-01-01

47

Aggressive and Antisocial Behaviours among Secondary School Students in Botswana. The Influence of Family and School Based Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between family factors and secondary school students' aggressive and antisocial behaviours. Participants were 1,478 junior and senior secondary school students from four major urban centres in Botswana, aged 12-20. Results showed significant prevalence of self-reported aggressive tendencies and antisocial…

Malete, Leapetswe

2007-01-01

48

The time course of aggressive behaviour in juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus fed with dietary L-tryptophan supplementation.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of dietary L-tryptophan (TRP) supplementation on the time course of aggressive behaviour and on neuroendocrine and hormonal indicators in juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus. Supplementation with TRP promoted a change in the fight pattern at the beginning of an interaction with an intruder, resulting in decreased aggressive behaviours during the first 20?min. The decrease in aggression did not persist throughout the interaction but increased at 3 and 6?h after the beginning of the fight. Monoamine levels in the hypothalamus were not influenced by TRP before or after the fight; however, the hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) concentration and the 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5HIAA):5-HT ratio were significantly correlated with the reduction in aggressive behaviour at the beginning of the fight. Cortisol was not altered by TRP before the fight. After the fight cortisol increased to higher levels in B. amazonicus fed with supplementary TRP. These results indicate that TRP supplementation alters the aggressive behaviour of B. amazonicus and that this effect is limited to the beginning of the fight, suggesting a transient effect of TRP on aggressive behaviour. This is the first study reporting the effects of TRP supplementation on the time course of aggressive interaction in fishes. PMID:24245775

Wolkers, C P B; Serra, M; Szawka, R E; Urbinati, E C

2014-01-01

49

The Mediating Effects of Verbal Skills in the Relationship between Low Birth Weight and Childhood Aggressive Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prenatal and perinatal risk factors, such as low birth weight, have been linked to higher levels of aggressive and destructive behaviours during childhood. Although low birth weight is associated with childhood externalizing behaviour, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain open to empirical investigation. The current study extends the…

Vaske, Jamie; Newsome, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle

2013-01-01

50

Effectiveness of an Attachment-Focused Manualized Intervention for Parents of Teens at Risk for Aggressive Behaviour: The Connect Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…

Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid

2009-01-01

51

Reported Strategies for Responding to the Aggressive and Extremely Disruptive Behaviour of Students Who Have Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the strategies reported by teachers who have managed aggressive and extremely disruptive behaviour of students who have special needs. A sample of 52 teachers from mainstream and special settings listed the strategies that they have used to respond to this behaviour, the reasons for their choice and their estimate of the…

Murik, Joe; Shaddock, Anthony; Spinks, Anthony; Zilber, David; Curry, Craig

2005-01-01

52

Aggressive Behaviour Among Swazi Upper Primary and Junior Secondary Students: Implications For Ongoing Educational Reforms Concerning Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Swaziland is planning to introduce inclusive education as part of education for all. The innovation may benefit learners with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). A purposive teacher sample (N = 47) was used to generate and identify behavioural problems that are prevalent in Swazi schools. Aggression was one of the many conduct disorders…

Mundia, Lawrence

2006-01-01

53

Evaluation of drinking patterns and their impact on alcohol-related aggression: a national survey of adolescent behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background Although there have been a wide range of epidemiological studies examining the impact of patterns of alcohol consumption among adolescents, there remains considerable variability in both defining these patterns and the ability to comprehensively evaluate their relationship to behavioural patterns. This study explores a new procedure for defining and evaluating drinking patterns and integrating well-established indicators. The composite measure is then used to estimate the impact of these patterns on alcohol-related aggressive behaviour among Italian adolescents. Methods Data were collected as part of the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). A national sample of 14,199 students aged 15–19 years was collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire completed in a classroom setting. Drinking patterns were established using principal component analysis. Alcohol-related aggression was analysed as to its relationship to patterns of drinking, behaviour of friends towards alcohol use, substance use/abuse, school performance, family relationships and leisure activities. Results Several specific drinking patterns were identified: “Drinking to Excess” (DE), “Drinking with Intoxication” (DI) and “Drinking but Not to Excess” (DNE). A higher percentage of males were involved in alcohol-related aggression compared with females. In males, the DE and DI patterns significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol-related aggression, whereas the DNE pattern was negatively associated. Similar results were found in females, although the DI pattern was not significantly associated with alcohol-related aggression. Overall, cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, truancy, limited parental monitoring, frequent evenings spent outside of the home and peer influence associated strongly with alcohol-related aggression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that drinking patterns, as uniquely monitored with an integrated metric, can: 1) explain drinking habits better than commonly used indicators of alcohol use and 2) provide a better understanding of behavioural risks such as alcohol-related aggression. Environmental background also appears to strongly associate with this type of aggressive behaviour.

2013-01-01

54

Psychometric Comparison of the Functional Assessment Instruments QABF, FACT and FAST for Self-Injurious, Stereotypic and Aggressive/Destructive Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Psychometric properties of three functional assessment rating scales were compared for three types of target behaviours [self-injurious behaviour (SIB), stereotypic behaviour and aggressive/destructive behaviour]. Materials and method: The "Questions about Behavioural Function" (QABF), the "Functional Assessment for Multiple Causality"…

Zaja, Rebecca H.; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.; Rojahn, Johannes

2011-01-01

55

In your face: facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players  

PubMed Central

Facial characteristics are an important basis for judgements about gender, emotion, personality, motivational states and behavioural dispositions. Based on a recent finding of a sexual dimorphism in facial metrics that is independent of body size, we conducted three studies to examine the extent to which individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio were associated with trait dominance (using a questionnaire) and aggression during a behavioural task and in a naturalistic setting (varsity and professional ice hockey). In study 1, men had a larger facial width-to-height ratio, higher scores of trait dominance, and were more reactively aggressive compared with women. Individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio predicted reactive aggression in men, but not in women (predicted 15% of variance). In studies 2 (male varsity hockey players) and 3 (male professional hockey players), individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio were positively related to aggressive behaviour as measured by the number of penalty minutes per game obtained over a season (predicted 29 and 9% of the variance, respectively). Together, these findings suggest that the sexually dimorphic facial width-to-height ratio may be an ‘honest signal’ of propensity for aggressive behaviour.

Carre, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

2008-01-01

56

In your face: facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players.  

PubMed

Facial characteristics are an important basis for judgements about gender, emotion, personality, motivational states and behavioural dispositions. Based on a recent finding of a sexual dimorphism in facial metrics that is independent of body size, we conducted three studies to examine the extent to which individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio were associated with trait dominance (using a questionnaire) and aggression during a behavioural task and in a naturalistic setting (varsity and professional ice hockey). In study 1, men had a larger facial width-to-height ratio, higher scores of trait dominance, and were more reactively aggressive compared with women. Individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio predicted reactive aggression in men, but not in women (predicted 15% of variance). In studies 2 (male varsity hockey players) and 3 (male professional hockey players), individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio were positively related to aggressive behaviour as measured by the number of penalty minutes per game obtained over a season (predicted 29 and 9% of the variance, respectively). Together, these findings suggest that the sexually dimorphic facial width-to-height ratio may be an 'honest signal' of propensity for aggressive behaviour. PMID:18713717

Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

2008-11-22

57

Subclinical effects of saxitoxin and domoic acid on aggressive behaviour and monoaminergic turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

The algal produced neurotoxins saxitoxin and domoic acid may have serious effects on marine life and can be responsible for the intoxication of for instance sea mammals, sea birds and fish. Given that farmed fish cannot escape algal blooms, they may be more susceptible to intoxication than wild stocks. In the present study, subclinical effects of saxitoxin and domoic on aggressive behaviour and monoaminergic systems in the brain of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. The resident-intruder test was used to measure aggression where only the resident fish were subjected to the toxins and analysed for monoamines and their metabolites. The resident-intruder test was carried out on two consecutive days. On day one basal aggression was measured in the four groups. On day two three of the groups were injected with subclinical doses of one of the following: saxitoxin (1.752 microg/kg bw), domoic (0.75 mg/kg bw) or 0.9% saline solution. This was performed 30 min prior to the aggression test. Handling stress and injection affected aggressive behaviour, cortisol and the serotonergic system in telencephalic brain regions. Cortisol levels were elevated in all of the injected groups when compared to the control group. An increase in serotonergic turnover was evident when all injected groups were pooled and compared to the control group. All together this suggests that the handling stress in connection with the injection was similar in all of the three injected groups. In contrast to both the undisturbed control group and the toxin-injected groups, the saline-injected group displayed a reduction in aggressive behaviour which was evident in increased attack latency. Furthermore the domoic injected group displayed more aggressive attacks towards their conspecifics than the saline-injected group. Consequently the two toxins appear to mask the stress induced alteration in aggressive behaviour. Monoamine levels and monoaminergic turnover could not be demonstrated to be directly affected by the two toxins at the given doses in the investigated brain regions (dorsal and ventral parts of telencephalon, optic tectum, locus coeruleus, raphe nucleus, molecular and granular layer of cerebellum). This could indicate that the toxins mediate aggressive behaviour either through other systems than the monoaminergic systems, such as neuroactive amino acids, or that the mediation occurs in other brain regions. PMID:20409597

Bakke, Marit Jørgensen; Hustoft, Hanne Kolsrud; Horsberg, Tor Einar

2010-08-01

58

On the Links between Aggressive Behaviour, Loneliness, and Patterns of Close Relationships among Non-Clinical School-Age Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored multifaceted associations between children's aggressive behaviours and loneliness feelings by identifying sub-groups of children with different individual profiles, and also examined whether profiles associated differently with children's quality of close relationships with mothers and peers. Participants were 145 non-clinical…

Al-Yagon, Michal

2008-01-01

59

Effects of algal grazing and aggressive behaviour of the fishes Pomacentrus lividus and Acanthurus sohal on coral-reef ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behaviour of the fishes Pomacentrus lividus Bl. Schn. and Acanthurus sohal Forskal from the Red Sea is briefly described, and its effect on intensity of algal grazing by herbivorous fish is demonstrated by settlement experiments. Green filamentous alga settles and grows at shallow depths over large areas of coral reefs, but is cropped by fishes to such an extent

P. J. Vine

1974-01-01

60

Using Behavioural Skills Training to Treat Aggression in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous studies of anger management in people with intellectual disability failed to control for the effects of the number of provocative stimuli presented and lacked direct measures of behaviour and treatment integrity data. Methods: This experiment systematically assessed and presented discriminative stimuli for aggressive

Travis, Robert W.; Sturmey, Peter

2013-01-01

61

Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

Chan, Siu Mui

2010-01-01

62

Teacher-Child Conflict and Aggressive Behaviour in First Grade: The Intervening Role of Children's Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High levels of teacher-child conflict have repeatedly been found to amplify children's aggressive behaviour. Up to now, however, research on possible mechanisms explaining this link is largely lacking. The current study aimed to test whether children's self-esteem is an intervening mechanism. Participants were 139 children (70 boys, M age = 6.18…

Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

2011-01-01

63

Danish Teachers' Conception of Challenging Behaviour and DAMP/ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how teachers of young children in Denmark perceived challenging behaviours in children who have characteristics consistent with Deficit in Attention, Motor Control and Perception (DAMP) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study was conducted in schools and kindergartens in three demographically different…

Holst, Jesper

2008-01-01

64

Care Staff Perceptions of Challenging Behaviour and Fear of Assault  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Past research has determined that fear of violence is often "irrational" in relation to the actual level of risk presented. This has been found to exacerbate the negative effects of exposure to work-related violence. Aims: This study investigates fear of assault in relation to exposure to challenging behaviour. The extent to which a…

Rose, John L.; Cleary, Adam

2007-01-01

65

Vertical and lateral workplace bullying in nursing: development of the hospital aggressive behaviour scale.  

PubMed

Healthcare staff is one of the professional groups that suffers the highest exposure to sources of occupational stress such as hostility from coworkers and superiors. In order to contribute to the assessment of bullying behaviors in the healthcare sector and to obtain a brief and manageable instrument for the assessment of this psychosocial risk, we developed the Hospital Aggressive Behaviour Scale-version Co-workers-Superiors (HABS-CS). By means of thorough qualitative analysis, an initial pool of 166 items was obtained, which were reviewed according to precise criteria until concluding with a total of 57 items, which were administered to a sample of 1,484 healthcare professionals from 11 public hospitals. The analyses concluded with the selection of 17 items distributed in two subscales. The internal 5-factor structure is the result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis conducted in two samples. Both the resulting questionnaire and the factors identified present adequate psychometric properties: high-internal consistency (Cronbach's ? of .86) and adequate criterion validity, analyzed by means of significant correlations between the HABS-CS and job satisfaction, burnout components, and psychological well-being. This instrument may be of great utility for the assessment and prevention of psychosocial risks. PMID:23539564

Waschgler, Kathrin; Ruiz-Hernández, José Antonio; Llor-Esteban, Bartolomé; Jiménez-Barbero, José Antonio

2013-08-01

66

Effects of acute treatment with 8-OH-DPAT and fluoxetine on aggressive behaviour in male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia morphna).  

PubMed

The role of serotonin in modulating male aggressive behaviour was investigated in male song sparrows, Melospiza melodia morphna, using two different serotonergic drugs, fluoxetine and 8-OH-DPAT. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor of the neuronal reuptake pump increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin, and 8-OH-DPAT is a specific serotonin (5-HT1A) receptor agonist. The serotonergic control of aggression in passerines has not been previously investigated. We examined these behaviours within a controlled setting using a laboratory simulated territorial intrusion, with a hierarchical scale to quantify male-male aggressive behaviour. Utilizing this scale, we quantified the extent of male aggressive behaviour in two experiments. In experiment 1, song sparrows were given 100 micro l, s.c. injections of either fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg). Experiment 2 was a dose-response study using three doses of 8-OH-DPAT (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg). In both studies, aggressive behaviour was measured 1 h after injection for 10 min in response to the presence of a novel male decoy combined with playback of conspecific song. Both drugs significantly reduced male aggressive behaviour, and 8-OH-DPAT did so in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of the two drugs upon general activity was also measured using infra-red perch hop detectors. Activity levels were not effected by either fluoxetine or 8-OH-DPAT at all of the respective doses, indicating that the reduction in aggressive behaviour was specific. These results demonstrate that, in a passerine species, the serotonergic system negatively regulates male-male aggressive behaviour. These results further demonstrate that aggression can be effectively studied in a laboratory setting and natural aggressive responses can be elicited using this method. PMID:12535157

Sperry, T S; Thompson, C K; Wingfield, J C

2003-02-01

67

Life-history and hormonal control of aggression in black redstarts: Blocking testosterone does not decrease territorial aggression, but changes the emphasis of vocal behaviours during simulated territorial intrusions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many studies in behavioural endocrinology attempt to link territorial aggression with testosterone, but the exact relationship between testosterone and territorial behaviour is still unclear and may depend on the ecology of a species. The degree to which testosterone facilitates territorial behaviour is particularly little understood in species that defend territories during breeding and outside the breeding season, when plasma levels of testosterone are low. Here we suggest that species that defend territories in contexts other than reproduction may have lost the direct regulation of territorial behaviour by androgens even during the breeding season. In such species, only those components of breeding territoriality that function simultaneously as sexually selected signals may be under control of sex steroids. Results We investigated black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros), a species that shows periods of territoriality within and outside of the breeding season. We treated territorial males with an anti-androgen and an aromatase inhibitor during the breeding season to block both the direct and indirect effects of testosterone. Three and ten days after the treatment, implanted males were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion. The treatment did not reduce the overall territorial response, but it changed the emphasis of territoriality: experimental males invested more in behaviours addressed directly towards the intruder, whereas placebo-treated males put most effort into their vocal response, a component of territoriality that may be primarily directed towards their mating partner rather than the male opponent. Conclusions In combination with previous findings, these data suggest that overall territoriality may be decoupled from testosterone in male black redstarts. However, high levels of testosterone during breeding may facilitate-context dependent changes in song.

2013-01-01

68

Angiomyolipoma with caval extension and regional nodal involvement: Aggressive behaviour or just rare natural history? Case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is predominantly a non-aggressive benign tumour. Cases of more aggressive AMLs are present in the literature. We present 2 cases of aggressive AML behaviour. The first case is an AML with vascular extension in a young female and the second case is of AML found in regional lymph nodes in a female with a left renal AML and renal cell carcinoma.

Kaler, Kamaljot Singh; Rittberg, Rebekah; Drachenberg, Darrel E.

2014-01-01

69

Association of HPA axis-related genetic variation with stress reactivity and aggressive behaviour in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Stress, elicited for example by aggressive interactions, has negative effects on various biological functions including immune defence, reproduction, growth, and, in livestock, on product quality. Stress response and aggressiveness are mutually interrelated and show large interindividual variation, partly attributable to genetic factors. In the pig little is known about the molecular-genetic background of the variation in stress responsiveness and

Eduard Muráni; Siriluck Ponsuksili; Richard B D'Eath; Simon P Turner; Esra Kurt; Gary Evans; Ludger Thölking; Ronald Klont; Aline Foury; Pierre Mormède; Klaus Wimmers

2010-01-01

70

[Assessment of a Bull Terrier bloodline regarding possible hypertrophic aggressive behaviour in situations of dog-dog-contact of the temperament test of Lower Saxony].  

PubMed

The expertise on the interpretation of and 11 b TierSchG assumes that a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour exists in some blood lines of Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers and Pitbull type dogs. This study was carried out to detect whether a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour occurred in a certain Bull Terrier breed line. A total of 38 dogs representing this line were tested according to the guidelines of the Dangerous Animals Act of Lower Saxony, Germany (GefTVO) enacted on July 5th, 2000. Furthermore, the results of their behaviour towards other dogs during the test were compared to those of 347 dogs tested by Böttjer (2003) in order to investigate possible significant differences in the occurrence of inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour. The comparison was aimed at exposing a possible significant accumulation of intraspecific aggressive behaviour. In the situations of dog-dog-contact of the test, 25 threatening behaviour"was displayed by 9 dogs (23.68%). Four dogs (10.53%) responded with "non-stationary threatening behaviour". All Bull Terriers reacted appropriately in every situation. A significant difference when comparing the results of the Bull Terriers to those of the dogs examined by Böttjer (2003) was not found. In conclusion, there were no indications for inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour in this Bull Terrier breed line. Furthermore, the broad majority of dogs proved to possess excellent social skills as well as the ability to communicate competently and to solve conflicts appropriately. PMID:20496824

Schalke, Esther; Ott, Stefanie; Hirschfeld, Jennifer; Hackbarth, Hansjoachim

2010-01-01

71

Aggression and the termination of “rituals”: a new variant of the escape function for challenging behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggression and stereotyped behaviors are not uncommon among people with intellectual disabilities and they are often treated separately as operant behaviors. In this single case study, it is argued that the function of a young woman’s aggressive behavior appeared to be that of avoiding or escaping the termination of a chain of complex stereotyped behavior (or “ritual”). She became aggressive

Glynis Murphy; Sue Macdonald; Scott Hall; Chris Oliver

2000-01-01

72

Feasibility and initial efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural group programme for managing anger and aggressiveness after traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

This study assesses the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural group programme for treating anger and aggressiveness after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Five feasibility criteria were considered: demand, implementation, practicality, acceptability and initial efficacy. A self-report questionnaire of aggressiveness (AQ-12) was administered before the intervention (T1), one week following the intervention (T2) and at a four months follow-up (T3). Ten patients with moderate to severe chronic TBI completed the programme through eight once-a-week sessions. The analysis of the feasibility outcomes suggests that: (1) The recruitment, the process of grouping participants and the characterisation of anger and aggressiveness at baseline need to be re-evaluated and improved for future designs. (2) The use of specific strategies for bypassing cognitive and other behavioural dysfunctions related to TBI is crucial for the success of this intervention and merits special attention. (3) The high retention rate, the convenient meeting schedule, cost advantages and the good acceptability by participants are positive arguments for the implementation of a larger trial. (4) The significant reduction of AQ-12 scores at T3 and the high effect size constitute a change in the expected direction and support the initial efficacy of the programme. PMID:23259694

Aboulafia-Brakha, T; Greber Buschbeck, C; Rochat, L; Annoni, J-M

2013-01-01

73

Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

2014-01-01

74

Divergent evolution of male aggressive behaviour: another reproductive isolation barrier in extremophile poeciliid fishes?  

PubMed

Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H(2)S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H(2)S. PMID:22315695

Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

2012-01-01

75

An Activating Mechanism of Aggressive Behaviour in Disorganised Attachment: A Moment-to-Moment Case Analysis of a Three-Year-Old  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines an activating mechanism of aggressive behaviour in young children. Many studies on attachment theories have indicated disorganised attachment as a significant risk factor for externalising problems and have explained the aetiology of disorganised attachment in terms of deficits in affect, behaviour and cognitive functions from…

Kim, Eun Young

2010-01-01

76

Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

2011-01-01

77

The Relation between Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Staff Behaviour towards Clients with ID and Challenging Behaviour: A Validation Study of the Staff-Client Interactive Behaviour Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Interpersonal staff behaviour is one of the instigating factors associated with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are several studies focusing on the influence of intrapersonal staff characteristics--such as beliefs, attributions and emotional reactions--on staff behaviour. Little is known,…

Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Stams, G. J. J. M.; Moonen, X. M. H.

2010-01-01

78

Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour.  

PubMed

Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111-140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581-604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour. PMID:22826343

Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

2012-09-01

79

A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Effects on Challenging Behaviour among Persons with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show challenging behaviour. We review distinct interventions that are applied to treat these challenging behaviours, and analyse intervention effects and moderating variables. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases "ERIC," "PsycINFO," "Web of Science" and…

Heyvaert, M.; Maes, B.; Onghena, P.

2010-01-01

80

Expressive Communication of Children with Autism: The Use of Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a lack of empirical research investigating challenging behaviour in children with autism with severe speech impairments in naturalistic settings. The aim of the present study was to investigate challenging behaviour among Australian and Taiwanese children with autism who are non-verbal or have limited speech (i.e. less than…

Chiang, Hsu-Min

2008-01-01

81

Students' Experiences of Aggressive Behaviour and Bully/Victim Problems in Irish Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1980s, a greater understanding of the frequency and typology of bullying/victim problems in schools has been accrued in many countries, including Ireland, where a nationwide study of bullying behaviour in schools was undertaken in 1993-1994. However, rather less is known about Irish school students' involvement in other forms of…

Minton, Stephen James

2010-01-01

82

Aggression and the Termination of "Rituals": A New Variant of the Escape Function for Challenging Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study is used to argue that the function of the aggressive behavior of a young woman with severe mental retardation was to avoid or escape the termination of a chain of complex stereotyped ritual behaviors. This is an example of complex interaction between two behaviors and illustrates the need for very careful analysis of the functions of…

Murphy, Glynis; Macdonald, Sue; Hall, Scott; Oliver, Chris

2000-01-01

83

The Challenge to Make Schools Safe: Preparing Education Personnel to Curb Student Aggression and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses changes in the content of teacher education programs that would prepare teachers to effectively address student violence, discussing the influence of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, recommending that colleges of education assume leadership roles in preparing school personnel to combat student aggression, and noting the…

Gable, Robert A.; Van Acker, Richard

2000-01-01

84

Cutaneous Clear Cell Sarcoma: A Rare Aggressive Tumor with Potential Diagnostic Challenge  

PubMed Central

Clear cell sarcoma is a deep-seated, exceedingly rare aggressive tumor, typically involving the tendons and aponeuroses with melanocytic differentiation and a distinct genetic background. A primary dermal location is rarer. It exhibits histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural similarities with the more common primary (or metastatic) malignant melanoma causing major diagnostic confusion. We describe a case of primary cutaneous clear cell sarcoma arising in the right lower extremity of a 40-year-old male patient.

Bali, Akshay; Roy, Maitrayee; Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Dhorigol, Vijayalaxmi

2012-01-01

85

Exposure to Client Aggression and Burnout among Community Staff Who Support Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Ontario, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Studies have shown that staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are exposed to challenging behaviour in their work including client aggression. Exposure to aggressive behaviour has been associated with staff stress and burnout. Study samples have been small however, and there has been very little data exploring…

Hensel, J. M.; Lunsky, Y.; Dewa, C. S.

2012-01-01

86

Use of medication for challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Medications, particularly antipsychotics, are commonly used to manage challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. When the behaviour does not arise from an underlying mental illness, this is commonly off-licence and evidence of efficacy is lacking. A national audit programme would be one way to address the concerns this raises. PMID:24986386

Glover, Gyles; Bernard, Sarah; Branford, David; Holland, Anthony; Strydom, Andre

2014-07-01

87

Teachers' Perceptions of Challenging Student Behaviours in Model Inner City Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary teachers often cite challenging student behaviours and classroom management as areas of concern and therefore priorities for professional development. In this paper, the authors discuss the findings from a two-year research project, Sociocultural Perspectives on Behaviour and Classroom Management (SPBCM). SPBCM examined the social and…

McCready, Lance T.; Soloway, Geoffrey B.

2010-01-01

88

Addressing Challenging Behaviours in the General Education Setting: Conducting a Teacher-Based Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a student demonstrates a challenging or problematic behaviour in the classroom, the climate and the instructional experience can change dramatically for both the students and the classroom teacher. Before resorting to sanctions and punitive consequences, there is a series of steps a classroom teacher can conduct to reduce and replace the…

Moreno, Gerardo

2011-01-01

89

Attachment Behaviour towards Support Staff in Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: Associations with Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Attachment research has shown the importance of attachment behaviour for the prevention of dysregulated behaviour due to emotional distress. The support of an attachment figure may be especially important for people with intellectual disability (ID), because they are less adept in dealing with stressful situations on their own. Our…

De Schipper, J. C.; Schuengel, C.

2010-01-01

90

Pharmacological versus non-pharmacological approaches to managing challenging behaviours for people with dementia.  

PubMed

When people with dementia demonstrate challenging behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, the levels of stress experienced by their carers increases. Furthermore, there is an increased likelihood that the person will be prematurely admitted to a residential care facility. The adverse side-effects that have been associated with the use of antipsychotic medications in older people with dementia have given rise to a renewed emphasis on the use of non-pharmacological approaches to manage challenging behaviours. This article describes the approaches taken by the multi-disciplinary team of a Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service in Australia to support people with dementia who have challenging behaviours by using non-pharmacological interventions. PMID:24514107

Jones, Tony; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

2014-02-01

91

Magnitude, Types and Sex Differentials of Aggressive Behaviour Among School Children in a Rural Area of West Bengal  

PubMed Central

Background: Aggression affects academic learning and emotional development, can damage school climate and if not controlled early and may precipitate extreme violence in the future. Objectives: (1) To determine the magnitude and types of aggressive behavior in school children. (2) To identify the influence of age and sex on aggressive behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anandanagar High School, Singur village, West Bengal. Participants were 161 boys and 177 girls of classes VII to IX. The students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behavior by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to statements indicating verbal/physical aggression. Results: Overall, 66.5% of the children were physically aggressive in the previous month: Boys 75.8%, girls 58.2% (P = 0.001); 56.8% were verbally aggressive: Boys 55.2%, girls 61% (P = 0.97). Verbal indirect passive aggression was more common among girls (55.3%) than among boys (22.3%) (P = 0.000 [1.17E-09]). Boys were more liable to physical aggression, viz. 60.2% of the boys would hit on provocation compared with only 9% of the girls (P = 0.000 [6.6E-23]). Regarding attributes indicating verbal aggression, girls were more argumentative (63.8%) than boys (55.2%) (P = 0.134) and disagreeing (41.8%) compared with boys (33.5%) (P = 0.145). With increasing age/class, physical direct active aggression decreased while physical indirect passive and verbal indirect passive aggression increased. No classes had been taken on anger control/management by school the authorities. Conclusions: Aggressive behavior was common both among boys and girls. Life skills education/counseling/classroom management strategies are recommended.

Dutt, Debashis; Pandey, Girish Kumar; Pal, Dipak; Hazra, Suprakas; Dey, Tushar Kanti

2013-01-01

92

Staff in Services for People with Intellectual Disabilities: The Impact of Stress on Attributions of Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a lack of a conceptual framework as to how stress and attribution variables interact and influence staff behaviour in response to challenging behaviour. To address this, a model is tested examining the impact of stress on attributions of challenging behaviour within Weiner's model of helping. Method: A total of 107 staff…

Rose, D.; Rose, J.

2005-01-01

93

The Experience of a Man with Severe Challenging Behaviour Following Resettlement from Hospital: A Single Case Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carers' behaviour is thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of challenging behaviour in people with learning disabilities (Emerson et al. 1995; Hastings & Remington 1994). The present study sought to investigate the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention in the management of such problem behaviours by means of a long-term…

Bissell, Lianne; Phillips, Neil; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

2005-01-01

94

Training Emotional Intelligence Related to Treatment Skills of Staff Working with Clients with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display challenging behaviour may contribute to the continuation of this behaviour, because it causes emotional reactions such as anxiety, anger and annoyance, which may prohibit adequate response behaviour. To enhance staff behaviour and treatment skills a training…

Zijlmans, L. J. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Derksen, J. J. L.

2011-01-01

95

Challenging Behaviour: Analysis and Intervention in People with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers a British perspective on ways of conceptualizing, assessing, and intervening in the challenging behavior of people with severe learning disabilities, with emphasis on the types of technical support needed. An introductory chapter explains why the term "learning disability" is used rather than mental handicap, mental retardation,…

Emerson, Eric

96

The presence of aggression cues inverts the relation between digit ratio (2D:4D) and prosocial behaviour in a dictator game.  

