Note: This page contains sample records for the topic aggressive challenging behaviour from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) for People with Intellectual Disability and Aggressive Challenging Behaviour: A Reliability Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Reliable measures of aggressive challenging behaviour are required if interventions aimed at reducing this behaviour among people with intellectual disability (ID) are to be formally evaluated. The present authors examined the reliability of the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS), an instrument not yet formally tested in those with…

Oliver, P. C.; Crawford, M. J.; Rao, B.; Reece, B.; Tyrer, P.

2007-01-01

2

Overcoming the Barriers Experienced in Conducting a Medication Trial in Adults with Aggressive Challenging Behaviour and Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID) is frequently treated with antipsychotic drugs, despite a limited evidence base. Method: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was undertaken to investigate the efficacy, adverse effects and costs of two commonly prescribed antipsychotic drugs…

Oliver-Africano, P.; Dickens, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Bouras, N.; Cooray, S.; Deb, S.; Knapp, M.; Hare, M.; Meade, M.; Reece, B.; Bhaumik, S.; Harley, D.; Piachaud, J.; Regan, A.; Ade Thomas, D.; Karatela, S.; Rao, B.; Dzendrowskyj, T.; Lenotre, L.; Watson, J.; Tyrer, P.

2010-01-01

3

Overcoming the Barriers Experienced in Conducting a Medication Trial in Adults with Aggressive Challenging Behaviour and Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID) is frequently treated with antipsychotic drugs, despite a limited evidence base. Method: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was undertaken to investigate the efficacy, adverse effects and costs of two commonly prescribed antipsychotic drugs…

Oliver-Africano, P.; Dickens, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Bouras, N.; Cooray, S.; Deb, S.; Knapp, M.; Hare, M.; Meade, M.; Reece, B.; Bhaumik, S.; Harley, D.; Piachaud, J.; Regan, A.; Ade Thomas, D.; Karatela, S.; Rao, B.; Dzendrowskyj, T.; Lenotre, L.; Watson, J.; Tyrer, P.

2010-01-01

4

Risperidone, haloperidol, and placebo in the treatment of aggressive challenging behaviour in patients with intellectual disability: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Aggressive challenging behaviour is frequently reported in adults with intellectual disability and it is often treated with antipsychotic drugs. However, no adequate evidence base for this practice exists. We compared fl exible doses of haloperidol (a typical, fi rst-generation antipsychotic drug), risperidone (an atypical, second-generation antipsychotic), and placebo, in the treatment of this behaviour. Methods 86 non-psychotic patients presenting

Peter Tyrer; Patricia C Oliver-Africano; Zed Ahmed; Nick Bouras; Sherva Cooray; Shoumitro Deb; Declan Murphy; Monica Hare; Michael Meade; Ben Reece; Kofi Kramo; Sabyasachi Bhaumik; David Harley; Adrienne Regan; David Thomas; Bharti Rao; Bernard North; Joseph Eliahoo; Shamshad Karatela; Anju Soni; Mike Crawford

2008-01-01

5

Incidence, Types and Characteristics of Aggressive Behaviour in Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…

Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.

2008-01-01

6

Genetics of human aggressive behaviour.  

PubMed

A consideration of the evolutionary, physiological and anthropological aspects of aggression suggests that individual differences in such behaviour will have important genetic as well as environmental underpinning. Surveys of the likely pathways controlling the physiological and neuronal processes involved highlight, as obvious targets to investigate, genes implicated in sexual differentiation, anxiety, stress response and the serotonin neurotransmitter pathway. To date, however, association studies on single candidates have provided little evidence for any such loci with a major effect size. This may be because genes do not operate independently, but function against a background in which other genetic and environmental factors are crucial. Indeed, a series of recent studies, particularly concentrating on the serotonin and norepinephrine metabolising enzyme, monoamine oxidase A, has emphasised the necessity of examining gene by environmental interactions if the contributions of individual loci are to be understood. These findings will have major significance for the interpretation and analysis of data from detailed whole genome association studies. Functional imaging studies of genetic variants affecting serotonin pathways have also provided valuable insights into potential links between genes, brain and aggressive behaviour. PMID:19506905

Craig, Ian W; Halton, Kelly E

2009-06-09

7

Androgen Receptors, Sex Behaviour, and Aggression  

PubMed Central

Androgens are intricately involved in reproductive and aggressive behaviours, but the role of the androgen receptor in mediating these behaviours is less defined. Further, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can influence each other at the level of the androgen receptor. Knowledge of the mechanisms for androgens’ effects on behaviours through the androgen receptor will guide future studies in elucidating male reproductive and aggressive behaviour repertoires.

Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Lumia, Augustus R.; McGinnis, Marilyn Y.

2012-01-01

8

Genetics of aggressive behaviour in Golden Retriever dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs have been living in close proximity to humans since the last Ice Age. Like their progenitor the grey wolf, dogs may respond with aggressive behaviour to certain stimuli. This is natural behaviour in the majority of cases. However, canine aggression can develop into a dangerous problem. There is individual variation in the tendency of dogs to display aggressive behaviour.

L. van den Berg

2006-01-01

9

Thermal Behaviour of Honeybees During Aggressive Interactions  

PubMed Central

We report here on the interrelationship of aggressive behaviour and thermoregulation in honeybees. Body temperature measurements were carried out without behavioural disturbance by infrared thermography. Guard bees, foragers, drones, and queens involved in aggressive interactions were always endothermic, i.e. had their flight muscles activated. Guards made differential use of their endothermic capacity. Mean thorax temperature was 34.2–35.1°C during examination of bees but higher during fights with wasps (37°C) or attack of humans (38.6°C). They usually cooled down when examining bees whereas examinees often heated up during prolonged interceptions (maximum >47°C). Guards neither adjusted their thorax temperature (and thus flight muscle function and agility) to that of examined workers, nor to that of drones, which were 2–7°C warmer. Guards examined cool bees (<33°C) longer than warmer ones, supporting the hypothesis that heating of examinees facilitates odour identification by guards, probably because of vapour pressure increase of semiochemicals with temperature. Guards in the core of aggressive balls clinged to the attacked insects to fix them and kill them by heat (maximum 46.5°C). Bees in the outer cluster layers resembled normal guards behaviourally and thermally. They served as active core insulators by heating up to 43.9°C. While balled wasps were cooler (maximum 42.5°C) than clinging guards balled bees behaved like examinees with maximum temperatures of 46.6°C, which further supports the hypothesis that the examinees heat up to facilitate odour identification.

Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

2011-01-01

10

Thermal Behaviour of Honeybees During Aggressive Interactions.  

PubMed

We report here on the interrelationship of aggressive behaviour and thermoregulation in honeybees. Body temperature measurements were carried out without behavioural disturbance by infrared thermography. Guard bees, foragers, drones, and queens involved in aggressive interactions were always endothermic, i.e. had their flight muscles activated. Guards made differential use of their endothermic capacity. Mean thorax temperature was 34.2-35.1°C during examination of bees but higher during fights with wasps (37°C) or attack of humans (38.6°C). They usually cooled down when examining bees whereas examinees often heated up during prolonged interceptions (maximum >47°C). Guards neither adjusted their thorax temperature (and thus flight muscle function and agility) to that of examined workers, nor to that of drones, which were 2-7°C warmer. Guards examined cool bees (<33°C) longer than warmer ones, supporting the hypothesis that heating of examinees facilitates odour identification by guards, probably because of vapour pressure increase of semiochemicals with temperature. Guards in the core of aggressive balls clinged to the attacked insects to fix them and kill them by heat (maximum 46.5°C). Bees in the outer cluster layers resembled normal guards behaviourally and thermally. They served as active core insulators by heating up to 43.9°C. While balled wasps were cooler (maximum 42.5°C) than clinging guards balled bees behaved like examinees with maximum temperatures of 46.6°C, which further supports the hypothesis that the examinees heat up to facilitate odour identification. PMID:22140291

Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

2007-09-17

11

Correlational Analysis of Challenging Behaviours.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is argued that challenging behavior can be better understood if a correlational analysis (looking for correlations between behavior occurrence and other variables) is used in addition to functional analysis. A case example is provided of a man whose aggressive outbursts were negatively correlated with trips out of his unit. (Contains…

Whitaker, Simon; Hirst, Daniel

2002-01-01

12

Challenging Student Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The issue of poor student behaviour within higher education institutions (HEIs) has been well documented in recent years. Although the number of reported cases constitutes a very small percentage of the overall student population in the UK, the impact of student misconduct on the rest of the student body and staff in HEIs can be substantial. For…

Jones, Glyn; Philp, Clare

2011-01-01

13

Challenging behaviour in HIV services.  

PubMed

'Challenging behaviour' is a label, and one that is often misused in the context of mental health. Using a profile, this article identifies a number of behaviours that may challenge service. Peter has HIV and has developed a related opportunistic illness, affecting brain function. The author stresses the importance of person-centred care, urging providers to audit their services and evaluate the requirement for alterations to assessment documentation to meet the changing needs of individuals, families and children living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:9919237

Gordon, A

14

Ontogeny of Aggressive Behaviour in Schools of Yellowtail, Seriola Quinqueradiata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied ontogenetic changes in social interactions, especially in aggressive behaviour of the migratory marine yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata (Carangidae), and compared these to morphological and physiological changes. No agonistic interactions were observed during the larva period until 10 mm in total length (TL), at approximately 20 days after hatching. Typical shivering behaviour with ‘J-posture’ was observed during metamorphosis, when fin

Yoshitaka Sakakura; Katsumi Tsukamoto

1999-01-01

15

Challenging Behaviours: Prevalence and Topographies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Variations in reported prevalence of challenging behaviour indicate the need for further epidemiological research to support accurate planning of future service provision. Methods: All services providing for people with learning disabilities across seven unitary authorities, with a total population of 1.2 million, were screened to…

Lowe, K.; Allen, D.; Jones, E.; Brophy, S.; Moore, K.; James, W.

2007-01-01

16

Differentially expressed genes for aggressive pecking behaviour in laying hens  

PubMed Central

Background Aggressive behaviour is an important aspect in the daily lives of animals living in groups. Aggressive animals have advantages, such as better access to food or territories, and they produce more offspring than low ranking animals. The social hierarchy in chickens is measured using the 'pecking order' concept, which counts the number of aggressive pecks given and received. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the 'pecking order'. Results A total of 60 hens from a high feather pecking selection line were divided into three groups: only receivers (R), only peckers (P) and mixed peckers and receivers (P&R). In comparing the R and P groups, we observed that there were 40 differentially expressed genes [false discovery rate (FDR) P < 0.10]. It was not fully clear how the 40 genes regulated aggressive behaviour; however, gene set analysis detected a number of GO identifiers, which were potentially involved in aggressive behavioural processes. These genes code for synaptosomes (GO:0019797), and proteins involved in the regulation of the excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential (GO:0060079), the regulation of the membrane potential (GO:0042391), and glutamate receptor binding (GO:0035254). Conclusion In conclusion, our study provides new insights into which genes are involved in aggressive behaviours in chickens. Pecking and receiving hens exhibited different gene expression profiles in their brains. Following confirmation, the identification of differentially expressed genes may elucidate how the pecking order forms in laying hens at a molecular level.

2009-01-01

17

Training Staff to Manage Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: A training package for staff working with clients presenting challenging behaviour was developed to (1) increase their knowledge regarding challenging behaviour, and (2) to improve the quality of physical intervention techniques. The latter aim was intended to reduce staff anxiety about dealing with incidents and limit physical risk…

van Oorsouw, Wietske M. W. J.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Jahoda, Andrew

2010-01-01

18

Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

2009-01-01

19

Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

2009-01-01

20

Effects of aromatizable androgens on aggressive behaviour among rats (rattus norvegicus).  

PubMed

Three experiments were used to tests the applicability of the aromatization hypothesis of androgen action to aggressive behaviour among Norway rats. In Expt 1, administration of testosterone propionate was highly effective in restoring aggressive behaviour to castrated rats while 17 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-androstan-3-one was of intermediate effectiveness. Of the steriods tested in Expt 2, androstenedione and testosterone were highly effective, 17 beta, 19-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one was of intermediate effectiveness and cholesterol was ineffective. The results of Expt 3 indicated that treatment with testosterone or oestradiol both resulted in increased aggression while treatment with (5 alpha,17 beta)-17,19-bis(acetyloxy)-andostan-3-one diacetate (5 alpha-19-hydroxytestosterone) was without effect. Androgens which were aromatizable and could be 5 alpha reduced, i.e. testosterone, testosterone propionate and androstenedione, were highly effective in restoring aggressive behaviour; however, two other steroids, 5 alpha,19-hydroxytestosterone which is 5 alpha reduced, and 19-hydroxytestosterone, which can be aromatized, were respectively of low or medium effectiveness on behaviour. However, oestradiol, which did not maintain sexual development of accessory glands, was highly effective in the restoration of aggressive behaviour. Since the behaviourally active steroids in the present experiments were not only those predicted by the aromatization hypothesis, it is proposed that several steroids are capable of activating aggressive behaviour and that the aromatization hypothesis does not adequately explain the hormonal basis of aggressive behaviour among Norway rats. PMID:574890

Christie, M H; Barfield, R J

1979-10-01

21

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution  

PubMed Central

Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve.

Rosvall, K. A.; Bergeon Burns, C. M.; Barske, J.; Goodson, J. L.; Schlinger, B. A.; Sengelaub, D. R.; Ketterson, E. D.

2012-01-01

22

The role of personality in aggressive behaviour among individuals with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Aggressive behaviour is associated with certain personality traits in both the general population and among individuals with mental health problems, but little attention has been paid to the relationship between aggressive behaviour and personality among individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The aim of this study was to circumscribe personality profiles associated with aggressive behaviour among individuals with ID. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study of 296 adults with mild or moderate ID, information on mental health, personality and aggressive behaviour was gathered through structured interviews with the ID participants and their case manager, and a review of client files. RESULTS: The results of the Reiss Profile were submitted to hierarchical cluster analysis method. Subsequently, the distribution of aggressive behaviour, sociodemographic characteristics and clinical characteristics across personality profiles was analysed. The analyses yielded seven distinct personality profiles in relation to patterns of aggressive behaviour: Pacifists, Socials, Confidents, Altruists, Conformists, Emotionals and Asocials. CONCLUSION: The identification of distinct personality profiles sheds light on the risk factors for aggressive behaviour, and suggests new approaches to improving diagnostic and intervention strategies. PMID:23701467

Chaïb, L S; Crocker, A G

2013-05-22

23

The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behaviour in Genetic Syndromes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Self-injurious and aggressive behaviours are reported as components of some behavioural phenotypes but there are few studies comparing across syndrome groups. In this study we examined the prevalence of these behaviours and the associated person characteristics in seven genetic syndromes. Methods: Questionnaire data on self-injury and…

Arron, K.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Berg, K.; Burbidge, C.

2011-01-01

24

Prevalence, Phenomenology, Aetiology and Predictors of Challenging Behaviour in Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…

Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.

2011-01-01

25

Teaching a Child with Challenging Behaviour to Use the Toilet: A Clinical Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to use the toilet is an important developmental step for a child's independence, health and dignity. It can be particularly difficult to teach continence skills to disabled children with aggressive or challenging behaviour. This study showed how Azrin & Foxx's (1971) basic toilet training procedure could be modified to teach a 13-year-old…

Brown, Freddy Jackson; Peace, Natalie

2011-01-01

26

Prevalence, Phenomenology, Aetiology and Predictors of Challenging Behaviour in Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…

Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.

2011-01-01

27

Teaching a Child with Challenging Behaviour to Use the Toilet: A Clinical Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning to use the toilet is an important developmental step for a child's independence, health and dignity. It can be particularly difficult to teach continence skills to disabled children with aggressive or challenging behaviour. This study showed how Azrin & Foxx's (1971) basic toilet training procedure could be modified to teach a…

Brown, Freddy Jackson; Peace, Natalie

2011-01-01

28

Do similar neural systems subserve aggressive and sexual behaviour in male rats? Insights from c-Fos and pharmacological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a common belief that male aggressive and sexual behaviour share many of the underlying neurobiological, neurological, pharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Therefore, we studied brain activation patterns in male rat after performance of aggressive and sexual behaviour and compared serotonergic pharmacology in the same paradigms to delineate possible similarities and differences.Patterns of Fos-immunoreactivity induced by aggressive and sexual encounters

Jan G. Veening; Lique M. Coolen; Trynke R. de Jong; Henk W. Joosten; Sietze F. de Boer; Jaap M. Koolhaas; Berend Olivier

2005-01-01

29

Attachment, Emergent Morality, and Aggression: Toward a Developmental Socioemotional Model of Antisocial Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does attachment play a role in the development of moral reasoning and antisocial behaviour? In this contribution we discuss the role of attachment relationships in the development of early precursors of morality and antisocial behaviour, in particular compliance and aggression in infancy and in childhood. Findings are presented on the role of attachment representations in the development of morality, authoritarianism,

Marinus H. van IJzendoorn

1997-01-01

30

Pharmacotherapy for Aggressive Behaviours in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Treatment or Mistreatment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…

Tsiouris, J. A.

2010-01-01

31

Aggression Management Training for Youth in Behaviour Schools: A Quasi-Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 16-week, bi-weekly, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based aggression management training course was conducted with a limited sample of behavioural school students in New South Wales. Attendance, withdrawal and suspension rates over the training period were compared to those of a control period. Parent and teacher feedback, assessed at pre-…

Wheatley, Anna; Murrihy, Rachael; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wuthrich, Viviana; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; Dadds, Mark; Kidman, Antony

2009-01-01

32

The Effect of Exogenous Hormones on Aggressive and Defensive Behaviour in the Ring Dove (Streptopelia Rosoria).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aggressive and defensive behaviour of the ring dove was studied in response to a model predator and to another member of the same species. During a single breeding cycle defensive behaviour increased rapidly just before laying, reached a second peak a...

D. M. Vowles D. Harwood

1965-01-01

33

Prevalence of physical and verbal aggressive behaviours and associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB) is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism.

Philippe Voyer; René Verreault; Ginette M Azizah; Johanne Desrosiers; Nathalie Champoux; Annick Bédard

2005-01-01

34

IMP3 can predict aggressive behaviour of lung adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer most often presents as an inoperable tumour and the diagnosis is usually performed on a small biopsy/cytology specimen. In the group of non small cell lung cancer - not otherwise specified, adenocarcinoma phenotype can be determined immunohistochemically using TTF-1 and Napsin A. Expression of oncofetal protein IMP3 in human cancer is associated with poor differentiation and aggressive behaviour. In the present study expression of IMP3 was correlated with expression of TTF-1 and Napsin A, histological subtype and clinical stage of lung adenocarcinoma. We were interested whether distant metastases are associated with IMP3 overexpression, regardless of the histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. Methods In retrospective study, consecutive series of 105 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in Clinical Hospital Center Split, Croatia, were analysed. Clinical data were collected from the Pulmology Department and time of death from the Mortality Registry. Paraffin blocks of bronchoscopic biopsies were collected from the Institute of Pathology and 15 cases excluded from the analysis due to insufficient material. Expression of IMP3, Napsin A and TTF-1 were analysed by indirect enzyme immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed and P values less than 0.05 considered significant. Results Of 90 patients, 71 (78%) were males and 19 (22%) females. Median age for males was 61.5 years (min-max 43–83) and for females 61 years (min-max 44–86). Pleural effusion was found in 15 (16.6%) and distant metastases in 45 (50%) cases. According to histological subtypes, there were 34 acinar, 2 lepidic, 2 papillary and 52 solid subtypes. IMP3 overexpression was found in 63 cases (70%) and was correlated with solid subtype (P?=?0.002) and negative/weak Napsin A expression (P?=?0.004). Strong Napsin A expression correlated with TTF-1 expression (P?=?0.003) and lower histological grades (P?=?0.031). Patients with IMP3 overexpression more often had distant metastases than patients with negative IMP3, 55.5% versus 33.3% (P?=?0.033). Non solid subtypes with IMP3 overexpression developed distant metastasis more common than non solid subtypes with negative IMP3, 72% versus 35% (P?=?0.028). Conclusions Expression of IMP3 correlates with solid subtype and with distant metastases regardless of histological subtype of lung adenocarcinoma. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1966211581795258 Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Das Lungenkarzinom kommt meistens als nicht resektabler Tumor vor und die Diagnose kann nur in kleinen Biopsaten oder zytologisch gestellt werden. In der Gruppe der nicht kleinzelligen Lungenkarzinome kann der nicht anders spezifizierte Adenokarzinom Phänotyp mit Hilfe der Antikörper TTF-1 und Napsin A diagnostiziert werden. Die Expression des onkoföetalen Proteins IMP3 ist bei humanen Karzinomen mit agressivem Verhalten und metastatischem Potential verbunden. In dieser Studie korreliert die Expression von IMP3 mit TTF-1, Napsin A, histologischem Typ und klinischem Staging des Lungenkarzinoms. Wir waren daran interessiert, ob Fernmetastasen mit IMP3 Überexpression assoziiert sind, unabhängig von der histologischen Subtyp von Adenokarzinom. Methode In der retrospektiven Studie wurden die von 2006 bis 2009 im Klinischem Krankenhaus Split, Kroatien diagnostizerte Adenokarzinome der Lunge von 105 Patienten analysiert. Die klinischen Daten stammten aus der Abteilung für Pulmologie und im Falle des Todes vom Todesregister. Die Paraffinblöcke der primären Lungenbiopsate dieser Patienten wurden im Institut für Pathologie mit der indirekter Enzym - Immunohistochemie mittels Kombination der Antikörper gegen IMP3, Napsin A und TTF1 untersucht. 15 Fälle aus der Analyse aufgrund unzureichender Material ausgeschlossen. Es wurde eine statistische Untersuchung durchgeführt und Werte weniger als 0.05 P wurden als stat

2012-01-01

35

Issues in the management of challenging behaviours of adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a particularly important risk factor for challenging behaviours such as aggression, tantrums, self-injury and pica. Adults with ASD have rarely been studied with respect to these problems. This is particularly disconcerting since there are far more adults than children with ASD. In addition, because of adults' increased physical size and longer history of these problems, treating these behaviours effectively is important. Psychological methods, particularly applied behaviour analysis, and pharmacotherapy have been the most frequently addressed treatments for challenging behaviours associated with ASD in the research literature. In many cases, challenging behaviours have clear environmental antecedents. In these cases, behavioural interventions, such as applied behaviour analysis, should be used to reduce the behaviours. When environmental factors cannot be identified or when challenging behaviours are very severe, pharmacological treatments may be necessary in combination with behavioural interventions. Newer antipsychotics are the most researched medications for use with this population. Currently, risperidone and aripiprazole are the only medications that have US FDA approval for the treatment of behaviours associated with ASD, specifically irritability; however, they are indicated for use in children not adults. It is important not to use medications unnecessarily, due to possible side effects associated with their use. Based on available research, some recommendations for the treatment of challenging behaviours of adults (and children) with ASD include the use of functional assessment, side-effect monitoring of medications and behavioural methods whenever possible. Additionally, future research in this area needs to focus more on adults, as most current research has used child samples. PMID:21699271

Matson, Johnny L; Sipes, Megan; Fodstad, Jill C; Fitzgerald, Mary E

2011-07-01

36

Effect of aggressive behaviour on age-structured population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present an age-structured population model that incorporates individual behaviour. A classical Leslie matrix model is used to describe the population demography. Adults acquire resources required to survive and reproduce by using two contrasted behavioural tactics (hawk versus dove). Individual survival depends on the average cost of fights while individual fecundity depends on the average gain in

Estelle Chambon-Dubreuil; Pierre Auger; Jean-Michel Gaillard; Mohamed Khaladi

2006-01-01

37

Aggressive behaviour and dominance relationships of the dark chub, Zacco temmincki with special reference to their individual recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behaviour and dominance relationships ofZacco temmincki were observed by introducing fish into an enclosed pond. Chase (-flee), lateral display, parallel swim and butt were the\\u000a principal behavioural patterns in aggressive encounters between fish, while chase, resulting in lateral display by the chased\\u000a fish was the most common behavioural sequence. Initially, mutual behavioural patterns such as parallel swim and mutual

Osamu Katano

1985-01-01

38

Indirect Genetic Effects and Housing Conditions in Relation to Aggressive Behaviour in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Indirect Genetic Effects (IGEs), also known as associative effects, are the heritable effects that an individual has on the phenotype of its social partners. Selection for IGEs has been proposed as a method to reduce harmful behaviours, in particular aggression, in livestock and aquaculture. The mechanisms behind IGEs, however, have rarely been studied. The objective was therefore to assess aggression in pigs which were divergently selected for IGEs on growth (IGEg). In a one generation selection experiment, we studied 480 offspring of pigs (Sus scrofa) that were selected for relatively high or low IGEg and housed in homogeneous IGEg groups in either barren or enriched environments. Skin lesion scores, a proxy measure of aggression, and aggressive behaviours were recorded. The two distinct IGEg groups did not differ in number of skin lesions, or in amount of reciprocal fighting, both under stable social conditions and in confrontation with unfamiliar pigs in a 24 h regrouping test. Pigs selected for a positive effect on the growth of their group members, however, performed less non-reciprocal biting and showed considerably less aggression at reunion with familiar group members after they had been separated during a 24 h regrouping test. The enriched environment was associated with more skin lesions but less non-reciprocal biting under stable social conditions. Changes in aggression between pigs selected for IGEg were not influenced by G×E interactions with regard to the level of environmental enrichment. It is likely that selection on IGEg targets a behavioural strategy, rather than a single behavioural trait such as aggressiveness.

Camerlink, Irene; Turner, Simon P.; Bijma, Piter; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

2013-01-01

39

Indirect genetic effects and housing conditions in relation to aggressive behaviour in pigs.  

PubMed

Indirect Genetic Effects (IGEs), also known as associative effects, are the heritable effects that an individual has on the phenotype of its social partners. Selection for IGEs has been proposed as a method to reduce harmful behaviours, in particular aggression, in livestock and aquaculture. The mechanisms behind IGEs, however, have rarely been studied. The objective was therefore to assess aggression in pigs which were divergently selected for IGEs on growth (IGEg). In a one generation selection experiment, we studied 480 offspring of pigs (Sus scrofa) that were selected for relatively high or low IGEg and housed in homogeneous IGEg groups in either barren or enriched environments. Skin lesion scores, a proxy measure of aggression, and aggressive behaviours were recorded. The two distinct IGEg groups did not differ in number of skin lesions, or in amount of reciprocal fighting, both under stable social conditions and in confrontation with unfamiliar pigs in a 24 h regrouping test. Pigs selected for a positive effect on the growth of their group members, however, performed less non-reciprocal biting and showed considerably less aggression at reunion with familiar group members after they had been separated during a 24 h regrouping test. The enriched environment was associated with more skin lesions but less non-reciprocal biting under stable social conditions. Changes in aggression between pigs selected for IGEg were not influenced by G×E interactions with regard to the level of environmental enrichment. It is likely that selection on IGEg targets a behavioural strategy, rather than a single behavioural trait such as aggressiveness. PMID:23762299

Camerlink, Irene; Turner, Simon P; Bijma, Piter; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

2013-06-06

40

Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).  

PubMed Central

Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype.

Horth, Lisa

2003-01-01

41

Students' experiences of aggressive behaviour and bully\\/victim problems in Irish schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s, a greater understanding of the frequency and typology of bullying\\/victim problems in schools has been accrued in many countries, including Ireland, where a nationwide study of bullying behaviour in schools was undertaken in 1993–1994. However, rather less is known about Irish school students' involvement in other forms of aggressive behaviour. The purpose of the survey described here

Stephen James Minton

2010-01-01

42

Staff training and challenging behaviour: who needs it?  

