Sample records for aggressive challenging behaviour

  1. Incidence, Types and Characteristics of Aggressive Behaviour in Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…

  2. Stereotactic amygdaloidotomy for aggressive behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kiloh, L. G.; Gye, R. S.; Rushworth, R. G.; Bell, D. S.; White, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    Amygdaloidotomy was performed bilaterally on 15 and unilaterally on three patients exhibiting severe aggressive or self-mutilating behaviour. Nine subjects (50%) were improved a year after operation; improvement was maintained in seven (39%) for periods ranging from 27 months to nearly six years. Four non-epileptic cases had convulsions during the period of review; one of them has a persistent mild hemiparesis dating from the postoperative period. There was a tendency for epileptics to respond better than non-epileptics and for mentally retarded patients to respond poorly, but none of the differences was statistically significant. PMID:4209161

  3. Thermal Behaviour of Honeybees During Aggressive Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2011-01-01

    We report here on the interrelationship of aggressive behaviour and thermoregulation in honeybees. Body temperature measurements were carried out without behavioural disturbance by infrared thermography. Guard bees, foragers, drones, and queens involved in aggressive interactions were always endothermic, i.e. had their flight muscles activated. Guards made differential use of their endothermic capacity. Mean thorax temperature was 34.2–35.1°C during examination of bees but higher during fights with wasps (37°C) or attack of humans (38.6°C). They usually cooled down when examining bees whereas examinees often heated up during prolonged interceptions (maximum >47°C). Guards neither adjusted their thorax temperature (and thus flight muscle function and agility) to that of examined workers, nor to that of drones, which were 2–7°C warmer. Guards examined cool bees (<33°C) longer than warmer ones, supporting the hypothesis that heating of examinees facilitates odour identification by guards, probably because of vapour pressure increase of semiochemicals with temperature. Guards in the core of aggressive balls clinged to the attacked insects to fix them and kill them by heat (maximum 46.5°C). Bees in the outer cluster layers resembled normal guards behaviourally and thermally. They served as active core insulators by heating up to 43.9°C. While balled wasps were cooler (maximum 42.5°C) than clinging guards balled bees behaved like examinees with maximum temperatures of 46.6°C, which further supports the hypothesis that the examinees heat up to facilitate odour identification. PMID:22140291

  4. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sterzer, Philipp; Stadler, Christina

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for abnormal neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal-directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future. PMID:19862349

  5. Frustrative reward omission increases aggressive behaviour of inferior fighters

    PubMed Central

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Vela-Avitua, Sergio; Nørstrud, Karoline Sletbak; Aalgaard, Marion; Braastad, Bjarne O.; Höglund, Erik; Øverli, Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Animals use aggressive behaviour to gain access to resources, and individuals adjust their behaviour relative to resource value and own resource holding potential (RHP). Normally, smaller individuals have inferior fighting abilities compared with larger conspecifics. Affective and cognitive processes can alter contest dynamics, but the interaction between such effects and that of differing RHPs has not been adjudged. We investigated effects of omission of expected reward (OER) on competing individuals with contrasting RHPs. Small and large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conditioned to associate a light with reward. Thereafter, the reward was omitted for half of the fish prior to a contest between individuals possessing a 36–40% difference in RHP. Small control individuals displayed submissive behaviour and virtually no aggression. By contrast, small OER individuals were more aggressive, and two out of 11 became socially dominant. Increased aggression in small OER individuals was accompanied by increased serotonin levels in the dorsomedial pallium (proposed amygdala homologue), but no changes in limbic dopamine neurochemistry were observed in OER-exposed individuals. The behavioural and physiological response to OER in fish indicates that frustration is an evolutionarily conserved affective state. Moreover, our results indicate that aggressive motivation to reward unpredictability affects low RHP individuals strongest. PMID:24759861

  6. Identification of Aggressive Behaviour Tendencies in Junior Age Children: first stage in a study of aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gilmore; S. Mattison; G. Pollack; J. Stewart

    1985-01-01

    This study was intended for the identification of children aged 8?9 years who were presenting aggressive behaviour, with the aim of facilitating intervention at an early stage. This was done through questionnaires given to the teachers, the children themselves and their peer group. A significant feature highlighted by these questionnaires was that there was little agreement between the various assessing

  7. [Challenging behaviour in patients with intellectual disability].

    PubMed

    de Kuijper, Gerda M; Vrijmoeth, P

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behaviour in patients with intellectual disability may be caused by physical, psychological and environmental factors. In 3 case histories, a multidisciplinary assessment in diagnosis and treatment is shown to be needed. A 48-year-old man with mild intellectual disability presented with cognitive deterioration, aggressive behaviour and physical symptoms. The diagnosis was mood disorder and dissociative symptoms. His functioning improved during and after treatment with psychotropic drugs and non-verbal psychotherapy. A 10-year-old girl with moderate intellectual disability who presented with temper tantrums was diagnosed as having no psychiatric disorder, but symptoms caused by environmental factors. After proper support and education for the parents, the patient's challenging behaviour disappeared. A 61-year-old woman with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's dementia presented with screaming, restlessness, struggling during daily care, and confusion. She was prescribed haloperidol and oxazepam and the screaming behaviour decreased. However, she kept on struggling while being cared for and was restless while sitting in her wheelchair. After a proper medical examination it appeared that the problem behaviour was caused by collapsed vertebrae and osteoporosis. PMID:25492732

  8. Tackling incidents of violence, aggression and antisocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Natalie; Hughes, Neill

    2013-04-01

    Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust has developed Sand implemented a strategy to reduce the number of incidents of violence, aggression and antisocial behaviour in its emergency department. The strategy, which includes the introduction of a nurse co-ordinator role and withdrawal of treatment from persistent offenders, has ensured the care environment is safer and calmer for patients and staff. This article discusses different aspects of the strategy and the ethics of withdrawing care from patients. PMID:23691893

  9. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  10. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Treating Aggressive Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Single Blind Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, M.; Bertelli, M.; Villani, D.; Tamborini, S.; Rossi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behaviour represents a frequent symptom in people with intellectual disability (PWID). Despite uncertain evidence of effectiveness, the use of antipsychotics (APs) drugs to treat aggressive behaviour is very common. Antipsychotic medication of aggressivity in PWID has recently become one of the most debated issues in mental…

  11. A method to elicit aggressive feelings and behaviour via provocation.

    PubMed

    Bond, A; Lader, M

    1986-02-01

    A technique is described which elicits hostility via provocation in a competitive reaction time task incorporating a predetermined failure rate of 50%. When the subject loses he is exposed to a white noise which increases in intensity through the experiment. When he wins he is able to administer one of 8 levels of noise to his opponent. Heart rate and skin conductance level and fluctuations were monitored throughout the experiment. Self-ratings of mood, aggression and anxiety were completed both pre and post task. It was found that the task elicited hostility which could be measured behaviourally, physiologically and emotionally. PMID:3697459

  12. Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

  13. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  14. Early Childhood Aggression Trajectories: Associations with Teacher-Reported Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…

  15. Exposure to aggressive behaviour and burnout in direct support providers: The role of positive work factors.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Jennifer M; Lunsky, Yona; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2014-11-11

    Many direct support providers (DSPs) are exposed to aggressive behaviour in their work supporting adults with developmental disabilities service recipients. This is a work environment factor that has been linked to job burnout. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of positive work factors on emotional exhaustion (EE) among DSPs who are exposed to aggressive behaviour. Survey responses from 671 DSPs who were working in community service settings for adults with developmental disabilities, and were exposed to aggressive behaviour at least monthly were examined. Hierarchical linear regression examined the direct contribution and moderating role of positive work factors (self-efficacy for dealing with aggression and work contributions) on EE measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, after controlling for demographics, occupational variables, exposure to aggression and negative emotional reactions to aggression. Results showed that younger age, more experience, more depression/anger emotions in response to aggression, lower self-efficacy and low positive work contributions were significantly associated with EE. Positive work motivation was a moderator of exposure to aggression and EE. When work motivations were low, DSPs were more negatively affected by higher exposure to aggression. These findings suggest that in addition to addressing the negative emotional reactions to the aggressive behaviour encountered at work, it is also important to foster positive work factors which may be protective against EE. PMID:25462500

  16. Approach to Challenging Behaviour: A Family Affair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Deb; Knox, Marie

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, research in the area of applied behaviour analysis has led to a rich knowledge and understanding of the variables that influence human behaviour. This understanding and knowledge has given rise to a range of assessment and intervention techniques that have been applied to individuals with challenging behaviour.…

  17. Contextual variables affecting aggressive behaviour in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities who live in a residential facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. C. M. Embregts; H. C. M. Didden; C. Huitink; N. M. J. Schreuder

    2009-01-01

    Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. METHOD: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with aggressive behaviour who lived in a residential facility. Staff members completed

  18. The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA) study: Design challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug) and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies) timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone) to the effect of the first (stimulant). We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic). Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years) with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder) accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant) was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual comparison was stimulant+parent training versus stimulant+antipsychotic+parent training. Conclusions We hope that the resolutions of the challenges presented here will be useful to other investigators and facilitate much-needed research on child psychiatric polypharmacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00796302 PMID:22074813

  19. Profiles and Correlates of Aggressive Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Allaire, J.-F.; Roy, M.-E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite the heterogeneity in aggressive behaviours observed among individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), little attention has been paid to the identification of typologies of aggression among individuals with mild or moderate ID and their associated factors. Objective: The goal of the present study was to identify profiles of…

  20. Children's Aggressive Behaviour and Teacher-Child Conflict in Kindergarten: Is Teacher Perceived Control over Child Behaviour a Mediating Variable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research repeatedly showed young children's aggressive behaviour to predict relationship difficulties with the teacher. Aims: To examine a possible mediating variable in this process and in the stability of relationship difficulties across the school year, namely teacher perceived control over child behaviour. Sample: The sample…

  1. Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement patterns in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Renée A

    2006-07-22

    The importance of behaviours as instigators or inhibitors of evolutionary change remains largely unresolved and this is in part because there are very few empirical examples of how behaviours affect evolutionary processes. By determining the environment of breeding, aggressive interactions over territories have the potential to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide a unique opportunity to investigate the evolutionary importance of aggression, since their highly variable breeding habitat favours distinct foraging techniques and they also compete aggressively for nest boxes, a resource that is easy to manipulate. Here, I show experimentally that more aggressive males compete more effectively for territories with a high density of nest boxes and, as a consequence, aggressive and non-aggressive males are sorted into distinct breeding habitats that differ in the strength of selection on morphological traits. Specifically, males with longer tails and tarsi were favoured in open habitats where high agility is required to forage efficiently, whereas in forested habitats, where agility is less important, selection was weak. These results show that aggression can affect selection on a local scale by determining individual settlement patterns. More generally, because territorial interactions are important across a wide variety of taxa, these results suggest that aggressive behaviour has the potential to impact the evolutionary trajectory of many animal populations. PMID:16790412

  2. Ipsapirone neuroendocrine challenge: relationship to aggression as measured in the human laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gerard Moeller; Terry Allen; Don R Cherek; Donald M Dougherty; Alan C Swann

    1998-01-01

    Thirty-one human subjects were administered a neuroendocrine challenge with the 5-HT1a agonist ipsapirone after completing six sessions of a laboratory measure of aggression, the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm © (PSAP), in order to determine if a laboratory measure of aggression was related to serotonin function. Subjects who showed more aggressive responding on the PSAP (n=11) had a significantly blunted temperature

  3. Pharmacotherapy for Aggressive Behaviours in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Treatment or Mistreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiouris, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…

  4. Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement patterns in a passerine bird

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renée A. Duckworth

    2006-01-01

    The importance of behaviours as instigators or inhibitors of evolutionary change remains largely unresolved and this is in part because there are very few empirical examples of how behaviours affect evolutionary processes. By determining the environment of breeding, aggressive interactions over territories have the potential to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide a unique

  5. Aggressive behaviour affects selection on morphology by influencing settlement

    E-print Network

    Duckworth, Renée

    to strongly impact selection pressures experienced by individuals. Western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) provide; Sialia mexicana 1. INTRODUCTION Behaviours affect how organisms interact with their environment

  6. How to Manage Children's Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Bill, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book came about as a result of working directly alongside teachers working with challenging children and children with emotional behavioural disorders. These teachers (from Australia and the UK) work with children in mainstream and special education settings. Teachers spend a third of their waking and working day with children. Most teachers…

  7. Contextual Variables Affecting Aggressive Behaviour in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities Who Live in a Residential Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…

  8. Changes in testosterone mediate the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M

    2013-10-01

    Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour. PMID:23587440

  9. Behavioural and physiological studies of aggression in swimming crabs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Huntingford; A. C. Taylor; I. P. Smith; K. E. Thorpe

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews three studies of agonistic interactions in pairs of swimming crabs (Liocarcinus depurator and Necora puber) in which behavioural and physiological approaches were combined. In both species most fights were won by the larger crab. Smaller crabs were able to win fights when the size differential was small, in which case encounters tended to be long and fierce.

  10. Competition for the home and aggressive behaviour in the chiton Acanthopleura gemmata (Blainville) (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Chelazzi; Stefano Focardi; Jean Louis Deneubourg; Riccardo Innocenti

    1983-01-01

    Computerized screening of all the positions recorded during a synodic month on 120 individually marked chitons (Acanthopleura gemmata) pinpointed their preferential resting points. Unlike the majority of intertidal chitons so far studied, A. gemmata rests in well-defined homes actively dug in the rock. Homes proved to be not strictly individual and periodically interchangeable. A complex aggressive behaviour was recorded in

  11. School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

  12. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

  13. [Nurses' experiences with aggressive behaviour of nursing home residents: a cross sectional study in Swiss nursing homes].

    PubMed

    Zeller, Adelheid; Needham, Ian; Dassen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Halfens, Ruud J G

    2013-10-01

    The present exploratory descriptive cross-sectional study with the participation of 814 (51.8%) caregivers in 21 Swiss nursing homes provides insight into caregivers' experiences and handling of residents' aggressive behaviour. Moreover, caregiver burden with regard to resident aggression and the consequences on the caregiver-resident-relationship were investigated. The survey was carried out by means of validated questionnaire. Approximately 38% of participants experienced aggressive incidents during the last seven days prior to data collection. In most cases aggressive behaviour was caused by residents suffering from dementia and/or depression and occurred during nursing interventions involving physical contact. As a trigger for aggressive behaviour participants predominately assumed "non-understanding and excessive demand" of residents. Reassuring conversation and keeping oneself at a distance were most often used to calm the situation. Approximately 40% of participants experienced physical attacks as especially distressing and circa 23% were frightened, particularly when aggressive behaviour occurred without warning. Approximately 4% of caregivers avoided contact with residents after an aggressive incident and 12.3% perceived a disturbed relationship. It can be assumed that caregivers do not adequately perceive emotions possibly underlying aggressive behaviour in the escalation phase and therefore may not identify early signs of beginning aggression. PMID:24088651

  14. Mice lacking chromogranins exhibit increased aggressive and depression-like behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Daniel; Pardo, Marta R; Morales, Yezer; Dominguez, Natalia; Arnau, Maria Rosa; Borges, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    Chromogranins are acidic proteins; both chromogranins A and B constitute the main protein component in the vesicular matrix of large dense core vesicles. Chromogranins are a natural source of peptides with different physiological activities that have been associated with vascular and neurological diseases. We have used three different genetic mutant models of mice lacking chromogranin A, chromogranin B and both all on the same C57BL/6J background, to characterize the physiological roles of these proteins using metabolic, cardiovascular and behavioural tests. In mice from 3 to 18 months of age, the lack of any chromogranin promoted age-dependent hypersensitivity to insulin, while the lack of both chromogranins provoked progressive lack of response to stress, as restriction did not promote tachycardia in old mice. Moreover, the lack of chromogranin B produced a depressive-like and aggressive phenotype, while the lack either or both chromogranins increased barbering behaviour. In addition, we observed no effects on light-dark box or RotaRod tests. Mice lacking chromogranin B exhibited lower exploratory activity. Based on this extensive phenotyping with more than 2800 mice, these findings support roles of chromogranins, or the peptides derived from them, in the control of aggressive behaviour along with changes in their metabolic profile beyond their previously described activities in the secretory pathway. PMID:25257107

  15. Effectiveness of an Attachment-Focused Manualized Intervention for Parents of Teens at Risk for Aggressive Behaviour: The Connect Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…

  16. Aggressive Behaviour Among Swazi Upper Primary and Junior Secondary Students: Implications For Ongoing Educational Reforms Concerning Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundia, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Swaziland is planning to introduce inclusive education as part of education for all. The innovation may benefit learners with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). A purposive teacher sample (N = 47) was used to generate and identify behavioural problems that are prevalent in Swazi schools. Aggression was one of the many conduct disorders…

  17. Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

  18. Staff Reactions to Challenging Behaviour: An Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambrechts, Greet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Eeman, Lieve; Maes, Bea

    2010-01-01

    Staff reactions play an important role in the development and maintaining of clients' challenging behaviour. Because there is a paucity of research on staff reactions in naturalistic settings, this study examined sequential associations between challenging behaviour and staff reactions by means of a descriptive analysis. We analysed video…

  19. Psychometric Comparison of the Functional Assessment Instruments QABF, FACT and FAST for Self-Injurious, Stereotypic and Aggressive/Destructive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaja, Rebecca H.; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychometric properties of three functional assessment rating scales were compared for three types of target behaviours [self-injurious behaviour (SIB), stereotypic behaviour and aggressive/destructive behaviour]. Materials and method: The "Questions about Behavioural Function" (QABF), the "Functional Assessment for Multiple Causality"…

  20. The Efficacy of Positive Behavioural Support with the Most Challenging Behaviour: The Evidence and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVigna, Gary W.; Willis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positive behaviour support (PBS) is behaviour analysis applied in support of people with challenging behaviour. Questions have been raised as to PBS effectiveness, costs, and accessibility. Method: Outcome studies meeting specified criteria for PBS were selected for review. All told, 12 outcome studies encompassing 423 cases were…

  1. Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).

    PubMed

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during parental care after larval hatching, which may have possible implications on reproductive success and population dynamics. PMID:25213287

  2. Indirect genetic effects for growth rate in domestic pigs alter aggressive and manipulative biting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40% less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27% less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40% less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P < 0.01), with no G × E interactions. These results show opportunities to reduce harmful biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986

  3. Effectiveness of an attachment-focused manualized intervention for parents of teens at risk for aggressive behaviour: The Connect Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlene M. Moretti; Ingrid Obsuth

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. ‘Connect’ is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment: parental sensitivity, cooperation, reflective capacity, and effective dyadic affect regulation. Through didactic

  4. On the Links between Aggressive Behaviour, Loneliness, and Patterns of Close Relationships among Non-Clinical School-Age Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This study explored multifaceted associations between children's aggressive behaviours and loneliness feelings by identifying sub-groups of children with different individual profiles, and also examined whether profiles associated differently with children's quality of close relationships with mothers and peers. Participants were 145 non-clinical…

  5. Teacher-Child Conflict and Aggressive Behaviour in First Grade: The Intervening Role of Children's Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-01-01

    High levels of teacher-child conflict have repeatedly been found to amplify children's aggressive behaviour. Up to now, however, research on possible mechanisms explaining this link is largely lacking. The current study aimed to test whether children's self-esteem is an intervening mechanism. Participants were 139 children (70 boys, M age = 6.18…

  6. Using Behavioural Skills Training to Treat Aggression in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert W.; Sturmey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of anger management in people with intellectual disability failed to control for the effects of the number of provocative stimuli presented and lacked direct measures of behaviour and treatment integrity data. Methods: This experiment systematically assessed and presented discriminative stimuli for aggressive

  7. Is aggression in children with behavioural and emotional difficulties associated with television viewing and video game playing? A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Mitrofan; M. Paul; N. Spencer

    2008-01-01

    Background Possible associations between television viewing and video game playing and children's aggression have become public health concerns. We did a systematic review of studies that examined such associations, focussing on children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties, who are thought to be more susceptible. Methods We did computer-assisted searches of health and social science databases, gateways, publications

  8. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  9. Assessing the Link between Executive Functions and Aggressive Behaviours of Children Who Are Deaf: Impact of Early Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipal, Rafet Firat; Bayhan, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Relation between constructing complex mental structures and language skills cause delays in development of executive functions of deaf children. When the importance of language skills in development of executive functions and frequency of aggressive behaviours of deaf children are considered, investigation of executive functions of…

  10. Keratin 19 marks poor differentiation and a more aggressive behaviour in canine and human hepatocellular tumours

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The expression of Keratin 19 (K19) was reported in a subset of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). K19 positive HCCs are associated with an increased malignancy compared to K19 negative HCCs. No suitable mouse models exist for this subtype of HCC, nor is the incidence of K19 expression in hepatocellular neoplasia in model animals known. Therefore, we compared the occurrence and tumour behaviour of K19 positive hepatocellular neoplasias in dog and man. Results The expression of hepatocellular differentiation (HepPar-1), biliary/progenitor cell (K7, K19), and malignancy (glypican-3) markers was semi-quantitatively assessed by immunohistochemistry. The histological grade of tumour differentiation was determined according to a modified classification of Edmondson and Steiner; the staging included intrahepatic, lymph node or distant metastases. Four of the 34 canine hepatocellular neoplasias showed K19 positivity (12%), of which two co-expressed K7. K19 positive tumours did not express HepPar-1, despite the histological evidence of a hepatocellular origin. Like in human HCC, all K19 positive hepatocellular neoplasias were glypican-3 positive and histologically poorly differentiated and revealed intra- or extrahepatic metastases whereas K19 negative hepatocellular neoplasias did not. Conclusions K19 positive hepatocellular neoplasias are highly comparable to man and occur in 12% of canine hepatocellular tumours and are associated with a poorly differentiated histology and aggressive tumour behaviour. PMID:20167095

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF INMATES OF A CHILDRENS HOME WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THEIR INTELLIGENCE AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR1

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, P.K.; Agarwal, A.K.; Gupta, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Sixty two inmates of a children's home of Lucknow City were examined by using Hindi Adaptation of Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale-Form LM (1960) and a five point rating scale for aggression. A high proportion (69.4%) of the inmates had one or other psychiatric problem. Mild mental retardation (I.Q. 50-70) was most common (41.9%). Intellectual level was correlated with present age, duration of stay and age at entry. Significant correlation was found between Intellectual level and present age, as well as duration of stay. Nearly 39% inmates showed aggressive behaviour. Aggressive behaviour was also correlated with present age, duration of stay, age at entry and psychiatric illness. The children suffering from emotional problems (such as unsocialised disturbance of conduct, adjustment reaction, nail biting, enuresis etc.) showed significantly more aggression than healthy children. Though no significant difference was fourd, but there is a trend that larger number of boys show aggression than girls. PMID:21965972

  12. Addressing Challenging Behaviour in Children with Down Syndrome: The Use of Applied Behaviour Analysis for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Kathlee M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with…

  13. A Personal Perspective on Challenging Behaviour: ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Loveridge, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    Presents author's perspective on the challenging behavior of her son, theorizing about that behavior while drawing on research into temperament. Outlines history of "attention and behavior problems," culminating in most recent work on neuropsychological factors. Considers ways various approaches assign blame for "problems" to the individual child,…

  14. Angiomyolipoma with caval extension and regional nodal involvement: Aggressive behaviour or just rare natural history? Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Kamaljot Singh; Rittberg, Rebekah; Drachenberg, Darrel E.

    2014-01-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is predominantly a non-aggressive benign tumour. Cases of more aggressive AMLs are present in the literature. We present 2 cases of aggressive AML behaviour. The first case is an AML with vascular extension in a young female and the second case is of AML found in regional lymph nodes in a female with a left renal AML and renal cell carcinoma. PMID:24839500

  15. Youth Workers' Experiences of Challenging Behaviour: Lessons for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkinson, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experiences of youth workers in dealing with challenging behaviour among young people. The findings from a qualitative approach to the collection and analysis of data from 45 research participants are presented. The paper begins by briefly exploring the context of youth work in Ireland and outlining the research process.…

  16. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  17. Health promotion as a behavioural challenge: are we missing attitudes?

    PubMed

    Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony; Benos, Alexis

    2011-06-01

    Despite the considerable financial and organizational resources of health promotion campaigns, their effectiveness in tackling current health problems is limited. In the following commentary, we argue that health promotion is best understood as a behavioural challenge. Behaviour can be understood in terms of three aspects: knowledge, skills and attitudes. While knowledge and skills have received adequate attention, the attitudinal approach has been significantly underutilized. To this end, we have used the examples of prevention of H1N1 transmission, hand washing in hospitals and prevention of cervical cancer to elucidate our points. We also provide recommendations of how the attitudinal approach can enhance the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. PMID:21744666

  18. Divergent Evolution of Male Aggressive Behaviour: Another Reproductive Isolation Barrier in Extremophile Poeciliid Fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H2S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H2S. PMID:22315695

  19. Staff Variables Associated with the Challenging Behaviour of Clients with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambrechts, G.; Kuppens, S.; Maes, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous research has identified that staff-client interactions play an important role in the origin and maintenance of challenging behaviour. Particularly, the reciprocity between staff behaviour and client behaviour has been considered a key issue. Furthermore, severe challenging behaviour has been found to elicit negative emotional…

  20. Neural mechanisms of aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian C. Trainor; Randy J. Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Unchecked aggression and violence exact a significant toll on human societies. Aggression is an umbrella term for behaviours that are intended to inflict harm. These behaviours evolved as adaptations to deal with competition, but when expressed out of context, they can have destructive consequences. Uncontrolled aggression has several components, such as impaired recognition of social cues and enhanced impulsivity. Molecular

  1. Abnormal behaviours induced by chemical pollution: a review of the evidence and new challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah M. Zala; Dustin J. Penn

    2004-01-01

    Many chemical pollutants have become ubiquitous in the environment, including some that interfere with hormones and other physiological mechanisms. These ‘endocrine-disrupting chemicals’ (EDCs) have harmful effects on development and physiology. We reviewed published evidence and found that EDCs also have adverse effects on a wide range of behaviours, including sexual and other reproductive behaviours, activity, motivation, communication, aggression, dominance and

  2. Who's Challenging Who? Changing Attitudes towards Those Whose Behaviour Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, L. M.; Hastings, R. P.; Hunt, P. H.; Bowler, C. L.; Banks, M. E.; Totsika, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although staff attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disability (ID) whose behaviour challenges may be an important part of a positive support culture, very little research has focused on the development of training specifically designed to change staff attitudes. Positive contact is hypothesised to be an effective way to…

  3. Using Experimental Paradigms to Examine Alcohol's Role in Men's Sexual Aggression: Opportunities and Challenges in Proxy Development.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana

    2015-08-01

    The goals of this article are to review the major findings from alcohol administration studies that use sexual aggression proxies and to encourage additional experimental research that evaluates hypotheses about the role of alcohol in the etiology of men's sexual aggression. Experiments allow participants to be randomly assigned to drink conditions, therefore ensuring that any differences between drinkers and nondrinkers can be attributed to their alcohol consumption. One of the biggest challenges faced by experimental researchers is the identification of valid operationalizations of key constructs. The tension between internal and external validity is particularly problematic for violence researchers because they cannot allow participants to engage in the target behavior in the laboratory. The strengths and limitations associated with written vignettes, audiotapes, videotapes, and confederate proxies for sexual aggression are described. Suggestions are made for future research to broaden the generalizability of the findings from experimental research. PMID:26048214

  4. Photoperiod Affects Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Aggressive Behaviour in Male Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) J. C. Wen,*a A. K. Hotchkiss,* G. E. Demas and R. J. Nelson* *Departments University, Bloomington, IN, USA. Key words: photoperiod, Siberian hamster, seasonal, aggression, nitric including photoperiod (day length). Male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) housed in short photoperiod

  5. Preliminary Report on Aggressive Behaviours as Observed in 12, 18 and 24 Month Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, O.; Moll, M. J.

    This study was designed to identify aggressive actions in 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old infants and to investigate what type of responses these actions elicit in peers. Nine infants were observed and videotaped in interaction with each other and with toys. The focus was on four 18-month-olds observed in two sessions, one with an older child, the…

  6. The interacting roles of testosterone and challenges to status in human male aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis T. McAndrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on sex and cultural differences in physical aggression and argues that only through understanding the interactions among evolutionary predispositions, hormonal influences, and social\\/situational factors can we possibly make sense of the patterns of human aggression that we see around us. Specifically, it is proposed that the process of natural selection has shaped hormonal responses in

  7. Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

    2012-09-01

    Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111-140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581-604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour. PMID:22826343

  8. Carers' Experiences of Being Exposed to Challenging Behaviour in Services for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butrimaviciute, Rasa; Grieve, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that being exposed to challenging behaviour in services of care can have a negative impact on staff. Recently, challenging behaviour has been linked to people with autism spectrum disorders; however, little research has been aimed at exploring staff's experiences of facing such behaviour in services for…

  9. Understanding Challenging Behaviour: Perspectives of Children and Adolescents with a Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Alison; Hennessy, Eilis

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present study examines understanding of challenging behaviour among a sample of children and adolescents with a moderate intellectual disability, and investigates their behavioural intentions towards peers with challenging behaviour. Methods: The study involved the collection of quantitative and qualitative data. In the…

  10. Can Brief Workshop Interventions Change Care Staff Understanding of Challenging Behaviours?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowey, Alan; Toogood, Sandy; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Background: The working culture surrounding challenging behaviour may have a strong effect on staff behaviour. As a first step to influencing staff talk about challenging behaviour, the aim of the present study was to explore whether a 1-day training workshop could have an effect on staff causal explanations. Methods: Fifty-four front line staff,…

  11. The Relation between Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Staff Behaviour towards Clients with ID and Challenging Behaviour: A Validation Study of the Staff-Client Interactive Behaviour Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Stams, G. J. J. M.; Moonen, X. M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal staff behaviour is one of the instigating factors associated with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are several studies focusing on the influence of intrapersonal staff characteristics--such as beliefs, attributions and emotional reactions--on staff behaviour. Little is known,…

  12. Children's sociable and aggressive behaviour with peers: A comparison of the US and Australia, and contributions of temperament and parenting styles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Russell; Craig H. Hart; Clyde C. Robinson; Susanne F. Olsen

    2003-01-01

    Links between both temperament and parenting, and children's sociable and aggressive behaviour with peers (physical and relational), were examined. The research was undertaken in two Western cultures (the United States and Australia) assumed to be similar in socialisation practices and emphases. The moderating effects of parent sex and child sex were also examined. Parents completed questionnaires on parenting styles and

  13. Exposure to Client Aggression and Burnout among Community Staff Who Support Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, J. M.; Lunsky, Y.; Dewa, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are exposed to challenging behaviour in their work including client aggression. Exposure to aggressive behaviour has been associated with staff stress and burnout. Study samples have been small however, and there has been very little data exploring…

  14. Patterns of Emotional and Behavioural Disturbance Associated with Autistic Traits in Young People with Severe Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennie; Furniss, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Emotional and behavioural disturbance was assessed in 82 individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour using the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II). Levels of disturbance were compared firstly in individuals with and without features of autism as assessed by the DASH-II, and secondly in…

  15. The Causal Attributions of Teaching Staff towards Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparison of "Vignettes" Depicting Challenging Behaviour with "Real" Incidents of Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Victoria L.; Collins, Suzanne; Langdon, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined whether staff attributions, emotions and helping behaviours in reaction to "real" incidents of challenging behaviour (CB) exhibited by children with intellectual disabilities were different from reactions to "vignettes". We also examined whether these reactions are congruent with that predicted by attribution theory.…

  16. Effects of aggressive behaviour and group size on collective escape in an emergency: a test between a social identity model and deindividuation theory.