PubMed

Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have relatively shorter index (2D) compared to ring (4D) fingers than women. More masculine ratios are thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone levels. In the present paper, we aim to show the context-dependency of the relation between 2D:4D and social behaviour. In two studies, we expose participants either to control or to aggression cues. Afterwards, they make a decision in a dictator game. Participants with low 2D:4D showed higher allocation levels (i.e. they were more prosocial) than participants with high 2D:4D in a neutral situation. However, this relationship inverts after exposure to an aggression cue. It turns out that in high 2D:4D people, aggression cues even increase prosocial behaviour. We call for future research which focuses on other plausible interactions between 2D:4D and context cues rather than on linear relations. PMID:18590604

Millet, Kobe; Dewitte, Siegfried

2009-02-01

97

Staff Variables that Influence Responses to Challenging Behaviour of Clients with an Intellectual Disability: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study gives a systematic and recent overview of studies that focus on staff variables that may have an influence on the origin and maintenance of challenging behaviour of clients with an intellectual disability. Thirty three studies were identified through computerized searches of the PsycInfo and ERIC-databases on the basis of specific…

Lambrechts, Greet; Petry, Katja; Maes, Bea

2008-01-01

98

Student Behaviour and Emotional Challenges for Teachers and Parents in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social, emotional, and behavioural disorders of children, within the context of a whole-school approach to inclusion as adopted by Hong Kong, can be challenging for teachers and parents. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and feedback from a range of experts and parent groups in Hong Kong, specific scales were developed to measure…

Forlin, Chris; Cooper, Paul

2013-01-01

99

Understanding School Responses to Students' Challenging Behaviour: A Review of Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the varied ways in which schools can respond to students who present with challenging behaviours and who are at risk of disengagement from learning. It sets out a typology of school responses and reflects on the philosophies which underpin each approach. In an effort to rethink the use of suspensions within schools, which…

Michail, Samia

2011-01-01

100

The Treatment of Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disabilities: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…

Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.

2009-01-01

101

Resettlement Outcomes for People with Severe Challenging Behaviour Moving from Institutional to Community Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of life consequences arising from the resettlement of adults with challenging behaviour severe enough to be deemed to require continuing healthcare from a traditional learning disability hospital to new purpose-built bungalows. The new accommodation was provided by a specialist NHS…

Perry, Jonathan; Felce, David; Allen, David; Meek, Andrea

2011-01-01

102

Negative Emotional Reactions to Challenging Behaviour and Staff Burnout: Two Replication Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Hastings, R. P. ["American Journal on Mental Retardation" (2002) Vol. 107, pp. 455-467] hypothesized that staff negative emotional reactions to challenging behaviour might accumulate over time to affect staff well-being. Only one previous study (Mitchell, G.& Hastings, R. P. ["American Journal on Mental Retardation" (2001) Vol. 106,…

Rose, David; Horne, Sharon; Rose, John L.; Hastings, Richard P.

2004-01-01

103

Individual Characteristics and Service Expenditure on Challenging Behaviour for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: English policy argues that people with intellectual disabilities should be supported in their local communities. There is considerable evidence that this aspiration is not being achieved. This paper seeks to look at the subsection of people with intellectual disabilities who have expensive care needs because of challenging behaviour,…

Hassiotis, Angela; Parkes, Charles; Jones, Lee; Fitzgerald, Brian; Romeo, Renee

2008-01-01

104

A prefrontal cortex-brainstem neuronal projection that controls response to behavioural challenge.  

PubMed

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to participate in high-level control of the generation of behaviours (including the decision to execute actions); indeed, imaging and lesion studies in human beings have revealed that PFC dysfunction can lead to either impulsive states with increased tendency to initiate action, or to amotivational states characterized by symptoms such as reduced activity, hopelessness and depressed mood. Considering the opposite valence of these two phenotypes as well as the broad complexity of other tasks attributed to PFC, we sought to elucidate the PFC circuitry that favours effortful behavioural responses to challenging situations. Here we develop and use a quantitative method for the continuous assessment and control of active response to a behavioural challenge, synchronized with single-unit electrophysiology and optogenetics in freely moving rats. In recording from the medial PFC (mPFC), we observed that many neurons were not simply movement-related in their spike-firing patterns but instead were selectively modulated from moment to moment, according to the animal's decision to act in a challenging situation. Surprisingly, we next found that direct activation of principal neurons in the mPFC had no detectable causal effect on this behaviour. We tested whether this behaviour could be causally mediated by only a subclass of mPFC cells defined by specific downstream wiring. Indeed, by leveraging optogenetic projection-targeting to control cells with specific efferent wiring patterns, we found that selective activation of those mPFC cells projecting to the brainstem dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a serotonergic nucleus implicated in major depressive disorder, induced a profound, rapid and reversible effect on selection of the active behavioural state. These results may be of importance in understanding the neural circuitry underlying normal and pathological patterns of action selection and motivation in behaviour. PMID:23160494

Warden, Melissa R; Selimbeyoglu, Aslihan; Mirzabekov, Julie J; Lo, Maisie; Thompson, Kimberly R; Kim, Sung-Yon; Adhikari, Avishek; Tye, Kay M; Frank, Loren M; Deisseroth, Karl

2012-12-20

105

Support for Family Carers of Children and Young People with Developmental Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: What Stops It Being Helpful?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Many family carers find the support they receive in respect of their child's challenging behaviour unhelpful. This study sought to identify carer perceptions of the ways in which support is unhelpful and how it could be more helpful. Methods: Thirteen mothers, caring for a child with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour,…

Wodehouse, G.; McGill, P.

2009-01-01

106

Predictors, Costs and Characteristics of out of Area Placement for People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Out of area placements for people with challenging behaviour represent an expensive and often ineffective strategy for meeting the needs of this service user group. Methods: More than 800 agencies and service settings in a large area of South Wales were screened to identify children and adults with challenging behaviour against a…

Allen, D. G.; Lowe, K.; Moore, K.; Brophy, S.

2007-01-01

107

Majority and Minority Ethnic Family Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Perceptions of Challenging Behaviour and Family Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A health service in an English city was concerned about its support to families with adults with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven minority ethnic and seven majority ethnic family members to explore perceptions of challenging behaviour, support and the…

Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Kirby, Suzanne; Kotwal, Homayra; Baines, Susannah; Hutchinson, Christine; Dobson, Catherine; Marks, Bob

2010-01-01

108

Association of Aggressive Behaviours with Psychiatric Disorders, Age, Sex and Degree of Intellectual Disability: A Large-Scale Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The link between aggression and mental disorders has been the focus of diverse studies in persons with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Because of discrepancies in the finding of studies in persons with ID to date, and because of differences in research design, instruments used and the population studied, more research is…

Tsiouris, J. A.; Kim, S. Y.; Brown, W. T.; Cohen, I. L.

2011-01-01

109

Multi-Element Behaviour Support as a Model for the Delivery of a Human Rights Based Approach for Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviours that Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the multi-element behaviour support (MEBS) model in meeting the rights of persons with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge. It does this through explicitly linking the multi-element model to the guiding principles of a human rights based approach (HRBA) using a vignette to…

Doody, Christina

2009-01-01

110

Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

2012-01-01

111

Evaluation of Video Feedback and Self-Management to Decrease Schoolyard Aggression and Increase Pro-Social Behaviour in Two Students with Behavioural Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficiencies in social competence constitute a significant problem for aggressive children. As a result, these children often experience difficulty interacting with peers in socially acceptable ways. Such problems are particularly exacerbated in the schoolyard, where rules are less defined and low levels of supervision prevail. The present study…

O'reilly, Mark F.; O'Halloran, Margaret; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Green, Vanessa; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Cannella, Helen; Olive, Melissa

2005-01-01

112

Self-injury and aggression in tuberous sclerosis complex: cross syndrome comparison and associated risk markers  

PubMed Central

Background Research reporting prevalence rates of self-injurious and aggressive behaviour in people with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is limited. No studies have compared rates of these behaviours in TSC with those in other syndrome groups matched for degree of disability or investigated risk markers for these behaviours in TSC. Methods Data from the Challenging Behaviour Questionnaire were collected for 37 children, aged 4 to 15 years, with TSC. Odds ratios were used to compare rates of self-injury and aggression in children with TSC with children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X, Cornelia de Lange and Down syndromes. Characteristics were measured using the Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire, the Activity Questionnaire, the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire, the Wessex Behaviour Schedule and the revised Non-communicating Children Pain Checklist. Mann-Whitney U analyses were used to compare characteristics between individuals with self-injury and aggression and those not showing these behaviours. Results Rates of self-injury and aggression in TSC were 27% and 50%, respectively. These are high but not significantly different from rates in children with Down syndrome or other syndrome groups. Both self-injury and aggression were associated with stereotyped and pain-related behaviours, low mood, hyperactivity, impulsivity and repetitive use of language. Children who engaged in self-injury also had lower levels of interest and pleasure and showed a greater degree of ‘insistence on sameness’ than children who did not self-injure. Aggression was associated with repetitive behaviour. The majority of these associations remained significant when the association with level of adaptive functioning was controlled for. Conclusions Behavioural profiles can be used to identify those most at risk of developing self-injury and aggression. Further research is warranted to understand the influence of such internal factors as mood, ASD symptomatology and pain on challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability.

2014-01-01

113

Challenging behaviour in a patient with schizophrenia and a 1q21.1 duplication.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 42-year-old man with a 22-year history of schizophrenia, necessitating frequent detentions under the Mental Health Act for relapses in his mental state and challenging behaviour which has also brought him into contact with the law. His illness has proven resistant to treatment with conventional strategies and he developed serious priapism with clozapine. His challenging behaviour, some of which is not felt to be associated with schizophrenia, complicates any discharge planning from his current detention. Based on a history of childhood cardiac disease, and mildly atypical facies, a genetic screen was requested which showed a 1q21.1 duplication, likely causal in his schizophrenic illness. A review of proteins coded by the locus of the duplication did not reveal any specific targets for pharmacotherapy. PMID:24973346

Gulati, Gautam; Behrman, Sophie; Khosla, Vivek; Murphy, Valerie

2014-01-01

114

Aggressive behaviour and physiological responses to pheromones are strongly impaired in mice deficient for the olfactory G-protein -subunit G8.  

PubMed

Heterotrimeric G-proteins are critical players in the transduction mechanisms underlying odorant and pheromonal signalling. In the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the adult mouse, two different G-protein complexes have been identified. G?o?2?8 is preferentially expressed in the basal neurons and coexpresses with type-2 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V2Rs) whereas G?i2?2?2 is found in the apical neurons and coexpresses with type-1 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V1Rs). V2R-expressing neurons project to the posterior accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) whereas neurons expressing V1Rs send their axon to the anterior AOB. G?8 is also expressed in developing olfactory neurons where this protein is probably associated with Go. Here, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of the G?8 gene and investigated the behavioural effects and the physiological consequences of this mutation. G?8(-/-) mice show a normal development of the main olfactory epithelium; moreover, they do not display major deficits in odour perception. In contrast, the VNO undergoes a slow but remarkable loss of basal neurons starting from the fourth postnatal week, with a 40% reduction of cells at 2 months and 70% at 1 year. This loss is associated with a reduced early-gene expression in the posterior AOB of mice stimulated with pheromones. More interestingly, the G?8 deletion specifically leads to a reduced pheromone-mediated aggressiveness in both males and females, all other socio-sexual behaviours remaining unaltered. This study defines a specific role for G?8 in maintenance of the neuronal population of the VNO and in the mechanisms of pheromonal signalling that involve the aggressive behaviour towards conspecifics. PMID:23836683

Montani, Giorgia; Tonelli, Simone; Sanghez, Valentina; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palanza, Paola; Zimmer, Andreas; Tirindelli, Roberto

2013-08-15

115

Teacher Involvement in the Development of Function-Based Behaviour Intervention Plans for Students with Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines literature published since 1997 on functional behaviour assessment (FBA) and behaviour intervention plans (BIPs), involving school-based personnel, for children identified as having or being at risk of emotional/behavioural disorder (E/BD) in school settings. Of interest was the level of involvement of school-based personnel…

O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

2009-01-01

116

Differential gene expression in brain tissues of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Canine behavioural problems, in particular aggression, are important reasons for euthanasia of otherwise healthy dogs. Aggressive behaviour in dogs also represents an animal welfare problem and a public threat. Elucidating the genetic background of adverse behaviour can provide valuable information to breeding programs and aid the development of drugs aimed at treating undesirable behaviour. With the intentions of identifying

Jørn Våge; Tina B Bønsdorff; Ellen Arnet; Aage Tverdal; Frode Lingaas

2010-01-01

117

Investigating Low Adaptive Behaviour and Presence of the Triad of Impairments Characteristic of Autistic Spectrum Disorder as Indicators of Risk for Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Identification of possible personal indicators of risk for challenging behaviour has generally been through association in cross-sectional prevalence studies, but few analyses have controlled for intercorrelation between potential risk factors. The aim was to investigate the extent to which gender, age, presence of the triad of…

Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

2013-01-01

118

A tale of two foxes--case reports: 1. Radial nerve paralysis treated with acupuncture in a wild fox. 2. Acupuncture in a fox with aggressive and obsessive behaviour.  

PubMed

Case 1. This is believed to be the first report of acupuncture treatment for traumatic radial nerve paralysis in a wild fox. From the first treatment, improvement in the range of mobility and sensation of the limb was evident. Additionally, the attitude of this wild animal changed from fear and aggression to complete cooperation: he lay peacefully during every treatment in a calm, drowsy state. Case 2. This reports the calming effects of acupuncture on a fox which had been showing aggressive behaviour and obsessive circling following toxoplasma infection. PMID:16430128

Lloret, Lorena; Hayhoe, Simon

2005-12-01

119

Aggressive fibromatosis.  

PubMed

Aggressive (deep or desmoid-type) fibromatoses are locally infiltrative collagen-forming tumours with potential for recurrence but not metastasis. They exert their clinical effects primarily in relation to location and have variable biological behaviour. In sporadic cases there are somatic mutations in the ?-catenin (CTNNB1) gene on 3p21, resulting in immunohistochemically demonstrable overexpression in nuclei. Fibromatosis in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) harbours inactivating germline mutations in the desmoid region of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene on 5q21-q22. The differential diagnosis includes other myofibroblastic lesions, perineurioma, low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma and, in the abdomen, gastrointestinal stromal tumour and liposarcoma with 'low-grade' dedifferentiation. The primary management is surgical, though some desmoids cease to grow and can be watched. Other therapies have a role in stabilising growth or shrinking tumours. Although no single therapy is effective in all cases, available modalities including irradiation, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition can be of value in appropriate clinicopathological subgroups. PMID:24378386

Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin

2014-02-01

120

Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units  

PubMed Central

Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n?=?52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n?=?23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n?=?10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs occasionally and is problematic. A range of causative factors contribute to the onset of this behaviour. Attitudes toward the management of aggression are complex and somewhat contradictory and can affect the way staff manage this behaviour; therefore, wide-ranging initiatives are needed to prevent and deal with this type of challenging behaviour.

2014-01-01

121

Enhanced Aggression Replacement Training with Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An enhanced form of Aggression Replacement Training is being used with children and youth with autism spectrum disorder and particularly those with Asperger's Syndrome who present behavioural challenges. Initial results in a Norwegian centre indicate that, with some modifications and enhancements, the programme is an appropriate strategy for…

Moynahan, Luke

2003-01-01

122

Reliability and Utility of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Tool (BSP-QEII) for Auditing and Quality Development in Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Having an objective means of evaluating the quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) could assist service providers and statutory authorities to monitor and improve the quality of support provided to people with intellectual disability (ID) who exhibit challenging behaviour. The Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II…

McVilly, K.; Webber, L.; Paris, M.; Sharp, G.

2013-01-01

123

Impact of Training on Cognitive Representation of Challenging Behaviour in Staff Working with Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Cognitive representations of challenging behaviour among staff may influence therapeutic outcomes. This study looked at how cognitive dimensions of Identity, Cause, Consequences, Emotional Reaction and Treatment/Control are affected by training. Materials and Methods: A theoretically derived questionnaire was used to measure the impact…

Campbell, Martin; Hogg, James

2008-01-01

124

Perceptions of Effective Support Services to Families with Disabled Children whose Behaviour is Severely Challenging: A Multi-Informant Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Specialist short break services aim to provide enhanced support to family carers as a means of preventing children whose behaviours severely challenge from being placed in full-time residential care. To date, there is limited evidence as to the functioning and effectiveness of such services. Methods: In all, 17 children were selected…

McConkey, Roy; Gent, Clare; Scowcroft, Emma

2013-01-01

125

Staff Stress and Morale in Community-Based Settings for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There are no studies that have compared outcomes for staff in different types of supported accommodation for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. This study looked at stress, morale and intended job turnover in staff in two types of community-based residential supports: non-congregate settings where the…

Robertson, Janet; Hatton, Chris; Felce, David; Meek, Andrea; Carr, Deborah; Knapp, Martin; Hallam, Angela; Emerson, Eric; Pinkney, Lisa; Caesar, Emma; Lowe, Kathy

2005-01-01

126

Out-of-Area Provision for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour in England: Policy Perspectives and Clinical Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The use of out-of-area placements to meet the needs of individuals with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour has been increasing in the UK. Such placements claim a large proportion of service budget expenditure; therefore, it is important to consider whether they offer the best-quality care. This paper reports on current…

Barron, D. Andrea; Hassiotis, A.; Paschos, D.

2011-01-01

127

Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: The Costs and Outcomes of In- and Out-of-Area Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: People with severe challenging behaviour are vulnerable to exclusion from local services and removal to out-of-area placements if locally available supported accommodation is insufficient to meet their needs. There are concerns about the high costs and potentially poorer outcomes of out-of-area placements but relatively little is known…

Perry, J.; Allen, D. G.; Pimm, C.; Meek, A.; Lowe, K.; Groves, S.; Cohen, D.; Felce, D.

2013-01-01

128

The Effect of You Can Do It! Education on the Emotional Resilience of Primary School Students with Social, Emotional, Behavioural and Achievement Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of the You Can Do It! Education (YCDI) cognitive-behavioural intervention program on the emotional resilience of students in grades 4 to 6 who were identified with achievement, behavioural, social and\\/or emotional challenges. 61 students were randomly assigned to either small groups receiving an eight week YCDI cognitive-behavioural intervention or small groups receiving \\

Michael E. Bernard

129

A General Practice-Based Study of the Relationship between Indicators of Mental Illness and Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Existing studies tend to show a positive association between mental illness and challenging behaviour among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, whether the association is direct or artefactual is less clear. The purpose was to explore the association between psychiatric status and level of challenging behaviour, while…

Felce, D.; Kerr, M.; Hastings, R. P.

2009-01-01

130

A Comparison of Challenging Behaviour in an Adult Group with Down's Syndrome and Dementia Compared with an Adult Down's Syndrome Group without Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in adults with Down's syndrome with and without signs of dementia. Care staff were interviewed using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community version (M.G. Aman & N.N. Singh, Slosson, East Aurora, NY, 1994), to investigate the frequency and severity of challenging

Huxley, Adam; Van-Schaik, Paul; Witts, Paul

2005-01-01

131

Aggressive Angiomyxoma  

PubMed Central

Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid) matrix.[1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence.[2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity.

Padmavathy, L.; Rao, L. Lakshmana; Lakshmi, M. Dhana; Sylvester, N.

2014-01-01

132

The frontal lobe and aggression  

PubMed Central

Frontal lesions often lead to psychosocial problems. It is not surprising that frontal lobe dysfunctions have been proposed to underlie antisocial behaviour in individuals without apparent lesions. However, physical aggression and violence have never been systematically related to acquired lesions. Whereas, traditional neuropsychological testing identifies problems in cognitive and emotional information processing, recent brain-imaging studies have revealed both the frontal structural and functional underpinnings of antisocial behaviour. Careful characterization of antisocial behaviour subtypes seems to indicate that cognitive-neuropsychological function is systematically poor in physical aggression and hyperactivity. Recent refinements point to biological and genetic moderators of that association.

Seguin, Jean R.

2014-01-01

133

Human Aggression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents an approach to human aggression concerned with environmental stimuli. Details of recent studies and analysis of aversive stimuli and reinforcing stimuli are presented. The paper concludes by suggesting some possible generalizations from...

R. E. Ulrich J. E. Favell

1968-01-01

134

Biomarkers of aggressive pituitary adenomas.  

PubMed

Pituitary adenomas exhibit a wide range of behaviors. The prediction of aggressive or malignant behavior in pituitary adenomas remains challenging; however, the utility of biomarkers is rapidly evolving. In this review, we discuss potential biomarkers as they relate to aggressive behavior in pituitary adenomas. While detailed histological subtyping remains the best independent predictor of aggressive behavior in the majority of cases, evidence suggests that the additional analyses of FGFR4, MMP, PTTG, Ki-67, p53, and deletions in chromosome 11 may contribute to decisions concerning management of aggressive pituitary adenomas. PMID:22822048

Mete, Ozgur; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L

2012-10-01

135

Staff observation aggression scale, SOAS: Presentation and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACf -A new psychiatric report and rating scale assessing severity and frequency of aggressive behaviour is presented and evaluated. It is based on the staff's standardized re- ports of aggressive incidents. By using a special aggression report form, comprehensive and standardized information is obtained, thereby permitting scoring and further analysis of dif- ferent aspects of aggressive incidents. The reliability of

T. Palmstierna; B. Wistedt

1987-01-01

136

Problematic Sexual Behaviour in a Secure Psychiatric Setting: Challenges and Developing Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexually abusive behaviours are common in a forensic psychiatric population, both before admission and while hospitalized. A survey of our medium security facility found that 41% of patients had a history of sexually abusive behaviours, ranging from convictions for sexual assault through to current episodes of sexual harassment. Most forensic…

Hughes, Gareth V.; Hebb, Jo

2005-01-01

137

Prevalence of Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Mental Retardation and Challenging Behaviour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 165 adults with mental retardation was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms, mental retardation level, and challenging behavior. Challenging behavior was associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety and psychosis, and not with depression. No association was found between anxiety and…

Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter

2003-01-01

138

The Impact of Challenging Student Behaviour upon Teachers' Lives in a Secondary School: Teachers' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Tina Axup, an educational psychologist working in Southend-on-Sea, and Irvine Gersch, director of educational and child psychology programmes at the University of East London, describe a small-scale study of teachers' attitudes regarding the impact of student behaviour on their professional lives. Anecdotal evidence within a local…

Axup, Tina; Gersch, Irvine

2008-01-01

139

The Impact of Teaching Thinking Skills as Habits of Mind to Young Children with Challenging Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article provides a literature review and describes a study examining the effect of teaching young children (7-12 years of age) with social and emotional difficulties to use intelligent behaviours habitually when faced with a problem. While embedding a "habits of mind" (HOM) approach into the whole-school programme has become popular in…

Burgess, Jill

2012-01-01

140

The impact of teaching thinking skills as habits of mind to young children with challenging behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article provides a literature review and describes a study examining the effect of teaching young children (7–12 years of age) with social and emotional difficulties to use intelligent behaviours habitually when faced with a problem. While embedding a ‘habits of mind’ (HOM) approach into the whole-school programme has become popular in many Australian schools, as it is in

Jill Burgess

2012-01-01

141

Aggressiveness, Anger and Eating Disorders: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anger and aggressive behaviours, especially those self-directed, are frequent in subjects suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They increase the complexity of the clinical features, change the prognosis and cause a more difficult management of these disorders. In order to elucidate the complex relationships between eating disorders, anger and aggressiveness, the history of traumatic experiences, the prevalence of dissociative,

Elisabetta Truglia; Edoardo Mannucci; Stefano Lassi; Carlo Maria Rotella; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca

2006-01-01

142

Role of psychotherapy in managing a case of generalised aggressive periodontitis.  

PubMed

Generalised aggressive periodontitis is characterised by "generalized interproximal attachment loss affecting atleast three permanent teeth other than first molars and incisors." The management of generalised aggressive periodontitis is challenging as it involves an interdisciplinary approach. When the patient presents himself late to the clinician, the tooth and bone loss can be up to 60%. Natural teeth and alveolar bone contribute to the contour and aesthetics of the face. Loss of teeth in younger age may lead to attitude, behaviour changes and may cause psychological depression and withdrawal from society. The main distinguishing feature of this case report is the psychological counselling provided along with periodontal and prosthetic treatment. PMID:25035440

Priyadarshini, D; Nadig, Prasad; Deshpande, Neeraj; Deshpande, Anshula

2014-01-01

143

Genetics of aggression.  

PubMed

Aggression mediates competition for food, mating partners, and habitats and, among social animals, establishes stable dominance hierarchies. In humans, abnormal aggression is a hallmark of neuropsychiatric disorders and can be elicited by environmental factors acting on an underlying genetic susceptibility. Identifying the genetic architecture that predisposes to aggressive behavior in people is challenging because of difficulties in quantifying the phenotype, genetic heterogeneity, and uncontrolled environmental conditions. Studies on mice have identified single-gene mutations that result in hyperaggression, contingent on genetic background. These studies can be complemented by systems genetics approaches in Drosophila melanogaster, in which mutational analyses together with genome-wide transcript analyses, artificial selection studies, and genome-wide analysis of epistasis have revealed that a large segment of the genome contributes to the manifestation of aggressive behavior with widespread epistatic interactions. Comparative genomic analyses based on the principle of evolutionary conservation are needed to enable a complete dissection of the neurogenetic underpinnings of this universal fitness trait. PMID:22934647

Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

2012-01-01

144

Relational Aggression, Overt Aggression, and Friendship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study of aggression and friendship involving 315 children, ages 9-12, indicated that friendships of relatively aggressive children were characterized by relatively high levels of intimacy, exclusivity/jealousy, and relational aggression within the friendship context. In contrast, the friendships of overtly aggressive children were…

Grotpeter, Jennifer K.; Crick, Nicki R.

1996-01-01

145

On the consequences of aggressive male mate-locating behaviour and micro-climate for female host plant use in the butterfly Lycaena hippothoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of ecological resources and their significance for males and females may vary considerably. Intersexual behavioural\\u000a interactions may lead, combined with particular resource configurations, to sexual spatial segregation. We investigated this\\u000a issue relative to host plant use in females of the purple-edged copper butterfly, Lycaena hippothoe. Males exhibited nectar resource-based territoriality, which is an uncommon mate-locating system in butterflies.

Camille Turlure; Hans Van Dyck

2009-01-01

146

Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.  

PubMed

Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:24712289

Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

2013-01-01

147

Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

2014-01-01

148

Psychopharmacology of Aggression in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The management of aggression in patients with schizophrenia is a complex and challenging clinical dilemma. It also is greatly influenced by prevailing societal and medicolegal considerations regarding the perceived associations between violence and mental illness. This article provides a succinct account of a complex area and offers evidence for available treatments to reduce the occurrence of violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia.

Buckley, Peter; Citrome, Leslie; Nichita, Carmen; Vitacco, Michael

2011-01-01

149

"My Heart Is Always Where He Is". Perspectives of Mothers of Young People with Severe Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour Living at Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has focussed on the perspectives of families caring for someone with severe or profound intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. The main aim of this research was to gain understanding of the experiences and perspectives of families, especially mothers, of young people with these complex needs, including attitudes to…

Hubert, Jane

2011-01-01

150

What lies beneath the face of aggression?  

PubMed

Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, amygdala reactivity to angry faces was positively correlated with aggression, but only among men with relatively large FWHRs. The patterns of association were specific to angry facial expressions and unique to men. These links may reflect the common influence of pubertal testosterone on craniofacial growth and development of neural circuitry underlying aggression. Amygdala reactivity may also represent a plausible pathway through which FWHR may have evolved to represent an honest indicator of conspecific threat, namely by reflecting the responsiveness of neural circuitry mediating aggressive behavior. PMID:22198969

Carré, Justin M; Murphy, Kelly R; Hariri, Ahmad R

2013-02-01

151

What lies beneath the face of aggression?  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, amygdala reactivity to angry faces was positively correlated with aggression, but only among men with relatively large FWHRs. The patterns of association were specific to angry facial expressions and unique to men. These links may reflect the common influence of pubertal testosterone on craniofacial growth and development of neural circuitry underlying aggression. Amygdala reactivity may also represent a plausible pathway through which FWHR may have evolved to represent an honest indicator of conspecific threat, namely by reflecting the responsiveness of neural circuitry mediating aggressive behavior.

Murphy, Kelly R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

2013-01-01

152

Challenger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51L taken from camera site 39B-2/T3. From this camera position, a cloud of grey-brown smoke can be seen on the right side of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) on a line directly across from the letter 'U' in United States. This was the first visible sign that an SRB joint breach may have occured. On January 28, 1986 frigid overnight temperatures caused normally pliable rubber O-ring seals and putty that are designed to seal and establish joint integrity between the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) joint segments, to become hard and non- flexible. At the instant of SRB ignition, tremendous stresses and pressures occur within the SRB casing and especially at the joint attachmentment points. The failure of the O-rings and putty to 'seat' properly at motor ignition, caused hot exhaust gases to blow by the seals and putty. During Challenger's ascent, this hot gas 'blow by' ultimately cut a swath completely through the steel booster casing; and like a welder's torch, began cutting into the External Tank (ET). It is believed that the ET was compromised in several locations starting in the aft at the initial point where SRB joint failure occured. The ET hydrogen tank is believed to have been breached first, with continuous rapid incremental failure of both the ET and SRB. A chain reaction of events occurring in milliseconds culminated in a massive explosion. The orbiter Challenger was instantly ejected by the blast and went askew into the supersonic air flow. These aerodynamic forces caused structural shattering and complete destruction of the orbiter. Though it was concluded that the G-forces experienced during orbiter ejection and break-up were survivable, impact with the ocean surface was not. Tragically, all seven crewmembers perished.

1986-01-01

153

Intellectual functioning and aggression.  

PubMed

In a 22-year study, data were collected on aggressiveness and intellectual functioning in more than 600 subjects, their parents, and their children. Both aggression and intellectual functioning are reasonably stable in a subject's lifetime and perpetuate themselves across generations and within marriage pairs. Aggression in childhood was shown to interfere with the development of intellectual functioning and to be predictive of poorer intellectual achievement as an adult. Early IQ was related to early subject aggression but did not predict changes in aggression after age 8. On the other hand, differences between early IQ and intellectual achievement in middle adulthood were predictable from early aggressive behavior. A dual-process model was offered to explain the relation between intellectual functioning and aggressive behavior. We hypothesized that low intelligence makes the learning of aggressive responses more likely at an early age, and this aggressive behavior makes continued intellectual development more difficult. PMID:3820075

Huesmann, L R; Eron, L D; Yarmel, P W

1987-01-01

154

Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients filled in…

Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

2011-01-01

155

Mapping Brain Development and Aggression  

PubMed Central

Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field.