PubMed

Staff working directly with people who have challenging behaviour in learning disability services need to be D good at what they do. These staff are trained by their employers to manage and to treat challenging behaviours and to improve the quality of life of people in their care. While such training is generally well evaluated by care staff, there is limited evidence that training alone changes poor attitudes or improves staff performance. Training has not been linked to quality of outcomes for service users. From research on treating challenging behaviour, achieving maintenance of behavioural gains after treatment has been discontinued is the exception rather than the rule. Can the same be said for maintaining gains achieved through staff training in the area of challenging behaviour? This discussion article reviews the value of training for staff working with people with challenging behaviour. PMID:17613590

Campbell, Martin

2007-06-01

43

Effects of an endocrine disrupter on courtship and aggressive behaviour of male three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oestrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals released into the environment have the potential to affect animal behaviour. This study examined the relationship between plasma levels of gonadal steroids and behaviour and the effects of exogenous hormonal perturbation on the behaviour of nesting male three-spined stickleback. Plasma gonadal steroid concentrations were related to levels of nesting and aggressive behaviours: levels of oestradiol were negatively

Alison M. Bell

2001-01-01

44

Contextual Variables Affecting Aggressive Behaviour in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities Who Live in a Residential Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…

Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.

2009-01-01

45

Prevalence of physical and verbal aggressive behaviours and associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB) is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism. Methods The goals of this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study are to determine the prevalence of verbal and physical aggressive behaviours and to identify associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area (n = 2 332). Results The same percentage of older adults displayed physical aggressive behaviour (21.2%) or verbal aggressive behaviour (21.5%), whereas 11.2% displayed both types of aggressive behaviour. Factors associated with aggressive behaviour (both verbal and physical) were male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild and severe cognitive impairment, insomnia, psychological distress, and physical restraints. Factors associated with physical aggressive behaviour were older age, male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild or severe cognitive impairment, insomnia and psychological distress. Finally, factors associated with verbal aggressive behaviour were benzodiazepine and neuroleptic drug use, functional dependency, mild or severe cognitive impairment and insomnia. Conclusion Cognitive impairment severity is the most significant predisposing factor for aggressive behaviour among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area. Physical and chemical restraints were also significantly associated with AB. Based on these results, we suggest that caregivers should provide care to older adults with AB using approaches such as the progressively lowered stress threshold model and reactance theory which stress the importance of paying attention to the severity of cognitive impairment and avoiding the use of chemical or physical restraints.

Voyer, Philippe; Verreault, Rene; Azizah, Ginette M; Desrosiers, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Bedard, Annick

2005-01-01

46

Pre-School Children's Aggressive and Pro-Social Behaviours in Stressful Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of our research was to investigate social and emotional skills that determine pre-schoolers' aggressive and pro-social behaviours in stressful situations. The sample of the empirical study consisted of 119 (36-48, 49-60 and 61-72 months) Hungarian children from six pre-schools. Instruments that were used: Coping strategy self-report and…

Zsolnai, Aniko; Lesznyak, Marta; Kasik, Laszlo

2012-01-01

47

School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

2012-01-01

48

From conduct disorder to severe mental illness: associations with aggressive behaviour, crime and victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Conduct disorder (CD) prior to age 15 has been associated with an increased risk of aggressive behaviour and crime among men with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample of severely mentally ill men and women. Method. We examined a cohort of in-patients with severe mental illness in one mental health

S. Hodgins; A. Cree; J. Alderton; T. Mak

2008-01-01

49

How does former acquaintance affect aggressive behaviour in repeatedly mixed male and female pigs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to describe the effect of previous acquaintance on aggressive behaviour in repeatedly regrouped pigs and the nature of interaction between sexes. Four replicates of each 100 pigs (half entire males, half females) were weaned at 4 weeks and kept litterwise until 8 weeks, when they were randomly allocated to 10 pens of 10 pigs each. Random

Mette Giersing; Arne Andersson

1998-01-01

50

School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

2012-01-01

51

The relationship between pre-morbid personality and challenging behaviour in people with dementia: A systematic review.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that challenging behaviour in people with dementia reflects a person's pre-morbid personality traits and a number of studies have explored this hypothesis. However, inconsistencies in outcome between studies suggest a need to review the available evidence systematically. As a result, major bibliographic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between pre-morbid personality and challenging behaviour in order to conduct a systematic review. We included all English language studies published in referenced journals that assessed pre-morbid personality via a valid comprehensive personality measure, and also explored a relationship with challenging behaviour in people with dementia. A total of 18 studies were identified that covered a wide range of challenging behaviours including 'wandering', affective states, aggression, anxiety and delusions/hallucinations. Studies were assessed for their methodological quality and statistical findings. Studies lacked representative samples, were affected by confounding variables and suffered from small sample sizes. However, 72% of the studies reported significant relationships between pre-morbid personality and behaviour. In terms of specific relationships, the strongest evidence was found for a positive relationship between pre-morbid neuroticism and mood, and aggression and overall behavioural acts, thus supporting the inclusion of personality as one factor in the formulation of behaviour (Ballard, C., O'Brien, J., James, I., & Swann, A. (2001). Dementia: Management of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Kitwood, T. (1993). Person and process in dementia: Editorial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 1, 541-545). PMID:20480417

Osborne, Hannah; Simpson, Jane; Stokes, Graham

2010-07-01

52

Aurora B expression correlates with aggressive behaviour in glioblastoma multiforme  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal abnormalities and genomic instability are common features of, and possible driving forces in, tumorigenesis. Recently, several mitotic proteins that are critical to proper chromosome segregation have been identified. Members of the Aurora kinase family have been identified as having important roles in mitosis; overexpression induces multicellularity and fosters polyploidy. As aneuploidy is a common feature of malignant gliomas, particularly glioblastomas (GBMs), we examined 25 prospectively collected GBMs to assess the role that overexpression of one member of this family, Aurora B, might have in the clinical behaviour of GBMs. Aurora B expression levels were markedly correlated with a shortened survival. Aurora B expression was not directly related to age, tumour proliferation status or to several common molecular changes found in GBMs. These results suggest that Aurora B may be a prognostic feature of impaired survival and a novel therapeutic target in some patients.

Zeng, Weifen F; Navaratne, Kapila; Prayson, Richard A; Weil, Robert J

2007-01-01

53

The Efficacy of Positive Behavioural Support with the Most Challenging Behaviour: The Evidence and Its Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Positive behaviour support (PBS) is behaviour analysis applied in support of people with challenging behaviour. Questions have been raised as to PBS effectiveness, costs, and accessibility. Method: Outcome studies meeting specified criteria for PBS were selected for review. All told, 12 outcome studies encompassing 423 cases were…

LaVigna, Gary W.; Willis, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

54

Behavioural aggression in panic disorder after 8 weeks' treatment with alprazolam.  

PubMed

23 patients with a diagnosis of panic disorder with agoraphobia were randomly assigned to 8 weeks' treatment with alprazolam or placebo. They filled in self-ratings before and after treatment and competed on a competitive reaction time task, designed to measure behavioural aggression, after 8 weeks' treatment. Patients taking both alprazolam and placebo rated decreased anxiety after 8 weeks' treatment but those on alprazolam also tended to report less hostility. On the behavioural task, patients on alprazolam behaved more aggressively in response to provocation. This is the first study to confirm clinical reports of benzodiazepine-induced dyscontrol on an objective laboratory measure. It is important that it is followed up in a larger group of patients. PMID:8749839

Bond, A J; Curran, H V; Bruce, M S; O'Sullivan, G; Shine, P

1995-12-13

55

Are Behavioural and Psychological Control BothDifferentially Associated with Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers of aggressive-externalizing (AGG), withdrawn-internalizing (WTH), and socially average (AVG) children in grades K, 2, and 4 were compared to determine whether they differed in their use of behavioural control and forms of psychological control involving threats to self-esteem. Using teacher and peer ratings of socioemotional adjustment, target groups were formed; there were 22 AVG, 13 WTH, and 10 AGG

ROSEMARY S. L. MILLS; KENNETH H. RUBIN

1998-01-01

56

Influence of aggressive exposure conditions on the behaviour of adhesive bonded concrete–GFRP joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the interim results of an on-going study on the influence of aggressive exposure conditions on the behaviour of epoxy adhesive bonded concrete–glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP) joints. The type of specimen used in this study is a push-off double lap shear specimen. Twenty-four of these push-off specimens consisting of concrete prisms, 100×100×300-mm, bonded with 470-mm long, 90-mm

P Mukhopadhyaya; R. N Swamy; C. J Lynsdale

1998-01-01

57

Addressing challenging behaviour in children with Down syndrome: The use of applied behaviour analysis for assessment and intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with Down syndrome and the examination of behaviourally based strategies to

Kathleen M. Feeley; Emily A. Jones

2006-01-01

58

Aggressive behaviour in early elementary school children: relations to authoritarian parenting, children’s negative emotionality and coping strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children’s negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children’s aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6–8. Teachers rated the children’s aggressive behaviour at school, and mothers reported how often they adopted an authoritarian parenting

Siu Mui Chan

2010-01-01

59

Top Ten Challenges for Understanding Gender and Aggression in Children: Why Can't We All Just Get Along?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies methodological challenges for understanding childhood aggression and gender. Considers definitions, contexts, and subtypes, as well as sampling and measures before moving on to research comparing the level of aggression shown by boys and girls. Notes that physical and social aggression may not have the same developmental origins;…

Underwood, Marion K.; Galen, Britt R.; Paquette, Julie A.

2001-01-01

60

Teachers' Beliefs about Inappropriate Behaviour: Challenging Attitudes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on taking a first step in the process of influencing teachers' attitudes by building a description of beliefs about inappropriate behaviour that can be used in staff development work to provoke dissonance-led change. It describes a study, undertaken in two parts, exploring teachers' attitudes to inclusion, and ascertaining…

Grieve, Ann M.

2009-01-01

61

Aggression in bottlenose dolphins: Evidence for sexual coercion, male-male competition, and female tolerance through analysis of tooth-rake marks and behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aggressive behaviour is rarely observed, but may have a large impact on the social struc- ture, relationships and interactions in animal societies. Long-term behavioural study of Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, suggests that males are more aggressive than females, and use sexual coercion during the breeding season, but age and sex-specific patterns of aggression have not

Erin M. Scott; Janet Mann; Jana J. Watson-Capps; Brooke L. Sargeant; Richard C. Connor

2005-01-01

62

PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF INMATES OF A CHILDRENS HOME WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THEIR INTELLIGENCE AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR1  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sixty two inmates of a children's home of Lucknow City were examined by using Hindi Adaptation of Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale-Form LM (1960) and a five point rating scale for aggression. A high proportion (69.4%) of the inmates had one or other psychiatric problem. Mild mental retardation (I.Q. 50-70) was most common (41.9%). Intellectual level was correlated with present age, duration of stay and age at entry. Significant correlation was found between Intellectual level and present age, as well as duration of stay. Nearly 39% inmates showed aggressive behaviour. Aggressive behaviour was also correlated with present age, duration of stay, age at entry and psychiatric illness. The children suffering from emotional problems (such as unsocialised disturbance of conduct, adjustment reaction, nail biting, enuresis etc.) showed significantly more aggression than healthy children. Though no significant difference was fourd, but there is a trend that larger number of boys show aggression than girls.

Chaturvedi, P.K.; Agarwal, A.K.; Gupta, S.C.

1984-01-01

63

Effectiveness of an Attachment-Focused Manualized Intervention for Parents of Teens at Risk for Aggressive Behaviour: The Connect Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…

Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid

2009-01-01

64

Effect of glutaurine on sleep-wakefulness cycle and aggressive behaviour in the cat.  

PubMed

The effects of glutaurine (gamma-L-glutamyl taurine, Litoralon, Chinoin, Budapest) on the aggressive behaviour and sleep-wakefulness cycle were studied in freely moving cats. Glutaurine, even in doses as low as 0.1 microgram/kg, was found significantly to shorten the latency of the rat-killing reaction elicited by hypothalamic stimulation. On the other hand, the same doses failed to modify the sleep-wakefulness cycle to any significant degree throughout the study period of 4 hours. On the grounds of these and previous data, the possible brain site of the glutaurine action is discussed. PMID:3705977

Kukorelli, T; Feuer, L; Juhász, G; Détári, L

1986-01-01

65

Addressing Challenging Behaviour in Children with Down Syndrome: The Use of Applied Behaviour Analysis for Assessment and Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children…

Feeley, Kathlee M.; Jones, Emily A.

2006-01-01

66

The relationship between empowerment, aggressive behaviours of customers, coping, and burnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on workplace aggression has mainly investigated aggression on the part of supervisors or colleagues. Within the service context, however, customers constitute an additional major source of aggression. The study examines the associations between customer aggression and service providers' sense of empowerment, coping strategies, and burnout. Questionnaires measuring customer aggression, empowerment, coping strategies used to cope with customer aggression, and

Hasida Ben-Zur; Dana Yagil

2005-01-01

67

Impulsive-Aggression, Antisocial Behaviour and Subclinical Psychopathy: Preliminary Findings From an Undergraduate Female Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulsive-aggression was investigated in a female university sample (N = 686). Four groups (impulsive-aggressive, n = 23; aggressive, n = 24; impulsive, n = 33; and control, n = 119) were selected on the basis of impulsivity scores and aggression scores. In comparison to other groups, the impulsive-aggressive women were more physically aggressive and had a greater tendency to fight

Tess Crawley; Frances Heritage Martin

2006-01-01

68

Aggression and the termination of "rituals": a new variant of the escape function for challenging behavior?  

PubMed

Aggression and stereotyped behaviors are not uncommon among people with intellectual disabilities and they are often treated separately as operant behaviors. In this single case study, it is argued that the function of a young woman's aggressive behavior appeared to be that of avoiding or escaping the termination of a chain of complex stereotyped behavior (or "ritual"). She became aggressive only when this chain of stereotyped behavior was terminated and the aggression appeared to extinguish when it no longer led to escape from the termination of the "ritual". It is suggested that this is an example of a complex interaction between two behaviors and that it illustrates the need for very careful analysis of the functions of challenging behavior. Furthermore, it is proposed that the lengthening list of variables already documented as determinants of challenging behavior (provision of attention (verbal and physical), mechanical restraint, sensory or tangible events, escape from demands or from social attention, denials, escape from intrusive medical procedures, escape from task difficulty) be lengthened to include the possibility of escape from (or avoidance of) the interruption of a chain of complex stereotyped behavior or "ritual". PMID:10750165

Murphy, G; Macdonald, S; Hall, S; Oliver, C

69

Psychometric Comparison of the Functional Assessment Instruments QABF, FACT and FAST for Self-Injurious, Stereotypic and Aggressive/Destructive Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Psychometric properties of three functional assessment rating scales were compared for three types of target behaviours [self-injurious behaviour (SIB), stereotypic behaviour and aggressive/destructive behaviour]. Materials and method: The "Questions about Behavioural Function" (QABF), the "Functional Assessment for Multiple Causality"…

Zaja, Rebecca H.; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.; Rojahn, Johannes

2011-01-01

70

Depression in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Symptoms and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Psychiatric evaluation of adults with intellectual disability (ID) remains complex because of limitations in verbal abilities, atypical clinical presentation and challenging behaviour. This study examines the clinical presentation of adults with depression compared with bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and non-psychiatric control…

Hurley, A. D.

2008-01-01

71

Danish Teachers' Conception of Challenging Behaviour and DAMP/ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how teachers of young children in Denmark perceived challenging behaviours in children who have characteristics consistent with Deficit in Attention, Motor Control and Perception (DAMP) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study was conducted in schools and kindergartens in three demographically different…

Holst, Jesper

2008-01-01

72

Bayesian analysis of genetic associations of skin lesions and behavioural traits to identify genetic components of individual aggressiveness in pigs.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in genetic selection against behavioural traits that impact negatively on welfare and productivity in commercial livestock production. Post-mixing aggressiveness in pigs shows wide phenotypic variation, affects health, welfare and growth performance and is a routine feature of production. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the heritability of three traits associated with aggressiveness in pigs during the 24 h post-mixing; duration in reciprocal aggression, and in receipt of, or delivery of non-reciprocal aggression (NRA). For the purposes of genetic selection, recording aggressive behaviour is excessively labour intensive. The genetic correlations were quantified between the behavioural traits and an easily measurable indicator trait; the number of skin lesions following mixing (lesion score, LS). The heritabilities for the three behavioural traits ranged from 0.17 to 0.46 (receipt of NRA and reciprocal aggression respectively). The duration in reciprocal aggression and in delivery of NRA showed a strong genetic correlation (r g = 0.79 with 95% Bayesian credibility interval of 0.62-0.94). The genetic correlation between LS and these two behaviours indicated that selection on breeding values of LS could be used to reduce aggressiveness. The duration in receipt of NRA appeared to be regulated by different genes or genomic effects compared with the other behavioural traits and LS. Although duration in receipt of NRA was not genetically associated with LS, it was lowly but significantly environmentally associated with the residuals of central and caudal LS (r e = 0.28-0.32), indicating that pigs that received NRA also received bites on the central and caudal third of the body. The pen that the animals were mixed into was found to be a very important factor for the analysed traits, in particular those representing behavioural characteristics. Based on the estimated genetic parameters, it is concluded that selection on breeding values for reduced LS (especially central LS) is expected to reduce reciprocal aggression and the delivery of NRA but will not change the receipt of NRA directly. PMID:17987375

Turner, S P; Roehe, R; Mekkawy, W; Farnworth, M J; Knap, P W; Lawrence, A B

2007-11-07

73

Addressing challenging behaviours in the general education setting: conducting a teacher-based Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a student demonstrates a challenging or problematic behaviour in the classroom, the climate and the instructional experience can change dramatically for both the students and the classroom teacher. Before resorting to sanctions and punitive consequences, there is a series of steps a classroom teacher can conduct to reduce and replace the challenging behaviour with desired and positive behaviours. The

Gerardo Moreno

2011-01-01

74

Subclinical effects of saxitoxin and domoic acid on aggressive behaviour and monoaminergic turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

The algal produced neurotoxins saxitoxin and domoic acid may have serious effects on marine life and can be responsible for the intoxication of for instance sea mammals, sea birds and fish. Given that farmed fish cannot escape algal blooms, they may be more susceptible to intoxication than wild stocks. In the present study, subclinical effects of saxitoxin and domoic on aggressive behaviour and monoaminergic systems in the brain of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. The resident-intruder test was used to measure aggression where only the resident fish were subjected to the toxins and analysed for monoamines and their metabolites. The resident-intruder test was carried out on two consecutive days. On day one basal aggression was measured in the four groups. On day two three of the groups were injected with subclinical doses of one of the following: saxitoxin (1.752 microg/kg bw), domoic (0.75 mg/kg bw) or 0.9% saline solution. This was performed 30 min prior to the aggression test. Handling stress and injection affected aggressive behaviour, cortisol and the serotonergic system in telencephalic brain regions. Cortisol levels were elevated in all of the injected groups when compared to the control group. An increase in serotonergic turnover was evident when all injected groups were pooled and compared to the control group. All together this suggests that the handling stress in connection with the injection was similar in all of the three injected groups. In contrast to both the undisturbed control group and the toxin-injected groups, the saline-injected group displayed a reduction in aggressive behaviour which was evident in increased attack latency. Furthermore the domoic injected group displayed more aggressive attacks towards their conspecifics than the saline-injected group. Consequently the two toxins appear to mask the stress induced alteration in aggressive behaviour. Monoamine levels and monoaminergic turnover could not be demonstrated to be directly affected by the two toxins at the given doses in the investigated brain regions (dorsal and ventral parts of telencephalon, optic tectum, locus coeruleus, raphe nucleus, molecular and granular layer of cerebellum). This could indicate that the toxins mediate aggressive behaviour either through other systems than the monoaminergic systems, such as neuroactive amino acids, or that the mediation occurs in other brain regions. PMID:20409597

Bakke, Marit Jørgensen; Hustoft, Hanne Kolsrud; Horsberg, Tor Einar

2010-03-30

75

Assessing the Link between Executive Functions and Aggressive Behaviours of Children Who Are Deaf: Impact of Early Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: Relation between constructing complex mental structures and language skills cause delays in development of executive functions of deaf children. When the importance of language skills in development of executive functions and frequency of aggressive behaviours of deaf children are considered, investigation of executive functions of…

Sipal, Rafet Firat; Bayhan, Pinar

2010-01-01

76

Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

Chan, Siu Mui

2010-01-01

77

Keratin 19 marks poor differentiation and a more aggressive behaviour in canine and human hepatocellular tumours  

PubMed Central

Background The expression of Keratin 19 (K19) was reported in a subset of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). K19 positive HCCs are associated with an increased malignancy compared to K19 negative HCCs. No suitable mouse models exist for this subtype of HCC, nor is the incidence of K19 expression in hepatocellular neoplasia in model animals known. Therefore, we compared the occurrence and tumour behaviour of K19 positive hepatocellular neoplasias in dog and man. Results The expression of hepatocellular differentiation (HepPar-1), biliary/progenitor cell (K7, K19), and malignancy (glypican-3) markers was semi-quantitatively assessed by immunohistochemistry. The histological grade of tumour differentiation was determined according to a modified classification of Edmondson and Steiner; the staging included intrahepatic, lymph node or distant metastases. Four of the 34 canine hepatocellular neoplasias showed K19 positivity (12%), of which two co-expressed K7. K19 positive tumours did not express HepPar-1, despite the histological evidence of a hepatocellular origin. Like in human HCC, all K19 positive hepatocellular neoplasias were glypican-3 positive and histologically poorly differentiated and revealed intra- or extrahepatic metastases whereas K19 negative hepatocellular neoplasias did not. Conclusions K19 positive hepatocellular neoplasias are highly comparable to man and occur in 12% of canine hepatocellular tumours and are associated with a poorly differentiated histology and aggressive tumour behaviour.

2010-01-01

78

Genetic composition of social groups influences male aggressive behaviour and fitness in natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual's behaviour-which is influenced by his or her genotype-can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I introduce the 'focal interaction' approach to study IGEs in groups. I illustrate the utility of this approach by studying aggression among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. I chose two natural genotypes as 'focal interactants': the behavioural interaction between them was the 'focal interaction'. One male from each focal interactant genotype was present in every group, and I varied the genotype of the third male-the 'treatment male'. Genetic variation in the treatment male's aggressive behaviour influenced the focal interaction, demonstrating that IGEs in groups are not a straightforward extension of IGEs measured in dyads. Further, the focal interaction influenced male mating success, illustrating the role of IGEs in behavioural evolution. These results represent the first manipulative evidence for IGEs at the group level. PMID:24068359

Saltz, Julia B

2013-09-25

79

Aggressive behaviour in preschool children : Neuropsychological correlates, costs of service use, and preventive efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ages two and three the vast majority of children shows a high level of aggression. During the preschool period the level of aggression generally declines. However, some children continue to show a high level of aggression and are at risk for the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), potentially resulting in substance abuse, delinquency and high costs at later

M. A. J. Raaijmakers

2008-01-01

80

Vertical and lateral workplace bullying in nursing: development of the hospital aggressive behaviour scale.  

PubMed

Healthcare staff is one of the professional groups that suffers the highest exposure to sources of occupational stress such as hostility from coworkers and superiors. In order to contribute to the assessment of bullying behaviors in the healthcare sector and to obtain a brief and manageable instrument for the assessment of this psychosocial risk, we developed the Hospital Aggressive Behaviour Scale-version Co-workers-Superiors (HABS-CS). By means of thorough qualitative analysis, an initial pool of 166 items was obtained, which were reviewed according to precise criteria until concluding with a total of 57 items, which were administered to a sample of 1,484 healthcare professionals from 11 public hospitals. The analyses concluded with the selection of 17 items distributed in two subscales. The internal 5-factor structure is the result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis conducted in two samples. Both the resulting questionnaire and the factors identified present adequate psychometric properties: high-internal consistency (Cronbach's ? of .86) and adequate criterion validity, analyzed by means of significant correlations between the HABS-CS and job satisfaction, burnout components, and psychological well-being. This instrument may be of great utility for the assessment and prevention of psychosocial risks. PMID:23539564

Waschgler, Kathrin; Ruiz-Hernández, José Antonio; Llor-Esteban, Bartolomé; Jiménez-Barbero, José Antonio

2013-03-28

81

No Need to Count to Ten: Advocating for the Early Implementation of the Functional Behavioural Assessment in Addressing Challenging Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The functional behavioural assessment (FBA) is a process used in identifying the reason (i.e., function) for challenging behaviours when working with students with disabilities and the circumstances and/or environment that reinforce the continued use of the problematic behaviour. However, the procedural definition of the FBA in US federal…

Moreno, Gerardo

2010-01-01

82

Abnormal behaviours induced by chemical pollution: a review of the evidence and new challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many chemical pollutants have become ubiquitous in the environment, including some that interfere with hormones and other physiological mechanisms. These ‘endocrine-disrupting chemicals’ (EDCs) have harmful effects on development and physiology. We reviewed published evidence and found that EDCs also have adverse effects on a wide range of behaviours, including sexual and other reproductive behaviours, activity, motivation, communication, aggression, dominance and

Sarah M. Zala; Dustin J. Penn

2004-01-01

83

Life-history and hormonal control of aggression in black redstarts: Blocking testosterone does not decrease territorial aggression, but changes the emphasis of vocal behaviours during simulated territorial intrusions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many studies in behavioural endocrinology attempt to link territorial aggression with testosterone, but the exact relationship between testosterone and territorial behaviour is still unclear and may depend on the ecology of a species. The degree to which testosterone facilitates territorial behaviour is particularly little understood in species that defend territories during breeding and outside the breeding season, when plasma levels of testosterone are low. Here we suggest that species that defend territories in contexts other than reproduction may have lost the direct regulation of territorial behaviour by androgens even during the breeding season. In such species, only those components of breeding territoriality that function simultaneously as sexually selected signals may be under control of sex steroids. Results We investigated black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros), a species that shows periods of territoriality within and outside of the breeding season. We treated territorial males with an anti-androgen and an aromatase inhibitor during the breeding season to block both the direct and indirect effects of testosterone. Three and ten days after the treatment, implanted males were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion. The treatment did not reduce the overall territorial response, but it changed the emphasis of territoriality: experimental males invested more in behaviours addressed directly towards the intruder, whereas placebo-treated males put most effort into their vocal response, a component of territoriality that may be primarily directed towards their mating partner rather than the male opponent. Conclusions In combination with previous findings, these data suggest that overall territoriality may be decoupled from testosterone in male black redstarts. However, high levels of testosterone during breeding may facilitate-context dependent changes in song.

2013-01-01

84

Noncompliance and child-rearing attitudes as predictors of aggressive behaviour: A longitudinal study in Chinese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine contributions of early personal and socialisation factors to the prediction of aggressive behaviour in Chinese children. A sample of children, initially at 2 years of age, and their parents in the People’s Republic of China participated in this two-year longitudinal study. Observational data were collected on children’s noncompliance in mother-child interactions at

Xinyin Chen; Huichang Chen; Li Wang; Mowei Liu

2002-01-01

85

Impact of a 3-Day Training Course on Challenging Behaviour on Staff Cognitive and Emotional Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: A range of factors have been suggested as determinants of staff behaviour in the context of working with people with challenging behaviour. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a typical challenging behaviour staff training course had an effect on staff feelings of efficacy, their negative emotional reactions to…

Tierney, Edel; Quinlan, Dave; Hastings, Richard P.

2007-01-01

86

Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

2011-01-01

87

Principles of positive behaviour supports: using the FBA as a problem-solving approach to address challenging behaviours beyond special populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has remained almost exclusively used with students identified with disabilities, particularly those

Gerardo Moreno; Lyndal M. Bullock

2011-01-01

88

The Overlap between Psychiatric Symptoms and Challenging Behaviour: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasingly, challenging behaviour is explained by way of psychiatric symptomatology. This poses possible pitfalls. First, the possibility exists that both psychiatric symptoms and challenging behaviour are concurrent expressions of common underlying factors. Second, psychiatric symptoms may be rated as present on the basis of challenging

Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter

2009-01-01

89

The effectiveness of interventions in the prevention and management of aggressive behaviours in patients admitted to an acute hospital setting: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Violence in healthcare has been widely reported and healthcare workers, particularly nurses in the acute care setting, are ill-equipped to manage patients who exhibit aggressive traits. An initial search of the Cochrane Library and the Joanna Briggs Institute did not reveal any published systematic reviews recommending strategies to manage aggressive and\\/or violent behaviours in patients admitted to an acute

Kate Kynoch

2009-01-01

90

[Assessment of a Bull Terrier bloodline regarding possible hypertrophic aggressive behaviour in situations of dog-dog-contact of the temperament test of Lower Saxony].  