    PubMed

    Kugihara, N

    2001-12-01

    This study models escape behaviour in emergency situations and compares the ability of deindividuation and social identity-based explanations in particular to account for responses. According to deindividuation theory, the larger the group, the higher the degree of anonymity and the stronger antisocial responses such as competitiveness will be. Moreover, the competition for escape should be more severe, and the escape rate lowered, in a large group, regardless of whether participants have an aggressive option. A social identity model predicts that when group members have an option of aggressive behaviour, the salience of the aggressive norm in a larger group will be stronger than that in a smaller group. In contrast, when participants only have concessive option, the salience of the non-aggressive norm in a large group is expected to be stronger than that in a small group. The results of Study 1 supported the social identity model. Study 2 tested how participants responded to their norm. The social identity model suggests a more conscious and socially regulated process whereas deindividuation theory implies an unconscious or unregulated process. The results showed that what directly affects norm formation is the density of stimulus, that is, the amount of aggression received from others and of others' escape activity divided by group size. The results suggest the conscious process of the norm formation and support the social identity model. PMID:11795069

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Effects on Challenging Behaviour among Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, M.; Maes, B.; Onghena, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show challenging behaviour. We review distinct interventions that are applied to treat these challenging behaviours, and analyse intervention effects and moderating variables. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases "ERIC," "PsycINFO," "Web of Science" and…

  18. The Analysis of Challenging Relations: Influences on Interactive Behaviour of Staff towards Clients with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Hendriks, A. H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relationships between support staff and clients with intellectual disability (ID) are important for quality of care, especially when dealing with challenging behaviour. Building upon an interpersonal model, this study investigates the influence of client challenging behaviour, staff attitude and staff emotional intelligence on…

  19. Physical Conditions and Challenging Behaviour in People with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, C. F.; Jansen, A. A. C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Challenging behaviour is a major problem among people with intellectual disabilities. Physical factors may be an important cause. The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the physical conditions associated with challenging behaviour. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane systematic…

  20. Frequency and Severity of Challenging Behaviour in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A. J. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2010-01-01

    The main goals of this study were to determine the prevalence, frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Because in the literature several health problems and sensory impairments are associated with the onset and existence of challenging behaviour, this relationship was…

  1. Cutaneous Clear Cell Sarcoma: A Rare Aggressive Tumor with Potential Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Akshay; Roy, Maitrayee; Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Dhorigol, Vijayalaxmi

    2012-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a deep-seated, exceedingly rare aggressive tumor, typically involving the tendons and aponeuroses with melanocytic differentiation and a distinct genetic background. A primary dermal location is rarer. It exhibits histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural similarities with the more common primary (or metastatic) malignant melanoma causing major diagnostic confusion. We describe a case of primary cutaneous clear cell sarcoma arising in the right lower extremity of a 40-year-old male patient. PMID:22923926

  2. Aggression is a complex social behaviour that evolved in the context of defending or obtaining resources1

    E-print Network

    Trainor, Brian

    , in some cases, pleasure4 . Two subtypes of aggression have been identified in humans: the controlled­instrumental or assassina- tions) may be rooted in more instrumental mechanisms of aggression. The controlled­instrumental is usually associated with anger), whereas instrumental aggression is considered to be more purposeful

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Challenging Student Behaviours in Model Inner City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Lance T.; Soloway, Geoffrey B.

    2010-01-01

    Elementary teachers often cite challenging student behaviours and classroom management as areas of concern and therefore priorities for professional development. In this paper, the authors discuss the findings from a two-year research project, Sociocultural Perspectives on Behaviour and Classroom Management (SPBCM). SPBCM examined the social and…

  4. Implementing a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioural Assessment to Understand and Address Challenging Behaviours Demonstrated by Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…

  5. Progesterone modulates aggression in sex-role reversed female African black coucals

    PubMed Central

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Wittenzellner, Andrea; Schwabl, Ingrid; Makomba, Musa

    2008-01-01

    Testosterone is assumed to be the key hormone related to resource-defence aggression. While this role has been confirmed mostly in the context of reproduction in male vertebrates, the effect of testosterone on the expression of resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates is not so well established. Furthermore, laboratory work suggests that progesterone inhibits aggressive behaviour in females. In this study, we investigated the hormonal changes underlying territorial aggression in free-living female African black coucals, Centropus grillii (Aves; Cuculidae). Females of this sex-role reversed polyandrous bird species should be particularly prone to be affected by testosterone because they aggressively defend territories similar to males of other species. We show, however, that territorial aggression in female black coucals is modulated by progesterone. After aggressive territorial challenges female black coucals expressed lower levels of progesterone than unchallenged territorial females and females without territories, suggesting that progesterone may suppress territorial aggression and is downregulated during aggressive encounters. Indeed, females treated with physiological concentrations of progesterone were less aggressive than females with placebo implants. This is one of the first demonstrations of a corresponding hormone–behaviour interaction under challenged and experimental conditions in free-living females. We anticipate that our observation in a sex-role reversed species may provide a more general mechanism, by which progesterone—in interaction with testosterone—may regulate resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates. PMID:18252672

  6. Attachment Behaviour towards Support Staff in Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: Associations with Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Schipper, J. C.; Schuengel, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attachment research has shown the importance of attachment behaviour for the prevention of dysregulated behaviour due to emotional distress. The support of an attachment figure may be especially important for people with intellectual disability (ID), because they are less adept in dealing with stressful situations on their own. Our…

  7. Surface feeding and aggressive behaviour of diploid and triploid brown trout Salmo trutta during allopatric pair-wise matchings.

    PubMed

    Preston, A C; Taylor, J F; Adams, C E; Migaud, H

    2014-09-01

    Diploid and triploid brown trout Salmo trutta were acclimated for 6 weeks on two feeding regimes (floating and sinking). Thereafter, aggression and surface feeding response were compared between pairs of all diploid, all triploid and diploid and triploid S. trutta in an experimental stream. In each pair-wise matching, fish of similar size were placed in allopatry and rank was determined by the total number of aggressive interactions recorded. Dominant individuals initiated more aggression than subordinates, spent more time defending a territory and positioned themselves closer to the surface food source (Gammarus pulex), whereas subordinates occupied the peripheries. In cross ploidy trials, diploid S. trutta were more aggressive than triploid, and dominated their sibling when placed in pair-wise matchings. Surface feeding, however, did not differ statistically between ploidy irrespective of feeding regime. Triploids adopted a sneak feeding strategy while diploids expended more time defending a territory. In addition, we also tested whether triploids exhibit a similar social dominance to diploids when placed in allopatry. Although aggression was lower in triploid pairs than in the diploid and triploid pairs, a dominance hierarchy was also observed between individuals of the same ploidy. Dominant triploid fish were more aggressive and consumed more feed items than subordinate individuals. Subordinate fish displayed a darker colour index than dominant fish suggesting increased stress levels. Dominant triploid fish, however, appeared to be more tolerant of subordinate individuals and did not display the same degree of invasive aggression as seen in the diploid and diploid or diploid and triploid matchings. These novel findings suggest that sterile triploid S. trutta feed similarly but are less aggressive than diploid trout. Future studies should determine the habitat choice of triploid S. trutta after release and the interaction between wild fish and triploids during the breeding season prior to utilization of triploids as an alternative management strategy within freshwater fisheries. PMID:25082262

  8. Innate defensive behaviour and panic-like reactions evoked by rodents during aggressive encounters with Brazilian constrictor snakes in a complex labyrinth: behavioural validation of a new model to study affective and agonistic reactions in a prey versus predator paradigm.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Costa, Raquel; Guimarães-Costa, Maria Beatriz; Pippa-Gadioli, Leonardo; Weltson, Alfredo; Ubiali, Walter Adriano; Paschoalin-Maurin, Tatiana; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibrahim; Laure, Carlos Júlio; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2007-09-15

    Defensive behaviour has been extensively studied, and non-invasive methodologies may be interesting approaches to analyzing the limbic system function as a whole. Using experimental models of animals in the state of anxiety has been fundamental in the search for new anxiolytic and antipanic compounds. The aim of this present work is to examine a new model for the study of affective behaviour, using a complex labyrinth consisting of an arena and galleries forming a maze. Furthermore, it aims to compare the defensive behaviour of Wistar rats, Mongolian gerbils and golden hamsters in a complex labyrinth, as well as the defensive behaviour of Meriones unguiculatus in aggressive encounters with either Epicrates cenchria assisi or Boa constrictor amarali in this same model. Among species presently studied, the Mongolian gerbils showed better performance in the exploration of both arena and galleries of the labyrinth, also demonstrating less latency in finding exits of the galleries. This increases the possibility of survival, as well as optimizes the events of encounter with the predator. The duration of alertness and freezing increased during confrontation with living Epicrates, as well as the duration of exploratory behaviour in the labyrinth. There was an increase in the number of freezing and alertness behaviours, as well as in duration of alertness during confrontations involving E.c. assisi, compared with behavioural reactions elicited by jirds in presence of B.c. amarali. Interestingly, the aggressive behaviour of Mongolian gerbils was more prominent against B.c. amarali compared with the other Boidae snake. E.c. assisi elicited more offensive attacks and exhibited a greater time period of body movement than B.c. amarali, which spent more time in the arena and in defensive immobility than the E.c. assisi. Considering that jirds evoked more fear-like reaction in contact with E.c. assisi, a fixed E.c. assisi kept in a hermetically closed acrylic box was used as control. In these prey/predator encounter-based experiments, there was an increase in the number of alertness and freezing behaviours exhibited by gerbils, and a decrease in the number of crossing elicited by them, when comparing confrontations between the living E.c. assisi and the control. The experiments were performed at 7.0 p.m. In the labyrinth, the snakes showed in confrontation similar performance to that observed in nature (organizing hunting behaviour, offensive/defensive attack, constriction, prey inspection and feeding behaviour), which were essential to the validity of the experiments and gave behavioural validation within the complex labyrinth. PMID:17604117

  9. Training Emotional Intelligence Related to Treatment Skills of Staff Working with Clients with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zijlmans, L. J. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Derksen, J. J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display challenging behaviour may contribute to the continuation of this behaviour, because it causes emotional reactions such as anxiety, anger and annoyance, which may prohibit adequate response behaviour. To enhance staff behaviour and treatment skills a training…

  10. The Experience of a Man with Severe Challenging Behaviour Following Resettlement from Hospital: A Single Case Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, Lianne; Phillips, Neil; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

    2005-01-01

    Carers' behaviour is thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of challenging behaviour in people with learning disabilities (Emerson et al. 1995; Hastings & Remington 1994). The present study sought to investigate the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention in the management of such problem behaviours by means of a long-term…

  11. Staff's Attitudes and Reactions towards Aggressive Behaviour of Clients with Intellectual Disabilities: A Multi-Level Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotter, Maartje H.; Wissink, Inge B.; Moonen, Xavier M. H.; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; Jansen, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    Data were collected from 121 staff members (20 direct support staff teams) on background characteristics of the individual staff members and their teams (gender, age, years of work experience, position and education), the frequency and form of aggression of clients with an intellectual disability (verbal or physical), staff members' attitudes…

  12. Association of Aggressive Behaviours with Psychiatric Disorders, Age, Sex and Degree of Intellectual Disability: A Large-Scale Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiouris, J. A.; Kim, S. Y.; Brown, W. T.; Cohen, I. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The link between aggression and mental disorders has been the focus of diverse studies in persons with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Because of discrepancies in the finding of studies in persons with ID to date, and because of differences in research design, instruments used and the population studied, more research is…

  13. Student Behaviour and Emotional Challenges for Teachers and Parents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris; Cooper, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Social, emotional, and behavioural disorders of children, within the context of a whole-school approach to inclusion as adopted by Hong Kong, can be challenging for teachers and parents. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and feedback from a range of experts and parent groups in Hong Kong, specific scales were developed to measure…

  14. Interventions for Challenging Behaviours of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities: A Synthesis Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine; Martin, Toby; Shooshtari, Shahin; Stoesz, Brenda M.; Heinrichs, Dustin J.; North, Sebastian; Dodson, Lindsay; Senkow, Quinn; Douglas, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    This synthesis paper summarizes research literature addressing challenging behaviours in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities in school settings. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles published between the years 2000 and 2011. The methodological…

  15. The Treatment of Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disabilities: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…

  16. The Effect of Active Support Training on Engagement, Opportunities for Choice, Challenging Behaviour and Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa; Hamilton, David; Leighton, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate active support (AS) training and to investigate changes to perceived engagement in domestic tasks, opportunities for choice, frequency of challenging behaviour, and level of support needs. Method: Participants were 12 adults with ID aged 27-57 years (M = 37 years) residing in three group homes, and…

  17. Antidepressant treatments and human aggression.

    PubMed

    Bond, Alyson J

    2005-12-01

    Aggressive behaviour is associated with negative mood and poor impulse control. Serotonin has been specifically associated with impulse regulation and deficiencies in serotonin have been linked to impulsive aggression. However, aggression occurs in a social context and noradrenaline has been implicated in social motivation. Both serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants may therefore be effective in reducing aggression. The evidence for the effects of antidepressants on aggression comes from a wide range of sources but there are few controlled trials or experimental studies. Current findings point to decreases in negative mood and anger attacks and positive changes in personality traits after antidepressant treatment. Clinical studies in personality disorder patients have shown some efficacy for serotonergic antidepressants in reducing irritability and impulsive aggression. Experimental work in healthy volunteers has shown both serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants to increase assertiveness and affiliative behaviour. Both may therefore decrease aggression through different routes. PMID:16253231

  18. Teaching Staff Knowledge, Attributions and Confidence in Relation to Working with Children with an Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Helen; Murray, George; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined Scottish teaching staff knowledge about the definition and management of challenging behaviour displayed by children with an intellectual disability. Knowledge levels were relatively low, and participants were most likely to define challenging behaviour by function or topography. Teaching staff were largely unaware of…

  19. The Relationship between Challenging Behaviour, Burnout and Cognitive Variables in Staff Working with People Who Have Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, S.; Rose, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is evidence to suggest a relationship between the way in which staff perceive challenging behaviour and burnout in staff working with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour. However, the evidence of a direct link is equivocal and it is possible that a number of different variables mediate this…

  20. Predictors, Costs and Characteristics of out of Area Placement for People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, D. G.; Lowe, K.; Moore, K.; Brophy, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Out of area placements for people with challenging behaviour represent an expensive and often ineffective strategy for meeting the needs of this service user group. Methods: More than 800 agencies and service settings in a large area of South Wales were screened to identify children and adults with challenging behaviour against a…

  1. Majority and Minority Ethnic Family Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Perceptions of Challenging Behaviour and Family Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Kirby, Suzanne; Kotwal, Homayra; Baines, Susannah; Hutchinson, Christine; Dobson, Catherine; Marks, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Background: A health service in an English city was concerned about its support to families with adults with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven minority ethnic and seven majority ethnic family members to explore perceptions of challenging behaviour, support and the…

  2. Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

  3. Long-term effects of the periadolescent environment on exploratory activity and aggressive behaviour in mice: social versus physical enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna Pietropaolo; Igor Branchi; Francesca Cirulli; Flavia Chiarotti; Luigi Aloe; Enrico Alleva

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (i) to investigate the effects of environmental enrichment during periadolescence on different behavioural and neurochemical responses in male CD-1 mice at adulthood and (ii) to describe the relative role of the physical and social components of the enrichment in producing these effects. Thirty 5-day-old mice were randomly assigned to one of the following

  4. Challenging behaviour in a patient with schizophrenia and a 1q21.1 duplication.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Gautam; Behrman, Sophie; Khosla, Vivek; Murphy, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old man with a 22-year history of schizophrenia, necessitating frequent detentions under the Mental Health Act for relapses in his mental state and challenging behaviour which has also brought him into contact with the law. His illness has proven resistant to treatment with conventional strategies and he developed serious priapism with clozapine. His challenging behaviour, some of which is not felt to be associated with schizophrenia, complicates any discharge planning from his current detention. Based on a history of childhood cardiac disease, and mildly atypical facies, a genetic screen was requested which showed a 1q21.1 duplication, likely causal in his schizophrenic illness. A review of proteins coded by the locus of the duplication did not reveal any specific targets for pharmacotherapy. PMID:24973346

  5. An Evaluation of the Impact of Staff Training on Teaching Staff’s Knowledge of the Defining Criteria for Learning Disability and the Management of Challenging Behaviour 

    E-print Network

    Rae, Helen

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether staff training improved knowledge about the defining criteria for learning disability, knowledge about the management of challenging behaviour, attributions about challenging behaviour...

  6. Behavioural and immunological responses to an immune challenge in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Locatello, Lisa; Fiorito, Graziano; Finos, Livio; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-10-01

    Behavioural and immunological changes consequent to stress and infection are largely unexplored in cephalopods, despite the wide employment of species such as Octopus vulgaris in studies that require their manipulation and prolonged maintenance in captivity. Here we explore O. vulgaris behavioural and immunological (i.e. haemocyte number and serum lysozyme activity) responses to an in vivo immune challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Behavioural changes of immune-treated and sham-injected animals were observed in both sight-allowed and isolated conditions, i.e. visually interacting or not with a conspecific. Immune stimulation primarily caused a significant increase in the number of circulating haemocytes 4h after the treatment, while serum lysozyme activity showed a less clear response. However, the effect of LPS on the circulating haemocytes begins to vanish 24h after injection. Our observations indicate a significant change in behaviour consequent to LPS administration, with treated octopuses exhibiting a decrease of general activity pattern when kept in the isolated condition. A similar decrease was not observed in the sight-allowed condition, where we noticed a specific significant reduction only in the time spent to visually interact with the conspecific. Overall, significant, but lower, behavioural and immunological effects of injection were detected also in sham-injected animals, suggesting a non-trivial susceptibility to manipulation and haemolymph sampling. Our results gain importance in light of changes of the regulations for the use of cephalopods in scientific procedures that call for the prompt development of guidelines, covering many aspects of cephalopod provision, maintenance and welfare. PMID:24021926

  7. Enhanced Aggression Replacement Training with Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynahan, Luke

    2003-01-01

    An enhanced form of Aggression Replacement Training is being used with children and youth with autism spectrum disorder and particularly those with Asperger's Syndrome who present behavioural challenges. Initial results in a Norwegian centre indicate that, with some modifications and enhancements, the programme is an appropriate strategy for…

  8. The Use of Functional Behavioural Assessment for Students with Challenging Behaviours: Current Patterns and Experience of Australian Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    With the growing adoption of the Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) system state-wide in New South Wales, Australia, it was of interest to determine the readiness of behaviour specialists to conduct Functional Behaviour Assessments (FBA) as part of the third tier of School-wide PBS provision. This article presents the findings from a survey…

  9. Stability in aggression and aggression control in a sample of primary school children in China.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, S

    1989-08-01

    The aim was to study the stability of aggression and aggression control in Chinese children. Olweus' Aggression Inventory was retested after 18 months in a sample of Chinese primary school children in Beijing (average age 12 years; 267 children; 139 boys and 128 girls; 92% of the initial study sample). Compared with relevant studies in Scandinavian countries, this study shows that a degree of stability in aggression behaviour is also found in Chinese primary school children despite strong societal pressures against aggressive behaviour and towards aggression control. The result supports the earlier evidence that aggression was a somewhat more global or less differentiated phenomenon for Chinese children. Nevertheless, the average aggression response level for the Chinese children is clearly low and quite high for aggression control. Positive self-report, which reflects good adjustment and psychological health, was still clearly related to aggression control, but slightly less for the boys. The average difference between boys and girls in general aggression and aggression control was stable over time. Girls showed a lower level of general aggression and a higher level of aggression control compared with boys. PMID:2801164

  10. Development and effectiveness of an integrated inpatient and community service for challenging behaviour in late life: From Confused and Disturbed Elderly to Transitional Behavioural Assessment and Intervention Service.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Katrina; Bird, Michael; Blair, Annaliese; MacPherson, Sarah

    2014-11-26

    A common method of managing challenging behaviour associated with dementia is long-stay special care units, though models are very diverse. In New South Wales, Australia, the five remaining state-run long-stay special care units for this population were funded to adopt a shorter-term model which had been trialled by one of the units. Transitional Behavioural Assessment and Intervention Service Units, incorporating an integrated outreach team, were to provide multi-disciplinary assessments, develop individualised bio-psychosocial management plans for, and appropriately discharge people with significant levels of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia. The current study assessed both the effects of the change and the clinical effectiveness of the model. PMID:25427787

  11. Comparing Residential Programmes for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability: Outcomes of Challenging Behaviour and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, F.; Bessero, S.; Robbiani, B.; Courvoisier, D. S.; Baud, M. A.; Traore, M.-C.; Blanco, P.; Giroud, M.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2011-01-01

    Background: Owing to methodological issues, little research has been conducted to examine quality of life (QoL) as a treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID). This study was conducted to combine QoL measures and objective observations of challenging behaviours (CB) in order to evaluate changes over…

  12. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: The Costs and Outcomes of In- and Out-of-Area Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, J.; Allen, D. G.; Pimm, C.; Meek, A.; Lowe, K.; Groves, S.; Cohen, D.; Felce, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People with severe challenging behaviour are vulnerable to exclusion from local services and removal to out-of-area placements if locally available supported accommodation is insufficient to meet their needs. There are concerns about the high costs and potentially poorer outcomes of out-of-area placements but relatively little is known…

  13. Grip on challenging behaviour: a multidisciplinary care programme for managing behavioural problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra A Zwijsen; Martin Smalbrugge; Sytse U Zuidema; Raymond TCM Koopmans; Judith E Bosmans; Maurits W van Tulder; Jan A Eefsting; Debby L Gerritsen; Anne-Margriet Pot

    2011-01-01

    Background  Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and\\u000a nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems\\u000a will be evaluated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\/Design  The care programme is based on Dutch national guidelines. It will consist of four steps: detection, analysis, treatment and\\u000a evaluation.

  14. Changes in Attributions as a Consequence of Training for Challenging and Complex Behaviour for Carers of People with Learning Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sophie; Dagnan, Dave; Rodgers, Jacqui; McDowell, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This paper reviews the evidence for changes in carers' attributions regarding the behaviour of people with intellectual disabilities as a consequence of carer training in challenging and complex behaviour. Method: Papers were included in the review if they reported outcomes for carer training on the behaviour of people with intellectual…

  15. A General Practice-Based Study of the Relationship between Indicators of Mental Illness and Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, D.; Kerr, M.; Hastings, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Existing studies tend to show a positive association between mental illness and challenging behaviour among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, whether the association is direct or artefactual is less clear. The purpose was to explore the association between psychiatric status and level of challenging behaviour, while…

  16. A Comparison of Challenging Behaviour in an Adult Group with Down's Syndrome and Dementia Compared with an Adult Down's Syndrome Group without Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxley, Adam; Van-Schaik, Paul; Witts, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in adults with Down's syndrome with and without signs of dementia. Care staff were interviewed using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community version (M.G. Aman & N.N. Singh, Slosson, East Aurora, NY, 1994), to investigate the frequency and severity of challenging

  17. Grip on challenging behaviour: a multidisciplinary care programme for managing behavioural problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems will be evaluated. Methods/Design The care programme is based on Dutch national guidelines. It will consist of four steps: detection, analysis, treatment and evaluation. A stepped wedge design will be used. A total of 14 dementia special care units will implement the care programme. The primary outcome is behavioural problems. Secondary outcomes will include quality of life, prescription rate of antipsychotics, use of physical restraints and workload and job satisfaction of nursing staff. The effect of the care programme will be estimated using multilevel linear regression analysis. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective will also be carried out. Discussion The care programme is expected to be cost-effective and effective in decreasing behavioural problems, workload of nursing staff and in increasing quality of life of residents. Trial registration The Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR). Trial number: NTR 2141 PMID:21338502

  18. Testing the myth: tolerant dogs and aggressive wolves

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog–human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication (‘emotional reactivity hypothesis’). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog–wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf–wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog–human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666

  19. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds. PMID:11314475

  20. Social Developmental Parameters in Primary Schools: Inclusive Settings' and Gender Differences on Pupils' Aggressive and Social Insecure Behaviour and Their Attitudes towards Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arampatzi, Athina; Mouratidou, Katerina; Evaggelinou, Christina; Koidou, Eirini; Barkoukis, Vassilis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether gender and inclusion settings are associated with elementary school pupils' aspects of social development such as aggression, social insecurity and attitudes toward disability. The sample consisted of 658 pupils (M[subscript age]=11[plus or minus]1 years) of 15 primary schools (306 boys and 352…

  1. Evaluation of personalised, one-to-one interaction using Montessori-type activities as a treatment of challenging behaviours in people with dementia: the study protocol of a crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Behaviours stemming from pain, major depression or psychosis benefit from treatment with analgesics, antidepressants or antipsychotics. In other cases, psychotropic medications have limited efficacy but are used very widely. Therefore, increasingly more attention has been paid to nonpharmacological interventions which are associated with fewer risks. The aim of the current study is to test if personalised one-to-one interaction activities based on Montessori principles will reduce the frequency of behavioural symptoms of dementia significantly more than a relevant control condition. Methods/Design We will conduct a controlled trial with randomised cross-over between conditions. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to Montessori or control blocks for two weeks then switched to the other condition. Montessori activities derive from the principles espoused by Maria Montessori and subsequent educational theorists to promote engagement in learning, namely task breakdown, guided repetition, progression in difficulty from simple to complex, and the careful matching of demands to levels of competence. The control intervention consists of conversation or reading from and looking at pictures in a newspaper to control for non-specific benefits of one-to-one interaction. Presence of target behaviour will be noted as well as level of engagement and type of affect displayed. Secondary measures also include the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and information on time and funds spend to prepare the activities. Discussion If our results show that use of Montessori activities is effective in treating challenging behaviours in individuals with dementia, it will potentially provide a safer and more enjoyable intervention rather than reliance on pharmacology alone. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12609000564257 PMID:20096137

  2. Managing aggressive and violent patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordian Fulde; Paul Preisz

    2011-01-01

    All healthcare workers, especially general practitioners and staff in emergency departments, are likely to encounter aggression and violence. This behaviour may be caused by a medical illness, a psychiatric illness or drug intoxication or withdrawal. These problems can occur in combination. It is important that a diagnosis is made, but in some cases the patient may need sedation before they

  3. Role of psychotherapy in managing a case of generalised aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, D; Nadig, Prasad; Deshpande, Neeraj; Deshpande, Anshula

    2014-01-01

    Generalised aggressive periodontitis is characterised by "generalized interproximal attachment loss affecting at least three permanent teeth other than first molars and incisors." The management of generalised aggressive periodontitis is challenging as it involves an interdisciplinary approach. When the patient presents himself late to the clinician, the tooth and bone loss can be up to 60%. Natural teeth and alveolar bone contribute to the contour and aesthetics of the face. Loss of teeth in younger age may lead to attitude, behaviour changes and may cause psychological depression and withdrawal from society. The main distinguishing feature of this case report is the psychological counselling provided along with periodontal and prosthetic treatment. PMID:25035440

  4. Evaluation of personalised, one-to-one interaction using Montessori-type activities as a treatment of challenging behaviours in people with dementia: the study protocol of a crossover trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva S van der Ploeg; Daniel W O'Connor

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Behaviours stemming from pain, major depression or psychosis benefit from treatment with analgesics, antidepressants or antipsychotics. In other cases, psychotropic medications have limited efficacy but are used very widely. Therefore, increasingly more attention

  5. Testosterone and 5HIAA in dogs with intraspecific aggression 

    E-print Network

    Haug, Lore I

    2003-01-01

    Intraspecific aggression is a common problem in dogs, with such aggression typically due to dominance, fear, and/or territoriality. Some dogs appear to perceive the mere presence of another dog as a challenge or threat. These dogs often show...

  6. Preferential Treatment or Unwanted in Mainstream Schools? The Perceptions of Parents and Teachers with Regards to Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broomhead, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers regarding the differential treatment or stigma experienced by pupils with challenging behaviour--more specifically, those with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD), as well as children with visible special educational needs (Down's syndrome and/or profound and multiple…

  7. Children's Evaluations of Ambiguous Provocation by Relationally Aggressive, Physically Aggressive and Prosocial Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.; Persson, Anna V.; Boxer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The present study assessed children's evaluations of hypothetical peer provocation. Participants (N = 75, ages 8-11) were presented with hypothetical vignettes depicting relationally aggressive, physically aggressive and prosocial peers engaging in provocative behaviours directed at the participant, including (a) relational (not receiving a party…

  8. Cyber bullying: practices to face digital aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mickie Wong-Lo; Lyndal M. Bullock; Robert A. Gable

    2011-01-01

    The display of aggressive behaviours among the digital generation has modernized the traditional attributes of bullying. Cases of bullying are no longer confined to physical altercations between peers in school hallways or hostile verbal exchanges during recess periods. With the progression of technology, educators must recognize the changes of our students’ behaviours as lives become modified by the digital era.

  9. Aggressive mimicry, prey-specific predatory behaviour and predator-recognition in the predator-prey interactions of Portia fimbriata and Euryattus sp., jumping spiders from Queensland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Jackson; R. Stimson Wilcox

    1990-01-01

    Adults and large juveniles of Queensland Portia fimbriata, a salticid spider known to prey on other spiders (including other salticids), are shown to use prey-specific predatory behaviour against Euryattus sp., one of the salticids on which it feeds. Euryattus females are unusual because they nest inside suspended rolled-up leaves. P. fimbriata used vibratory displays to lure Euryattus females from their

  10. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal. PMID:25054147

  11. Psychopharmacology of Aggression in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Peter; Citrome, Leslie; Nichita, Carmen; Vitacco, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The management of aggression in patients with schizophrenia is a complex and challenging clinical dilemma. It also is greatly influenced by prevailing societal and medicolegal considerations regarding the perceived associations between violence and mental illness. This article provides a succinct account of a complex area and offers evidence for available treatments to reduce the occurrence of violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21860038

  12. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  13. Prevalence of Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Mental Retardation and Challenging Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 165 adults with mental retardation was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms, mental retardation level, and challenging behavior. Challenging behavior was associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety and psychosis, and not with depression. No association was found between anxiety and…

  14. Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and testosterone in men exposed to an aggressive video stimulus.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Liam P; Hopp, Renato N; Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Manning, John T

    2013-01-01

    The relative lengths of the 2(nd) and 4(th) digits (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in "challenge" situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a "challenge" is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression. PMID:24113579

  15. Why are small males aggressive?

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Lesley J; Lindström, Jan; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2005-01-01

    Aggression is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, whenever the interests of individuals conflict. In contests between animals, the larger opponent is often victorious. However, counter intuitively, an individual that has little chance of winning (generally smaller individuals) sometimes initiates contests. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour, including the ‘desperado effect’ according to which, the likely losers initiate aggression due to lack of alternative options. An alternative explanation suggested recently is that likely losers attack due to an error in perception: they mistakenly perceive their chances of winning as being greater than they are. We show that explaining the apparently maladaptive aggression initiated by the likely loser can be explained on purely economic grounds, without requiring either the desperado effect or perception errors. Using a game-theoretical model, we show that if smaller individuals can accurately assess their chance of winning, if this chance is less than, but close to, a half, and if resources are scarce (or the contested resource is of relatively low value), they are predicted to be as aggressive as their larger opponents. In addition, when resources are abundant, and small individuals have some chance of winning, they may be more aggressive than their larger opponents, as it may benefit larger individuals to avoid the costs of fighting and seek alternative uncontested resources. PMID:16024387

  16. Interventions for Aggressive Girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra J. Pepler; Margaret M. Walsh; Kathryn S. Levene

    \\u000a The collection of chapters in this book heralds a burgeoning research and clinical interest in the nature of girls’ aggression,\\u000a its developmental course, and the outcomes experienced by aggressive girls. Girls’ aggression has been shown to take somewhat\\u000a different forms than that of boys, with generally lower levels of physical aggression and a higher reliance on socially directed\\u000a aggression (Bjorkqvist,

  17. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  18. Helping, Attributions, Emotions and Coping Style in Response to People with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Chris; Dagnan, Dave

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the role of coping style attributions and emotions in response to challenging behavior in predicting helping behaviors of 33 support staff of people with mental retardation. Coping styles of practical problem solving and wishful thinking and attributions of controllability and internality were significant predictors of effort in…

  19. Counselling patients about behaviour change: the challenge of talking about diet

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katie; Wood, Fiona; Spanou, Clio; Kinnersley, Paul; Simpson, Sharon A; Butler, Christopher C

    2011-01-01

    Background As obesity levels increase, opportunistic behaviour change counselling from primary care clinicians in consultations about healthy eating is ever more important. However, little is known about the approaches clinicians take with patients. Aim To describe the content of simulated consultations on healthy eating in primary care, and compare this with the content of smoking cessation consultations. Design and setting Qualitative study of 23 audiotaped simulated healthy eating and smoking cessation consultations between an actor and primary care clinicians (GPs and nurses) within a randomised controlled trial looking at behaviour change counselling. Method Consultations were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, then analysed inductively using thematic analysis. A thematic framework was developed by all authors and applied to the data. The content of healthy eating consultations was contrasted with that given for smoking cessation. Results There was a lack of consistency and clarity when clinicians discussed healthy eating compared with smoking; in smoking cessation consultations, the content was clearer to both the clinician and patient. There was a lack of specificity about what dietary changes should be made, how changes could be achieved, and how progress could be monitored. Barriers to change were addressed in more depth within the smoking cessation consultations than within the healthy eating encounters. Conclusion At present, dietary counselling by clinicians in primary care does not typically contain consistent, clear suggestions for specific change, how these could be achieved, and how progress would be monitored. This may contribute to limited uptake and efficacy of dietary counselling in primary care. PMID:22520664

  20. Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients filled in…

  1. Gender and aggression I: Perceptions of aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary B. Harris; Kelly Knight-Bohnhoff

    1996-01-01

    To investigate how gender and ethnicity influence evaluation, perceptions, and stereotyping of aggression, two studies were conducted with 115 college students (56% male; 50% Anglo and 26% Hispanic) and 79 individuals (72% male; 92% Anglo) who worked on a military base. Participants were asked to respond to four scenarios depicting aggressive interactions in which the gender of the protagonists varied,

  2. Measuring spouse aggression 

    E-print Network

    Snow, Alicia Carleen

    1995-01-01

    Relationship aggression has received increasing attention over the past decade. National violence surveys have indicated that nearly 1.6 million women in the United states are beaten by their male partners each year. Rates of aggression by women...