Paus, Tomas

2005-01-01

156

Aggressive Desmoplastic Fibromatosis - A Clinicians Dilemma Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Fibromatoses are a heterogeneous group of distinct entities which differ in biological behaviour, but arehistologically very similar. This group of fibrous tumor or tumor like lesions, present considerable difficulties in pathologic diagnosis. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) of the oral or para-oral structures is a very uncommon finding and its intra-osseous component is even relatively unusual. Such lesions with their origin from within the bone are termed desmoplastic fibromatosis (DF). These lesions must be distinguished from other fibroblastic tumors of the head and neck such as benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), fibrosarcoma, nerve sheath tumors and tumors of muscular origin. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of fibromatosis is to avoid an overdiagnosis of fibrosarcoma or an underdiagnosis of reactive fibrosis.Problems of differential diagnosis concern a wide range of diseases and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful in diagnosis. With respect to the patient’s post-operative well-being and if periodic follow-ups are guaranteed, the tumor should be carefully resected with only narrow safety margins. A rare case of aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis in a 12–year–old girl is presented in this article with emphasis on the need and challenges for diagnosing such lesions as they have to be differentiated from other soft tissue tumors which display borderline pathological features regarding benign or malignant behaviour. Synonyms listed for the same include extra-abdominal desmoids, extra-abdominal fibromatosis, desmoids tumor, aggressive fibromatosis, juvenile desmoids-type fibromatosis, infantile fibromatosis.

Manchanda, Adesh S; Narang, Ramandeep S; Arora, Preeti Chawla; Singh, Balwinder; Walia, Satinder

2013-01-01

157

Aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis - a clinicians dilemma case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Fibromatoses are a heterogeneous group of distinct entities which differ in biological behaviour, but arehistologically very similar. This group of fibrous tumor or tumor like lesions, present considerable difficulties in pathologic diagnosis. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) of the oral or para-oral structures is a very uncommon finding and its intra-osseous component is even relatively unusual. Such lesions with their origin from within the bone are termed desmoplastic fibromatosis (DF). These lesions must be distinguished from other fibroblastic tumors of the head and neck such as benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), fibrosarcoma, nerve sheath tumors and tumors of muscular origin. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of fibromatosis is to avoid an overdiagnosis of fibrosarcoma or an underdiagnosis of reactive fibrosis.Problems of differential diagnosis concern a wide range of diseases and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful in diagnosis. With respect to the patient's post-operative well-being and if periodic follow-ups are guaranteed, the tumor should be carefully resected with only narrow safety margins. A rare case of aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis in a 12-year-old girl is presented in this article with emphasis on the need and challenges for diagnosing such lesions as they have to be differentiated from other soft tissue tumors which display borderline pathological features regarding benign or malignant behaviour. Synonyms listed for the same include extra-abdominal desmoids, extra-abdominal fibromatosis, desmoids tumor, aggressive fibromatosis, juvenile desmoids-type fibromatosis, infantile fibromatosis. PMID:24392428

Manchanda, Adesh S; Narang, Ramandeep S; Arora, Preeti Chawla; Singh, Balwinder; Walia, Satinder

2013-11-01

158

What Is Aggressive Violence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses to a questionnaire dealing with what constitutes aggressive violence on television indicate that health care providers tend to rate items describing acts on television as more aggressive than television writers, producers, and executives do. (MBR)

Singer, Dorothy G.; Luca, Wendy

1985-01-01

159

The implementation of the serial trial intervention for pain and challenging behaviour in advanced dementia patients (STA OP!): a clustered randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pain (physical discomfort) and challenging behaviour are highly prevalent in nursing home residents with dementia: at any given time 45-80% of nursing home residents are in pain and up to 80% have challenging behaviour. In the USA Christine Kovach developed the serial trial intervention (STI) and established that this protocol leads to less discomfort and fewer behavioural symptoms in moderate to severe dementia patients. The present study will provide insight into the effects of implementation of the Dutch version of the STI-protocol (STA OP!) in comparison with a control intervention, not only on behavioural symptoms, but also on pain, depression, and quality of life. This article outlines the study protocol. Methods/Design The study is a cluster randomized controlled trial in 168 older people (aged >65 years) with mild or moderate dementia living in nursing homes. The clusters, Dutch nursing homes, are randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (training and implementation of the STA OP!-protocol) or the control condition (general training focusing on challenging behaviour and pain, but without the step-wise approach). Measurements take place at baseline, after 3 months (end of the STA OP! training period) and after 6 months. Primary outcome measures are symptoms of challenging behaviour (measured with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH)), and pain (measure with the Dutch version of the Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors (PACSLAC-D) and the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS-RAI) pain scale). Secondary outcome measures include symptoms of depression (Cornell and MDS-RAI depression scale), Quality of Live (Qualidem), changes in prescriptions of analgesics and psychotropic drugs, and the use of non-pharmacological comfort interventions (e.g. snoezelen, reminiscence therapy). Discussion The transfer from the American design to the Dutch design involved several changes due to the different organisation of healthcare systems. Specific strengths and limitations of the study are discussed. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR1967

2011-01-01

160

Intellectual Functioning and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 22-year study, data were collected on aggressiveness and intellectual functioning in more than 600 subjects, their parents, and their children. Both aggression and intellectual functioning are reasonably stable in a subject's lifetime and perpetuate themselves across generations and within marriage pairs. Aggression in childhood was shown to interfere with the development of intellectual functioning and to be predictive

L. Rowell Huesmann; Leonard D. Eron; Patty Warnick Yarmel

1987-01-01

161

The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

Diaz, Jose Luis

2010-01-01

162

Testosterone and Aggression: Berthold, Birds and Beyond  

PubMed Central

Berthold’s classic study of domesticated roosters in 1849 demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for the normal expression of aggressive behaviour. Although this conclusion is undoubtedly correct, field studies of wild songbirds have yielded important modifications and limitations of Berthold’s original hypothesis. For example, studies of the North American song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) during the breeding season reveal that not only does testosterone increase aggression, but aggressive interactions also increase plasma testosterone levels. Furthermore, in winter, nonbreeding song sparrows have low plasma testosterone levels but are very aggressive, and castration of nonbreeding song sparrows does not decrease aggression. Interestingly, an aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole) does decrease male aggression in the nonbreeding season, and the effects of fadrozole can be rescued with oestradiol. In winter, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the periphery can be metabolised within the brain to supply oestradiol to specific neural circuits. Additionally, oestradiol might be synthesised de novo from cholesterol entirely within the brain. These mechanisms may have evolved to avoid the ‘costs’ of circulating testosterone in the nonbreeding season. Recent studies in tropical birds, hamsters, and humans suggest that these neuroendocrine mechanisms are important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species.

Soma, K. K.

2010-01-01

163

Relationships between Hormones and Aggressive Behavior in Green Anole Lizards: An Analysis Using Structural Equation Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between aggressive behavior and circulating androgens in the context of agonistic social interaction and examined the effect of this interaction on the androgen–aggression relationship in response to a subsequent social challenge in male Anolis carolinensis lizards. Individuals comprising an aggressive encounter group were exposed to an aggressive conspecific male for 10 min per day during a

Eun-Jin Yang; Walter Wilczynski

2002-01-01

164

A Consultative Model for the Provision of Behavioural Supports to Children with Challenging Behaviour: Practical Approaches for the Development of School-Based Support Teams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a consultative model designed for providing behavioral supports to children with challenging behaviors. A rationale for the formation of behavioral support teams within school settings and strategies for promoting the on-going use of such a model are provided. The training of team members is also addressed. (Author/CR)

Wheeler, John J.; Hoover, John H.

1997-01-01

165

An experimental study of behavioural coping strategies in free-ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).  

PubMed

A fundamental goal of stress research is to understand how individuals cope with challenges. Studies on a range of vertebrate species suggest that three groups of behaviour--affiliative, aggressive and self-directed behaviours--serve as coping strategies. To date, experimental studies of coping behaviour have tended to be conducted in captive conditions; the limited number of studies in free-ranging or wild settings have been observational in nature. We investigated coping behaviours in free-ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Trentham Monkey Forest, UK, using an experimental playback approach to quantify subjects' responses to mildly aversive threat-grunts. Compared to silent control trials, playbacks of threat-grunts increased aggressive behaviours and one of the two self-directed behaviours examined (self-scratching). No such differences were seen for self-grooming, or for any affiliative behaviour. Elevations in the rate of one measure of aggression, lunging, were positively related to an average measure of adrenocortical activity (median faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels over the study period). Evidence from females in a variety of Old World monkey species, including Barbary macaques, indicates that affiliative behaviours have an important role in coping with stressful events in the medium to longer term. Our results suggest that, in the short term, female Barbary macaques may use aggressive rather than affiliative behaviours in response to mild stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering how coping mechanisms may vary over time after a stressor, and how coping mechanisms relate to adrenocortical activity. Playback approaches like ours provide a powerful, flexible tool to explore issues such as this in free-ranging and wild animal populations. PMID:22356252

Gustison, Morgan L; MacLarnon, Ann; Wiper, Sue; Semple, Stuart

2012-11-01

166

Anger and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Problems with anger and aggression represent two of the most common causes for referral for mental health treatment, often\\u000a because of the implications these problems have on social relationships. In some cases the aggressive and antisocial behavior\\u000a leads to social rejection by the people around them; in some cases the social rejection from others triggers escalating anger\\u000a and aggression, and

John E. Lochman; Tammy Barry; Nicole Powell; Laura Young

167

The relationship between three types of aggression and peer relations in elementary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have repeatedly found that aggression causes various internalizing and externalizing problems. Despite the robust relationship, exactly how aggression causes these problems remains unclear, although it is plausible to postulate that this occurs both directly and indirectly (via other behavioural factors). One possible indirect factor might be the aggravation of peer relations. The poor peer relations of aggressive children

Katsuyuki Yamasaki; Noriko Nishida

2009-01-01

168

Bullying among Girls in Japan and Hong Kong: An Examination of the Frustration-Aggression Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One widely accepted explanation of bullying, known as the aggressive-motive thesis, assumes that bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour triggered by external stress. However, recent evidences have suggested a different explanation, known as the frustration-aggression thesis, which asserts that bullying is a psychological defense triggered by…

Tam, Frank Wai-ming; Taki, Mitsuru

2007-01-01

169

Bullying among girls in Japan and Hong Kong: An examination of the frustration-aggression model  

Microsoft Academic Search

One widely accepted explanation of bullying, known as the aggressive-motive thesis, assumes that bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour triggered by external stress. However, recent evidences have suggested a different explanation, known as the frustration-aggression thesis, which asserts that bullying is a psychological defense triggered by external stress to reduce anxiety. The present investigation is an attempt to compare

Frank Wai-ming Tam; Mitsuru Taki

2007-01-01

170

Assessment of Interpersonal Risk (AIR) in Adults with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour--Piloting a New Risk Assessment Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new risk assessment tool, "Assessment of Interpersonal Risk" (AIR), was piloted and evaluated to measure risk factors and compatibility between individuals living in an assessment and treatment unit in one NHS area. The adults with learning disabilities in this unit had severe and enduring mental health problems and/or behaviour that is severely…

Campbell, Martin; McCue, Michael

2013-01-01

171

Challenges and Management Frameworks of Residential Schools for Students with Severe Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study by Stella Suk-Ching Chong, an assistant professor, and Ka-wai Leung, a teaching fellow, both at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, focuses on the perspectives of hostel staff from six residential schools for students with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. Individual or focus group interviews were conducted to explore the…

Chong, Stella Suk-ching; Leung, Ka-wai

2012-01-01

172

Bullying in Middle School as a Function of Insecure Attachment and Aggressive Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested a model for understanding peer bullying as the product of aggressive attitudes and insecure attachment. A sample of 110 sixth grade students completed self-report measures that assessed attitudes toward the use of aggressive behaviour with peers and distinguished secure from insecure parental attachment. Bullying behaviour was…

Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey G.

2009-01-01

173

The challenges of understanding mammalian cognition and memory-based behaviours: an interactive learning and memory systems approach.  

PubMed

Various research problems are presented to illustrate the utility of using the interactive multiple learning and memory systems view to better understand normal and abnormal manifestations of mammalian behaviour. Evidence for incidental learning and memory processes is presented and various implications of this work are discussed. Empirical and theoretical work directed at understanding the cognitive and non-cognitive processes associated with place learning in the water task and context conditioning during aversive events is also presented. PMID:15555681

McDonald, Robert J; Hong, Nancy S; Devan, Bryan D

2004-11-01

174

Aggression: Psychopharmacologic Management  

PubMed Central

Aggression may be part of a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. The appropriate treatment requires that the physician recognize the underlying cause. Pharmacologic agents may form part of the overall treatment of the patient. The number of possible drugs for treating aggression has expanded rapidly, and it is important that the physician be familiar with the various options avilable.

Conlon, Patrick; Frommhold, Kristine

1989-01-01

175

Neuropsychiatry of Aggression  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient.

Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

2010-01-01

176

Automatic sources of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review research on automaticity with particular relevance to aggression. Once triggered by environmental features, preconscious automatic processes run to completion without any conscious monitoring. The basic experimental technique for studying automatic processes is priming. We review studies showing that priming, including subliminal priming, of mental constructs related to aggression leads to reliable effects on perceptions, judgments,

Alexander Todorov; John A. Bargh

2002-01-01

177

Effects of an experimental short-term cortisol challenge on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus in mesocosm and stream environments.  

PubMed

The consequences of stress on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus outside the reproductive period were studied using a single intra-coelomic injection of cortisol, suspended in coconut butter, to experimentally raise plasma cortisol levels. Behaviour between cortisol-treated, sham-treated (injected with coconut butter) and control S. atromaculatus was compared in a mesocosm system, using a passive integrated transponder array, and in a natural stream system (excluding shams), using surgically implanted radio transmitters. While laboratory time-course studies revealed that the cortisol injection provided a physiologically relevant challenge, causing prolonged (c. 3 days) elevations of plasma cortisol similar to that achieved with a standardized chasing protocol, no differences in fine-scale movements were observed between cortisol-treated, sham-treated and control S. atromaculatus nor in the large-scale movements of cortisol-treated and control S. atromaculatus. Moreover, no differences were observed in diel activity patterns among treatments. Differential mortality, however, occurred starting 10 days after treatment where cortisol-treated S. atromaculatus exhibited nearly twice as many mortalities as shams and controls. These results suggest that, although the experimental manipulation of cortisol titres was sufficient to cause mortality in some individuals, there were compensatory mechanisms that maintained behaviours (i.e. including activity and movement) prior to death. This study is one of the first to use experimental cortisol implants outside a laboratory environment and during the non-reproductive period and yields insight into how wild animals respond to additional challenges (in this case elevated cortisol) using ecologically meaningful endpoints. PMID:23557296

Nagrodski, A; Murchie, K J; Stamplecoskie, K M; Suski, C D; Cooke, S J

2013-04-01

178

Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

2014-03-01

179

Steroid hormones and aggression in female Galápagos marine iguanas.  

PubMed

We studied steroid hormone patterns and aggression during breeding in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Females display vigorously towards courting males after copulating (female-male aggression), as well as fight for and defend nest sites against other females (female-female aggression). To understand the neuroendocrine basis of this aggressive behavior, we examined changes in testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), corticosterone (CORT), and progesterone (P4) during the mating and nesting periods, and then measured levels in nesting females captured during aggressive interactions. Testosterone reached maximal levels during the mating stage when female-male aggression was most common, and increased slightly, but significantly, during the nesting stage when female-female aggression was most common. However, fighting females had significantly lower T, but higher E2 and P4, than non-fighting females. It remains unclear whether these changes in hormone levels during aggressive interactions are a cause or a consequence of a change in behavior. Our results support the "challenge hypothesis", but suggest that E2 and/or P4 may increase in response to aggressive challenges in females just as T does in males. Females may be rapidly aromatizing T to elevate circulating levels of E2 during aggressive interactions. This hypothesis could explain why non-fighting females had slightly elevated baseline T, but extremely low E2, during stages when aggressive interactions were most common. Although P4 increased rapidly during aggressive encounters, it is unclear whether it acts directly to affect behavior, or indirectly via conversion to E2. The rapid production and conversion of E2 and P4 may be an important mechanism underlying female aggression in vertebrates. PMID:15916763

Rubenstein, Dustin R; Wikelski, Martin

2005-09-01

180

Race, Gender, and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lena’s words capture the dilemma experienced by many young marginal-ized girls today, but which seem especially true for young\\u000a immigrant and refugee girls (Chesney-Lind, 2001; Mayeda, Chesney-Lind, & Koo, 2001). To fit in, to survive, they may turn to aggression; otherwise they may find themselves the target for aggression. Numerous\\u000a authors in this text focus upon individual risk factors to

Margaret A. Jackson

181

Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

2013-01-01

182

School Aggression and Dispositional Aggression among Middle School Boys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We examined the relationship between dispositional (trait) aggression and administrative reports of school aggression among 100 adolescent male participants from an urban middle school. Regression analyses indicated that dispositional aggression accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in administrative reports of school aggression.

Ballard, Mary E.; Fleming, Willie C.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela

2004-01-01

183

Public Health Genomics and Genetic Test Evaluation: The Challenge of Conducting Behavioural Research on the Utility of Lifestyle-Genetic Tests  

PubMed Central

Human genetics research is increasingly concerned with multifactorial conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, which are influenced not only by genetic but also lifestyle factors such as diet and smoking. Although the results of ‘lifestyle-genetic’ tests using this information could conceivably motivate lifestyle changes in the future, companies are already selling such tests and related lifestyle advice commercially. Some academics and lobby groups have condemned the companies for selling these tests in advance of scientific support. Others are concerned that the tests may not motivate lifestyle improvements, instead causing distress in people receiving adverse test results and complacency in those receiving reassuring results. There is currently no regulatory oversight of genetic test utility, despite consensus in the Public Health Genomics community that clinical utility (including psychological and behavioural impact) of all emerging genetic tests should be evaluated before being introduced for individual use. Clearly, empirical data in this area is much needed, to inform understanding of the potential utility of these tests, and of whether stricter regulation of commercial exploitation is needed. In this article, we review the current situation regarding lifestyle-genetic tests, and discuss the challenges inherent in conducting this kind of behavioural research in the genomics era.

Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane; Humphries, Steve E.

2008-01-01

184

Family and personal characteristics of aggressive Nigerian boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To identify the family and child determinants of aggressive behaviour in Nigerian elementary school boys and to compare the findings with previous ones from Western studies.Methods: Forty-seven aggressive boys from four elementary schools in Lagos, Nigeria were compared with 47 matched pro-social boys. Teacher rating and peer nomination were combined to select subjects. The subjects and their parents were

Cornelius C Ani; Sally Grantham-McGregor

1998-01-01

185

Mental disorder in adults with intellectual disability. 2: The rate of behaviour disorders among a community-based population aged between 16 and 64 years.  

PubMed

Despite the difficulty of defining behaviour disorder, most previous studies have reported a high rate of behaviour disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the present study was to establish the overall rate and types of behaviour disorders in a population-based sample of adults with ID. The other aim was to explore the possible risk factors that are associated with the overall rate as well as different types of behaviour disorders. One hundred and one adults with ID aged between 16 and 64 years were randomly selected from a sample of 246 such adults, i.e. those who were known to the Vale of Glamorgan Social Services Department in South Wales, UK. Thirteen behaviour disorders were rated according to the Disability Assessment Schedule. Background data on subjects were also collected, and were subsequently analysed to assess the relationship between different risk factors and behaviour disorders. Sixty-one subjects (60.4%) had at least one behaviour disorder of any severity or frequency. Twenty-three per cent of subjects showed aggression, 24% self-injurious behaviour, 36% temper tantrum, 26% overactivity, 29% screaming, 38% attention-seeking behaviour, 20% objectionable habits, 18% night-time disturbance and 12% of subjects showed destructiveness. Statistically significant associations were seen between the rate of overall behaviour disorder and the use of psychotropic medication, and between family and group home residence. The rate of aggression was significantly associated with the use of psychotropic medication. The rate of self-injurious behaviour was significantly associated with the severity of ID, female gender and poor communication abilities. The rate of temper tantrum was significantly associated with the use of psychotropic medication. Twenty-four subjects showed severe or frequent aggression, destructiveness, self-injury or temper tantrum, and 11 individuals showed real challenging behaviours. Severe behaviour problems were significantly associated with female gender, severity of ID, the presence of a history of epilepsy and attendance at day activities. PMID:11737537

Deb, S; Thomas, M; Bright, C

2001-12-01

186

Hormonal dynamics during mate choice in the northern pintail: a test of the ‘challenge’ hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous mate choice experiments, we found no relationship between dominance rank and pairing success in male northern pintails,Anas acutaOnce chosen by a female, however, males became aggressive, initiated fights with higher-ranked males and quickly established dominance. In the present study, we tested a variation of the ‘challenge’ hypothesis, that the behavioural stimuli associated with acquiring and defending a mate

LISA GUMINSKI SORENSON; PAUL M NOLAN; ANDREA M BROWN; SCOTT R DERRICKSON; STEVEN L MONFORT

1997-01-01

187

Treatment of aggressive periodontitis.  

PubMed

Despite etiological differences between aggressive and chronic periodontitis, the treatment concept for aggressive periodontitis is largely similar to that for chronic periodontitis. The goal of treatment is to create a clinical condition that is conducive to retaining as many teeth as possible for as long as possible. When a diagnosis has been made and risk factors have been identified, active treatment is commenced. The initial phase of active treatment consists of mechanical debridement, either alone or supplemented with antimicrobial drugs. Scaling and root planing has been shown to be effective in improving clinical indices, but does not always guarantee long-term stability. Antimicrobials can play a significant role in controlling aggressive periodontitis. Few studies have been published on this subject for localized aggressive periodontitis, but generalized aggressive periodontitis has been subject to more scrutiny. Studies have demonstrated that systemic antibiotics as an adjuvant to scaling and root planing are more effective in controlling disease compared with scaling and root planing alone or with supplemental application of local antibiotics or antiseptics. It has also become apparent that antibiotics ought to be administered with, or just after, mechanical debridement. Several studies have shown that regimens of amoxicillin combined with metronidazole or regimens of clindamycin are the most effective and are preferable to regimens containing doxycycline. Azithromycin has been shown to be a valid alternative to the regimen of amoxicillin plus metronidazole. A limited number of studies have been published on surgical treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but the studies available show that the effect can be comparable with the effect on patients with chronic periodontitis, provided that proper oral hygiene is maintained, a strict maintenance program is followed and modifiable risk factors are controlled. Both access surgery and regenerative techniques have shown good results in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Once good periodontal health has been obtained, patients must be enrolled in a strict maintenance program that is directed toward controlling risk factors for disease recurrence and tooth loss. The most significant risk factors are noncompliance with regular maintenance care, smoking, high gingival bleeding index and poor plaque control. There is no evidence to suggest that daily use of antiseptic agents should be part of the supportive periodontal therapy for aggressive periodontitis. PMID:24738589

Teughels, Wim; Dhondt, Rutger; Dekeyser, Christel; Quirynen, Marc

2014-06-01

188

Student Behaviour Self-Monitoring Enabling Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…

Jull, Stephen K.

2009-01-01

189

The Development and Utility of a Program Theory: Lessons from an Evaluation of a Reputed Exemplary Residential Support Service for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour in Victoria, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Adults with severe challenging behaviour can achieve good "quality of life" outcomes in small supported accommodation services. Yet, the research indicates that they typically experience poorer outcomes than other adults with intellectual disability. This raises questions about the degree to which research has informed program design…

Clement, Tim; Bigby, Christine

2011-01-01

190

TO BARK OR NOT TO BARK: VOCALIZATIONS BY RED FOXES SELECTED FOR TAMENESS OR AGGRESSIVENESS TOWARD HUMANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we classify call structures and compare vocalizations toward humans by captive red foxes Vulpes vulpes, artificially selected for behaviour: 25 domesticated, or “Tame” animals, selected for tameness toward people, 25 “Aggressive” animals, selected for aggression toward people, and 25 “Unselected” control foxes, representing the “wild” model of vocal behaviour. In total, 12,964 calls were classified visually from

S. S. GOGOLEVA; J. A. VOLODIN; E. V. VOLODINA; L. N. TRUT

2008-01-01

191

The Moderating Effect of Parental Warmth on the Association between Spanking and Child Aggression: A Longitudinal Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, this study analysed the stability of child aggressive behaviour beginning in infancy and tested whether spanking when the child was 36 months was associated with aggressive child behaviour among three ethnic groups and whether maternal warmth moderated the effect of spanking on…

Stacks, Ann Michele; Oshio, Toko; Gerard, Jean; Roe, Jacqueline

2009-01-01

192

The relationship between three types of aggression and peer relations in elementary school children.  

PubMed

Previous studies have repeatedly found that aggression causes various internalizing and externalizing problems. Despite the robust relationship, exactly how aggression causes these problems remains unclear, although it is plausible to postulate that this occurs both directly and indirectly (via other behavioural factors). One possible indirect factor might be the aggravation of peer relations. The poor peer relations of aggressive children could make them isolated psychologically or physically from peers, which in turn might result in depressive or disruptive problems. This study examined the relationships between three types of aggression and peer relations in Japanese elementary school children. The three aggression types comprised reactive-expressive (i.e., verbal and physical aggression), reactive-inexpressive (e.g., hostility), and proactive-relational aggression (i.e., aggression that can break human relationships, for instance, by circulating malicious rumours). Participants were 1581 children in grades 4 to 6 (752 boys and 829 girls), all of whom completed the Proactive-Reactive Aggression Questionnaire for Children to measure three types of aggression and the Peer Relation Questionnaire to measure peer relations (mutual understanding, self-disclosure, and similarity of taste) and number of friends. Hierarchical regression analyses of the data showed that higher scores of relational aggression were significantly associated with higher scores of all of the peer relations and the number of friends, and that higher scores of inexpressive aggression were significantly associated with lower scores of all except for self-disclosure in the peer relations. These findings suggest that among the three types of aggression, relational aggression leads to the best friendship in both dyadic relations and the number of friends, whereas inexpressive aggression to the poorest friendship. The implications of these findings with respect to internalizing and externalizing problem behaviours for aggressive children are discussed. PMID:22029493

Yamasaki, Katsuyuki; Nishida, Noriko

2009-06-01

193

Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.  

PubMed

Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or genetic profile, currently do not exist. Genetic markers have the potential to be implemented as screening tools to identify subjects at risk. This approach may significantly enhance treatment outcome through the early detection and treatment of affected subjects, as well as using future approaches based on gene therapy. At present, the treatment of this disease is directed toward elimination of the subgingival bacterial load and other local risk factors. Adjunctive use of appropriate systemic antibiotics is recommended and may contribute to a longer suppression of the microbial infection. Other aggressive forms of periodontal diseases occur in patients who are affected with certain systemic diseases, including the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Down syndrome. Management of the periodontal component of these diseases is very challenging. Acute gingival and periodontal lesions include a group of disorders that range from nondestructive to destructive forms, and these lesions are usually associated with pain and are a common reason for emergency dental consultations. Some of these lesions may cause a rapid and severe destruction of the periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. Oral infections, particularly acute infections, can spread to extra-oral sites and cause serious medical complications, and even death. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount. PMID:24738583

Albandar, Jasim M

2014-06-01

194

Pedophilia and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

While some authors consider pedophiles to be physically harmless individuals who do not attempt intercourse with their often seductive victims, others have identified a minority of child molesters who are aggressively predatory. Data from penitentiary files revealed that 29 of 41 incarcerated pedophiles used threats of violence or actual physical force to secure their sexual goals, and these sexual goals

W. L. Marshall; M. M. Christie

1981-01-01

195

Relational Aggression among Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

2011-01-01

196

Managing aggression in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agitation and aggression are frequent behavioral manifestations of persons diagnosed with a psychiatric illness. Data from the Epidemiological Catchment Area study indicate that persons with schizophrenia have a four-fold increase for the risk of violent behavior in a 1-year period. Additional research indicates that acute psychosis is a consistent risk factor for the occurrence of violence; approximately 10% of patients

Lea Robinson; Steven H Littrell; Kimberly Littrell

1999-01-01

197

Managing Aggression in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agitation and aggression are frequent behavioral manifestations of persons diagnosed with a psychiatric illness. Data from the Epidemiological Catchment Area study indicate that persons with schizophrenia have afour-fold increase for the risk of violent behavior in a 1-year period. Additional research indicates that acute psychosis is a consistent riskfactorfor the occurrence of violence; approximately 10% ofpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia display

Lea Robinson; Steven H. Littrell; Kimberly Littrell

1999-01-01

198

Pornography and Sexual Aggression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pornography in America is a 4-8 billion dollar a year business. Society has long been concerned about the effects obscene material may have on its members. In particular, there are those who claim pornography and sexual aggression is a cause and effect re...

S. D. Van Horn

1991-01-01

199

Intellectual Competence and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

200

Aggressiveness and Disobedience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

2011-01-01

201

Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

2007-01-01

202

Extensive Behavioural Divergence following Colonisation of the Freshwater Environment in Threespine Sticklebacks  

PubMed Central

Colonisation of novel environments means facing new ecological challenges often resulting in the evolution of striking divergence in phenotypes. However, little is known about behavioural divergence following colonisation, despite the predicted importance of the role of behavioural phenotype-environment associations in adaptive divergence. We studied the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a model system for postglacial colonisation of freshwater habitats largely differing in ecological conditions from the ones faced by the descendants of the marine ancestor. We found that common-environment reared freshwater juveniles were less social, more active and more aggressive than their marine counterparts. This behavioural divergence could represent the result of natural selection that acted on individuals following freshwater colonisation, with predation as a key selection agent. Alternatively, the behavioural profile of freshwater juveniles could represent the characteristics of individuals that preferentially invaded freshwater after the glacial retreat, drawn from the standing variation present in the marine population.