PubMed

The expertise on the interpretation of and 11 b TierSchG assumes that a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour exists in some blood lines of Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers and Pitbull type dogs. This study was carried out to detect whether a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour occurred in a certain Bull Terrier breed line. A total of 38 dogs representing this line were tested according to the guidelines of the Dangerous Animals Act of Lower Saxony, Germany (GefTVO) enacted on July 5th, 2000. Furthermore, the results of their behaviour towards other dogs during the test were compared to those of 347 dogs tested by Böttjer (2003) in order to investigate possible significant differences in the occurrence of inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour. The comparison was aimed at exposing a possible significant accumulation of intraspecific aggressive behaviour. In the situations of dog-dog-contact of the test, 25 threatening behaviour"was displayed by 9 dogs (23.68%). Four dogs (10.53%) responded with "non-stationary threatening behaviour". All Bull Terriers reacted appropriately in every situation. A significant difference when comparing the results of the Bull Terriers to those of the dogs examined by Böttjer (2003) was not found. In conclusion, there were no indications for inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour in this Bull Terrier breed line. Furthermore, the broad majority of dogs proved to possess excellent social skills as well as the ability to communicate competently and to solve conflicts appropriately. PMID:20496824

Schalke, Esther; Ott, Stefanie; Hirschfeld, Jennifer; Hackbarth, Hansjoachim

91

The St Andrew's Sexual Behaviour Assessment (SASBA): development of a standardised recording instrument for the measurement and assessment of challenging sexual behaviour in people with progressive and acquired neurological impairment.  

PubMed

Inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) as a sequela of neurological impairment is often overlooked in comparison to other challenging behaviours such as agitation and aggression, yet the impact on patients and carers can be equally significant and pervasive. Inconsistencies in terminology and lack of standardised measurement tools for ISB limit the degree to which such behaviour can be objectively and consistently identified, reported and managed within and between services. This paper proposes a new ISB scale, the St Andrew's Sexual Behaviour Assessment (SASBA) based on the Overt Aggression Scale--Modified for Neurorehabilitation (OAS-MNR: Alderman, Knight, & Morgan, 1997). The validity and reliability of the SASBA for use with people who have both progressive neurological conditions and acquired brain injury admitted to in-patient services is explored. This scale allows continuous observations of four categories of ISB, each of which has four levels of severity, that were developed with reference to relevant literature (Johnson, Knight, & Alderman, 2006). Statistical properties of the scale were obtained using written descriptions and video enactments of ISB generated by clinicians. Results indicate strong construct and content validity, and good inter-rater and test-retest reliability. Some preliminary field data are presented with 924 incidents of challenging behaviour captured by the OAS-MNR and SASBA over a 10-week period for 36 patients; 16.34% of incidents were sexual behaviour. Clinical uses of the scale and perceived concerns or benefits for staff are discussed. PMID:18350412

Knight, Caroline; Alderman, Nick; Johnson, Chrissie; Green, Sharon; Birkett-Swan, Louise; Yorstan, Graeme

2008-04-01

92

Divergent Evolution of Male Aggressive Behaviour: Another Reproductive Isolation Barrier in Extremophile Poeciliid Fishes?  

PubMed Central

Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H2S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H2S.

Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Sassmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rudiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

2012-01-01

93

Divergent evolution of male aggressive behaviour: another reproductive isolation barrier in extremophile poeciliid fishes?  

PubMed

Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H(2)S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H(2)S. PMID:22315695

Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

2011-10-23

94

Effectiveness of an attachment-focused manualized intervention for parents of teens at risk for aggressive behaviour: The Connect Program.  

PubMed

Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. 'Connect' is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment: parental sensitivity, cooperation, reflective capacity, and effective dyadic affect regulation. Through didactic and experiential activities, parents develop the competence necessary to identify, understand and respond to the needs of their teen in a manner that provides structure and safety while safeguarding the quality of the parent-teen relationship. In Study 1, twenty parents reported significant increases in perceived parenting satisfaction and efficacy and reductions in adolescents' aggression, antisocial behaviour and other mental health problems following completion of Connect as compared to a waitlist control period. These effects were sustained and additional small effects were noted in decreases in conduct problems, depression and anxiety at a 12-month follow-up. The program was then transported to 17 communities serving 309 parents through standardized training and supervision of group leaders. Study 2 summarizes significant pre- to post-treatment reductions in teen externalizing and internalizing problems; enhanced social functioning; and improvements in affect regulation. Parents also reported significant increases in parenting satisfaction and perceived efficacy and reductions in caregiver burden. PMID:19766302

Moretti, Marlene M; Obsuth, Ingrid

2009-09-18

95

The Causal Attributions of Teaching Staff towards Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparison of "Vignettes" Depicting Challenging Behaviour with "Real" Incidents of Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: We examined whether staff attributions, emotions and helping behaviours in reaction to "real" incidents of challenging behaviour (CB) exhibited by children with intellectual disabilities were different from reactions to "vignettes". We also examined whether these reactions are congruent with that predicted by attribution theory.…

Lucas, Victoria L.; Collins, Suzanne; Langdon, Peter E.

2009-01-01

96

An activating mechanism of aggressive behaviour in disorganised attachment: a moment-to-moment case analysis of a three-year-old  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines an activating mechanism of aggressive behaviour in young children. Many studies on attachment theories have indicated disorganised attachment as a significant risk factor for externalising problems and have explained the aetiology of disorganised attachment in terms of deficits in affect, behaviour and cognitive functions from a traumatic or inconsistent environment. Via the moment-to-moment analysis of the play

Eun Young Kim

2010-01-01

97

An Activating Mechanism of Aggressive Behaviour in Disorganised Attachment: A Moment-to-Moment Case Analysis of a Three-Year-Old  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines an activating mechanism of aggressive behaviour in young children. Many studies on attachment theories have indicated disorganised attachment as a significant risk factor for externalising problems and have explained the aetiology of disorganised attachment in terms of deficits in affect, behaviour and cognitive functions from…

Kim, Eun Young

2010-01-01

98

Chronic treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid changes aggressive behaviours in the resident-intruder paradigm in rats.  

PubMed

Retinoids, vitamin A related compounds, have an established role in the development of the nervous system and are increasingly recognized to play a role in adult brain function. The synthetic retinoid, 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA, Roaccutane) is widely used to treat severe acne but has been linked to an increased risk of neuropsychiatric side effects, including depression. Here we report that chronic administration with 13-cis-RA (1 mg/kg i.p. daily, 7-14 days) in adult rats reduced aggression- and increased flight-related behaviours in the resident-intruder paradigm. However, in the forced swim, sucrose consumption and open field tests treatment for up to 6 weeks with 13-cis-RA did not modify behaviour in adult or juvenile animals. The behavioural change observed in the resident-intruder paradigm is directly opposite to that observed with chronic antidepressant administration. These findings indicate that when a suitably sensitive behavioural test is employed then chronic administration of 13-cis-RA in adult rats induces behavioural changes consistent with a pro-depressant action. PMID:19651495

Trent, Simon; Drew, Cheney J G; Mitchell, Paul J; Bailey, Sarah J

2009-08-03

99

Characteristics of Challenging Behaviours in Adults with Autistic Disorder, PDD-NOS, and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Challenging behaviours are frequently a problem for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). A better understanding of which individuals display which behaviours, at what rates, and the relationship of these behaviours to comorbid psychopathology would have important implications. Method: A group…

Matson, Johnny L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

2008-01-01

100

Restraint Procedures and Challenging Behaviours in Intellectual Disability: An Analysis of Causative Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Persons with intellectual disability often evince challenging behaviours. Efforts have been underway for some time to develop prosocial or positive skill acquisition treatments to address challenging behaviours. However, physical/mechanical and chemical restraint is still commonly used in many clinical and community settings. Such…

Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

2009-01-01

101

Physical Conditions and Challenging Behaviour in People with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Challenging behaviour is a major problem among people with intellectual disabilities. Physical factors may be an important cause. The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the physical conditions associated with challenging behaviour. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane systematic…

de Winter, C. F.; Jansen, A. A. C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

2011-01-01

102

Melatonin Decreases Daytime Challenging Behaviour in Persons with Intellectual Disability and Chronic Insomnia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Persons with intellectual disability (ID) and sleep problems exhibit more daytime challenging behaviours than persons with ID without sleep problems. Several anecdotal reports suggest that melatonin is not only effective in the treatment of insomnia, but also decreases daytime challenging behaviour. However, the effect of melatonin…

Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Maas, A. P. H. M.; Korzilius, H.; Smits, M. G.; Curfs, L. M. G.

2010-01-01

103

Changing the Face of Challenging Behaviour Services: The Special Projects Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The background to an exciting and probably unique initiative for people with challenging behaviour is described. The Special Projects Team (SPT) was established in the context of increasing knowledge of effective treatment responses, but lack of widespread expertise as well as growing crisis within challenging behaviour services. Unlike previous…

Allen, David; Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin; James, Wendy; Doyle, Tony; Andrew, Jock; Davies, Dee; Moore, Kate; Brophy, Sam

2006-01-01

104

A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Effects on Challenging Behaviour among Persons with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show challenging behaviour. We review distinct interventions that are applied to treat these challenging behaviours, and analyse intervention effects and moderating variables. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases "ERIC," "PsycINFO," "Web of Science" and…

Heyvaert, M.; Maes, B.; Onghena, P.

2010-01-01

105

Frameworks for Understanding Challenging Behaviour in Out-of-Home Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Challenging and disruptive behaviour is commonly reported among children placed in the out-of-home care sector. Little is known about how stakeholders in this sector understand or manage challenging behaviour. Method: Ninety-two stakeholders in the South Australian out-of-home care sector were interviewed about their approach to…

McLean, Sara; Kettler, Lisa; Delfabbro, Paul; Riggs, Damien

2012-01-01

106

Physical Conditions and Challenging Behaviour in People with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Challenging behaviour is a major problem among people with intellectual disabilities. Physical factors may be an important cause. The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the physical conditions associated with challenging behaviour. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane systematic…

de Winter, C. F.; Jansen, A. A. C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

2011-01-01

107

Strategies to Address Challenging Behaviour in Young Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may present problems within community, leisure, and educational settings, and, in many instances, precludes them from accessing these environments. Factors contributing to the occurrence of challenging behaviours include characteristics associated with…

Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily

2008-01-01

108

Aggression and intentionality in narrative responses to conflict and distress story stems: An investigation of boys with disruptive behaviour problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined whether antisocial boys show evidence of a reduced interpersonal interpretation of events (intentionality) specifically in story stem responses to social challenges that provoke fear and distress responses. Two conflict and two distress stems were administered to 5 – 8 year old boys, 41 referred for disruptive behaviour problems and 25 non-referred boys. Raters blind to group membership

Jonathan Hill; Peter Fonagy; Gillian Lancaster; Nichaela Broyden

2007-01-01

109

Aggressive group behaviour in the ant Formica xerophila is coordinated by direct nestmate contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fights between groups of social animals, willingness of an individual to fight increases with group size. To better understand how individuals assess numerical state and coordinate group behaviour, I investi- gated how individual ants, Formica xerophila, collect information about group size prior to a competitive encounter, and how this information affects F. xerophila behaviour towards a closely related competitor,

Colby J. Tanner

2008-01-01

110

Neural mechanisms of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unchecked aggression and violence exact a significant toll on human societies. Aggression is an umbrella term for behaviours that are intended to inflict harm. These behaviours evolved as adaptations to deal with competition, but when expressed out of context, they can have destructive consequences. Uncontrolled aggression has several components, such as impaired recognition of social cues and enhanced impulsivity. Molecular

Brian C. Trainor; Randy J. Nelson

2007-01-01

111

Patterns of emotional and behavioural disturbance associated with autistic traits in young people with severe intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional and behavioural disturbance was assessed in 82 individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour using the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II). Levels of disturbance were compared firstly in individuals with and without features of autism as assessed by the DASH-II, and secondly in individuals with varying severities of autism. In both cases levels of ability and

Jennie Hill; Frederick Furniss

2006-01-01

112

Psychodynamic Therapy and Intellectual Disabilities: Dealing with Challenging Behaviour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four case studies concerning long-term psychodynamic treatment of German individuals with intellectual disabilities are presented: an aggressive young man with a mild intellectual disability; a young man with multiple disabilities with destructive behavior; a withdrawn young woman with self-destructive behavior; and a young man with autism with…

Berry, Paul

2003-01-01

113

Aggressive behaviour of cherubism in a teenager: 4-years of clinical follow-up associated with radiographic and histological features.  

PubMed

Cherubism is a rare hereditary fibro-osseous childhood disease characterized by bone degradation and fibrous tissue replacement at the angles of the mandible and at the tuberosity areas of the maxilla that leads to prominence of the lower face and an appearance reminiscent of the cherub's portrayal in Renaissance art. This disease has an autosomal dominant hereditary characteristic. The purpose of this report is to analyse laboratory tests, clinicopathological and radiographic features of cherubism and its intraoral manifestations in a patient during 4-years of follow-up, correlating the features observed in this case with those of the literature. Also discussed is the atypical and aggressive behaviour of this case during puberty. PMID:16120883

Gomes, M F; de Souza Setúbal Destro, M F; de Freitas Banzi, E C; dos Santos, S H; Claro, F A; de Oliveira Nogueira, T

2005-09-01

114

Teachers' Perceptions of Challenging Student Behaviours in Model Inner City Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary teachers often cite challenging student behaviours and classroom management as areas of concern and therefore priorities for professional development. In this paper, the authors discuss the findings from a two-year research project, Sociocultural Perspectives on Behaviour and Classroom Management (SPBCM). SPBCM examined the social and…

McCready, Lance T.; Soloway, Geoffrey B.

2010-01-01

115

Addressing Challenging Behaviours in the General Education Setting: Conducting a Teacher-Based Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When a student demonstrates a challenging or problematic behaviour in the classroom, the climate and the instructional experience can change dramatically for both the students and the classroom teacher. Before resorting to sanctions and punitive consequences, there is a series of steps a classroom teacher can conduct to reduce and replace the…

Moreno, Gerardo

2011-01-01

116

Children's sociable and aggressive behaviour with peers: A comparison of the US and Australia, and contributions of temperament and parenting styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Links between both temperament and parenting, and children's sociable and aggressive behaviour with peers (physical and relational), were examined. The research was undertaken in two Western cultures (the United States and Australia) assumed to be similar in socialisation practices and emphases. The moderating effects of parent sex and child sex were also examined. Parents completed questionnaires on parenting styles and

Alan Russell; Craig H. Hart; Clyde C. Robinson; Susanne F. Olsen

2003-01-01

117

The psychophsiology of aggressive drivers: comparison to non-aggressive drivers and pre- to post-treatment change following a cognitive-behavioural treatment.  

PubMed

Twenty drivers were remanded to our treatment program by the courts following arrests related to serious aggressive driving behaviors. Ten additional drivers entered our program in response to our advertisements thus identifying themselves as aggressive drivers. Psychophysiological assessments were conducted on all 30 drivers and heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and skin resistance level (SRL) were measured in response to exposure to a mental arithmetic neutral stressor, two idiosyncratic, audio-taped, aggressive driving vignettes (audio 1 and audio 2), and one non-driving related fearful vignette. Fourteen non-aggressive driving controls also completed the assessment. The results indicated that the aggressive drivers (ADs) showed significantly more SBP responsivity during audio 1 and audio 2 and significantly less SBP reactivity during the mental arithmetic stressor than the controls. The aggressive drivers then completed a four-week, group intervention which included relaxation techniques specifically targeting aggressive driving behaviors. The same psychophysiological assessment was conducted at post-treatment. The results showed significant pre- to post-treatment decreases in HR, p<0.003, SBP, p<0.01, and DBP, p<0.02 during audio 1. Similarly, decreases were evident in audio 2 in SBP, p<0.03 only. No decreases in reactivity occurred during the neutral stressor or fearful situation. PMID:12914807

Galovski, Tara E; Blanchard, Edward B; Malta, Loretta S; Freidenberg, Brian M

2003-09-01

118

Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the

J. R. P Halperin; T Giri; D. W Dunham

1997-01-01

119

Exposure to Client Aggression and Burnout among Community Staff Who Support Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Ontario, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Studies have shown that staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are exposed to challenging behaviour in their work including client aggression. Exposure to aggressive behaviour has been associated with staff stress and burnout. Study samples have been small however, and there has been very little data exploring…

Hensel, J. M.; Lunsky, Y.; Dewa, C. S.

2012-01-01

120

The Experience of a Man with Severe Challenging Behaviour Following Resettlement from Hospital: A Single Case Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Carers' behaviour is thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of challenging behaviour in people with learning disabilities (Emerson et al. 1995; Hastings & Remington 1994). The present study sought to investigate the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention in the management of such problem behaviours by means of a long-term…

Bissell, Lianne; Phillips, Neil; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

2005-01-01

121

Training Emotional Intelligence Related to Treatment Skills of Staff Working with Clients with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display challenging behaviour may contribute to the continuation of this behaviour, because it causes emotional reactions such as anxiety, anger and annoyance, which may prohibit adequate response behaviour. To enhance staff behaviour and treatment skills a training…

Zijlmans, L. J. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Derksen, J. J. L.

2011-01-01

122

Challenges in the Assessment of Aggression in High-Risk Youth: Testing the Fit of the Form-Function Aggression Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts have focused on disentangling the forms (e.g., overt and relational) and functions (e.g., instrumental and reactive) of aggression. The Form-Function Aggression Measure (FFAM; Little, Jones, Henrich, & Hawley, 2003) shows promise in this regard; however, it is a new measure and its psychometric properties across different populations are unknown. The current study tested the underlying structure of the

Zina Lee; Stephanie R. Penney; Candice L. Odgers; Marlene M. Moretti

2010-01-01

123

Relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of the common bream Abramis brama L. in an aquarium environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of common\\u000a bream Abramis brama were examined in an aquarium environment. The breeding tubercles of fish were counted, the number of attacks was quantified\\u000a by male status and circulating rates of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone from blood plasma were analysed using radioimmunoassay\\u000a procedures. The results revealed that

P. Poncin; B. Nzau Matondo; C. Termol; P. Kestemont; J. C. Philippart

2011-01-01

124

Formal Versus Informal Interventions for Challenging Behaviour in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although effective, humane treatments exist for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) who have challenging behaviour, little research has examined the extent to which clients receive formal, documented vs. undocumented interventions. Caregivers (of 625 persons with ID living in community and institutional residences in Ontario, Canada) were…

Feldman, M. A.; Atkinson, L.; Foti-Gervais, L.; Condillac, R.

2004-01-01

125

Sleep, Anxiety and Challenging Behaviour in Children with Intellectual Disability and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with an intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to suffer from significantly more sleep problems, anxiety and challenging behaviour (CB) than typically developing children (TD), yet little is known about the relationship between these factors in the child ID/ASD population. The study aim was to…

Rzepecka, Halina; McKenzie, Karen; McClure, Iain; Murphy, Shona

2011-01-01

126

Predictors of Restrictive Reactive Strategy Use in People with Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Intrusive reactive strategies (physical restraint, emergency medication and seclusion) are frequently used procedures in the management of challenging behaviour. The present study identifies predictors for reactive strategy use in an attempt to more clearly delineate at risk service users. Method: Eight hundred and thirty-nine…

Allen, David; Lowe, Kathy; Brophy, Sam; Moore, Kate

2009-01-01

127

Low Mood and Challenging Behaviour in People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: We investigated the relationship between low mood and challenging behaviour in people in the severe and profound range of intellectual disability, while controlling for the presence of potentially confounding variables such as diagnosis of autism, physical and sensory problems and ill health. Methods: The key workers of 52 people with…

Hayes, S.; McGuire, B.; O'Neill, M.; Oliver, C.; Morrison, T.

2011-01-01

128

Self-Efficacy and Stress of Staff Managing Challenging Behaviours of People with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy has been reported to play a significant role in stress levels of parents facing challenging behaviours of their children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has also been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. To understand the implications of staff self-efficacy in…

Cudre-Mauroux, Annick

2011-01-01

129

Self-Efficacy and Stress of Staff Managing Challenging Behaviours of People with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Self-efficacy has been reported to play a significant role in stress levels of parents facing challenging behaviours of their children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has also been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. To understand the implications of staff self-efficacy in…

Cudre-Mauroux, Annick

2011-01-01

130

Health Service Inpatient Units for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour or Mental Health Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As institutions for people with intellectual disabilities have been replaced with community services, health care provision has developed to provide assessment and treatment, low and medium secure units for people with challenging behaviour or mental health problems. These include both public and private sector provision. Little is…

Mansell, Jim; Ritchie, Fiona; Dyer, Ricinda

2010-01-01

131

The Impact of Autism or Severe Challenging Behaviour on Lifestyle Outcome in Community Housing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The triad of impairments characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders and severe challenging behaviours are reasonably common among adults with intellectual disabilities. The aim was to investigate whether they had an impact on lifestyle among such adults living in staff-supported community housing. Methods: Data were collected on…

Felce, David; Perry, Jonathan; Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin

2011-01-01

132

The Treatment of Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disabilities: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…

Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.

2009-01-01

133

The relationship between pre-morbid personality and challenging behaviour in people with dementia: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that challenging behaviour in people with dementia reflects a person's pre-morbid personality traits and a number of studies have explored this hypothesis. However, inconsistencies in outcome between studies suggest a need to review the available evidence systematically. As a result, major bibliographic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between pre-morbid personality and challenging behaviour

Hannah Osborne; Jane Simpson; Graham Stokes

2010-01-01

134

The Relationship between Challenging Behaviour, Burnout and Cognitive Variables in Staff Working with People Who Have Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: There is evidence to suggest a relationship between the way in which staff perceive challenging behaviour and burnout in staff working with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour. However, the evidence of a direct link is equivocal and it is possible that a number of different variables mediate this…

Mills, S.; Rose, J.

2011-01-01

135

Predictors, Costs and Characteristics of out of Area Placement for People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Out of area placements for people with challenging behaviour represent an expensive and often ineffective strategy for meeting the needs of this service user group. Methods: More than 800 agencies and service settings in a large area of South Wales were screened to identify children and adults with challenging behaviour against a…

Allen, D. G.; Lowe, K.; Moore, K.; Brophy, S.

2007-01-01

136

Predictors, Costs and Characteristics of out of Area Placement for People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Out of area placements for people with challenging behaviour represent an expensive and often ineffective strategy for meeting the needs of this service user group. Methods: More than 800 agencies and service settings in a large area of South Wales were screened to identify children and adults with challenging behaviour against a…

Allen, D. G.; Lowe, K.; Moore, K.; Brophy, S.

2007-01-01

137

Support for Family Carers of Children and Young People with Developmental Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: What Stops It Being Helpful?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Many family carers find the support they receive in respect of their child's challenging behaviour unhelpful. This study sought to identify carer perceptions of the ways in which support is unhelpful and how it could be more helpful. Methods: Thirteen mothers, caring for a child with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour,…

Wodehouse, G.; McGill, P.

2009-01-01

138

Majority and Minority Ethnic Family Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Perceptions of Challenging Behaviour and Family Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: A health service in an English city was concerned about its support to families with adults with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven minority ethnic and seven majority ethnic family members to explore perceptions of challenging behaviour, support and the…

Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Kirby, Suzanne; Kotwal, Homayra; Baines, Susannah; Hutchinson, Christine; Dobson, Catherine; Marks, Bob

2010-01-01

139

The presence of aggression cues inverts the relation between digit ratio (2D:4D) and prosocial behaviour in a dictator game.  

PubMed

Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have relatively shorter index (2D) compared to ring (4D) fingers than women. More masculine ratios are thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone levels. In the present paper, we aim to show the context-dependency of the relation between 2D:4D and social behaviour. In two studies, we expose participants either to control or to aggression cues. Afterwards, they make a decision in a dictator game. Participants with low 2D:4D showed higher allocation levels (i.e. they were more prosocial) than participants with high 2D:4D in a neutral situation. However, this relationship inverts after exposure to an aggression cue. It turns out that in high 2D:4D people, aggression cues even increase prosocial behaviour. We call for future research which focuses on other plausible interactions between 2D:4D and context cues rather than on linear relations. PMID:18590604

Millet, Kobe; Dewitte, Siegfried

2008-06-28

140

Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

2012-01-01

141

Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

2012-01-01

142

Subacute oral exposure to benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) increases aggressiveness and affects consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour in male mice.  

PubMed

Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) is a neurotoxic pollutant which is also able to affect some behaviour and cognitive function. Here we report that a subacute oral exposure to B[alpha]P increases aggressiveness and affects copulatory behaviour in male mice. Indeed, after 3 weeks of exposure to B[alpha]P at 0.02 and 0.2mg/kg, we have observed that B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated male mice are more aggressive than control mice in resident-intruder test because a significant decrease in the latency time of the first attack and a significant increase in the number of attacks in B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated mice were found. On the other hand, we have found that subacute exposure (4 weeks) to B[alpha]P, does not affect the appetitive aspects and sexual motivation in copulatory behaviour because the latency to the first mount between control and B[alpha]P-treated male mice was not significantly different. We have nevertheless, surprisingly found that B[alpha]P (0.02-0.2)mg/kg-treated mice have performed significantly more sexual behavioural acts including mounting, intromission latency and intromission frequency than control mice. Although these last results suggest that B[alpha]P improves the consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour, we cannot conclude that this neurotoxic pollutant has advantage of sexual function because B[alpha]P has been shown to alter the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system and causes endocrine dysregulation via toxic effect. PMID:19414216

Bouayed, Jaouad; Desor, Frédéric; Soulimani, Rachid

2009-04-05

143

Behavioural and molecular outcomes of early life immune challenge in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although historically treated as separate systems, there is considerable interaction between the immune system and brain. It has become increasingly clear that immune-brain communication is important to both health and disease. An immunogenic challenge given during the first postnatal week in rodents impacts the developing central nervous system (CNS) leading to long-term behavioural and molecular alterations reflective of enhanced stress-reactivity.

Michelle M Sidor

2010-01-01

144

Neuroendocrine Responses to a Glucose Challenge in Substance Users with High and Low Levels of Aggression, Impulsivity, and Antisocial Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma glucose concentrations, and plasma prolactin and cortisol responses to a 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 37 substance abusers, were examined to assess the relationship between varying degrees of antisocial personality, impulsivity, and aggressiveness and measures of endocrine function. Childhood and presenting aggression, impulsivity and antisocial personality features were evaluated by several self-report questionnaires. Those with high scores

Diana H. Fishbein; Elizabeth Dax; David B. Lozovsky; Jerome H. Jaffe

1992-01-01

145

Evaluation of Video Feedback and Self-Management to Decrease Schoolyard Aggression and Increase Pro-Social Behaviour in Two Students with Behavioural Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Deficiencies in social competence constitute a significant problem for aggressive children. As a result, these children often experience difficulty interacting with peers in socially acceptable ways. Such problems are particularly exacerbated in the schoolyard, where rules are less defined and low levels of supervision prevail. The present study…

O'reilly, Mark F.; O'Halloran, Margaret; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Green, Vanessa; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Cannella, Helen; Olive, Melissa

2005-01-01

146

Social isolation increases aggressive behaviour and alters the effects of diazepam in the rat social interaction test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation rearing in the early stages of life has been shown to modify a variety of behaviours in many animals and the responsitivity to psychotropic drugs. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of isolation rearing on anxiety using the social interaction paradigm and to compare the effects of diazepam on social interaction behaviours in isolation

N. Wongwitdecha; C. A. Marsden

1996-01-01

147

Association of Aggressive Behaviours with Psychiatric Disorders, Age, Sex and Degree of Intellectual Disability: A Large-Scale Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The link between aggression and mental disorders has been the focus of diverse studies in persons with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Because of discrepancies in the finding of studies in persons with ID to date, and because of differences in research design, instruments used and the population studied, more research is…

Tsiouris, J. A.; Kim, S. Y.; Brown, W. T.; Cohen, I. L.

2011-01-01

148

Staff Attributions about Challenging Behaviours of People with Intellectual Disabilities and Transactional Stress Process: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Staff explanations about challenging behaviours of people with intellectual disabilities are purported to play a significant role in the way they respond to them. Despite attempts made in research to understand the mechanisms of causality, a lack of association between attributions, emotions and behaviours is reported. This study…

Cudre-Mauroux, A.