  3. Measuring spouse aggression

    E-print Network

    Snow, Alicia Carleen

    1995-01-01

    Relationship aggression has received increasing attention over the past decade. National violence surveys have indicated that nearly 1.6 million women in the United states are beaten by their male partners each year. Rates of aggression by women...

  4. Aggressive Desmoplastic Fibromatosis - A Clinicians Dilemma Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Adesh S; Narang, Ramandeep S; Arora, Preeti Chawla; Singh, Balwinder; Walia, Satinder

    2013-01-01

    Fibromatoses are a heterogeneous group of distinct entities which differ in biological behaviour, but arehistologically very similar. This group of fibrous tumor or tumor like lesions, present considerable difficulties in pathologic diagnosis. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) of the oral or para-oral structures is a very uncommon finding and its intra-osseous component is even relatively unusual. Such lesions with their origin from within the bone are termed desmoplastic fibromatosis (DF). These lesions must be distinguished from other fibroblastic tumors of the head and neck such as benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), fibrosarcoma, nerve sheath tumors and tumors of muscular origin. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of fibromatosis is to avoid an overdiagnosis of fibrosarcoma or an underdiagnosis of reactive fibrosis.Problems of differential diagnosis concern a wide range of diseases and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful in diagnosis. With respect to the patient’s post-operative well-being and if periodic follow-ups are guaranteed, the tumor should be carefully resected with only narrow safety margins. A rare case of aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis in a 12–year–old girl is presented in this article with emphasis on the need and challenges for diagnosing such lesions as they have to be differentiated from other soft tissue tumors which display borderline pathological features regarding benign or malignant behaviour. Synonyms listed for the same include extra-abdominal desmoids, extra-abdominal fibromatosis, desmoids tumor, aggressive fibromatosis, juvenile desmoids-type fibromatosis, infantile fibromatosis. PMID:24392428

  5. Bringing "Patient Voice" into Psychological Formulations of In-Patients with Intellectual Disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Severe Challenging Behaviours: Report of a Service Improvement Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Gareth; Nevin, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This is a report of a service improvement pilot project undertaken at an inpatient autism service for adults with intellectual disabilities and severe challenging behaviours. Within the service, a key facet of the care pathway was the use of a biopsychosocial case formulation. Formulation meetings were led by psychology and involved a full…

  6. Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression

    E-print Network

    Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured

  7. State, not trait, neuroendocrine function predicts costly reactive aggression in men after social exclusion and inclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn N. Geniole; Justin M. Carré; Cheryl M. McCormick

    2011-01-01

    Social exclusion increases aggressive behaviour, and the possible neuroendocrine underpinnings of the effect are largely unknown. Here, we examined the extent to which testosterone and cortisol responses to social exclusion would predict subsequent reactive aggression. Men were randomly assigned to a social exclusion (SE) or inclusion (SI) condition of ‘Cyberball’, a computer ball-toss game. Aggression was then measured using the

  8. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  9. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  10. Bullying in Middle School as a Function of Insecure Attachment and Aggressive Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a model for understanding peer bullying as the product of aggressive attitudes and insecure attachment. A sample of 110 sixth grade students completed self-report measures that assessed attitudes toward the use of aggressive behaviour with peers and distinguished secure from insecure parental attachment. Bullying behaviour was…

  11. Partners with Bad Temper: Reject or Cure? A Study of Chronic Pain and Aggression in Horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole Fureix; Hervé Menguy; Martine Hausberger; Martin Giurfa

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundExperiencing acute pain can affect the social behaviour of both humans and animals and can increase the risk that they exhibit aggressive or violent behaviour. However, studies have focused mainly on the impact of acute rather than chronic painful experiences. As recent results suggest that chronic pain or chronic discomfort could increase aggressiveness in humans and other mammals, we tested

  12. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive

  13. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects. PMID:25599665

  14. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  15. Coping with Agitation and Aggression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... settle down. Agitation may cause pacing, sleeplessness, or aggression , which is when a person lashes out verbally ... hit or hurt someone. Causes of Agitation and Aggression Most of the time, agitation and aggression happen ...

  16. Serotonin and impulsive aggression.

    PubMed

    Coccaro, Emil F; Fanning, Jennifer R; Phan, K Luan; Lee, Royce

    2015-06-01

    Aggression is a behavior with evolutionary origins, but is often both destructive and maladaptive in today's society. Research over the past several decades has confirmed the involvement of neurotransmitter function in aggressive behavior. This research has centered around the "serotonin hypothesis." As this literature continues to grow, guided by pre-clinical research and aided by the application of increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging methodology, a more complex picture has emerged. As current pharmacological and therapeutic interventions are effective but imperfect, it is hoped that new insights into the neurobiology of aggression will reveal novel avenues for treatment of this destructive and costly behavior. PMID:25997605

  17. Behaviour of dispersing deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne J. Fairbairn

    1978-01-01

    1.The behaviour of dispersing and resident deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was compared in three laboratory tests to determine if dispersers differed behaviourally from residents.2.The hypothesis that behavioural differences have a genetic basis was examined by correlating genotype at three electrophoretically detectable blood protein loci with scores on the behaviour tests. Among resident males, level of aggression (as measured in neutral

  18. Aggression and Sport: Two Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandy, Ruth E.; Laflin, Joyce

    1973-01-01

    The first theory is that aggression is instinctive, that our society is predisposed to aggressive behavior, and that sports can serve as a catharsis. The second theory is that aggression is learned behavior, that sports teaches aggression and thus contributes to competitiveness and violence in our society. (JA)

  19. Creatureliness priming reduces aggression and support for war.

    PubMed

    Motyl, Matt; Hart, Joshua; Cooper, Douglas P; Heflick, Nathan; Goldenberg, Jamie; Pyszczynski, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Terror management theory (TMT) posits that humans distance themselves from, or elevate themselves above, other animals as a way of denying their mortality. The present studies assessed whether the salience of aggressive tendencies that humans share with other animals make thoughts of death salient and whether depicting human aggression as animalistic can mitigate aggressive behaviour and support for aggression. In Study 1, participants primed with human-animal similarities (i.e., human creatureliness) exhibited elevated death-thought accessibility (DTA) after hitting a punching bag. In Studies 2a and 2b, creatureliness priming caused participants to hit a punching bag with less frequency, perceived force, and comfort. In Study 3, participants primed to view violence as animalistic exhibited increased DTA and reported less support for war against Iran. These studies suggest that portraying violence as creaturely may reduce the intensity of aggressive actions and support for violent solutions to international conflicts. PMID:22882271

  20. Staff Attributions towards Men with Intellectual Disability Who Have a History of Sexual Offending and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinlay, L.; Langdon, P. E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Staff working within secure services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are likely to work with sexual offenders, but very little attention has been paid to how they think about this sexual offending behaviour. Method: Forty-eight staff working within secure services for people with ID were recruited and completed the…

  1. Challenges and Management Frameworks of Residential Schools for Students with Severe Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Stella Suk-ching; Leung, Ka-wai

    2012-01-01

    This study by Stella Suk-Ching Chong, an assistant professor, and Ka-wai Leung, a teaching fellow, both at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, focuses on the perspectives of hostel staff from six residential schools for students with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. Individual or focus group interviews were conducted to explore the…

  2. Linden Services for Children--Extern: A Holisitic Approach in Working with Young People with Challenging Behaviours and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Linden Services for Children is part of Extern, which is a charity within the voluntary sector. The organisation's mission is to promote social inclusion and help reduce the incidence of offending behaviour. Extern operates in both the North and South of Ireland and works with children, families, adults and communities. It aims, through assessment…

  3. The Moderating Effect of Parental Warmth on the Association between Spanking and Child Aggression: A Longitudinal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Ann Michele; Oshio, Toko; Gerard, Jean; Roe, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, this study analysed the stability of child aggressive behaviour beginning in infancy and tested whether spanking when the child was 36 months was associated with aggressive child behaviour among three ethnic groups and whether maternal warmth moderated the effect of spanking on…

  4. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or genetic profile, currently do not exist. Genetic markers have the potential to be implemented as screening tools to identify subjects at risk. This approach may significantly enhance treatment outcome through the early detection and treatment of affected subjects, as well as using future approaches based on gene therapy. At present, the treatment of this disease is directed toward elimination of the subgingival bacterial load and other local risk factors. Adjunctive use of appropriate systemic antibiotics is recommended and may contribute to a longer suppression of the microbial infection. Other aggressive forms of periodontal diseases occur in patients who are affected with certain systemic diseases, including the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Down syndrome. Management of the periodontal component of these diseases is very challenging. Acute gingival and periodontal lesions include a group of disorders that range from nondestructive to destructive forms, and these lesions are usually associated with pain and are a common reason for emergency dental consultations. Some of these lesions may cause a rapid and severe destruction of the periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. Oral infections, particularly acute infections, can spread to extra-oral sites and cause serious medical complications, and even death. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount. PMID:24738583

  5. Methodological Challenges in Collecting Social and Behavioural Data Regarding the HIV Epidemic among Gay and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Martin; de Wit, John; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce; Fairley, Christopher; Prestage, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioural surveillance and research among gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM) commonly relies on non-random recruitment approaches. Methodological challenges limit their ability to accurately represent the population of adult GMSM. We compared the social and behavioural profiles of GMSM recruited via venue-based, online, and respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and discussed their utility for behavioural surveillance. Methods Data from four studies were selected to reflect each recruitment method. We compared demographic characteristics and the prevalence of key indicators including sexual and HIV testing practices obtained from samples recruited through different methods, and population estimates from respondent-driven sampling partition analysis. Results Overall, the socio-demographic profile of GMSM was similar across samples, with some differences observed in age and sexual identification. Men recruited through time-location sampling appeared more connected to the gay community, reported a greater number of sexual partners, but engaged in less unprotected anal intercourse with regular (UAIR) or casual partners (UAIC). The RDS sample overestimated the proportion of HIV-positive men and appeared to recruit men with an overall higher number of sexual partners. A single-website survey recruited a sample with characteristics which differed considerably from the population estimates with regards to age, ethnically diversity and behaviour. Data acquired through time-location sampling underestimated the rates of UAIR and UAIC, while RDS and online sampling both generated samples that underestimated UAIR. Simulated composite samples combining recruits from time-location and multi-website online sampling may produce characteristics more consistent with the population estimates, particularly with regards to sexual practices. Conclusion Respondent-driven sampling produced the sample that was most consistent to population estimates, but this methodology is complex and logistically demanding. Time-location and online recruitment are more cost-effective and easier to implement; using these approaches in combination may offer the potential to recruit a more representative sample of GMSM. PMID:25409440

  6. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  7. Pedophilia and Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Marshall; M. M. Christie

    1981-01-01

    While some authors consider pedophiles to be physically harmless individuals who do not attempt intercourse with their often seductive victims, others have identified a minority of child molesters who are aggressively predatory. Data from penitentiary files revealed that 29 of 41 incarcerated pedophiles used threats of violence or actual physical force to secure their sexual goals, and these sexual goals

  8. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  9. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: an aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bharath, Gangadhara; Burrah, Rajaram; Shivakumar, Kuppuswamy; Manjunath, Suraj; Bhanumathi, Rao

    2015-02-01

    Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas are a rare and aggressive subtype of chondrosarcoma with a bimorphic pattern on histopathology. Rib is a rare site of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Diagnosis of this subtype preoperatively can be challenging. Treatment options for dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma are limited because they are chemoresistant, and therefore adequate surgery forms the main stay of treatment. We present our experience with a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the rib, and discuss the management of this rare entity. PMID:24585295

  10. The psychological impact of aggression on nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue

    Aggression and violence towards nursing staff in UK health care is a growing problem. While the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's (NICE, 2005a) guidelines 'The Short-Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in In-Patient Psychiatric Setting and Emergency Department' offer a way forward in managing aggression for healthcare staff, the psychological impact of aggression remains an area of concern. Post-incident review has been identified as an approach to considering untoward incidents of aggression, yet post-incident support and interventions for staff experiencing the psychological effects of aggression remain inconsistent and curtailed in many areas. This article discusses the care of a nurse who experienced post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of aggression in the workplace. The process of assessment and treatment is presented with underpinning theories of trauma used to illuminate the discussion. Practical use of current recommended treatments of cognitive behavioural therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is offered as a method of addressing a growing problem in UK health care. PMID:17851336

  11. From Emotional and Psychological Well-Being to Character Education: Challenging Policy Discourses of Behavioural Science and "Vulnerability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to challenge a strong consensus that governments must intervene in a worsening crisis of emotional and psychological well-being. The article relates rising estimates of problems and corresponding calls for intervention in educational settings to the increasingly blurred boundaries between a cultural therapeutic ethos, academic…

  12. Breed differences in canine aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Duffy; Yuying Hsu; James A. Serpell

    2008-01-01

    Canine aggression poses serious public health and animal welfare concerns. Most of what is understood about breed differences in aggression comes from reports based on bite statistics, behavior clinic caseloads, and experts’ opinions. Information on breed-specific aggressiveness derived from such sources may be misleading due to biases attributable to a disproportionate risk of injury associated with larger and\\/or more physically

  13. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship between…

  14. Student Behaviour Self-Monitoring Enabling Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…

  15. Dealing with Conflict and Aggression in Classrooms through Cooperative Learning Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Demographic and socioeconomic shifts in nation's population and changes in the family structure have placed increasing demands on the schools. There is a pressing need to understand the factors that give rise to and maintain aggressive behaviours across adolescence and also suggest techniques for dealing with the increased incidence of aggression

  16. Mothers’ and teachers’ perceptions of relational and physical aggression in pre?school children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Doescher Hurd; Maribeth Gettinger

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre?school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an adult should respond and how quickly an adult should

  17. Mothers’ and teachers’ perceptions of relational and physical aggression in pre-school children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Doescher Hurd; Maribeth Gettinger

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre-school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an adult should respond and how quickly an adult should

  18. Injustice and its relations with anger and aggression in organizational and educational settings

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Injustice and its relations with anger and aggression in organizational and educational settings.Didry@psycho-ulp.u-strasbg.fr Among affective factors leading to aggressive behaviour, anger (Granic & Butler, 1998) and injustice, without particularly taking into account anger in this relationship. At the same time, studies conduced

  19. Mothers' and Teachers' Perceptions of Relational and Physical Aggression in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Heather Doescher; Gettinger, Maribeth

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre-school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an…

  20. Development of a Clinical Instrument to Record Sexual Aggression in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nicole Tuomi; Sheitman, Brian; Hazelrigg, Mark; Carmel, Harold; Williams, Jim; Paesler, Betty

    2007-01-01

    While there are a number of instruments that assess historical factors related to sexual aggression for the purposes of risk assessment, there is a notable absence of measures that assess change in ongoing, sexually aggressive behaviours engaged in by people who reside in psychiatric hospitals. The purpose of this report is to describe the…

  1. Angry cognitive bias, trait aggression and impulsivity in substance users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alyson J. Bond; Suzanne L. Verheyden; Janet Wingrove; H. Valerie Curran

    2004-01-01

    RationaleAccording to cognitive theory, people who are aggressive expect angry responses to ambiguous situations. Increased aggression has been reported a few days or weeks following use of MDMA (ecstasy). This may relate to low 5-HT release, and so a 5-HT challenge may increase cognitive bias towards anger differentially in MDMA users and non-users.ObjectivesTo investigate whether: (1) measures of anger and

  2. Weapons and Aggression

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson, Craig

    Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

  3. Aggressive Fibromatose (Desmoidfibromatose)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Janitzky; M. Porsch; M. Daher; D. Küster; U.-B. Liehr

    2010-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Falldarstellung einer 65-jährigen Patientin mit aggressiver Fibromatose des M. rectus abdominis bei initialer Verdachtsdiagnose\\u000a einer Nierenzellkarzinommetastase nach zurückliegender Tumornephrektomie. Die aggressive Fibromatose (syn. Desmoidfibromatose)\\u000a ist eine seltene semimaligne Tumorentität des Bindegewebes mit lokal-infiltrativem, destruierendem Wachstum. Sie muss als\\u000a seltene Differentialdiagnose einer NZK-Metastase angesehen werden. Zur Vermeidung eines Rezidivs ist die R0-Resektion mit\\u000a anschließender adjuvanter Radiatio anzustreben.

  4. Technology, aggression and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Blair

    1989-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that although strong evidence exists for the evolution of intelligent life throughout our galaxy, attempts at detecting radio transmissions from extraterrestrial civilizations are doomed to failure unless technological civilizations can exist for periods of the order of 1 million years. If evolving technological civilizations are so driven by aggressive instinctual behaviour that they self?destruct

  5. Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

  6. Serum Fucosylated Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Improves the Differentiation of Aggressive from Non-aggressive Prostate Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing Kay; Chen, Li; Ao, Ming-Hui; Chiu, Joyce Hanching; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hui; Chan, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinically, it is still challenging to differentiate aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancers (Pca) by non-invasive approaches. Our recent studies showed that overexpression of alpha (1-6) fucosyltransferase played an important role in Pca cells. In this study, we have investigated levels of glycoproteins and their fucosylated glycoforms in sera of Pca patients, as well as the potential utility of fucosylated glycoproteins in the identification of aggressive Pca. Material and Methods: Serum samples from histomorphology-proven Pca cases were included. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and their fucosylated glycoforms were captured by Aleuria Aurantia Lectin (AAL), followed by the multiplex magnetic bead-based immunoassay. The level of fucosylated glycoproteins was correlated with patients' Gleason score of the tumor. Result: Among three fucosylated glycoproteins, the fucosylated PSA was significantly increased and correlated with the tumor Gleason score (p<0.05). The ratio of fucosylated PSA showed a marked increase in aggressive tumors in comparison to non-aggressive tumors. ROC analysis also showed an improved predictive power of fucosylated PSA in the identification of aggressive Pca. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that fucosylated PSA has a better predictive power to differentiate aggressive tumors from non-aggressive tumors, than that of native PSA and two other glycoproteins. The fucosylated PSA has the potential to be used as a surrogate biomarker. PMID:25553114

  7. Behaviour disturbances during recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Greenwood; A Bhalla; A Gordon; J Roberts

    1983-01-01

    Bizarre behaviour disturbances in four patients occurring during incomplete recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Some aspects of their behaviour were similar to that originally described by Klüver and Bucy in monkeys following bilateral temporal lobectomy. Previous reports of behavioural disturbances in man after herpes simplex encephalitis are reviewed and attention drawn to the aggressive and disruptive behaviour that

  8. Aggression in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Latalova ´; J. Praško

    2010-01-01

    This review examined aggressive behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and its management in adults. Aggression\\u000a against self or against others is a core component of BPD. Impulsiveness is a clinical hallmark (as well as a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic\\u000a criterion) of BPD, and aggressive acts by BPD patients are largely of the impulsive type. BPD has high comorbidity rates with\\u000a substance

  9. The effect of trauma on stress reactivity in aggressive youth.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iliyani; Yehuda, Rachel; Greenblatt, Edward; Davidow, Jennifer; Makotkine, Iouri; Alfi, Lea; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-30

    To address gaps in the literature related to the contribution of childhood trauma on aggression, we evaluated salivary cortisol and heart rate changes to psychological challenge in aggressive children with various degrees of trauma. We hypothesized that traumatized and aggressive youths will exhibit higher responsiveness to an active challenge (Violent film-VF) than aggressive youth with no trauma but will not differ when viewing a Non-Violent film (NVF). A total of 25 children (aged 9-12; M=15, F=9) with history of aggression were assessed for trauma exposure. Children viewed the two films in randomized order. Four salivary cortisol and pulse measurements were obtained before (T1), 15 min after the start (T2), at the end (T3), and 15 min following the end of the movie (T4). Repeated measures Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) using Film (VF/NVF), Cortisol/Time at T1-T4, Group (Trauma/Non-Trauma), and Film Order were performed with age and gender as covariates. There were significant main effects for Group and Cortisol/Time for the Trauma group showing greater cortisol responsiveness than the Non-Trauma group that was most pronounced during the NVF. These results suggest that aggressive youth with personal history of trauma may exhibit unique biological characteristics, which may have important implications for classification and treatment. PMID:21684014

  10. Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

  11. Does traffic congestion increase driver aggression?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Lajunen; Dianne Parker; Heikki Summala

    1999-01-01

    In his recent article about aggressive driving, David Shinar proposed that the classical frustration-aggression hypothesis (Dollard, J., Doob, L., Miller, N., Mowrer, O. & Sears, R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press) provides a useful tool for understanding driver aggression (Shinar, D. (1998). Aggressive driving: the contribution of the drivers and situation. Transportation Research Part F,

  12. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  13. Relational Aggression and Disordered Eating

    E-print Network

    Prohaska, Jennifer A.

    2012-05-31

    , prosocial behavior, social resources 2 Table of Contents I. Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. II. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………….…….. 3 III. Traditional Clinical Approaches... interventions for aggressive behavior and disordered eating. Traditionally, clinical theory and literature have supported the premise that negative social behaviors such as relational aggression, regardless of frequency, form, or skill, produce negative...

  14. In search of Winnicott's aggression.

    PubMed

    Posner, B M; Glickman, R W; Taylor, E C; Canfield, J; Cyr, F

    2001-01-01

    Going beyond Winnicott's widely known ideas about creativity, in this paper the authors ask why some people are able to live creatively while others suffer recurrent feelings of anger, futility, and depression. Examining Winnicott's reframing of aggression as a life force, it attempts to answer this question by tracing the evolution of his thinking on the nature and origin of aggression. It argues that because he saw aggression as inherent and as central to emotional development, interference in its expression compromises psychic maturation. The paper explores how Winnicott arrived at the conception of a combined love-strife drive and demonstrates that for him, there is no love without aggression, no subject, no object, no reality, and no creativity. That is, for Winnicott, aggression is an achievement that leads to the capacity to live creatively and to experience authenticity. Clinical vignettes illustrate the therapeutic use of these conclusions and their value for psychoanalytic theory. PMID:12102012

  15. Behaviour in mucopolysaccharide disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Bax, M C; Colville, G A

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the nature and prevalence of behaviour problems in 258 children with mucopolysaccharide disorders. Questionnaire data obtained through the post was supplemented by home visits to 42 families in the sample and by regular discussions with families at meetings of the Society for Mucopolysaccharide Diseases. High rates of behaviour problems were found, particularly in children with Sanfilippo's and Hunter's disease aged 5 to 9 years. These included destructiveness, restlessness, and aggressiveness. Sleep problems were common across subtypes with an overall prevalence of 66%. Parents reported that they received little or no support in the management of these difficult behaviours. It is concluded that behaviour problems are a primary feature of the mucopolysaccharide disorders and place a major strain on families. Services to help families cope with these problems are urgently needed. PMID:7639557

  16. [Verbal aggression against health-care staff: results of a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Richter, D

    2014-09-01

    Verbal aggression against health-care staff can induce considerable stress. Compared to physical aggression, systematic studies on verbal aggression are lacking.A qualitative focus group study was conducted in several clinical settings in north-western Germany: acute mental health care, forensic mental health care, children and adolescent psychiatry, residential care for mentally ill persons, general hospital, and nursing home. 74 staff members from various professions participated in 8 focus groups.Various forms of verbal aggression were reported, from verbal abuse over threats to non-compliant behaviour. Backgrounds for verbal aggression by patients were usually non-satisfaction with the situation or the treatment, organisational problems, and mental disorders. Staff reported about various coping strategies such as ignorance and rationalisation, but also helplessness. Compared to physical aggression, the severity of verbal aggression was rated non-uniformly. A clear boundary between verbal aggression and 'normal' speech acts could not be drawn, as subjective and individual factors play an important role while interpreting aggressive acts.Verbal aggression is a relevant stressor for health-care staff which has been widely neglected in care institutions. Prevention efforts may include situational coping (e.?g., communication training) and psychological coping (e.?g., resilience enhancement). PMID:24452430

  17. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  18. English soccer teams' aggressive behavior when playing away from home.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sion; Reeves, Colin; Smith, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Speculation about key factors affecting home advantage still exists. The present study investigated aggressive behavior amongst English Football Premiership (soccer) players and its relation to home advantage. The frequency of aggressive behaviour, identified by the award of a penalty or disciplinary card (yellow for caution or red for dismissal) was analysed over 2000-2003. Chi-square analyses assessed whether a greater frequency of aggressive behavior was performed by teams away from home. In decided matches, teams playing away received significantly more cautions (yellow cards) than home teams. A further analysis of tied matches indicated that away teams received significantly more cautions (yellow cards) than home teams. No significant differences between home and away teams were found for dismissals and penalties awarded. Reasons for these findings are considered. PMID:16826650

  19. Aggressive Maneuvering of Small Autonomous Helicopters: A Human-Centered Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladislav Gavrilets; Emilio Frazzoli; Bernard Mettler; M. Piedmonte; Eric Feron

    2001-01-01

    Unmanned small autonomous helicopters can perform aggressive maneuvers that will be useful for operations in challenging condi- tions. This paper presents an analysis of the pilot's execution of aggressive maneuvers from flight test data, collected on an instru- mented small-scale acrobatic helicopter. A full-envelope nonlinear dynamic model of the helicopter was developed and validated for ag- gressive maneuvering. This model

  20. The effects of group size on aggression when mixing unacquainted sows in outdoor paddocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression is a challenge when pigs are kept in groups. Sows fight at mixing when space is limited but this project sought to determine the amount and type of aggression observed when unacquainted Berkshire sows were mixed in pairs or in two established sub-groups of three in outdoor paddocks. Treat...

  1. Does emotion regulation protect employees from the negative effects of workplace aggression?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Niven; Christine A. Sprigg; Christopher J. Armitage

    2012-01-01

    Workplace aggression poses a significant challenge to organizations due to its potential impact on employees' mental and physical well-being. Using two studies, this article investigates whether emotion regulation could alleviate the negative effects of exposure to workplace aggression on employees' experience of strain, among social workers (N = 77) and emergency services personnel (N = 70). As predicted from coping theories of emotion regulation,

  2. Mental Health Correlates of Aggression in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Amann Talerico; Lois K. Evans; Neville E. Strumpf

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effec- tive interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) be- havior management strategies on aggression in a group of older nursing home residents ( N 5 405)

  3. Mental Health Correlates of Aggression in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talerico, Karen Amann; Evans, Lois K.; Strumpf, Neville E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effective interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) behavior management strategies on aggression in a group of…

  4. Single aggressive interactions increase urinary glucocorticoid levels in wild male chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Roman M; Crockford, Catherine; Weltring, Anja; Deschner, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A basic premise in behavioural ecology is the cost-benefit arithmetic, which determines both behavioural decisions and evolutionary processes. Aggressive interactions can be costly on an energetic level, demanding increased energy or causing injuries, and on a psychological level, in the form of increased anxiety and damaged relationships between opponents. Here we used urinary glucocorticoid (uGC) levels to assess the costs of aggression in wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda. We collected 169 urine samples from nine adult male chimpanzees following 14 aggressive interactions (test condition) and 10 resting events (control condition). Subjects showed significantly higher uGC levels after single aggressive interactions compared to control conditions, likely for aggressors as well as victims. Higher ranking males had greater increases of uGC levels after aggression than lower ranking males. In contrast, uGC levels showed no significant change in relation to aggression length or intensity, indicating that psychological factors might have played a larger role than mere energetic expenditure. We concluded that aggressive behaviour is costly for both aggressors and victims and that costs seem poorly explained by energetic demands of the interaction. Our findings are relevant for studies of post-conflict interactions, since we provide evidence that both aggressors and victims experience a stress response to conflict. PMID:25714095

  5. Aggression Replacement Training[R] Stands the Test of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, Mark; Oliver, Robert

    2010-01-01

    There have been longstanding debates in the scientific community regarding what qualifies as evidence for programs that work with challenging youth. There are also a variety of levels of evidence on a continuum from promising to proven. Aggression Replacement Training[R] has stood the test of time in terms of its scientific underpinning and…

  6. Psychopharmacologic treatment of pathologic aggression.

    PubMed

    Fava, M

    1997-06-01

    Several drugs are apparently effective in treating pathologic anger and aggression. Because many of the studies on aggressive populations allowed the use of concomitant medications, it is unclear whether the efficacy of each drug in a particular population is dependent on the presence of other medications, such as antipsychotic agents. Finally, one needs to be circumspect in inferring efficacy of a particular drug in aggressive patients with neuropsychiatric conditions other than the ones in which some efficacy has been established. Lithium appears to be an effective treatment of aggression among nonepileptic prison inmates, mentally retarded and handicapped patients, and among conduct-disordered children with explosive behavior. Certainly, lithium would be the treatment of choice in bipolar patients with excessive irritability and anger outbursts, and it has been shown to be effective in this population. Anticonvulsant medications are the treatment of choice for patients with outbursts of rage and abnormal EEG findings. The efficacy of these drugs in patients without a seizure disorder, however, remains to be established, with the exception perhaps of valproate and carbamazepine. In fact, dyphenylhydantoin did not appear to be effective in treating aggressive behavior in children with temper tantrums and was found to be effective in only a prison population. There is some evidence for the efficacy of carbamazepine and valproate in treating pathologic aggression in patients with dementia, organic brain syndrome, psychosis, and personality disorders. As Yudofsky et al point out in their review of the literature, although traditional antipsychotic drugs have been used widely to treat aggression, there is little evidence for their effectiveness in treating aggression beyond their sedative effect in agitated patients or their antiaggressive effect among patients whose aggression is related to active psychosis. Antipsychotic agents appear to be effective in treating psychotic aggressive patients, conduct-disordered children, and mentally retarded patients, with only modest effects in the management of pathologic aggression in patients with dementia. Furthermore, at least in one study, these drugs were found to be associated with increased aggressiveness in mentally retarded subjects. On the other hand, atypical antipsychotic agents (i.e., clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine) may be more effective than traditional antipsychotic drugs in aggressive and violent populations, as they have shown efficacy in patients with dementia, brain injury, mental retardation, and personality disorders. Similarly, benzodiazepines can reduce agitation and irritability in elderly and demented populations, but they also can induce behavioral disinhibition. Therefore, one should be careful in using this class of drugs in patients with pathologic aggression. Beta-blockers appear to be effective in many different neuropsychiatric conditions. These drugs seem effective in reducing violent and assaultive behavior in patients with dementia, brain injury, schizophrenia, mental retardation, and organic brain syndrome. As pointed out by Campbell et al in their review of the literature, however, systematic research is lacking, and little is known about the efficacy and safety of beta-blockers in children and adolescents with pathologic aggression. Although widely used in the management of pathologic aggression, the use of this class of drugs has been limited partially by marked hypotension and bradycardia, which are side effects common at the higher doses. The usefulness of the antihypertensive drug clonidine in the treatment of pathologic aggression has not been assessed adequately, and only marginal benefits were observed with this drug in irritable autistic and conduct disorder children. Psychostimulants seem to be effective in reducing aggressiveness in brain-injured patients as well as in violent adolescents with oppositional or conduct disorders, particu PMID:9196923

  7. Female aggression predicts mode of paternity acquisition in a social lizard

    PubMed Central

    While, Geoffrey M.; Sinn, David L.; Wapstra, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in behaviour are ubiquitous in nature. Despite the likely role of selection in maintaining these differences, there are few demonstrations of their fitness consequences in wild populations and, consequently, the mechanisms that link behavioural variation to variation in fitness are poorly understood. Specifically, the consequences of consistent individual differences in behaviour for the evolution of social and mating strategies have rarely been considered. We examined the functional links between variation in female aggression and her social and mating strategies in a wild population of the social lizard Egernia whitii. We show that female Egernia exhibit temporally consistent aggressive phenotypes, which are unrelated to body size, territory size or social density. A female's aggressive phenotype, however, has strong links to her mode of paternity acquisition (within- versus extra-pair paternity), with more aggressive females having more offspring sired by extra-pair males than less aggressive females. We discuss the potential mechanisms by which female aggression could underpin mating strategies, such as the pursuit/acceptance of extra-pair copulations. We propose that a deeper understanding of the evolution and maintenance of social and mating systems may result from an explicit focus on individual-level female behavioural phenotypes and their relationship with key reproductive strategies. PMID:19324771

  8. State, not trait, neuroendocrine function predicts costly reactive aggression in men after social exclusion and inclusion.