Di-Poi, Carole; Lacasse, Jennyfer; Rogers, Sean M.; Aubin-Horth, Nadia

2014-01-01

203

Aggression among female lapwings, Vanellus vanellus  

PubMed

Social monogamy is the most common pair bond in birds and one hypothesis for its prevalence is that already mated females ('residents') prevent other females from establishing a pair bond with their mates ('competition for male parental care' hypothesis). To investigate this hypothesis we experimentally induced aggressive behaviour in resident female lapwings by presenting a female dummy conspecific, and a male dummy as control, near their nests. Females attacked both dummies. However, the female dummy was attacked more often than the male during the 5-min trials. Attacks on the female dummy were mostly on the ground (88%, N=27 resident females) whereas the male dummy was attacked either by aerial dives (53%) or on the ground (47%, N=24 resident females). Frequency of attacks on the female dummy decreased over the incubation period, whereas there was no such trend with the male dummy. These results suggest that female lapwings attempt to prevent their mates from attracting a new mate and thus try to monopolize their parental care. Other competing hypotheses for the explanation of aggressive behaviour in female lapwings are also discussed but were not supported by our data.1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9344433

Liker; Székely

1997-10-01

204

"Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship between…

Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

2001-01-01

205

Policy Implications of Present Knowledge on the Development and Prevention of Physical Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that children are born with aggressive tendencies which they learn to control through early socialization.\\u000a A small group, however, shows high aggression levels early on which remain stable throughout their life. Physical aggression\\u000a is an epiphenomenon in a wide variety of antisocial behaviour, which wrecks the life of the individual as well as having large\\u000a and negative consequences

Marianne Junger; Lynette Feder; Sylvana M. Côté

2007-01-01

206

Aggression Replacement Training (ART) in Australia: A Longitudinal Youth Justice Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the findings from a two-year longitudinal evaluation of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) in an Australian youth justice custodial setting. Twenty aggressive juvenile offenders (M = 19.6; SD = .60) were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six-month, and 24-month follow-up. As predicted, participants reported significant reductions in aggressive behaviours and thoughts, cognitive distortions, and impulsivity and some improvement in social problem-solving skills at

Matthew R. Currie; Catherine E. Wood; Benedict Williams; Glen W. Bates

2011-01-01

207

Aggression Replacement Training (ART) in Australia: A Longitudinal Youth Justice Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the findings from a two-year longitudinal evaluation of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) in an Australian youth justice custodial setting. Twenty aggressive juvenile offenders (M = 19.6; SD = .60) were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six-month, and 24-month follow-up. As predicted, participants reported significant reductions in aggressive behaviours and thoughts, cognitive distortions, and impulsivity and some improvement in social problem-solving skills at

Matthew R. Currie; Catherine E. Wood; Benedict Williams; Glen W. Bates

2012-01-01

208

Paternal aggression in a biparental mouse: Parallels with maternal aggression  

PubMed Central

Environmental and social factors have important effects on aggressive behaviors. We examined the effect of reproductive experience on aggression in a biparental species of mouse, Peromyscus californicus. Estrogens are important in mediating aggressive behavior so we also examined estrogen receptor expression and c-fos for insights into possible mechanisms of regulation. Parental males were significantly more aggressive than virgin males, but no significant differences in estrogen receptor alpha or beta expression were detected. Patterns of c-fos following aggression tests suggested possible parallels with maternal aggression. Parental males had more c-fos positive cells in the medial amygdala, and medial preoptic area relative to virgin males. The medial preoptic area is generally considered to be relatively less important for male-male aggression in rodents, but is known to have increased activity in the context of maternal aggression. We also demonstrated through habituation–dishabituation tests that parental males show exaggerated investigation responses to chemical cues from a male intruder, suggesting that heightened sensory responses may contribute to increased parental aggression. These data suggest that, in biparental species, reproductive experience leads to the onset of paternal aggression that may be analogous to maternal aggression.

Trainor, Brian C.; Finy, M. Sima; Nelson, Randy J.

2008-01-01

209

Weapons and Aggression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

Anderson, Craig; Lane, David M.

2009-03-06

210

Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

2014-01-01

211

Genetic variation in aggression-related traits in Golden Retriever dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, heritabilities of several measures of aggression were estimated in a group of 325 Golden Retrievers, using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood method. The studied measures were obtained either through owner opinions or by using the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (CBARQ). The aim of the study was to determine which of the aggression measures showed sufficient genetic

Anna-Elisa Liinamo; Linda van den Berg; Peter A. J. Leegwater; Matthijs B. H. Schilder; Johan A. M. van Arendonk; Bernard A. van Oost

2007-01-01

212

What Makes Children Behave Aggressively? The Inner Logic of Dutch Children in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ambiguous results of existing intervention programmes show the need for new ways in research on aggression among children. The present study focuses on the children's own perspective on their aggressive behaviour. Based on a constructivist approach, the inner logic of narratives about peer conflicts of 64 children in Dutch special education…

Visser, Marieke; Singer, Elly; van Geert, Paul L. C.; Kunnen, Saskia E.

2009-01-01

213

What makes children behave aggressively? The inner logic of Dutch children in special education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ambiguous results of existing intervention programmes show the need for new ways in research on aggression among children. The present study focuses on the children’s own perspective on their aggressive behaviour. Based on a constructivist approach, the inner logic of narratives about peer conflicts of 64 children in Dutch special education was analysed. Contrary to the much used dichotomy

Marieke Visser; Elly Singer; Paul L. C. van Geert; Saskia E. Kunnen

2009-01-01

214

Development of a Clinical Instrument to Record Sexual Aggression in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there are a number of instruments that assess historical factors related to sexual aggression for the purposes of risk assessment, there is a notable absence of measures that assess change in ongoing, sexually aggressive behaviours engaged in by people who reside in psychiatric hospitals. The purpose of this report is to describe the…

Jones, Nicole Tuomi; Sheitman, Brian; Hazelrigg, Mark; Carmel, Harold; Williams, Jim; Paesler, Betty

2007-01-01

215

Mothers’ and teachers’ perceptions of relational and physical aggression in pre?school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre?school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an adult should respond and how quickly an adult should

Heather Doescher Hurd; Maribeth Gettinger

2010-01-01

216

Dealing with Conflict and Aggression in Classrooms through Cooperative Learning Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demographic and socioeconomic shifts in nation's population and changes in the family structure have placed increasing demands on the schools. There is a pressing need to understand the factors that give rise to and maintain aggressive behaviours across adolescence and also suggest techniques for dealing with the increased incidence of aggression

Singh, Vandana

2010-01-01

217

Mothers' and Teachers' Perceptions of Relational and Physical Aggression in Pre-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre-school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an…

Hurd, Heather Doescher; Gettinger, Maribeth

2011-01-01

218

Aggressive angiomyxoma in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxoma is a locally aggressive soft tissue tumour mainly arises from perineal, vulval and bladder connective tissue. As it has a tendency for local infiltration and recurrence so long-term follow-up and treatment is required. A case of 24 years old primigravida, 16 weeks pregnant with huge pedunculated lobulated growth arising from right labia majora for the last one month is presented. There was a rapid increase in the size of tumour up to 30 x 26 cm and weight of 18 kg with in a month. The growth was excised with wide margins and tissues sent for histopathology to be diagnosed as an aggressive angiomyxoma. Postoperatively, no chemo or radiotherapy was given. She was regularly followed-up and presented in the 37th week of pregnancy with ruptured membranes and failure of progress of labour. Her caesarean section was done and baby boy delivered. She had a regular follow-up and conceived again after 3 years. No recurrence of the growth has occurred within 5 years. PMID:24717995

Ashraf, Tasneem; Haroon, Samia

2014-03-01

219

Hormonal dynamics during mate choice in the northern pintail: a test of the 'challenge' hypothesis  

PubMed

In previous mate choice experiments, we found no relationship between dominance rank and pairing success in male northern pintails, Anas acutaOnce chosen by a female, however, males became aggressive, initiated fights with higher-ranked males and quickly established dominance. In the present study, we tested a variation of the 'challenge' hypothesis, that the behavioural stimuli associated with acquiring and defending a mate induce an increase in testosterone level, which in turn facilitates aggressive behaviours required for males to establish dominance. We measured plasma hormone levels (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, luteinizing hormone and corticosterone) before and after mate choice in two experiments in which males competed for a single female (experiments 1 and 2) and in a control experiment in which no female was introduced (experiment 3). We used groups of either three adult males (experiment 1) or one adult and two yearling males (experiments 2 and 3). Contrary to expectation, in experiment 1, plasma levels of corticosterone increased significantly and testosterone levels decreased in chosen males following mate choice. The magnitude of change in corticosterone was positively correlated with the rate of aggression by males. Chosen adult males in experiment 2 showed similar patterns of hormone change (corticosterone increase and testosterone decrease), although not all changes were significant. Hormone levels of unchosen yearlings in experiment 2 and control adults and yearlings in experiment 3 showed no changes. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that behavioural stimuli associated with successful pair formation induce a transitory increase in circulating levels of corticosterone, which in turn mediates the behavioural response of increased aggression leading to the establishment of dominance following mate choice. A short-term increase in corticosterone may be adaptive in this situation because it would mobilize energy stores needed by the male to defend the new pair bond and establish dominance.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9398367

Sorenson; Nolan; Brown; Derrickson; Monfort

1997-11-01

220

Shifting impairment and aggression in intellectual disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder.  

PubMed

Aggressive behaviour is a major problem in individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) as well as in individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). There are indications that suggest a link between cognitive shifting and aggression. In this study, reports of aggressive incidents of adolescents and young adults with different clinical diagnoses (ID, ID+ASD, ASD) were collected during 1 year, using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Whether they were diagnosed with ID, ASD or both; individuals who displayed aggression were found to face more cognitive shifting difficulties than non-aggressive individuals, while no significant differences were found on severity of ASD symptoms. Study results support the assumption that a cognition-based model for aggression may be more adequate than a diagnose-based model. PMID:24881008

Visser, E M; Berger, H J C; Prins, J B; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, H M J; Teunisse, J P

2014-09-01

221

Adult zebrafish as a model organism for behavioural genetics  

PubMed Central

Recent research has demonstrated the suitability of adult zebrafish to model some aspects of complex behaviour. Studies of reward behaviour, learning and memory, aggression, anxiety and sleep strongly suggest that conserved regulatory processes underlie behaviour in zebrafish and mammals. The isolation and molecular analysis of zebrafish behavioural mutants is now starting, allowing the identification of novel behavioural control genes. As a result of this, studies of adult zebrafish are now helping to uncover the genetic pathways and neural circuits that control vertebrate behaviour.

2010-01-01

222

Pharmacological management of acute and persistent aggression in forensic psychiatry settings.  

PubMed

Aggressive behaviour is common in forensic psychiatric settings. The aetiology of aggressive behaviour is multifactorial and can be driven by psychosis, impulsivity, psychopathy, intoxication, cognitive impairment, or a combination of all of these. Recognition of the different factors behind the aggression can inform medication selection and the relative need for specific environmental and behavioural interventions in a forensic psychiatric setting. Acute agitation needs to be managed quickly and effectively before further escalation of the behavioural dyscontrol occurs. Benzodiazepines and/or antipsychotic medications are often used and can be given intramuscularly to achieve a rapid onset of action. Available are intramuscular preparations of second-generation antipsychotics that have similar efficacy to lorazepam and haloperidol in reducing agitation, but are well tolerated and not associated with the extrapyramidal adverse effects, including akathisia, that can plague the older first-generation antipsychotics. The longer-term management of persistent aggressive behaviour can be quite complex. A major obstacle is that the causality of aggressive events can differ from patient to patient, and also from event to event in the same patient. For patients with schizophrenia and persistent aggressive behaviour, clozapine is recommended both for its superior antipsychotic effect and its specific anti-hostility effect. Mood stabilizers such as valproate may be helpful in instances of poor impulsivity and personality disorders. Other agents that have been successfully used include ?-adrenoceptor antagonists (?-blockers) and antidepressants. PMID:22133324

Citrome, Leslie; Volavka, Jan

2011-12-01

223

Behaviour in mucopolysaccharide disorders.  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a study of the nature and prevalence of behaviour problems in 258 children with mucopolysaccharide disorders. Questionnaire data obtained through the post was supplemented by home visits to 42 families in the sample and by regular discussions with families at meetings of the Society for Mucopolysaccharide Diseases. High rates of behaviour problems were found, particularly in children with Sanfilippo's and Hunter's disease aged 5 to 9 years. These included destructiveness, restlessness, and aggressiveness. Sleep problems were common across subtypes with an overall prevalence of 66%. Parents reported that they received little or no support in the management of these difficult behaviours. It is concluded that behaviour problems are a primary feature of the mucopolysaccharide disorders and place a major strain on families. Services to help families cope with these problems are urgently needed.

Bax, M C; Colville, G A

1995-01-01

224

Boldness and aggressiveness in early and late hatched three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus.  

PubMed

Levels of boldness and the degree of aggressiveness were compared in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus that had hatched early and late in the breeding season. The most striking result found in this study was that early hatched individuals were bolder when exploring a novel environment than were late-hatched individuals. No differences in levels of aggression between early and late hatchlings were found, but a relationship between boldness and aggressiveness was present regardless of hatching date. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of research on individual variation in behaviour and the development of behavioural syndromes. PMID:22880730

Ruiz-Gomez, M L; Huntingford, F A

2012-08-01

225

[Risk assessment of developing aggressive behavior].  

PubMed

The article concerns the problem of patients with aggressive behaviour and the most common methods for estimating the potential risk of appearance of such behaviour. The problem mentioned above is related in particular to psychiatric facilities, but it is also present in medical facilities of general type. The importance of this problem is underlined by epidemiological data. The article includes a description of two widely used instruments, namely the HCR 20 (The Historical Clinical and Risk Management Scale 20) and the PCL-R (The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised) but also the actuarial instruments the VRAG (The Violence Risk Assessment Guide) and the SORAG (The Sex Offender Risk Assessment Guide). The article also presents an instrument for the dynamic assessment, the START (The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability). The usefulness and limitations of these instruments are developed. Some personality disorders may predispose an individual to commit acts of aggression or violence. This topic is also developed in the text. The article focuses on the rationale for the usefulness of regular training of risk assessment for staff, which increases security and helps to plan the care correctly. PMID:22512147

Kaszuba, M

2012-01-01

226

The prevalence of aggression in genetic syndromes: a review.  

PubMed

Research into behavioural phenotypes identifies both environmental and organic factors as influencing aggression in children and adults with genetic disorders associated with intellectual disability. However, in contrast to self-injury there is a paucity of research that compares aggression across relevant syndromes. The primary aim of this review is to examine the association between aggression and genetic syndromes by analysis of prevalence studies. The review also examines the literature on the form of the behaviour and influence of environmental factors. Results imply that certain syndrome groups (Cri du Chat, Smith-Magenis, Prader-Willi, Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, and Fragile X syndromes; estimates over 70%) evidence a stronger association with aggression than others (e.g. Williams and Down syndromes; estimates below 15%). However, the strength of association is difficult to quantify due to methodological differences between studies. The results from examining form and environmental influences highlight the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. Research employing group comparison designs is warranted and future work on the assessment and intervention of aggression in genetic syndromes should consider the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. PMID:24594523

Powis, Laurie; Oliver, Chris

2014-05-01

227

Perspectives on School Aggression and Violence. Highlights from the Working Forum on Children and Youth Who Have Aggressive and Violent Behaviors (Tampa, Florida, February 2-3, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents papers and dialogue group highlights from a symposium on the growing challenge of school aggression and violence, strategies to combat this aggression and violence, and ways to make schools safe again. An introductory paper by Cynthia L. Warger is titled "Responding to School Violence within an Educational Framework."…

Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.

228

Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, H.; Hatch, S. A.; Danchin, E.

2010-01-01

229

Pigs' aggressive temperament affects pre-slaughter mixing aggression, stress and meat quality.  

PubMed

Pre-slaughter stress has a negative impact on animal welfare and on meat quality. Aggressive behaviour when pigs are mixed together for transportation to, or on arrival at, the abattoir is an important factor in pre-slaughter stress. Aggressiveness of pigs varies between individuals in the population, and this study investigated its effects on stress and meat quality at slaughter. We mixed pigs at a young age to identify individuals of high (H) or low (L) aggressive temperament using the previously validated approach of lesion scoring. To contrast extremes of social stress single-sex groups of eight pigs were mixed according to their aggressiveness in HH, HL or LL combinations or left unmixed (U) prior to transport and slaughter (n = 271). Each treatment was replicated in at least two groups in each of four slaughter batches. Mixing per se had little effect, but mixed groups composed of aggressive pigs (HH) had more carcass skin lesions and higher levels of plasma cortisol at slaughter and had loin muscle samples with higher pH at 24 h, and lower redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) compared to the other treatments. Females had higher levels of plasma cortisol at slaughter, a more rapid decline in pH post-slaughter and greater lean content of meat. Lactate and creatine kinase (CK) levels and meat pH were affected by the interaction of sex and treatment. Genetic factors, dam and sire line composition, and halothane locus (ryanodine receptor 1, RYR1) genotype, also affected a number of production and meat quality parameters as expected. Additionally, 'commercially normal' levels of social stress were studied in four further slaughter batches with no manipulation of group composition (n = 313). In these pigs, the proportion of unfamiliar pigs and group size of lairage groups explained limited variation in lesion scores at slaughter, but earlier aggressiveness did not. High numbers of skin lesions on the carcass were associated with high levels of cortisol and lactate and low glucose at slaughter, but not with meat quality measures. When stress and meat quality measures were compared for all pigs, high lactate was associated with low early pH and high drip loss, while high cortisol and CK were associated with high pH at 24 h and changes in meat colour. In conclusion, mixing pigs of above average aggressiveness resulted in greater aggression and stress, and changes in meat quality parameters, consistent with the effects of pre-slaughter stress on muscle chemistry. PMID:22444048

D'Eath, R B; Turner, S P; Kurt, E; Evans, G; Thölking, L; Looft, H; Wimmers, K; Murani, E; Klont, R; Foury, A; Ison, S H; Lawrence, A B; Mormède, P

2010-04-01

230

[Treatment of inter-specific aggression in cats with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine. A case report].  

PubMed

The article describes the redirected, inter-specific aggression of a Maine Coon cat, which was principally directed towards the owners. The cat reacted towards different, nonspecific sounds with abrupt aggressive behaviour and injured the victims at this juncture with moderate scratching and biting. Exclusively using behaviour therapy did not achieve the desired result, thus the therapy was supported with pharmaceuticals. The cat orally received the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluvoxamine at an initial dosage of 0.5mg/kg BW once daily. After 4 weeks the application rate was increased to 1.0 mg/kg BW once daily. The medication did not cause any side effects. Together with the behaviour-modulating therapy, carried out parallel to the medication therapy, the aggressive behaviour problem of the cat was resolved. After administration for a period of 63 weeks the fluvoxamine therapy was discontinued by gradually reducing the dose without recurrence of the aggressive behaviour. PMID:23242225

Sprauer, S

2012-01-01

231

The effect of trauma on stress reactivity in aggressive youth.  

PubMed

To address gaps in the literature related to the contribution of childhood trauma on aggression, we evaluated salivary cortisol and heart rate changes to psychological challenge in aggressive children with various degrees of trauma. We hypothesized that traumatized and aggressive youths will exhibit higher responsiveness to an active challenge (Violent film-VF) than aggressive youth with no trauma but will not differ when viewing a Non-Violent film (NVF). A total of 25 children (aged 9-12; M=15, F=9) with history of aggression were assessed for trauma exposure. Children viewed the two films in randomized order. Four salivary cortisol and pulse measurements were obtained before (T1), 15 min after the start (T2), at the end (T3), and 15 min following the end of the movie (T4). Repeated measures Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) using Film (VF/NVF), Cortisol/Time at T1-T4, Group (Trauma/Non-Trauma), and Film Order were performed with age and gender as covariates. There were significant main effects for Group and Cortisol/Time for the Trauma group showing greater cortisol responsiveness than the Non-Trauma group that was most pronounced during the NVF. These results suggest that aggressive youth with personal history of trauma may exhibit unique biological characteristics, which may have important implications for classification and treatment. PMID:21684014

Ivanov, Iliyani; Yehuda, Rachel; Greenblatt, Edward; Davidow, Jennifer; Makotkine, Iouri; Alfi, Lea; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

2011-10-30

232

Behavioural interactions and use of feeding areas by nymphs of Coenagrion resolutum (Coenagrionidae: Odonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviour of Coenagrion resolutum nymphs was studied in the laboratory. Based on characteristics of the behaviour, analysis of the effects of inter-nymph distance on behaviour, and association analysis between behaviours, some of the observed behaviours were classified as grooming, feeding\\/aggression, retreat, or defense.

Robert L. Baker

1981-01-01

233

Aggressive angiomyxoma in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence. PMID:25002951

Goyal, Prashant; Agrawal, Dipti; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

2014-05-13

234

Aggressive Angiomyxoma in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence.

Goyal, Prashant; Agrawal, Dipti; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

2014-01-01

235

Mothers' Reactions to the Aggressive Play of Their Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Young Children: Implications for Caregivers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined differences in reactions to children's aggressive play of mothers with aggressive or nonaggressive preschoolers. Found that mothers of aggressive preschoolers were more likely than other mothers to stop aggressive play, make value judgments, withdraw when aggressive play occurred, and make no effort to join or modulate the play. Findings…

Landy, Sarah; Menna, Rosanne

1997-01-01

236

Territorial aggression can be sensitive to the status of heterospecific intruders.  

PubMed

Territorial animals are known to be able to differentiate between intruding individuals posing a low or high threat and adjust their aggressive response accordingly. However, plastic territorial aggression based on recognising individuals with different attributes is typically assumed to be relevant only in the context of conspecific interactions. In this study, we investigated territorial aggression of neotropical cichlid fish in their natural habitat to assess whether responses to different types of individuals of another species can also be plastic. We show that arrow cichlids (Amphilophus zaliosus) adjusted their territorial aggression regarding the status of heterospecific intruders: breeding individuals of Amphilophus astorquii received a lower level of aggression than non-breeders. The same pattern was also found for the two different types of A. astorquii individuals intruding into conspecific territories. These results suggest that heterospecific individuals should not be ignored when considering selection pressures shaping plasticity of aggressive behaviour in territorial animals. PMID:20206674

Lehtonen, Topi K; McCrary, Jeffrey K; Meyer, Axel

2010-06-01

237

Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

1983-01-01

238

Neurobiological mechanisms controlling aggression: preclinical developments for pharmacotherapeutic interventions.  

PubMed

Current pharmacotherapeutic approaches to the management of violent and aggressive behavior rely mostly on agents that act as receptor agonists or antagonists at subtypes of brain dopaminergic, GABAergic, and serotonergic receptors. Ethological experimental studies in animals have shown that drugs may modulate aggression by inhibiting motor activity, by distorting aggression-provoking or -inhibiting signals, by fragmenting behavioral sequences or temporal patterning, or by increasing the rate and intensity of aggressive acts. Evidence from animal studies points to large changes in selected brain dopamine, serotonin, and GABA systems during and following aggressive and defensive behavior. However, the specificity of drugs that are currently used to control aggressive behavior through their action as agonists or antagonists at subtypes of dopamine, serotonin or GABA receptors continues to be of concern. Similar to the effects of widely used traditional neuroleptics that nonselectively antagonize dopamine receptors, the range of behaviors which is suppressed by either D1 or D2 receptor antagonists is pervasive. At present, systemic administration of dopamine receptor antagonists in animal preparations does not target aggression-specific mechanisms. The GABAA/Benzodiazepine/Chloride ionophore receptor complex is implicated in the aggression-heightening effects of alcohol and benzodiazepines. Although early reports focused on the "taming" effects of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, low doses may enhance aggression in both animals and humans. Benzodiazepine antagonists block heightened aggression after low doses of alcohol or benzodiazepines. Agonists at certain 5-HT1 receptor subtypes such as eltoprazine are potently effective in reducing aggressive behavior of males and females of various animal species under conditions that promote charging offensive-type aggression, without adversely affecting nonaggressive components of the behavioral repertoire. However, recent reports indicate that eltoprazine and related compounds may potentiate anxiety reactions in rodents, and question the behavioral specificity of these substances. Opioid receptor antagonists modulate primarily physiological and behavioral responses of defense and submission. Defeated animals show tolerance to opiate analgesia and withdrawal responses upon challenge with opioid receptor antagonists. Defensive and submissive vocalizations are potently blocked by opioid peptides. Substances that target specific receptor subtypes at serotonergic, GABAergic and opioidergic synapses are most promising for the selective modification of aggressive, defensive and submissive behavior patterns. PMID:8170625

Miczek, K A; Weerts, E; Haney, M; Tidey, J

1994-01-01

239

Subtypes of Aggressive Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents have undergone important conceptual and definitional modifications in the past two decades. In particular, subtypes of aggression have been proposed that separate the form and the function of the aggressive behaviors (i.e., social vs. physical aggression; reactive vs. proactive aggression).…

Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Barker, Edward D.

2006-01-01

240

Trans Fat Consumption and Aggression  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA) are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, which experimentally have been shown to reduce aggression. Potential behavioral effects of dTFA merit investigation. We sought to determine whether dTFA are associated with aggression/irritability. Methodolgy/Prinicpal Findings We capitalized on baseline dietary and behavioral assessments in an existing clinical trial to analyze the relationship of dTFA to aggression. Of 1,018 broadly sampled baseline subjects, the 945 adult men and women who brought a completed dietary survey to their baseline visit are the target of this analysis. Subjects (seen 1999–2004) were not on lipid medications, and were without LDL-cholesterol extremes, diabetes, HIV, cancer or heart disease. Outcomes assessed adverse behaviors with impact on others: Overt Aggression Scale Modified-aggression subscale (primary behavioral endpoint); Life History of Aggression; Conflict Tactics Scale; and self-rated impatience and irritability. The association of dTFA to aggression was analyzed via regression and ordinal logit, unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, alcohol, and smoking). Additional analyses stratified on sex, age, and ethnicity, and examined the prospective association. Greater dTFA were strongly significantly associated with greater aggression, with dTFA more consistently predictive than other assessed aggression predictors. The relationship was upheld with adjustment for confounders, was preserved across sex, age, and ethnicity strata, and held cross-sectionally and prospectively. Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first evidence linking dTFA with behavioral irritability and aggression. While confounding is always a concern in observational studies, factors including strength and consistency of association, biological gradient, temporality, and biological plausibility add weight to the prospect of a causal connection. Our results may have relevance to public policy determinations regarding dietary trans fats. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00330980

Golomb, Beatrice A.; Evans, Marcella A.; White, Halbert L.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

2012-01-01

241

Colour biases in territorial aggression in a Neotropical cichlid fish.  

PubMed

Discrete colour morphs have provided important insights into the evolution of phenotypic diversity. One of the mechanisms that can help to explain coexistence of ecologically similar colour morphs and incipient species is (colour) biased aggression, which has the potential to promote continued existence of the morphs in a frequency-dependent manner. I addressed colour biases in territorial aggression in a field-based study on a Neotropical cichlid fish species, Amphilophus sagittae, which has two ecologically indistinguishable colour morphs that mate assortatively. I found that A. sagittae, in particular females, were more aggressive towards models of their own colour than those mimicking colours of the other morph. Such a behavioural pattern should result in a selection regime that benefits the rarer morph, and hence could help explain how novel, rare phenotypes may avoid competitive exclusion. PMID:24414236

Lehtonen, Topi K

2014-05-01

242

[The effect of media violence on aggression: is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions?].  

PubMed

This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior. PMID:10488494

Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

1999-06-01

243

Aggressive Maneuvering of Small Autonomous Helicopters: A Human-Centered Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned small autonomous helicopters can perform aggressive maneuvers that will be useful for operations in challenging condi- tions. This paper presents an analysis of the pilot's execution of aggressive maneuvers from flight test data, collected on an instru- mented small-scale acrobatic helicopter. A full-envelope nonlinear dynamic model of the helicopter was developed and validated for ag- gressive maneuvering. This model

Vladislav Gavrilets; Emilio Frazzoli; Bernard Mettler; M. Piedmonte; Eric Feron

2001-01-01

244

Mental Health Correlates of Aggression in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effective interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) behavior management strategies on aggression in a group of…

Talerico, Karen Amann; Evans, Lois K.; Strumpf, Neville E.

2002-01-01

245

State, not trait, neuroendocrine function predicts costly reactive aggression in men after social exclusion and inclusion.  

PubMed

Social exclusion increases aggressive behaviour, and the possible neuroendocrine underpinnings of the effect are largely unknown. Here, we examined the extent to which testosterone and cortisol responses to social exclusion would predict subsequent reactive aggression. Men were randomly assigned to a social exclusion (SE) or inclusion (SI) condition of 'Cyberball', a computer ball-toss game. Aggression was then measured using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP). Saliva was collected at three points for the measurement of testosterone and cortisol. Regression analyses indicated that testosterone concentrations 10-min into the PSAP (controlling for pre- and post-Cyberball testosterone) were positively correlated with aggressive behaviour, irrespective of SI/SE. Post hoc analyses for the conditions separately, however, suggested the relationship was stronger for SI men (R(2)(change)=13.3%, F(1,)(29)=5.28, p=0.03) than for SE men (R(2)(change)=1.8%, F(1,)(26)=0.49, p=0.49). Aggressive behaviour was also positively correlated with cortisol concentrations 10-min into the PSAP (controlling for pre- and post-Cyberball cortisol) irrespective of SE/SI. When both hormones were included in the regression model, the interaction of baseline 'Cortisol'×'Testosterone'×'Experimental Group' approached significance (R(2)(change)=5.4%, F(1,)(55)=3.53, p=0.07), but no significant effects were observed in either group alone. The findings add to evidence that individual differences in state neuroendocrine function map onto variability in human social behaviour. PMID:21382439

Geniole, Shawn N; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

2011-04-01

246

Personality correlates of aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that specific personality traits predict antisocial behavior, but has yet to determine whether these associations differ with the well-documented heterogeneity within antisocial behavior. We thus evaluated which personality traits (as measured via the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire – Brief Form) uniquely predicted aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking behavior (RB) in two undergraduate samples. None of the personality scales independently

S. Alexandra Burt; M. Brent Donnellan

2008-01-01

247

The Effect of Exposure to Community Violence on Levels of Aggression: Evidence from a Sample of Jamaican Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars agree that aggression among children can lead to a host of delinquency issues that can last into adulthood. Research has found that exposure to violence is one of the strongest predictors of aggressive behaviour and the use of violence. Utilizing a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the article seeks to determine the…

Bailey, Corin; Coore-Desai, Charlene

2012-01-01

248

Experimental habituation of aggression in the sea anemone Actinia equina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural plasticity in Actinia equina (L.) was examined in experimental contests using a range of pedal disc colour phenotypes, which characterize 3 known, ecologically distinct morphs. With repeated pairing of individuals in auto-phenotypic encounters, habituation was easily induced in the 2 mid-shore morphs, but was not obvious in the less aggressive, low-shore form. Subsequent pairing with a different partner revealed

R. C. Brace; S.-J. Santer

1991-01-01

249

Territorial meadow pipit males ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes) become more aggressive in female presence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although mate guarding as prevention of extra-pair copulation is common among birds, evidence for aggressive behaviour involving physical contact related to mate guarding in passerines is scarce and cases of the presence of one partner directly influencing the aggressiveness of the other are lacking. We investigated the intra-specific territorial behaviour of male meadow pipits ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes: Motacillidae) at the beginning of the breeding season by placing a pipit model accompanied by an intra-specific song playback in the territory of socially paired males and compared the responses of males whose mates were physically present during trials with those whose females were out of sight. The level of aggression of males was significantly higher in the presence of the female; half of the males in this group physically attacked the model (the most intense and risky aggressive behaviour). Physical attacks did not occur among males whose female was absent during the trial; response to the playback by most of these males was only weak. This pattern may be related to the prevention of extra-pair copulation; if the risks involved in the conflict are outweighed by potential loss of paternity, such aggressive mate guarding may pay off. The apparently overlooked effect on the territorial behaviour of a partner’s passive physical presence during conflict should be further evaluated because it may be important for the design and interpretation of results of behavioural experiments.