2010-01-01

149

Coping with Challenging Behaviours of Children with Autism: Effectiveness of Brief Training Workshop for Frontline Staff in Special Education Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The present study examined the effectiveness of three staff training elements: psychoeducation (PE) on autism, introduction of functional behavioural analysis (FBA) and emotional management (EM), on the reaction of challenging behaviours for frontline staff towards children with autism in Hong Kong special education settings. Methods:…

Ling, C. Y. M.; Mak, W. W. S.

2012-01-01

150

Informing policies in forensic settings: a review of research investigating the effects of exposure to media violence on challenging\\/offending behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review collates the empirical evidence on the behavioural effects of media violence. It assesses the content of different forms of media to which patients in secure services could be exposed. Numerous explanations for behaving aggressively are examined, using a variety of theoretical backgrounds. The effect of viewing different forms of violence on individuals' behaviour is also examined. The review

Joanne Steward; Franco Follina

2006-01-01

151

Teacher Involvement in the Development of Function-Based Behaviour Intervention Plans for Students with Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines literature published since 1997 on functional behaviour assessment (FBA) and behaviour intervention plans (BIPs), involving school-based personnel, for children identified as having or being at risk of emotional/behavioural disorder (E/BD) in school settings. Of interest was the level of involvement of school-based personnel…

O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

2009-01-01

152

Comparative study of aggressive behaviour in transgenic and wildtype zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton) and the flying barb Esomus danricus (Hamilton), and their susceptibility to predation by the snakehead Channa striatus (Bloch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address concerns related with incidental release of transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) in water bodies, experiments were carried out to document aggressive behaviour (Experiment 1) of transgenic zebrafish towards wildtype zebrafish and flying barb (Esomus danricus). The study also aimed to evaluate their susceptibility to predation (Experiment 2) by snakehead, Channa striatus. In Experiment 1, 15 replicate trials were performed

P. Jha

2010-01-01

153

Does engagement in meaningful occupation reduce challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities? A systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

Over several years, there has been much debate about the best way to manage challenging behaviour. Although national guidance highlights the importance of meaningful occupation, it is unclear to what extent this helps. This systematic review of the literature aimed to answer the question, 'does engagement in meaningful occupation reduce challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability?' By searching a range of databases, electronic resources and web pages, 13 relevant articles were identified. Additionally, experts in the field were contacted, hand searches were performed and citation searches were carried out. These 13 articles were critically appraised and analysed using narrative synthesis. Although the amount of research identified was limited and the methodological quality was variable, some broad themes arose. A skilled and structured approach for carrying out occupation may be effective in reducing challenging behaviour; however, more robust research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn. PMID:23339117

Ball, Jo; Fazil, Qulsom

2013-01-21

154

Aggression in an Australian forensic psychiatric hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a considerable body of research on the assessment and prediction of aggression in psychiatric hospitals. A range of clinical and demographic characteristics associated with aggressive inpatients, such as young age and active symptoms of psychosis, have repeatedly been shown to contribute to aggression. Environmental factors have also been shown to be important. The study examined aggressive behaviours in

Michael Daffern; James Ogloff; Kevin Howells

2003-01-01

155

[The aggressive child (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In children a "normal" aggressiveness should be distinguished from "hostile" and "inhibited" aggression; the latter usually become apparent as heteroaggressive or autoaggressive behaviour. Autoaggression is more common with younger children. Different hypotheses about the origin of aggressiveness are discussed. In the younger child nail biting, trichotillomania, rocking, an intensified phase of contrariness and enkopresis may have components of aggressiveness. In older children and adolescents dissocial forms of development, drug taking, attempted suicid, and anorexia nervosa may be parts of aggressive behaviour. Minimal brain dysfunction, autism, and postencephalitic syndromes predominate amongst organic alterations of the brain as causes for aggressive behaviour. Particularly the Lesch-Nyhan-syndrome, but equally the Cornelia de Lange-syndrome show autoaggressive tendencies. PMID:355872

Harbauer, H

1978-08-01

156

Differential gene expression in brain tissues of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Canine behavioural problems, in particular aggression, are important reasons for euthanasia of otherwise healthy dogs. Aggressive behaviour in dogs also represents an animal welfare problem and a public threat. Elucidating the genetic background of adverse behaviour can provide valuable information to breeding programs and aid the development of drugs aimed at treating undesirable behaviour. With the intentions of identifying

Jørn Våge; Tina B Bønsdorff; Ellen Arnet; Aage Tverdal; Frode Lingaas

2010-01-01

157

The association between stress and physical health in parents caring for children with intellectual disabilities is moderated by children's challenging behaviours.  

PubMed

The present study examined the moderating role of social support and challenging behaviour on the stress-physical health relationship in parents caring for children with intellectual disabilities. Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (n = 70) reported more physical health problems compared to control parents (n = 45) and were more likely to visit their general practitioner. Furthermore, challenging behaviours, but not social support, moderated this association: parents of children with intellectual disabilities reported poorer physical health when both challenging behaviours and stress were perceived to be high. These findings suggest that interventions need to be directed towards ameliorating the impact of challenging behaviours. PMID:23129834

Gallagher, Stephen; Whiteley, Jennifer

2012-11-05

158

ALCOHOL, AGGRESSION AND SEROTONIN: METABOLIC ASPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in alcohol-induc ed aggressive behaviour is discussed. Considerable evidence exists in support of an association between aggression and serotonin deficiency and between aggression and alcohol consumption, and it is also known that alcohol consumption exerts major effects on serotonin metabolism. These links are synthesized into the serotonin deficiency hypothesis of alcohol-induc ed aggressive behaviour, which

ABDULLA A.-B. BADAWY

159

Out-of-Area Provision for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour in England: Policy Perspectives and Clinical Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The use of out-of-area placements to meet the needs of individuals with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour has been increasing in the UK. Such placements claim a large proportion of service budget expenditure; therefore, it is important to consider whether they offer the best-quality care. This paper reports on…

Barron, D. Andrea; Hassiotis, A.; Paschos, D.

2011-01-01

160

Impact of Training on Cognitive Representation of Challenging Behaviour in Staff Working with Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Cognitive representations of challenging behaviour among staff may influence therapeutic outcomes. This study looked at how cognitive dimensions of Identity, Cause, Consequences, Emotional Reaction and Treatment/Control are affected by training. Materials and Methods: A theoretically derived questionnaire was used to measure the…

Campbell, Martin; Hogg, James

2008-01-01

161

Grip on challenging behaviour: a multidisciplinary care programme for managing behavioural problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and\\u000a nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems\\u000a will be evaluated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\/Design  The care programme is based on Dutch national guidelines. It will consist of four steps: detection, analysis, treatment and\\u000a evaluation.

Sandra A Zwijsen; Martin Smalbrugge; Sytse U Zuidema; Raymond TCM Koopmans; Judith E Bosmans; Maurits W van Tulder; Jan A Eefsting; Debby L Gerritsen; Anne-Margriet Pot

2011-01-01

162

Changes in Attributions as a Consequence of Training for Challenging and Complex Behaviour for Carers of People with Learning Disabilities: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: This paper reviews the evidence for changes in carers' attributions regarding the behaviour of people with intellectual disabilities as a consequence of carer training in challenging and complex behaviour. Method: Papers were included in the review if they reported outcomes for carer training on the behaviour of people with intellectual…

Williams, Sophie; Dagnan, Dave; Rodgers, Jacqui; McDowell, Kathryn

2012-01-01

163

A General Practice-Based Study of the Relationship between Indicators of Mental Illness and Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Existing studies tend to show a positive association between mental illness and challenging behaviour among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, whether the association is direct or artefactual is less clear. The purpose was to explore the association between psychiatric status and level of challenging behaviour, while…

Felce, D.; Kerr, M.; Hastings, R. P.

2009-01-01

164

Screening for Psychiatric Disorders in a Total Population of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour Using the PAS-ADD Checklist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Previous research has suggested a variety of possible relationships between the presence of symptoms of psychiatric disorder and challenging behaviours in people with intellectual disability. This study explores this relationship in a total population sample of adults with challenging behaviour. Materials and Methods: Over 800 service…

Allen, David; Lowe, Kathy; Matthews, Helen; Anness, Val

2012-01-01

165

A Comparison of Challenging Behaviour in an Adult Group with Down's Syndrome and Dementia Compared with an Adult Down's Syndrome Group without Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in adults with Down's syndrome with and without signs of dementia. Care staff were interviewed using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community version (M.G. Aman & N.N. Singh, Slosson, East Aurora, NY, 1994), to investigate the frequency and severity of challenging

Huxley, Adam; Van-Schaik, Paul; Witts, Paul

2005-01-01

166

Grip on challenging behaviour: a multidisciplinary care programme for managing behavioural problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems will be evaluated. Methods/Design The care programme is based on Dutch national guidelines. It will consist of four steps: detection, analysis, treatment and evaluation. A stepped wedge design will be used. A total of 14 dementia special care units will implement the care programme. The primary outcome is behavioural problems. Secondary outcomes will include quality of life, prescription rate of antipsychotics, use of physical restraints and workload and job satisfaction of nursing staff. The effect of the care programme will be estimated using multilevel linear regression analysis. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective will also be carried out. Discussion The care programme is expected to be cost-effective and effective in decreasing behavioural problems, workload of nursing staff and in increasing quality of life of residents. Trial registration The Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR). Trial number: NTR 2141

2011-01-01

167

The challenge for English schools in responding to current debates on behaviour and violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The riots in English cities in August 2011 have brought debates on behaviour of young people into sharper focus. Criticism of softly-softly approaches and the lack of power for head teachers to discipline is a reoccurring theme within the debate on behaviour in schools. Regaining adult authority is also reflected in the tenor of the government’s 2010 White Paper on

Julie Shaughnessy

2012-01-01

168

The Challenge for English Schools in Responding to Current Debates on Behaviour and Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The riots in English cities in August 2011 have brought debates on behaviour of young people into sharper focus. Criticism of softly-softly approaches and the lack of power for head teachers to discipline is a reoccurring theme within the debate on behaviour in schools. Regaining adult authority is also reflected in the tenor of the government's…

Shaughnessy, Julie

2012-01-01

169

Problematic Sexual Behaviour in a Secure Psychiatric Setting: Challenges and Developing Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexually abusive behaviours are common in a forensic psychiatric population, both before admission and while hospitalized. A survey of our medium security facility found that 41% of patients had a history of sexually abusive behaviours, ranging from convictions for sexual assault through to current episodes of sexual harassment. Most forensic…

Hughes, Gareth V.; Hebb, Jo

2005-01-01

170

Do members of shooting associations display higher levels of aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to public opinion, members of shooting organizations (i.e. shooters) are thought to be more aggressive than other groups in society. Also, guns are generally seen as stimuli that elicit aggressive behaviour. The present study examined whether shooters are really more aggressive than non-shooters. Shooters and non-shooters were compared on measures of aggressive behaviour, aggressive fantasies, impulsivity, and main personality

Maria Helena Nagtegaal; Eric Rassin; Peter E. H. M. Muris

2009-01-01

171

Evaluation of personalised, one-to-one interaction using Montessori-type activities as a treatment of challenging behaviours in people with dementia: the study protocol of a crossover trial  

PubMed Central

Background The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Behaviours stemming from pain, major depression or psychosis benefit from treatment with analgesics, antidepressants or antipsychotics. In other cases, psychotropic medications have limited efficacy but are used very widely. Therefore, increasingly more attention has been paid to nonpharmacological interventions which are associated with fewer risks. The aim of the current study is to test if personalised one-to-one interaction activities based on Montessori principles will reduce the frequency of behavioural symptoms of dementia significantly more than a relevant control condition. Methods/Design We will conduct a controlled trial with randomised cross-over between conditions. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to Montessori or control blocks for two weeks then switched to the other condition. Montessori activities derive from the principles espoused by Maria Montessori and subsequent educational theorists to promote engagement in learning, namely task breakdown, guided repetition, progression in difficulty from simple to complex, and the careful matching of demands to levels of competence. The control intervention consists of conversation or reading from and looking at pictures in a newspaper to control for non-specific benefits of one-to-one interaction. Presence of target behaviour will be noted as well as level of engagement and type of affect displayed. Secondary measures also include the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and information on time and funds spend to prepare the activities. Discussion If our results show that use of Montessori activities is effective in treating challenging behaviours in individuals with dementia, it will potentially provide a safer and more enjoyable intervention rather than reliance on pharmacology alone. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12609000564257

2010-01-01

172

Preferential Treatment or Unwanted in Mainstream Schools? The Perceptions of Parents and Teachers with Regards to Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Challenging Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers regarding the differential treatment or stigma experienced by pupils with challenging behaviour--more specifically, those with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD), as well as children with visible special educational needs (Down's syndrome and/or profound and multiple…

Broomhead, Karen E.

2013-01-01

173

Understanding injustice-related aggression in organizations: a cognitive model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the literature on workplace aggression emphasized the role of perceived injustice in the occurrence of aggressive behaviours in the workplace. The present article develops a cognitive model, which contends that perceptions of injustice are necessary but not sufficient to trigger aggressive behaviours in the workplace. Rather, retaliatory actions following perceived injustices are embedded in a nexus of

Constant D. Beugré

2005-01-01

174

Prevalence of Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Mental Retardation and Challenging Behaviour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sample of 165 adults with mental retardation was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms, mental retardation level, and challenging behavior. Challenging behavior was associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety and psychosis, and not with depression. No association was found between anxiety and…

Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter

2003-01-01

175

Staff observation aggression scale, SOAS: Presentation and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACf -A new psychiatric report and rating scale assessing severity and frequency of aggressive behaviour is presented and evaluated. It is based on the staff's standardized re- ports of aggressive incidents. By using a special aggression report form, comprehensive and standardized information is obtained, thereby permitting scoring and further analysis of dif- ferent aspects of aggressive incidents. The reliability of

T. Palmstierna; B. Wistedt

1987-01-01

176

Counter Narratives in "Naughty" Students' Accounts: Challenges for the Discourse of Behaviour Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper is based on a research project that sought to understand schools' behaviour management strategies from the perspective of students who had the most experience of them. It focuses on the contrasting ways in which teacher and student subjectivities are framed and positioned within the discourse. It considers how student accounts were…

Priyadharshini, Esther

2011-01-01

177

Parenting Late-Placed Children: The Development of New Relationships and the Challenge of Behavioural Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the development of new relationships and the presence of behavioural and emotional problems in a study of 61 five- to nine-year-old children placed from care with the intention of permanence in new, unrelated families during middle childhood. When interviewed, new parents reported that 73% of the children had formed an attached relationship with one or both

Alan Rushton; Deborah Mayes; Cherilyn Dance; David Quinton

2003-01-01

178

Are aggressive people aggressive drivers? A study of the relationship between self-reported general aggressiveness, driver anger and aggressive driving.  

PubMed

In this study the relationships among self-reported general aggressiveness, impulsiveness, driver anger, and aggressive responses to anger-provoking situations on the road were studied. The British version of a driver anger scale (UK DAS), aggression questionnaire (AQ), and an impulsiveness questionnaire (I7) together with background questions (gender, age, annual mileage) were administered to a sample of 270 British drivers. Variation in strength of correlations between anger and aggressive reactions in the 21 UK DAS items showed that the relationship between driver anger and aggression depends in part on the characteristics of the situation. In addition, three path models for describing the relationships among the measures were constructed separately for women and men. The models suggested that the effects of verbal aggressiveness on self-reported driver aggression were mediated by driver anger whereas physical aggressiveness was directly related to aggressive behaviour. Age was negatively related to both driver anger and aggression among men whereas annual mileage was negatively related to aggression among women. The models constructed indicate that aggressive driver behaviour is a complex phenomenon with a range of psychological causes. PMID:11204896

Lajunen, T; Parker, D

2001-03-01

179

The aggressive child.  

PubMed

Acute assessment and management of the aggressive or violent child or adolescent are a challenge for clinicians. Early recognition of signs of impending violence and a clear understanding of the progression of violent behavior are essential to ensure safety of patients and staff. The management of violent and aggressive patients using behavioral interventions tailored to the stage of violence or aggression is critical to reducing the likelihood that the child or adolescent will attack staff or injure self or others. The indications and risks of chemical and physical restraints and hospital standards and guidelines that govern the use of behavioral and experience regarding the prevalence, presentation, and differential diagnosis of psychotic disorders in juveniles. The clinician must rapidly disentangle which elements of the clinical presentation indicate true psychotic thought processes versus elements that represent misunderstood developmentally appropriate phenomena, symptoms of nonpsychotic illnesses, or harbingers of an underlying primary medical illness. A thorough assessment is required before appropriate treatment can begin. PMID:14579645

Heyneman, Ellen K

2003-10-01

180

The effect of auditory versus visual violent media exposure on aggressive behaviour: The role of song lyrics, video clips and musical tone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five decades of research have shown clear links between exposure to violent visual media and subsequent aggression, however there has been little research that directly compares the effects of exposure to violent visual versus auditory media, or which has experimentally tested the effect of violent song lyrics with musical ‘tone’ held constant. In the current study 194 participants heard music

Heidi I. Brummert Lennings; Wayne A. Warburton

2011-01-01

181

CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES IN EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL ILLNESS AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOUR AND CRIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a longstanding view within the general population and the criminal justice system that the mentally ill are more prone than the mentally healthy to violence and. This view, however, is not fully supported by empirical research, in particular due to conceptual and methodological challenges that arise when the relationship between mental illness and crime is examined. This paper

Thomas Hugh Richardson

182

Gender, Ethnicity and Challenging Behaviour: a Literature Review and Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment, care management and service planning for people with challenging needs should be sensitive to gender and ethnicity for equitable and appropriate service provision. This paper explores the relevant literature to map and identify the issues, and profiles a exploratory study of special schools, adult residential services and community support teams, to identify the gender and ethnic characteristics of people

Michele Di Terlizzi; Paul Cambridge; Pam Maras

1999-01-01

183

A Report on the Challenging Behaviour Services in an English Health Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of 20 health districts in England identified specialist services for individuals with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors. Great diversity was found in such services as specialized teams, staffed housing, assessment and short-term admission, and respite care facilities. Entitlement to appropriate treatment was more…

Chung, Man Cheung; Cumella, Stuart

1996-01-01

184

Experiences with general practitioners described by families of children with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Objective To investigate parents' experiences of follow-up by general practitioners (GPs) of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and comorbid behavioural and/or psychological problems. Design Qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with parents of children with ID and a broad range of accompanying health problems. Setting County centred study in Norway involving primary and specialist care. Participants Nine parents of seven children with ID, all received services from an assigned GP and a specialist hospital department. Potential participants were identified by the specialist hospital department and purposefully selected by the authors to represent both genders and a range of diagnoses, locations and assigned GPs. Results Three clusters of experiences emerged from the analysis: expectations, relationships and actual use. The participants had low expectations of the GPs' competence and involvement with their child, and primarily used the GP for the treatment of simple somatic problems. Only one child regularly visited their GP for general and mental health check-ups. The participants' experience of their GPs was that they did not have time and were not interested in the behavioural and mental problems of these children. Conclusions Families with children with ID experience a complex healthcare system in situations where they are vulnerable to lack of information, involvement and competence. GPs are part of a stable service system and are in a position to provide security, help and support to these families. Parents' experiences could be improved by regular health checks for their children and GPs being patient, taking time and showing interest in challenging behaviour. PMID:22123921

Fredheim, Terje; Lien, Lars; Danbolt, Lars J; Kjønsberg, Kari; Haavet, Ole R

2011-11-28

185

Game location and aggression in rugby league  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would

Marc V Jones; Steven R Bray; Stephen Olivier

2005-01-01

186

Aggressiveness, Anger and Eating Disorders: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anger and aggressive behaviours, especially those self-directed, are frequent in subjects suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They increase the complexity of the clinical features, change the prognosis and cause a more difficult management of these disorders. In order to elucidate the complex relationships between eating disorders, anger and aggressiveness, the history of traumatic experiences, the prevalence of dissociative,

Elisabetta Truglia; Edoardo Mannucci; Stefano Lassi; Carlo Maria Rotella; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca

2006-01-01

187

An aggression policy that works  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, a survey of the clinical staff in Royal Darwin Hospital showed that most instances of aggressive and abusive behaviour by patients or visitors occurring in the hospital went unreported because staff believed there would not be any follow-up investigation or action taken by man- agement. In response, a hospital working party was formed to develop and implement an

Denby A Kitchener; Sharon R Sykes; Allan G McEwan

2004-01-01

188

Mapping Brain Development and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method: Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results: The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques

Tomás Paus

189

Differential visceral nociceptive, behavioural and neurochemical responses to an immune challenge in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto rat strain.  

PubMed

A highly regulated crosstalk exists between the immune and neuroendocrine systems with the altered immune responses in stress-related disorders being a valid example of this interaction. The Wister Kyoto (WKY) rat is an animal model with a genetic predisposition towards an exaggerated stress response and is used to study disorders such as depression and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where stress plays a substantial role. The impact of a lipopolysaccride (LPS) immune challenge has not yet been investigated in this animal model to date. Hence our aim was to assess if the stress susceptible genetic background of the WKY rat was associated with a differential response to an acute immune challenge. Central and peripheral parameters previously shown to be altered by LPS administration were assessed. Under baseline conditions, WKY rats displayed visceral hypersensitivity compared to Sprague Dawley (SD) control rats. However, only SD rats showed an increase in visceral sensitivity following endotoxin administration. The peripheral immune response to the LPS was similar in both strains whilst the central neurochemistry was blunted in the WKY rats. Sickness behaviour was also abrogated in the WKY rats. Taken together, these data indicate that the genetic background of the WKY rat mitigates the response to infection centrally, but not peripherally. This implies that heightened stress-susceptibility in vulnerable populations may compromise the coordinated CNS response to peripheral immune activation. PMID:23872358

O' Mahony, Siobhain M; Clarke, Gerard; McKernan, Declan P; Bravo, Javier A; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

2013-07-19

190

Sexually dimorphic effects of neonatal immune system activation with lipopolysaccharide on the behavioural response to a homotypic adult immune challenge.  

PubMed

Research has shown that acute immune activation during the early postnatal period with the Gram-negative endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alters a variety of physiological and behavioural processes in the adult animal. For example, neonatal LPS exposure affects disease susceptibility later in life, though these effects appear to be modulated by time of exposure, sex, and immune stimulus. The current study examined sex differences in the effect of neonatal LPS treatment on the locomotor activity response to adult LPS administration. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50 microg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Later in adulthood (postnatal day 92), all animals were subjected to an adult LPS challenge and were injected (i.p.) with 200 microg/kg LPS. Two hours after injection, animals were placed in a non-novel open-field and locomotor activity was assessed for 30 min. Body weights were determined both at the time of injection and 24h later to examine LPS-induced weight loss. Adult males treated neonatally with LPS exhibited significantly less horizontal and vertical activity in response to the LPS challenge relative to males treated neonatally with saline. This effect was not observed in females. Thus, the current study provides important evidence of sexual dimorphism in the long-term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on the responses to an adult homotypic immune challenge in rats. These findings have potential clinical significance given that neonatal exposure to pathogens is a fairly common occurrence and Gram-negative bacteria are a common cause of neonatal bacterial infections. PMID:18280690

Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

2008-01-11

191

Genetics of aggression.  

PubMed

Aggression mediates competition for food, mating partners, and habitats and, among social animals, establishes stable dominance hierarchies. In humans, abnormal aggression is a hallmark of neuropsychiatric disorders and can be elicited by environmental factors acting on an underlying genetic susceptibility. Identifying the genetic architecture that predisposes to aggressive behavior in people is challenging because of difficulties in quantifying the phenotype, genetic heterogeneity, and uncontrolled environmental conditions. Studies on mice have identified single-gene mutations that result in hyperaggression, contingent on genetic background. These studies can be complemented by systems genetics approaches in Drosophila melanogaster, in which mutational analyses together with genome-wide transcript analyses, artificial selection studies, and genome-wide analysis of epistasis have revealed that a large segment of the genome contributes to the manifestation of aggressive behavior with widespread epistatic interactions. Comparative genomic analyses based on the principle of evolutionary conservation are needed to enable a complete dissection of the neurogenetic underpinnings of this universal fitness trait. PMID:22934647

Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

2012-08-28

192

"My Heart Is Always Where He Is". Perspectives of Mothers of Young People with Severe Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour Living at Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has focussed on the perspectives of families caring for someone with severe or profound intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. The main aim of this research was to gain understanding of the experiences and perspectives of families, especially mothers, of young people with these complex needs, including attitudes to…

Hubert, Jane

2011-01-01

193

Characteristics and Experiences of Children and Young People with Severe Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour Attending 52-Week Residential Special Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: This study sought to gather information about the characteristics and experiences of children and young people with severe intellectual disabilities and severe challenging behaviour attending 52-week residential special schools. Method: Staff of nine schools completed postal questionnaires on the characteristics and experiences of 156…

Pilling, N.; McGill, P.; Cooper, V.

2007-01-01

194

THE BEHAVIOURAL REACTION OF WEANERS TO HANGING TOYS: WOODEN BALL AND AROMATIZED WOODEN BALL - WAY TO REDUCE AGGRESSION AFTER MIXING REAKCJA BEHAWIORALNA WARCHLAKÓW NA DODATKOWE, PODWIESZANE ELEMENTY: DREWNIAN? PI?K? I AROMATYZOWAN? DREWNIAN? PI?K? - MO?LIWO?CI OGRANICZENIA AGRESJI PO PO??CZENIU MIOTÓW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of weaners after mixing housed in pens equipped with hanging wooden ball, aromatized with vanilla fluid hanging wooden ball and without enrichment was evaluated. It was found that both enrichments reduced aggression, however the most interesting for weaners was the aromatized wooden ball.

Jacek NOWICKI; Marcin KOPYRA

195

A Comparison of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities with and without ASD on Parallel Measures of Challenging Behaviour: The Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01) and Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Intellectually Disabled Adults (ASD-BPA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Challenging behaviour may not be part of the diagnostic criteria for Autistic Disorder but they are frequently exhibited by children and adults with this condition. Levels of challenging behaviours are highest in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring intellectual disability (ID). The sample for this study consisted…

Rojahn, Johannes; Wilkins, Jonathan; Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica

2010-01-01

196

Challenger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy.

Jonathan Allday

2002-01-01

197

Challenger  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

Allday, Jonathan

2002-01-01

198

Challenger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy.

Allday, Jonathan

2002-09-01

199

Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)|

Moore, Thomas R.

1975-01-01

200

The Impact of Puberty on Aggression\\/Delinquency: Adolescence to Young Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puberty is a potentially sensitive period during which the adolescent demonstrates rapid changes in aggressive\\/delinquent behaviour. Early onset of puberty has been implicated, not only in the earlier occurrence of aggressive\\/delinquent behaviour, but potentially a continuing higher level of aggression\\/delinquency. This article examines immediate and longer term gender specific changes in aggressive\\/delinquent behaviour as these are independently associated with the

Jake M. Najman; Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh; Tara R. McGee; William Bor; Michael J. OCallaghan; Gail M. Williams

2009-01-01

201

Cyber bullying: practices to face digital aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The display of aggressive behaviours among the digital generation has modernized the traditional attributes of bullying. Cases of bullying are no longer confined to physical altercations between peers in school hallways or hostile verbal exchanges during recess periods. With the progression of technology, educators must recognize the changes of our students’ behaviours as lives become modified by the digital era.

Mickie Wong-Lo; Lyndal M. Bullock; Robert A. Gable

2011-01-01

202

Handling Hard-to-Manage Behaviours in Pre-School ProvisionA Systems Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceptions and experiences of hard-to-manage behaviours were explored among 32 staff working in a variety of local authority and private nurseries and playgroups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to ascertain what behaviours in children staff find most challenging, how they were managed and concerns communicated to parents. Results showed that aggression, inability to share and refusal were perceived as the

Hugh Foot; Lisa Woolfson; Melody Terras; Claire Norfolk

2004-01-01

203

Anxiety, burnout and coping styles in general hospital staff exposed to workplace aggression: A cyclical model of burnout and vulnerability to aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although an increasing problem, the aggression ( physical assault, threatening behaviour and verbal aggression) directed toward general hospital staff rather than staff in psychiatric institutions has not been widely investigated. The present study first compared anxiety, coping styles and burnout according to the frequency of aggressive experiences. Second, a sub-sample was examined to determine any immediate after-effects from aggressive encounters.