    PubMed

    Geniole, Shawn N; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2011-04-01

    Social exclusion increases aggressive behaviour, and the possible neuroendocrine underpinnings of the effect are largely unknown. Here, we examined the extent to which testosterone and cortisol responses to social exclusion would predict subsequent reactive aggression. Men were randomly assigned to a social exclusion (SE) or inclusion (SI) condition of 'Cyberball', a computer ball-toss game. Aggression was then measured using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP). Saliva was collected at three points for the measurement of testosterone and cortisol. Regression analyses indicated that testosterone concentrations 10-min into the PSAP (controlling for pre- and post-Cyberball testosterone) were positively correlated with aggressive behaviour, irrespective of SI/SE. Post hoc analyses for the conditions separately, however, suggested the relationship was stronger for SI men (R(2)(change)=13.3%, F(1,)(29)=5.28, p=0.03) than for SE men (R(2)(change)=1.8%, F(1,)(26)=0.49, p=0.49). Aggressive behaviour was also positively correlated with cortisol concentrations 10-min into the PSAP (controlling for pre- and post-Cyberball cortisol) irrespective of SE/SI. When both hormones were included in the regression model, the interaction of baseline 'Cortisol'×'Testosterone'×'Experimental Group' approached significance (R(2)(change)=5.4%, F(1,)(55)=3.53, p=0.07), but no significant effects were observed in either group alone. The findings add to evidence that individual differences in state neuroendocrine function map onto variability in human social behaviour. PMID:21382439

  9. Socially responsive effects of brain oxidative metabolism on aggression.

    PubMed

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Rittschof, Clare C; Massey, Jonathan H; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-08-26

    Despite ongoing high energetic demands, brains do not always use glucose and oxygen in a ratio that produces maximal ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In some cases glucose consumption exceeds oxygen use despite adequate oxygen availability, a phenomenon known as aerobic glycolysis. Although metabolic plasticity seems essential for normal cognition, studying its functional significance has been challenging because few experimental systems link brain metabolic patterns to distinct behavioral states. Our recent transcriptomic analysis established a correlation between aggression and decreased whole-brain oxidative phosphorylation activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), suggesting that brain metabolic plasticity may modulate this naturally occurring behavior. Here we demonstrate that the relationship between brain metabolism and aggression is causal, conserved over evolutionary time, cell type-specific, and modulated by the social environment. Pharmacologically treating honey bees to inhibit complexes I or V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway resulted in increased aggression. In addition, transgenic RNAi lines and genetic manipulation to knock down gene expression in complex I in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) neurons resulted in increased aggression, but knockdown in glia had no effect. Finally, honey bee colony-level social manipulations that decrease individual aggression attenuated the effects of oxidative phosphorylation inhibition on aggression, demonstrating a specific effect of the social environment on brain function. Because decreased neuronal oxidative phosphorylation is usually associated with brain disease, these findings provide a powerful context for understanding brain metabolic plasticity and naturally occurring behavioral plasticity. PMID:25092297

  10. Socially responsive effects of brain oxidative metabolism on aggression

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Rittschof, Clare C.; Massey, Jonathan H.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite ongoing high energetic demands, brains do not always use glucose and oxygen in a ratio that produces maximal ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In some cases glucose consumption exceeds oxygen use despite adequate oxygen availability, a phenomenon known as aerobic glycolysis. Although metabolic plasticity seems essential for normal cognition, studying its functional significance has been challenging because few experimental systems link brain metabolic patterns to distinct behavioral states. Our recent transcriptomic analysis established a correlation between aggression and decreased whole-brain oxidative phosphorylation activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), suggesting that brain metabolic plasticity may modulate this naturally occurring behavior. Here we demonstrate that the relationship between brain metabolism and aggression is causal, conserved over evolutionary time, cell type-specific, and modulated by the social environment. Pharmacologically treating honey bees to inhibit complexes I or V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway resulted in increased aggression. In addition, transgenic RNAi lines and genetic manipulation to knock down gene expression in complex I in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) neurons resulted in increased aggression, but knockdown in glia had no effect. Finally, honey bee colony-level social manipulations that decrease individual aggression attenuated the effects of oxidative phosphorylation inhibition on aggression, demonstrating a specific effect of the social environment on brain function. Because decreased neuronal oxidative phosphorylation is usually associated with brain disease, these findings provide a powerful context for understanding brain metabolic plasticity and naturally occurring behavioral plasticity. PMID:25092297

  11. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences. PMID:18793089

  12. Escalation of aggressive vocal signals: a sequential playback study.

    PubMed

    Hof, David; Podos, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Rival conspecifics often produce stereotyped sequences of signals as agonistic interactions escalate. Successive signals in sequence are thought to convey increasingly pronounced levels of aggressive motivation. Here, we propose and test a model of aggressive escalation in black-throated blue warblers, presenting subjects with two sequential and increasingly elevated levels of threat. From a speaker outside the territorial boundary, we initiated an interaction (low-threat level), and from a second speaker inside the territory, accompanied by a taxidermic mount, we subsequently simulated a territorial intrusion (escalated threat level). Our two main predictions were that signalling behaviours in response to low-threat boundary playback would predict signalling responses to the escalated within-territory threat, and that these latter signalling behaviours would in turn reliably predict attack. We find clear support for both predictions: (i) specific song types (type II songs) produced early in the simulated interaction, in response to boundary playback, predicted later use of low-amplitude 'soft' song, in response to within-territory playback; and (ii) soft song, in turn, predicted attack of the mount. Unexpectedly, use of the early-stage signal (type II song) itself did not predict attack, despite its apparent role in aggressive escalation. This raises the intriguing question of whether type II song can actually be considered a reliable aggressive signal. Overall, our results provide new empirical insights into how songbirds may use progressive vocal signalling to convey increasing levels of threat. PMID:23926156

  13. Escalation of aggressive vocal signals: a sequential playback study

    PubMed Central

    Hof, David; Podos, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Rival conspecifics often produce stereotyped sequences of signals as agonistic interactions escalate. Successive signals in sequence are thought to convey increasingly pronounced levels of aggressive motivation. Here, we propose and test a model of aggressive escalation in black-throated blue warblers, presenting subjects with two sequential and increasingly elevated levels of threat. From a speaker outside the territorial boundary, we initiated an interaction (low-threat level), and from a second speaker inside the territory, accompanied by a taxidermic mount, we subsequently simulated a territorial intrusion (escalated threat level). Our two main predictions were that signalling behaviours in response to low-threat boundary playback would predict signalling responses to the escalated within-territory threat, and that these latter signalling behaviours would in turn reliably predict attack. We find clear support for both predictions: (i) specific song types (type II songs) produced early in the simulated interaction, in response to boundary playback, predicted later use of low-amplitude ‘soft’ song, in response to within-territory playback; and (ii) soft song, in turn, predicted attack of the mount. Unexpectedly, use of the early-stage signal (type II song) itself did not predict attack, despite its apparent role in aggressive escalation. This raises the intriguing question of whether type II song can actually be considered a reliable aggressive signal. Overall, our results provide new empirical insights into how songbirds may use progressive vocal signalling to convey increasing levels of threat. PMID:23926156

  14. Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

  15. The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods. For these women, fighting is not seen as antithetical to cultural conceptions of femininity, and female weakness is disparaged. Nonetheless, even where competitive pressures are high, young women's aggression is less injurious and frequent than young men's. From an evolutionary perspective, I argue that the intensity of female aggression is constrained by the greater centrality of mothers, rather than fathers, to offspring survival. This selection pressure is realized psychologically through a lower threshold for fear among women. Neuropsychological evidence is not yet conclusive but suggests that women show heightened amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli, may be better able to exert prefrontal cortical control over emotional behaviour and may consciously register fear more strongly via anterior cingulate activity. The impact of testosterone and oxytocin on the neural circuitry of emotion is also considered. PMID:24167308

  16. Violated expectancies: Cause and function of exploration, fear, and aggression.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Hendrik S

    2015-08-01

    To be able to reproduce, animals need to survive and interact with an ever changing environment. Therefore, they create a cognitive representation of that environment, from which they derive expectancies regarding current and future events. These expected events are compared continuously with information gathered through exploration, to guide behaviour and update the existing representation. When a moderate discrepancy between perceived and expected events is detected, exploration is employed to update the internal representation so as to alter the expectancy and make it match the perceived event. When the discrepancy is relatively large, exploration is inhibited, and animals will try to alter the perceived event utilizing aggression or fear. The largest discrepancies are associated with a tendency to flee. When an exploratory, fear, or aggressive behaviour pattern proofs to be the optimal solution for a particular discrepancy, the response will become conditioned to events that previously preceded the occurrence of that discrepancy. When primary needs are relatively low, animals will actively look for or create moderately violated expectancies in order to learn about objects, behaviour patterns, and the environment. In those situations, exploratory tendencies will summate with ongoing behaviour and, when all primary needs are satiated, may even be performed exclusively. This results in behavioural variability, play, and active information-seeking. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. PMID:24878517

  17. Does television violence cause aggression?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard D. Eron; L. Rowell Huesmann; Monroe M. Lefkowitz; Leopold O. Walder

    1972-01-01

    In a previous study 3rd graders who preferred violent TV programs were rated more aggressive in school by peers. In a 10-yr follow-up, 211 males and 216 females of the original 875 Ss were interviewed as to their television habits and again rated their peers on aggressive behavior. It was found that the violence of programs preferred by male 3rd

  18. Patient engagement and problematic behaviours in nurse-staffed residential rehabilitation units.

    PubMed

    Meaden, Alan; Commander, Martin; Cowan, Colin; Edwards, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Aims and method To build on previous research findings by examining engagement and problematic behaviours of patients in 10 residential rehabilitation units. Two measures were completed on patients in community rehabilitation, longer-term complex care and high-dependency units (109 patients in total). Data were analysed and categorised into higher-engagement ratings across the domains of engagement and behaviour over the past 6 months and lifetime in terms of presence of the behaviour and likelihood of resulting harm. Results Data were available for 73% of patients. All aspects of engagement were consistently low for all units, with highest levels in community rehabilitation units. Levels of problematic behaviours were similar across all units. Socially inappropriate behaviours and failure to complete everyday activities were evident for over half of all patients and higher for lifetime prevalence. Verbal aggression was at significantly lower levels in community units. Lifetime behaviours likely to lead to harm were much more evident in high-dependency units. Clinical implications Despite some benefits of this type of care, patients continue to present challenges in engagement and problematic behaviours that require new approaches and a change in focus. PMID:25505624

  19. Intra- and interspecific agonistic behaviour in sympatric harriers during the breeding season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T Garcia; B. E Arroyo

    2002-01-01

    We analysed the temporal and sexual patterns of intra- and interspecific aggression in sympatric harriers during the breeding season, to determine the main resource defended (food, nest sites, mates) and how factors such as body size or breeding system (territorial versus colonial) influence aggressive behaviour. We predicted that if aggression is (at least partly) related to competition for food, the

  20. Aggressive erotica and violence against women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Donnerstein

    1980-01-01

    Examined the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females when 120 male undergraduates were angered or treated in a neutral manner by a male or female confederate. Ss were then shown either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film and given an opportunity to aggress against the male or female via the delivery of electric shock. Results indicate that

  1. The Development of Aggression within Sibling Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    1995-01-01

    A longitudinal study examined responses to physically aggressive conflicts among siblings. Found that parents respond to half of children's aggression (especially if there is crying). Most parent and child responses were simple commands to stop the aggression. Reasoning was used less often, and physical intervention, rarely. Aggression was higher…

  2. Psychological trauma and fear for personal safety as a result of behaviours that challenge in dementia: The experiences of healthcare workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Scott; Assumpta Ryan; Ian A. James; Elizabeth A. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have systematically documented the psychological effects of exposure to aggression on healthcare workers. In 2007 an exploratory study invited 96 nurses and 228 care assistants from nine care homes to complete a questionnaire that incorporated the Impact Events Score — Extended (IES-E). Of the 112 returned (response rate 34.56%), 77 (68.8%) staff had been involved in an incident

  3. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  4. Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Bandura; Dorothea Ross; Sheila A. Ross

    1963-01-01

    In a test of the hypothesis that exposure of children to film-mediated aggressive models would increase the probability of Ss' aggression to subsequent frustration, 1 group of experimental Ss observed real-life aggressive models, a 2nd observed these same models potraying aggression on film, while a 3rd group viewed a film depicting an aggressive cartoon character. Following the exposure treatment, Ss

  5. The developmental origins of chronic physical aggression: biological pathways triggered by early life adversity.

    PubMed

    Provençal, Nadine; Booij, Linda; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal epidemiological studies with birth cohorts have shown that physical aggression in humans does not appear suddenly in adolescence as commonly thought. In fact, physically aggressive behaviour is observed as early as 12 months after birth, its frequency peaks around 2-4 years of age and decreases in frequency until early adulthood. However, a minority of children (3-7%) maintain a high frequency of physical aggression from childhood to adolescence and develop serious social adjustment problems during adulthood. Genetic factors and early social experiences, as well as their interaction, have been shown to play an important role in the development of chronic aggressive behaviour. However, the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are just beginning to be uncovered. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are responsive to adverse environments and could be involved in the development of chronic aggression. Using both gene candidate and genomic approaches, recent studies have identified epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation alterations in genes involved in the stress response and the serotonin and immune systems to be partly responsible for the long-lasting effects of early adversity. Further longitudinal studies with biological, environmental and behavioural assessments from birth onwards are needed to elucidate the sequence of events that leads to these long-lasting epigenetic marks associated with early adversity and aggression. PMID:25568459

  6. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25582991

  7. Aggressive multiple sclerosis: proposed definition and treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Rush, Carolina A; MacLean, Heather J; Freedman, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a CNS disorder characterized by inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration, and is the most common cause of acquired nontraumatic neurological disability in young adults. The course of the disease varies between individuals: some patients accumulate minimal disability over their lives, whereas others experience a rapidly disabling disease course. This latter subset of patients, whose MS is marked by the rampant progression of disability over a short time period, is often referred to as having 'aggressive' MS. Treatment of patients with aggressive MS is challenging, and optimal strategies have yet to be defined. It is important to identify patients who are at risk of aggressive MS as early as possible and implement an effective treatment strategy. Early intervention might protect patients from irreversible damage and disability, and prevent the development of a secondary progressive course, which thus far lacks effective therapy. PMID:26032396

  8. Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Lauren P.; Bertram, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

  9. Accuracy in Judgments of Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, David A.; West, Tessa V.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Schwartz, David

    2009-01-01

    Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver’s view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

  10. Self-Consciousness, Self-Report of Aggressiveness, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Michael F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Private self-consciousness consists of attending to one's thoughts, feelings, and motives. Public self-consciousness consists of attending to oneself as a social object. The effect of dispositional self-consciousness on the accuracy of self-reports was studied in research on aggression. (Editor)

  11. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  12. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce aggression and injuries among ice hockey players: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Nastis, Sofia; Zuccaro, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of injuries related to playing ice hockey is an important public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce injuries related to aggressive acts in ice hockey. Methods: We identified relevant articles by searching electronic databases from their inception through July 2012, by using Internet search engines, and by manually searching sports medicine journals, the book series Safety in Ice Hockey and reference lists of included articles. We included studies that evaluated interventions to reduce aggression-related injuries and reported ratings of aggressive behaviour or rates of penalties or injuries. Results: We identified 18 eligible studies. Most involved players in minor hockey leagues. Of 13 studies that evaluated changes in mandatory rules intended to lessen aggression (most commonly the restriction of body-checking), 11 observed a reduction in penalty or injury rates associated with rule changes, and 9 of these showed a statistically significant decrease. The mean number of penalties decreased by 1.2–5.9 per game, and injury rates decreased 3- to 12-fold. All 3 studies of educational interventions showed a reduction in penalty rates, but they were not powered or designed to show a change in injury rates. In 2 studies of cognitive behavioural interventions, reductions in aggressive behaviours were observed. Interpretation: Changes to mandatory rules were associated with reductions in penalties for aggressive acts and in injuries related to aggression among ice hockey players. Effects of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions on injury rates are less clear. Well-designed studies of multifaceted strategies that combine such approaches are required. PMID:23209118

  13. Husbands' and wives' marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression as longitudinal predictors of physical aggression in early marriage.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Julie A; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2005-02-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for marriage licenses. Couples completed assessments at the time of marriage and at their 1st and 2nd anniversaries. Results of path analyses suggest that prior verbal aggression and physical aggression by both partners are important longitudinal predictors of physical aggression but do not support the role of marital adjustment as a unique predictor of subsequent physical aggression. Contrary to prior research, results also failed to support physical aggression as a unique predictor of marital adjustment. PMID:15709829

  14. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  15. Violent video games and aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Griffiths

    1999-01-01

    One of the main concerns that has constantly been raised against video games is that most of the games feature aggressive elements. This has led many people to assert that this may have a detrimental effect on individuals who play such games. Despite continuing controversy for over 15 years, there has been little in the way of systematic research. This

  16. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  17. A Conceptualization of Aggressive Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infante, Dominic A.

    Interpersonal communication can be viewed in terms of an aggressive-nonaggressive continuum. Past research has often focused on nonaggressive forms of interpersonal communication, such as understanding how people get to know one another, how trust and intimacy develop, and the role of self-disclosure in relationship development. However,…

  18. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  19. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Lajunen; Dianne Parker; Stephen G Stradling

    1998-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour on the roads is reported to be on the increase. This study administered Driving Anger Scale (Deffenbacher et al. (1994). Development of a driving anger scale. Psychological Reports, 74, 83–91.), the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire, and the Driving Skill Inventory to a sample of 270 British drivers. Factor analysis of the Driving Anger Scale items yielded three factors measuring

  20. AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR Volume 32, pages 581589 (2006)

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    aggression towards women indicate that both alcohol consumption and porno- graphy1 exposure, particularly of the relationship between porno- graphy and sexual aggression typically have assessed three types of dependent

  1. Stability of aggression over time and generations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Rowell Huesmann; Leonard D. Eron; Monroe M. Lefkowitz; Leopold O. Walder

    1984-01-01

    In a study spanning 22 years, data were collected on the aggressiveness of over 600 subjects, their parents, and their children. Subjects who were the more aggressive 8-year-olds at the beginning of the study were discovered to be the more aggressive 30-year-olds at the end of the study. The stability of aggressive behavior was shown to be very similar to

  2. Paroxetine binding in aggressive schizophrenic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilan Modai; Anatoly Gibel; Boris Rauchverger; Michael Ritsner; Ehud Klein; Dorit Ben-Shachar

    2000-01-01

    Decreased central serotonergic activity has been associated with aggressive behavior in humans and animals. Whether or not this phenomenon is related to current aggression or to aggressive tendency is debatable. [3H]paroxetine binding in blood platelets represents the activity of serotonin peripheral binding sites. We investigated a possible association between [3H]paroxetine binding in blood platelets and current aggression or homicidal history

  3. Consequences of hyper-aggressiveness in Siamese fighting fish: cheaters seldom prospered

    PubMed

    Halperin; Giri; Elliott; Dunham

    1998-01-01

    Zahavi's handicap theory, formalized by Grafen, suggests that 'cheaters' must be at a disadvantage if a communication system such as ritualized aggression is to evolve (Grafen 1991, In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (Ed. by J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies), pp. 5-31. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific). To determine whether cheating is disadvantageous in Betta splendens, we held a series of live interactions, after inducing hyper-aggression by socially isolating and then briefly 'priming' the fish. Primed isolates, which were no stronger than their rivals, 'cheated' by escalating rapidly to tailbeating and biting. These cheaters, however, usually lost fights to non-isolated opponents. Unprimed isolates, i.e. socially isolated fish that were not primed, were not initially hyper-aggressive and thus did not cheat. They lost fewer fights than the cheaters. Results suggested that cheaters lost because they exhausted themselves by their hyper-aggressiveness, allowing their non-hyper-aggressive opponents to win. This result is consistent with the Zahavi-Grafen model of how an 'honest' level of ritualized aggression can be stabilized in a population. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9480675

  4. Anger and Aggression among Filipino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campano, Jessica P.; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the extent of anger and aggression in a sample of secondary school students in the southern Philippines. A total of 650 students in both public and private schools completed a self-report survey of levels of anger and aggression, and homeroom teachers rated them on aggression. Results indicated that their overall levels of…

  5. Aggression and delinquency: Family and environmental factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisabeth Fisher DiLalla; Christina M. Mitchell; Michael W. Arthur; Pauline M. Pagliocca

    1988-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency has become an increasing concern to society; aggressive behaviors are particularly harmful. This study examined parent and youth behaviors and personality types that may influence delinquent and aggressive behaviors. Youths were referred by the court to an intervention program; ratings of delinquency and aggression were derived from parent reports, self-reports, and court referral data. Results showed that high

  6. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  7. Physical aggression in relation to different frustrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold H. Buss

    1963-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 3 kinds of frustration on college students' aggression: task failure, interference with winning money, and interference with attaining a better course grade. The different frustrations did not generally lead to different intensities of aggresion, but all 3 led to more aggression than a control. Although frustration did elicit aggression, the effect was slight. This

  8. Aggressive behavior in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zahrt, Dawn M; Melzer-Lange, Marlene D

    2011-08-01

    After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the developmental stages of aggressive behavior in children.2. Know how to provide parents with support and resources in caring for a child who displays aggressive behavior.3. Delineate the prognosis for children who have aggressive behaviors. PMID:21807873

  9. No Effects of Bilateral tDCS over Inferior Frontal Gyrus on Response Inhibition and Aggression.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses) to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions) to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT) and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP). We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of tDCS effects might also indicate that the methodological approach of shifting cortical asymmetry by means of bilateral tDCS protocols has failed. PMID:26161664

  10. No Effects of Bilateral tDCS over Inferior Frontal Gyrus on Response Inhibition and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses) to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions) to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT) and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP). We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of tDCS effects might also indicate that the methodological approach of shifting cortical asymmetry by means of bilateral tDCS protocols has failed. PMID:26161664

  11. Cellular memory of hypoxia elicits neuroblastoma metastasis and enables invasion by non-aggressive neighbouring cells

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, A; Rice, M; Lévy, R; Pizer, B L; Losty, P D; Moss, D; Sée, V

    2015-01-01

    Therapies targeting cancer metastasis are challenging owing to the complexity of the metastatic process and the high number of effectors involved. Although tumour hypoxia has previously been associated with increased aggressiveness as well as resistance to radio- and chemotherapy, the understanding of a direct link between the level and duration of hypoxia and the individual steps involved in metastasis is still missing. Using live imaging in a chick embryo model, we have demonstrated that the exposure of neuroblastoma cells to 1% oxygen for 3 days was capable of (1) enabling cell migration towards blood vessels, (2) slowing down their velocity within blood vessels to facilitate extravasation and (3) promoting cell proliferation in primary and secondary sites. We have shown that cells do not have to be hypoxic anymore to exhibit these acquired capabilities as a long-term memory of prior hypoxic exposure is kept. Furthermore, non-hypoxic cells can be influenced by neighbouring hypoxic preconditioned cells and be entrained in the metastatic progression. The acquired aggressive phenotype relies on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent transcription of a number of genes involved in metastasis and can be impaired by HIF inhibition. Altogether, our results demonstrate the need to consider both temporal and spatial tumour heterogeneity because cells can 'remember' an earlier environment and share their acquired phenotype with their close neighbours. As a consequence, it is necessary to monitor the correct hypoxic markers to be able to predict the consequences of the cells' history on their behaviour and their potential response to therapies. PMID:25664931

  12. Aggression By Whom–Aggression Toward Whom: Behavioral Predictors of Same- and Other-Gender Aggression in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hanish, Laura D.; Sallquist, Julie; DiDonato, Matthew; Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed girls’ and boys’ dominance-related behaviors (aggressive, commanding, submissive, and neutral behaviors) as they naturally occurred during interactions with male and female peers and evaluated the possibility that such behaviors elicit aggression from peers. Using a focal observational procedure, young girls’ and boys’ (N = 170; 54% boys) naturally occurring dominance-related behaviors and male and female peers’ aggressive responses to those behaviors were recorded multiple times each week across the academic year. Findings suggested that same-gender aggression occurred at similar rates as other-gender aggression once tendencies toward gender segregated play were controlled. Additionally, there were both gender-based similarities and differences in children’s use of dominance-related behaviors in peer interactions and as antecedents for peers’ aggression. The findings have implications for the literatures on aggression and gendered peer interactions. PMID:22369337

  13. Aggression by whom-aggression toward whom: behavioral predictors of same- and other-gender aggression in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Hanish, Laura D; Sallquist, Julie; DiDonato, Matthew; Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn

    2012-09-01

    This study assessed girls' and boys' dominance-related behaviors (aggressive, commanding, submissive, and neutral behaviors) as they naturally occurred during interactions with male and female peers and evaluated the possibility that such behaviors elicit aggression from peers. Using a focal observational procedure, young girls' and boys' (N = 170; 54% boys) naturally occurring dominance-related behaviors and male and female peers' aggressive responses to those behaviors were recorded multiple times each week across the academic year. Findings suggested that same-gender aggression occurred at similar rates as other-gender aggression once tendencies toward gender-segregated play were controlled. Additionally, there were both gender-based similarities and differences in children's use of dominance-related behaviors in peer interactions and as antecedents for peers' aggression. The findings have implications for the literatures on aggression and gendered peer interactions. PMID:22369337

  14. Aggression, Impulsivity, and Central Nervous System Serotonergic Responsivity in a Nonpatient Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B Manuck; Janine D Flory; Jeanne M McCaffery; Karen A Matthews; J John Mann; Matthew F Muldoon

    1998-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that traits of aggression and impulsivity correlate negatively with central serotonergic system function in a nonpatient population, a standard fenfluramine challenge (for assessment of serotonergic responsivity) and behavioral measurements germane to aggression\\/impulsivity were administered to a community-derived sample of 119 men and women. In men, peak prolactin responses to fenfluramine correlated significantly with an interview-assessed life

  15. Excessive Aggression as Model of Violence: A Critical Evaluation of Current Preclinical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Haller, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Preclinical experimental models of pathological aggressive behavior are a sorely understudied and difficult research area. Objectives How valid, reliable, productive and informative are the most frequently used animal models of excessive aggressive behavior? Methods The rationale, key methodological features, supporting data and arguments as well as their disadvantages and limitations of the most frequently used animal models for excessive aggressive behavior are summarized and their validity and reliability are evaluated. Results Excessive aggressive behavior is validly and reliably seen in (1) a proportion of feral-derived rats and selectively bred mice, (2) rats with compromised adrenal function resulting in a hypoglucocorticoid state, (3) a significant minority of mice, rats and monkeys after consumption of a moderate dose of alcohol, and (4) resident animals of various species after social instigation. Limitations of these procedures include restrictive animal research regulations, the requirement of expertise in surgical, pharmacological and behavioral techniques, and the behaviorally impoverished mouse strains that are used in molecular genetics research. Promising recent initiatives for novel experimental models include aggressive behaviors that are evoked by optogenetic stimulation and induced by the manipulation of early social experiences such as isolation rearing or social stress. Conclusions One of the most significant challenges for animal models of excessive, potentially abnormal aggressive behavior is the characterization of distinctive neurobiological mechanisms that differ from those governing species-typical aggressive behavior. Identifying novel targets for effective intervention requires increased understanding of the distinctive molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms for each type of abnormal aggressive behavior. PMID:23430160

  16. The Science of Relational Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tasha C. Geiger; Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck; Nicki R. Crick

    \\u000a A preventive intervention research cycle is often necessary when attempt-ing to moderate a complex problem such as aggression\\u000a (Heller, 1996; Poulin, Dishion, & Burraston, 2001). The first step in this cycle includes defining the problem, developing measures for accurate assessment, and documenting\\u000a prevalence. Ideally, these studies are at first moderate in size, but later include epidemiological studies with large, population-based

  17. Antipsychotic polypharmacy in the emergency treatment of highly aggressive schizophrenic prisoners – a retrospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim G. Witzel; Udo Gubka; Heike Weisser; Bernhard Bogerts

    2008-01-01

    In past years, Zuclopenthixolacetate as well as Flupentixoldecanoate have each proven to be reliable and efficient in the treatment of schizophrenic psychoses. In a specially implemented psychiatric treatment unit (PTU) we administered a high-dose depot neuroleptic combination therapy initially consisting of both substances to seriously ill schizophrenic prisoners who exhibited highly aggressive behaviour (N=20). We initially used both antipsychotics at

  18. Aggression Replacement Training in Norway: Outcome Evaluation of 11 Norwegian Student Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, Knut; Svartdal, Frode

    2006-01-01

    Eleven groups of students performed a 24-session intervention based on Aggression Replacement Training (ART) as part of their further education programme. Subjects were 65 children and young people with varying degrees of behavioural problems. Forty-seven subjects received the ART programme. Eighteen received standard social and educational…

  19. Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

  20. Neurobiology of Aggression and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Siever, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of “top-down” control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of “top-down” control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/ gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance “top-down” control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic. PMID:18346997

  1. The Power of Behavioural Approaches--We Need a Revival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural approaches can be used effectively to teach new skills and to change behaviours that are challenging and not socially adaptive. The behaviour modification approach--now called applied behaviour analysis--is based on the assumption that all behaviours are learned, both the useful ones (new skills) and the ones that are not so useful…

  2. Effect of hunger level and time of day on boldness and aggression in the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Ariyomo, T O; Watt, P J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of two environmental variables, hunger level (fed or not fed before behavioural assays) and time of day (morning or afternoon), on the boldness and aggressiveness of male and female zebrafish Danio rerio, was tested. The results showed that neither hunger level nor time of testing influenced boldness in males and females, but hunger level significantly affected aggression in females when compared with males. PMID:25882908

  3. Experiment in managing sociopathic behaviour disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Woodside; A Harrow; J V Basson; J W Affleck

    1976-01-01

    A ward catering for both sexes admitted patients with aggressive suicidal, or otherwise disturbed behaviour for observation and treatment until decisions could be made about their long-term needs. Patients were referred from the police, special hospitals, and the courts and some were transferred from other wards in the hospital. A third of the first 100 patients were admitted for forensic

  4. Frequency, Characteristics and Management of Adolescent Inpatient Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, Immaculada; Saito, Ema; Amanbekova, Dinara; Ramani, Meena; Kapoor, Sandeep; Chekuri, Raja; De Hert, Marc; Carbon, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Inpatient aggression is a serious challenge in pediatric psychiatry. Methods A chart review study in adolescent psychiatric inpatients consecutively admitted over 24 months was conducted, to describe aggressive events requiring an intervention (AERI) and to characterize their management. AERIs were identified based on specific institutional event forms and/or documentation of as-needed (STAT/PRN) medication administration for aggression, both recorded by nursing staff. Results Among 408 adolescent inpatients (age: 15.2±1.6 years, 43.9% male), 1349 AERIs were recorded, with ?1 AERI occurring in 28.4% (n=116; AERI+). However, the frequency of AERIs was highly skewed (median 4, range: 1–258). In a logistical regression model, the primary diagnosis at discharge of disruptive behavior disorders and bipolar disorders, history of previous inpatient treatment, length of hospitalization, and absence of a specific precipitant prior to admission were significantly associated with AERIs (R2=0.32; p<0.0001). The first line treatment of patients with AERIs (AERI+) was pharmacological in nature (95.6%). Seclusion or restraint (SRU) was used at least once in 59.4% of the AERI+ subgroup (i.e., in 16.9% of all patients; median within-group SRU frequency: 3). Treatment and discharge characteristics indicated a poorer prognosis in the AERI+ (discharge to residential care AERI+: 22.8%, AERI?: 5.6%, p<0.001) and a greater need for psychotropic polypharmacy (median number of psychotropic medications AERI+: 2; AERI?: 1, p<0.001). Conclusions Despite high rates of pharmacological interventions, SRU continue to be used in adolescent inpatient care. As both of these approaches lack a clear evidence base, and as adolescents with clinically significant inpatient aggression have increased illness acuity/severity and service needs, structured research into the most appropriate inpatient aggression management is sorely needed. PMID:23647136