Petrusková, Tereza; Petrusek, Adam; Pavel, Václav; Fuchs, Roman

2007-08-01

250

Territorial meadow pipit males (Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes) become more aggressive in female presence.  

PubMed

Although mate guarding as prevention of extra-pair copulation is common among birds, evidence for aggressive behaviour involving physical contact related to mate guarding in passerines is scarce and cases of the presence of one partner directly influencing the aggressiveness of the other are lacking. We investigated the intra-specific territorial behaviour of male meadow pipits (Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes: Motacillidae) at the beginning of the breeding season by placing a pipit model accompanied by an intra-specific song playback in the territory of socially paired males and compared the responses of males whose mates were physically present during trials with those whose females were out of sight. The level of aggression of males was significantly higher in the presence of the female; half of the males in this group physically attacked the model (the most intense and risky aggressive behaviour). Physical attacks did not occur among males whose female was absent during the trial; response to the playback by most of these males was only weak. This pattern may be related to the prevention of extra-pair copulation; if the risks involved in the conflict are outweighed by potential loss of paternity, such aggressive mate guarding may pay off. The apparently overlooked effect on the territorial behaviour of a partner's passive physical presence during conflict should be further evaluated because it may be important for the design and interpretation of results of behavioural experiments. PMID:17406850

Petrusková, Tereza; Petrusek, Adam; Pavel, Václav; Fuchs, Roman

2007-08-01

251

Parasite-induced aggression and impaired contest ability in a fish host  

PubMed Central

Background Success of trophically transmitted parasites depends to a great extent on their ability to manipulate their intermediate hosts in a way that makes them easier prey for target hosts. Parasite-induced behavioural changes are the most spectacular and diverse examples of manipulation. Most of the studies have been focused on individual behaviour of hosts including fish. We suggest that agonistic interactions and territoriality in fish hosts may affect their vulnerability to predators and thus the transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites. The parasite Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda) and juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were used to study whether infection can alter aggression rates and territorial behaviour of intermediate fish hosts. Results The changes in behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, infected with an eye fluke Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda), was monitored over the course of an experimental infection for 1.5 months. At the beginning of their development, not yet infective D. spathaceum metacercariae decreased the aggressiveness of rainbow trout. By the time that metacercariae were fully infective to their definitive hosts, the aggressiveness increased and exceeded that of control fish. Despite the increased aggressiveness, the experimentally infected fish lost contests for a territory (dark parts of the bottom) against the control fish. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that the parasitized fish pay the cost of aggressiveness without the benefit of acquiring a territory that would provide them with better protection against predators. This behaviour should increase transmission of the parasite as expected by the parasite manipulation hypothesis.

2010-01-01

252

Environmental factors and aggressive behavior  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

Anderson, A.C.

1982-07-01

253

Does television violence cause aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study 3rd graders who preferred violent TV programs were rated more aggressive in school by peers. In a 10-yr follow-up, 211 males and 216 females of the original 875 Ss were interviewed as to their television habits and again rated their peers on aggressive behavior. It was found that the violence of programs preferred by male 3rd

Leonard D. Eron; L. Rowell Huesmann; Monroe M. Lefkowitz; Leopold O. Walder

1972-01-01

254

Host response in aggressive periodontitis.  

PubMed

It is critical to understand the underlying host responses in aggressive periodontitis to provide a better appreciation of the risk and susceptibility to this disease. Such knowledge may elucidate the etiology and susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis and directly influence treatment decisions and aid diagnosis. This review is timely in that several widely held tenets are now considered unsupportable, namely the concept that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans is the key pathogen and that chemotactic defects in polymorphonuclear leukocytes are part of the etiopathology. This review also serves to put into context key elements of the host response that may be implicated in the genetic background of aggressive periodontitis. Furthermore, key molecules unique to the host response in aggressive periodontitis may have diagnostic utility and be used in chairside clinical activity tests or as population screening markers. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that the microbial etiology of aggressive periodontitis and the histopathology of this disease are more similar to than different from that of chronic periodontitis. An important therapeutic consideration from the lack of support for A. actinomycetemycomitans as a critical pathogen here is that the widely held belief that tetracycline had a role in aggressive periodontitis therapy is now not supported and that antibiotics such as those used effectively in chronic periodontitis (metronidazole and amoxicillin) are not contraindicated. Furthermore, A. actinomycetemycomitans-related molecules, such as cytolethal distending toxin and leukotoxin, are less likely to have utility as diagnosis agents or as therapeutic targets. PMID:24738587

Kulkarni, Cyelee; Kinane, Denis F

2014-06-01

255

Interactive Links Between Theory of Mind, Peer Victimization, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the relation between theory of mind and reactive and proactive aggression, respectively, as well as the moderating role of peer victimization in this context. The 574 participants were drawn from a longitudinal study of twins. Theory of mind was assessed before school entry, when participants were 5 years old. Reactive and proactive aggression as well as peer victimization were assessed a year later in kindergarten. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed that low theory of mind was related to a high level of reactive aggression, but only in children who experienced average to high levels of peer victimization. In contrast, a high theory of mind was related to a high level of proactive aggression. Again, this relation was especially pronounced in children who experienced high levels of peer victimization. These findings challenge the social skills deficit view of aggression and provide support for a multidimensional perspective of aggressive behavior.

Renouf, Annie; Seguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

2012-01-01

256

Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

2013-01-01

257

Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

2010-01-01

258

Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Adaptations to Repeated Stress during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adult animals, the consequences of stress are often severe and long lasting. Repeated subjugation in adult male golden hamsters inhibits aggression and increases submissive and avoidant behaviours. By contrast, subjugation during puberty enhances offensive aggression. The goals of this study were to characterize behavioural and neuroendocrine responses of naõ¨ve and repeatedly subjugated juveniles to social defeat and to assess

J. C. Wommack; A. Salinas; R. H. Melloni Jr; Y. Delville

2004-01-01

259

Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.  

PubMed

We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10860525

Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

2000-05-01

260

Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Aggressive Lymphomas  

PubMed Central

The role of high-dose therapy (HDT) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in the treatment armamentarium of aggressive B- and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is still a matter of debate. In the pre-Rituximab era, the PARMA study demonstrated the superiority of HDT/ASCT over conventional salvage chemotherapy in chemosensitive, relapsed patients. Subsequently, HDT/ASCT has become a standard approach for relapsed NHL. With the advent of Rituximab in the landscape of NHL, transplantation as part of first-line therapy has been challenged. However, no benefit in terms of disease-free or overall survival of HDT/ASCT over standard therapy was shown when Rituximab was added to both arms. Moreover, the superiority of HDT/ASCT over conventional salvage therapy in patients relapsing from first-line therapy including Rituximab was not confirmed. From these disappointing results, novel strategies, which can enhance the anti-lymphoma effect, at the same time reducing toxicity have been developed, with the aim of improving the outcome of HDT/ASCT in aggressive NHL. In T-cell lymphoma, few publications demonstrated that consolidation of complete remission with HDT/ASCT is safe and feasible. However, up to one-third of patients may never receive transplant, mostly due to progressive disease, and relapse still remains a major concern even after transplant.

Visani, Giuseppe; Picardi, Paola; Tosi, Patrizia; Gonella, Roberta; Loscocco, Federica; Ricciardi, Teresa; Malerba, Lara; Guiducci, Barbara; Tomassetti, Simona; Barulli, Sara; Isidori, Alessandro

2012-01-01

261

Working with an Adult Male with Down's Syndrome, Autism and Challenging Behaviour: Evaluation of a Programme of Staff Support and Organizational Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the case of a male with Down syndrome who has been referred to a clinical psychology service due to challenging behaviors. It provides a case history and rationale for the assessment of autism, and describes the positive effects of an intervention for increasing staff awareness of autism. (Contains references.) (CR)

Newman, David W.; Summerhill, Lisa; Mosley, Ellis; Tooth, Claire

2003-01-01

262

Symbiont infection affects aphid defensive behaviours.  

PubMed

Aphids harbour both an obligate bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, and a wide range of facultative ones. Facultative symbionts can modify morphological, developmental and physiological host traits that favour their spread within aphid populations. We experimentally investigated the idea that symbionts may also modify aphid behavioural traits to enhance their transmission. Aphids exhibit many behavioural defences against enemies. Despite their benefits, these behaviours have some associated costs leading to reduction in aphid reproduction. Some aphid individuals harbour a facultative symbiont Hamiltonella defensa that provides protection against parasitoids. By analysing aphid behaviours in the presence of parasitoids, we showed that aphids infected with H. defensa exhibited reduced aggressiveness and escape reactions compared with uninfected aphids. The aphid and the symbiont have both benefited from these behavioural changes: both partners reduced the fitness decrements associated with the behavioural defences. Such symbiont-induced changes of behavioural defences may have consequences for coevolutionary processes between host organisms and their enemies. PMID:21490007

Dion, Emilie; Polin, Sarah Erika; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Outreman, Yannick

2011-10-23

263

Symbiont infection affects aphid defensive behaviours  

PubMed Central

Aphids harbour both an obligate bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, and a wide range of facultative ones. Facultative symbionts can modify morphological, developmental and physiological host traits that favour their spread within aphid populations. We experimentally investigated the idea that symbionts may also modify aphid behavioural traits to enhance their transmission. Aphids exhibit many behavioural defences against enemies. Despite their benefits, these behaviours have some associated costs leading to reduction in aphid reproduction. Some aphid individuals harbour a facultative symbiont Hamiltonella defensa that provides protection against parasitoids. By analysing aphid behaviours in the presence of parasitoids, we showed that aphids infected with H. defensa exhibited reduced aggressiveness and escape reactions compared with uninfected aphids. The aphid and the symbiont have both benefited from these behavioural changes: both partners reduced the fitness decrements associated with the behavioural defences. Such symbiont-induced changes of behavioural defences may have consequences for coevolutionary processes between host organisms and their enemies.

Dion, Emilie; Polin, Sarah Erika; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Outreman, Yannick

2011-01-01

264

Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behaviour on the roads is reported to be on the increase. This study administered Driving Anger Scale (Deffenbacher et al. (1994). Development of a driving anger scale. Psychological Reports, 74, 83–91.), the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire, and the Driving Skill Inventory to a sample of 270 British drivers. Factor analysis of the Driving Anger Scale items yielded three factors measuring

Timo Lajunen; Dianne Parker; Stephen G Stradling

1998-01-01

265

Effectiveness of interventions to reduce aggression and injuries among ice hockey players: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: The increasing incidence of injuries related to playing ice hockey is an important public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce injuries related to aggressive acts in ice hockey. Methods: We identified relevant articles by searching electronic databases from their inception through July 2012, by using Internet search engines, and by manually searching sports medicine journals, the book series Safety in Ice Hockey and reference lists of included articles. We included studies that evaluated interventions to reduce aggression-related injuries and reported ratings of aggressive behaviour or rates of penalties or injuries. Results: We identified 18 eligible studies. Most involved players in minor hockey leagues. Of 13 studies that evaluated changes in mandatory rules intended to lessen aggression (most commonly the restriction of body-checking), 11 observed a reduction in penalty or injury rates associated with rule changes, and 9 of these showed a statistically significant decrease. The mean number of penalties decreased by 1.2–5.9 per game, and injury rates decreased 3- to 12-fold. All 3 studies of educational interventions showed a reduction in penalty rates, but they were not powered or designed to show a change in injury rates. In 2 studies of cognitive behavioural interventions, reductions in aggressive behaviours were observed. Interpretation: Changes to mandatory rules were associated with reductions in penalties for aggressive acts and in injuries related to aggression among ice hockey players. Effects of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions on injury rates are less clear. Well-designed studies of multifaceted strategies that combine such approaches are required.

Cusimano, Michael D.; Nastis, Sofia; Zuccaro, Laura

2013-01-01

266

Is popularity associated with aggression toward socially preferred or marginalized targets?  

PubMed

This study was designed to test whether aggression toward easy or challenging targets is more likely to be associated with popularity. More specifically, we tested two alternative hypotheses with a sample of 224 adolescents (12- and 13-year-olds): (a) whether aggression toward highly disliked peers is associated with popularity (the easy target hypothesis) or (b) whether aggression toward highly liked peers is associated with popularity (the challenging target hypothesis). Support was found only for the challenging target hypothesis. In particular, our results indicate that aggressiveness toward peers who are liked by many others has social benefits in the form of greater popularity (particularly for highly preferred adolescents) without social costs (i.e., is unrelated to social preference). In contrast, aggressiveness toward peers who are disliked by many others is associated with lower social preference but bears no association with popularity. These results highlight the importance of studying contextualized aggression in order to understand the conditions under which aggression is most, and least, likely to be associated with social power and dominance. PMID:24780299

Peets, Kätlin; Hodges, Ernest V E

2014-08-01

267

Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

2006-01-01

268

Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

1997-01-01

269

Narrative Development in Aggressive Boys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed the oral narrative abilities in Caucasian males (ages 8-13) identified as aggressive. The boys were asked to construct an oral narrative based on a wordless picture book. Subjects provided fewer pieces of information to create the setting of the story for listeners than did controls. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

Cole, Doris

2001-01-01

270

Violent video games and aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main concerns that has constantly been raised against video games is that most of the games feature aggressive elements. This has led many people to assert that this may have a detrimental effect on individuals who play such games. Despite continuing controversy for over 15 years, there has been little in the way of systematic research. This

Mark Griffiths

1999-01-01

271

[Aggressive and resistant-to-treatment pituitary tumors].  

PubMed

Pituitary adenomas define slow growing tumors developing from anterior pituitary. Most often benign, their treatment and subsequent management are based on transphenoidal surgery and/or medical therapy, generally without difficulties in clinical practice. However, 2 clinicopathological situations, more or less intricated, may considerably complicate the management of these tumors and the patient health condition. Firstly, when the tumor is characterized by an usual aggressive behaviour with a possible extension within the cavernous sinus and a high risk of recurence after well- conducted treatment. Otherwise, in some cases of resistant prolactinomas and somatotropinomas, the specific medical treatment may be unsuccessful for controlling the hormonal hypersecretion and/or the tumoral growth, with subsequent complex therapeutic approach. Progress that have been made in the understanding of aggressive as well as in resistant- to- treatment pituitary tumors, both in histopathology and molecular fields, may constitue new tools for improving knowledge on the profile of these atypical tumors and optimizing their management. PMID:24356289

Cuny, T; Chanson, P

2013-10-01

272

Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

2005-01-01

273

Research and Theory on Aggression and Violence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents an approach to human aggression concerned with environmental stimuli. Recent research in the area of aggression and an analysis of aversive and reinforcing stimuli are presented. The paper concludes by suggesting some possible generaliz...

M. Wolfe R. E. Ulrich

1969-01-01

274

Sexual Aggression: Constructing a Predictive Equation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of brain pathology, sex hormones, sadism, alcohol/drug abuse and history of aggression in predicting dangerousness in sexually aggressive offenders was studied. Subjects included 16 patients charged with rape and 16 normal controls. It was ...

R. Langevin

1982-01-01

275

Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Electronic Aggression On this Page Publications Additional CDC Resources Additional ... used to describe this type of violence, electronic aggression is the term that most accurately captures all ...

276

Study Links Vasectomy to Aggressive Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Study Links Vasectomy to Aggressive Prostate Cancer But the finding doesn't prove ... a vasectomy may be at increased risk for aggressive prostate cancer, a new study suggests. But the ...

277

Estimating aggression from emotionally neutral faces: which facial cues are diagnostic?  

PubMed

The facial width-to-height ratio, a size-independent sexually dimorphic property of the human face, is correlated with aggressive behaviour in men. Furthermore, observers' estimates of aggression from emotionally neutral faces are accurate and are highly correlated with the facial width-to-height ratio. We investigated whether observers use the facial width-to-height ratio to estimate propensity for aggression. In experiments 1a-1c, estimates of aggression remained accurate when faces were blurred or cropped, manipulations that reduce featural cues but maintain the facial width-to-height ratio. Accuracy decreased when faces were scrambled, a manipulation that retains featural information but disrupts the facial width-to-height ratio. In experiment 2, computer-modeling software identified eight facial metrics that correlated with estimates of aggression; regression analyses revealed that the facial width-to-height ratio was the only metric that uniquely predicted these estimates. In experiment 3, we used a computer-generated set of faces varying in perceived threat (Oosterhof and Todorov, 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 11087-11092) and found that as emotionally neutral faces became more 'threatening', the facial width-to-height ratio increased. Together, these experiments suggest that the facial width-to-height ratio is an honest signal of propensity for aggressive behaviour. PMID:20465172

Carré, Justin M; Morrissey, Mark D; Mondloch, Catherine J; McCormick, Cheryl M

2010-01-01

278

Involvement in Internet Aggression During Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents’ involvement in Internet aggression.\\u000a Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time\\u000a using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline\\u000a relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and

Nicole E. Werner; Matthew F. Bumpus; Daquarii Rock

2010-01-01

279

Stability of aggression over time and generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study spanning 22 years, data were collected on the aggressiveness of over 600 subjects, their parents, and their children. Subjects who were the more aggressive 8-year-olds at the beginning of the study were discovered to be the more aggressive 30-year-olds at the end of the study. The stability of aggressive behavior was shown to be very similar to

L. Rowell Huesmann; Leonard D. Eron; Monroe M. Lefkowitz; Leopold O. Walder

1984-01-01

280

Reading Disabilities and Aggression: A Critical Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the relationship between specific reading disabilities and aggressive behavior. It finds that there is not enough evidence to conclude that reading disability causes aggressive or delinquent behavior, though limited evidence does suggest that reading disability may worsen preexisting aggressive behavior. (Author/DB)

Cornwall, Anne; Bawden, Harry N.

1992-01-01

281

Prevalence of spouse aggression in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the extent of spouse aggression in Chinese families in Hong Kong. Subjects were 246 female and 136 male undergraduate students who reported on the various forms of interparental aggression and violence. About 75% of the subjects reported interparental verbal or symbolic aggression and 14% indicated the use of physical violence between parents. In general, compared to

Catherine So-kum Tang

1994-01-01

282

Aggression and Diagnosis in Psychiatrically Referred Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated correlations between measures of proactive and reactive aggression subtype, and the severity and frequency of overt aggression and psychiatric diagnosis in a clinically referred sample of children compared to a non-referred community comparison group free of psychiatric diagnosis. All measures of aggression were significantly…

Connor, Daniel F.; McLaughlin, Thomas J.

2006-01-01

283

Relational Aggression and Friendship During Early Childhood: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between relational aggression and mutual, dyadic friendships during early childhood were assessed in the context of a year-long, short-term longitudinal study. Children's mutual friendships were determined via sociometric ratings and their relationally aggressive behavior among peers was assessed via naturalistic, free play observations. Generally, children who were more relationally aggressive had more mutual friends, although this relation differed by

Jean E. Burr; Jamie M. Ostrov; Elizabeth A. Jansen; Crystal Cullerton-Sen; Nicki R. Crick

2005-01-01

284

Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

Dallape, Aprille

2008-01-01

285

Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

1985-01-01

286

Aggressiveness, competitiveness, and human sexual orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has suggested that homosexual mean are less aggressive than heterosexual men, but limitations of available studies prevent them from being conclusive. The empirical evidence is even more mixed regarding the relation of aggressiveness to female sexual orientation. We examined the relation between self-reported physical and verbal aggressiveness, interpersonal competitiveness, and sexual orientation in both men and women. The

Brian A. Gladue; J. Michael Bailey

1995-01-01

287

A Risky Boundary: Unwanted Sexual Behaviour among Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongst young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: "verbal", "non-verbal/intimidating" and "physically violent". A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants of unwanted sexual behaviour:…

de Bruijn, Paula; Burrie, Ingrid; van Wel, Frits

2006-01-01

288

Aggression, Tantrums, and Other Externally Driven Challenging Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By definition, individuals with autism have severe difficulties in reciprocal relationships, verbal and nonverbal communication,\\u000a unusual repetitive behavior, and restricted interests (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Furthermore, in about 75–80%\\u000a of cases, autism is comorbid with intellectual disabilities (National Research Council, 2001). Epidemiological studies indicate\\u000a that 10–15% of individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in problem behaviors, or what is currently termed

Nirbhay N. Singh; Giulio E. Lancioni; Alan S. W. Winton; Judy Singh

289

Methodological structure for aggression research.  

PubMed

Kendler's seminal essay listed 8 major propositions outlining a philosophical framework for the entire field of psychiatry [Kendler (American Journal of Psychiatry 162:433-440, 2005)]. These propositions have grounded psychiatric research on a coherent conceptual basis. The field of aggression research needs a general conceptual framework that would help us to integrate the contributions of neurobiology, sociology, criminology, and other areas. All of Kendler's propositions are generally relevant in this respect. The aim of the current article is to develop specific applications of four of Kendler's propositions for aggression research. These four propositions are: "Psychiatry is irrevocably grounded in mental, first-person experiences", "Psychiatric disorders are etiologically complex, and we can expect no more "spirochete-like" discoveries that will explain their origin in simple terms", "Explanatory pluralism is preferable to monistic explanatory approaches, especially biological reductionism", and "Acceptance of Patchy Reductionism". PMID:18626770

Volavka, Jan; Nolan, Karen A

2008-12-01

290

Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility  

PubMed Central

We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

2013-01-01

291

Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

292

Trait Aggressiveness Modulates Neurophysiological Correlates of Laboratory-induced Reactive Aggression in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive aggression following provocation is a frequent form of human social behavior. The neural basis of reactive aggression, especially its control, remains poorly understood, however. We conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study using a competitive reaction time task that elicits aggression through provocation. Participants were selected from a larger sample because of extreme scores in trait aggressiveness, yielding high and

Ulrike M. Krämer; Sarah Büttner; Gerhard Roth; Thomas F. Münte

2008-01-01

293

Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

2005-01-01

294

Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many autistic patients with mental retardation have difficulties with explosivity and aggression. They often prove resistant to various pharmacotherapeutic interventions. In this study, 11 male outpatients (mean 18.3 years) were administered risperidone in an open-label fashion. The risperidone was started at 0.5 mg daily, and titrated upwards until maximum clinical benefit occurred. Serial clinical interviews were conducted, and Conners Parent-Teacher

Joseph P. Horrigan; L. Jarrett Barnhill

1997-01-01

295

Information and aggression in fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive interactions between fishes commonly take place in a social environment in which uninvolved individuals (bystanders)\\u000a have an opportunity to gather information about interactants. Signals frequently used during such interactions are designed\\u000a to transmit information about resource-holding power and\\/or intention. They are generally related to the level of escalation\\u000a reached and the eventual outcome of a fight. We consider here

Tom M. Peake; Peter K. Mcgregor

2004-01-01

296

The Phenomenon of Aggressive Behavior of Learners in the School Situation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggressive behaviour of learners in the relationship with peers and educators might influence their social, academic performance, professional relationship, and their mental health. Peers are a group of people who socialise together. The educator is a person who is having knowledge and skills therefore responsible for guiding and teaching others.

Venter, M.; Poggenpoel, M.; Myburgh, C. P. H.

2005-01-01

297

Antipsychotic polypharmacy in the emergency treatment of highly aggressive schizophrenic prisoners – a retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In past years, Zuclopenthixolacetate as well as Flupentixoldecanoate have each proven to be reliable and efficient in the treatment of schizophrenic psychoses. In a specially implemented psychiatric treatment unit (PTU) we administered a high-dose depot neuroleptic combination therapy initially consisting of both substances to seriously ill schizophrenic prisoners who exhibited highly aggressive behaviour (N=20). We initially used both antipsychotics at

Joachim G. Witzel; Udo Gubka; Heike Weisser; Bernhard Bogerts

2008-01-01

298

Reduced anterior cingulate activation in aggressive children and adolescents during affective stimulation: Association with temperament traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The risk for conduct disorder (CD) is markedly increased in children with specific temperament dimensions. Here, we investigated whether adverse temperament factors might contribute to an impairment in neural mechanisms underlying the regula- tion of aggressive behaviour. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 13 male adolescents with CD aged 9 to 14 years and in 14 healthy

Christina Stadler; Philipp Sterzer; Klaus Schmeck; Annette Krebs; Andreas Kleinschmidt; Fritz Poustka

2006-01-01

299

The Relationship Between Moral Reasoning, Provictim Attitudes, and Interpersonal Aggression Among Imprisoned Young Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between moral reasoning, provictim attitudes, and interpersonal aggression among imprisoned young offenders. The participants were 60 imprisoned male young offenders from a young offender institution or remand centre. Using the Direct and Indirect Prisoner Behaviour Checklist, the offenders were categorised as one of four groups: perpetrator, victim, perpetrator-victim, or not involved. Participants in the four

Emma J. Palmer; Asia Begum

2006-01-01

300

Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

2013-01-01

301

Borderline Personality and Externalized Aggression  

PubMed Central

Individuals with borderline personality disorder are diagnostically and clinically characterized by self-harm behavior, as indicated by the criterion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, “recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior.” However, individuals with borderline personality disorder can display externalized aggressive behavior, as well. In an area characterized by considerably less research, empirical evidence indicates that individuals with borderline personality disorder may exhibit physical violence toward partners, physical violence toward known but nonintimate individuals, criminal behaviors that embody externalized violence (e.g., property damage), and, on very rare occasion, murderous behavior (either of family members or anonymous others through serial killing). Given this under-researched area, there are probably other types of externalized aggressive behaviors that have not been empirically revealed. However, externalized aggressive behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder clearly exist and need to be assessed in both psychiatric and primary care settings in an effort to promote safety of medical personnel and effective patient management.

Sansone, Lori A.

2012-01-01

302

Translational science in action: Hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems  

PubMed Central

A model of the development of hostile attributional style and its role in children's aggressive behavior is proposed, based on the translation of basic science in ethology, neuroscience, social psychology, personality psychology, and developmental psychology. Theory and findings from these domains are reviewed and synthesized in the proposed model, which posits that (a) aggressive behavior and hostile attributions are universal human characteristics, (b) socialization leads to the development of benign attributions, (c) individual differences in attributional style account for differences in aggressive behavior, and (d) interventions to change attributions have the potential to alter antisocial development. Challenges for future research are described.

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

303

Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective  

PubMed Central

With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast–slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed–accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.

Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

2012-01-01

304

First-degree relatives with behavioural adverse effects on statins  

PubMed Central

Irritability, aggression and other adverse behavioural effects have been associated with the use of statins (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) and other drug classes. A number of studies have also linked low cholesterol with aggression and violence. This paper presents the cases of two first-degree male relative patients (father and son) identified by self-referral to the University of California in San Diego Statin Effects Study. Both patients experienced behavioural adverse effects on statins including irritability and aggression, however neither patient recognised a significant change in their behaviour. This may be the first report of behavioural adverse effects manifested on statins by first-degree male relatives, which may suggest possible familial/biological predisposition. These cases also highlight the issue of externalisation by patients of the origin of interpersonal discord, which may serve as an obstacle to adverse effects reporting and lead to negative outcomes for patients, and for those around them.

Reilly, David; Cham, Stephanie; Golomb, Beatrice Alexandra

2011-01-01

305

Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. PMID:24810384

Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

2014-07-01

306

Aggression after Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevalence & Correlates  

PubMed Central

Aggression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but not well defined. Sixty-seven participants with first-time TBI were seen within three months of injury and evaluated for aggression. The prevalence of aggression was found to be 28.4% and to be predominantly verbal aggression. Post-TBI aggression was associated with new-onset major depression (p=0.02), poorer social functioning (p=0.04), and increased dependency on activities of daily living (p=0.03), but not with a history of substance abuse or adult/childhood behavioral problems. Implications of the study include early screening for aggression, evaluation for depression, and consideration of psychosocial support in aggressive patients.

Rao, Vani; Rosenberg, Paul; Bertrand, Melaine; Salehinia, Saeed; Spiro, Jennifer; Vaishnavi, Sandeep; Rastogi, Pramit; Noll, Kathy; Schretlen, David J; Brandt, Jason; Cornwell, Edward; Makley, Michael; Miles, Quincy Samus

2010-01-01

307

Challenges of respondent driven sampling to assess sexual behaviour and estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore.  