Sue Winstanley; Richard Whittington

2002-01-01

204

Innate defensive behaviour and panic-like reactions evoked by rodents during aggressive encounters with Brazilian constrictor snakes in a complex labyrinth: Behavioural validation of a new model to study affective and agonistic reactions in a prey versus predator paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defensive behaviour has been extensively studied, and non-invasive methodologies may be interesting approaches to analyzing the limbic system function as a whole. Using experimental models of animals in the state of anxiety has been fundamental in the search for new anxiolytic and antipanic compounds. The aim of this present work is to examine a new model for the study of

Raquel Guimarães-Costa; Maria Beatriz Guimarães-Costa; Leonardo Pippa-Gadioli; Alfredo Weltson; Walter Adriano Ubiali; Tatiana Paschoalin-Maurin; Tatiana Tocchini Felippotti; Daoud Hibrahim Elias-Filho; Carlos Júlio Laure; Norberto Cysne Coimbra

2007-01-01

205

Behavioural endocrinology: no hormonal response in tied fights.  

PubMed

Androgens are the principal sex steroids controlling reproduction and aggression in male fish, but their production can also be affected by social interactions. Here we show that androgen concentrations are not significantly increased in cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) that are fighting their own image in a mirror, despite their aggressive behaviour towards the virtual intruder. Our results indicate that the hormonal response normally triggered in male contests is not induced under these circumstances by the act of fighting itself, and that it may therefore depend on some indicator of relative fighting ability that cannot be delivered by a mirror-image challenger. PMID:16148924

Oliveira, Rui F; Carneiro, Luis A; Canário, Adelino V M

2005-09-01

206

Psychopharmacology of Aggression in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The management of aggression in patients with schizophrenia is a complex and challenging clinical dilemma. It also is greatly influenced by prevailing societal and medicolegal considerations regarding the perceived associations between violence and mental illness. This article provides a succinct account of a complex area and offers evidence for available treatments to reduce the occurrence of violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia.

Buckley, Peter; Citrome, Leslie; Nichita, Carmen; Vitacco, Michael

2011-01-01

207

Teachers' Perceptions of Physical Aggression among Secondary School Students: A New Zealand View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has found differences between adults' and students' perceptions of adolescents' aggressive behaviour. This study examines teachers' perceptions of physical aggression among New Zealand secondary school students. A survey assessed teachers' perceptions of problematic behaviour, and physical aggression by students towards teachers.…

Marsh, Louise; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

2009-01-01

208

Teachers' Perceptions of Physical Aggression among Secondary School Students: A New Zealand View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research has found differences between adults' and students' perceptions of adolescents' aggressive behaviour. This study examines teachers' perceptions of physical aggression among New Zealand secondary school students. A survey assessed teachers' perceptions of problematic behaviour, and physical aggression by students towards…

Marsh, Louise; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

2009-01-01

209

Gender and aggression II: Personal aggressiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate how gender, ethnicity, age and education influence aggressiveness, we surveyed 115 male and female college students (56% male; 50% Anglo and 26% Hispanic) and 79 persons (72% male; 92% Anglo) working on a military base. Participants were administered the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and asked about their own aggressive behaviors. In both samples, men scored significantly higher than women

Mary B. Harris; Kelly Knight-Bohnhoff

1996-01-01

210

HOW DO EPISTEMOLOGICAL BELIEFS CONTRIBUTE TO LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR, AND THE CHANGES REQUIRED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF TODAY'S BUSINESS CHALLENGES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between personal epistemological beliefs and behaviours of leaders will be undertaken as part of a doctoral research investigation. The research will also examine the changes that occur in leadership constructs and behaviour when epistemological beliefs are surfaced and explored with individuals. Leadership research and theory are briefly examined to identify a relevant leadership paradigm on which to begin

Carol Dalglish; Joanne Brownlee; Carolyn Hatcher

211

The implementation of the serial trial intervention for pain and challenging behaviour in advanced dementia patients (STA OP!): a clustered randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pain (physical discomfort) and challenging behaviour are highly prevalent in nursing home residents with dementia: at any given time 45-80% of nursing home residents are in pain and up to 80% have challenging behaviour. In the USA Christine Kovach developed the serial trial intervention (STI) and established that this protocol leads to less discomfort and fewer behavioural symptoms in moderate to severe dementia patients. The present study will provide insight into the effects of implementation of the Dutch version of the STI-protocol (STA OP!) in comparison with a control intervention, not only on behavioural symptoms, but also on pain, depression, and quality of life. This article outlines the study protocol. Methods/Design The study is a cluster randomized controlled trial in 168 older people (aged >65 years) with mild or moderate dementia living in nursing homes. The clusters, Dutch nursing homes, are randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (training and implementation of the STA OP!-protocol) or the control condition (general training focusing on challenging behaviour and pain, but without the step-wise approach). Measurements take place at baseline, after 3 months (end of the STA OP! training period) and after 6 months. Primary outcome measures are symptoms of challenging behaviour (measured with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH)), and pain (measure with the Dutch version of the Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors (PACSLAC-D) and the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS-RAI) pain scale). Secondary outcome measures include symptoms of depression (Cornell and MDS-RAI depression scale), Quality of Live (Qualidem), changes in prescriptions of analgesics and psychotropic drugs, and the use of non-pharmacological comfort interventions (e.g. snoezelen, reminiscence therapy). Discussion The transfer from the American design to the Dutch design involved several changes due to the different organisation of healthcare systems. Specific strengths and limitations of the study are discussed. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR1967

2011-01-01

212

Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and testosterone in men exposed to an aggressive video stimulus.  

PubMed

The relative lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in "challenge" situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a "challenge" is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression. PMID:24113579

Kilduff, Liam P; Hopp, Renato N; Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Manning, John T

2013-10-10

213

Aggression and Anxiety: Social Context and Neurobiological Links  

PubMed Central

Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB) vs. low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB) rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders.

Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

2009-01-01

214

Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients filled in…

Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

2011-01-01

215

Associations between parental control and children's overt and relational aggression.  

PubMed

The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In line with expectations, parental physical punishment was positively associated with overt aggression, whereas parental psychological control was positively associated with relational aggression in both girls and boys. In addition, this study demonstrated that if both parents employed similar parenting strategies, it appeared to have a cumulative effect on child aggressive behaviour. Associations involving overt aggression were more pronounced for boys than girls, whereas associations involving relational aggression were not moderated by gender. Overall, the present study contributes to an emerging research field by supporting the hypothesis of specialized associations between parental control and child aggression. PMID:19994571

Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy

2009-09-01

216

Behaviour Recovery. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options…

Rogers, Bill

2004-01-01

217

Challenges and Management Frameworks of Residential Schools for Students with Severe Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study by Stella Suk-Ching Chong, an assistant professor, and Ka-wai Leung, a teaching fellow, both at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, focuses on the perspectives of hostel staff from six residential schools for students with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. Individual or focus group interviews were conducted to explore…

Chong, Stella Suk-ching; Leung, Ka-wai

2012-01-01

218

Television Violence and Aggression: The Debate Continues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many social scientists believe there is a causal relation between viewing television violence and aggression. That majority consensus has recently been challenged on the grounds that the data are inconsistent, that different methods of study may be subject to systematic biases, and that the findings have limited generalizability to real-world violence. In this review we reply to these challenges. We

Lynette Friedrich-Cofer; Aletha C. Huston

1986-01-01

219

An experimental study of behavioural coping strategies in free-ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).  

PubMed

A fundamental goal of stress research is to understand how individuals cope with challenges. Studies on a range of vertebrate species suggest that three groups of behaviour--affiliative, aggressive and self-directed behaviours--serve as coping strategies. To date, experimental studies of coping behaviour have tended to be conducted in captive conditions; the limited number of studies in free-ranging or wild settings have been observational in nature. We investigated coping behaviours in free-ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Trentham Monkey Forest, UK, using an experimental playback approach to quantify subjects' responses to mildly aversive threat-grunts. Compared to silent control trials, playbacks of threat-grunts increased aggressive behaviours and one of the two self-directed behaviours examined (self-scratching). No such differences were seen for self-grooming, or for any affiliative behaviour. Elevations in the rate of one measure of aggression, lunging, were positively related to an average measure of adrenocortical activity (median faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels over the study period). Evidence from females in a variety of Old World monkey species, including Barbary macaques, indicates that affiliative behaviours have an important role in coping with stressful events in the medium to longer term. Our results suggest that, in the short term, female Barbary macaques may use aggressive rather than affiliative behaviours in response to mild stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering how coping mechanisms may vary over time after a stressor, and how coping mechanisms relate to adrenocortical activity. Playback approaches like ours provide a powerful, flexible tool to explore issues such as this in free-ranging and wild animal populations. PMID:22356252

Gustison, Morgan L; MacLarnon, Ann; Wiper, Sue; Semple, Stuart

2012-03-27

220

Gender and aggression I: Perceptions of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate how gender and ethnicity influence evaluation, perceptions, and stereotyping of aggression, two studies were conducted with 115 college students (56% male; 50% Anglo and 26% Hispanic) and 79 individuals (72% male; 92% Anglo) who worked on a military base. Participants were asked to respond to four scenarios depicting aggressive interactions in which the gender of the protagonists varied,

Mary B. Harris; Kelly Knight-Bohnhoff

1996-01-01

221

Aggression Replacement Training in Australia: Youth Justice Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the findings of a 10-week pilot programme of aggression replacement training (ART) in an Australian youth justice, custodial setting. Five male subjects (17–18 years old) completed pre- and post-treatment self-report measures of aggression, social skills, and cognitive distortions typically associated with violent and antisocial behaviour. As expected, results showed a significant reduction in overall aggression and improved

Matthew R. Currie; Catherine E. Wood; Bennedict Williams; Glen W. Bates

2009-01-01

222

The evolutionary consequences of interspecific aggression.  

PubMed

Competition has always been a cornerstone of evolutionary biology, and aggression is the predominant form of direct competition in animals, but the evolutionary effects of aggression between species are curiously understudied. Only in the past few years, existing theoretical frameworks have been extended to include interspecific aggression, and significant empirical advances have been made. After arguing that agonistic character displacement (ACD) theory provides the most suitable theoretical framework, we review new empirical evidence for ACD and the results of mathematical models of the process. We consider how ACD can be distinguished empirically from ecological and reproductive character displacement and the additional challenges posed by developmental plasticity. We also provide the first taxonomically broad review of theoretical and empirical work on the effects of interspecific aggression on species coexistence and range limits. We conclude by highlighting promising directions for future research on the evolutionary effects of interspecific aggression. PMID:23601031

Grether, Gregory F; Anderson, Christopher N; Drury, Jonathan P; Kirschel, Alexander N G; Losin, Neil; Okamoto, Kenichi; Peiman, Kathryn S

2013-04-18

223

Anti-predator Aggression in the Common Myna Acridotheres tristis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This note describes aggression by a small group of Common Mynas Acridotheres tristis towards an omnivorous mammal, the Coati Nasua sp. Instances of aggression by Mynas towards other fauna are reviewed. The behavioural characteristics displayed in this interaction are also discussed.

JAMES A. FITZSIMONS

224

The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

Diaz, Jose Luis

2010-01-01

225

Self-Reported Aggression and Impulsivity in Forensic and Non-Forensic Populations: The Role of Gender and Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in aggressive behavior are traditionally seen as extremely robust. Yet, on closer inspection, the reasons for these differences appear to be incredibly complex as a wide range of moderating variables appears to influence the behaviour. Further, the effect of these variables is often gender specific. We examined aggressive beliefs and self-rated aggressive behaviour and impulsivity in forensic (115

Paul Smith; Mitch Waterman

2006-01-01

226

Cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol-related aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol-related violence is a serious and common social problem. Moreover, violent behaviour is much more common in alcohol-dependent individuals. Animal experiments and human studies have provided insights into the acute effect of alcohol on aggressive behaviour and into common factors underlying acute and chronic alcohol intake and aggression. These studies have shown that environmental factors, such as early-life stress, interact

Adrienne J. Heinz; Anne Beck; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg; Philipp Sterzer; Andreas Heinz

2011-01-01

227

Relationships between Hormones and Aggressive Behavior in Green Anole Lizards: An Analysis Using Structural Equation Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between aggressive behavior and circulating androgens in the context of agonistic social interaction and examined the effect of this interaction on the androgen–aggression relationship in response to a subsequent social challenge in male Anolis carolinensis lizards. Individuals comprising an aggressive encounter group were exposed to an aggressive conspecific male for 10 min per day during a

Eun-Jin Yang; Walter Wilczynski

2002-01-01

228

"Teaching them a lesson?" A qualitative exploration of underlying motivations for driver aggression.  

PubMed

Aggressive driving is increasingly a concern for drivers in highly motorised countries. However, the role of driver intent in this behaviour is problematic and there is little research on driver cognitions in relation to aggressive driving incidents. In addition, while drivers who admit to behaving aggressively on the road also frequently report being recipients of similar behaviours, little is known about the relationship between perpetration and victimisation or about how road incidents escalate into the more serious events that feature in capture media attention. The current study used qualitative interviews to explore driver cognitions and underlying motivations for aggressive behaviours on the road. A total of 30 drivers aged 18-49 years were interviewed about their experiences with aggressive driving. A key theme identified in responses was driver aggression as an attempt to manage or modify the behaviour of other road users. Two subthemes were identified and appeared related to separate motivations for aggressive responses: 'teaching them a lesson' referred to situations where respondents intended to convey criticism or disapproval, usually of unintended behaviours by the other driver, and thus encourage self-correction; and 'justified retaliation' which referred to situations where respondents perceived deliberate intent on the part of the other driver and responded aggressively in return. Mildly aggressive driver behaviour appears to be common. Moreover such behaviour has a sufficiently negative impact on other drivers that it may be worth addressing because of its potential for triggering retaliation in kind or escalation of aggression, thus compromising safety. PMID:21819853

Lennon, Alexia; Watson, Barry

2011-07-23

229

Effects of an experimental short-term cortisol challenge on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus in mesocosm and stream environments.  

PubMed

The consequences of stress on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus outside the reproductive period were studied using a single intra-coelomic injection of cortisol, suspended in coconut butter, to experimentally raise plasma cortisol levels. Behaviour between cortisol-treated, sham-treated (injected with coconut butter) and control S. atromaculatus was compared in a mesocosm system, using a passive integrated transponder array, and in a natural stream system (excluding shams), using surgically implanted radio transmitters. While laboratory time-course studies revealed that the cortisol injection provided a physiologically relevant challenge, causing prolonged (c. 3 days) elevations of plasma cortisol similar to that achieved with a standardized chasing protocol, no differences in fine-scale movements were observed between cortisol-treated, sham-treated and control S. atromaculatus nor in the large-scale movements of cortisol-treated and control S. atromaculatus. Moreover, no differences were observed in diel activity patterns among treatments. Differential mortality, however, occurred starting 10 days after treatment where cortisol-treated S. atromaculatus exhibited nearly twice as many mortalities as shams and controls. These results suggest that, although the experimental manipulation of cortisol titres was sufficient to cause mortality in some individuals, there were compensatory mechanisms that maintained behaviours (i.e. including activity and movement) prior to death. This study is one of the first to use experimental cortisol implants outside a laboratory environment and during the non-reproductive period and yields insight into how wild animals respond to additional challenges (in this case elevated cortisol) using ecologically meaningful endpoints. PMID:23557296

Nagrodski, A; Murchie, K J; Stamplecoskie, K M; Suski, C D; Cooke, S J

2013-02-25

230

Serotonin and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional clinical research on the neurobiology of aggressive behavior focuses on individuals who are characterized by their impulsive, hostile, antisocial and violent traits and who show some deficiency in brain serotonin (5-HT) activity relative to those who have a propensity to engage in premeditated, calculating and instrumental aggressive acts. Preclinical research has focused on territorial, dominant or maternal aggressive behavior

Isabel M. Quadros; Aki Takahashi; Klaus A. Miczek

2010-01-01

231

Testosterone and Aggression: Berthold, Birds and Beyond  

PubMed Central

Berthold’s classic study of domesticated roosters in 1849 demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for the normal expression of aggressive behaviour. Although this conclusion is undoubtedly correct, field studies of wild songbirds have yielded important modifications and limitations of Berthold’s original hypothesis. For example, studies of the North American song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) during the breeding season reveal that not only does testosterone increase aggression, but aggressive interactions also increase plasma testosterone levels. Furthermore, in winter, nonbreeding song sparrows have low plasma testosterone levels but are very aggressive, and castration of nonbreeding song sparrows does not decrease aggression. Interestingly, an aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole) does decrease male aggression in the nonbreeding season, and the effects of fadrozole can be rescued with oestradiol. In winter, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the periphery can be metabolised within the brain to supply oestradiol to specific neural circuits. Additionally, oestradiol might be synthesised de novo from cholesterol entirely within the brain. These mechanisms may have evolved to avoid the ‘costs’ of circulating testosterone in the nonbreeding season. Recent studies in tropical birds, hamsters, and humans suggest that these neuroendocrine mechanisms are important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species.

Soma, K. K.

2010-01-01

232

Animal personality and behavioural syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Behaviours are considered to be among the most flexible traits in animals and often reflect conditional responses upon the\\u000a behaviours of others, or to changing environmental conditions. However, in contrast to the presumed advantages of behavioural\\u000a flexibility, individuals within the same species or populations often consistently differ in their behaviour, that is, some\\u000a individuals are consistently more aggressive, more explorative,

Ralph Bergmüller

233

The displaced aggression questionnaire.  

PubMed

Previous measures of aggressive personality have focused on direct aggression (i.e., retaliation toward the provoking agent). An original self-report measure of trait displaced aggression is presented. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 3-factor conceptualization of the construct. These analyses identified an affective dimension (angry rumination), a cognitive dimension (revenge planning), and a behavioral dimension (general tendency to engage in displaced aggression). The trait measure demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability as well as convergent and discriminant construct validity. Unlike other related personality measures, trait displaced aggression significantly predicted indirect indicators of real-world displaced aggression (i.e., self-reported domestic abuse and road rage) as well as laboratory displaced aggression in 2 experiments. PMID:16784350

Denson, Thomas F; Pedersen, William C; Miller, Norman

2006-06-01

234

From Emotional and Psychological Well-Being to Character Education: Challenging Policy Discourses of Behavioural Science and "Vulnerability"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is difficult to challenge a strong consensus that governments must intervene in a worsening crisis of emotional and psychological well-being. The article relates rising estimates of problems and corresponding calls for intervention in educational settings to the increasingly blurred boundaries between a cultural therapeutic ethos, academic…

Ecclestone, Kathryn

2012-01-01

235

Reliability and utility of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation tool (BSP-QEII) for auditing and quality development in services for adults with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour.  

PubMed

Background? Having an objective means of evaluating the quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) could assist service providers and statutory authorities to monitor and improve the quality of support provided to people with intellectual disability (ID) who exhibit challenging behaviour. The Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II (BSP-QEII) was developed to monitor and assess BSPs prepared by teachers to support children with disability in the school system. This study investigated the application of the BSP-QEII to the assessment of BSPs for adults with ID in community support services. Method? The inter-rater reliability of the BSP-QEII was assessed. The utility of the BPS-QEII was then investigated with reference to a time series study of matched pairs of BSPs, developed for the same clients over a period of approximately 3 years. Differences in plan quality measured across a number of service and systemic variables were also investigated. Results? The BSP-QEII was found to have good inter-rater reliability and good utility for audit purposes. It was able to discriminate changes in plan quality over time. Differences in plan quality were also evident across different service types, where specialist staff had or had not been involved, and in some instances where a statutory format for the plan had or had not been used. There were no differences between plans developed by government and community sector agencies, nor were there any regional differences across the jurisdiction. Conclusions? The BSP-QEII could usefully be adopted as an audit tool for measuring the quality of BSPs for adults with ID. In addition to being used for research and administrative auditing, the principles underpinning the BSP-QEII could also be useful to guide policy and educational activities for staff in community based services for adults with ID. PMID:22845772

McVilly, K; Webber, L; Paris, M; Sharp, G

2012-07-30

236

Bullying among Girls in Japan and Hong Kong: An Examination of the Frustration-Aggression Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One widely accepted explanation of bullying, known as the aggressive-motive thesis, assumes that bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour triggered by external stress. However, recent evidences have suggested a different explanation, known as the frustration-aggression thesis, which asserts that bullying is a psychological defense triggered by…

Tam, Frank Wai-ming; Taki, Mitsuru

2007-01-01

237

Strain differences in aggressiveness of male domestic fowl in response to a male model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this experiment was to determine if the unusually high levels of aggression shown by male broiler breeder domestic fowl towards females is due to a higher overall level of aggressiveness in this strain. We compared the aggressive behaviour of broiler breeder (BR) males with that of males of an Old English Game strain (GA) which had been

Suzanne T. Millman; Ian J. h. Duncan

2000-01-01

238

Bullying among girls in Japan and Hong Kong: An examination of the frustration-aggression model  

Microsoft Academic Search

One widely accepted explanation of bullying, known as the aggressive-motive thesis, assumes that bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour triggered by external stress. However, recent evidences have suggested a different explanation, known as the frustration-aggression thesis, which asserts that bullying is a psychological defense triggered by external stress to reduce anxiety. The present investigation is an attempt to compare

Frank Wai-ming Tam; Mitsuru Taki

2007-01-01

239

What's the point? Towards a methodology for assessing the function of psychiatric inpatient aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few examples in the literature of the application of functional analysis to psychiatric inpatient aggression. Structural assessment approaches have dominated. This paper introduces a system for classifying the functions of aggression in psychiatric inpatients that was applied to 502 aggressive behaviours exhibited by patients in a secure forensic psychiatric hospital. At least one function was identified for the

Michael Daffern; Kevin Howells; James Ogloff

2007-01-01

240

The relationship between moral reasoning and aggression, and the implications for practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the relationship between moral development and aggression. After considering the theory and research that has examined the association between immature moral reasoning and aggressive behaviour, attention will be given to the psychological mechanisms mediating this relationship. This will place moral reasoning into a wider framework of aggression, in which it is proposed that children's early socialization experiences

Emma J. Palmer

2005-01-01

241

Oxytocin inhibits aggression in female Syrian hamsters.  

PubMed

Dominant subordinate relationships are formed as the result of social conflict and are maintained at least in part by communication. At this time, little is known about the neural mechanisms that are responsible for coordinating the social behaviours (e.g. aggression) that occur in association with the formation and maintenance of these relationships. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of oxytocin (OXT) within the medial preoptic anterior hypothalamic continuum (MPOA-AH) in the control of aggression in female hamsters. OXT injected into the MPOA-AH immediately before testing significantly reduced the duration of aggression in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of an OXT antagonist 30 min before testing significantly increased the duration of aggression. In contrast, the duration of aggression was not altered when hamsters were tested either 30 min after injection of OXT or immediately following injection of an OXT-antagonist. These data support the hypothesis that OXT release within the MPOA-AH regulates social behaviours important in the formation and maintenance of dominant subordinate relationships in female hamsters. PMID:12472877

Harmon, A C; Huhman, K L; Moore, T O; Albers, H E

2002-12-01

242

Motivational and situational factors and the relationship between testosterone dynamics and human aggression during competition.  

PubMed

Men engage in aggression at a cost to extrinsic reward, and this behaviour is associated with a rise in testosterone. To characterize the factors underlying aggression, men were assigned to one of the four experimental conditions of a computer game in which they were provoked (points were stolen from them or not) and/or received reward for aggression (received points for aggression or not). Men who were provoked but did not receive reward for aggression enjoyed the task the most, demonstrated an increase in salivary testosterone, and were more likely to choose a competitive versus non-competitive task than men in the other experimental conditions. Moreover, individual differences in aggressive behaviour among these men were positively correlated with the extent to which they enjoyed the task and with testosterone fluctuations. These results indicate that costly aggressive behaviour is intrinsically rewarding, perhaps to regulate future interactions, and that testosterone may be a physiological marker of such reward value. PMID:20381580

Carré, Justin M; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Morrissey, Mark D; McCormick, Cheryl M

2010-04-08

243

Boys and Road Rage: Driving-Related Violence and Aggression in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the results of a population survey of 1208 West Australian drivers designed to measure the prevalence of drivingrelated violence and aggression as well as perceptions of these behaviours. A clear distinction is made between driving-related violence (restricted to criminal acts of violence, threats of violence and vehicle damage) and other aggressive driving behaviours. Although the majority

Lynne Roberts; David Indermaur

2005-01-01

244

Childhood predictors of adult criminality: are all risk factors reflected in childhood aggressiveness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Early aggressive behaviour is one of the best predictors of adult criminality. Aim To assess the degree to which family background variables, parental beliefs and behaviour and child intelligence predict child aggression and adult criminality. Method Data were used from the Colombia County Longitudinal Study, a longitu- dinal study of 856 children in third grade in New York, in

L. Rowell Huesmann; Leonard D. Eron; Eric F. Dubow

2002-01-01

245

The Displaced Aggression Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous measures of aggressive personality have focused on direct aggression (i.e., retaliation toward the provoking agent). An original self-report measure of trait displaced aggression is presented. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 3-factor conceptualization of the construct. These analyses identified an affective dimension (angry rumination), a cognitive dimension (revenge planning), and a behavioral dimension (general tendency to

Thomas F. Denson; William C. Pedersen; Norman Miller

2006-01-01

246

School Aggression and Dispositional Aggression among Middle School Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between dispositional (trait) aggression and administrative reports of school aggression among 100 adolescent male participants from an urban middle school. Aggression was fairly com- mon among the sample; 58 boys had a record of school aggression, and many of those were repeat offenders. Our hypothesis that those higher in dispositional aggression would have more records of

Mary E. Ballard; Kelvin T. Rattley; Willie C. Fleming; Pamela Kidder-Ashley

247

Metabolic syndrome: aggression control mechanisms gone out of control.  

PubMed

An upcoming hypothesis about the evolutionary origins of metabolic syndrome is that of a 'soldier' to 'diplomat' transition in behaviour and the accompanying metabolic adaptations. Theoretical as well as empirical studies have shown that similar to the soldier and diplomat dichotomy, physically aggressive and non-aggressive strategists coexist in animal societies with negative frequency dependent selection. Although dominant individuals have a higher reproductive success obtained through means such as greater access to females, subordinate individuals have alternative means such as sneak-mating for gaining a substantial reproductive success. The alternative behavioural strategies are associated with different neurophysiologic and metabolic states. Subordinate individuals typically have low testosterone, high plasma cholesterol and glucocorticoids and elevated serotonin signalling whereas dominant ones are characterized by high testosterone, low brain serotonin and lower plasma cholesterol. Food and sex are the main natural causes of aggression. However, since aggression increases the risk of injury, aggression control is equally crucial. Therefore chronic satiety in the form of fat should induce aggression control. It is not surprising that the satiety hormone serotonin has a major role in aggression control. Further chronically elevated serotonin signalling in the hypothalamus induces peripheral insulin resistance. Meta-analysis shows that most of the anti-aggression signal molecules are pro-obesity and pro-insulin-resistance. Physical aggression is known to increase secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in anticipation of injuries and EGF is important in pancreatic beta cell regeneration too. In anticipation of injuries aggression related hormones also facilitate angiogenesis and angiogenesis dysfunction is the root cause of a number of co-morbidities of insulin resistance syndrome. Reduced injury proneness typical of 'diplomat' life style would also reorient the immune system resulting into delayed wound healing on the one hand and increased systemic inflammation on the other. Diabetes is negatively associated with physically aggressive behaviour. We hypothesize that suppression of physical aggression is the major behavioural cue for the development of metabolic syndrome. Preliminary trials of behavioural intervention indicate that games and exercises involving physical aggression reduce systemic inflammation and improve glycemic control. PMID:19800745

Belsare, Prajakta V; Watve, Milind G; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S; Bhat, Dattatraya S; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Jog, Maithili

2009-10-02

248

Testosterone and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

Archer, John

1994-01-01

249

Automatic sources of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review research on automaticity with particular relevance to aggression. Once triggered by environmental features, preconscious automatic processes run to completion without any conscious monitoring. The basic experimental technique for studying automatic processes is priming. We review studies showing that priming, including subliminal priming, of mental constructs related to aggression leads to reliable effects on perceptions, judgments,

Alexander Todorov; John A. Bargh

2002-01-01

250

Treating Sexually Aggressive Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although clinical and empirical data have been offered about sexually aggressive children, few have suggested the necessary components of clinical treatment protocols for them. This article reviews the plausible etiologies and the correlates of sexual aggression by children to delineate the necessary treatment elements for them and their families.…

Miranda, Alexis O.; Biegler, Bryan N.; Davis, Kathleen; Frevert, Vada S.; Taylor, Julie

2001-01-01

251

Neuropsychiatry of Aggression  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient.

Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

2010-01-01

252

Physical Aggression During Early Childhood: Trajectories and Predictors  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study aimed to identify the trajectories of physical aggression during early childhood and antecedents of high levels of physical aggression early in life. Methods 572 families with a 5-month-old newborn were recruited. Assessments of physical aggression frequency were obtained from mothers at 17, 30, and 42 months after birth. Using a semiparametric mixture model and multivariate logit regression analyses, distinct clusters of physical aggression trajectories were identified, as well as family and child characteristics that predict high level aggression trajectories. Results Three trajectories of physical aggression were identified: 1. children (28% of sample) who displayed little or no physical aggression, 2. approximately 58% followed a rising trajectory of modest aggression, and 3. a rising trajectory of high physical aggression (14%). Conclusions Children who are at highest risk of not learning to regulate physical aggression in early childhood have mothers with a history of antisocial behaviour during their school years, mothers who start childbearing early and who smoke during pregnancy, and parents who have low income and have serious problems living together. Preventive interventions should target families with high-risk profiles on these variables.

Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Seguin, Jean R.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Zelazo, Philip D.; Boivin, Michel; Perusse, Daniel; Japel, Christa

2005-01-01

253

Abuse and aggression in courting couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenging Gelles’ (1972) assertion that violence between intimates is likely to occur only within a family context, more than 60% of a sample of 371 single respondents reported having experienced abusive or aggressive behaviors or having inflicted them during courtship. Theoretical considerations and empirical consistencies derived from the marital violence literature supported hypothesized relationships between more serious courting relationships and

Mary Riege Laner; Jeanine Thompson

1982-01-01

254

Coping with Agitation and Aggression  

MedlinePLUS

... settle down. Agitation may cause pacing, sleeplessness, or aggression , which is when a person lashes out verbally ... hit or hurt someone. Causes of Agitation and Aggression Most of the time, agitation and aggression happen ...

255

Connectivity from the ventral anterior cingulate to the amygdala is modulated by appetitive motivation in response to facial signals of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some people facial expressions of aggression are intimidating, for others they are perceived as provocative, evoking an aggressive response. Identifying the key neurobiological factors that underlie this variation is fundamental to our understanding of aggressive behaviour. The amygdala and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have been implicated in aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied how

Luca Passamonti; James B. Rowe; Michael Ewbank; Adam Hampshire; Jill Keane; Andrew J. Calder

2008-01-01

256

Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers  

PubMed Central

This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents’ responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents’ actual marital aggression. The study included 118 9?10 year old children, and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with same-sex parents’ actual marital aggression. For children with mothers who exhibit low actual marital aggression, mothers’ aggressive solutions to hypothetical situations corresponded with children's tendencies to propose aggressive but not assertive solutions. In a 3-way interaction, fathers’ aggressive solutions to peer scenarios and marital aggression, combined, exacerbated girls’ aggressive problem solving, but had the opposite effect for boys. Discussion addresses the complexity, particularly with respect to parent and child gender combinations, in understanding parents’ aggressive influences on children's peer relationships.

Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

2009-01-01

257

Interspecific aggression in hermatypic corals from Bermuda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interspecific aggression between hermatypic corals on Bermudian reefs has been investigated by aquarium and field studies, the latter involving induced interactions, observations from 30 m-2 transects and random SCUBA traverses. Resultant hierarchies, constructed by ranking the abilities of species to damage competitors, show close similarities with each other and with the Jamaican hierarchy at the family level, notwithstanding some differences in the ranking of some species. Only 11% of natural-occurring interactions depart from the aquarium-derived results; in terms of species-pair combinations, 30% show partial or complete inversions from aquarium to field, with most changes involving species close together in the field hierarchy. Circular (intransitive) interactions occur mostly within a network of weakly-aggressive species in both aquarium- and fieldderived hierarchies. While number of potential interactions m-2 varies directly with density, frequency of aggression is positively correlated with coral diversity (species richness), while frequency of “no reactions” and conspecific fusion (combined) shows a correspondingly negative correlation with diversity. Frequency of aggression does not appear to be depth related. Comparison of aquarium and field hierarchies suggest that digestion by mesenterial filaments is the most important mechanism of aggression under natural conditions. Sweeper tentacle activity is the most likely cause of field reversals involving Madracis mirabilis and Montastrea cavernosa. Other factors, such as stress caused by seasonal environmental extremes, may be responsible for reversals or inconsistent behaviour in other species.

Logan, A.

1984-11-01

258

What can animal aggression research tell us about human aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on endocrinological correlates of aggression in laboratory animals is implicitly motivated by an expectation that the results of such studies may be applicable to human aggression as well. Research with a focus on the stimulus antecedents of aggression, its response characteristics, and its outcomes suggests a number of detailed correspondences between offensive aggression in laboratory rodents and human angry

D. Caroline Blanchard; Robert J Blanchard

2003-01-01

259

School Aggression and Dispositional Aggression among Middle School Boys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We examined the relationship between dispositional (trait) aggression and administrative reports of school aggression among 100 adolescent male participants from an urban middle school. Regression analyses indicated that dispositional aggression accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in administrative reports of school aggression.

Ballard, Mary E.; Fleming, Willie C.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela

2004-01-01

260

Developmental Trajectories of Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Conduct Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling the heterogeneous trajectories along which antisocial behaviordevelops in childhood and adolescence may contribute in important waysto understanding antecedents of offending in adult life. This paperexamines the development of aggressive and non-aggressive conduct problemsin the Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth, a longitudinal study in thesoutheastern United States. Aggressive and non-aggressive conduct problemsof clinical severity, police contact and arrest, and

Barbara Maughan; Andrew Pickles; Richard Rowe; E. Jane Costello; Adrian Angold

2000-01-01

261

Thalamic modulation of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment extends Pavlov’s method of contrasts for 8 components of aggression were quantitatively evaluated in 11 freely\\u000a moving adult cats. Aggression was elicited from the perifornix septohypothalamic areas by a series of progressively increasing\\u000a and decreasing stimulation parameters. Three levels of thalamic stimulation (low, medium, and high) were combined with the\\u000a perifornix stimulations. High level thalamic stimulation tended to

O. J. Andy; L. GILrRINTANO; S. Giukintano; T. McDonald

1975-01-01

262

Driving aggression in forensic and non-forensic populations: relationships to self-reported levels of aggression, anger and impulsivity.  

PubMed

A series of four questionnaires - the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and a Driving Violence Inventory (DVI) - were administered to a sample of 473 British drivers consisting of undergraduates (N=185), members of the public (N=106) and offenders (N=182) serving sentences in closed prisons in England (violent=82, non-violent=100). Offenders consistently rated acts of driving aggression as less severe compared with other drivers. Offender attributions of driving violence differed to other drivers in that they were equally likely to perceive obscene gesturing as high or low intensity responses; they also viewed assault as a high intensity response whereas members of the public rated it more severely. Trait levels of anger and aggression were the predictors of driving violence in all groups but previous aggressive behaviour was only a predictor for the offenders. Gender and age were found to be predictors of aggressive driving in non-offenders. Even with the effects of age controlled, offenders (and violent offenders in particular) scored higher on measures of driving anger and aggression. These data suggest that offenders differ in their perceptions of aggressive behaviours experienced in everyday driving and as a consequence are more likely to commit acts that other drivers perceive as violent. As offenders are known to display similar perceptual biases in other domains, identified as precursors to their aggressive behaviour, it seems likely that experience effects (as reflected in the trait measures) underpin differences in driving aggression between offenders and non-offenders. PMID:16848950

Smith, Paul; Waterman, Mitch; Ward, Nic

2006-08-01

263

Aggression and Sport: Two Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first theory is that aggression is instinctive, that our society is predisposed to aggressive behavior, and that sports can serve as a catharsis. The second theory is that aggression is learned behavior, that sports teaches aggression and thus contributes to competitiveness and violence in our society. (JA)

Tandy, Ruth E.; Laflin, Joyce

1973-01-01

264

Sex differences in indirect aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have found differences in the types of aggression used by males and females, at least in children and adolescents. Boys tend to use direct physical or verbal aggression, whereas girls tend to use more indirect forms of aggression that prominently feature gossip. Evolutionary theories of sex differences in indirect aggression propose selection pressures that would have acted on

Nicole H. Hess; Edward H. Hagen

2006-01-01

265

Aggression in young children with concurrent callous–unemotional traits: can the neurosciences inform progress and innovation in treatment approaches?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenting is the 'clean water' of healthy psychological development and parenting interventions remain the number one treatment at the individual and community levels for early-onset aggression and antisocial behaviour in children. However, recent progress in child psychopathology research is specifying a number of biological mechanisms that interact with environmental risk to influence pathways into aggression and antisocial behaviour. After a

Mark R. Dadds; Tracy Rhodes

2008-01-01

266

Promise and Problems: Aggression in Male Led Preadolescent Girls Group Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses different forms of aggression exhibited by children and challenges previous conclusions that boys are\\u000a more aggressive than girls. After an analysis of how aggression manifests in girls who have experienced significant environmental\\u000a deficits, transferential issues between male practitioners and female youth clients are considered. Finally, group psychotherapy\\u000a is proposed as an appropriate modality for containing aggression and

David Strauss

267

Cerebral Lateralization and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A resurgence of interest in the relationship between cerebral lateralization (the functional asymmetry of the cerebral cortex) and aggression has occurred. Most recent studies have found that individuals with abnormal patterns of lateralization are overrepresented among violent individuals. Intervening variables (such as drug and alcohol abuse)…

Hillbrand, Marc; And Others

1994-01-01

268

Countering Covert Aggression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This note considers how the United States might better counter covert aggression. Among other issues, the study (1) examines the uses of terrorism, subversion, and insurgency as instruments of state policy; (2) analyzes the principal constraints on U.S. f...

S. T. Hosmer G. K. Tanham

1986-01-01

269

Relational Aggression among Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

2011-01-01

270

Countering Covert Aggression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Covert aggression--in the forms of state-sponsored terrorism, subversion, and insurgency--will likely remain the dominant mode of warfare in the Third World for the foreseeable future. For reasons of operational expediency and the need to control costs an...

S. T. Hosmer G. K. Tanham

1986-01-01

271

Relational Aggression among Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

2011-01-01

272

Sports and Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study of male athletes at Springfield College indicates that while participation in competitive sports reduces feelings of aggression for winners, it may actually increase such feelings for losers. Author concludes that emphasis should be placed on performance rather than winning or losing. (RW)

Lyon, Tom

1976-01-01

273

Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

1994-01-01

274

Desmoidfibromatosen (aggressive Fibromatosen)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Desmoidfibromatosen (Synonym: aggressive Fibromatosen) stellen lokal aggressiv wachsende Weichgewebsneoplasien mit hoher Lokalrezidivrate dar. Desmoidtumoren von 33 Patienten im Erwachsenenalter wurden nach klinischen und morphologischen Parametern analysiert (Geschlechts-, Altersverteilung, Lokalisation, Tumorgröße, Mitoserate, Tumormikrogefäßdichte, Resektionsstatus, adjuvante Strahlentherapie). Mögliche statistische Korrelationen wurden mittels Log-rank-Testverfahren überprüft. Eine eindeutige prognostische Wertigkeit der Tumormikrogefäßdichte war nicht abzuleiten. Eine Korrelation zwischen mitotischer Aktivität (eine oder mehr

C. Kuhnen; M. Helwing; S. Rabstein; H.-H. Homann; K.-M. Müller

2005-01-01

275

Pornography and Sexual Aggression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pornography in America is a 4-8 billion dollar a year business. Society has long been concerned about the effects obscene material may have on its members. In particular, there are those who claim pornography and sexual aggression is a cause and effect re...

S. D. Van Horn

1991-01-01

276

Neuroimaging and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted…

Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

1994-01-01

277

The psychological impact of aggression on nursing staff.  

PubMed

Aggression and violence towards nursing staff in UK health care is a growing problem. While the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's (NICE, 2005a) guidelines 'The Short-Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in In-Patient Psychiatric Setting and Emergency Department' offer a way forward in managing aggression for healthcare staff, the psychological impact of aggression remains an area of concern. Post-incident review has been identified as an approach to considering untoward incidents of aggression, yet post-incident support and interventions for staff experiencing the psychological effects of aggression remain inconsistent and curtailed in many areas. This article discusses the care of a nurse who experienced post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of aggression in the workplace. The process of assessment and treatment is presented with underpinning theories of trauma used to illuminate the discussion. Practical use of current recommended treatments of cognitive behavioural therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is offered as a method of addressing a growing problem in UK health care. PMID:17851336

Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue

278

Aggression Replacement Training (ART) in Australia: A Longitudinal Youth Justice Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the findings from a two-year longitudinal evaluation of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) in an Australian youth justice custodial setting. Twenty aggressive juvenile offenders (M = 19.6; SD = .60) were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six-month, and 24-month follow-up. As predicted, participants reported significant reductions in aggressive behaviours and thoughts, cognitive distortions, and impulsivity and some improvement in social problem-solving skills at

Matthew R. Currie; Catherine E. Wood; Benedict Williams; Glen W. Bates

2012-01-01

279

Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

2007-01-01

280

Mothers’ and teachers’ perceptions of relational and physical aggression in pre-school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre-school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an adult should respond and how quickly an adult should

Heather Doescher Hurd; Maribeth Gettinger

2011-01-01

281

Mothers' and Teachers' Perceptions of Relational and Physical Aggression in Pre-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre-school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an…

Hurd, Heather Doescher; Gettinger, Maribeth

2011-01-01

282

Influence of Rapid Tryptophan Depletion on Laboratory-Provoked Aggression in Children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study investigated the effects of rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD), and the ensuing reduction of central nervous system levels of serotonin (5-HT), upon reactive aggression in patients with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, it was asked whether the relation between 5-HT function and behavioural aggression in patients is influenced by their age, the intensity of their attention problems

C. Stadler; F. D. Zepf; L. Demisch; M. Schmitt; M. Landgraf; F. Poustka

2007-01-01

283

Habitat complexity reduces the growth of aggressive and dominant brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) relative to subordinates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals often prefer areas containing physical structure, and population density often increases with structural complexity, presumably because physical complexity in habitats may offer protection from predators and aggressive competitors. Consequently, increased habitat complexity often results in reduced territory size, lower aggression levels and reduced resource monopolisation by dominants. If behavioural plasticity is limited at early life stages, increased habitat complexity

Johan Höjesjö; Jörgen Johnsson; Torgny Bohlin

2004-01-01

284

Mothers' and Teachers' Perceptions of Relational and Physical Aggression in Pre-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre-school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an…

Hurd, Heather Doescher; Gettinger, Maribeth

2011-01-01

285

Psychological Essentialism and Cultural Variation: Children's Beliefs about Aggression in the United States and South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study compared indigenous South African versus African-American schoolchildren's beliefs about aggression. Eighty 7-9 year olds (40 from each country) participated in interviews in which they were asked to make inferences about the stability, malleability, and causal origins of aggressive behaviour. Although a minority of participants…

Giles, Jessica W.; Legare, Cristine; Samson, Jennifer E.

2008-01-01

286

Development of a Clinical Instrument to Record Sexual Aggression in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there are a number of instruments that assess historical factors related to sexual aggression for the purposes of risk assessment, there is a notable absence of measures that assess change in ongoing, sexually aggressive behaviours engaged in by people who reside in psychiatric hospitals. The purpose of this report is to describe the…

Jones, Nicole Tuomi; Sheitman, Brian; Hazelrigg, Mark; Carmel, Harold; Williams, Jim; Paesler, Betty

2007-01-01

287

Aggression and violence against health care workers in Germany - a cross sectional retrospective survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although international scientific research on health issues has been dealing with the problem of aggression and violence towards those employed in health care, research activities in Germany are still at an early stage. In view of this, the aim of this study was to examine the frequency and consequences of aggressive behaviour towards nurses and health care workers in

Simone Franz; Annett Zeh; Anja Schablon; Saskia Kuhnert; Albert Nienhaus

2010-01-01

288

Dealing with Conflict and Aggression in Classrooms through Cooperative Learning Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Demographic and socioeconomic shifts in nation's population and changes in the family structure have placed increasing demands on the schools. There is a pressing need to understand the factors that give rise to and maintain aggressive behaviours across adolescence and also suggest techniques for dealing with the increased incidence of aggression

Singh, Vandana

2010-01-01

289

Implications of Bullying in Schools for Aggression between Nations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the nature of bullying in schools can assist in understanding aggression between nations. Although there are substantial differences between bullying behaviour practised by school children and bullying attributed to nations, there are some commonalities. This article examines seven basic elements that help in identifying and…

Rigby, Ken

2006-01-01

290

Selective Exposure to Televised Aggression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 2-wave panel survey of young people was conducted to explore the relationship between attitudes and viewing over time, examining aggressiveness and viewing of programs portraying physical and verbal aggression. Questionnaires were administered to 227...

C. K. Atkin

1978-01-01

291

Personal and perceived peer attitudes supporting sexual aggression as predictors of male college students' willingness to intervene against sexual aggression.  

PubMed

Male college students ( N = 395) completed anonymous surveys to report personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression and estimated the attitudes of their peers. Participants also indicated their willingness to intervene against a peer if they witnessed sexual aggression. Although both personal and peer attitudes were correlated with willingness to intervene, in regression analyses only perceived peer attitudes emerged as a significant predictor of willingness to intervene. Results suggest that personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression are not as relevant to men's willingness to intervene against sexual aggression as are perceived peer norms regarding sexual aggression. Findings are relevant to sexual assault prevention education with men, suggesting that attempts to encourage bystander intervention may be best presented in the context of challenging perceived norms. PMID:19401602

Brown, Amy L; Messman-Moore, Terri L

2009-04-28

292

Aggression in Persons With Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggression and related disruptive acts represent the most frequently occurring behavioral challenges of persons with intellectual\\u000a disabilities (ID) (Eyman & Call, 1977; Jacobson, 1982; Schroeder, Rojahn, & Olenquist, 1991). Even though aggression occurs\\u000a in a social context and is maintained to a major extent by social contingencies, medical, genetic, psychiatric, neuropsychiatric,\\u000a and psychological conditions also are reported to represent significant

William I. Gardner

293

Angry cognitive bias, trait aggression and impulsivity in substance users  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleAccording to cognitive theory, people who are aggressive expect angry responses to ambiguous situations. Increased aggression has been reported a few days or weeks following use of MDMA (ecstasy). This may relate to low 5-HT release, and so a 5-HT challenge may increase cognitive bias towards anger differentially in MDMA users and non-users.ObjectivesTo investigate whether: (1) measures of anger and

Alyson J. Bond; Suzanne L. Verheyden; Janet Wingrove; H. Valerie Curran

2004-01-01

294

Breed differences in canine aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine aggression poses serious public health and animal welfare concerns. Most of what is understood about breed differences in aggression comes from reports based on bite statistics, behavior clinic caseloads, and experts’ opinions. Information on breed-specific aggressiveness derived from such sources may be misleading due to biases attributable to a disproportionate risk of injury associated with larger and\\/or more physically

Deborah L. Duffy; Yuying Hsu; James A. Serpell

2008-01-01

295

Psychological trauma and fear for personal safety as a result of behaviours that challenge in dementia: The experiences of healthcare workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have systematically documented the psychological effects of exposure to aggression on healthcare workers. In 2007 an exploratory study invited 96 nurses and 228 care assistants from nine care homes to complete a questionnaire that incorporated the Impact Events Score — Extended (IES-E). Of the 112 returned (response rate 34.56%), 77 (68.8%) staff had been involved in an incident

Ann Scott; Assumpta Ryan; Ian A. James; Elizabeth A. Mitchell

2011-01-01

296

Aggressive Infantile Embryonal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Embryonal tumors are the most common brain tumors in infants less than 36 months of age. Histologically characterized as undifferentiated small round cell tumors with divergent patterns of differentiation, these include medulloblastoma, the most common form of embryonal tumor, as well as supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, medulloepithelioma, ependymoblastoma, medullomyoblastoma, melanotic medulloblastoma, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. All are similarly aggressive and have a tendency to disseminate throughout the central nervous system. Because of efforts to avoid craniospinal irradiation in an attempt to lessen treatment-related neurotoxicity, management of these tumors in infants is unique. Outcomes remain similarly poor among all the tumor types and, therefore, identification of specific molecular targets that have prognostic and therapeutic implications is crucial. The molecular and clinical aspects of the three most common aggressive infantile embryonal tumors, medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, are the focus of this review.

MacDonald, Tobey J.

2013-01-01

297

Weapons and Aggression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

Lane, David M.; Anderson, Craig

2009-03-06

298

Cytokines and Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies conducted in rodents, primates and humans have provided evidence that proinflammatory cytokines may play an important\\u000a in the regulation of aggression and rage behavior. More recent studies conducted in the cat have generated more direct evidence\\u000a of cytokine involvement in modulating rage behavior. Activation of IL-I receptors in the medial hypothalamus and periaqueductal\\u000a gray (PAG) potentiates defensive rage behavior

Allan Siegel; Suresh Bhatt; Rekha Bhatt; Steven S. Zalcman

299

[Treatment of inter-specific aggression in cats with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine. A case report].  

PubMed

The article describes the redirected, inter-specific aggression of a Maine Coon cat, which was principally directed towards the owners. The cat reacted towards different, nonspecific sounds with abrupt aggressive behaviour and injured the victims at this juncture with moderate scratching and biting. Exclusively using behaviour therapy did not achieve the desired result, thus the therapy was supported with pharmaceuticals. The cat orally received the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluvoxamine at an initial dosage of 0.5mg/kg BW once daily. After 4 weeks the application rate was increased to 1.0 mg/kg BW once daily. The medication did not cause any side effects. Together with the behaviour-modulating therapy, carried out parallel to the medication therapy, the aggressive behaviour problem of the cat was resolved. After administration for a period of 63 weeks the fluvoxamine therapy was discontinued by gradually reducing the dose without recurrence of the aggressive behaviour. PMID:23242225

Sprauer, S

2012-01-01

300

Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, H.; Hatch, S. A.; Danchin, E.

2010-01-01

301

Interspecific aggression: Toward whom should a mockingbird be aggressive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Interspecific aggression is viewed as a device of behavioral interference employed in resource competition with individuals of other species. Aggression-mediated competition is costly in terms of time and energy invested as well as increased risk of injury or predation. Consequently, natural selection should favor recognition of competitors and differential aggression depending upon the degree of competitive overlap.2.Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) inhabiting

Frank R. Moore

1978-01-01

302

The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.  

PubMed

Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals. PMID:24167314

French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

2013-10-28

303

Humor, aggression, and aging.  

PubMed

Humor response to aggressive cartoons was investigated by using ratings of pain and funniness of cartoons by 154 young and elderly men and women. No significant age differences were found; however, sex differences were found. For both young and elderly females, an inverted-U described the relationship between pain and funniness ratings. For young and elderly males, there was no relationship between pain and funniness. This is a preliminary step in exploring age differences in humor but may be relevant for those working with elderly persons. PMID:2276642

Barrick, A L; Hutchinson, R L; Deckers, L H

1990-10-01

304

Developmental Perspectives on Prosocial and Aggressive Motives in Preschoolers' Peer Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preschoolers' prosocial and aggressive behaviours were explored longitudinally, with a focus on the inferred underlying motives of these behaviours. Forty-four children (initially 22-40 months of age) were observed in naturalistic interactions with peers, during a 2-month period, for each of three consecutive years. Three categories of prosocial…

Persson, Gun E. B.

2005-01-01

305

Attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iranian preschool students with regard to gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were collected using a questionnaire about behavioural disorders and social threats. The

Mostafa Sheikhzade; Arezoo Assemi

2012-01-01

306

Psychopharmacology of aggression: an overview.  

PubMed

Aggression is not a single unitary behavioral entity, then it is impossible to find a single drug showing "specific' and "universal' antiaggressive efficacy and potency. Furthermore, spontaneous aggression is essential to the self-and species preservation, and plays an important role in the process of evolution. In contrast, aggressiveness induced by prolonged socioenvironmental deprivation or isolation, raises the feature of anomalous behavior. The effect of drugs on aggressive behavior must therefore be considered in the light of this distinction, that accounts for discrepancies between the results of literature on "antiaggressive' properties and potency of psychoactive drugs. In addition, and impaired inhibitory control of the brain may be responsible for violent aggression and drugs capable of restoring such control may prove useful in managing the pathology of aggressiveness. PMID:7298270

Valzelli, L

1981-01-01

307

Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla  

PubMed Central

Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, but with more variable cellularity in different tumor sections.

Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Ahuja, Puneet; Sikka, Seema

2011-01-01

308

How goal-fulfillment decreases aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest that the goal to aggress increases accessibility of aggressive thoughts, and that after goal-fulfillment, accessibility of aggressive content is reduced. Experiment 1 showed an increase in accessibility of aggression after imagining an aggression-eliciting situation compared to non-aggressive content. After goal-fulfillment the accessibility of aggression was reduced, regardless of whether fulfillment was achieved by imagining physical or symbolic revenge.

Markus Denzler; Jens Förster; Nira Liberman

2009-01-01

309

Raiders from the sky: slavemaker founding queens select for aggressive host colonies  

PubMed Central

Reciprocal selection pressures in host–parasite systems drive coevolutionary arms races that lead to advanced adaptations in both opponents. In the interactions between social parasites and their hosts, aggression is one of the major behavioural traits under selection. In a field manipulation, we aimed to disentangle the impact of slavemaking ants and nest density on aggression of Temnothorax longispinosus ants. An early slavemaker mating flight provided us with the unique opportunity to study the influence of host aggression and demography on founding decisions and success. We discovered that parasite queens avoided colony foundation in parasitized areas and were able to capture more brood from less aggressive host colonies. Host colony aggression remained consistent over the two-month experiment, but did not respond to our manipulation. However, as one-fifth of all host colonies were successfully invaded by parasite queens, slavemaker nest foundation acts as a strong selection event selecting for high aggression in host colonies.

Pamminger, Tobias; Modlmeier, Andreas P.; Suette, Stefan; Pennings, Pleuni S.; Foitzik, Susanne

2012-01-01

310

Towards a Better Understanding of the Individual, Dynamic, Criminogenic Factors Underlying Successful Outcomes of Cognitive Behavioural Programs like EQUIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in the relationship between morality and behaviour is often determined by the interest in antisocial behaviour, particularly in the prevention of that behaviour or the decrease in the prevalence or seriousness of it. Antisocial behaviour is observable behaviour that directly or indirectly harms others by the transgression of important social or moral norms and includes aggressive and delinquent

D. Brugman

2012-01-01

311

The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

Stacy, Lauri L.

312

The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

Stacy, Lauri L.

313

Strategies for Aggressive Driver Enforcement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new traffic safety phenomenon, commonly known as aggressive driving, has emerged as an 'issue of the 90's' and is a major concern for the motoring public and law enforcement. For purposes of this document, the following definition of aggressive driving ...