  5. The WellingTONNE Challenge Toolkit: Using the RE-AIM Framework to Evaluate a Community Resource Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caperchione, Cristina; Coulson, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The RE-AIM framework has been recognized as a tool to evaluate the adoption, delivery, and sustainability of an intervention, and estimate its potential public health impact. In this study four dimensions of the RE-AIM framework (adoption, implementation, effectiveness, and maintenance) were used to evaluate the WellingTONNE Challenge

  6. Central vasopressin and oxytocin release: regulation of complex social behaviours.

    PubMed

    Veenema, Alexa H; Neumann, Inga D

    2008-01-01

    The neuropeptides arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) are acknowledged as important modulators of diverse social behaviours. Here we discuss recent studies using intracerebral microdialysis to investigate the dynamics of AVP and OXT release patterns within distinct brain regions during the display of social behaviours in rats. Manipulation of local receptor-mediated actions of AVP and OXT via retrodialysis of either agonists or antagonists revealed the behavioural significance of changes in local neuropeptide release. Alterations in local AVP and OXT within, e.g. the medio-lateral septum, the central amygdala or the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were associated with intermale and maternal aggression, respectively. Moreover, increased OXT release within the PVN was associated with male sexual behaviour and successful mating. Using retrodialysis, we found that AVP released within the lateral septum during the resident-intruder test was associated with anxiety-related behaviour and with non-aggressive social behaviour rather than intermale aggressive behaviour. In contrast, OXT release within the PVN and the central amygdala correlated positively with the level of maternal aggression. Interestingly, OXT released within the PVN during sexual activity in male rats was found to be associated with a robust decrease in anxiety-related behaviour up to 4h after mating. These data illustrate distinct modes of behavioural actions of AVP and OXT, reaching from acute regulation of the respective social behaviour to the long-term modulation of related behaviours including anxiety and social cognition. In conclusion, measuring the in vivo release patterns of AVP and OXT within distinct brain regions during the display of diverse social behaviours and manipulation of local AVP and OXT activity has yielded new insights into the specific roles of these neuropeptides in the regulation of complex social behaviours. PMID:18655888

  7. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  8. A Psychoeducational Group for Aggressive Adolescent Girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne L. Cummings; Sue Hoffman; Alan W. Leschied

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an eight-session psychoeducational group for aggressive adolescent girls. The content of the group sessions is based on research that has identified gender-specific issues related to aggression in adolescent girls, such as gender-role socialization, childhood abuse, relational aggression, horizontal violence, and girl culture. Nonaggressive coping strategies are also discussed. Initial evaluation showed that girls did change some of

  9. Are aggressive people aggressive drivers? A study of the relationship between self-reported general aggressiveness, driver anger and aggressive driving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Lajunen; Dianne Parker

    2001-01-01

    In this study the relationships among self-reported general aggressiveness, impulsiveness, driver anger, and aggressive responses to anger-provoking situations on the road were studied. The British version of a driver anger scale (UK DAS), aggression questionnaire (AQ), and an impulsiveness questionnaire (I7) together with background questions (gender, age, annual mileage) were administered to a sample of 270 British drivers. Variation in

  10. Calpains: markers of tumor aggressiveness?

    PubMed

    Roumes, Hélène; Leloup, Ludovic; Dargelos, Elise; Brustis, Jean-Jacques; Daury, Laetitia; Cottin, Patrick

    2010-05-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are soft-tissue sarcoma commonly encountered in childhood. RMS cells can acquire invasive behavior and form metastases. The metastatic dissemination implicates many proteases among which are mu-calpain and m-calpain. Study of calpain expression and activity underline the deregulation of calpain activity in RMS. Analysis of kinetic characteristics of RMS cells, compared to human myoblasts LHCN-M2 cells, shows an important migration velocity in RMS cells. One of the major results of this study is the positive linear correlation between calpain activity and migration velocity presenting calpains as a marker of tumor aggressiveness. The RMS cytoskeleton is disorganized. Specifying the role of mu- and m-calpain using antisense oligonucleotides led to show that both calpains up-regulate alpha- and beta-actin in ARMS cells. Moreover, the invasive behavior of these cells is higher than that of LHCN-M2 cells. However, it is similar to that of non-treated LHCN-M2 cells, when calpains are inhibited. In summary, calpains may be involved in the anarchic adhesion, migration and invasion of RMS. The direct relationship between calpain activity and migration velocities or invasive behavior indicates that calpains could be considered as markers of tumor aggressiveness and as potential targets for limiting development of RMS tumor as well as their metastatic behavior. PMID:20193680

  11. The role of serotonergic system at the interface of aggression and suicide

    PubMed Central

    Bortolato, Marco; Pivac, Nela; Seler, Dorotea Muck; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Pessia, Mauro; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the mulifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and find new effective therapies for these conditions. PMID:23333677

  12. Zolmitriptan and human aggression: interaction with alcohol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua L. Gowin; Alan C. Swann; F. Gerard Moeller

    2010-01-01

    Rationale  The serotonin 1B\\/D (5-HT1B\\/D) receptor has shown potential as a target for decreasing aggression. The 5-HT1B\\/D agonist zolmitriptan's ability to reduce aggressive behavior in humans and its interaction with the well-known aggression-enhancing\\u000a drug alcohol were examined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Our objective was to investigate zolmitriptan's potential to modify human aggression in a laboratory paradigm across a range\\u000a of alcohol doses. Alcohol has been

  13. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

  14. Men’s Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790

  15. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast–slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed–accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes. PMID:22927575

  16. The relation between aggression and inflated self-concepts in aggressive children: a replication study 

    E-print Network

    Meehan, Barbara Theresa

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relation between inflated self-concepts and levels of aggression in a sample of 167 aggressive second- and third-grade students. Variable-oriented data analyses of children's self- and others' reports of competence...

  17. The relation between aggression and inflated self-concepts in aggressive children: a replication study

    E-print Network

    Meehan, Barbara Theresa

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relation between inflated self-concepts and levels of aggression in a sample of 167 aggressive second- and third-grade students. Variable-oriented data analyses of children's self- and others' reports of competence...

  18. Athletic Ability and Physical Attractiveness differences between aggressive-rejected and aggressive-nonrejected children

    E-print Network

    Oxman, Danielle Louise

    2001-01-01

    This study explored differences between aggressive-rejected and aggressive-nonrejected children on measures of Athletic Ability (AA) and Physical Attractiveness (PA). A main goal of the study was to explore possible differences within this sample...

  19. Heritable variation underlies behavioural types in the mating context in male bluefin killifish

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, Katie E.; Travis, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In many species, consistent behavioural differences among individuals are linked to fitness variation. Determining the environmental and genetic factors that mould these behavioural types is crucial to understanding how behaviours might respond to selection. Male bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, show extensive consistent behavioural variation in their levels of courtship, male-directed aggression and female-directed aggression, resulting in a range of fitness-related behavioural types coexisting within a population. To determine whether the behavioural components underlying a male’s stable behavioural type in the mating context are heritable and genetically correlated, we performed paternal half-sib crosses. Using animal models, we found that all three of these mating behaviours were moderately heritable (h2 = 0.17–0.29) and courtship behaviour was also heritable as a binomial trait (court yes/no: h2 = 0.50). Including effects of dam identity/common rearing environment experienced by full sibs decreased model fit, suggesting that early social interactions might contribute to behavioural types. In addition, we found evidence consistent with the possibility that the positive phenotypic correlations among mating behaviours are underlain by positive genetic correlations. Thus, it is possible that the seemingly maladaptive aggression that males direct towards females during social interactions persist due to genetic constraints and direct selection on both male-directed aggression and courtship behaviour. PMID:24187377

  20. Analysis of Behavioural Responding across Multiple Instructional Conditions for a Child with Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Wheeler, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of multiple instructional conditions on self-injury/aggression and on-task behaviours were assessed with a 9-year-old boy diagnosed with childhood disintegrative disorder. Behavioural responses were assessed as part of an educational evaluation to determine the occurrence of target behaviours in relation to varying degrees of…

  1. Fighting for Dear Life: Christians and Aggressive End-of-Life Care.

    PubMed

    Shinall, Myrick C

    2014-01-01

    Patients or their family members sometimes give religious reasons for requesting life-sustaining technologies that have little hope of restoring health. This poses an ethical challenge for clinicians and a potential strain on limited health-care resources. Among Christians, one explanation for a preference for aggressive, life-prolonging care is the influence of the idea of martyrdom, which became the normative form of dying in early Christianity. The ancient discourse of martyrdom and the modern discourse of aggressive medical care both share a martial orientation and commend an ethos of combat. This paper examines ancient Christian martyrdom discourse to illuminate its affinity with the discourse of aggressive medical care. The ethos of martyrdom has shaped Christian attitudes toward death such that preference for aggressive medical care at the end of life is understandable. PMID:25959347

  2. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  3. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  4. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  5. Aggressive Problem-Solving Strategies, Aggressive Behavior, and Social Acceptance in Early and Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relations between aggressive problem-solving strategies and aggressive behavior and the intervening role of social acceptance in that relation in early and late adolescents. Subjects were 1,655 11- and 17-year-olds in Finland. Results show that aggressive problem-solving strategies were significantly, but not very highly, associated…

  6. Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level. PMID:24866529

  7. Strength and Duration of the Effect of Aggressive,, Violent, and Erotic Communications On Subsequent Aggressive Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dolf Zillmann; James L. Hoyt; Kenneth D. Day

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the aggression-modifying, immediate effect on provoked individuals of exposure to a neutral, an aggressive, a violent, or an erotic communication. All communications were followed by a common, non-involving, nonaggressive communication. Under these conditions, neither the effect of the aggressive nor that of the violent communication differed appreciably from the effect of the neutral communication. In contrast, the

  8. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  9. Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in delinquent boys. Authors’ conclusions The authors consider that the body of evidence summarised in this review is insufficient to allow any firm conclusion to be drawn about the use of antiepileptic medication in the treatment of aggression and associated impulsivity. Four antiepileptics (valproate/ divalproex, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and phenytoin) were effective, compared to placebo, in reducing aggression in at least one study, although for three drugs (valproate, carbamazepine and phenytoin) at least one other study showed no statistically significant difference between treatment and control conditions. Side effects were more commonly noted for the intervention group although adverse effects were not well reported. Absence of information does not necessarily mean that the treatment is safe, nor that the potential gains from the medication necessarily balance the risk of an adverse event occurring. Further research is needed. PMID:20166067

  10. Wiring Pathways to Replace Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The previous article in this series introduced the triune brain, the three components of which handle specialized life tasks. The survival brain, or brain stem, directs automatic physiological functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, and mobilizes fight/flight behaviour in times of threat. The emotional (or limbic) brain activates positive or…

  11. Children's Moral Reasoning regarding Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Galotti, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    Elementary school children's moral reasoning concerning physical and relational aggression was explored. Fourth and fifth graders rated physical aggression as more wrong and harmful than relational aggression but tended to adopt a moral orientation about both forms of aggression. Gender differences in moral judgments of aggression were observed,…

  12. Facilitating effects of erotica on aggression against women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Donnerstein; John Hallam

    1978-01-01

    To examine the effects of highly erotic stimuli on aggression against females, 60 male undergraduates were angered by a male or female confederate and exposed to an erotic film, an aggressive film, or a nonfilm condition. Ss were given 2 opportunities to aggress against the confederate. Both the aggressive and the erotic films increased aggression against both targets during the

  13. Influence of environmental enrichment on injurious pecking and perching behaviour in young turkeys.

    PubMed

    Martrenchar, A; Huonnig, D; Cotte, J P

    2001-05-01

    1. In order to reduce injurious pecking, the influence of environmental enrichment on pecking and perching behaviour was studied in young male and female turkeys. 2. Two different types of enrichment and a control treatment (TO) were tested: T1, metal objects and straw; T2, similar to T1 + wood perches. Birds were housed in 36 m2 pens at a light intensity of 5 lux with 4 replicates per treatment in a 2x3 factorial design. 3. Pecking at objects and perching behaviour were observed weekly. Behaviour was video recorded at weeks 5 and 10. Birds were examined daily for the occurrence of injuries. At the end of the rearing period, an ACTH challenge was performed and H/L ratio was measured. 4. Objects were regularly pecked at. Perching was more common in females, peaked at week 5 (10% to 13% of birds perched) and declined to 0% by week 10. Aggressive pecking was more frequently observed in males in T0 than in T1 or T2 at week 10. Wing (in males and females), tail and head (in males) injuries were more common in T0 than in T1 or T2. T1 and T2 were similar Response to ACTH challenge and H/L ratio were not consistently influenced by treatments. 5. It is concluded that metal objects and straw reduced injurious pecking in young female and male turkeys by redirecting, pecking activity. PMID:11421323

  14. Biological and Environmental Correlates of Aggressive Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George B. Palermo

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is influenced by the interplay of multiple genes that operate on brain biochemical pathways, neurotransmitters, and hormones, producing a certain psychological predisposition that, in contact with environmental risks within or outside the family, is conducive to antisocial aggressive behavior. This brief review of the scientific research shows that such behavior is the result of these predisposing, but not

  15. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  16. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  17. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

  18. Adolescent Girls' Coping With Relational Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison M. Remillard; Sharon Lamb

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine coping strategies for relational aggression. Ninety-eight female middle- and high-school students completed the Revised Ways of Coping Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) and reported characteristics of a relational aggressive act of which they were the victim and characteristics of their friendship before and after the act. We explored the relationship between characteristics of the

  19. Aggressive surgical management for advanced colorectal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Randolph Bailey; Michael T. Ott; Paul Hartendorp

    1994-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of aggressive surgical management in patients with advanced colorectal endometriosis. METHODS: The medical records of 130 women who had undergone aggressive surgical management of advanced colorectal endometriosis were reviewed. They were then interviewed a mean of 60 months following surgery and asked to rank relief of their symptoms. RESULTS:

  20. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian

  1. Problems in Aggression: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Wilma J.

    This paper reviews three studies which illustrate the use of two different techniques of behavior modification to control aggression in preschool children in classroom situations. The first technique demonstrated the use of "time-out" as a mild punishment procedure. The teacher changed events following aggression by briefly removing the child from…

  2. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  3. WEAPONS AS AGGRESSION-ELICITING STIMULI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEONARD BERKOWITZ; ANTHONY LEPAGE

    1967-01-01

    TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STIMULI COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH AGGRESSION CAN ELICIT AGGRESSIIVE RESPONSES FROM PEOPLE READY TO ACT AGGRESSIVELY. 100 MALE UNIVERSITY SS RECEIVED EITHER 1 OR 7 SHOCKS, SUPPOSEDLY FROM A PEER, AND WERE THEN GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOCK THIS PERSON. IN SOME CASES A RIFLE AND REVOLVER WERE NEAR THE SHOCK KEY. THESE WEAPONS WERE SAID TO

  4. Sexual Arousal, Situational Restrictiveness, and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frodi, Ann

    1977-01-01

    Eighty male college freshmen participated in an experiment designed to investigate the hypothesis that enhanced arousal will facilitate subsequent aggressive behavior and that an increase in aggressive behavior will be more likely to occur in a setting of situational permissiveness rather than situational restrictiveness. (Editor)

  5. Aggression and Classroom Climate: Relations and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shechtman, Zipora

    One of the best predictors of aggression among schoolchildren is their social environment and relationships with peer and teachers. This study investigated the association between classroom climate and level of classroom aggression. The study population comprised over 9,000 fifth and sixth graders in 97 schools and 360 classrooms in Israel. It was…

  6. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  7. Moral Judgments of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study of moral judgments in aggressive and nonaggressive children. Assessed moral judgment by presenting the children with stories of moral conflict in everyday life using peer rating. Results showed significant differences according to gender and no constant level of moral reasoning was measured in either aggressive or nonaggressive…

  8. Erotic stimuli and aggression: Facilitation or inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Donnerstein; Marcia Donnerstein; Ronald Evans

    1975-01-01

    Attempted to reconcile previous results on the relationship of erotic stimuli and aggression. 81 male undergraduates were either insulted or not insulted prior or subsequent to observing erotic stimuli of varying levels of arousal inducements. It was found, in support of prior research, that mildly erotic stimuli had an inhibiting effect on aggression when viewed subsequent to anger arousal, whereas

  9. Young Children's Understanding of Displaced Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael G.; Miller, Patricia H.

    1983-01-01

    Examines early phases of understanding of causes of moderately and extremely displaced aggression. Preschool and kindergarten children three to five years of age viewed eight videotaped episodes of displaced aggression. Comprehension was assessed by means of open-ended questions and forced-choice picture selections. (Author/RH)

  10. Trial?and?error derivation of aggressive?mimicry signals by Brettus and Cyrba, spartaeine jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from Israel, Kenya, and Sri Lanka

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Jackson

    2002-01-01

    Brettus adonis, Brettus albolimbatus, Cyrba algerina, Cyrba ocellata, and Cyrba simoni are spartaeine jumping spiders (Salticidae) that invade other spiders’ webs, make vibratory signals that deceive the resident spider (aggressive mimicry), then attack and eat the spider. The signal?generation behaviour of each of these five species is investigated in the laboratory. Each species is characterised by flexible predatory behaviour, including

  11. Aggression in Inpatient Adolescents: The Effects of Gender and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Michele; Carey, Michael; Kim, Wun Jung

    2003-01-01

    Examined differences in aggressive behavior among predominantly white adolescent inpatients with and without depression. Survey data indicated that depression and gender interacted significantly. Depressed females demonstrated more physical aggression than nondepressed females, and depressed males demonstrated less aggression than nondepressed…

  12. ACE: An Aggressive Classifier Ensemble with Error Detection, Correction and Cleansing*

    E-print Network

    Wu, Xindong

    ACE: An Aggressive Classifier Ensemble with Error Detection, Correction and Cleansing* Yan Zhang1 is a challenging and reality issue for real-world data mining applications. Common practices include data cleansing. In this paper, we present a novel framework that unifies error detection, correction and data cleansing to build

  13. Predicting aggression in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk. PMID:24860616

  14. Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman’s (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent’s aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent’s friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members’ likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends’ attitudes, and their friends’ aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores. PMID:25152562

  15. Dopamine and serotonin signaling during two sensitive developmental periods differentially impact adult aggressive and affective behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qinghui; Teixeira, Cátia M.; Mahadevia, Darshini; Huang, Yung-Yu; Balsam, Daniel; Mann, J John; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologic blockade of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) or serotonin transporter (5-HTT) has antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy in adulthood. Yet, genetically conferred MAOA or 5-HTT hypo-activity is associated with altered aggression and increased anxiety/depression. Here we test the hypothesis that increased monoamine signaling during development causes these paradoxical aggressive and affective phenotypes. We find that pharmacologic MAOA blockade during early postnatal development (P2-P21) but not during peri-adolescence (P22-41) increases anxiety- and depression-like behavior in adult (> P90) mice, mimicking the effect of P2-21 5-HTT inhibition. Moreover, MAOA blockade during peri-adolescence, but not P2-21 or P182-201, increases adult aggressive behavior, and 5-HTT blockade from P22-P41 reduced adult aggression. Blockade of the dopamine transporter, but not the norepinephrine transporter, during P22-41 also increases adult aggressive behavior. Thus, P2-21 is a sensitive period during which 5-HT modulates adult anxiety/depression-like behavior, and P22-41 is a sensitive period during which DA and 5-HT bi-directionally modulate adult aggression. Permanently altered DAergic function as a consequence of increased P22-P41 monoamine signaling might underlie altered aggression. In support of this hypothesis, we find altered aggression correlating positively with locomotor response to amphetamine challenge in adulthood. Proving that altered DA function and aggression are causally linked, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of VTA DAergic neurons increases aggression. It therefore appears that genetic and pharmacologic factors impacting dopamine and serotonin signaling during sensitive developmental periods can modulate adult monoaminergic function and thereby alter risk for aggressive and emotional dysfunction. PMID:24589889

  16. Social reversal of sex-biased aggression and dominance in a biparental cichlid fish1 (Julidochromis marlieri)2

    E-print Network

    Renn, Susan C.P.

    - 1 - Social reversal of sex-biased aggression and dominance in a biparental cichlid fish1 dimorphism is often strongly linked to biological sex, the environment, either15 social or ecological, may influence sex-biased behaviour in some species. In the biparental16 cichlid fish Julidochromis marlieri

  17. Canadian Female and Male Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Child Aggression and Rough-and-Tumble Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Woods, Heather; Coplan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated female and male early childhood educators' (ECEs) perceptions of young children's aggression and rough-and-tumble play in the Canadian early childhood classroom. Participants were drawn from a larger sample of ECEs who completed an online questionnaire regarding their perceptions of young children's behaviours in the…

  18. Trajectories of change in physical aggression and marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2007-06-01

    Physical aggression and marital satisfaction were assessed in 172 newlywed couples annually over the first 4 years of marriage to examine (a) stability of aggression over time and (b) the degree to which fluctuations in aggression precede versus follow fluctuations in marital satisfaction. The stability of aggression varied as a function of initial levels of severity; spouses who were most aggressive early in marriage had greater fluctuations in aggression. Rates of change in aggression predicted changes in satisfaction more than dissatisfaction predicted aggression. Husbands' physical aggression predicted marital discord, whereas wives' aggression predicted marital dissolution. By indicating that aggression (a) is a precursor to adverse marital outcomes and (b) varies across spouses in initial levels and in patterns of temporal change, the present findings highlight the need to understand the contextual factors that govern within-person and within-couple fluctuations in intimate violence. PMID:17605546

  19. Aggression, segregation and stability in a dominance hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Ang, Tzo Zen; Manica, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Central to our understanding of social group formation and maintenance is the question of how within-group conflict resolution is achieved in the face of asymmetrical competition over resources and reproduction. A crucial yet implicit assumption of many conflict resolution models dealing with reproductive skew is that subordinates have perfect knowledge of the extent of conflict between themselves and their dominants, enabling behavioural responses on an individual rather than evolutionary scale. However, a mechanism enabling subordinates to accurately assess their relative conflict levels has yet to be empirically demonstrated. Here, we show in the angelfish Centropyge bicolor that the rate of overt mild aggression from dominants to subordinates acts as a signal of increasing rank conflict. The clarity of this signal can be reduced by spatial segregation, causing subordinates to be less able to respond appropriately by regulation of their foraging rates. A reduced signal ultimately leads to a less well-defined dominance hierarchy and destabilization of the social group. Our study suggests that, contrary to previous suggestions, dominant aggression rates play a crucial role as an accurate information signal required for the evolutionary stability of skew models. PMID:20053647

  20. Revisiting the Serotonin-Aggression Relation in Humans: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Aaron A.; Bègue, Laurent; Bell, Rob; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory

    2013-01-01

    The inverse relation between serotonin and human aggression is often portrayed as “reliable,” “strong,” and “well-established” despite decades of conflicting reports and widely recognized methodological limitations. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we evaluate the evidence for and against the serotonin deficiency hypothesis of human aggression across four methods of assessing serotonin: (a) cerebrospinal fluid levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (CSF 5-HIAA), (b) acute tryptophan depletion, (c) pharmacological challenge, and (d) endocrine challenge. Results across 175 independent samples and over 6,500 total participants were heterogeneous, but, in aggregate, revealed a small, inverse correlation between central serotonin functioning and aggression, anger, and hostility, r = ?.12. Pharmacological challenge studies had the largest mean weighted effect size, r = ?.21, and CSF 5-HIAA studies had the smallest, r = ?.06, p = .21. Potential methodological and demographic moderators largely failed to account for variability in study outcomes. Notable exceptions included year of publication (effect sizes tended to diminish with time) and self-versus other-reported aggression (other-reported aggression was positively correlated to serotonin functioning). We discuss four possible explanations for the pattern of findings: unreliable measures, ambient correlational noise, an unidentified higher-order interaction, and a selective serotonergic effect. Finally, we provide four recommendations for bringing much needed clarity to this important area of research: acknowledge contradictory findings and avoid selective reporting practices; focus on improving the reliability and validity of serotonin and aggression measures; test for interactions involving personality and/or environmental moderators; and revise the serotonin deficiency hypothesis to account for serotonin’s functional complexity. PMID:23379963

  1. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders' order submission strategy in an open limit order\\u000a book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as\\u000a cancellations on both sides of the market employing a sixdimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order\\u000a book data from the Australian

  2. Aggressive and Foraging Behavioral Interactions Among Ruffe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline F. Savino; Melissa J. Kostich

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100?cm diameter, 15?cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low=2, medium=4, high=6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated

  3. Staff-reported antecedents to aggression in a post-acute brain injury treatment programme: What are they and what implications do they have for treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Gordon Muir; Scott, Karen; Manchester, David

    2013-01-01

    Research in psychiatric settings has found that staff attribute the majority of inpatient aggression to immediate environmental stressors. We sought to determine if staff working with persons with brain injury-related severe and chronic impairment make similar causal attributions. If immediate environmental stressors precipitate the majority of aggressive incidents in this client group, it is possible an increased focus on the management of factors that initiate client aggression may be helpful. The research was conducted in a low-demand treatment programme for individuals with chronic cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury. Over a six-week period, 63 staff and a research assistant reported on 508 aggressive incidents. Staff views as to the causes of client aggression were elicited within 72 hours of observing an aggressive incident. Staff descriptions of causes were categorised using qualitative methods and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aggression towards staff was predominantly preceded by (a) actions that interrupted or redirected a client behaviour, (b) an activity demand, or (c) a physical intrusion. The majority of aggressive incidents appeared hostile/angry in nature and were not considered by staff to be pre-meditated. Common treatment approaches can be usefully augmented by a renewed focus on interventions aimed at reducing antecedents that provoke aggression. Possible approaches for achieving this are considered. PMID:23782342

  4. The Effect of an Attachment-Based Behaviour Therapy for Children with Visual and Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterkenburg, P. S.; Janssen, C. G. C.; Schuengel, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A combination of an attachment-based therapy and behaviour modification was investigated for children with persistent challenging behaviour. Method: Six clients with visual and severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behaviour and with a background of pathogenic care were treated. Challenging behaviour was recorded…

  5. Measuring physical aggressiveness in heterosexual, homosexual, and transsexual males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Blanchard; James G. McConkey; Vincent Roper; Betty W. Steiner

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the development of a self-report measure of boyhood aggressiveness for use with adult males. Aggressiveness was defined as a generalized disposition to engage in physically combative or competitive interactions with male peers. This attribute is of sexological interest because of the reported difference in physical aggressiveness between heterosexual and homosexual boys. A physical aggressiveness

  6. Ethnic Differences in Parents' Attitudes toward Girls' Use of Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamilia J. Blake; A. Michele Lease; Stephen P. Olejnik; Terez L. Turner

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to explain ethnic differences in female aggression. The degree to which ethnic differences exist in the influence of parents' approval of aggression on their preadolescent daughters' use of physical, verbal, and relational aggression was explored in a sample of 97 parent-child dyads. Results indicate that European American parents were more disapproving of their daughters' aggressive behavior

  7. Aggression in mice selectively bred for brain weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth-Ann Collins

    1970-01-01

    Mice from lines selectively bred for high and low brain weight and from an unselected line of average brain weight displayed marked differences in aggressiveness during rearing in large enrichment cages. Low brain weight animals were highly aggressive as compared with moderately aggressive control animals, and non-aggressive high brain weight animals.

  8. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  9. Family PrecursorsExpected and Actual Consequences of Dating Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. CURTIS BRESLIN; DAVID S. RIGGS; K. DANIEL OLEARY; ILEANA ARIAS

    1990-01-01

    A consistent finding is that children of parents who are physically aggressive with each other are more likely to be abusive spouses as adults than are children of nonaggressive parents. Interparental aggression also is predictive of dating aggression for males. In this study, 408 respondents were asked to report on the frequency of physical aggression in a recent dating relationship

  10. A systematic review of the evidence of clozapine's anti-aggressive effects.

    PubMed

    Frogley, Catherine; Taylor, David; Dickens, Geoff; Picchioni, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Reducing the risk of violent and aggressive behaviour in patients with schizophrenia remains a clinical priority. There is emerging evidence to suggest that the second-generation antipsychotic, clozapine, is effective at reducing this risk in patients with schizophrenia and some evidence to suggest that it may be best in selected patients. We conducted a systematic literature search in March 2011 of all prospective and retrospective studies, which investigated clozapine's anti-aggressive effects in a variety of mental disorders. The review identified six animal studies, four randomized controlled trials, 12 prospective non-controlled studies and 22 retrospective studies, with four case studies. We found considerable evidence in support of clozapine's ability to reduce violent and aggressive behaviour. Clozapine's anti-aggressive effect was most commonly explored in patients with schizophrenia, with less evidence available for other psychiatric disorders, including borderline personality disorder, autistic spectrum disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder and learning disability. There was mixed evidence to address the question of whether or not clozapine was any more effective than other antipsychotics. In the case of schizophrenia, there was evidence to suggest that clozapine's anti-aggressive effect was more marked particularly in those with treatment-resistant illness. Its anti-aggressive effects appeared to be 'specific', being to some extent greater than both its more general antipsychotic and sedative effects. There were significant methodological inconsistencies in the studies we identified, particularly surrounding patient recruitment criteria, the definition and measurement of violence and the lack of randomized, controlled trials. Data on therapeutic monitoring were also limited. Clozapine can reduce violence and persistent aggression in patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. It may offer an advantage over other antipsychotics, although perhaps exclusively in the case of traditionally defined 'treatment resistance' or more broadly defined 'complex cases' with co-morbidity. Larger, randomized, blinded, controlled studies with robust characterization of participants, and standardized measures of violence and aggression are, however, needed to fully understand this link and explore the possible mechanisms. PMID:22339930

  11. Arginine vasotocin, isotocin and nonapeptide receptor gene expression link to social status and aggression in sex-dependent patterns.