PubMed

There is a lack of representative samples to provide reliable and accurate seroprevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as behavioural information among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. We used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit MSM. Participants completed a survey used by Asian Internet MSM Sex Survey (AIMSS) and were tested for HIV and syphilis. We compared the characteristics of the RDS participants with STI diagnosis against those who did not have any STI diagnosis in the past 6 months. We compared RDS participants with AIMSS participants. Of 72 MSM recruited, 1 was positive for HIV (1.3%) and 4 (5.5%) tested positive for syphilis. Median age was 30 years and majority was Chinese (69.4%). RDS participants who had any STI diagnosis reported to have more use of recreational drugs (P = 0.006), and lower condom use (P = 0.054). Comparing RDS participants (n = 72) with the AIMSS participants (n = 2075), RDS respondents had ?1 male partner in the past 6 months (P = 0.003), more casual sex partners (P = 0.012) and more STI symptoms (P = 0.019). There was no difference in terms of HIV testing and recreational drug use. The HIV and syphilis seroprevalence rates from our study are similar to previous reports conducted in high-risk MSM. In contrast to other settings, RDS did not work well among MSM in Singapore. The public health implications of our study highlight the challenges in obtaining data for HIV surveillance in assessing prevalence and risk behaviours among MSM. PMID:23949264

Chua, Arlene C; Chen, Mark Ic; Cavailler, Philippe; Jiang, Lili; Abdullah, Mohammed Ridzwan; Ng, Oon Tek; Chio, Martin; Koe, Stuart; Tay, Joanne; Wong, Mee Lian; Chan, Roy

2013-07-01

308

The passive-aggressive organization.  

PubMed

Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress. PMID:16250627

Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

2005-10-01

309

Equine learning behaviour.  

PubMed

Scientists and equestrians continually seek to achieve a clearer understanding of equine learning behaviour and its implications for training. Behavioural and learning processes in the horse are likely to influence not only equine athletic success but also the usefulness of the horse as a domesticated species. However given the status and commercial importance of the animal, equine learning behaviour has received only limited investigation. Indeed most experimental studies on equine cognitive function to date have addressed behaviour, learning and conceptualization processes at a moderately basic cognitive level compared to studies in other species. It is however, likely that the horses with the greatest ability to learn and form/understand concepts are those, which are better equipped to succeed in terms of the human-horse relationship and the contemporary training environment. Within equitation generally, interpretation of the behavioural processes and training of the desired responses in the horse are normally attempted using negative reinforcement strategies. On the other hand, experimental designs to actually induce and/or measure equine learning rely almost exclusively on primary positive reinforcement regimes. Employing two such different approaches may complicate interpretation and lead to difficulties in identifying problematic or undesirable behaviours in the horse. The visual system provides the horse with direct access to immediate environmental stimuli that affect behaviour but vision in the horse is of yet not fully investigated or understood. Further investigations of the equine visual system will benefit our understanding of equine perception, cognitive function and the subsequent link with learning and training. More detailed comparative investigations of feral or free-ranging and domestic horses may provide useful evidence of attention, stress and motivational issues affecting behavioural and learning processes in the horse. The challenge for scientists is, as always, to design and commission experiments that will investigate and provide insight into these processes in a manner that withstands scientific scrutiny. PMID:17400403

Murphy, Jack; Arkins, Sean

2007-09-01

310

Behaviour disturbances during recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis.  

PubMed Central

Bizarre behaviour disturbances in four patients occurring during incomplete recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Some aspects of their behaviour were similar to that originally described by Klüver and Bucy in monkeys following bilateral temporal lobectomy. Previous reports of behavioural disturbances in man after herpes simplex encephalitis are reviewed and attention drawn to the aggressive and disruptive behaviour that is often seen. With the reduced mortality in herpes simplex encephalitis in recent years it is possible that behaviour disturbances such as those described here will be seen more frequently. Images

Greenwood, R; Bhalla, A; Gordon, A; Roberts, J

1983-01-01

311

Aggressive Angiomyxoma with Perineal Herniation  

PubMed Central

Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor involving the pelvic-perineal region. It occurs during the third and fourth decade of life and is predominantly seen in females. It presents clinically as a soft tissue mass in variable locations such as vulva, perianal region, buttock, or pelvis. Assessment of extent of the tumor by radiological evaluation is crucial for surgical planning; however, biopsy is essential to establish diagnosis. We present the radiological and pathological features seen in a 43-year-old female diagnosed with abdominal angiomyxoma with an unusual extension to the perineum.

Narang, Seema; Kohli, Supreethi; Kumar, Vinod; Chandoke, Raj

2014-01-01

312

Commentary: Integrating callous and unemotional traits into the definition of antisocial behaviour - a commentary on Frick et al. (2014).  

PubMed

Heterogeneity in the presentation, antecedents, prognosis and treatment response of antisocial behaviour has long provided a challenge to developmental psychopathology researchers. As illustrated in the incisive Frick and colleagues' Annual Research Review, there is growing evidence that the presence of high callous-unemotional (CU) traits identifies a subgroup of antisocial young people with a particularly aggressive and pervasive form of disorder. Frick and colleagues extend their developmental psychopathology approach to CU traits by linking in theories of conscience development and considering evidence on the stability of CU traits. This commentary addresses these themes and the area more generally, considering (1) comparison of a CU specifier to alternative approaches to antisocial heterogeneity (2) high CU traits in the absence of antisocial behaviour and (3) aspects of the measurement of CU traits. PMID:24840170

Rowe, Richard

2014-06-01

313

Frequency, Characteristics and Management of Adolescent Inpatient Aggression  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Inpatient aggression is a serious challenge in pediatric psychiatry. Methods A chart review study in adolescent psychiatric inpatients consecutively admitted over 24 months was conducted, to describe aggressive events requiring an intervention (AERI) and to characterize their management. AERIs were identified based on specific institutional event forms and/or documentation of as-needed (STAT/PRN) medication administration for aggression, both recorded by nursing staff. Results Among 408 adolescent inpatients (age: 15.2±1.6 years, 43.9% male), 1349 AERIs were recorded, with ?1 AERI occurring in 28.4% (n=116; AERI+). However, the frequency of AERIs was highly skewed (median 4, range: 1–258). In a logistical regression model, the primary diagnosis at discharge of disruptive behavior disorders and bipolar disorders, history of previous inpatient treatment, length of hospitalization, and absence of a specific precipitant prior to admission were significantly associated with AERIs (R2=0.32; p<0.0001). The first line treatment of patients with AERIs (AERI+) was pharmacological in nature (95.6%). Seclusion or restraint (SRU) was used at least once in 59.4% of the AERI+ subgroup (i.e., in 16.9% of all patients; median within-group SRU frequency: 3). Treatment and discharge characteristics indicated a poorer prognosis in the AERI+ (discharge to residential care AERI+: 22.8%, AERI?: 5.6%, p<0.001) and a greater need for psychotropic polypharmacy (median number of psychotropic medications AERI+: 2; AERI?: 1, p<0.001). Conclusions Despite high rates of pharmacological interventions, SRU continue to be used in adolescent inpatient care. As both of these approaches lack a clear evidence base, and as adolescents with clinically significant inpatient aggression have increased illness acuity/severity and service needs, structured research into the most appropriate inpatient aggression management is sorely needed.

Baeza, Immaculada; Saito, Ema; Amanbekova, Dinara; Ramani, Meena; Kapoor, Sandeep; Chekuri, Raja; De Hert, Marc; Carbon, Maren

2013-01-01

314

The Preschool Behaviour Questionnaire: A useful index of behaviour problems in elementary school-age children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the validity of Behar and Stringfield's Preschool Behaviour Questionnaire (PBQ) with young, elementary school age children. In Study 1, the PBQ was administered to 157 grade one children. A factor analysis was performed on the 30 items of the PBQ. The three factors that emerged were almost identical to those described by Bchar and Stringfield (hostility\\/aggression, anxiety\\/fearfulness, and

KENNETH H. RUBIN; LORA MOLLER; ANNE EMPTAGE

1987-01-01

315

The role of the serotonergic system at the interface of aggression and suicide.  

PubMed

Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the multifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homoeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and identify new effective therapies for these conditions. PMID:23333677

Bortolato, M; Pivac, N; Muck Seler, D; Nikolac Perkovic, M; Pessia, M; Di Giovanni, G

2013-04-16

316

Wiring Pathways to Replace Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The previous article in this series introduced the triune brain, the three components of which handle specialized life tasks. The survival brain, or brain stem, directs automatic physiological functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, and mobilizes fight/flight behaviour in times of threat. The emotional (or limbic) brain activates positive or…

Bath, Howard

2006-01-01

317

Partners with Bad Temper: Reject or Cure? A Study of Chronic Pain and Aggression in Horses  

PubMed Central

Background Experiencing acute pain can affect the social behaviour of both humans and animals and can increase the risk that they exhibit aggressive or violent behaviour. However, studies have focused mainly on the impact of acute rather than chronic painful experiences. As recent results suggest that chronic pain or chronic discomfort could increase aggressiveness in humans and other mammals, we tested here the hypothesis that, in horses, aggression towards humans (a common source of accidents for professionals) could be linked to regularly reported vertebral problems of riding horses. Methodology/Principal Findings Vertebral examination and standardized behavioural tests were made independently on the same horses. Here we showed that most horses severely affected by vertebral problems were prone to react aggressively towards humans (33/43 horses, chi-square test, df?=?1, ?2?=?12.30, p<0.001), which was not the case for unaffected or slightly affected horses (9/16 horses, chi-square test, df?=?1, ?2?=?0.25, p>0.05). The more affected they were, the fewer positive reactions they exhibited (rs?=??0.31, p?=?0.02). Conclusions/Significance This is to our knowledge the first experimental evidence of such a link between chronic discomfort/potential pain (inferred from the presence of vertebral problems) and aggression, suggesting that chronic painful experiences may act in ways similar to those of acute experiences. Chronic discomfort or pain may often be overlooked when facing “bad tempered” individuals, whether humans or animals. This experimental study confirms the importance of including chronic discomfort or pain as a major factor in interpersonal relations and models of aggression.

Fureix, Carole; Menguy, Herve; Hausberger, Martine

2010-01-01

318

The effect of territorial damselfish (family Pomacentridae) on the space use and behaviour of the coral reef fish, Halichoeres bivittatus (Bloch, 1791) (family Labridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most demersal species of damselfish (family Pomacentridae) are territorial herbivores that aggressively chase other fishes away from their nests. This study investigates whether the aggressive territorial damselfish, Stegastes leucostictus, modifies behaviours and home range area use in a less aggressive, non-territorial species, the slippery dick wrasse, Halichoeres bivittatus (family Labridae). Damselfishes and wrasses are ubiquitous and abundant members of coral

K. M. M. Jones

2005-01-01

319

Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.  

PubMed

Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

Cardwell, Michael Steven

2013-09-01

320

Aggression and coexistence in female caribou  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

2014-01-01

321

Child-to-Parent Violence: Challenging Perspectives on Family Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…

Coogan, Declan

2011-01-01

322

Relationship between aggression, interpersonal style, and therapeutic alliance during short-term psychiatric hospitalization.  

PubMed

Aggression during psychiatric hospitalization is frequent, problematic, and a major challenge for nurses and mental health services more generally. The strength of the therapeutic alliance between nursing staff and patients has been posited as an important protective factor that can limit the likelihood of aggression. This study examined the relationship between interpersonal style, perceived coercion, and psychiatric symptoms on the therapeutic alliance between patients and staff, and how each, in turn, is related to aggression. Participants in this study were 79 patients admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Each participant was interviewed to determine perceived coercion, symptoms of psychiatric illness, interpersonal style, and therapeutic alliance. Incidents of aggression were recorded at discharge through a review of incident forms, file review, and interviews with unit nursing staff. The results showed that a hostile-dominant interpersonal style and symptoms of paranoia predicted poor therapeutic alliance, contributing 14% of the variance in therapeutic alliance scores. A dominant interpersonal style predicted aggression towards staff. Therapeutic alliance, perceived coercion, and symptoms of psychiatric illness did not predict aggression. Implications for engagement in treatment and the prevention of aggression are discussed. PMID:21819511

Cookson, Amy; Daffern, Michael; Foley, Fiona

2012-02-01

323

Cooperation and competition: nepotistic tolerance and intrasexual aggression in western bluebird winter groups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Dickinson, J. L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.

2009-01-01

324

Managing "Challenging" Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which elementary school principals in Israel deal with teachers who are "challenging" in their behaviour, that is those who are perceived as under-performing. This is an important and under-researched area of educational management. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews were…

Yariv, Eliezer; Coleman, Marianne

2005-01-01

325

Managing disruptive behaviour disorders in children.  

PubMed

The age at which individuals are most physically aggressive is 22 months. However, some children fail to inhibit this normal aggression and by the time they are three or four are showing signs of oppositional defiant disorder. In older children persistent antisocial behaviour is classified as conduct disorder. At any age, antisocial behaviour is on a continuum, and while the most severe 5% or so will meet diagnostic criteria, those falling short are often described as having conduct problems. Epidemiological follow-up surveys show that the risk of poor outcomes in antisocial children is very high. The causes are multiple but two sets of factors stand out. First, genetic predisposition. Even children adopted away from violent or criminal parents have three or four times the rate of antisocial behaviour and second, poor parenting. Watching and waiting is a reasonable strategy if the antisocial behaviour is not very severe. It is important to be vigilant for severe tantrums or aggression occurring almost every day, harsh, rough, or inconsistent parenting and coexistent ADHD. If severity is moderate, referral to an evidence-based parenting group would be a good first move. If this fails to make things better, or if the child or parent has a comorbid condition, referral to CAMHS is indicated. For older children, aged 10 to 17, there are effective interventions such as anger management CBT and parenting groups for adolescents. PMID:23808127

Stephen, Scott; Bailey, Clare

2013-05-01

326

Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

2005-01-01

327

Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

1995-01-01

328

Predicting aggressive behavior in children with the help of measures of implicit and explicit aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children’s implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self category (vs. other) with the attribute concept of

Mandy Grumm; Sascha Hein; Michael Fingerle

2011-01-01

329

Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

2011-01-01

330

The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

Lee, Eunju

2009-01-01

331

Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

2012-01-01

332

Physiological Arousal, Exposure to a Relatively Lengthy Aggressive Film, and Aggressive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied male students who viewed an aggressive television program or a neutral one. Half of the students were then angered by a confederate. Results indicated angered men who had seen the aggressive film were most aggressive and exhibited the lowest average pulse rates both before and after shock delivery. (Author/JAC)

Thomas, Margaret Hanratty

1982-01-01

333

Defensive Behaviour and the after Effects of Brain Stimulation in the Ring Dove (Streptopelia Risoria).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aggressive, defensive and fearful behaviour was elicited in ring doves by electrical stimulation of the forebrain, hypothalamus and midbrain. Stimulation in the forebrain produced very variable results: responses elicited from the midbrain were very stere...

D. Harwood D. M. Vowles

1968-01-01

334

Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span  

PubMed Central

Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs.

Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

2012-01-01

335

Aggressive treatment of early fistula failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive treatment of early fistula failure.BackgroundFistula failure has been classified as early and late. Early failure refers to those cases in which the arteriovenous (AV) fistula never develops to the point that it can be used or fails within the first 3 months of usage. It has been common practice to abandon these early failures; however, aggressive evaluation and treatment

Gerald A. Beathard; Perry Arnold; Jerry Jackson; Terry Litchfield

2003-01-01

336

WEAPONS AS AGGRESSION-ELICITING STIMULI  

Microsoft Academic Search

TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STIMULI COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH AGGRESSION CAN ELICIT AGGRESSIIVE RESPONSES FROM PEOPLE READY TO ACT AGGRESSIVELY. 100 MALE UNIVERSITY SS RECEIVED EITHER 1 OR 7 SHOCKS, SUPPOSEDLY FROM A PEER, AND WERE THEN GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOCK THIS PERSON. IN SOME CASES A RIFLE AND REVOLVER WERE NEAR THE SHOCK KEY. THESE WEAPONS WERE SAID TO

LEONARD BERKOWITZ; ANTHONY LEPAGE

1967-01-01

337

Erotic stimuli and aggression: Facilitation or inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempted to reconcile previous results on the relationship of erotic stimuli and aggression. 81 male undergraduates were either insulted or not insulted prior or subsequent to observing erotic stimuli of varying levels of arousal inducements. It was found, in support of prior research, that mildly erotic stimuli had an inhibiting effect on aggression when viewed subsequent to anger arousal, whereas

Edward Donnerstein; Marcia Donnerstein; Ronald Evans

1975-01-01

338

Anger rumination: an antecedent of athlete aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anger rumination (the propensity to think almost obsessively over past experiences that have provoked negative affect in the form of anger) and athlete aggression. It was predicted that high levels of anger rumination would be associated with an increased propensity to aggress.Method. A questionnaire comprising the Anger Rumination

J. P Maxwell

2004-01-01

339

Evaluating Social Skills of Sexual Aggressives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequently overlooked element of any rapist or child molester's behavior is his social skills. We know that some sexual aggressives are very adept at interacting socially with a female, expressing themselves to others, requesting others to change their behavior, and accurately empathizing or appreciating the feeling states of others. On the other hand, some sexual aggressives are unable to

Judith V. Becker; Gene G. Abel; Edward B. Blanchard; William D. Murphy; Emily Coleman

1978-01-01

340

Intercommunity Differences in Aggression among Zapotec Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares patterns of play and serious aggression in three- to eight-year-old children of two neighboring Zapotec Indian communities that have different levels of adult violence. Results suggest that community differences in violence levels are perpetuated as Zapotec children learn community-appropriate patterns to express aggression and continue…

Fry, Douglas P.

1988-01-01

341

Intercommunity differences in aggression among Zapotec children.  

PubMed

Patterns of play aggression and serious aggression were compared in 2 neighboring Zapotec Indian communities that have different levels of adult violence. Social learning theory provided the basis for predicting that levels of agonistic behavior among children would parallel levels of violence among adults. Ethological methods were employed to observe 3-8-year-old children (N = 48). An examination of physical aggression and nonphysical threatening showed that agonism generally was more severe among the children of the more aggressive community. That is, children from the more aggressive community engaged in more actual fighting (p = .005) and play fighting (p = .0001) than their counterparts from the other community. On the other hand, children from the less aggressive community used more noncontact threatening than the children from the more aggressive community (p = .0001). These findings suggest that community differences in levels of violence are perpetuated as Zapotec children learn community-appropriate patterns for expressing aggression and continue to express these patterns as adults. Possible functions of play fighting are also discussed. PMID:3168610

Fry, D P

1988-08-01

342

Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

2000-01-01

343

Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

2010-01-01

344

Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

2013-01-01

345

Isolation associated aggression--a consequence of recovery from defeat in a territorial animal.  

PubMed

Population density has profound influences on the physiology and behaviour of many animal species. Social isolation is generally reported to lead to increased aggressiveness, while grouping lowers it. We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of isolation and grouping on aggression in a territorial insect, the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Substantiating early observations, we show that dyadic contests between weight-matched, adult male crickets taken from groups rarely escalate beyond threat displays, whereas interactions between pairs of previously isolated crickets typically escalate to physical fights lasting several seconds. No significant differences were found between 1, 2 and 6-day isolates, or between individuals grouped for a few hours or lifelong. Unexpectedly, crickets grouped in immediate proximity within individual mesh cages that precluded fighting while permitting visual, olfactory and mechanical, antennal contact, were as aggressive as free isolates. This suggests that reduced aggression of grouped animals may be an acquired result of fighting. Supporting this notion, isolated crickets initially engage in vigorous fights when first grouped, but fighting intensity and duration rapidly decline to the level of life-long grouped crickets within only 10 min. Furthermore, grouped crickets become as aggressive as life-long isolates after only 3 hours of isolation, and on the same time course required for crickets to regain their aggressiveness after social defeat. We conclude that the reduced aggressiveness of grouped crickets is a manifestation of the loser effect resulting from social subjugation, while isolation allows recovery to a state of heightened aggressiveness, which in crickets can be considered as the default condition. Given the widespread occurrence of the loser effect in the Animal Kingdom, many effects generally attributed to social isolation are likely to be a consequence of recovery from social subjugation. PMID:24040368

Stevenson, Paul A; Rillich, Jan

2013-01-01

346

Isolation Associated Aggression - A Consequence of Recovery from Defeat in a Territorial Animal  

PubMed Central

Population density has profound influences on the physiology and behaviour of many animal species. Social isolation is generally reported to lead to increased aggressiveness, while grouping lowers it. We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of isolation and grouping on aggression in a territorial insect, the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllusbimaculatus. Substantiating early observations, we show that dyadic contests between weight-matched, adult male crickets taken from groups rarely escalate beyond threat displays, whereas interactions between pairs of previously isolated crickets typically escalate to physical fights lasting several seconds. No significant differences were found between 1, 2 and 6-day isolates, or between individuals grouped for a few hours or lifelong. Unexpectedly, crickets grouped in immediate proximity within individual mesh cages that precluded fighting while permitting visual, olfactory and mechanical, antennal contact, were as aggressive as free isolates. This suggests that reduced aggression of grouped animals may be an acquired result of fighting. Supporting this notion, isolated crickets initially engage in vigorous fights when first grouped, but fighting intensity and duration rapidly decline to the level of life-long grouped crickets within only 10 min. Furthermore, grouped crickets become as aggressive as life-long isolates after only 3 hours of isolation, and on the same time course required for crickets to regain their aggressiveness after social defeat. We conclude that the reduced aggressiveness of grouped crickets is a manifestation of the loser effect resulting from social subjugation, while isolation allows recovery to a state of heightened aggressiveness, which in crickets can be considered as the default condition. Given the widespread occurrence of the loser effect in the Animal Kingdom, many effects generally attributed to social isolation are likely to be a consequence of recovery from social subjugation.

Stevenson, Paul A.; Rillich, Jan

2013-01-01

347

Children's Moral Reasoning regarding Physical and Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school children's moral reasoning concerning physical and relational aggression was explored. Fourth and fifth graders rated physical aggression as more wrong and harmful than relational aggression but tended to adopt a moral orientation about both forms of aggression. Gender differences in moral judgments of aggression were observed,…

Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Galotti, Kathleen M.

2006-01-01

348

Playground Contexts for Aggression for Preschoolers with Hyperactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the naturalistic conditions that set the occasion for aggressive behavior in three preschoolers with hyperactivity and aggression (H\\/A). Peer and teacher responses to preschoolers' aggression were also investigated. For a total of 114 aggressive instances observed, relatively low percentages of aggression in social play with at least one other child were documented. The antecedent condition that was

Melissa Stormont; Sandra Beyda; Teresa Javorsky; Phillip Belfiore

2000-01-01

349

The association between preschool behavioural problems and internalizing difficulties at age 10-12 years.  

PubMed

The aim was to study the association between preschool behavioural problems and emotional symptoms in 10- to 12-year-old children. The study was based on the Aarhus Birth cohort, Denmark, and included 1,336 children. Based on the parent-administered preschool behaviour questionnaire (PBQ), we identified three not mutually exclusive preschool behavioural categories: anxious-fearful (n = 146), hyperactive-distractible (n = 98), and hostile-aggressive (n = 170). Children without any known symptoms were considered well adjusted (n = 1,000). Borderline emotional (n = 105) and emotional difficulties (n = 136) were measured at age 10-12 years with the parent-administered strength and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. We found that anxious-fearful behaviour and hostile-aggressive preschool behaviour were associated with twice the risk of school-age emotional difficulties. Comorbidity or confounding failed to explain these results. Hyperactive-distractible preschool behaviour was not associated with school-age emotional difficulties. Preschool anxious-fearful behaviour was associated with school-age emotional difficulties, suggesting internalizing symptom stability in some children from early childhood. Preschool hostile-aggressive behaviour was also associated with school-age emotional difficulties, which suggests transformation of one behavioural dimension into another through childhood, and the need to focus on both early internalizing difficulties and hostile-aggressive behaviour as risk factors for later internalizing difficulties. PMID:20811760

Slemming, Kirsten; Sørensen, Merete J; Thomsen, Per H; Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine B; Linnet, Karen M

2010-10-01

350

Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.  

PubMed

Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed. PMID:23804408

Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

2013-01-01

351

[Aggressive immunotherapy in Susac's syndrome].  

PubMed

Susac's syndrome is a rare but important differential diagnosis of aseptic encephalitis of young women with focal neurological deficits and white matter lesions on cerebral MRI. We report on a previously healthy 36-year-old woman who presented with encephalopathy, central weakness of her right leg and multiple white matter lesions on MRI. Shortly thereafter, inner ear deafness developed and funduscopy revealed occlusions of branch retinal arteries. A diagnosis of retino-cochlear-cerebral vasculopathy or Susac's syndrome was established and steroid-based immunotherapy with high-dose corticosteroids was initiated. Steroid reduction led to repeated clinical worsening, so that immunotherapy was sequentially escalated. Finally, high-dose cyclophosphamide every 4 weeks led to sufficient control of disease activity. Recent publications have argued for an early and aggressive immunosuppression in Susac's syndrome based on clinical and histological similarities with juvenile dermatomyositis, where such a regimen has already been established. We report on these treatment guidelines with respect to the current literature and the case presented. PMID:19888559

Klein, M; Illies, T; Georgi, S; Rosenkranz, T; Terborg, C

2009-12-01

352

[Angiomyxoma: always myxoid, sometimes aggressive].  

PubMed

Angiomyxoma is a distinct soft tissue tumor characterized by the presence of prominent myxoid matrix and numerous thin-walled blood vessels. This tumor has a predilection for the trunk, head and neck, extremities, and genitalia. It is a benign tumor and total excision is curative. Recurrence is rare except for aggressive angiomyxomas. A 12-year-old girl with a 10-year history of a subcutaneous mass on the left gluteus measuring 4.5x4x3 cm had been referred. The tumor was encapsulated and was located in the reticular dermis and subcutaneous tissue, composed of stellate cells with mucinous stroma. Thin-walled blood vessels were prominent. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were immunoreactive for vimentin. No immunoreactivity was present for estrogen receptor, CD34, smooth muscle actin, S-100 protein and desmin. The purpose of this report is to present a classical example of an isolated superficial angiomyxoma and discuss the differential diagnosis, because of its relatively infrequent occurence. PMID:22627635

D?n?z, Gülden; Tem?r, Günyüz; Ortaç, Rag?p

2012-01-01

353

14 CFR 1261.406 - Aggressive collection action; documentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Aggressive collection action; documentation...Administration (NASA) § 1261.406 Aggressive collection action; documentation. (a) NASA shall take aggressive action, on a timely basis...

2009-01-01

354

Aggressiv Kjoring: En Litteraturstudie (Aggressive Driving: A Literature Review).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a review of studies concerning aggressive driving behavior. The results of the review suggest that driving behavior which can be labeled as 'aggressive' is associated with increased accident risk. Aggressive driving seems to be especia...

P. Ulleberg

2004-01-01

355

38 CFR 1.910 - Aggressive collection action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aggressive collection action. 1.910 Section...for Collection of Claims § 1.910 Aggressive collection action. (a) VA will take aggressive collection action on a timely...

2010-07-01

356

10 CFR 15.20 - Aggressive agency collection activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Aggressive agency collection activity. 15...Administrative Collection of Claims § 15.20 Aggressive agency collection activity. (a) The NRC shall take aggressive action to collect all...

2009-01-01

357

10 CFR 15.20 - Aggressive agency collection activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggressive agency collection activity. 15...Administrative Collection of Claims § 15.20 Aggressive agency collection activity. (a) The NRC shall take aggressive action to collect all...

2010-01-01

358

38 CFR 1.910 - Aggressive collection action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Aggressive collection action. 1.910 Section...for Collection of Claims § 1.910 Aggressive collection action. (a) VA will take aggressive collection action on a timely...

2009-07-01

359

14 CFR 1261.406 - Aggressive collection action; documentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggressive collection action; documentation...Administration (NASA) § 1261.406 Aggressive collection action; documentation. (a) NASA shall take aggressive action, on a timely basis...

2010-01-01

360

Aggressive surgical management after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for liver metastases from ocular melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastatic melanoma is also a challenge for surgeons. Recently, it has been reported that aggressive surgery combined with supportive therapy may be potential benefit for the condition. Therefore, we report a case of ocular melanoma metastatic to multiple visceral sites treated by cytoreductive surgery after initial intra-arterial hepatic chemoembolization.

Yang Xinwei; Du Jing; Zhang Youlei; Yuan Lei; Wang Yi

2010-01-01

361

Aggression and Tantrums in Children with Autism: A Review of Behavioral Treatments and Maintaining Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggression and tantrums are common co-occurring problems with autism. Fortunately, positive developments in the treatment of these challenging and stigmatizing behaviors have been made recently with psychologically-based interventions. Evidence-based methods employ behavior modification, which is also often described as applied behavior analysis…

Matson, Johnny

2009-01-01

362

The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

2012-01-01

363

Aggression in psychiatry wards: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Although fairly frequent in psychiatric in-patient, episodes of aggression/violence are mainly limited to verbal aggression, but the level of general health is significantly lower in nurses who report 'frequent' exposure to violent incidents, and there is disagreement between patients and staff concerning predictors of these episodes. We searched the Pubmed, Embase and PsychInfo databases for English, Italian, French or German language papers published between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2010 using the key words "aggress*" (aggression or aggressive) "violen*" (violence or violent) and "in-patient" or "psychiatric wards", and the inclusion criterion of an adult population (excluding all studies of selected samples such as a specific psychiatric diagnosis other than psychosis, adolescents or the elderly, men/women only, personality disorders and mental retardation). The variables that were most frequently associated with aggression or violence in the 66 identified studies of unselected psychiatric populations were the existence of previous episodes, the presence of impulsiveness/hostility, a longer period of hospitalisation, non-voluntary admission, and aggressor and victim of the same gender; weaker evidence indicated alcohol/drug misuse, a diagnosis of psychosis, a younger age and the risk of suicide. Alcohol/drug misuse, hostility, paranoid thoughts and acute psychosis were the factors most frequently involved in 12 studies of psychotic patients. Harmony among staff (a good working climate) seems to be more useful in preventing aggression than some of the other strategies used in psychiatric wards, such as the presence of male nurses. PMID:21236497

Cornaggia, Cesare Maria; Beghi, Massimiliano; Pavone, Fabrizio; Barale, Francesco

2011-08-30

364

Predicting aggression in children with ADHD  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk.

2014-01-01

365

Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man  

PubMed Central

Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine influence on the brain process of aggression forms a triad. Testosterone activates the subcortical areas of the brain to produce aggression, while cortisol and serotonin act antagonistically with testosterone to reduce its effects.