1998-01-01

314

Aggression and Violence in Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

315

Fractious cats and feline aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite variation in terminology it is clear that the context in which feline aggression occurs is important for classification, prevention and treatment. Many of the aggressions discussed can be considered variants of normal feline behavior, so client education is particularly important. Educated clients will know when their cat can benefit from veterinary intervention, and when closing a door may be

Bonnie V. Beaver

2004-01-01

316

Aggression and Violence in Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

317

Predictors of naturalistic sexual aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research integrated within a theoretical and empirical framework varied predictor factors pertaining to males' sexual aggression against women. The selection of predictors was guided by theorizing that sexual aggression is caused by the interaction among multiple factors, including those creating the motivation for the act, those reducing internal and external inhibitions, and those providing the op- portunity for the

Neil M. Malamuth

1986-01-01

318

Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…

Miller, Laurence

1994-01-01

319

“Ladettes,” Social Representations, and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing share of arrests for violent offences by young women in Britain has prompted the media to brand such offenders as “ladettes.” Their behavior is argued to result from their adoption of “laddish” attitudes that in turn is derived from new, aggressive images of women in the media. These images explicitly portray female aggression as an instrumental act in

Steven Muncer; Anne Campbell; Victoria Jervis; Rachel Lewis

2001-01-01

320

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY AND AGGRESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (I) episodic dycontrol, (2) frontal lobe disinhibition, and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are described, and recommendations for pharmacological, behavioral, and psychosocial treatment are offered.

Laurence Miller

1995-01-01

321

Does emotion regulation protect employees from the negative effects of workplace aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workplace aggression poses a significant challenge to organizations due to its potential impact on employees' mental and physical well-being. Using two studies, this article investigates whether emotion regulation could alleviate the negative effects of exposure to workplace aggression on employees' experience of strain, among social workers (N = 77) and emergency services personnel (N = 70). As predicted from coping theories of emotion regulation,

Karen Niven; Christine A. Sprigg; Christopher J. Armitage

2012-01-01

322

Mental Health Correlates of Aggression in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effective interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) behavior management strategies on aggression in a group of…

Talerico, Karen Amann; Evans, Lois K.; Strumpf, Neville E.

2002-01-01

323

The effects of group size on aggression when mixing unacquainted sows in outdoor paddocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aggression is a challenge when pigs are kept in groups. Sows fight at mixing when space is limited but this project sought to determine the amount and type of aggression observed when unacquainted Berkshire sows were mixed in pairs or in two established sub-groups of three in outdoor paddocks. Treat...

324

Managing Complex Environmental Remediation amidst Aggressive Facility Revitalization Milestones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike the final closure projects at Rocky Flats and Fernald, many of the Department of Energy's future CERCLA and RCRA closure challenges will take place at active facilities, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) central campus. ORNL has aggressive growth plans for a Research Technology Park and cleanup must address and integrate D and D, soil and groundwater

Richter Pack

2008-01-01

325

Aggression Replacement Training[R] Stands the Test of Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There have been longstanding debates in the scientific community regarding what qualifies as evidence for programs that work with challenging youth. There are also a variety of levels of evidence on a continuum from promising to proven. Aggression Replacement Training[R] has stood the test of time in terms of its scientific underpinning and…

Amendola, Mark; Oliver, Robert

2010-01-01

326

False memories for aggressive acts.  

PubMed

Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

2013-04-29

327

Trans Fat Consumption and Aggression  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA) are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, which experimentally have been shown to reduce aggression. Potential behavioral effects of dTFA merit investigation. We sought to determine whether dTFA are associated with aggression/irritability. Methodolgy/Prinicpal Findings We capitalized on baseline dietary and behavioral assessments in an existing clinical trial to analyze the relationship of dTFA to aggression. Of 1,018 broadly sampled baseline subjects, the 945 adult men and women who brought a completed dietary survey to their baseline visit are the target of this analysis. Subjects (seen 1999–2004) were not on lipid medications, and were without LDL-cholesterol extremes, diabetes, HIV, cancer or heart disease. Outcomes assessed adverse behaviors with impact on others: Overt Aggression Scale Modified-aggression subscale (primary behavioral endpoint); Life History of Aggression; Conflict Tactics Scale; and self-rated impatience and irritability. The association of dTFA to aggression was analyzed via regression and ordinal logit, unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, alcohol, and smoking). Additional analyses stratified on sex, age, and ethnicity, and examined the prospective association. Greater dTFA were strongly significantly associated with greater aggression, with dTFA more consistently predictive than other assessed aggression predictors. The relationship was upheld with adjustment for confounders, was preserved across sex, age, and ethnicity strata, and held cross-sectionally and prospectively. Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first evidence linking dTFA with behavioral irritability and aggression. While confounding is always a concern in observational studies, factors including strength and consistency of association, biological gradient, temporality, and biological plausibility add weight to the prospect of a causal connection. Our results may have relevance to public policy determinations regarding dietary trans fats. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00330980

Golomb, Beatrice A.; Evans, Marcella A.; White, Halbert L.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

2012-01-01

328

Mechanisms of experience dependent control of aggression in crickets.  

PubMed

Aggression is a highly plastic behaviour, shaped by numerous experiences, and potential costs and benefits of competing, to optimize fitness and survival. Recent studies on crickets provide insights into how nervous systems achieve this. Their fighting behaviour is promoted by physical exertion, winning disputes and possession of resources. These effects are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline. Submissive behaviour, in less well understood. It is induced when the accumulated sum of the opponent's agonistic signals surpass some critical level, and probably mediated by nitric oxide, serotonin and other neuromodulators. We propose that animals can make the decision to fight or flee by modulating the respective behavioural thresholds in response to potentially rewarding and aversive attributes of experiences. PMID:23537901

Stevenson, Paul A; Schildberger, Klaus

2013-03-25

329

Behavioural differences between individuals and two populations of stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural syndromes are correlations between behaviours in different functional contexts. Behavioural syndromes are attracting the attention of evolutionary biologists because they mean that different behaviours might not be free to evolve independently of one another. In a landmark study, Huntingford (1976) showed that individual stickleback which were bold toward predators were also aggressive toward conspecifics and active in an unfamiliar

A. M. BELL

2005-01-01

330

Qualitative assessment of social behaviour of dairy cows housed in loose housing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the qualitative assessment of dairy cows’ social behaviour on farm with regard to its inter- and intra-observer reliability and its correlation to quantitative ethogram-based assessment. Qualitative behaviour assessment is a method based upon the integration by observers of perceived animal behaviour expression, using descriptors such as ‘calm’, ‘aggressive’, ‘sociable’ or ‘indifferent’. Cows’ behaviour at the drinker was

Tine Rousing; Francoise Wemelsfelder

2006-01-01

331

The management and behavioural history of 100 dogs reported for biting a person  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses behavioural and management history data provided by 100 owners of dogs that had bitten a person. The data was obtained by telephone interview of volunteer dog owners. Two sub-sets of data were created using 21 dogs having no history of perceived aggressive behaviour prior to the reported bite incident and 79 that had a record of aggression.

Edmond N. O'Sullivan; Boyd R. Jones; Kathleen O'Sullivan; Alison J. Hanlon

2008-01-01

332

The Effect of Exposure to Community Violence on Levels of Aggression: Evidence from a Sample of Jamaican Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars agree that aggression among children can lead to a host of delinquency issues that can last into adulthood. Research has found that exposure to violence is one of the strongest predictors of aggressive behaviour and the use of violence. Utilizing a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the article seeks to determine the…

Bailey, Corin; Coore-Desai, Charlene

2012-01-01

333

The Effect of Exposure to Community Violence on Levels of Aggression: Evidence from a Sample of Jamaican Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scholars agree that aggression among children can lead to a host of delinquency issues that can last into adulthood. Research has found that exposure to violence is one of the strongest predictors of aggressive behaviour and the use of violence. Utilizing a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the article seeks to determine the…

Bailey, Corin; Coore-Desai, Charlene

2012-01-01

334

kNOw workplace violence: developing programs for managing the risk of aggression in the health care setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies to prevent and manage violence and aggression in the health care setting have become a primary health and safety issue. • A series of vignettes are provided to highlight key elements in developing a program for preventing behavioural violence and aggression in a tertiary hospital.

John A Forster; Mark T Petty; Colin Schleiger; Helen C Walters

2005-01-01

335

Working with an Adult Male with Down's Syndrome, Autism and Challenging Behaviour: Evaluation of a Programme of Staff Support and Organizational Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the case of a male with Down syndrome who has been referred to a clinical psychology service due to challenging behaviors. It provides a case history and rationale for the assessment of autism, and describes the positive effects of an intervention for increasing staff awareness of autism. (Contains references.) (CR)

Newman, David W.; Summerhill, Lisa; Mosley, Ellis; Tooth, Claire

2003-01-01

336

Modelling wireless challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thorough understanding of the network behaviour when exposed to challenges is of paramount importance to construct a resilient MANET (mobile ad hoc network). However, modelling mobile and wireless networks as well as challenges against them is non-trivial due to dynamic and intermittent connectivity caused by channel fading and mobility of the nodes. We treat MANETs as time-varying graphs (TVGs)

Dongsheng Zhang; Santosh Ajith Gogi; Dan S. Broyles; Egemen K. Cetinkaya; James P. G. Sterbenz

2012-01-01

337

Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females  

PubMed Central

Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation.

Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

2005-01-01

338

Territorial meadow pipit males ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes) become more aggressive in female presence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although mate guarding as prevention of extra-pair copulation is common among birds, evidence for aggressive behaviour involving physical contact related to mate guarding in passerines is scarce and cases of the presence of one partner directly influencing the aggressiveness of the other are lacking. We investigated the intra-specific territorial behaviour of male meadow pipits ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes: Motacillidae) at the beginning of the breeding season by placing a pipit model accompanied by an intra-specific song playback in the territory of socially paired males and compared the responses of males whose mates were physically present during trials with those whose females were out of sight. The level of aggression of males was significantly higher in the presence of the female; half of the males in this group physically attacked the model (the most intense and risky aggressive behaviour). Physical attacks did not occur among males whose female was absent during the trial; response to the playback by most of these males was only weak. This pattern may be related to the prevention of extra-pair copulation; if the risks involved in the conflict are outweighed by potential loss of paternity, such aggressive mate guarding may pay off. The apparently overlooked effect on the territorial behaviour of a partner’s passive physical presence during conflict should be further evaluated because it may be important for the design and interpretation of results of behavioural experiments.

Petrusková, Tereza; Petrusek, Adam; Pavel, Václav; Fuchs, Roman

2007-08-01

339

Territorial meadow pipit males (Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes) become more aggressive in female presence.  

PubMed

Although mate guarding as prevention of extra-pair copulation is common among birds, evidence for aggressive behaviour involving physical contact related to mate guarding in passerines is scarce and cases of the presence of one partner directly influencing the aggressiveness of the other are lacking. We investigated the intra-specific territorial behaviour of male meadow pipits (Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes: Motacillidae) at the beginning of the breeding season by placing a pipit model accompanied by an intra-specific song playback in the territory of socially paired males and compared the responses of males whose mates were physically present during trials with those whose females were out of sight. The level of aggression of males was significantly higher in the presence of the female; half of the males in this group physically attacked the model (the most intense and risky aggressive behaviour). Physical attacks did not occur among males whose female was absent during the trial; response to the playback by most of these males was only weak. This pattern may be related to the prevention of extra-pair copulation; if the risks involved in the conflict are outweighed by potential loss of paternity, such aggressive mate guarding may pay off. The apparently overlooked effect on the territorial behaviour of a partner's passive physical presence during conflict should be further evaluated because it may be important for the design and interpretation of results of behavioural experiments. PMID:17406850

Petrusková, Tereza; Petrusek, Adam; Pavel, Václav; Fuchs, Roman

2007-04-04

340

Punishment of Shock-Induced Aggression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most research in the area of aggression has been concerned with the stimuli or environmental conditions that produce or maintain aggression. Although antecedent variables that are related to the occurrence of aggression are valuable in a preventive sense,...

R. Ulrich M. Wolfe S. Dulaney

1969-01-01

341

Children's social cognition about proactive aggression.  

PubMed

In this study, 6- and 9-year-old children (N=258) observed two instances of proactive aggression (one relational and the other direct aggression) that were committed by members of a group toward out-group members. Participants were either members of the group or independent observers. Analyses of participants' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression (cause of aggression, moral judgment of aggression, attitudes toward the aggressor, and exclusion of the aggressor) indicated that, overall, group members were more positive toward aggressors than were independent observers. Although intergroup competition was perceived to be the cause of the aggression, participants disapproved of both types of aggression (especially direct aggression), disapproval increased with age, and girls disapproved of relational aggression more than did boys. Group members' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression comprised a coherent cognitive process for both types of aggression, but the observers' process was simpler and differed by aggression type. PMID:24001607

Nesdale, Drew; Killen, Melanie; Duffy, Amanda

2013-09-02

342

Gene expression in aggressive fibromatosis.  

PubMed

Aggressive fibromatosis represents a group of tumors with heterogeneous patterns of biologic behavior. In this study, gene expression in 12 samples of aggressive fibromatosis, as well as that in samples of normal skeletal muscle and a variety of normal tissues, was determined at Gene Logic Inc (Gaithersburg, MD), with the use of Affymetrix GeneChip U_133 arrays containing approximately 33,000 genes. Gene-expression analysis was performed with the Gene Logic Gene Express software system. Differences in gene expression were quantified as the fold change in gene expression between the sets of fibromatosis tissue and normal skeletal muscle. A set of genes was then identified that was significantly overexpressed in aggressive fibromatosis compared with expression in normal muscle. This set of genes was then further examined for expression in a variety of normal tissues. We identified genes that were selectively overexpressed in aggressive fibromatosis compared with expression in 448 samples comprising 16 different nonneoplastic tissues. In particular, ADAM12, WISP-1, SOX-11, and fibroblast activation protein-alpha were uniquely overexpressed in aggressive fibromatosis compared with expression in normal tissues. In addition, the technique of Eisen clustering identified 2 distinct subgroups of aggressive fibromatosis with regard to gene expression. We conclude that gene-expression patterns may be useful in the further classification of subtypes of aggressive fibromatosis and that such classification could have clinical significance. PMID:14966464

Skubitz, Keith M; Skubitz, Amy P N

2004-02-01

343

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase targeting by the ? galactoside binding protein cytokine negates akt gene expression and leads aggressive breast cancer cells to apoptotic death  

PubMed Central

Introduction Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-activated signalling has a critical role in the evolution of aggressive tumourigenesis and is therefore a prime target for anticancer therapy. Previously we have shown that the ? galactoside binding protein (?GBP) cytokine, an antiproliferative molecule, induces functional inhibition of class 1A and class 1B PI3K. Here, we have investigated whether, by targeting PI3K, ?GBP has therapeutic efficacy in aggressive breast cancer cells where strong mitogenic input is fuelled by overexpression of the ErbB2 (also known as HER/neu, for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) oncoprotein receptor and have used immortalised ductal cells and non-aggressive mammary cancer cells, which express ErbB2 at low levels, as controls. Methods Aggressive BT474 and SKBR3 cancer cells where ErbB2 is overexpressed, MCF10A immortalised ductal cells and non-invasive MCF-7 cancer cells which express low levels of ErbB2, both in their naive state and when forced to mimic aggressive behaviour, were used. Class IA PI3K was immunoprecipitated and the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-biphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) assessed by ELISA. The consequences of PI3K inhibition by ?GBP were analysed at proliferation level, by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, by akt gene expression and by apoptosis. Apoptosis was documented by changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, alteration of the plasma membrane, caspase 3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Phosphorylated and total ERK were measured by Western blot analysis and akt mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. The results obtained with the BT474 and SKBR3 cells were validated in the MCF10A ductal cells and in non-invasive MCF-7 breast cancer cells forced into mimicking the in vitro behaviour of the BT474 and SKBR3 cells. Results In aggressive breast cancer cells, where mitogenic signalling is enforced by the ErbB2 oncoprotein receptor, functional inhibition of the catalytic activity of PI3K by the ?GBP cytokine and loss of akt mRNA results in apoptotic death. A functional correlation between ERK and the kt gene was also found. The relationship between ERK, akt mRNA, PI3K and cell vulnerability to ?GBP challenge was sustained both in mammary ductal cells forced to mimic an aggressive behaviour and in non-aggressive breast cancer cells undergoing an enforced shift into an aggressive phenotype. Conclusions ?GBP, a newly discovered physiological inhibitor of PI3K, is a selective and potent inducer of apoptosis in aggressive breast cancer cells. Due to its physiological nature, which carries no chemotherapeutic disadvantages, ?GBP has the potential to be safely tested in clinical trials.

Wells, Valerie; Mallucci, Livio

2009-01-01

344

Predicting workplace aggression and violence.  

PubMed

Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences. PMID:18793089

Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

2009-01-01

345

Varenicline: aggression and homicidal ideation.  

PubMed

Varenicline, a drug used for smoking cessation, carries a risk of neuropsychological adverse effects, including depression and suicide. Analysis of a series of detailed reports of aggression and homicidal ideation attributed to varenicline showed that most patients had no psychiatric history. These symptoms were often preceded by sleep disorders. Suicide and suicidal ideation were associated with signs of aggression in nearly one-third of cases. Aggressive symptoms recurred in patients who restarted varenicline. In practice, it is better to avoid using varenicline for smoking cessation and to use nicotine replacement instead when drug therapy is considered necessary. PMID:22413719

2012-02-01

346

Relationships between hormones and aggressive behavior in green anole lizards: an analysis using structural equation modeling.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between aggressive behavior and circulating androgens in the context of agonistic social interaction and examined the effect of this interaction on the androgen-aggression relationship in response to a subsequent social challenge in male Anolis carolinensis lizards. Individuals comprising an aggressive encounter group were exposed to an aggressive conspecific male for 10 min per day during a 5-day encounter period, while controls were exposed to a neutral stimulus for the same period. On the sixth day, their responses to an intruder test were observed. At intervals, individuals were sacrificed to monitor plasma androgen levels. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test three a priori interaction models of the relationship between social stimulus, aggressive behavior, and androgen. Model 1 posits that exposure to a social stimulus influences androgen and aggressive behavior independently. In Model 2, a social stimulus triggers aggressive behavior, which in turn increases circulating levels of androgen. In Model 3, exposure to a social stimulus influences circulating androgen levels, which in turn triggers aggressive behavior. During the 5 days of the encounter period, circulating testosterone (T) levels of the aggressive encounter group followed the same pattern as their aggressive behavioral responses, while the control group did not show significant changes in their aggressive behavior or T level. Our SEM results supported Model 2. A means analysis showed that during the intruder test, animals with 5 days of aggressive encounters showed more aggressive responses than did control animals, while their circulating androgen levels did not differ. This further supports Model 2, suggesting that an animal's own aggressive behavior may trigger increases in levels of plasma androgen. PMID:12367572

Yang, Eun-Jin; Wilczynski, Walter

2002-09-01

347

Environmental factors and aggressive behavior  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

Anderson, A.C.

1982-07-01

348

Does television violence cause aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study 3rd graders who preferred violent TV programs were rated more aggressive in school by peers. In a 10-yr follow-up, 211 males and 216 females of the original 875 Ss were interviewed as to their television habits and again rated their peers on aggressive behavior. It was found that the violence of programs preferred by male 3rd

Leonard D. Eron; L. Rowell Huesmann; Monroe M. Lefkowitz; Leopold O. Walder

1972-01-01

349

Neurotensin inversely modulates maternal aggression  

PubMed Central

Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT’s role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 ?g). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 ?g) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, icv injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 ?g), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 ?g NT or vehicle. 13 of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior.

Gammie, Stephen C.; D'Anna, Kimberly L.; Gerstein, Hilary; Stevenson, Sharon A.

2008-01-01

350

Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays.  

PubMed

Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

Fitzsimmons, Lauren P; Bertram, Susan M

2013-07-10

351

Adult zebrafish as a model organism for behavioural genetics.  

PubMed

Recent research has demonstrated the suitability of adult zebrafish to model some aspects of complex behaviour. Studies of reward behaviour, learning and memory, aggression, anxiety and sleep strongly suggest that conserved regulatory processes underlie behaviour in zebrafish and mammals. The isolation and molecular analysis of zebrafish behavioural mutants is now starting, allowing the identification of novel behavioural control genes. As a result of this, studies of adult zebrafish are now helping to uncover the genetic pathways and neural circuits that control vertebrate behaviour. PMID:20678210

Norton, William; Bally-Cuif, Laure

2010-08-02

352

Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

2013-02-25

353

Effects of aggressive driving and driver characteristics on road rage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent is road rage triggered by aggressive driving behavior (frustration-aggression) or by characteristics of an aggressive driver (frustration-selective aggression)? Two scenarios on aggressive driving were presented to 144 undergraduates: impeding traffic (passive aggression) and reckless driving (active aggression). Age, gender, and cell phone use of a fictitious aggressive driver were manipulated in a 2 × 2 × 2

Richard L Dukes; Stephanie L Clayton; Lessie T Jenkins; Thomas L Miller; Susan E Rodgers

2001-01-01

354

Optimal reproductive-skew models fail to predict aggression in wasps.  

PubMed Central

Optimal-skew models (OSMs) predict that cooperative breeding occurs as a result of dominants conceding reproductive benefits to subordinates, and that division of reproduction within groups reflects each cooperator's willingness and ability to contest aggressively for dominance. Polistine paper wasps are a leading model system for testing OSMs, and data on reproduction and aggression appear to support OSMs. These studies, however, measure aggression as a single rate rather than by the activity patterns of individuals. This leads to a potential error: if individuals are more likely to receive aggression when active than when inactive, differences in aggression across samples can reflect changes in activity rather than hostility. This study replicates a field manipulation cited as strongly supporting OSMs. We show that fundamentally different conclusions arise when controlling for individual activity states. Our analyses strongly suggest that behaviours classified as 'aggression' in paper wasps are unlikely to function in establishing, maintaining or responding to changes in reproductive skew. This illustrates that OSM tests using aggression or other non-reproductive behaviour as a metric for reproductive partitioning must demonstrate those links rather than assume them.

Nonacs, Peter; Reeve, H Kern; Starks, Philip T

2004-01-01

355

The relationship of academic and social cognition to behaviour in bullying situations among Greek primary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explored links between cognition (both social and academic) and children's behaviour in a bullying situation (participant roles). Participants were 186 fourth to sixth grade boys and girls from four primary schools in central Greece. Six categories of social cognition (self-efficacy for assertion, self-efficacy for aggression, expectations that aggression will lead to rewards, expectations that aggression will lead to

Eleni Andreou; Panagiota Metallidou

2004-01-01

356

Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a test of the hypothesis that exposure of children to film-mediated aggressive models would increase the probability of Ss' aggression to subsequent frustration, 1 group of experimental Ss observed real-life aggressive models, a 2nd observed these same models potraying aggression on film, while a 3rd group viewed a film depicting an aggressive cartoon character. Following the exposure treatment, Ss

Albert Bandura; Dorothea Ross; Sheila A. Ross

1963-01-01

357

Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

2007-01-01

358

Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two…

van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

2007-01-01

359

A Risky Boundary: Unwanted Sexual Behaviour among Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongst young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: "verbal", "non-verbal/intimidating" and "physically violent". A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants of unwanted sexual behaviour:…

de Bruijn, Paula; Burrie, Ingrid; van Wel, Frits

2006-01-01

360

Time, Space and Gender: Understanding "Problem" Behaviour in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following article reports on a small-scale, exploratory study of aggressive and "problem" behaviour in pre-school children. This project was conceived in the wider context of anxieties about childhood and New Labour's policy focus on "anti-social" behaviour in children. Based on interviews with nursery staff and parents in addition to…

Brown, Jane

2007-01-01

361

Challenges of Respondent Driven Sampling to Assess Sexual Behaviour and Estimate the Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Syphilis in Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Singapore.  

PubMed

There is a lack of representative samples to provide reliable and accurate seroprevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as behavioural information among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. We used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit MSM. Participants completed a survey used by Asian Internet MSM Sex Survey (AIMSS) and were tested for HIV and syphilis. We compared the characteristics of the RDS participants with STI diagnosis against those who did not have any STI diagnosis in the past 6 months. We compared RDS participants with AIMSS participants. Of 72 MSM recruited, 1 was positive for HIV (1.3%) and 4 (5.5%) tested positive for syphilis. Median age was 30 years and majority was Chinese (69.4%). RDS participants who had any STI diagnosis reported to have more use of recreational drugs (P = 0.006), and lower condom use (P = 0.054). Comparing RDS participants (n = 72) with the AIMSS participants (n = 2075), RDS respondents had ?1 male partner in the past 6 months (P = 0.003), more casual sex partners (P = 0.012) and more STI symptoms (P = 0.019). There was no difference in terms of HIV testing and recreational drug use. The HIV and syphilis seroprevalence rates from our study are similar to previous reports conducted in high-risk MSM. In contrast to other settings, RDS did not work well among MSM in Singapore. The public health implications of our study highlight the challenges in obtaining data for HIV surveillance in assessing prevalence and risk behaviours among MSM. PMID:23949264

Chua, Arlene C; Chen, Mark Ic; Cavailler, Philippe; Jiang, Lili; Abdullah, Mohammed Ridzwan; Ng, Oon Tek; Chio, Martin; Koe, Stuart; Tay, Joanne; Wong, Mee Lian; Chan, Roy

2013-07-01

362

Aggressive surgical palliation for advanced girdle tumours  

PubMed Central

Background: The surgical management of advanced, incurable, malignant disease presents particular ethical and technical challenges. The clear goal is palliation and the surgical futility must be avoided. This case series presents some particular challenges in end-of-life surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients referred with advanced malignant disease involving a limb girdle were reviewed. Results: In one case, a patient pleaded for surgery after initially requesting a delay to seek treatment from a Chinese Traditional Herbalist. The increase in tumour bulk led to problems with surgery and the patient died in a hospital a few weeks later. This case illustrates ‘futility’ not recognized and encountered. The remaining 14 patients exhibited positive palliation with improved quality of dying and appreciation expressed by patients, relatives and staff. Conclusion: In selected cases, with a skilled and experienced surgical team, patients with advanced malignant disease can still benefit from aggressive surgical palliation. The margin of error is small between palliation being attempted and futility being achieved. This considerably adds to the challenge of end-of-life surgery.

Burd, Andrew; Wong, K. C.; Kumta, Shekhar M.

2012-01-01

363

Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective.  

PubMed

With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast-slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed-accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes. PMID:22927575

Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

2012-10-01

364

Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective  

PubMed Central

With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast–slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed–accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.

Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

2012-01-01

365

The Lowbury lecture: behaviour in infection control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of healthcare-associated infections result from cross-transmission related to inappropriate patient-care practices. Improving practices frequently implies modifying healthcare workers' behaviour, a key challenge of today's infection control. To improve healthcare workers' compliance with practices, infection control should learn from the behavioural sciences. Social cognitive models can help to improve our understanding of human behaviour. Cognitive determinants that shape behaviour

D. Pittet

2004-01-01

366

Heritability of boldness and aggressiveness in the zebrafish.  

PubMed

Behavioural traits that are consistent over time and in different contexts are often referred to as personality traits. These traits influence fitness because they play a major role in foraging, reproduction and survival, and so it is assumed that they have little or no additive genetic variance and, consequently, low heritability because, theoretically, they are under strong selection. Boldness and aggressiveness are two personality traits that have been shown to affect fitness. By crossing single males to multiple females, we estimated the heritability of boldness and aggressiveness in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The additive genetic variance was statistically significant for both traits and the heritability estimates (95 % confidence intervals) for boldness and aggressiveness were 0.76 (0.49, 0.90) and 0.36 (0.10, 0.72) respectively. Furthermore, there were significant maternal effects accounting for 18 and 9 % of the proportion of phenotypic variance in boldness and aggressiveness respectively. This study shows that there is a significant level of genetic variation in this population that would allow these traits to evolve in response to selection. PMID:23354973

Ariyomo, Tolulope O; Carter, Mauricio; Watt, Penelope J

2013-01-25

367

Social environments and physical aggression among 21,107 students in the United States and Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Physical aggression is an important issue in North American populations. The importance of student social environments in the occurrence of physical aggression requires focused study. In this study, reports of physical aggression were examined in relation to social environment factors among national samples of students from Canada and the United States. Methods Students in grades 6–10 from the US (n=14,049) and Canada (n=7,058) who had participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey were studied. Rates of student physical aggression were compared between the two countries. School, family, socioeconomic, and peer-related factors were considered as potential risk factors. A simple social environment risk score was developed using the US data and was subsequently tested in the Canadian sample. Results Risks for physical aggression were consistently higher among US vs. Canadian students, but the magnitude of these differences was modest. The relative odds of physical aggression increased with reported environmental risk. To illustrate, US boys in grades 6 to 8 reporting the highest social-environment risk score (5+) experienced a relative odds of physical aggression 4.02 (95% CI 2.7–5.9) times higher than those reporting the lowest score (adjusted OR for risk scores 0 through 5+: 1.00, 1.19, 2.10, 2.01, 3.71, 4.02; ptrend<0.001). Conclusions Unexpectedly, rates of physical aggression and associations between social environments and student aggression were remarkably similar in Canada and the United States. Family, peer, and school social environments serve as risk or protective factors, with significant cumulative impact on physical aggression in both countries. Given the observed high rates and the many negative effects of aggression on long-term health, school policies aimed at the reduction of such behavior remain a clear priority.