    PubMed

    Lema, S C; Sanders, K E; Walti, K A

    2015-02-01

    Nonapeptide hormones of the vasopressin/oxytocin family regulate social behaviours. In mammals and birds, variation in behaviour also is linked to expression patterns of the V1a-type receptor and the oxytocin/mesotocin receptor in the brain. Genome duplications, however, expand the diversity of nonapeptide receptors in actinopterygian fishes, and two distinct V1a-type receptors (v1a1 and v1a2) for vasotocin, as well as at least two V2-type receptors (v2a and v2b), have been identified in these taxa. The present study investigates how aggression connected to social status relates to the abundance patterns of gene transcripts encoding four vasotocin receptors, an isotocin receptor (itr), pro-vasotocin (proVT) and pro-isotocin (proIT) in the brain of the pupfish Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae. Sexually-mature pupfish were maintained in mixed-sex social groups and assessed for individual variation in aggressive behaviours. Males in these groups behaved more aggressively than females, and larger fish exhibited higher aggression relative to smaller fish of the same sex. Hypothalamic proVT transcript abundance was elevated in dominant males compared to subordinate males, and correlated positively with individual variation in aggression in both social classes. Transcripts encoding vasotocin receptor v1a1 were at higher levels in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of socially subordinate males than dominant males. Dominant males exhibited elevated hypothalamic v1a2 receptor transcript abundance relative to subordinate males and females, and telencephalic v1a2 mRNA abundance in dominant males was also associated positively with individual aggressiveness. Transcripts in the telencephalon encoding itr were elevated in females relative to males, and both telencephalic proIT and hypothalamic itr transcript abundance varied with female social status. Taken together, these data link hypothalamic proVT expression to aggression and implicate forebrain expression of the V1a-type receptor v1a2 as potentially mediating the effects of vasotocin on behaviour in male fish. These findings also illustrate how associations between social status, aggression and gene expression within the VT and IT nonapeptide systems can be contingent on behavioural context. PMID:25425529

  12. Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behaviour: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Brower, M; Price, B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To establish the link between frontal lobe dysfunction and violent and criminal behaviour, based on a review of relevant literature.?METHODS—Articles relating evidence of frontal lobe dysfunction with violence or crime were collected through a MEDLINE search using the keyword "frontal lobe" combined with the terms "aggression," "violence," "crime," "antisocial personality disorder," "psychopathy," "impulse control disorders", and "episodic dyscontrol." Reference lists were then searched for additional articles.?RESULTS—High rates of neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported in persons with violent and criminal behaviour suggest an association between aggressive dyscontrol and brain injury, especially involving the frontal lobes. The studies reviewed support an association between frontal lobe dysfunction and increased aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Focal orbitofrontal injury is specifically associated with increased aggression. Deficits in frontal executive function may increase the likelihood of future aggression, but no study has reliably demonstrated a characteristic pattern of frontal network dysfunction predictive of violent crime.?CONCLUSIONS—Clinically significant focal frontal lobe dysfunction is associated with aggressive dyscontrol, but the increased risk of violence seems less than is widely presumed. Evidence is strongest for an association between focal prefrontal damage and an impulsive subtype of aggressive behaviour.?? PMID:11723190

  13. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  14. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  15. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  16. Unsanctioned aggression in rugby union: relationships among aggressiveness, anger, athletic identity, and professionalization.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, J P; Visek, A J

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive players who intentionally cause injury to their opponents are common in many sports, particularly collision sports such as Rugby Union. Although some acts of aggression fall within the rules (sanctioned), others do not (unsanctioned), with the latter tending to be less acceptable than the former. This study attempts to identify characteristics of players who are more likely to employ unsanctioned methods in order to injure an opponent. Male Rugby Union players completed questionnaires assessing aggressiveness, anger, past aggression, professionalization, and athletic identity. Players were assigned to one of two groups based on self-reported past unsanctioned aggression. Results indicated that demographic variables (e.g., age, playing position, or level of play) were not predictive of group membership. Measures of aggressiveness and professionalization were significant predictors; high scores on both indicated a greater probability of reporting the use of unsanctioned aggressive force for the sole purpose of causing injury or pain. In addition, players who had been taught how to execute aggressive illegal plays without detection were also more likely to report using excessive force to injure an opponent. Results provide further support that highly professionalized players may be more likely to use methods outside the constitutive rules of Rugby Union in order to intentionally injure their opponents. Results are discussed within the context of the increasing win-at-all-cost attitude that is becoming more prevalent in sport and its implications for youth athletes. PMID:19309005

  17. Erotica and aggression: The influence of sexual arousal, positive affect, and negative affect on aggressive behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard A. White

    1979-01-01

    95 male college students who had never taken a psychology course were first either angered or not angered by a confederate of the experimenter and were then ostensibly given an opportunity to aggress against the confederate by means of electric shock. Prior to aggressing, Ss were shown 1 of 4 sets of stimuli chosen to effect a factorial variation in

  18. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  19. The Relationship between Jealousy and Aggression: A Review of Literatures Related to Wives' Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Edalati

    This paper reviews several empirical studies which highlight the relationship between jealousy and aggression. Jealousy is indicated as a factor contributing to male and female aggression and it is almost universal, found almost in every culture. Research showed that women were more jealous than men. Male jealousy is triggered by sexual infidelity while female jealousy is triggered by emotional infidelity.

  20. Effects of aggressive remediation on soil properties and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, Christine; Zihms, Stephanie; Pape, Andrew; Robson, Andrew; Knapp, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Aggressive remediation processes such as thermal desorption, smouldering, and chemical oxidiation remediation processes have significant promise to deliver substantial contaminant reduction in short periods of time, effecting as much as 95-99+% mass removal from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones. In situ thermal remediation exposes soils to temperatures of 100+°C for periods of weeks or months. In situ smouldering exposes soils to 600-1000+°C for hours to days. Chemical oxidation exposes soils to harsh oxidizing chemicals for weeks or months effecting reactive degradation of chemical contaminants but also surrounding soils. These processes have the potential to result in significant changes to the soil properties, particularly at the particle surface and grain interfaces. The dynamic effects of these changes have important implications in soil management practice. The mobilisation of soil nutrients may challenge rehabilitation or biological "polishing" after aggressive remediation. Plant germination and growth are inhibited and water dynamics are affected as well. Although permeability remains unaffected, infiltration is more rapid and capillary rise is reduced after smouldering remediation. Mobilisation of fines does not explain the change in infiltration and capillary rise; these effects persist after removal of the smaller half of the particle size distribution. Some separation of the soil column is observed in water infiltration after both thermal and smouldering remediation, indicating that erosion and subsidence are potential problems. These effects may be manifestations of subcritical water repellency. Based on the retention of capillary rise and lack of effects on other soil properties, the soil should be amenable to improvement measures. This presentation will place the effects of aggressive remediation into context within real soils and model materials.

  1. Maternal Depression and Childhood Aggression: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Katherine; Liu, Jianghong

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Childbearing depression (CBD) and childhood aggression are serious and international problems that encumber public health. Although maternal depression has received much attention in the literature in the last three decades, clinically it remains under-diagnosed and under-treated, especially during pregnancy. As a result, many mothers and families are left to suffer its long-lasting physical and psychosocial effects. This article's aim is to review the current literature on whether CBD increases the likelihood of childhood aggression in children ages six years and younger. Methods Using keywords, an electronic search was performed using Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Search limits included the following: 2000-2010, English, peer-review, human, All Child: 0-18. From more than 2,000 search results, 13 articles were reviewed based on relevance to paper's inquiry and sample size greater than 50. Results In all, the articles agreed that depression in women increases the likelihood of early childhood aggression by causing negative parenting behaviors. However, this finding is tempered by a number of weaknesses in the quality of articles reviewed and by the complexity of the topic. Conclusion More research is needed to determine the etiology and interplay of mediating factors between CBD and childhood aggression. This could inform the study and implementation of effective and early prevention, screening, and treatment measures and programs for maternal depression and childhood aggression. PMID:22739482

  2. Agonistic behaviours in colonies of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Duchateau

    1989-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate whether specific changes in the frequencies of behavioural characteristics\\u000a are correlated with the cause or reflect the onset of the laying of haploid eggs by the queen, and whether these changes cause\\u000a the onset of egg laying and aggressive behaviour by workers. The second aim was to obtain a better understanding

  3. Impact of Brain Evolution on Hormones and Social Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Keverne

    In mammals, the social behaviour of males and females reflects their different lifetime reproductive strategies. Reproductive\\u000a success in males is determined by the outcome of competition with other males, the dominant males mating with as many females\\u000a as possible. Hence, males rarely form strong social relationships and male coalitions are typically hierarchical, with emphasis\\u000a upon aggressive rather than affiliative behaviour.

  4. Understanding MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas: pathogenesis and classification.

    PubMed

    Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas; Campo, Elias

    2013-12-01

    MYC is a potent oncogene initially identified as the target of the t(8;14)(q24;q32) chromosome translocation in Burkitt lymphoma. MYC gene alterations have been identified in other mature B-cell neoplasms that are usually associated with an aggressive clinical behavior. Most of these tumors originate in cells that do not normally express MYC protein. The oncogenic events leading to MYC up-regulation seem to overcome the inhibitory effect of physiological repressors such as BCL6 or BLIMP1. Aggressive lymphomas frequently carry additional oncogenic alterations that cooperate with MYC dysregulation, likely counteracting its proapoptotic function. The development of FISH probes and new reliable antibodies have facilitated the study of MYC gene alterations and protein expression in large series of patients, providing new clinical and biological perspectives regarding MYC dysregulation in aggressive lymphomas. MYC gene alterations in large B-cell lymphomas are frequently associated with BCL2 or BCL6 translocations conferring a very aggressive behavior. Conversely, MYC protein up-regulation may occur in tumors without apparent gene alterations, and its association with BCL2 overexpression also confers a poor prognosis. In this review, we integrate all of this new information and discuss perspectives, challenges, and open questions for the diagnosis and management of patients with MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas. PMID:24009228

  5. Understanding MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas: pathogenesis and classification.

    PubMed

    Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas; Campo, Elias

    2013-01-01

    MYC is a potent oncogene initially identified as the target of the t(8;14)(q24;q32) chromosome translocation in Burkitt lymphoma. MYC gene alterations have been identified in other mature B-cell neoplasms that are usually associated with an aggressive clinical behavior. Most of these tumors originate in cells that do not normally express MYC protein. The oncogenic events leading to MYC up-regulation seem to overcome the inhibitory effect of physiological repressors such as BCL6 or BLIMP1. Aggressive lymphomas frequently carry additional oncogenic alterations that cooperate with MYC dysregulation, likely counteracting its proapoptotic function. The development of FISH probes and new reliable antibodies have facilitated the study of MYC gene alterations and protein expression in large series of patients, providing new clinical and biological perspectives regarding MYC dysregulation in aggressive lymphomas. MYC gene alterations in large B-cell lymphomas are frequently associated with BCL2 or BCL6 translocations conferring a very aggressive behavior. Conversely, MYC protein up-regulation may occur in tumors without apparent gene alterations, and its association with BCL2 overexpression also confers a poor prognosis. In this review, we integrate all of this new information and discuss perspectives, challenges, and open questions for the diagnosis and management of patients with MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas. PMID:24319234

  6. High Fat, Low Carbohydrate Diet Limit Fear and Aggression in Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R.; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society. PMID:24740321

  7. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society. PMID:24740321

  8. Every Child Matters: Discourses of Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The proposal of Every Child Matters: The Green Paper (2003), to locate the protection and support of children, with an emphasis on those who may be the most vulnerable, in a strengthened universal service, has provided the impetus for a radical and transformational response at both national and local levels. Local education authorities have been…

  9. Genetic and environmental architecture of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Miles, D R; Carey, G

    1997-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed on data from 24 genetically informative studies by using various personality measures of aggression. There was a strong overall genetic effect that may account for up to 50% of the variance in aggression. This effect was not attributed to methodological inadequacies in the twin or adoption designs. Age differences were important. Self-report and parental ratings showed genes and the family environment to be important in youth; the influence of genes increased but that of family environment decreased at later ages. Observational ratings of laboratory behavior found no evidence for heritability and a very strong family environment effect. Given that almost all substantive conclusions about the genetics of personality have been drawn from self or parental reports, this last finding has obvious and important implications for both aggression research in particular and personality research. PMID:9008382

  10. Toward a nosology of human aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Eichelman, B; Hartwig, A

    1993-01-01

    General attempts have been made to catalog or categorize research literature on aggressive behavior. In the animal literature this category has been delineated by clearly observed and described patterns of behavior. These include offensive and defensive expressions in animals and the characterization of attack behaviors by typography into defensive and offensive. The human literature is considerably deficient in the description and categorization of human aggressive behavior. Current nosologies offer no utilitarian schema for characterizing violent behavior in clinical populations regarding the typography of the violence, its prediction, or guidance as to its treatment. The generation of databased nosologies may provide a mechanism for the development of research and clinically relevant nosologies based upon cluster analyses of treatment outcomes and behavioral characteristics. This strategy may provide a more effective approach for further research concerning clinical aggressive or destructive behaviors. PMID:8378513

  11. Managing Complex Environmental Remediation amidst Aggressive Facility Revitalization Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Richter Pack, S. [PMP Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Unlike the final closure projects at Rocky Flats and Fernald, many of the Department of Energy's future CERCLA and RCRA closure challenges will take place at active facilities, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) central campus. ORNL has aggressive growth plans for a Research Technology Park and cleanup must address and integrate D and D, soil and groundwater remediation, and on-going and future business plans for the Park. Different planning and tracking tools are needed to support closures at active facilities. To support some large Airport redevelopment efforts, we created tools that allowed the Airline lease-holder to perform environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and new building construction, which in turn allowed them to migrate real estate from unusable to usable within an aggressive schedule. In summary: The FIM and OpenGate{sup TM} spatial analysis system were two primary tools developed to support simultaneous environmental remediation, D and D, and construction efforts at an operating facility. These tools helped redevelopers to deal with environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and construction, thereby meeting their goals of opening gates, restarting their revenue streams, at the same time complying with all environmental regulations. (authors)

  12. Variation in the level of aggression, chemical and genetic distance among three supercolonies of the Argentine ant in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blight, O; Berville, L; Vogel, V; Hefetz, A; Renucci, M; Orgeas, J; Provost, E; Keller, L

    2012-08-01

    In their invasive ranges, Argentine ant populations often form one geographically vast supercolony, genetically and chemically uniform within which there is no intraspecific aggression. Here we present regional patterns of intraspecific aggression, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and population genetics of 18 nesting sites across Corsica and the French mainland. Aggression tests confirm the presence of a third European supercolony, the Corsican supercolony, which exhibits moderate to high levels of aggression, depending on nesting sites, with the Main supercolony, and invariably high levels of aggression with the Catalonian supercolony. The chemical analyses corroborated the behavioural data, with workers of the Corsican supercolony showing moderate differences in CHCs compared to workers of the European Main supercolony and strong differences compared to workers of the Catalonian supercolony. Interestingly, there were also clear genetic differences between workers of the Catalonian supercolony and the two other supercolonies at both nuclear and mitochondrial markers, but only very weak genetic differentiation between nesting sites of the Corsican and Main supercolonies (F(ST) = 0.06). A detailed comparison of the genetic composition of supercolonies also revealed that, if one of the last two supercolonies derived from the other, it is the Main supercolony that derived from the Corsican supercolony rather than the reverse. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of conducting more qualitative and quantitative analyses of the level of aggression between supercolonies, which has to be correlated with genetic and chemical data. PMID:22776029

  13. Multiple male traits interact: attractive bower decorations facilitate attractive behavioural displays in satin bowerbirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail L. Patricelli; J. A. C. Uy; G. Borgia

    2003-01-01

    Sexually selected male courtship displays often involve multiple behavioural and physical traits, but little is known about the function of different traits in mate choice. Here, we examine female courtship behav- iours to learn how male traits interact to influence female mating decisions. In satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus ), successful males give highly aggressive, intense behavioural displays without startling females.

  14. The Behavioural Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, L.; Oliver, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems and a preference for adult contact are reported to be prominent in the phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this study we examined the relationship between social interactions and self-injurious and aggressive/disruptive behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome to explore potential operant reinforcement of problem…

  15. Type A Behaviour as a Determinant of Participation in Physical Activity and Sport Among Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolin Yang; Risto Telema; Liisa Keltikangas-Jarvinen; Katri Räikkönen

    1998-01-01

    As a part of an extensive research project 'Cardiovascular Risks in Young Finns ; this study examined the relationship between Type A behaviour and sports participation among adolescents. Subjects were 852 12- and 15-year-old boys and girls randomly selected from five Finnish university towns and their rural surroundings. Type A behaviour was categorized into two dimensions encompassing impatient- aggressive competitiveness

  16. Siblicidal aggression and resource monopolization in birds.

    PubMed

    Mock, D W

    1984-08-17

    In Texas, great egret Casmerodius albus chicks attack younger nestmates, often fatally (siblicide). By contrast, the young of neighboring great blue herons Ardea herodias seldom strike or kill siblings. These interspecific differences seem related to prey size: only fish provided by egret parents are small enough for chicks to monopolize (a process facilitated by aggression). Experimentally cross-fostered heron chicks raised on small prey by egret parents became siblicidal, but the reverse procedure of cross-fostering egret chicks did not reduce aggression or siblicide. PMID:17810292

  17. Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsonson, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

  18. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

    2012-02-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near future represent a low-cost, noninvasive tool to assess the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:21796377

  19. Higher aggression towards closer relatives by soldier larvae in a polyembryonic wasp

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Johanna; Dunn, Derek W.; Strand, Michael R.; Hardy, Ian C. W.

    2014-01-01

    In the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanum, females commonly lay one male and one female egg in a lepidopteran host. Both sexes proliferate clonally within the growing host larva. Distinct larval castes develop from each wasp egg, the majority being ‘reproductives’ plus some ‘soldiers’ which sacrifice reproduction and attack competitors. Maturing mixed sex broods are usually female biased, as expected when intra-brood mating is common. Pre-mating dispersal followed by outbreeding is expected to increase sexual conflict over brood sex ratios and result in greater soldier attack rates. Owing to sexually asymmetric relatedness, intra-brood conflicts are expected to be resolved primarily via female soldier attack. We observed soldier behaviour in vitro to test whether lower intra-brood relatedness (siblings from either within-strain or between-strain crosses were presented) increased inter-sexual aggression by female as well as male soldiers. As found in prior studies, females were more aggressive than males but, contrary to expectations and previous empirical observations, soldiers of both sexes showed more aggression towards more closely related embryos. We speculate that lower intra-brood relatedness indicates maternal outbreeding and may suggest a rarity of mating opportunities for reproductives maturing from the current brood, which may enhance the value of opposite sex brood-mates, or that higher aggression towards relatives may be a side-effect of mechanisms to discriminate heterospecific competitors. PMID:24872462

  20. Subjective and objective components of resource value additively increase aggression in parasitoid contests

    PubMed Central

    Stockermans, Bernard C.; Hardy, Ian C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Two major categories of factors are predicted to influence behaviour in dyadic contests; differences in the abilities of the contestants to acquire and retain resources (resource holding potential), and the value of the contested resource (resource value, RV; which comprises objective and subjective components). Recent studies indicate that subjective components affect contest behaviour in several animal taxa but few have simultaneously investigated objective RV components. We find that both an objective (host size) and a subjective (contestant age) component of RV affect contest intensity in the parasitoid wasp Goniozus legneri. These additively influence aggressiveness, with a larger effect from the subjective component than the objective component. The greater influence of subjective RV adds weight to the recent surge of recognition of this RV component's importance in contest behaviour. PMID:23697643

  1. A neurotoxic pesticide changes the outcome of aggressive interactions between native and invasive ants.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Rafael F; Lester, Philip J; Miller, Alexander S; Ryan, Ken G

    2013-12-01

    Neurotoxic pesticides, such as neonicotinoids, negatively affect the cognitive capacity and fitness of non-target species, and could also modify interspecific interactions. We tested whether sublethal contamination with neonicotinoid could affect foraging, colony fitness and the outcome of behavioural interactions between a native (Monomorium antarcticum) and an invasive ant species (Linepithema humile). The foraging behaviour of both ants was not affected by neonicotinoid exposure. Colonies of the invasive species exposed to the neonicotinoid produced significantly fewer brood. In interspecific confrontations, individuals of the native species exposed to the neonicotinoid lowered their aggression towards the invasive species, although their survival probability was not affected. Exposed individuals of the invasive species interacting with non-exposed native ants displayed increased aggression and had their survival probability reduced. Non-exposed individuals of the invasive species were less aggressive but more likely to survive when interacting with exposed native ants. These results suggest that non-target exposure of invaders to neonicotinoids could either increase or decrease the probability of survival according to the exposure status of the native species. Given that, in any community, different species have different food preferences, and thus different exposure to pesticides, non-target exposure could potentially change the dynamics of communities and influence invasion success. PMID:24266038

  2. A neurotoxic pesticide changes the outcome of aggressive interactions between native and invasive ants

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Rafael F.; Lester, Philip J.; Miller, Alexander S.; Ryan, Ken G.

    2013-01-01

    Neurotoxic pesticides, such as neonicotinoids, negatively affect the cognitive capacity and fitness of non-target species, and could also modify interspecific interactions. We tested whether sublethal contamination with neonicotinoid could affect foraging, colony fitness and the outcome of behavioural interactions between a native (Monomorium antarcticum) and an invasive ant species (Linepithema humile). The foraging behaviour of both ants was not affected by neonicotinoid exposure. Colonies of the invasive species exposed to the neonicotinoid produced significantly fewer brood. In interspecific confrontations, individuals of the native species exposed to the neonicotinoid lowered their aggression towards the invasive species, although their survival probability was not affected. Exposed individuals of the invasive species interacting with non-exposed native ants displayed increased aggression and had their survival probability reduced. Non-exposed individuals of the invasive species were less aggressive but more likely to survive when interacting with exposed native ants. These results suggest that non-target exposure of invaders to neonicotinoids could either increase or decrease the probability of survival according to the exposure status of the native species. Given that, in any community, different species have different food preferences, and thus different exposure to pesticides, non-target exposure could potentially change the dynamics of communities and influence invasion success. PMID:24266038

  3. Aggression and social experience: genetic analysis of visual circuit activity in the control of aggressiveness in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal aggressiveness is controlled by genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, social experience plays an important role in modulating aggression in vertebrates and invertebrates. In Drosophila, pheromonal activation of olfactory neurons contributes to social suppression of aggression. While it was reported that impairment in vision decreases the level of aggression in Drosophila, it remains unknown if visual perception also contributes to the modulation of aggression by social experience. Results In this study, we investigate the role of visual perception in the control of aggression in Drosophila. We took several genetic approaches to examine the effects of blocking visual circuit activity on fly aggressive behaviors. In wild type, group housing greatly suppresses aggressiveness. Loss of vision by mutating the ninaB gene does not affect social suppression of fly aggression. Similar suppression of aggressiveness by group housing is observed in fly mutants carrying a mutation in the eya gene leading to complete loss of eye. Chronic visual loss does not affect the level of aggressiveness of single-housed flies that lack social experience prior to behavioral tests. When visual circuit activity is acutely blocked during behavioral test, however, single-housed flies display higher levels of aggressiveness than that of control flies. Conclusion Visual perception does not play a major role in social suppression of aggression in Drosophila. For single-housed individuals lacking social experience prior to behavioral tests, visual perception decreases the level of aggressiveness. PMID:25116850

  4. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris G; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The Southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasusedwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture. PMID:25561845

  5. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Chris G.; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture. PMID:25561845

  6. Mouse behavioural analysis in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    van Meer, Peter; Raber, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Molecular techniques allowing in vivo modulation of gene expression have provided unique opportunities and challenges for behavioural studies aimed at understanding the function of particular genes or biological systems under physiological or pathological conditions. Although various animal models are available, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has unique features and is therefore a preferred animal model. The mouse shares a remarkable genetic resemblance and aspects of behaviour with humans. In this review, first we describe common mouse models for behavioural analyses. As both genetic and environmental factors influence behavioural performance and need to be carefully evaluated in behavioural experiments, considerations for designing and interpretations of these experiments are subsequently discussed. Finally, common behavioural tests used to assess brain function are reviewed, and it is illustrated how behavioural tests are used to increase our understanding of the role of histaminergic neurotransmission in brain function. PMID:16035954

  7. Dating aggression, sexual coercion, and aggression-supporting attitudes among college men as a function of participation in aggressive high school sports.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Gordon B; Adams-Curtis, Leah E; Pakalka, Alexis H; White, Kay B

    2006-05-01

    Aggressive male sports have been criticized as bastions of sexism and training grounds for aggression against women, but there have been few empirical demonstrations of these alleged relationships. The authors studied self-reported dating aggression and sexual coercion in 147 college men. Men who had participated in aggressive high school sports, as compared with other men, engaged in more psychological aggression, physical aggression, and sexual coercion toward their dating partners, caused their partners more physical injury, were more accepting of violence, had more sexist attitudes and hostility toward women, were more accepting of rape myths, and were less tolerant of homosexuality. Results indicate that participation in aggressive high school sports is one of the multiple developmental pathways leading to relationship violence. PMID:16617170

  8. Males do not see only red: UV wavelengths and male territorial aggression in the three-spined stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Ingolf P.; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    2008-07-01

    Animal colour signals serve important functions in intraspecific interactions, including species recognition, mate choice and agonistic behaviour. An increasing interest concerns ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, for instance studies on the effect of UV in mating decisions. More recently, some studies also established that UV signals affect intrasexual interactions. We studied the role of UV during aggressive encounters between male three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus), a species in which UV has an effect on female and male mate choice and shoaling behaviour. To that aim, we compared the aggressive response of a territorial male to male intruders, either seen in UV-including (UV+) or UV-lacking (UV-) conditions. Our prediction was that, if UV wavelengths are used in male-male competition, a territorial male should show less competitive behaviour towards an intruder representing a lower threat, i.e. the one presented without UV light. Male sticklebacks showed significantly lower levels of aggression towards male opponents lacking an UV component to their coloration than male opponents possessing this colour component. Discrimination was not influenced by a difference in brightness between the UV+ and UV- stimuli. Finally, we present some reflectance-spectrophotometrical data of two skin regions (cheek and abdomen) of the experimental males and analysed relationships between colorimetric variables, body variables and behaviour. Our study emphasises that UV visual cues are of importance in different communicational tasks in the three-spined stickleback.

  9. Controlling Aggressive Students. Fastback Series, No. 387.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blendinger, Jack; And Others

    Coping with aggressive student behavior is crucial to providing a safe and orderly classroom and school environment. Approaches for improving student behavior, ranging from enhancing a student's interpersonal skills to restraint techniques (such as the prudent use of physical force) are covered in this booklet. The material blends information in…

  10. Siblicidal Aggression and Resource Monopolization in Birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Mock

    1984-01-01

    In Texas, great egret Casmerodius albus chicks attack younger nestmates, often fatally (siblicide). By contrast, the young of neighboring great blue herons Ardea herodias seldom strike or kill siblings. These interspecific differences seem related to prey size: only fish provided by egret parents are small enough for chicks to monopolize (a process facilitated by aggression). Experimentally cross-fostered heron chicks raised

  11. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  12. BENEFITS OF AGGRESSIVE ACCELEROMETRY DATA COLLECTION?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine whether the completeness of accelerometer data obtained from elementary and high school students is enhanced when an aggressive data collection approach is employed. Methods: Participants were 149 elementary school (9.9+/-0.4 yrs) and 153 high school (17.7+/-0.4 yrs) students. ...

  13. Aggression Exposure and Mental Health among Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Lawrence T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the extent of aggression exposure and the effects of exposure on the psychological health of nursing staff in hospitals. Results suggested that nearly 40% of staff experienced psychological distress, while nearly 10% experienced moderate to severe depression. Results of the logistic analyses indicated that frequent exposure to…

  14. Construct validity of laboratory aggression paradigms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Giancola; Stephen T. Chermack

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a response to a paper recently published in this journal by Tedeschi and Quigley (1996) in which the authors criticized the validity of laboratory aggression paradigms. Tedeschi and Quigley debated the construct validity of the teacher\\/learner paradigm, essay evaluation procedures, the bobo doll modeling paradigm, and the competitive reaction time paradigm (which

  15. Electromagnetic optimization exploiting aggressive space mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Bandler; R. M. Biernacki; Shao Hua Chen; Ronald H. Hemmers; Kaj Madsen

    1995-01-01

    We propose a significantly improved space mapping (SM) strategy for electromagnetic (EM) optimization. Instead of waiting for upfront EM analyses at several base points, our new approach aggressively exploits every available EM analysis, producing dramatic results right from the first step. We establish a relationship between the novel SM optimization and the quasi-Newton iteration for solving a system of nonlinear

  16. Order aggressiveness in limit order book markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Ranaldo

    2004-01-01

    I examine the information content of a limit order book in a purely order-driven market. I analyze how the state of the limit order book affects a trader's strategy. I develop an econometric technique to study order aggressiveness and provide empirical evidence on the recent theoretical models on limit order book markets. My results show that patient traders become more

  17. Aggressive Systemic Mastocytosis Associated with Mesangioproliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Diamantidis; Athena D. Myrou; Georgia D. Kaiafa; Vasiliki Kaloutsi; Georgia Karayannopoulou; Andreas Theodoridis; Alexandra Adamidou; Athanasios Papadopoulos; Dimitrios Grekas

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims\\/Methods: Aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM) is a subtype of systemic mastocytosis, which comprises a heterogenous group of disorders characterized by infiltration of bone marrow, skin, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and gastrointestinal tract by neoplastic mast cells. There is lack of data on the association of ASM with renal involvement, as kidney is not among the known organs affected by ASM.

  18. Pain and aggression: Some findings and implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Berkowitz

    1993-01-01

    Consistent with the cognitive-neoassociationistic conception of anger and emotional aggression, a wide variety of studies with animal as well as human subjects demonstrate that pain often gives rise to an inclination to hurt an available target, and also, at the human level, that people in pain are apt to be angry. However, and also in accord with the present formulation,

  19. The Prosocial Gang: Implementing Aggression Replacement Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others

    The phrase "prosocial gang" may seem a contradiction but such gangs do exist. This book describes a gang intervention program, Aggression Replacement Training (ART), which resulted in reduced arrest rates among violent gangs in a large urban area. The book opens with a list of prosocial gangs followed by an analysis of the development,…

  20. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  1. Evaluations of Physical Aggression Among Intimate Dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ILEANA ARIAS; PATTI JOHNSON

    1989-01-01

    This investigation examined subjective evaluations of spousal aggression as a function of sex of the aggressor, severity of the violence, and sex of the respondent. Male and female respondents evaluated male violence and female violence equally. Forms of violence implying greater physical harm were evaluated more negatively, and all forms of violence were evaluated more negatively when the male was

  2. Evaluations of Physical Aggression in Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Ileana; Johnson, Patti

    The occurrence of physical aggression in marriage is quite high. On the basis of frequency of occurrence among the general population, a distinction has been made between ordinary violence (frequent slapping, pushing) and severe violence (less frequent use of hitting with objects or use of lethal weapons). This study was conducted to examine how…

  3. Achievement, Aggression, and Perceived Adult Age Stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth G. Finchum; Carl B. Freitag

    1979-01-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 173 male and female undergraduates to contrast their perceptions of the transition periods of young, middle age, and old adulthood stages of aging. A comparison of the perceived stages was then made with the personality dimensions of achievement and aggression. A 2 × 2 × 3 analysis of variance was computed for sex of S,

  4. Digital Aggression: Cyberworld Meets School Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Lo, Mickie; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2011-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a category of bullying that occurs in the digital realm and affects students at astonishing rates. Unlike traditional bullying, in which displays of aggression may be evident to bystanders, the ramification of cyberbullying occurs through unconventional strategies (e.g., text messaging, online Web logs, video sharing). As a…

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J.; Rebok, George W.; Montague, David R.

    2009-01-01

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an “encoding score,” was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education. PMID:19953190

  6. Athletic Ability and Physical Attractiveness differences between aggressive-rejected and aggressive-nonrejected children 

    E-print Network

    Oxman, Danielle Louise

    2001-01-01

    of aggressive children. Variables that were examined included child's gender, ethnicity, and rejected status. A total of 173 elementary school-aged children participated in the study. The results concerning AA supported previous findings that boys were rated...

  7. Attachment theory as a predictor of female aggression 

    E-print Network

    Beckner, Helen Minette

    2005-11-01

    behavior. However, it is suggested that a more balanced approach to research on aggression should include studies related to female aggression. A search of the current literature indicates that this process has begun; however, studies tend to report a...

  8. Sleep deprivation lowers reactive aggression and testosterone in men.

    PubMed

    Cote, Kimberly A; McCormick, Cheryl M; Geniole, Shawn N; Renn, Ryan P; MacAulay, Stacey D

    2013-02-01

    The role of sleep deprivation in aggressive behavior has not been systematically investigated, despite a great deal of evidence to suggest a relationship. We investigated the impact of 33 h of sleep loss on endocrine function and reactive aggression using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) task. PSAP performance was assessed in 24 young men and 25 women who were randomly assigned to a sleep deprivation or control condition. Sleep deprivation lowered reactive aggression and testosterone (but not cortisol) in men, and disrupted the positive relationship between a pre-post PSAP increase in testosterone and aggression that was evident in rested control men. While women increased aggression following provocation as expected, no influence of sleep deprivation was found. This is the first experimental study to demonstrate that sleep deprivation lowers reactive aggression in men. Testosterone, but not cortisol, played a role in the relationship between sleep and reactive aggression in men. PMID:23046906

  9. Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression

    E-print Network

    Trainor, Brian

    Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression Brian C these behaviors are regulated in concert. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces gaseous nitric oxide. Keywords: aggression, autism, nitric oxide synthase, serotonin, social investigation The neurobiological

  10. 2004 EAAM An Aggressive Interaction Between Bottlenose Dolphins

    E-print Network

    Simões-Lopes, Paulo César

    © 2004 EAAM An Aggressive Interaction Between Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and Estuarine Dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) in Southern Brazil Leonardo L. Wedekin, Fábio G. Daura Abstract For the first time we report on an aggressive inter- action between wild bottlenose dolphins

  11. Rorschach measures of aggression: a laboratory-based validity study.

    PubMed

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Swan, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to complement the archival research designs that have established the empirical foundations of Rorschach aggression scores, including Exner's ( 2003 ) Aggressive Movement (AG) score and Meloy and Gacono's ( 1992 ) Aggressive Content (AgC), Aggressive Past (AgPast), and Aggressive Potential (AgPot) variables. Utilizing a highly controlled laboratory-based aggression paradigm and self-report measures of violence history in a sample of 35 undergraduate males with an average age of 19.38 (SD = 2.11), this study found that only AgC was positively associated with in vivo aggression (r = .40, p = .02). None of the Rorschach measures of aggression were significantly associated with self-reported violence history, although there were several trends approaching significance. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. PMID:22906090

  12. Aggression and Dominance Between Cows and Spotted Hyenas

    E-print Network

    Maestripieri, Dario

    are rampant. Konrad Lorenz, the Austrian ethologist who won the Nobel Prize in 1973 for his studies of animal biologists these days share Lorenz's views on aggression. Aggression is neither necessary nor inevitable

  13. Subtypes of aggressive children based on parent ratings 

    E-print Network

    Rodman, Jennifer K

    2013-02-22

    The existence of subtypes of aggressive children based on their parents' ratings of their aggressive behavior was examined in this study. The subjects' raw scores from the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1991) were used to perform a...