Batrinos, Menelaos L.

2012-01-01

366

Machine analysis of facial behaviour: Naturalistic and dynamic behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in

Maja Pantic

2009-01-01

367

Behaviour disorders in children with an intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Behaviour disorders are frequent in children with an intellectual disability, regardless of the underlying etiology. They are often disabling, and can create problems in everyday life and can mask, or reveal, an organic or psychiatric illness. Such behaviours are often chronic and more than one may be present in the same individual. This is further complicated by the fact that parents often do not seek help for the problem, perhaps believing that it is due to the child’s disability and cannot be treated. The present review describes some general concepts dealing with the management of behaviour disorders commonly seen in children and youth with an intellectual disability, and gives a high level overview of behaviours commonly problematic in this patient population including sleep disturbances, agitated and aggressive behaviours, and self-injury behaviour. In general, while pharmacological treatment is possible, behavioural intervention is a more effective and better tolerated form of treatment.

Ageranioti-Belanger, Stacey; Brunet, Suzanne; D'Anjou, Guy; Tellier, Genevieve; Boivin, Johanne; Gauthier, Marie

2012-01-01

368

Indirect genetic effects and the evolution of aggression in a vertebrate system  

PubMed Central

Aggressive behaviours are necessarily expressed in a social context, such that individuals may be influenced by the phenotypes, and potentially the genotypes, of their social partners. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that indirect genetic effects (IGEs) arising from the social environment will provide a major source of heritable variation on which selection can act. However, there has been little empirical scrutiny of this to date. Here we test this hypothesis in an experimental population of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Using quantitative genetic models of five aggression traits, we find repeatable and heritable differences in agonistic behaviours of focal individuals when presented with an opponent mouse. For three of the traits, there is also support for the presence of IGEs, and estimated correlations between direct and indirect genetic (rAO,F) effects were high. As a consequence, any selection for aggression in the focal individuals should cause evolution of the social environment as a correlated response. In two traits, strong positive rAO,F will cause the rapid evolution of aggression, while in a third case changes in the phenotypic mean will be constrained by negative covariance between direct and IGEs. Our results illustrate how classical analyses may miss important components of heritable variation, and show that a full understanding of evolutionary dynamics requires explicit consideration of the genetic component of the social environment.

Wilson, Alastair J.; Gelin, Uriel; Perron, Marie-Claude; Reale, Denis

2008-01-01

369

Psychopathic traits and reactive-proactive aggression in a large community sample of polish adolescents.  

PubMed

This paper presents results of the only large-scale study carried-out in Poland to date on the prevalence of psychopathic traits and their relationship with aggressive behaviour in mainstream adolescents. The sample consists of 9,415 students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) in the first to third grades at 142 public secondary schools. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the antisocial process screening device (APSD), while aggressive behaviours were assessed using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis of results revealed that boys scored much higher than girls in total APSD scale measuring psychopathic traits. Only 2.68 % of assessed adolescents scored above the cut-off of 25 points. Results also showed significant correlations between psychopathic traits and both proactive and reactive aggression. The authors concluded that screening a large sample to identify children and youths with psychopathic traits has some important advantages but, on the other hand, it is a sensitive undertaking because of the label 'psychopath' can have negative consequences for the subjects. PMID:24374497

Perenc, Lidia; Radochonski, Mieczyslaw

2014-08-01

370

Sequelae of Aggression in Acutely Suicidal Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences of aggression on problem course and suicide risk were examined in 270 acutely suicidal adolescents (ages\\u000a 12–17 years; 184 girls). Participants were assessed during psychiatric hospitalization (T1), 6-months post-hospitalization\\u000a (T2), and 15 or more months post-hospitalization (T3). Study variables included self- and parent-reported aggression; self-reported\\u000a internalizing symptoms, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and adverse events; and clinician-rated suicidal behavior. Aggression

David C. R. Kerr; Jason J. Washburn; Alan Feingold; Anne C. Kramer; Asha Z. Ivey; Cheryl A. King

2007-01-01

371

[Aggressive behavior: theoretical and biological aspects].  

PubMed

The susceptibility to aggression may manifest differently depending on the psychological context in which it occurs. In the context of psychopathy, characterized by a lack of empathy, this may manifest in aggression with criminal acts, which is characteristic of antisocial personality disorder. When the susceptibility is associated with psychotic impairment, aggression may be manifested in highly deviant behavior, like murder or serial killing. While the great majority of persons with schizophrenia do not commit violent acts, clinicians suggest that some schizophrenics may pose a risk in the community, particularly those patients with co-occurring substance abuse diagnoses, those who are noncompliant with prescribed psychiatric treatment, and those with a history of frequent relapses resulting in hospitalization or arrest. Episodic violence and aggression often accompany dementia. When coupled with emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression often occurs in an interpersonal context, as in borderline personality disorder. However, the most common comorbidity is the substance abuse disorder, which contributes to both the cognitive distortions and disinhibition associated with the substance use. According to the biological data, aggression seems to emerge when the drive of limbic-mediated affective prefrontal response to provocative producing stimuli is insufficiently constrained by inhibition. Thus, excessive reactivity in the amygdale, coupled with inadequate prefrontal regulation, increase the possibility of aggressive behavior. The PET/SPECT studies focusing on schizophrenia have shown reduced activity in fronto-temoral circuitry. The fMRI studies concord with the hypothesis that among violent persons with schizophrenia, those with sociopathetic features and/or substance abuse constitute a highly different subgroup, in which cognitive, neurological and behavioral patterns are more closely associated with the personality traits than schizophrenia. It is known that serotonin facilitates prefrontal inhibition and insufficient serotonergic activity may increase aggression levels. Gabaminergic activity reduce subcortical reactivity, and thus reduced gabaminergic activity may increase aggression. In addition, agonism of 5-HT2A receptor may increase impulsivity levels, while 5-HT2C receptor agonism may decrease it. An imbalance between these receptors with increased serotonergic activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and decreased 5-HT2C receptor sensitivity may increase the possibility of aggression. Fluoxetine may reserve this pattern by increasing presynaptic availability, decreasing 5-HT2A binding and enhancing signal at 5-HT2C receptors. Similarly, atypical antipsychotics, which in parallel with the D2 antagonism have a prominent 5-HT2A receptor antagonism, manifest significant antiaggressive properties. In addition mood stabilizers, affecting glutamatergic/gabaminergic balance, serve to the reduction of impulsive aggression, while lithium manifests positive effect on both suicidality and impulsive aggression. PMID:24200542

Giotakos, O

2013-01-01

372

Agreeableness and Alcohol-Related Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Trait Aggressivity  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality.

Miller, Cameron A.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.

2009-01-01

373

Lack of support for the association between facial shape and aggression: a reappraisal based on a worldwide population genetics perspective.  

PubMed

Antisocial and criminal behaviors are multifactorial traits whose interpretation relies on multiple disciplines. Since these interpretations may have social, moral and legal implications, a constant review of the evidence is necessary before any scientific claim is considered as truth. A recent study proposed that men with wider faces relative to facial height (fWHR) are more likely to develop unethical behaviour mediated by a psychological sense of power. This research was based on reports suggesting that sexual dimorphism and selection would be responsible for a correlation between fWHR and aggression. Here we show that 4,960 individuals from 94 modern human populations belonging to a vast array of genetic and cultural contexts do not display significant amounts of fWHR sexual dimorphism. Further analyses using populations with associated ethnographical records as well as samples of male prisoners of the Mexico City Federal Penitentiary condemned by crimes of variable level of inter-personal aggression (homicide, robbery, and minor faults) did not show significant evidence, suggesting that populations/individuals with higher levels of bellicosity, aggressive behaviour, or power-mediated behaviour display greater fWHR. Finally, a regression analysis of fWHR on individual's fitness showed no significant correlation between this facial trait and reproductive success. Overall, our results suggest that facial attributes are poor predictors of aggressive behaviour, or at least, that sexual selection was weak enough to leave a signal on patterns of between- and within-sex and population facial variation. PMID:23326328

Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Hünemeier, Tábita; Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Paschetta, Carolina; de Azevedo, Soledad; González, Marina F; Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Esparza, Mireia; Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Salzano, Francisco M; Bau, Claiton H D; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; González-José, Rolando

2013-01-01

374

Lack of Support for the Association between Facial Shape and Aggression: A Reappraisal Based on a Worldwide Population Genetics Perspective  

PubMed Central

Antisocial and criminal behaviors are multifactorial traits whose interpretation relies on multiple disciplines. Since these interpretations may have social, moral and legal implications, a constant review of the evidence is necessary before any scientific claim is considered as truth. A recent study proposed that men with wider faces relative to facial height (fWHR) are more likely to develop unethical behaviour mediated by a psychological sense of power. This research was based on reports suggesting that sexual dimorphism and selection would be responsible for a correlation between fWHR and aggression. Here we show that 4,960 individuals from 94 modern human populations belonging to a vast array of genetic and cultural contexts do not display significant amounts of fWHR sexual dimorphism. Further analyses using populations with associated ethnographical records as well as samples of male prisoners of the Mexico City Federal Penitentiary condemned by crimes of variable level of inter-personal aggression (homicide, robbery, and minor faults) did not show significant evidence, suggesting that populations/individuals with higher levels of bellicosity, aggressive behaviour, or power-mediated behaviour display greater fWHR. Finally, a regression analysis of fWHR on individual's fitness showed no significant correlation between this facial trait and reproductive success. Overall, our results suggest that facial attributes are poor predictors of aggressive behaviour, or at least, that sexual selection was weak enough to leave a signal on patterns of between- and within-sex and population facial variation.

Gomez-Valdes, Jorge; Hunemeier, Tabita; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Paschetta, Carolina; de Azevedo, Soledad; Gonzalez, Marina F.; Martinez-Abadias, Neus; Esparza, Mireia; Pucciarelli, Hector M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bau, Claiton H. D.; Bortolini, Maria Catira; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando

2013-01-01

375

Social Goals and Conflict Strategies of Individuals with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities Who Present Problems of Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A few recent studies have adopted a social cognitive perspective to explore how individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs), who present problems of aggression, view their social world. The focus has mainly been on participants' perceptions of others' behaviour within conflict situations. The present exploratory study aims to…

Pert, C.; Jahoda, A.

2008-01-01

376

Wild Asian elephants distinguish aggressive tiger and leopard growls according to perceived danger.  

PubMed

Prey species exhibit antipredator behaviours such as alertness, aggression and flight, among others, in response to predators. The nature of this response is variable, with animals reacting more strongly in situations of increased vulnerability. Our research described here is the first formal study to investigate night-time antipredator behaviour in any species of elephants, Asian or African. We examined the provocative effects of elephant-triggered tiger and leopard growls while elephants attempted to crop-raid. Tigers opportunistically prey on elephant calves, whereas leopards pose no threat; therefore, we predicted that the elephant response would be reflective of this difference. Elephants reacted similarly cautiously to the simulated presence of felids of both species by eventually moving away, but differed markedly in their more immediate behavioural responses. Elephants retreated silently to tiger-growl playbacks, whereas they responded with aggressive vocalizations, such as trumpets and grunts, to leopard-growl playbacks. Elephants also lingered in the area and displayed alert or investigative behaviours in response to leopard growls when compared with tiger growls. We anticipate that the methods outlined here will promote further study of elephant antipredator behaviour in a naturalistic context, with applications for conservation efforts as well. PMID:24026347

Thuppil, Vivek; Coss, Richard G

2013-10-23

377

Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortiol and Alpha-Amylase  

PubMed Central

This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = .33) completed a measure of peer victimization, teachers rated children’s aggression, and children’s saliva was collected prior to, and following, participation in a laboratory-based peer-oriented social challenge task. Children rated their level of frustration at the end of the task. Results revealed that victimization interacted with cortisol and sAA measured in anticipation of the task to predict aggression; the victimization × cortisol contribution to aggression was partly mediated by children’s self-reported frustration level. Victimization also was associated with heightened frustration in girls with high task-related sAA reactivity. Task-related sAA reactivity was associated with heightened aggression, but only for girls. These findings suggest that associations between peer victimization and aggression are moderated by variation in the activity of the major components of the psychobiology of stress; results are discussed in relation to theoretical models of individual differences in biological sensitivity to context.

Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

378

Acute Stress Promotes Aggressive-Like Behavior in Rats Made Allergic to Tree Pollen  

PubMed Central

It has been reported that allergies are associated with depression and possibly suicide in women. Aggression is an important behavioral component that predisposes depressed individuals to suicidal acts. In the present study we examined the relationship between allergies and aggression to determine a potential contribution of allergies in factors of risk for suicidal behavior. Because stress plays a critical role in the manifestation of clinical symptoms of allergies and also in suicidal behavior, we also studied the role of acute stress. Female inbred Brown Norway rats known for their susceptibility to respiratory allergies were sensitized and challenged with a mixture of tree pollen and evaluated in the resident-intruder test for detection of aggressive behaviors. They were also subjected to acute stress by sessions of inescapable forced swimming and re-evaluated in the resident intruder test. Animals made allergic to tree pollen and subjected to acute stress displayed increased aggressive-like behavior as compared with control-saline treated animals or to their own aggressive scores previous to the stress session. These results suggest that allergies and stress increases aggressive-like behavior, indicating that these conditions may be important factors promoting altered emotional reactivity with the potential to influence suicidal behavior.

Tonelli, Leonardo H; Hoshino, Akina; Katz, Morgan; Postolache, Teodor T

2009-01-01

379

Acute Stress Promotes Aggressive-Like Behavior in Rats Made Allergic to Tree Pollen.  

PubMed

It has been reported that allergies are associated with depression and possibly suicide in women. Aggression is an important behavioral component that predisposes depressed individuals to suicidal acts. In the present study we examined the relationship between allergies and aggression to determine a potential contribution of allergies in factors of risk for suicidal behavior. Because stress plays a critical role in the manifestation of clinical symptoms of allergies and also in suicidal behavior, we also studied the role of acute stress. Female inbred Brown Norway rats known for their susceptibility to respiratory allergies were sensitized and challenged with a mixture of tree pollen and evaluated in the resident-intruder test for detection of aggressive behaviors. They were also subjected to acute stress by sessions of inescapable forced swimming and re-evaluated in the resident intruder test. Animals made allergic to tree pollen and subjected to acute stress displayed increased aggressive-like behavior as compared with control-saline treated animals or to their own aggressive scores previous to the stress session. These results suggest that allergies and stress increases aggressive-like behavior, indicating that these conditions may be important factors promoting altered emotional reactivity with the potential to influence suicidal behavior. PMID:20622938

Tonelli, Leonardo H; Hoshino, Akina; Katz, Morgan; Postolache, Teodor T

2008-01-01

380

Aggression, segregation and stability in a dominance hierarchy  

PubMed Central

Central to our understanding of social group formation and maintenance is the question of how within-group conflict resolution is achieved in the face of asymmetrical competition over resources and reproduction. A crucial yet implicit assumption of many conflict resolution models dealing with reproductive skew is that subordinates have perfect knowledge of the extent of conflict between themselves and their dominants, enabling behavioural responses on an individual rather than evolutionary scale. However, a mechanism enabling subordinates to accurately assess their relative conflict levels has yet to be empirically demonstrated. Here, we show in the angelfish Centropyge bicolor that the rate of overt mild aggression from dominants to subordinates acts as a signal of increasing rank conflict. The clarity of this signal can be reduced by spatial segregation, causing subordinates to be less able to respond appropriately by regulation of their foraging rates. A reduced signal ultimately leads to a less well-defined dominance hierarchy and destabilization of the social group. Our study suggests that, contrary to previous suggestions, dominant aggression rates play a crucial role as an accurate information signal required for the evolutionary stability of skew models.

Ang, Tzo Zen; Manica, Andrea

2010-01-01

381

Pathways to Aggression and Violence Among African American Adolescent Males: The Influence of Normative Beliefs, Neighborhood, and Depressive Symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence continues to present a serious public health challenge in the United States, particularly so for African American adolescent males. The present study utilized a multilevel approach to predict aggression within a community sample of low-income, urban African American adolescent males (n = 80). Participants' self-report data on normative beliefs about aggression, exposure to community violence, and depressive symptoms were used

W. LaVome Robinson; Keisha C. Paxton; Lynn P. Jonen

2011-01-01

382

Dopamine and serotonin signaling during two sensitive developmental periods differentially impact adult aggressive and affective behaviors in mice.  

PubMed

Pharmacologic blockade of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) or serotonin transporter (5-HTT) has antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy in adulthood. Yet, genetically conferred MAOA or 5-HTT hypoactivity is associated with altered aggression and increased anxiety/depression. Here we test the hypothesis that increased monoamine signaling during development causes these paradoxical aggressive and affective phenotypes. We find that pharmacologic MAOA blockade during early postnatal development (P2-P21) but not during peri-adolescence (P22-41) increases anxiety- and depression-like behavior in adult (>P90) mice, mimicking the effect of P2-21 5-HTT inhibition. Moreover, MAOA blockade during peri-adolescence, but not P2-21 or P182-201, increases adult aggressive behavior, and 5-HTT blockade from P22-P41 reduced adult aggression. Blockade of the dopamine transporter, but not the norepinephrine transporter, during P22-41 also increases adult aggressive behavior. Thus, P2-21 is a sensitive period during which 5-HT modulates adult anxiety/depression-like behavior, and P22-41 is a sensitive period during which DA and 5-HT bi-directionally modulate adult aggression. Permanently altered DAergic function as a consequence of increased P22-P41 monoamine signaling might underlie altered aggression. In support of this hypothesis, we find altered aggression correlating positively with locomotor response to amphetamine challenge in adulthood. Proving that altered DA function and aggression are causally linked, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of VTA DAergic neurons increases aggression. It therefore appears that genetic and pharmacologic factors impacting dopamine and serotonin signaling during sensitive developmental periods can modulate adult monoaminergic function and thereby alter risk for aggressive and emotional dysfunction. PMID:24589889

Yu, Q; Teixeira, C M; Mahadevia, D; Huang, Y; Balsam, D; Mann, J J; Gingrich, J A; Ansorge, M S

2014-06-01

383

Causes and Control of Aggression in Man.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods have been developed for the simultaneous assay of three basic and separate motoric processes in several species including monkeys and man. The basic reaction classes are (1) reactions involving hostility, fighting and aggressivity and reflecting u...

R. R. Hutchinson

1974-01-01

384

Aggression: Is It Stimulated by Day Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how one day care program for children and infants from low-income families developed, implemented, and evaluated a curriculum approach to facilitate children's social development and to deal with the problem of aggressive peer interactions. (RH)

Finkelstein, Neal W.

1982-01-01

385

Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or indirectly (e.g. BDNF, nNOS, ?CaMKII, Neuropeptide Y). The future agenda delineates specific receptor subpopulations for GABA, glutamate and neuropeptides as they modulate the canonical aminergic neurotransmitters in brainstem, limbic and cortical regions with the ultimate outcome of attenuating or escalating aggressive behavior.

Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

2013-01-01

386

Androgen receptors, sex behavior, and aggression.  

PubMed

Androgens are intricately involved in reproductive and aggressive behaviors, but the role of the androgen receptor in mediating these behaviors is less defined. Further, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can influence each other at the level of the androgen receptor. Knowledge of the mechanisms for androgens' effects on behaviors through the androgen receptor will guide future studies in elucidating male reproductive and aggressive behavior repertoires. PMID:22414851

Cunningham, Rebecca L; Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

2012-01-01

387

Psychopathy Scores Predict Adolescent Inpatient Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study found that psychopathy scores predicted aggressive behavior among 72 adolescent psychiatric inpatients, even after controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status, length of hospital stay, and independent self-report measures of impulsivity and conduct problems. Psychopathy was assessed within 3 days of hospital admission by clinical raters trained in the use of Hare’s Psychopathy Checklist–Revised. Aggressive behavior was recorded

Ed Stafford; Dewey G. Cornell

2003-01-01

388

Association of HPA axis genes with suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family, adoption and twin studies show that genetics influences suicidal behaviour, but do not indicate specific susceptibility variants. Stress response is thought to be mediated by the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is known to be a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway (HPA). Alterations in HPA system have been related to impulsivity, aggression and suicidal behaviour, common feature in schizophrenia. CRH

V. De Luca; S. Tharmalingam; C. Zai; N. Potapova; J. Strauss; J. Vincent; JL Kennedy

2010-01-01

389

Mouse behavioural analysis in systems biology  

PubMed Central

Molecular techniques allowing in vivo modulation of gene expression have provided unique opportunities and challenges for behavioural studies aimed at understanding the function of particular genes or biological systems under physiological or pathological conditions. Although various animal models are available, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has unique features and is therefore a preferred animal model. The mouse shares a remarkable genetic resemblance and aspects of behaviour with humans. In this review, first we describe common mouse models for behavioural analyses. As both genetic and environmental factors influence behavioural performance and need to be carefully evaluated in behavioural experiments, considerations for designing and interpretations of these experiments are subsequently discussed. Finally, common behavioural tests used to assess brain function are reviewed, and it is illustrated how behavioural tests are used to increase our understanding of the role of histaminergic neurotransmission in brain function.

van Meer, Peter; Raber, Jacob

2005-01-01

390

A comparison of the social status and social behavior of Aggressive and Aggressive\\/Withdrawn boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to clarify contradictory findings concerning the social status of aggressive youngsters. This was undertaken by dividing kindergarten boys into either Aggressive [A] or Aggressive\\/Withdrawn [A\\/W] groups, as proposed by Ledingham [1981]. Both groups were found to be high on peer-nominated rejection, but the A group was also high on peer-nominated popularity while the A\\/W

Richard Milich; Steven Landau

1984-01-01

391

Revisiting the serotonin-aggression relation in humans: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The inverse relation between serotonin and human aggression is often portrayed as "reliable," "strong," and "well established" despite decades of conflicting reports and widely recognized methodological limitations. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we evaluate the evidence for and against the serotonin deficiency hypothesis of human aggression across 4 methods of assessing serotonin: (a) cerebrospinal fluid levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (CSF 5-HIAA), (b) acute tryptophan depletion, (c) pharmacological challenge, and (d) endocrine challenge. Results across 175 independent samples and over 6,500 total participants were heterogeneous, but, in aggregate, revealed a small, inverse correlation between serotonin functioning and aggression, anger, and hostility (r = -.12). Pharmacological challenge studies had the largest mean weighted effect size (r = -.21), and CSF 5-HIAA studies had the smallest (r = -.06). Potential methodological and demographic moderators largely failed to account for variability in study outcomes. Notable exceptions included year of publication (effect sizes tended to diminish with time) and self- versus other-reported aggression (other-reported aggression was positively correlated to serotonin functioning). We discuss 4 possible explanations for the pattern of findings: unreliable measures, ambient correlational noise, an unidentified higher order interaction, and a selective serotonergic effect. Finally, we provide 4 recommendations for bringing much needed clarity to this important area of research: acknowledge contradictory findings and avoid selective reporting practices; focus on improving the reliability and validity of serotonin and aggression measures; test for interactions involving personality and/or environmental moderators; and revise the serotonin deficiency hypothesis to account for serotonin's functional complexity. PMID:23379963

Duke, Aaron A; Bègue, Laurent; Bell, Rob; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory

2013-09-01

392

Epidemiology and demographics of aggressive periodontitis.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis have used different study designs and a range of examination methods and case definitions, and this greatly complicates the study of disease prevalence in populations. The wide range of disease case definitions, in particular, profoundly impacts the reported rate of disease, and the use of a standard disease definition is strongly recommended. Surveys of aggressive periodontitis that use only clinical examinations, without radiographic examination to confirm the presence of a distinctive pattern of tissue loss, may overestimate the prevalence of this disease, particularly when a low threshold of attachment loss is used. The prevalence of aggressive periodontitis varies significantly between populations, and differences in race/ethnicities seem to be a key factor. Studies consistently show that aggressive periodontitis is most prevalent in Africa and in populations of African descent and is least prevalent in Caucasians in Europe and North America. Among children and young adults the prevalence of this disease is higher in older than in younger age groups. Most studies show comparable disease prevalence in male and female subjects. These findings show that aggressive periodontitis is a significant health problem in certain populations. This review also highlights a lack of information on the epidemiology and demographics of this disease in many parts of the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis in high-risk populations are important and could provide vital data on the determinants of this disease, and this information is needed for the establishment of effective health-promotion measures. PMID:24738585

Susin, Cristiano; Haas, Alex N; Albandar, Jasim M

2014-06-01

393

Staff-reported antecedents to aggression in a post-acute brain injury treatment programme: What are they and what implications do they have for treatment?  

PubMed Central

Research in psychiatric settings has found that staff attribute the majority of inpatient aggression to immediate environmental stressors. We sought to determine if staff working with persons with brain injury-related severe and chronic impairment make similar causal attributions. If immediate environmental stressors precipitate the majority of aggressive incidents in this client group, it is possible an increased focus on the management of factors that initiate client aggression may be helpful. The research was conducted in a low-demand treatment programme for individuals with chronic cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury. Over a six-week period, 63 staff and a research assistant reported on 508 aggressive incidents. Staff views as to the causes of client aggression were elicited within 72 hours of observing an aggressive incident. Staff descriptions of causes were categorised using qualitative methods and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aggression towards staff was predominantly preceded by (a) actions that interrupted or redirected a client behaviour, (b) an activity demand, or (c) a physical intrusion. The majority of aggressive incidents appeared hostile/angry in nature and were not considered by staff to be pre-meditated. Common treatment approaches can be usefully augmented by a renewed focus on interventions aimed at reducing antecedents that provoke aggression. Possible approaches for achieving this are considered.

Giles, Gordon Muir; Scott, Karen; Manchester, David

2013-01-01

394

Life History of Aggression scores are predicted by childhood hyperactivity, conduct disorder, adult substance abuse, and low cooperativeness in adult psychiatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention of aggressive behaviours is a core priority for psychiatric clinical work, but the association between the diagnostic concepts used in psychiatry and aggression remains largely unknown. Outpatients referred for psychiatric evaluations of childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders (n=178) and perpetrators of violent crimes referred to pre-trial forensic psychiatric investigations (n=92) had comprehensive, instrument-based, psychiatric assessments, including the Life History of

Björn Hofvander; Ola Ståhlberg; Agneta Nydén; Elisabet Wentz; Alessio degl'Innocenti; Eva Billstedt; Anders Forsman; Christopher Gillberg; Thomas Nilsson; Maria Rastam; Henrik Anckarsäter

2011-01-01

395

Molecular detection of pheromone signals in mammals: from genes to behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instinctive and species-specific behavioural response of animals to pheromones has intrigued biologists for a long time. Recent molecular and electrophysiological approaches have provided new insights into the mechanisms of pheromone detection in rodents and into the sensory coding of pheromone signals that lead to gender discrimination and aggressive behaviour.

A. Thomas Torello; Catherine Dulac

2003-01-01

396

Effectiveness of a Dialectical Behaviour Therapy Program for Incarcerated Female Juvenile O¡enders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Female offenders incarcerated in Washington State have demonstrated higher rates of mental health needs than boys. Linehan's (1993a, b) Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for adult women with Borderline Personality Disorder. DBT utilises a combination of skills training, problem solving, and validation to enable patients to reduce self-destructive, impulsive and aggressive behaviours. The prevalence of similar

Eric W. Trupin; David G. Stewart; Lisa Boesky

2002-01-01

397

The Behavioural Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Behaviour problems and a preference for adult contact are reported to be prominent in the phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this study we examined the relationship between social interactions and self-injurious and aggressive/disruptive behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome to explore potential operant reinforcement of problem…

Taylor, L.; Oliver, C.

2008-01-01

398

Fear of Failure and Student Athletes' Interpersonal Antisocial Behaviour in Education and Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…

Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria

2011-01-01

399

The Problem of Bullying in Schools and the Promise of Positive Behaviour Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying in schools is recognised as a global problem. In the USA, school shootings and increasing school aggression focused research on the causes of bullying and interventions that could reduce or eliminate bullying behaviours. A variety of bullying programs have generated mixed results with some actually increasing bullying behaviours. There…

Pugh, Roger; Chitiyo, Morgan

2012-01-01

400

Gender Differences in Dating Aggression Among Multiethnic High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: (1) To assess prevalence of physical dating aggression and victimization among high school students; (2) to assess prevalence of mutual and exclusive aggression; (3) to determine whether aggression differs across ethnic groups and relationship type; and (4) to ascertain the likelihood of injury and breakup in individuals who reported that they were the recipients of physical aggression. Methods: Students

K. Daniel O'Leary; Amy M. Smith Slep; Sarah Avery-Leaf; Michele Cascardi

2008-01-01

401

Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity,

Shawn N. Geniole; Amanda E. Keyes; Catherine J. Mondloch; Justin M. Carré; Cheryl M. McCormick

2012-01-01

402

Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

2012-01-01

403

Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

Risser, Scott D.

2013-01-01

404

Ethnic Differences in Parents' Attitudes toward Girls' Use of Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have attempted to explain ethnic differences in female aggression. The degree to which ethnic differences exist in the influence of parents' approval of aggression on their preadolescent daughters' use of physical, verbal, and relational aggression was explored in a sample of 97 parent-child dyads. Results indicate that European American parents were more disapproving of their daughters' aggressive behavior

Jamilia J. Blake; A. Michele Lease; Stephen P. Olejnik; Terez L. Turner

2010-01-01

405

Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

2009-01-01

406

The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

407

Unsanctioned aggression in rugby union: relationships among aggressiveness, anger, athletic identity, and professionalization.  