  14. Subtypes of aggressive children based on parent ratings

    E-print Network

    Rodman, Jennifer K

    2013-02-22

    The existence of subtypes of aggressive children based on their parents' ratings of their aggressive behavior was examined in this study. The subjects' raw scores from the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1991) were used to perform a...

  15. The Effects on Arousal of Frustration and Aggressive Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doob, Anthony N.; Kirshenbaum, Hershi M.

    1973-01-01

    Research supported by grant from the Canada Council. Studies effects of film violence on aggressive behavior. Suggests that for high levels of arousal, an aggressive movie could stop frustration-produced stimuli and hostility. (DS)

  16. Early manifestations in a cohort of children prenatally diagnosed with 47,XYY. Role of multidisciplinary counseling for parental guidance and prevention of aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increasing number of foetuses are recognized as having double Y because of the widespread use of prenatal screening using chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. 47, XYY karyotype occurs in about one out of 1,000 newborn males, but it is not often detected unless it is diagnosed during prenatal testing. Despite the fact that unbiased follow-up studies demonstrate largely normal post-natal development of young men with 47, XYY, there is a scarcity of controlled studies about the neurological, cognitive and behavioural phenotype which remains the main reason for anxiety and anticipatory negative attitudes of parents. Furthermore, prejudices still exist among professionals and the general population concerning the relationship between this sex chromosome aneuploidy and aggressive and antisocial behaviours. Methods We report on the clinical follow-up of children diagnosed prenatally with a 47,XYY karyotype, whose parents received multidisciplinary counselling and support at time of diagnosis. The specific focus of our study is on auxology, facial features, developmental milestones, behaviour, detection of aggressiveness as well as the evaluation of parental attitudes toward prenatal counselling. Clinical evaluations including auxological measurements and dysmorphological descriptions were as conducted on 13 boys aged 9 month -7 years. The Child Behavior Check List test specific for age and a 15 item questionnaire were administered to both parents. An update of ongoing problems was carried out by means of a telephone interview two years later. Results Our results show that, from birth, weight, height and head circumference were above average values while some facial features such mild hypertelorism are overrepresented when compared to parents' facial features. Language delay was detected in 8 out of 11 children older than 20 months. Parental attitudes were found to be favourable toward prenatal diagnoses of sexual chromosome aneuploidies. Conclusions Our data, although limited, is similar to other observational studies, and serves to alert clinicians about opportunities to delineate new and appropriate educational interventions that target the specific learning challenges of XYY boys. Our experience better defines the early manifestation of XYY and should aid those involved in prenatal counselling and paediatric surveillance. PMID:23034220

  17. Consistency of individual differences in behaviour of the lion-headed cichlid, Steatocranus casuarius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey V Budaev; Dmitry D Zworykin; Andrei D Mochek

    1999-01-01

    The development of individual differences in behaviour in a novel environment, in the presence of a strange fish and during aggressive interactions with a mirror-image was studied in the lion-headed cichlid (Steatocranus casuarius, Teleostei, Cichlidae). No consistency in behaviour was found at 4–5.5 months of age. However, behaviours scored in situations involving a discrete source of stress (a strange fish

  18. Agonistic behaviour and electric signalling in a mormyrid fish, Gnathonemus petersii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Kramer; Richard Bauer

    1976-01-01

    1.Agonistic motor behaviour and concurrent electric signalling were studied in individually held, residential Gnathonemus petersii. Aggressive behaviour was elicited by presenting a specimen of a closely related species, Mormyrus rume, for 3 min a day.2.The principal agonistic motor patterns are described (Fig. 2). Among them head butt, approach and lateral display were further analysed.3.The electrical activity displayed during agonistic behaviour

  19. Foraging Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Fellowes; Jacques Alphen; Mark Jervis

    In this chapter, we consider practical aspects of the foraging behaviour of insect natural enemies in its widest sense. Initially,\\u000a most insect natural enemies must locate the habitat where potential victims may be found. Within that habitat, the victims\\u000a themselves must be discovered. Once a patch of potential targets is identified, the predator or parasitoid must choose its\\u000a victim. Furthermore,

  20. Anger-congruent behaviour transfers across driving situations.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Amanda N; Groeger, John A

    2011-12-01

    Anger and aggression on the road may sometimes appear unprovoked and unrelated to current driving circumstances. It is unclear whether such anger and aggression arises because of events prior to those circumstances in which anger is experienced and aggression is exhibited. In this study, time pressure and enforced following of a slowly moving vehicle were used to increase drivers' anger in order to assess whether affect and behaviour during a subsequent, non-provocative, drive would change accordingly. Ninety-six drivers drove twice in a simulated urban environment. During the first drive, oncoming traffic and a slowly moving lead vehicle required that half of the drivers travelled far slower than they would choose. During the second drive, drivers again followed slower vehicles and were required to respond to traffic events not encountered in the manipulation drive. Mood (Profile of Mood States) was assessed before and after each drive, and anger evaluations, arousal (heart rate) and behaviour (speed, lane position and collisions) were measured during drives. Anger increased and both mood and driving behaviour deteriorated in drivers exposed to slower lead vehicles, compared with control group drivers. These behavioural differences of speed and lane positioning carried over into the subsequent drive even to driving situations unlike those where provocation had previously occurred. Drivers who had previously been impeded later approached hazards with less caution, and attempted more dangerous overtaking manoeuvres. It is concluded that sometimes dangerous driving may result from anger provoked by circumstances other than those in which the behaviour is exhibited. PMID:21432626

  1. Oxytocin microinjected into the central amygdaloid nuclei exerts anti-aggressive effects in male rats.

    PubMed

    Calcagnoli, Federica; Stubbendorff, Christine; Meyer, Neele; de Boer, Sietse F; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2015-03-01

    We recently demonstrated that acute and chronic intracerebroventricular enhancement of brain OXT levels induces potent anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects during social challenges. However, the exact anatomical location in the brain where OXT exerts its action is still elusive. In the present study, we targeted two critical brain areas, i.e. the central amygdala (CeA) and the dorsal raphe (DR), both containing high levels of OXT receptors (OXTRs) and constituting important nodes of the neural circuitry related to aggression. Behavioral effects of local micro-infusion of OXT and OXTR antagonist, L368.899, (alone and combined) were evaluated in resident male rats during confrontations with an unfamiliar male intruder. Our results show that OXT microinjected into the CeA markedly reduced resident's offensive behavior and facilitated social exploration, without affecting other non-aggressive behaviors. The receptor specificity of the behavioral effects was verified when a micro-infusion of a selective OXTR antagonist nullified the changes. Pharmacological blockade of CeA OXTRs per se was without clear behavioral effects suggesting that endogenous OXT within the CeA does not play a major inhibitory role on offensiveness. Anatomical specificity was also supported by the absence of relevant behavioral effects when OXT was microinjected into more medial sub-regions of the amygdala. Likewise, within the DR neither OXT nor OXTR exerted significant effects on offensive aggression, while microinjection of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor agonist in this region significantly suppressed aggression. In conclusion, our results point at the CeA as an important brain site of action for the anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects induced by exogenous enhancement of brain OXT levels. PMID:25437825

  2. Heightened aggression and winning contests increase corticosterone but decrease testosterone in male Australian water dragons.

    PubMed

    Baird, Troy A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Water dragons (Intellegama [Physignathus] lesueurii) are large (to >1m) agamid lizards from eastern Australia. Males are fiercely combative; holding a territory requires incessant displays and aggression against other males. If a dominant male is absent, injured or fatigued, another male soon takes over his territory. Our sampling of blood from free-ranging adult males showed that baseline levels of both testosterone and corticosterone were not related to a male's social tactic (territorial versus non-territorial), or his frequency of advertisement display, aggression, or courtship behavior. Even when we elicited intense aggression by non-territorial males (by temporarily removing territory owners), testosterone did not increase with the higher levels of aggression that ensued. Indeed, testosterone levels decreased in males that won contests. In contrast, male corticosterone levels increased with the heightened aggression during unsettled conditions, and were higher in males that won contests. High chronic male-male competition in this dense population may favor high testosterone levels in all adult males to facilitate advertisement and patrol activities required for territory maintenance (by dominant animals), and to maintain readiness for territory take-overs (in non-territorial animals). Corticosterone levels increased in response to intense aggression during socially unstable conditions, and were higher in contest winners than losers. A positive correlation between the two hormones during socially unstable conditions suggests that the high stress of contests decreased androgen production. The persistent intense competition in this population appears to exact a high physiological cost, which together with our observation that males sometimes lose their territories to challengers may indicate cycling between these two tactics to manage long-term energetic costs. PMID:24907453

  3. Sex Differences in Physical and Indirect Aggression: A Developmental Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvana M. Côté

    2007-01-01

    Males generally use aggression more often than females. However, the magnitude of difference between the sexes varies widely\\u000a according to the type of aggression that is considered, and according to the developmental period studied. Taking a developmental\\u000a perspective, this paper reviews research that compares the progression of physical aggression (predominantly used by males)\\u000a with indirect aggression (predominantly used by females)

  4. Attachment theory as a predictor of female aggression

    E-print Network

    Beckner, Helen Minette

    2005-11-01

    INTRODUCTION Gender Differences in Aggression What contributes to an individual becoming violent or aggressive? The consequences are substantial to the perpetrator, the victim, and the community at large. Along with sex, Freud placed particular... understanding of why individuals engage in aggressive behavior. Psychoanalytic Theory As noted previously, in addition to sex, Freud viewed aggression as an important component in the study of human behavior (Weiten, 1994). However, this was not his early...

  5. Cognitive processes and violent behaviour in young people.

    PubMed

    May, J M

    1986-03-01

    Forty-three subjects from secondary school took part in a correlation study investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the presentation of violent behaviour. Measures of violence were scores on "aggression items" of a self-report questionnaire. The experimental procedure involved binocular tachistoscopic presentation of neutral and violent slide pairs. Descriptions of the composite stimuli were scored for violent content. The main finding was that subjects who had reported more involvement in violent acts also reported seeing more violence in the stimulus array. This association held irrespective of age, IQ, socio-economic status and starting mood. It is argued that these findings indicate a perceptual, rather than a response, bias. A role for this bias as a possible maintaining condition in the presentation of aggressive behaviour is presented. The implications of the present findings for interventions with young people are discussed. It is suggested that cognitive techniques may prove more effective than traditional behavioural programmes. PMID:3700777

  6. Is psychological aggression as detrimental as physical aggression? The independent effects of psychological aggression on depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Erika; Yoon, Jeungeun; Langer, Amie; Ro, Eunyoe

    2009-01-01

    The differential effects of psychological and physical victimization on depression and anxiety symptoms were examined via APIM and growth curve modeling techniques in a sample of newlyweds (N = 103 couples) assessed four times over the first 3 years of marriage. On average, husbands and wives reported moderate levels of psychological aggression, and there were no sex differences in prevalence rates or mean levels. Changes in psychological victimization were associated with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical victimization. This study demonstrates the severe impact of psychological aggression on its victims and expands on previous studies of battering samples to demonstrate that psychological victimization may be more damaging than physical victimization in nonbattering, community couples. PMID:19297883

  7. Impact of preoperative endorectal MRI stage classification on neurovascular bundle sparing aggressiveness and the radical prostatectomy positive margin rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Brown; David M. Rodin; Mukesh Harisinghani; Douglas M. Dahl

    2009-01-01

    IntroductionInability to accurately determine extracapsular extension (ECE) and neurovascular bundle (NVB) tumor involvement prior to or during radical prostatectomy (RP) remains problematic. Laparoscopic prostatectomy has the additional challenge of lack of tactile tumor assessment. Our goal is to determine the impact of preoperative endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (eMRI) staging upon NVB sparing aggressiveness and the RP surgical margin rate.

  8. Cognitive control reduces sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abigail A. Baird; Shari H. Silver; Heather B. Veague

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression is a type of aggression that aims to hurt others through relationships and includes behaviors such as gossip and ostracism. This type of aggression is very common among adolescent girls, and in its more intense forms has been linked with poor psychosocial outcomes, including depression and suicide. In the present study we investigated whether individual differences in sensitivity

  9. Relational aggression in sibling and peer relationships during early childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie M. Ostrov; Nicki R. Crick; Kirstin Stauffacher

    2006-01-01

    The role of siblings (N = 50) in the display of physical and relational aggression among peers during early childhood was explored. Specifically, sibling pairs' rates of physical and relational aggression were assessed in their independent social contexts. Findings indicated low to moderate levels of intercorrelation between physical and relational aggression and moderate levels of stability for both physical and

  10. Gender Differences in the Negative Affective Priming of Aggressive Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edelyn Verona; John J. Curtin

    2006-01-01

    The negative affective priming of aggression was examined across different aversive contexts (general stress exposure and frustration) with a laboratory aggression paradigm that measured the intensity of shocks participants delivered to a putative employee. Participants' emotional responses were gauged via startle eyeblink reactions and self-report mood ratings. Aside from gender differences in overall aggression, men but not women exposed to

  11. Aggressive Chemotherapy and the Selection of Drug Resistant Pathogens

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy

    Aggressive Chemotherapy and the Selection of Drug Resistant Pathogens Silvie Huijben1¤a *, Andrew S. Aggressive chemotherapy thus generates opposing evolutionary forces which together determine the rate of drug, Bell AS, Sim DG, Tomasello D, Mideo N, et al. (2013) Aggressive Chemotherapy and the Selection of Drug

  12. Shared Targets for Aggression by Early Adolescent Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2006-01-01

    Similarity in early adolescent friends' general aggressiveness is well known, but questions remain regarding the degree to which friends aggress against the same victims. The authors examined this by administering the newly created Dyadic Aggression and Victimization Inventory to 417 sixth- through eighth-grade boys and girls (53%). Friends …

  13. Attentional Processes in Children's Overt and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsenault, Darin J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined attention and memory processes assumed by the social information-processing model to be biased in aggressive children. We also explored whether similar biases were associated with overt and relational aggression. A total of 96 fourth through sixth graders saw videos of overtly and relationally aggressive child actors and…

  14. An Investigation of Turkish Preservice Teachers' Aggression Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtyilmaz, Yildiz; Can, Gurhan

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate preservice teachers' aggressive behaviors. In addition, the contributions of variables to the aggressive behaviors were explored, including females' and males' patterns of explaining aggressive behaviors. Out of 3366 preservice teachers at Education Faculty of Anadolu University and Osmangazi…

  15. Violent video games and anger as predictors of aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary W. Giumetti; Patrick M. Markey

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has demonstrated that playing violent video games can increase aggression. The theoretical framework upon which a good deal of this research has rested is known as the General Aggression Model (GAM; [Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51]). The current study tested an assumption of the GAM by examining

  16. Behavior Genetics of Aggression in Children: Review and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher

    2002-01-01

    Argues that a thorough understanding of factors that influence aggression in children cannot be achieved without including behavior genetic studies that allow examination of the effects of shared versus non-shared environment, as well as genes, on aggressive behaviors. Details the growing body of evidence on the genetic effects on aggression.…

  17. Bilateral Cingulotomy and Anterior Capsulotomy Applied to Patients with Aggressiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiacro Jiménez; Julián E. Soto; Francisco Velasco; Pablo Andrade; Juan J. Bustamante; Paulina Gómez; Ylián Ramírez; José D. Carrillo-Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform a preliminary study on the effects and safety of bilateral cingulotomy and anterior capsulotomy in patients with aggressive behavior. Patients and Methods: Twenty-three psychiatric patients showing aggressive behavior refractory to conventional treatment were initially evaluated. The subjects were clinically selected using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF). Each case was

  18. Aggressive Cue Prominence and Gender Participation in MTV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalis, Pamela; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the content and structure of music videos, focusing on the pervasiveness of aggressive cues (objects or events representing physical harm or the threat of harm), gender portrayals within a context of aggression, and the pacing of music videos. Finds that aggressive cues in music videos are less prominent than critics indicate. (MM)

  19. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  20. Trait verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness: Relations with parenting style

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cherie L. Bayer; Donald J. Cegala

    1992-01-01

    Research on trait verbal aggressiveness and verbal argumentativeness was extended by examining these constructs in relationship to patterns of self?reported parental behavior. Subjects were parents of school?age children (grades Kindergarten to 6). As expected, persons scoring positively on argumentativeness and negatively on aggressiveness reported behaviors consistent with the Authoritative parenting style. Negative argumentativeness and positive aggressiveness was associated with the

  1. Sex Differences in Relationship Aggression Among Young Adults in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Krahé; Anja Berger

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the prevalence of physical aggression in the relationships of young adults in Germany. A convenience sample of 248 women and 400 men aged between 17 and 29 years provided reports of physical aggression shown toward and experienced by a partner using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Sex differences were found for several physically aggressive behaviors measured

  2. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of boys between…

  3. Guidelines for Support Staff Experiencing Aggression in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goolam-Babee, Hajira; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris P.H.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss guidelines for support staff experiencing aggression in schools and to develop an approach for the support staff to deal with aggression to facilitate their mental health. The researchers explored the experience of aggression of the support staff in a chosen school by conducting phenomenological, unstructured…

  4. Child Abuse and Aggression Among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian D. Ford; Lisa A. Fraleigh; Daniel F. Connor

    2009-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical abuse histories were 50% more likely to be

  5. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  6. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  7. Effects of Attack and Uncontrollable Noise on Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Russell G.

    1978-01-01

    The past decade has been marked by mounting public concern over noise as a source of environmental pollution. Simultaneously, research has shown that noise is also a potent cause of physiological stress. This research relates noise to aggression concluding that noise facilitates aggression in subjects who have been instigated to aggress to the…

  8. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  9. The effects of normative classroom aggression and teacher support on changes in ethnically diverse elementary students' aggression 

    E-print Network

    Kuhns, Clarissa Ivette

    2008-10-10

    This study examined the joint effects of the quality of teacher-student relationship support (TSRS) and normative levels of classroom aggression on individual aggression in a sample of 687 second-grade children who entered first grade...

  10. Exploring the Association between Aggression and Anxiety in Youth: A Look at Aggressive Subtypes, Gender, and Social Cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica A. Marsee; Carl F. Weems; Leslie K. Taylor

    2008-01-01

    We examined the associations among dimensions of aggression and anxiety disorder symptoms in an ethnically diverse community\\u000a sample of youth (N = 83; 46% female). Research supports the existence of four aggressive subtypes (i.e., reactive overt, reactive relational,\\u000a proactive overt, and proactive relational), and past research has found associations between relational aggression and anxiety,\\u000a as well as between reactive aggression and anxiety.

  11. Challenges and Suggestions for Safe Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Katherine T.; Manning, M. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Looks at challenges to safe schools and offers eight suggestions for ensuring the safety of students and educators. Notes that school violence includes unacceptable social behavior ranging from aggression that threatens or harms others to bullying, threats, sexual harassment, gang violence, extortion, and other forms of intimidation. (SG)

  12. Aggression in young children with concurrent callous-unemotional traits: can the neurosciences inform progress and innovation in treatment approaches?

    PubMed

    Dadds, Mark R; Rhodes, Tracy

    2008-08-12

    Parenting is the 'clean water' of healthy psychological development and parenting interventions remain the number one treatment at the individual and community levels for early-onset aggression and antisocial behaviour in children. However, recent progress in child psychopathology research is specifying a number of biological mechanisms that interact with environmental risk to influence pathways into aggression and antisocial behaviour. After a brief review of the parent training literature, we focus on child factors, especially callous-unemotional traits, that parse 'aggressive' children into more homogeneous groupings, and then review selected ideas about the origins of aggression coming from the neurosciences (such as neurobehavioural responsivity to emotional stimuli; hypothalamic-pituitary axis abnormalities influencing low cortisol and low serotonin production). We review human and, where relevant, animal models of neurobiological system changes with particular attention to developmental timing and interactions with environmental factors, especially parenting. Based on this innovative research, we then discuss a number of ideas that hold potential for interventions. We conclude that the future will see the development of interventions that aim for synergy between specific biological processes and psychological experiences as they unfold developmentally. The use of D-cycloserine in fear extinction and oxytocin in affiliative bonds is used as an example of these futuristic approaches. PMID:18434286

  13. The Effects of Online Discussion Forum Aggressive Messages and Cognitive Distortion on Users' Negative Affect and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2012-01-01

    This research is comprised of two studies designed to explore the effects of online discussion forum aggressive messages and Internet cognitive distortion on users' negative affect and aggression. The results of study 1 revealed 69 users could perceive both disgust and hostility feelings toward aggressive messages conducted by the authors, and…

  14. Predicting Change in Children's Aggression and Victimization Using Classroom-Level Descriptive Norms of aggression and Pro-Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sterett H.; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined aggressive and pro-social classroom descriptive norms as predictors of change in aggression and victimization during middle childhood. Participants included 948 children in third through fifth grade. Measures of teacher-reported aggressive and peer-reported pro-social descriptive norms were completed at the onset of the study.…

  15. Complex genetic architecture of Drosophila aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Magwire, Michael M.; Carbone, Mary Anna; Versteven, Marijke; Herteleer, Liesbet; Anholt, Robert R. H.; Callaerts, Patrick; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2011-01-01

    Epistasis and pleiotropy feature prominently in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits but are difficult to assess in outbred populations. We performed a diallel cross among coisogenic Drosophila P-element mutations associated with hyperaggressive behavior and showed extensive epistatic and pleiotropic effects on aggression, brain morphology, and genome-wide transcript abundance in head tissues. Epistatic interactions were often of greater magnitude than homozygous effects, and the topology of epistatic networks varied among these phenotypes. The transcriptional signatures of homozygous and double heterozygous genotypes derived from the six mutations imply a large mutational target for aggressive behavior and point to evolutionarily conserved genetic mechanisms and neural signaling pathways affecting this universal fitness trait. PMID:21949384

  16. Severe gingival enlargement associated with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Shyam; Dwarakanath, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    Enlargement of the gingiva can be due to various causes. Most prevalent are the inflammatory type and drug-induced type of gingival hyperplasia. However, sever enlargement associated with an aggressive type of periodontitis is an infrequent finding. Reported here is a case of a female patient aged 18 years who presented with severe enlargement of the maxillary and mandibular gingiva. Examination revealed enlargement extending up to the incisal edge of all the teeth and also an associated generalized loss of attachment with radiographic evidence of reduced bone height resembling an aggressive type of periodontitis. There were no associated systemic signs and symptoms or any family history except that there was generalized vitiligo of the skin and oral mucous membrane. The case was treated by gross electrosection of the gingiva. PMID:23633785

  17. Reducing Violence and Aggression in Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL B. GREENE

    2005-01-01

    This article offers a framework for understanding and responding to school-based aggression and violence. The term school violence is defined, epidemiological data are summarized, a typology of violence reduction strategies is presented, and procedures to effectively implement evidence-based programs are discussed. Al- though many evidence-based violence prevention programs are now available to schools, much work remains in three critical areas.

  18. Reducing the leakage of memory blocks aggressively

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalia A. El-Dib; Heba A. Shawkey; Z. Abid

    2010-01-01

    Excessive leakage of cache blocks encourages forcing the cache block into low-leakage state all the time except during read\\/write operations. By retaining the values of the cache cells during low leakage state, the penalty for re-activating the sleepy cache cells is also reduced. This is achieved using aggressive policies with simple control strategies using one of two methods. Either by

  19. Early Aggressive Treatment Strategy against Myasthenia Gravis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriko Nagane; Shigeaki Suzuki; Norihiro Suzuki; Kimiaki Utsugisawa

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: In treating myasthenia gravis (MG), our aims were to achieve early minimal manifestations (MM) by performing early aggressive therapy (EAT) using plasmapheresis and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, and then to maintain the status with low-dose oral corticosteroids (EAT strategy). We examined the merits of the EAT strategy. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed long-term effects of the EAT strategy (duration of therapy:

  20. From aggressive driving to molecular motor traffic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambarish Kunwar; Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental results for the step sizes of dynein motor proteins, we develop a cellular automata model for intra-cellular traffic of dynein motors incorporating special features of the hindrance-dependent step size of the individual motors. We begin by investigating the properties of the aggressive driving model (ADM), a simple cellular automata-based model of vehicular traffic, a unique feature

  1. Genetic Marker Identified for Aggressive Bladder Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers led by Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Ph.D., in DCEG's Laboratory of Translational Genomics, have identified the first genetic variant associated with risk of aggressive bladder cancer. The variant, rs7257330, is in the promoter region of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes for cyclin E protein, a cell cycle regulator. This result comes from a fine-mapping analysis of data from two bladder cancer genome-wide association studies and functional studies.

  2. Behavior of Brick Samples in Aggressive Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Cultrone; M. J. De la Torre; E. M. Sebastian; O. Cazalla; C. Rodriguez-Navarro

    2000-01-01

    The weathering of different brick samples ina range of aggressive environments has been studied.Brick samples were prepared using two clay types (fromGranada, Spain), different additives, and a range offiring temperatures (850–1100 °C). The brickscompositional and textural characteristics wereevaluated using XRD, SEM, hydric tests and mercuryintrusion porosimetry (MIP). The samples weresubjected to accelerate aging, including wet-dry,freeze-thaw and salt crystallization cycles. The

  3. Social instability increases aggression in groups of dairy goats, but with minor consequences for the goats’ growth, kid production and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inger Lise Andersen; Sabine Roussel; Erik Ropstad; Bjarne Olai Braastad; Geir Steinheim; Andrew Morten Janczak; Grete meisfjord Jørgensen; Knut Egil Bøe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the effects of social instability (regrouping) during the second trimester (7 weeks) of pregnancy on aggression, cortisol concentrations and growth in goats and its consequences for survival, growth and some aspects of behavioural development in the kids. Six weeks after mating, 32 goats were distributed into eight groups. In four of

  4. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase regulates ghrelin to control aggression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Parks, Robin J; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2015-02-17

    Ongoing mouse studies of a proposed therapy for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutated for accelerated cocaine hydrolysis have yielded surprising effects on aggression. Further investigation has linked these effects to a reduction in circulating ghrelin, driven by BChE at levels ? 100-fold above normal. Tests with human BChE showed ready ghrelin hydrolysis at physiologic concentrations, and multiple low-mass molecular dynamics simulations revealed that ghrelin's first five residues fit sterically and electrostatically into BChE's active site. Consistent with in vitro results, male BALB/c mice with high plasma BChE after gene transfer exhibited sharply reduced plasma ghrelin. Unexpectedly, such animals fought less, both spontaneously and in a resident/intruder provocation model. One mutant BChE was found to be deficient in ghrelin hydrolysis. BALB/c mice transduced with this variant retained normal plasma ghrelin levels and did not differ from untreated controls in the aggression model. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice with BChE gene deletion exhibited increased ghrelin and fought more readily than wild-type animals. Collectively, these findings indicate that BChE-catalyzed ghrelin hydrolysis influences mouse aggression and social stress, with potential implications for humans. PMID:25646463

  5. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase regulates ghrelin to control aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Parks, Robin J.; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing mouse studies of a proposed therapy for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutated for accelerated cocaine hydrolysis have yielded surprising effects on aggression. Further investigation has linked these effects to a reduction in circulating ghrelin, driven by BChE at levels ?100-fold above normal. Tests with human BChE showed ready ghrelin hydrolysis at physiologic concentrations, and multiple low-mass molecular dynamics simulations revealed that ghrelin’s first five residues fit sterically and electrostatically into BChE’s active site. Consistent with in vitro results, male BALB/c mice with high plasma BChE after gene transfer exhibited sharply reduced plasma ghrelin. Unexpectedly, such animals fought less, both spontaneously and in a resident/intruder provocation model. One mutant BChE was found to be deficient in ghrelin hydrolysis. BALB/c mice transduced with this variant retained normal plasma ghrelin levels and did not differ from untreated controls in the aggression model. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice with BChE gene deletion exhibited increased ghrelin and fought more readily than wild-type animals. Collectively, these findings indicate that BChE-catalyzed ghrelin hydrolysis influences mouse aggression and social stress, with potential implications for humans. PMID:25646463

  6. Genetic influences on brain gene expression in rats selected for tameness and aggression.

    PubMed

    Heyne, Henrike O; Lautenschläger, Susann; Nelson, Ronald; Besnier, François; Rotival, Maxime; Cagan, Alexander; Kozhemyakina, Rimma; Plyusnina, Irina Z; Trut, Lyudmila; Carlborg, Örjan; Petretto, Enrico; Kruglyak, Leonid; Pääbo, Svante; Schöneberg, Torsten; Albert, Frank W

    2014-11-01

    Interindividual differences in many behaviors are partly due to genetic differences, but the identification of the genes and variants that influence behavior remains challenging. Here, we studied an F2 intercross of two outbred lines of rats selected for tame and aggressive behavior toward humans for >64 generations. By using a mapping approach that is able to identify genetic loci segregating within the lines, we identified four times more loci influencing tameness and aggression than by an approach that assumes fixation of causative alleles, suggesting that many causative loci were not driven to fixation by the selection. We used RNA sequencing in 150 F2 animals to identify hundreds of loci that influence brain gene expression. Several of these loci colocalize with tameness loci and may reflect the same genetic variants. Through analyses of correlations between allele effects on behavior and gene expression, differential expression between the tame and aggressive rat selection lines, and correlations between gene expression and tameness in F2 animals, we identify the genes Gltscr2, Lgi4, Zfp40, and Slc17a7 as candidate contributors to the strikingly different behavior of the tame and aggressive animals. PMID:25189874

  7. Identification of proteomic biomarkers predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness and lethality despite biopsy-sampling error

    PubMed Central

    Shipitsin, M; Small, C; Choudhury, S; Giladi, E; Friedlander, S; Nardone, J; Hussain, S; Hurley, A D; Ernst, C; Huang, Y E; Chang, H; Nifong, T P; Rimm, D L; Dunyak, J; Loda, M; Berman, D M; Blume-Jensen, P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Key challenges of biopsy-based determination of prostate cancer aggressiveness include tumour heterogeneity, biopsy-sampling error, and variations in biopsy interpretation. The resulting uncertainty in risk assessment leads to significant overtreatment, with associated costs and morbidity. We developed a performance-based strategy to identify protein biomarkers predictive of prostate cancer aggressiveness and lethality regardless of biopsy-sampling variation. Methods: Prostatectomy samples from a large patient cohort with long follow-up were blindly assessed by expert pathologists who identified the tissue regions with the highest and lowest Gleason grade from each patient. To simulate biopsy-sampling error, a core from a high- and a low-Gleason area from each patient sample was used to generate a ‘high' and a ‘low' tumour microarray, respectively. Results: Using a quantitative proteomics approach, we identified from 160 candidates 12 biomarkers that predicted prostate cancer aggressiveness (surgical Gleason and TNM stage) and lethal outcome robustly in both high- and low-Gleason areas. Conversely, a previously reported lethal outcome-predictive marker signature for prostatectomy tissue was unable to perform under circumstances of maximal sampling error. Conclusions: Our results have important implications for cancer biomarker discovery in general and development of a sampling error-resistant clinical biopsy test for prediction of prostate cancer aggressiveness. PMID:25032733

  8. Interpersonal aggression victimization within casual sexual relationships and experiences.

    PubMed

    Klipfel, Katherine M; Claxton, Shannon E; van Dulmen, Manfred H M

    2014-02-01

    The frequent occurrence of aggression within committed romantic relationships is well documented. However, little is known about experiences of interpersonal aggression within casual sexual relationships and experiences. This study aimed to describe the occurrence of emotional, physical, and sexual aggression victimization within committed romantic relationships, casual dating relationships, friends-with-benefit relationships, booty-calls, and one-night stands. College students (N = 172) provided data regarding the lifetime occurrence of emotional, physical, and sexual aggression across different forms of casual sexual relationships and experiences (friends-with-benefits, booty-call, casual dating, one-night stands, committed relationships). Emotional, physical, and sexual subtypes of aggression were reported across all casual sexual relationships and experiences. While a higher percentage of individuals who had been involved in committed relationships reported experiencing at least one form of aggression (approximately 69%), prevalence of at least one form of aggression ranged from approximately 31% to 36% for the various casual sexual relationships/experiences. Across relationships/experiences, emotional and sexual aggression were more common than physical aggression. The findings from this study indicate that emotional, physical, and sexual aggression occur across types of relationships and experiences. Thus, the current study underscores the importance of considering casual dating, friends-with-benefits, booty-calls, and one-night stands when assessing interpersonal aggression. PMID:24176987

  9. Aggressiveness and size: a model and two tests.

    PubMed

    Logue, David M; Takahashi, April D; Cade, William H

    2011-02-01

    Individual variation in aggressive behavior in animals might be caused by adaptive covariation with body size. We developed a model that predicts the benefits of aggressiveness as a function of body size. The model indicated that individuals of intermediate sizes would derive the greatest benefits from being aggressive. If we assume that the cost of aggression is approximately uniform with respect to body size, selection should favor higher aggression in intermediate-sized individuals than in large or small individuals. This prediction was tested by stimulating male Madagascar hissing cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa, with disembodied antennae and recording the males' aggressive responses. Antennae from larger males evoked weaker responses in subjects, suggesting that males obtained information about their opponents' size from the opponents' antennae alone. After accounting for this effect, we found support for the key prediction of our model: aggressiveness peaked at intermediate sizes. Data from actual male-male interactions validated that the antenna assay accurately measured aggressiveness. Analysis of an independent data set generated by staging male-male interactions also supported the prediction that intermediate-sized males were most aggressive. We conclude that adaptive covariation between body size and aggressiveness explains some interindividual variation in aggressiveness. PMID:21460556

  10. Physical aggression and marital dysfunction: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, E; Bradbury, T N

    2001-03-01

    Shortly after marriage, 56 couples provided data on physical aggression and other predictors of marital adjustment. At 6-month intervals over the next 4 years, spouses reported on their marital quality and stability. Results indicated that marital dysfunction was more common among aggressive than among nonaggressive couples (70% vs. 38%) and among severely aggressive than among moderately aggressive couples (93% vs. 46%). Aggression remained a reliable predictor of marital outcomes after the authors controlled for stressful events and negative communication. These findings help to refine developmental models of marital dysfunction, which often overlook the role of aggression, and can provide information for prevention programs for marital distress, which typically do not distinguish between aggressive and nonaggressive couples. PMID:11322081

  11. Childhood physical abuse, aggression, and suicide attempts among criminal offenders

    PubMed Central

    Swogger, Marc T.; You, Sungeun; Cashman-Brown, Sarah; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood physical abuse (CPA) has numerous short and long-term negative effects. One of the most serious consequences of CPA is an increased risk for suicide attempts. Clarifying the mechanisms by which CPA increases risk for suicidal behavior may enhance preventative interventions. One potential mechanism is a tendency toward aggression. In a sample of 266 criminal offenders, ages 18–62, we examined the relationships among CPA, lifetime aggression, and suicide attempts and tested lifetime history of aggression as a mediator of the relationship between CPA and suicide attempts. Results indicated that CPA and aggression were associated with suicide attempts. Consistent with our hypothesis, lifetime aggression mediated the CPA-suicide attempt relationship. Findings suggest that aggression may be an important mediator of the relationship between CPA and suicide attempts among criminal offenders, and are consistent with the possibility that treating aggression may reduce risk for suicide attempts. PMID:20724000

  12. Cognitive tempo, violent video games, and aggressive behavior in young boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Roland Irwin; Alan M. Gross

    1995-01-01

    In a factorial design, impulsive and reflective children played video games with aggressive or nonaggressive themes. Interpersonal aggression and aggression toward inanimate objects were assessed in a free-play setting and interpersonal aggression was assessed during a frustrating situation. Results indicated that subjects who played the video game with aggressive content exhibited significantly more object aggression during free-play and more interpersonal

  13. Do aggressive people play violent computer games in a more aggressive way? Individual difference and idiosyncratic game-playing experience.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming; Mou, Yi

    2008-04-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates whether individual difference influences idiosyncratic experience of game playing. In particular, we examine the relationship between the game player's physical-aggressive personality and the aggressiveness of the player's game playing in violence-oriented video games. Screen video stream of 40 individual participants' game playing was captured and content analyzed. Participants' physical aggression was measured before the game play. The results suggest that people with more physical-aggressive personality engage in a more aggressive style of playing, after controlling the differences of gender and previous gaming experience. Implications of these findings and direction for future studies are discussed. PMID:18422407

  14. Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: a short-term longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas A; Coyne, Sarah; Walsh, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model. PMID:21274855

  15. Machine analysis of facial behaviour: naturalistic and dynamic behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in these specific subproblem areas in particular, are discussed and recommendations for accomplishing a better facial expression measurement technology are outlined. PMID:19884145

  16. Challenges of Cu wire bonding on low-k\\/Cu wafers with BOA structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo M. Higgins

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development of a Cu wire bond assembly solution for ICs using low dielectric constant (low K) dielectrics and Cu interconnect, with bond pads designed with aggressive BOA (Bond Over Active) design rules. The various wire bonding challenges imposed by the bond pad material stack and the aggressive high density BOA design will be discussed. It is

  17. The Challenge of Stroke Prevention with Intracranial Arterial Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Tanya N.; Smock, Alison; Chimowitz, Marc I.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) have a high risk of recurrent stroke and secondary prevention in these patients remains a challenge. Aggressive medical management of vascular risk factors is safe and effective for most high risk patients, but the role of endovascular and surgical therapies still remain uncertain. Future studies may identify novel therapeutic strategies for patients with ICAD, but aggressive risk factor control remains the mainstay of evidenced-based treatment at this time. PMID:24105641

  18. Socially explosive minds: the triple imbalance hypothesis of reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    van Honk, Jack; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Morgan, Barak E; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2010-02-01

    The psychobiological basis of reactive aggression, a condition characterized by uncontrolled outbursts of socially violent behavior, is unclear. Nonetheless, several theoretical models have been proposed that may have complementary views about the psychobiological mechanisms involved. In this review, we attempt to unite these models and theorize further on the basis of recent data from psychological and neuroscientific research to propose a comprehensive neuro-evolutionary framework: The Triple Imbalance Hypothesis (TIH) of reactive aggression. According to this model, reactive aggression is essentially subcortically motivated by an imbalance in the levels of the steroid hormones cortisol and testosterone (Subcortical Imbalance Hypothesis). This imbalance not only sets a primal predisposition for social aggression, but also down-regulates cortical-subcortical communication (Cortical-Subcortical Imbalance Hypothesis), hence diminishing control by cortical regions that regulate socially aggressive inclinations. However, these bottom-up hormonally mediated imbalances can drive both instrumental and reactive social aggression. The TIH suggests that reactive aggression is differentiated from proactive aggression by low brain serotonergic function and that reactive aggression is associated with left-sided frontal brain asymmetry (Cortical Imbalance Hypothesis), especially observed when the individual is socially threatened or provoked. This triple biobehavioral imbalance mirrors an evolutionary relapse into violently aggressive motivational drives that are adaptive among many reptilian and mammalian species, but may have become socially maladaptive in modern humans. PMID:20433613

  19. Temozolomide and pasireotide treatment for aggressive pituitary adenoma: expertise at a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Filippo; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Manara, Renzo; Emanuelli, Enzo; Denaro, Luca; Milanese, Laura; Gardiman, Marina Paola; Bertorelle, Roberta; Scanarini, Massimo; D'Avella, Domenico; Occhi, Gianluca; Boscaro, Marco; Zagonel, Vittorina; Scaroni, Carla

    2015-03-01

    Aggressive pituitary adenomas (PAs) are clinically challenging for endocrinologists and neurosurgeons due to their locally invasive nature and resistance to standard treatment (surgery, medical or radiotherapy). Two pituitary-directed drugs have recently been proposed: temozolomide (TMZ) for aggressive PA, and pasireotide for ACTH-secreting PA. We describe the experience of our multidisciplinary team of endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, oncologists, otolaryngologists and pathologists with TMZ and pasireotide treatment for aggressive PAs in terms of their radiological shrinkage and genetic features. We considered five patients with aggressive PA, three of them non-secreting (two ACTH-silent and one becoming ACTH secreting), and two secreting (one GH and one ACTH). TMZ was administrated orally at 150-200 mg/m(2) daily for 5 days every 28 days to all 5 patients, and 2 of them also received pasireotide 600-900 µg bid sc. We assessed the MRI at the baseline and during TMZ or pasireotide treatment. We also checked for MGMT promoter methylation and IDH, BRAF and kRAS mutations. Considering TMZ, two patients showed PA progression, one stable disease and two achieved radiological and clinical response. Pasireotide was effective in reducing hypercortisolism and mass volume, combined with TMZ in one case. Both treatments were generally well tolerated; one patient developed a grade 2 TMZ-induced thrombocytopenia. None of patients developed hypopituitarism while taking TMZ or pasireotide treatment. No genetic anomalies were identified in the adenoma tissue. TMZ and pasireotide may be important therapies for aggressive PA, alone or in combination. PMID:25555563

  20. Spermine and Citrate as Metabolic Biomarkers for Assessing Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Giskeødegård, Guro F.; Bertilsson, Helena; Selnæs, Kirsten M.; Wright, Alan J.; Bathen, Tone F.; Viset, Trond; Halgunset, Jostein; Angelsen, Anders; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Tessem, May-Britt

    2013-01-01

    Separating indolent from aggressive prostate cancer is an important clinical challenge for identifying patients eligible for active surveillance, thereby reducing the risk of overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to assess prostate cancer aggressiveness by metabolic profiling of prostatectomy tissue and to identify specific metabolites as biomarkers for aggressiveness. Prostate tissue samples (n?=?158, 48 patients) with a high cancer content (mean: 61.8%) were obtained using a new harvesting method, and metabolic profiles of samples representing different Gleason scores (GS) were acquired by high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS). Multivariate analysis (PLS, PLS-DA) and absolute quantification (LCModel) were used to examine the ability to predict cancer aggressiveness by comparing low grade (GS?=?6, n?=?30) and high grade (GS?7, n?=?81) cancer with normal adjacent tissue (n?=?47). High grade cancer tissue was distinguished from low grade cancer tissue by decreased concentrations of spermine (p?=?0.0044) and citrate (p?=?7.73·10?4), and an increase in the clinically applied (total choline+creatine+polyamines)/citrate (CCP/C) ratio (p?=?2.17·10?4). The metabolic profiles were significantly correlated to the GS obtained from each tissue sample (r?=?0.71), and cancer tissue could be distinguished from normal tissue with sensitivity 86.9% and specificity 85.2%. Overall, our findings show that metabolic profiling can separate aggressive from indolent prostate cancer. This holds promise for the benefit of applying in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) within clinical MR imaging investigations, and HR-MAS analysis of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies has a potential as an additional diagnostic tool. PMID:23626811

  1. Ameloblastoma: an aggressive lesion of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Suma, M S; Sundaresh, K J; Shruthy, R; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign locally invasive epithelial odontogenic tumour comprising 1% of all tumours and cysts arising in the jaws. It is commonly found in the third and fourth decade in the molar ramus region of the mandible. Among all types of ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma is believed to be locally aggressive lesion that has the tendency for recurrence. In this report we present a large multicystic ameloblastoma in the left body-ramus region of the mandible in a 55-year-old woman. This large lesion was diagnosed with the help of CT and was successfully managed by hemimandibulectomy with simultaneous reconstruction using iliac crest bone. PMID:24114548

  2. The Expression of Genetic Risk for Aggressive and Non-aggressive Antisocial Behavior is Moderated by Peer Group Norms.

    PubMed

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behaviors are important precursors of later adjustment problems. There is also strong empirical evidence that both types of antisocial behavior are partially influenced by genetic factors. However, despite its important theoretical and practical implications, no study has examined the question whether environmental factors differentially moderate the expression of genetic influences on the two types of antisocial behavior. Using a genetically informed design based on 266 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, this study examined whether the expression of genetic risk for aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior varies depending on the peer group's injunctive norms (i.e., the degree of acceptability) of each type of antisocial behavior. Self-reported aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior and classroom-based sociometric nominations were collected when participants were 10 years old. Multivariate genetic analyses revealed some common genetic factors influencing both types of antisocial behavior (i.e., general antisocial behavior) as well as genetic influences specific to non-aggressive antisocial behavior. However, genetic influences on general antisocial behavior, as well as specific genetic influences on non-aggressive antisocial behavior, vary depending on the injunctive classroom norms regarding these behaviors. These findings speak to the power of peer group norms in shaping aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior. They also contribute further to understanding the distinctive development of both types of antisocial behavior. Finally, they may have important implications for prevention purposes. PMID:25990672

  3. DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY & BEHAVIOURAL

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY & BEHAVIOURAL NEUROSCIENCES LILLIAN ROSE STEGNE MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP $5, pursuing studies related to Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences. Deadline Four copies of the completed: Psychiatry Education Office c/o Nancy Devlin Department of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences St. Joseph

  4. Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802

  5. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  6. Aggression and personality: association with amino acids and monoamine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Møller, S E; Mortensen, E L; Breum, L; Alling, C; Larsen, O G; Bøge-Rasmussen, T; Jensen, C; Bennicke, K

    1996-03-01

    Associations in 52 normal individuals were examined between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine, and concentrations of monoamine metabolites in the CSF, and scores on an aggression questionnaire, the Kinsey Institute Reaction List II, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. There was a significantly positive correlation between CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels and extroverted aggression scores, and a significantly negative correlation between CSF 5-HIAA levels and introverted aggression scores. Males showed higher plasma Trp concentrations than females, and significantly positive correlations between plasma Trp concentrations and scores on extroverted aggression and the Eysenck E scale. Males, furthermore, showed a significantly negative correlation between CSF Trp levels and scores on the Eysenck P scale, and a significantly positive correlation between concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol in CSF and scores on moral aggression. These results suggest that central serotonin influences aggression in normal individuals through effects on personality. PMID:8685288

  7. The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

  8. Variation and Transgression of Aggressiveness Among Two Gibberella Zeae Crosses Developed from Highly Aggressive Parental Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum) is the most common cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Aggressiveness is the most important fungal trait affecting disease severity and stability of host resistance. Objectives were to analyze in two field exper...

  9. The Effects of an Aggressive Model on the Magnitude of Extinction-Induced Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Andrew Harrell

    1973-01-01

    Twenty male Ss earned money by pulling a knob. Ss also could avoid or escape an aversive tone by pressing a button (a nonaggressive response) or by hitting a padded cushion (aggressive response). Control group Ss worked alone during two 90-minute sessions of an extinction condition in which knob pulling was no longer rewarded after 20 had been earned. Experimental

  10. Examining an Affective Aggression Framework Weapon and Temperature Effects on Aggressive Thoughts, Affect, and Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. Anderson; Kathryn B. Anderson; William E. Deuser

    1996-01-01

    A generalframework for studying affective aggression, integrat- ing many insights from previous models (e.g., those of Baron, Berkowitz, Geen, and Zillmann), is presented. New research examining effects of extreme temperatures and photos of guns on arousal, cognition, and affect is reported. Hostile cognition was assessedusing an automatic priming task (i.e., Stroop interfer- ence). Hostile affect was assessed with the State

  11. DOG AGGRESSION: CANINE BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO AGGRESSION TOWARD HUMANS

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    for this age group. Key words: behavior; dog aggression; questionnaire; human-animal bond AGREEMENT AMONG of experience toview 30 short video clips of dogs of various breeds and ages. The professionals were mostly), or certified applied animal behavior- ists (CAAB). First, the experts rated on a nine-point bipolar scale how

  12. Fascin expression predicts an aggressive clinical course in patients with advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    MIN, KYUENG-WHAN; CHAE, SEOUNG WAN; KIM, DONG-HOON; DO, SUNG-IM; KIM, KYUNGEUN; LEE, HYUN JOO; SOHN, JIN HEE; PYO, JUNG-SOO; KIM, DONG HYUN; OH, SUKJOONG; CHOI, SEON HYEONG; PARK, YONG LAI; PARK, CHAN HEUN

    2015-01-01

    Fascin is an actin cross-linking protein, which regulates actin dynamics and filopodia or spike formation, as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and has been implicated in cell motility. Although, fascin is pivotal in mediating the aggressive behaviour of various types of cancer, its prognostic significance according to tumour stage has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, the present study investigated fascin expression in 194 patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast between 2000 and 2005. Fascin protein expression levels were evaluated by immunostaining on a tissue microarray, and the association between fascin expression and various clinicopathological parameters was analysed. Fascin expression was significantly correlated with various clinicopathological parameters, including high histological grade, tumour necrosis, resistance to adjuvant therapy, high expression of p53 and Ki-67 and specific therapeutic markers (oestrogen and progesterone receptor negativity; all P<0.05). Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses identified a significant association between fascin expression, and poor disease-free and overall survival, in late-stage breast cancer (all P<0.05). Therefore, fascin may be crucial in predicting aggressive tumour behaviour, particularly in patients with advanced-stage disease that has acquired the properties of migration and invasion. PMID:26170987

  13. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

    2009-01-01

    In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers’ predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

  14. Single serotonergic neurons that modulate aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Alekseyenko, Olga V; Chan, Yick-Bun; Fernandez, Maria de la Paz; Bülow, Torsten; Pankratz, Michael J; Kravitz, Edward A

    2014-11-17

    Monoamine serotonin (5HT) has been linked to aggression for many years across species. However, elaboration of the neurochemical pathways that govern aggression has proven difficult because monoaminergic neurons also regulate other behaviors. There are approximately 100 serotonergic neurons in the Drosophila nervous system, and they influence sleep, circadian rhythms, memory, and courtship. In the Drosophila model of aggression, the acute shut down of the entire serotonergic system yields flies that fight less, whereas induced activation of 5HT neurons promotes aggression. Using intersectional genetics, we restricted the population of 5HT neurons that can be reproducibly manipulated to identify those that modulate aggression. Although similar approaches were used recently to find aggression-modulating dopaminergic and Fru(M)-positive peptidergic neurons, the downstream anatomical targets of the neurons that make up aggression-controlling circuits remain poorly understood. Here, we identified a symmetrical pair of serotonergic PLP neurons that are necessary for the proper escalation of aggression. Silencing these neurons reduced aggression in male flies, and activating them increased aggression in male flies. GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) analyses suggest that 5HT-PLP neurons form contacts with 5HT1A receptor-expressing neurons in two distinct anatomical regions of the brain. Activation of these 5HT1A receptor-expressing neurons, in turn, caused reductions in aggression. Our studies, therefore, suggest that aggression may be held in check, at least in part, by inhibitory input from 5HT1A receptor-bearing neurons, which can be released by activation of the 5HT-PLP neurons. PMID:25447998

  15. Personality and attempted suicide. Analysis of anger, aggression and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Giegling, Ina; Olgiati, Paolo; Hartmann, Annette M; Calati, Raffaella; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rujescu, Dan; Serretti, Alessandro

    2009-12-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, mortality from suicide being approximately 2%. Attempted suicide appears to be a major risk factor for suicide completion. Anger, aggression and impulsivity are personality traits associated with suicide attempt. In this study we analysed a part of a previously reported sample in order to test anger, impulsivity and temperament/character scales as predictors of aggression and self-aggression in suicide attempters and to compare anger- and aggression-related traits between impulsive and premeditated suicide attempts as well as between violent and non-violent suicide methods. One-hundred-eleven consecutively admitted inpatients with a lifetime history of attempted suicide were assessed for anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, STAXI), aggression (Questionnaire for Measuring Factors of Aggression, FAF) and temperament/character (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI). Higher aggression scores, as measured by FAF, were predicted by being male, meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder and having higher angry temperament scores as assessed by STAXI; low cooperativeness was also associated with aggression but not after controlling for STAXI scales. TCI dimensions associated with self-aggression were high harm avoidance, high impulsivity and low self-directedness; state anger, inwardly directed anger and inhibition of aggression were also predictors of self-aggression. In conclusion, impulsivity and harm avoidance have emerged as temperament dimensions independently associated with self-aggressive tendencies in personality. Such interactions could explain the correlation between temperament and suicidality but further research is needed. Anger and self-directedness appear to have some effects on suicide attempt. PMID:19481222

  16. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM; Willard, Gerald [Department of Defense, Ft. Meade, MD

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  17. RAPID EFFECTS OF AGGRESSIVE INTERACTIONS ON AROMATASE ACTIVITY AND ŒSTRADIOL IN DISCRETE BRAIN REGIONS OF WILD MALE WHITE-CROWNED SPARROWS

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Thierry D.; Newman, Amy E.M.; Heimovics, Sarah A.; Po, Kelvin W.L.; Saldanha, Colin J.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is critical for the activation of aggressive behaviours. In many vertebrate species, circulating T levels rapidly increase after aggressive encounters during the early or mid- breeding season. During the late breeding season, circulating T concentrations did not change in wild male white-crowned sparrows after an aggressive encounter, and in these animals, changes in local neural metabolism of T might be more important than changes in systemic T levels. Local neural aromatization of T into 17?-œstradiol (E2) often mediates the actions of T, and we hypothesized that in the late breeding season, brain aromatase is rapidly modulated after aggressive interactions, leading to changes in local concentrations of E2. Here, wild male white-crowned sparrows in the late breeding season were exposed to simulated territorial intrusion (STI) (song playback and live decoy) or control (CON) for 30 min. STI significantly increased aggressive behaviours. Using Palkovits punch technique, 13 brain regions were collected. There was high aromatase activity in several nuclei, but enzymatic activity in the CON and STI groups did not differ in any region. E2 concentrations were much higher in the brain than the plasma. STI did not affect circulating levels of E2 but rapidly reduced E2 concentrations in the hippocampus, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Surprisingly, there were no correlations between aromatase activity and E2 concentrations in the brain, nor were aromatase activity or brain E2 correlated with aggressive behaviour or plasma hormone levels. This is one of the first studies to measure E2 in microdissected brain regions, and the first study to do so in free-ranging animals. These data demonstrate that social interactions have rapid effects on local E2 concentrations in specific brain regions. PMID:21623961

  18. Unprovoked aggression: effects of psychopathic traits and sadism.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Zeichner, Amos; Seibert, L Alana

    2011-02-01

    Psychopathic individuals engage in the most violent and cold-blooded acts of aggression. In the laboratory, psychopathy traits have been linked to the commission of unprovoked aggression. The purpose of this study was to assess affective motives that may underlie the relationship between psychopathy and unprovoked aggression. One hundred thirty-seven men viewed a series of photographs depicting violent imagery, completed a lexical decision task designed to assess state affect, and competed in a laboratory-based aggression paradigm. Results indicated that participants who responded faster to happiness words after viewing violent imagery (i.e., sadistic) were significantly more likely to engage in unprovoked aggression. Additionally, Factor 1 psychopathy (emotional detachment) predicted increased probability of unprovoked aggression; however, this relationship was not mediated by sadism. Rather, Factor 1 and sadism each independently predicted unprovoked aggression. The implications of the present data suggest that the type of violence evinced may inform the risk for perpetration of future acts. That is, the individual who demonstrates unprovoked violence may be more likely to employ aggressive tactics across situational contexts than the individual who demonstrates only impulsive acts of hostile/reactive aggression. PMID:21223265

  19. Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-02-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games predicted automatic aggressive self-concept, above and beyond self-reported aggression. Results suggest that playing violent video games can lead to the automatic learning of aggressive self-views. PMID:15013259

  20. Heterospecific aggression and adaptive divergence in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans).

    PubMed

    Peiman, K S; Robinson, B W

    2007-06-01

    Agonistic behavior between heterospecifics, in which individuals of one species attack another, may cause a subordinate species to shift resource or habitat use. Subsequent evolutionary responses to selection may mimic shifts expected under ecological character displacement, but with no role played by exploitative competition. Alternatively, aggressive behavior can evolve when fitness is improved by excluding members of a coexisting species from a defendable resource through interference. We tested whether heterospecific agonistic behavior has evolved in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) by comparing replicate allopatric populations to those sympatric with ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). We also tested for heritable variation in heterospecific aggressive behavior by rearing family groups in a common environment. Allopatric populations of brook stickleback were more aggressive than ninespine stickleback, suggesting that pre-existing aggression in brook stickleback contributed to niche shifts by ninespine stickleback. In addition, sympatric adult brook stickleback were more aggressive toward ninespine stickleback than brook stickleback from allopatric populations. Overt heterospecific aggressive behaviors were heritable, and aggression in juvenile brook stickleback increased with age in sympatric but not in allopatric populations reared in a common environment. Brook stickleback have evolved increased aggression when they coexist with ninespine stickleback. These stickleback communities have been structured by both evolved and pre-existing variation in heterospecific aggressive behavior in brook stickleback. PMID:17542843

  1. Paliperidone suppresses the development of the aggressive phenotype in a developmentally sensitive animal model of escalated aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jared J. Schwartzer; Randall L. Morrison; Lesley A. Ricci; Richard H. Melloni Jr

    2009-01-01

    Rationale  Atypical antipsychotics are commonly prescribed to clinically referred youngsters for treatment of heightened aggressive behavior\\u000a associated with various psychiatric disorders. Previously, we demonstrated risperidone’s anti-aggressive effects using a well-validated\\u000a animal model of offensive aggression. Paliperidone, the main active metabolite of risperidone, is a potent serotonin-2A and\\u000a dopamine-2 receptor antagonist with slightly different pharmacodynamic properties compared to risperidone. Given that much

  2. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  3. Meeting the Challenges of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Managing practical science activities effectively is demanding for any teacher and especially so for inexperienced practitioners. Add the problems posed by integrating children with learning and behavioural difficulties and one has the sort of challenge that makes working in education rewarding--but not easy! As a newly qualified teacher, the…

  4. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  5. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females

    PubMed Central

    Darden, Safi K.; Watts, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female–female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female–female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  6. Cognitive Tempo, Violent Video Games, and Aggressive Behavior in Young Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, A. Roland; Gross, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    Assesses interpersonal aggression and aggression toward inanimate objects in a free-play setting where children played video games. Results indicated that subjects who played video games with aggressive content exhibited more object aggression during free-play and more interpersonal aggression during the frustrating situation than youngsters who…

  7. Gender, the Perception of Aggression, and the Overestimation of Gender Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Williams, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Investigated how gender of the aggressor, target, and observer would influence perception and evaluation of aggression. New Zealand college students read vignettes describing aggressive acts. Overall, they rated women's aggression as more acceptable than men's aggression. Men considered aggression more acceptable, because they considered the act…

  8. Community Violence Exposure, Social Cognition, and Aggression Among Urban Elementary School Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy G. Guerra; L. Rowell Huesmann; Anja Spindler

    2003-01-01

    The effects of witnessing community violence on aggressive cognitions and behavior were investigated in an ethnically diverse sample of 4,458 children living in urban neighborhoods. Prior violence exposure had a significant effect in increasing aggression, normative beliefs about aggression, and aggressive fantasy. Although exposure to violence predicted aggressive behavior both in Grades 1 through 3 (ages 5-8) and Grades 4

  9. Adult Criminal Activity among Adolescents Who Were Aggressive and Withdrawn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Debbie S.; Crawley, Michael E.

    Longitudinal studies of the effects of aggression and social withdrawal on later development contribute to an understanding of how socially deviant behaviors may affect future adaptation. This study is concerned with how aggression and social withdrawal are related to criminal activity approximately 10 years after individuals were initially…

  10. Associations among Empathy, Social Competence, & Reactive/Proactive Aggression Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Megan L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2007-01-01

    Differences between proactive and reactive aggression subtypes on self-reported measures of empathy, social competence, and expectation for reward were examined among 433 middle school students (65.4% White, 33.9% Black). As hypothesized, males scored higher on proactive and reactive aggression scales and lower on empathy measures than females.…

  11. Female perpetrated intimate aggression: the role of relational dimensions 

    E-print Network

    Madkins, Jeanette Patricia

    2009-05-15

    FEMALE PERPETRATED INTIMATE AGGRESSION: THE ROLE OF RELATIONAL DIMENSIONS A Dissertation by JEANETTE PATRICIA MADKINS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2007 Major Subject: Counseling Psychology FEMALE PERPETRATED INTIMATE AGGRESSION: THE ROLE OF RELATIONAL DIMENSIONS A Dissertation by JEANETTE PATRICIA MADKINS Submitted...

  12. Aggression and Violence on the Move in Russian Schoolchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervova, Irina

    1999-01-01

    Examination of trends in aggression and violence in Russian youth identifies risk factors including political factors, economic factors, ecological factors, the crash of ideals and decrease of morality, cultural factors, family problems, educational aspects, mass media influences, and delinquent groups. Incidents of youth violence and aggression

  13. Genetic and Environmental Stability Differs in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Zheng, Mo; Baker, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reactive (impulsive and affective) and proactive (planned and instrumental) aggression from childhood to early adolescence. The sample was drawn from an ongoing longitudinal twin study of risk factors for antisocial behavior at the University of Southern California (USC). The twins were measured on two occasions: ages 9–10 years (N = 1,241) and 11–14 years (N = 874). Reactive and proactive aggressive behaviors were rated by parents. The stability in reactive aggression was due to genetic and nonshared environmental influences, whereas the continuity in proactive aggression was primarily genetically mediated. Change in both reactive and proactive aggression between the two occasions was mainly explained by nonshared environmental influences, although some evidence for new genetic variance at the second occasion was found for both forms of aggression. These results suggest that proactive and reactive aggression differ in their genetic and environmental stability, and provide further evidence for some distinction between reactive and proactive forms of aggression. PMID:19688841

  14. Correlates of Gun Involvement and Aggressiveness among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody S.; Nelsen, Edward A.; Lassonde, Cynthia T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated adolescents' aggressiveness in relation to their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes concerning gun use, also noting family composition, relationships with parents, and emotionality as correlates of gun involvement and aggression. Student surveys indicated links between gun ownership and recreational use, beliefs about gun use, and…

  15. The Effects of Triazolam on Aggression in Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell E. Berman; Stuart Taylor

    1995-01-01

    To assess the effects of triazolam on human aggression, 46 male participants received either placebo or 0.25 mg triazolam using double-blind procedures. Approximately 60 min after drug ingestion, participants were given the opportunity to administer electric shocks to an increasingly provocative fictitious opponent during a competitive reaction time task. Aggression was defined as the level of shock the participant was

  16. A hybrid control architecture for aggressive maneuvering of autonomous helicopters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Frazzoli; Munther A. Dahleh; Eric Feron

    1999-01-01

    We propose a hierarchical control architecture for aggressive maneuvering applicable to autonomous helicopters. In order to reduce the computational requirements of the control problem to be solved to achieve aggressive trajectories, a hybrid system framework is used, which allows for a substantial reduction in the complexity of the system, as well as for guarantees on the stability of the overall

  17. Indirect Aggression, Bullying and Female Teen Victimization: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…

  18. Environmental Influences, the Developing Brain, and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudley, Cynthia; Novac, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    In this article the authors review research on highly stressful environments that are known to support the development and display of aggressive behavior in childhood, adolescence, and beyond. They also examine some of the mechanisms through which such stressful environments may influence adolescents' aggressive behavior. The review concentrates…

  19. Relations between Childraising Styles and Aggressiveness in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De la Torre-Cruz, M. J.; García-Linares, M. C.; Casanova-Arias, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Physical and aggressive behavior which children and adolescents show toward peers is associated to parenting styles. The aim of this research was to examine the relation between perceived parenting styles (from mothers and fathers) and the level of physical and verbal aggressive behavior, anger and hostility showed towards the peers.…

  20. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…