PubMed

Aggressive players who intentionally cause injury to their opponents are common in many sports, particularly collision sports such as Rugby Union. Although some acts of aggression fall within the rules (sanctioned), others do not (unsanctioned), with the latter tending to be less acceptable than the former. This study attempts to identify characteristics of players who are more likely to employ unsanctioned methods in order to injure an opponent. Male Rugby Union players completed questionnaires assessing aggressiveness, anger, past aggression, professionalization, and athletic identity. Players were assigned to one of two groups based on self-reported past unsanctioned aggression. Results indicated that demographic variables (e.g., age, playing position, or level of play) were not predictive of group membership. Measures of aggressiveness and professionalization were significant predictors; high scores on both indicated a greater probability of reporting the use of unsanctioned aggressive force for the sole purpose of causing injury or pain. In addition, players who had been taught how to execute aggressive illegal plays without detection were also more likely to report using excessive force to injure an opponent. Results provide further support that highly professionalized players may be more likely to use methods outside the constitutive rules of Rugby Union in order to intentionally injure their opponents. Results are discussed within the context of the increasing win-at-all-cost attitude that is becoming more prevalent in sport and its implications for youth athletes. PMID:19309005

Maxwell, J P; Visek, A J

2009-01-01

408

Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression. PMID:15203299

Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

2004-07-01

409

Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

2012-01-01

410

Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

2012-01-01

411

High Fat, Low Carbohydrate Diet Limit Fear and Aggression in G?ttingen Minipigs  

PubMed Central

High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; S?rensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sand?e, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R.; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

2014-01-01

412

High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in göttingen minipigs.  

PubMed

High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society. PMID:24740321

Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

2014-01-01

413

Laboratory Induced Aggression: A PET Study of Aggressive Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often associated with symptoms of impulsive aggression, which pose a threat to patients themselves and to others. Preclinical studies show that orbital frontal cortex (OFC) plays a role in regulating impulsive aggression. Prior work has found OFC dysfunction in BPD. Methods We employed a task to provoke aggressive behavior, the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP), which has never previously been used during functional brain imaging. Thirty-eight BPD patients with impulsive aggression (BPD-IED) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (HC) received 18FDG-PET on two occasions with a provocation and non-provocation version of the PSAP. For each participant, we measured mean relative glucose metabolism in cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) in each hemisphere; difference scores (Provoked–Non-provoked) were calculated. A whole brain exploratory analysis for the double difference of BPD-IED–HC for Provoked–Non-provoked was also conducted. Results BPD-IED patients were significantly more aggressive than HC on the PSAP. BPD-IED patients also increased relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) in OFC and amygdala when provoked, while HC decreased rGMR in these areas. However, HC increased rGMR in anterior, medial, and dorsolateral prefrontal regions during provocation more than BPD-IED patients. Conclusions Patients responded aggressively and showed heightened rGMR in emotional brain areas, including amygdala and OFC in response to provocation, but not in more dorsal brain regions associated with cognitive control of aggression. In contrast, HC increased rGMR in dorsal regions of PFC during aggression provocation, brain regions involved in top-down cognitive control of aggression and, more broadly, of emotion.

New, Antonia S.; Hazlett, Erin A.; Newmark, Randall E.; Zhang, Jane; Triebwasser, Joseph; Meyerson, David; Lazarus, Sophie; Trisdorfer, Roanna; Goldstein, Kim E.; Goodman, Marianne; Koenigsberg, Harold W.; Flory, Janine D.; Siever, Larry J.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

2009-01-01

414

Managing Complex Environmental Remediation amidst Aggressive Facility Revitalization Milestones  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the final closure projects at Rocky Flats and Fernald, many of the Department of Energy's future CERCLA and RCRA closure challenges will take place at active facilities, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) central campus. ORNL has aggressive growth plans for a Research Technology Park and cleanup must address and integrate D and D, soil and groundwater remediation, and on-going and future business plans for the Park. Different planning and tracking tools are needed to support closures at active facilities. To support some large Airport redevelopment efforts, we created tools that allowed the Airline lease-holder to perform environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and new building construction, which in turn allowed them to migrate real estate from unusable to usable within an aggressive schedule. In summary: The FIM and OpenGate{sup TM} spatial analysis system were two primary tools developed to support simultaneous environmental remediation, D and D, and construction efforts at an operating facility. These tools helped redevelopers to deal with environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and construction, thereby meeting their goals of opening gates, restarting their revenue streams, at the same time complying with all environmental regulations. (authors)

Richter Pack, S. [PMP Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2008-07-01

415

Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity  

PubMed Central

Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP) questionnaire (children's aggression scale-parent version). Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 – 24.2, 2.6 – 8.3,1-5.6,0 – 7.1, and 0 – 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Mehta, Manju; Gupta, Nandita; Ammini, Ariachery C.

2012-01-01

416

Subjective and objective components of resource value additively increase aggression in parasitoid contests  

PubMed Central

Two major categories of factors are predicted to influence behaviour in dyadic contests; differences in the abilities of the contestants to acquire and retain resources (resource holding potential), and the value of the contested resource (resource value, RV; which comprises objective and subjective components). Recent studies indicate that subjective components affect contest behaviour in several animal taxa but few have simultaneously investigated objective RV components. We find that both an objective (host size) and a subjective (contestant age) component of RV affect contest intensity in the parasitoid wasp Goniozus legneri. These additively influence aggressiveness, with a larger effect from the subjective component than the objective component. The greater influence of subjective RV adds weight to the recent surge of recognition of this RV component's importance in contest behaviour.

Stockermans, Bernard C.; Hardy, Ian C. W.

2013-01-01

417

An examination of the relationship between personality and aggression using the general aggression and five factor models.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationships between personality and aggression using the general aggression (GAM, Anderson and Bushman [2002] Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51) and five factor models (FFMs) (Costa and McCrae [1992] Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Specifically, it examined Ferguson and Dyck's (Ferguson and Dyck [2012] Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228) criticisms that the GAM has questionable validity in clinical populations and disproportionately focuses on aggression-related knowledge structures to the detriment of other inputs, specifically personality variables. Fifty-five male offenders attending a community forensic mental health service for pre-sentence psychiatric and/or psychological evaluation were assessed for aggressive script rehearsal, aggression-supportive normative beliefs, FFM personality traits, trait anger and past aggressive behavior. With regard to relationships between five factor variables and aggression, results suggested that only agreeableness and conscientiousness were related to aggression. However, these relationships were: (1) weak in comparison with those between script rehearsal, normative beliefs and trait anger with aggression and (2) were not significant predictors in hierarchical regression analysis when all of the significant univariate predictors, including GAM-specified variables were regressed onto life history of aggression; normative beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and trait anger were significantly related to aggression in this regression analysis. These results provide further support for the application of the GAM to aggressive populations. PMID:24497001

Hosie, Julia; Gilbert, Flora; Simpson, Katrina; Daffern, Michael

2014-01-01

418

Dominant female meerkats do not use aggression to elevate work rates of helpers in response to increased brood demand  

PubMed Central

In cooperatively breeding animals, in which nonbreeding subordinates assist in rearing offspring born to dominants, breeders and helpers may be in conflict over their respective contributions to offspring care and selection may favour breeders that use aggression to elevate the work rates of helpers. We tested the prediction that dominant female meerkats, Suricata suricatta, should increase aggression towards subordinates when the need for help is higher, by playing back recordings of pup begging calls to simulate increased need for help. Second, we tested the prediction that dominants should reduce aggression when subordinates help more, by playing back recordings of feeding calls to simulate elevated pup provisioning rates by subordinates. Neither of the two playback experiments affected rates of aggressive interactions between breeding females and helpers. Instead, breeding females increased their own level of pup provisioning in response to increased pup begging. Hence, our results do not support a role of aggression in regulating helping behaviour in meerkats, but suggest that pup provisioning can be explained by direct and/or indirect benefits derived from helping. As yet, firm evidence that breeders use aggression to promote helping by subordinates in cooperative animal societies remains elusive.

Santema, Peter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

2012-01-01

419

Does war beget child aggression? Military violence, gender, age and aggressive behavior in two Palestinian samples.  

PubMed

We examined, first, the relations between children's exposure to military violence and their aggressive behavior and the role of age and gender in that relation in two Palestinian samples. Second, we tested parenting practices as a moderator of the relation between exposure to military violence and aggressive behavior, and third, whether exposure to military violence of different nature (direct victimization versus witnessing) has specific associations with different forms of aggression (reactive, proactive and aggression-enjoyment). Study I was conducted in a relatively calm military-political atmosphere in Palestine-Gaza, and included 640 children, aged 6-16 years whose parents (N=622) and teachers (N=457) provided reports. Older children (> or =12 years) provided self-reports (N=211). Study II included 225 Palestinian children aged 10-14-year, who participated during a high-violence period of the Al Aqsa Intifada characterized by air raids, killing and destruction. Results showed that witnessing severe military violence was associated with children's aggressive and antisocial behavior (parent-reported) in study I, and with proactive, reactive and aggression-enjoyment (child-reported) in the study II. As hypothesized, good and supporting parenting practices could moderate the link between exposure to military violence and aggressive behavior. Aggr. PMID:17985361

Qouta, Samir; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Miller, Thomas; El-Sarraj, Eyad

2008-01-01

420

Socially induced and rapid increases in aggression are inversely related to brain aromatase activity in a sex-changing fish, Lythrypnus dalli  

PubMed Central

Social interactions can generate rapid and dramatic changes in behaviour and neuroendocrine activity. We investigated the effects of a changing social environment on aggressive behaviour and brain aromatase activity (bAA) in a sex-changing fish, Lythrypnus dalli. Aromatase is responsible for the conversion of androgen into oestradiol. Male removal from a socially stable group resulted in rapid and dramatic (?200%) increases in aggression in the dominant female, which will become male usually 7–10 days later. These dominant females and recently sex-changed individuals had lower bAA but similar gonadal aromatase activity (gAA) compared to control females, while established males had lower bAA than all groups and lower gAA than all groups except dominant females. Within hours of male removal, dominant females' aggressive behaviour was inversely related to bAA but not gAA. These results are novel because they are the first to: (i) demonstrate socially induced decreases in bAA levels corresponding with increased aggression, (ii) identify this process as a possible neurochemical mechanism regulating the induction of behavioural, and subsequently gonadal, sex change and (iii) show differential regulation of bAA versus gAA resulting from social manipulations. Combined with other studies, this suggests that aromatase activity may modulate fast changes in vertebrate social behaviour.

Black, Michael P; Balthazart, Jacques; Baillien, Michelle; Grober, Matthew S

2005-01-01

421

Higher aggression towards closer relatives by soldier larvae in a polyembryonic wasp.  

PubMed

In the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanum, females commonly lay one male and one female egg in a lepidopteran host. Both sexes proliferate clonally within the growing host larva. Distinct larval castes develop from each wasp egg, the majority being 'reproductives' plus some 'soldiers' which sacrifice reproduction and attack competitors. Maturing mixed sex broods are usually female biased, as expected when intra-brood mating is common. Pre-mating dispersal followed by outbreeding is expected to increase sexual conflict over brood sex ratios and result in greater soldier attack rates. Owing to sexually asymmetric relatedness, intra-brood conflicts are expected to be resolved primarily via female soldier attack. We observed soldier behaviour in vitro to test whether lower intra-brood relatedness (siblings from either within-strain or between-strain crosses were presented) increased inter-sexual aggression by female as well as male soldiers. As found in prior studies, females were more aggressive than males but, contrary to expectations and previous empirical observations, soldiers of both sexes showed more aggression towards more closely related embryos. We speculate that lower intra-brood relatedness indicates maternal outbreeding and may suggest a rarity of mating opportunities for reproductives maturing from the current brood, which may enhance the value of opposite sex brood-mates, or that higher aggression towards relatives may be a side-effect of mechanisms to discriminate heterospecific competitors. PMID:24872462

Dunn, Johanna; Dunn, Derek W; Strand, Michael R; Hardy, Ian C W

2014-05-01

422

Higher aggression towards closer relatives by soldier larvae in a polyembryonic wasp  

PubMed Central

In the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanum, females commonly lay one male and one female egg in a lepidopteran host. Both sexes proliferate clonally within the growing host larva. Distinct larval castes develop from each wasp egg, the majority being ‘reproductives’ plus some ‘soldiers’ which sacrifice reproduction and attack competitors. Maturing mixed sex broods are usually female biased, as expected when intra-brood mating is common. Pre-mating dispersal followed by outbreeding is expected to increase sexual conflict over brood sex ratios and result in greater soldier attack rates. Owing to sexually asymmetric relatedness, intra-brood conflicts are expected to be resolved primarily via female soldier attack. We observed soldier behaviour in vitro to test whether lower intra-brood relatedness (siblings from either within-strain or between-strain crosses were presented) increased inter-sexual aggression by female as well as male soldiers. As found in prior studies, females were more aggressive than males but, contrary to expectations and previous empirical observations, soldiers of both sexes showed more aggression towards more closely related embryos. We speculate that lower intra-brood relatedness indicates maternal outbreeding and may suggest a rarity of mating opportunities for reproductives maturing from the current brood, which may enhance the value of opposite sex brood-mates, or that higher aggression towards relatives may be a side-effect of mechanisms to discriminate heterospecific competitors.

Dunn, Johanna; Dunn, Derek W.; Strand, Michael R.; Hardy, Ian C. W.

2014-01-01

423

Clear cell meningioma with histologically aggressive appearance and clinically aggressive behavior: a case report.  

PubMed

Clear cell meningioma (CCM) is an uncommon variant of meningioma, corresponding to WHO grade II. We present a case of CCM with histologically aggressive appearance and clinically aggressive behavior. The tumor demonstrated rapid regrowth and brain metastasis. The histological progression from the ordinal CCM to the atypical area and higher MIB-1 index was observed. We assume that the short time of recurrence and metastasis may result from atypical histological features in our case. If the CCM has a histologically aggressive appearance as in our case, we suggest that postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy should be performed despite total resection of the tumor. PMID:22082299

Hori, Satoshi; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Ishizawa, Shin; Hayashi, Shinichi; Sato, Hikari; Nagao, Seiya; Akioka, Naoki; Nagai, Shoichi; Nishikata, Manabu; Endo, Shunro

2012-08-01

424

Machine analysis of facial behaviour: naturalistic and dynamic behaviour  

PubMed Central

This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in these specific subproblem areas in particular, are discussed and recommendations for accomplishing a better facial expression measurement technology are outlined.

Pantic, Maja

2009-01-01

425

Aggressive and nonaggressive children's moral judgments and moral emotion attributions in situations involving retaliation and unprovoked aggression.  

PubMed

The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was assessed by an interview including questions about their moral judgments and emotion attributions. Aggressive children judged retaliations as less serious than did nonaggressive children. They also referred less often to the harmful consequences of retaliation and were more likely to excuse the retaliation because of the provocation. In unprovoked aggressive situations younger aggressive children, compared with the younger nonaggressive children, attributed more happiness to transgressors, more anger to victims, and less sadness to transgressors and victims. The results are discussed in terms of previous research on aggressive children's moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression. PMID:23264993

Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

2012-01-01

426

Gaze Patterns, Verbal Insult and Instrumental Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of three gaze patterns-staring, normal looking, glancing and avoiding eye contact-and verbal insult on instrumental aggression. It was hypothesized that the experimental manipulation of verbal insult will: (1) not affect shock intensity or duration (2) not increase the subjects self-reported hostility, and (3)…

Kotsch, William E.

427

PROGRAMED EXCHANGES AND THE CONTROL OF AGGRESSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SYSTEMS OF EXCHANGE - USING THE EXTINCTION, DISTRACTION, AND SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS SYSTEMS - WERE IMPLEMENTED TO DECREASE AGGRESSION AND PROMOTE COOPERATION AND SCHOLARLY BEHAVIOR, THREE SYSTEMS WERE TESTED USING EXCHANGE THEORY AS A GUIDE. THE SUBJECTS WERE FIVE 4- AND 5-YEAR-OLD BOYS DIAGNOSED AS HYPERAGGRESSIVE. EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS INCLUDED…

ELLIS, DESMOND P.; HAMBLIN, ROBERT L.

428

Determinants and Origins of Aggressive Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes theoretical and research contributions made at a NATO-sponsored conference on the origins and determinants of aggression, held in Monte Carlo, 1-6 July 1973. A great variety of research methods, levels of analysis, and theoretical a...

J. T. Lester

1973-01-01

429

Aggression toward forensic evaluators: a statewide survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing body of literature regarding violence toward mental health professionals in clinical settings, but little is known about the frequency of assaults on forensic evaluators. Forensic evaluators play a very different role in the evaluee's life than do treating clinicians. This study examined the incidence of aggressive behavior specifically directed toward forensic clinicians. Psychologists and psychiatrists (n

Naomi Leavitt; Helene Presskreischer; Patricia L. Maykuth; Thomas Grisso

2006-01-01

430

Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

2009-01-01

431

Kuwaiti Educational Aims after the Iraqi Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Iraqi aggression on Kuwait has had severe social and economic effects. This article summarizes a survey to discern Kuwaiti school administrators' attitudes toward modification of educational aims, appropriate implementation strategies, decentralized versus centralized approaches, and inclusion of social and economic impacts in modified aims.…

Al-Jaber, Zeinab

1996-01-01

432

Digital Aggression: Cyberworld Meets School Bullies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cyberbullying is a category of bullying that occurs in the digital realm and affects students at astonishing rates. Unlike traditional bullying, in which displays of aggression may be evident to bystanders, the ramification of cyberbullying occurs through unconventional strategies (e.g., text messaging, online Web logs, video sharing). As a…

Wong-Lo, Mickie; Bullock, Lyndal M.

2011-01-01

433

Electromagnetic optimization exploiting aggressive space mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a significantly improved space mapping (SM) strategy for electromagnetic (EM) optimization. Instead of waiting for upfront EM analyses at several base points, our new approach aggressively exploits every available EM analysis, producing dramatic results right from the first step. We establish a relationship between the novel SM optimization and the quasi-Newton iteration for solving a system of nonlinear

John W. Bandler; R. M. Biernacki; Shao Hua Chen; Ronald H. Hemmers; Kaj Madsen

1995-01-01

434

Aggression Replacement Training: A Viable Alternative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools have widely used suspension and related punitive practices, in spite of their proven ineffectiveness. This article discusses the role of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) as part of a schoolwide positive behavior support initiative. Grounded in theory and research, ART focuses on the proactive teaching of acceptable behaviors to…

McGinnis, Ellen

2003-01-01

435

Controlling Aggressive Students. Fastback Series, No. 387.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coping with aggressive student behavior is crucial to providing a safe and orderly classroom and school environment. Approaches for improving student behavior, ranging from enhancing a student's interpersonal skills to restraint techniques (such as the prudent use of physical force) are covered in this booklet. The material blends information in…

Blendinger, Jack; And Others

436

Aggression against cats, dogs and people  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the nature of animal cruelty in childhood two groups of male psychiatric patients were compared: an Animal Cruelty Group and an Assaultive Group. Most in both groups showed other signs of aggression dyscontrol in childhood. Most in both groups were subjected to parental brutality. Emotional or physical unavailability of a father figure may be a common

Alan R. Felthous

1980-01-01

437

Aggression and Violence in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults who work in positions of authority with young people must be prepared for the possibility of conflict, which could lead to aggressive behavior. Incorrect handling of a crisis will produce a conflict cycle, the four stages of which are described. Legal issues surrounding physical intervention (in the United Kingdom) are summarized, and…

Grant, Frank

2003-01-01

438

Leiomyosarcoma of prostate: a rare, aggressive tumor.  

PubMed

Leiomyosarcoma of prostate is a rare, aggressive tumor with bizarre presentation at advanced stage. Though definite treatment modalities are not recommended till now, innovative combined multimodality treatment strategies may help to improve the prognosis of patients with this tumor of poor survival rate. Here we report a case of leiomyosarcoma of the prostate which presented with chest metastasis. PMID:24518734

Singh, Jitendra Pratap; Chakraborty, Debashis; Bera, Malay Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

2013-01-01

439

Sequelae of Aggression in Acutely Suicidal Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The consequences of aggression on problem course and suicide risk were examined in 270 acutely suicidal adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 184 girls). Participants were assessed during psychiatric hospitalization (T1), 6-months post-hospitalization (T2), and 15 or more months post-hospitalization (T3). Study variables included self- and…

Kerr, David C. R.; Washburn, Jason J.; Feingold, Alan; Kramer, Anne C.; Ivey, Asha Z.; King, Cheryl A.

2007-01-01

440

Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

2012-01-01

441

How Becoming Mediators Affects Aggressive Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a nine-month study conducted in an urban middle school to attempt to reduce the level of aggression of a small group of seventh graders by assigning them a positive role as mediators to fifth- and sixth-grade disputants. Pretest and posttest measures of self-concept and teacher's perception of problem behavior showed dramatic…

Fast, Jonathan; Fanelli, Frank; Salen, Louis

2003-01-01

442

Violent Comic Books Influence Relational Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the impact that reading violent comic books has on hostile attributional bias using relationally aggressive scenarios. College students (N=85) read either very violent or mildly violent comic books. Participants rated the comic books on levels of violence, humor, interest level, and overall likeability. They also read five…

Kirsh, Steven J.; Olczak, Paul V.

443

Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

2010-01-01

444

Is bipolar disorder specifically associated with aggression?  

PubMed Central

Objective Several studies have suggested that bipolar disorder (BP) in adults is associated with aggressive behaviors. However, most studies have only included inpatients and have not taken possible confounding factors into consideration. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of aggression in subjects with BP compared to subjects with other non-BP psychopathology and healthy controls. Methods Subjects with bipolar I disorder (BP-I) and bipolar II disorder (BP-II) (n = 255), non-BP psychopathology (n = 85), and healthy controls (n = 84) were recruited. Aggression was measured using the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Group comparisons were adjusted for demographic and clinical differences (e.g., comorbid disorders) and multiple comparisons. The effects of the subtype of BP, current versus past episode, polarity of current episode, psychosis, the presence of irritable mania/hypomania only, and pharmacological treatment were examined. Results Subjects with BP showed significantly higher total and subscale AQ scores (raw and T-scores) when compared with subjects with non-BP psychopathology and healthy controls. Exclusion of subjects with current mood episodes and those with common comorbid disorders yielded similar results. There were no effects of BP subtype, polarity of the current episode, irritable manic/hypomanic episodes only, or current use of pharmacological treatments. Independent of the severity of BP and polarity of the episode, those in a current mood episode showed significantly higher AQ scores than those not in a current mood episode. Subjects with current psychosis showed significantly higher total AQ score, hostility, and anger than those without current psychosis. Conclusions Subjects with BP display greater rates of anger and aggressive behaviors, especially during acute and psychotic episodes. Early identification and management of these behaviors is warranted.

Ballester, Javier; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin; Obreja, Mihaela; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, MaryBeth; Iyengar, Satish; Farchione, Tiffany; Kupfer, David J; Brent, David; Birmaher, Boris

2012-01-01

445

Aggressive periodontitis: case definition and diagnostic criteria.  

PubMed

Aggressive periodontitis is a destructive disease characterized by the following: the involvement of multiple teeth with a distinctive pattern of periodontal tissue loss; a high rate of disease progression; an early age of onset; and the absence of systemic diseases. In some patients periodontal tissue loss may commence before puberty, whereas in most patients the age of onset is during or somewhat after the circumpubertal period. Besides infection with specific microorganisms, a host predisposition seems to play a key role in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as evidenced by the familial aggregation of the disease. In this article we review the historical background of the diagnostic criteria of aggressive periodontitis, present a contemporary case definition and describe the clinical parameters of the disease. At present, the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis is achieved using case history, clinical examination and radiographic evaluation. The data gathered using these methods are prone to relatively high measurement errors. Besides, this diagnostic approach measures past disease history and may not reliably measure existing disease activity or accurately predict future tissue loss. A diagnosis is often made years after the onset of the disease, partly because current assessment methods detect established disease more readily and reliably than they detect incipient or initial lesions where the tissue loss is minimal and usually below the detection threshold of present examination methods. Future advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease may contribute to an earlier diagnosis. Insofar, future case definitions may involve the identification of key etiologic and risk factors, combined with high-precision methodologies that enable the early detection of initial lesions. This may significantly enhance the predictive value of these tests and detect cases of aggressive periodontitis before significant tissue loss develops. PMID:24738584

Albandar, Jasim M

2014-06-01

446

Design and CAD challenges in 45nm CMOS and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

With semiconductor industry's aggressive march towards 45nm CMOS technology and introduction of new materials and device structures in sight for 32nm and 22nm nodes, it is crucial for the IC design and CAD community to understand the challenges posed by these potential technology changes. This tutorial will focus on these challenges starting from front end of line (devices) to the

David J. Frank; Ruchir Puri; Dorel Toma

2006-01-01

447

Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence. PMID:24964453

Cardoso, Gerusa O M; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N R; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

2013-01-01

448

External Validity of Studies on Aggressive Behavior in Patients with Schizophrenia: Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Studies on violence in schizophrenia use two different approaches: use of epidemiological data, and clinical studies recording direct patient data after gaining informed consent. With regard to informed consent requiring agreement and cooperation, the question arises as to what extent participants represent patients with schizophrenia and violent behaviour (external validity). We conducted a systematic literature research. In most of the studies, aggression or violence, respectively, were poorly defined. Only 5 (15.2%) studies used a cut-off score on an aggression scale. Only 6 studies (18.2%) reported the number of patients who refused to participate, and 16 (48.5%) reported the number of drop-outs. Only 3 studies (9.1%) reported a systematic comparison of participants and non-participants. We found that data which allow for the assessment of representativeness of the investigated samples are poorly reported. For most studies, doubts regarding external validity seem justified and generalisability is questionable due to possible selection bias.

Steinert, Tilman; Hamann, Karen

2012-01-01

449

Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence.

Cardoso, Gerusa O.M.; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N. R.; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

2013-01-01

450

Aggression and Tantrums in Children with Autism: A Review of Behavioral Treatments and Maintaining Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggression and tantrums are common co-occurring problems with autism. Fortunately, positive developments in the treatment of these challenging and stigmatizing behaviors have been made recently with psychologically-based interventions. Evidence-based methods employ behavior modification, which is also often described as applied behavior analysis and has been at the forefront of these developments. Conceptually, researchers in the field note that many of

Johnny Matson

2009-01-01

451

The Association Between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children With Severe Intellectual Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors\\u000a and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data\\u000a were collected for 943 children (4–18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds ratio analyses revealed that these characteristics generated risk indices\\u000a ranging from 2 to 31 for the presence and

Chris Oliver; Jane Petty; Loraine Ruddick; Monique Bacarese-Hamilton

452

GENETICS Serotonergic Mediation of Aggression in High and Low Aggressive Chicken Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive be- havior via binding to its receptors, such as 5-HT1A and 1B, in humans and rodents. Here we investigate the heri- table components of 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness in chickens, utilizing 3 distinct genetic strains. In this study, we used 2 divergently selected strains (high and low group productivity and survivability, respectively; HGPS and LGPS) and

R. L. Dennis; Z. Q. Chen; H. W. Cheng

453

Development and behaviour of anarchistic honeybees  

PubMed Central

Anarchistic honeybees result from extremely rare behavioural mutations which allow workers to lay eggs despite the presence of the queen. We investigated the behavioural development of bees derived from a line in which ca. 5% of workers have developed ovaries and lay viable eggs. Other than their developed ovaries and proclivity to lay eggs, the anarchistic workers we studied are apparently normal, performing normal worker-like behaviour. Unlike many laying workers in queenless colonies, they are not queen-like and are apparently not the objects of aggression. When day-old workers from anarchistic colonies were cross-fostered into anarchistic and wild-type host colonies, the frequency of ovary development was an order of magnitude higher in the anarchistic host (9.1%) than in the wild-type host (0.7%). This suggests that there is a policing mechanism that affects ovary development in honeybees. Thus, worker reproduction is probably suppressed at the level of ovary development as well as by oophagy of worker-laid eggs. Other mechanisms, such as aggression towards individuals with developed ovaries, may also exist, but we found no evidence for this.

Oldroyd, B. P.; Halling, L.; Rinderer, T. E.

1999-01-01

454

Meeting the Challenges of Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing practical science activities effectively is demanding for any teacher and especially so for inexperienced practitioners. Add the problems posed by integrating children with learning and behavioural difficulties and one has the sort of challenge that makes working in education rewarding--but not easy! As a newly qualified teacher, the…

Hills, Joanne

2011-01-01

455

The Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Differential Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescent Boys  

PubMed Central

This study reports the development of the Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), and the differential correlates of these two forms of aggression. Antisocial, psychosocial and personality measures were obtained at ages 7 and 16 years in schoolboys, while the RPQ was administered to 334 of the boys at age 16 years. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a significant fit for a two-factor proactive–reactive model that replicated from one independent subsample to another. Proactive aggression was uniquely characterized at age 7 by initiation of fights, strong-arm tactics, delinquency, poor school motivation, poor peer relationships, single-parent status, psychosocial adversity, substance-abusing parents, and hyperactivity, and at age 16 by a psychopathic personality, blunted affect, delinquency, and serious violent offending. Reactive aggression was uniquely characterized at age 16 by impulsivity, hostility, social anxiety, lack of close friends, unusual perceptual experiences, and ideas of reference. Findings confirm and extend the differential correlates of proactive–reactive aggression, and demonstrate that this brief but reliable and valid self-report instrument can be used to assess proactive and reactive aggression in child and adolescent samples.

Raine, Adrian; Dodge, Kenneth; Loeber, Rolf; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Lynam, Don; Reynolds, Chandra; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Liu, Jianghong

2009-01-01

456

Factor structures for aggression and victimization among women who used aggression against male partners.  

PubMed

Theories and measures of women's aggression in intimate relationships are only beginning to be developed. This study provides a first step in conceptualizing the measurement of women's aggression by examining how well three widely used measures (i.e., the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS), the Sexual Experiences Survey [SES], and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory [PMWI]) perform in assessing women's perpetration of and victimization by aggression in their intimate relationships with men. These constructs were examined in a diverse sample of 412 African American, Latina, and White women who had all recently used physical aggression against a male intimate partner. The factor structures and psychometric properties of perpetration and victimization models using these measures were compared. Results indicate that the factor structure of women's perpetration differs from that of women's victimization in theoretically meaningful ways. In the victimization model, all factors performed well in contributing to the measurement of the latent victimization construct. In contrast, the perpetration model performed well in assessing women's physical and psychological aggression but performed poorly in assessing women's sexual aggression, coercive control, and jealous monitoring. Findings suggest that the power and control model of intimate partner violence (IPV) may apply well to women's victimization but not as well to their perpetration of violence. PMID:23012348

Swan, Suzanne C; Gambone, Laura J; Van Horn, M Lee; Snow, David L; Sullivan, Tami P

2012-09-01

457