Pickett, William; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Dostaler, Suzanne; Iannotti, Ronald J.

2008-01-01

368

Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study (see ^W37^n: 856) children imitated the behavior of a model in the presence of the model. The present study investigated the degree of imitation when the model was not present. Degree to which like-sexed model behavior would be followed was also studied. Nursery school children exposed to aggressively behaving models tended to imitate not only their

A. Bandura; Dorothea Ross; Sheila A. Ross

1961-01-01

369

Self-Consciousness, Self-Report of Aggressiveness, and Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private self-consciousness consists of attending to one's thoughts, feelings, and motives. Public self-consciousness consists of attending to oneself as a social object. The effect of dispositional self-consciousness on the accuracy of self-reports was studied in research on aggression. (Editor)

Scheier, Michael F.; And Others

1978-01-01

370

First-degree relatives with behavioural adverse effects on statins  

PubMed Central

Irritability, aggression and other adverse behavioural effects have been associated with the use of statins (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) and other drug classes. A number of studies have also linked low cholesterol with aggression and violence. This paper presents the cases of two first-degree male relative patients (father and son) identified by self-referral to the University of California in San Diego Statin Effects Study. Both patients experienced behavioural adverse effects on statins including irritability and aggression, however neither patient recognised a significant change in their behaviour. This may be the first report of behavioural adverse effects manifested on statins by first-degree male relatives, which may suggest possible familial/biological predisposition. These cases also highlight the issue of externalisation by patients of the origin of interpersonal discord, which may serve as an obstacle to adverse effects reporting and lead to negative outcomes for patients, and for those around them.

Reilly, David; Cham, Stephanie; Golomb, Beatrice Alexandra

2011-01-01

371

The pharmacology of impulsive behaviour in rats: the effects of drugs on response choice with varying delays of reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulsive behaviour is an important component of many psychiatric syndromes. It is often expressed as aggressive or violent\\u000a behaviour, but may also be non-violent. One important factor which might lead to aggression or violence is an inability to\\u000a tolerate a delay of gratification, leading to frustration and aggressive outbursts. In animals and in man, tolerance to delay\\u000a of gratification can

J. L. Evenden; C. N. Ryan

1996-01-01

372

Proximate perspectives on the evolution of female aggression: good for the gander, good for the goose?  

PubMed

Female-female aggression often functions in competition over reproductive or social benefits, but the proximate mechanisms of this apparently adaptive behaviour are not well understood. The sex steroid hormone testosterone (T) and its metabolites are well-established mediators of male-male aggression, and several lines of evidence suggest that T-mediated mechanisms may apply to females as well. However, a key question is whether mechanisms of female aggression primarily reflect correlated evolutionary responses to selection acting on males, or whether direct selection acting on females has made modifications to these mechanisms that are adaptive in light of female life history. Here, I examine the degree to which female aggression is mediated at the level of T production, target tissue sensitivity to T, or downstream genomic responses in order to test the hypothesis that selection favours mechanisms that facilitate female aggression while minimizing the costs of systemically elevated T. I draw heavily from avian systems, including the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), as well as other organisms in which these mechanisms have been well studied from an evolutionary/ecological perspective in both sexes. Findings reveal that the sexes share many behavioural and hormonal mechanisms, though several patterns also suggest sex-specific adaptation. I argue that greater attention to multiple levels of analysis-from hormone to receptor to gene network, including analyses of individual variation that represents the raw material of evolutionary change-will be a fruitful path for understanding mechanisms of behavioural regulation and intersexual coevolution. PMID:24167313

Rosvall, Kimberly A

2013-10-28

373

School Athletics and Fan Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

1976-01-01

374

A Conceptualization of Aggressive Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpersonal communication can be viewed in terms of an aggressive-nonaggressive continuum. Past research has often focused on nonaggressive forms of interpersonal communication, such as understanding how people get to know one another, how trust and intimacy develop, and the role of self-disclosure in relationship development. However,…

Infante, Dominic A.

375

Driving Citations and Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anger and driving have been examined in a number of studies of aggressive drivers and in drivers with road rage, using a number of psychological and environmental study variables. However, we are not aware of any study that has examined the number of driving citations (an indication of problematic driving) and various forms of anger not related to driving.Method:

Randy A. Sansone; Justin S. Leung; Michael W. Wiederman

2012-01-01

376

Aggressive Driving in Young Motorists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road rage is an increasingly prevalent expression of aggression in our society. Its dangers are apparent and understanding its causes may shed light on preventative measures. This study involved a fifteen-minute survey administered to 147 undergraduate students at a North Eastern suburban university. The survey consisted of a demographics section, questions regarding financial investment in respondents' vehicles, experience driving, habits

Suneel M. Agerwala; Ashley Votta; Briana Hogan; John Yannocone; Steven Samuels

2008-01-01

377

The Experimental Analysis of Aggression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aggression in the world today is discussed as a lawful, natural result of the conditions this world continues to impose upon man. It is contended that there are reasons for race riots and reasons for man's tendency to resort to bombs and bullets. It is be...

R. E. Ulrich

1967-01-01

378

Psychopharmacology of Aggression in Children and Adolescents With Primary Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Review of Current and Potentially Promising Treatment Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining the role of pharmacological therapy in the treatment of children and adolescents with clinical disorders is growing. Clinical disorders that present with comorbid aggression can add a challenge to treatment. Child and adolescent neuropsychiatric disorders associated with aggression include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, various mood disorders and in particular bipolar disorders\\/pediatric mania, schizophrenia, mental retardation, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct

Robert M. Nevels; Erin E. Dehon; Katrina Alexander; Samuel T. Gontkovsky

2010-01-01

379

A Prosocial Scale for the Preschool Behaviour Questionnaire: Concurrent and Predictive Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Preschool Behaviour Questionnaire has been used widely to assess children's aggressive, anxious, and hyperactive behaviour. Items from the Prosocial Behaviour Questionnaire were added to create a prosocial scale. The resulting questionnaire was administered to teachers of three large samples of kindergarten children and shown to have three stable, orthogonal components disruptive (13 items): anxious (6 items); and prosocial (10

R. E. Tremblay; F. Vitaro; C. Gagnon; C. Piché; N. Royer

1992-01-01

380

Individual behavioural characteristics and dominance in aviary groups of great tits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work we have shown that juvenile male great tits Parus major show consistent behavioural differences in exploratory and aggressive behaviour. Fast and superficial explorers (FE) won from slow and thorough explorers (SE) during controlled pair-wise confrontations in small cages. The present study assesses the relationship between early exploratory behaviour and later dominance in aviary groups of juvenile male

M. E. M. Verbeek; P. De Goede; P. J. Drent; P. R. Wiepkema

1999-01-01

381

Aggressiveness is associated with genetic diversity in landlocked salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

The amount of intraindividual genetic variation has often been found to have profound effects on life history traits. However, studies concerning the relationship between behaviour and genetic diversity are scarce. Aggressiveness is an important component of competitive ability in juvenile salmonids affecting their later performance and survival. In this study, we used an experimental approach to test the prediction that juveniles with low estimated genetic diversity should be less aggressive than juveniles with high estimated genetic diversity in fry from a highly endangered population of land-locked salmon (Salmo salar). This was achieved by using a method enabling the accurate estimation of offspring genetic diversity based on parental microsatellite genotype data. This allowed us to create two groups of offspring expected to have high or low genetic diversity in which aggressive behaviour could be compared. Salmon fry with low estimated genetic diversity were significantly less aggressive than fry with high estimated genetic diversity. Closer analysis of the data suggested that this difference was due to differences in more costly acts of aggression. Our result may reflect a direct effect of genetic variation on a fitness-related trait; however, we cannot rule out an alternative explanation of allele-specific phenotype matching, where lowered aggression is expressed towards genetically more similar individuals. PMID:12919477

Tiira, Katriina; Laurila, Anssi; Peuhkuri, Nina; Piironen, Jorma; Ranta, Esa; Primmer, Craig R

2003-09-01

382

Context matters: female aggression and testosterone in a year-round territorial neotropical songbird (Thryothorus leucotis)  

PubMed Central

Testosterone promotes aggressive behaviour in male vertebrates during the breeding season, but the importance of testosterone in female aggression remains unclear. Testosterone has both beneficial and detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology, prompting the hypothesis that selection favours an association between aggression and testosterone only in certain contexts in which intense or persistent aggression may be beneficial. We tested this hypothesis in a year-round territorial female buff-breasted wrens (Thryothorus leucotis), by exposing free-living females to experimental intrusions in different social (either single female or male, or paired decoys) and seasonal (pre-breeding or breeding) contexts. Females responded more aggressively to intrusions by females and pairs than to males. However, female intrusions elicited stronger responses during pre-breeding, whereas responses to pair intrusions were more intense during breeding. Territorial females had elevated testosterone levels after female intrusions and intermediate levels after pair intrusions during pre-breeding, but the levels of testosterone remained low after these intrusions during breeding. These results demonstrate seasonal differences in circulating testosterone following territorial aggression in female buff-breasted wrens and are suggestive of differences according to social context as well. Context-dependent elevation of testosterone implies that selection acts directly on female vertebrates to shape patterns of testosterone secretion.

Gill, Sharon A; Alfson, Elizabeth D; Hau, Michaela

2007-01-01

383

Estimating aggression from emotionally neutral faces: which facial cues are diagnostic?  

PubMed

The facial width-to-height ratio, a size-independent sexually dimorphic property of the human face, is correlated with aggressive behaviour in men. Furthermore, observers' estimates of aggression from emotionally neutral faces are accurate and are highly correlated with the facial width-to-height ratio. We investigated whether observers use the facial width-to-height ratio to estimate propensity for aggression. In experiments 1a-1c, estimates of aggression remained accurate when faces were blurred or cropped, manipulations that reduce featural cues but maintain the facial width-to-height ratio. Accuracy decreased when faces were scrambled, a manipulation that retains featural information but disrupts the facial width-to-height ratio. In experiment 2, computer-modeling software identified eight facial metrics that correlated with estimates of aggression; regression analyses revealed that the facial width-to-height ratio was the only metric that uniquely predicted these estimates. In experiment 3, we used a computer-generated set of faces varying in perceived threat (Oosterhof and Todorov, 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 11087-11092) and found that as emotionally neutral faces became more 'threatening', the facial width-to-height ratio increased. Together, these experiments suggest that the facial width-to-height ratio is an honest signal of propensity for aggressive behaviour. PMID:20465172

Carré, Justin M; Morrissey, Mark D; Mondloch, Catherine J; McCormick, Cheryl M

2010-01-01

384

MAOA deficiency and abnormal behaviour: perspectives on an association.  

PubMed

We have recently described an association between abnormal behaviour and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) deficiency in several males from a single large Dutch kindred. Affected males differed from unaffected males by borderline mental retardation and increased impulsive behaviour (aggressive behaviour, abnormal sexual behaviour and arson). Nevertheless, a specific psychiatric diagnosis was not made in four affected males who had psychiatric examination. Since MAOA deficiency raises 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels, it provides an interesting exception to the low 5-HT paradigm of impulsive aggression. Even if the possible relationship between MAOA deficiency and abnormal behaviour is confirmed in other kindreds, the data do not support the hypothesis that MAOA constitutes an "aggression gene'. In fact, because genes are essentially simple and behaviour is by definition complex, a direct causal relationship between a single gene and a specific behaviour is highly unlikely. In the case of MAOA deficiency, some of the complexities are illustrated by the variability in the behavioural phenotype, as well as by the highly complex effects of MAOA deficiency on neurotransmitter function. Thus, the concept of a gene that directly encodes behaviour is unrealistic. PMID:8862875

Brunner, H G

1996-01-01

385

Causes and management of aggression and violence in a forensic mental health service: Perspectives of nurses and patients.  

PubMed

Nurses' attitudes about the causes and management of aggression affects their choice of intervention. We aimed to compare the attitudes held by patients and staff in a forensic mental health service with the Management of Aggression and Violence Attitudes Scale, and examine the factor validity of the tool in this setting by conducting a prospective comparative questionnaire survey. Staff (n?=?72) and patient (n?=?98) attitudes differed to a limited extent. Confirmatory factor analysis refuted the previously reported structure of the tool. Exploratory factor analysis suggested three underlying factors related to modifiability of aggression, hands on management, and hands off management. Patients were more optimistic than nurses about the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. Male patients and those with diagnoses other than personality disorder were significantly more likely to agree about modifiability than controls. Forensic inpatients recognize the need for the use of a range of techniques to prevent and manage aggression and violence, but selected groups are most likely to believe that aggression is modifiable. Prevention and management of aggression training should emphasize the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. The development of measures of modifiability and management style would assist in the evaluation of training and would offer new avenues for research. PMID:23167989

Dickens, Geoffrey; Piccirillo, Maria; Alderman, Nick

2012-11-21

386

Acrorhagi, catch tentacles and sweeper tentacles: a synopsis of ‘aggression’ of actiniarian and scleractinian Cnidaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of organ (acrorhagi and catch tentacles in sea anemones, and sweeper tentacles in corals) are described with regard to both morphology and ‘aggressive’ function. Species known to possess such organs are listed. Research on the functions of these particular organs is reviewed and some exceptions to their usual behaviour patterns are highlighted. Further research on allogeneic recognition might

R. B. Williams

1991-01-01

387

Understanding and working with non?compliant and aggressive young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpersonal, familial, and situational risk factors that predict young children's aggression and non?compliance are explored. Here examples of specific techniques and provided to help teachers and parents effectively support children's early development of cooperative and prosocial behaviours as well as problem?solving skills in family and school situations.

Alice Sterling Honig

2009-01-01

388

Interactions between Arctic and Red Foxes in Scandinavia - Predation and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) populations in Scandinavia are small and restricted to alpine regions, while red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are common throughout both Norway and Sweden. The two species are similar in behaviour and diet, and thus competition between them is likely. This study provides seven observations of aggressive interactions between the two species. One adult arctic fox and one

KARL FRAFJORD; DENNIS BECKER; ANDERS ANGERBJORN

389

Aggression Replacement Training in Norway: Outcome Evaluation of 11 Norwegian Student Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven groups of students performed a 24-session intervention based on Aggression Replacement Training (ART) as part of their further education programme. Subjects were 65 children and young people with varying degrees of behavioural problems. Forty-seven subjects received the ART programme. Eighteen received standard social and educational…

Gundersen, Knut; Svartdal, Frode

2006-01-01

390

Serotonergic pathology is not widespread in Alzheimer patients without prominent aggressive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, such as aggression, may determine the care patients required. Most postmortem neurochemical studies have been of institutionalized patients and conclusions drawn from these may not be valid for all patients. We have shown that serotonin 2 receptors are not lost from 12 of the 13 areas of cerebral cortex examined in the patients assessed to

Andrew W. Procter; Paul T. Francis; Gary C. Stratmann; David M. Bowen

1992-01-01

391

INTERNATIONAL APPLICATIONS OF POLICE ASSESSMENT: PREDICTING AGGRESSION, STRESS AND MENTAL DISORDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social and cultural change can exacerbate stress within law enforcement especially when involving different religious and ethnic groups. During these transitional periods viable measures of police suitability are need to both prevent abuses and assess current stressors. Characterological (aggression, deviant behaviour) and clinical factors (mental illness, potential for alcohol abuse) are critical features to be measured when testing law enforcement

Lawrence Armand French

392

Aggression and the Picture-Frustration Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

121 Ss of a state prison were given the P-F Study. Extrapunitive responses were rated according to intensity of aggressive reaction to frustration. The P-F failed to relate to many aspects of aggression.

J. Kaswan; M. Wasman; Lawrence Zelic Freedman

1960-01-01

393

Nucleotide Changes with Aggression-Altering Drugs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nucleotide changes with aggression-altering drugs was studied. The results of the studies measuring changes in brain region cyclic nucleotide levels suggest that under pharmacologic manipulation which alters aggressive behavior, it was not possible to mea...

B. S. Eichelman

1982-01-01

394

Aggression and the Biogenic Amine Neurohumors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The physiological characteristics of male mice that have been made aggressive by long-term isolation are reviewed. Pharmacological manipulation of brain catecholamines is studied. Aggressive behavior is considered to be a property of a level of organizati...

B. L. Welch A. S. Welch

1968-01-01

395

Sexual Aggression: Constructing a Predictive Equation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of brain pathology, sex hormones, sadism, alcohol/drug abuse and history of aggression in predicting dangerousness in sexually aggressive offenders was studied. Subjects included 16 patients charged with rape and 16 normal controls. It was ...

R. Langevin

1982-01-01

396

Stability of aggression over time and generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study spanning 22 years, data were collected on the aggressiveness of over 600 subjects, their parents, and their children. Subjects who were the more aggressive 8-year-olds at the beginning of the study were discovered to be the more aggressive 30-year-olds at the end of the study. The stability of aggressive behavior was shown to be very similar to

L. Rowell Huesmann; Leonard D. Eron; Monroe M. Lefkowitz; Leopold O. Walder

1984-01-01

397

Anger, Aggression, and Irrational Beliefs in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether a combination of anger, hostility, and irrational beliefs, i.e., intolerance of rules frustration,\\u000a intolerance of work frustration, demands for fairness, and self-downing would predict physical, verbal, and indirect aggression\\u000a and peer ratings of aggression. Follow-up analysis tested gender as a moderator of the relations between irrational beliefs\\u000a and aggression, and anger and aggression. One hundred thirty-five

Christopher J. Fives; Grace Kong; J. Ryan Fuller; Raymond DiGiuseppe

2011-01-01

398

Translational science in action: Hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems  

PubMed Central

A model of the development of hostile attributional style and its role in children's aggressive behavior is proposed, based on the translation of basic science in ethology, neuroscience, social psychology, personality psychology, and developmental psychology. Theory and findings from these domains are reviewed and synthesized in the proposed model, which posits that (a) aggressive behavior and hostile attributions are universal human characteristics, (b) socialization leads to the development of benign attributions, (c) individual differences in attributional style account for differences in aggressive behavior, and (d) interventions to change attributions have the potential to alter antisocial development. Challenges for future research are described.

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

399

Juvenile aggressive ossifying fibroma of the maxilla: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Juvenile aggressive ossifying fibroma is a rare benign but locally aggressive tumor with high recurrent potentials. Juvenile aggressive ossifying fibroma poses diagnostic challenges because of its rapidly growing nature. A 7-years-old female child presented to the pediatric unit of our institution with a 9-month history of right maxillary tumor. An initial diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma was made and the child has several courses of chemotherapy without adequate histologic confirmation., She was later referred to the maxillofacial unit where the appropriate diagnosis and treatment were instituted. The importance of early recognition and adequate management is highlighted. PMID:23919209

Osunde, Od; Iyogun, Ca; Adebola, Ra

2013-04-01

400

The neuropharmacology of aggression: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature on aggression from a multidisciplinary standpoint reveals evidence for differentiating several kinds of aggression. This differentiation can be seen in the psychopharmacological literature, where some compounds have been effective in altering some forms of aggressive behaviors but ineffective in altering others. Differences in endogenous levels of neurotransmitters have also been reported, but there was little

Harry H. Avis

1974-01-01

401

Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

2007-01-01

402

The Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the relationship between two types of childhood family aggression and severe marital aggression in the next generation of adults (N=2,143). Results indicated that observing hitting between one's parents is more strongly related to involvement in severe marital aggression than is being hit as a teenager by one's parent. (LLL)

Kalmuss, Debra

1984-01-01

403

The costs and determinants of order aggressiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the costs and determinants of order aggressiveness. Aggressive orders have larger price impacts but smaller opportunity costs than passive orders. Price impacts are amplified by large orders, small firms, and volatile stock prices. To minimize the implementation shortfall, the optimal strategy is to enter buy (sell) orders at the bid (ask). Aggressive buy (sell) orders tend to

Mark D. Griffiths; Brian F. Smith; D. Alasdair S. Turnbull; Robert W. White

2000-01-01

404

The Influence of Fluoxetine on Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of evidence from studies in humans, in nonhuman primates, and in smaller laboratory animals has supported a role for serotonin in the modulation of aggressive behavior. The evidence shows that diminished serotonergic function can be linked to aggressive behavior and that treatments that increase serotonergic function reduce aggression. Embedded in this large body of data are studies

Ray W Fuller

1996-01-01

405

Antisocial Personality Disorder, Alcohol, and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol- related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related

F. Gerard Moeller; Donald M. Dougherty

2001-01-01

406

Talking Smack: Verbal Aggression in Professional Wrestling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study presents the results of a content analysis of the verbal aggression found in 36 hours of televised professional wrestling. The coding scheme was adapted from the National Television Violence Study and past research on television verbal aggression. Results show that an abundance of verbal aggression occurs in televised professional wrestling, with swearing, competence attacks, and character attacks

Ron Tamborini; Rebecca M. Chory; Ken Lachlan; David Westerman; Paul Skalski

2008-01-01

407

A Theory of Frustration-Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-dimensional theory of frustration-aggression is presented. It is proposed that aggressiveness can be measured by computing the kinetic energy of a response. Aggressiveness is equated with energy state. Experimental and laboratory procedures are outlined. (Author/BEF)

Gnepp, Eric H.

1979-01-01

408

Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

1985-01-01

409

Moral Reasoning and Judgments of Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was designed to examine the role of type of aggression, aggressor intentions, victim consequences, and stage of moral reasoning in the judgments of aggressive acts. High school and college students who scored at Stage 2, 3, or 4 in the Kohlberg moral reasoning system read physical, verbal, or passive aggression scenarios in which the aggressor's intentions were harmful,

Marvin W. Berkowitz; Charles W. Mueller; Steven V. Schnell; Michele T. Padberg

1986-01-01

410

The Relationship Between Athletics, Hispanics, and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on the subject of aggression and the role of athletics among the Hispanic population. The concept of machismo has been associated with Hispanic males and implies that there is a greater likelihood of aggression among Hispanics than any other ethnic group of athletes. However, aggression is best predicted by SES, not ethnicity. A supportive family

Miguel Humara

411

The Preschool Behaviour Questionnaire: A useful index of behaviour problems in elementary school-age children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the validity of Behar and Stringfield's Preschool Behaviour Questionnaire (PBQ) with young, elementary school age children. In Study 1, the PBQ was administered to 157 grade one children. A factor analysis was performed on the 30 items of the PBQ. The three factors that emerged were almost identical to those described by Bchar and Stringfield (hostility\\/aggression, anxiety\\/fearfulness, and

KENNETH H. RUBIN; LORA MOLLER; ANNE EMPTAGE

1987-01-01

412

Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

413

Measuring aggressiveness and anger, but not aggression? A response to the CAAS critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale (CAAS) was developed to measure antecedents of aggression in sport. The critique attacks the CAAS on three points: (1) the definition of aggression in sport adopted, (2) the “one size fits all” element in the thinking behind the scale's development, (3) the nature of the CAAS Anger and Aggressiveness items. The objectives of this

J. P. Maxwell; E. Moores

2008-01-01

414

Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

415

Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the psychometric properties of the instrument. In Studies 1 and 2, the unique

Nicole E. Werner; Charisse L. Nixon

2005-01-01

416

Feelings about Verbal Aggression: Justifications for Sending and Hurt from Receiving Verbally Aggressive Messages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates whether receiving verbally aggressive messages was more hurtful depending on the source of the message; whether trait verbal aggression is justified; and whether the perceived hurt of verbally aggressive messages is related to a tendency to be verbally aggressive. Finds that messages from friends caused more hurt than messages from…

Martin, Matthew M.; And Others

1996-01-01

417

Child-to-Parent Violence: Challenging Perspectives on Family Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…

Coogan, Declan

2011-01-01

418

Immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin characterizes a potentially aggressive subgroup of little basal cell carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a very common malignant skin tumor that rarely metastatizes, but is often locally aggressive. Several factors, like large size (more than 3 cm), exposure to ultraviolet rays, histological variants, level of infiltration and perineural or perivascular invasion, are associated with a more aggressive clinical course. These morphological features seem to be more determinant in mideface localized BCC, which frequently show a significantly higher recurrence rate. An immunohistochemical profile, characterized by reactivity of tumor cells for p53, Ki67 and alpha-SMA has been associated with a more aggressive behaviour in large BCCs. The aim of this study was to verify if also little (<3 cm) basal cell carcinomas can express immunohistochemical markers typical for an aggressive behaviour.

Pilloni, L.; Bianco, P.; Manieli, C.; Senes, G.; Coni, P.; Atzori, L.; Aste, N.; Faa, G.

2009-01-01

419

Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin\\u000a would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would\\u000a have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin\\u000a levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness

Constanza M. López Fontana; María E. Maselli; Rafael F. Pérez Elizalde; Nicolás A. Di Milta Mónaco; Ana L. Uvilla Recupero; José D. López Laur

420

Music, Substance Use, and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated whether young people's substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method: Using self-administered questionnaires, data were collected from a sample of community-college students, ages 15-25 years (N = 1,056; 57% female). A structural equation model (maximum likelihood method) was used to simultaneously assess the

MENG-JINN CHEN; BRENDA A. MILLER; JOEL W. GRUBE; ELIZABETH D. WAITERS

421

Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many autistic patients with mental retardation have difficulties with explosivity and aggression. They often prove resistant to various pharmacotherapeutic interventions. In this study, 11 male outpatients (mean 18.3 years) were administered risperidone in an open-label fashion. The risperidone was started at 0.5 mg daily, and titrated upwards until maximum clinical benefit occurred. Serial clinical interviews were conducted, and Conners Parent-Teacher

Joseph P. Horrigan; L. Jarrett Barnhill

1997-01-01

422

The Science of Relational Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A preventive intervention research cycle is often necessary when attempt-ing to moderate a complex problem such as aggression\\u000a (Heller, 1996; Poulin, Dishion, & Burraston, 2001). The first step in this cycle includes defining the problem, developing measures for accurate assessment, and documenting\\u000a prevalence. Ideally, these studies are at first moderate in size, but later include epidemiological studies with large, population-based

Tasha C. Geiger; Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck; Nicki R. Crick

423

Geerbte Aggression: Gene und Gewalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Frage nach den Wurzeln von Aggression und Gewalt wird seit langer Zeit als Kontroverse um »Anlage« vs »Umwelt« heft ig\\u000a diskutiert. Wenn sowohl Vater wie auch Sohn wegen Gewalttaten im Gefängnis sitzen, wird in der Öffentlichkeit manchmal über\\u000a ein »Aggressionsgen« spekuliert. Wenn Jugendliche in heruntergekommenen Stadtteilen oder junge Männer aus Migrantenfamilien\\u000a zuschlagen, wird ihre gesellschaft liche Umwelt als Ursache

Klaus Wahl

424

Borderline personality and externalized aggression.  

PubMed

Individuals with borderline personality disorder are diagnostically and clinically characterized by self-harm behavior, as indicated by the criterion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, "recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior." However, individuals with borderline personality disorder can display externalized aggressive behavior, as well. In an area characterized by considerably less research, empirical evidence indicates that individuals with borderline personality disorder may exhibit physical violence toward partners, physical violence toward known but nonintimate individuals, criminal behaviors that embody externalized violence (e.g., property damage), and, on very rare occasion, murderous behavior (either of family members or anonymous others through serial killing). Given this under-researched area, there are probably other types of externalized aggressive behaviors that have not been empirically revealed. However, externalized aggressive behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder clearly exist and need to be assessed in both psychiatric and primary care settings in an effort to promote safety of medical personnel and effective patient management. PMID:22567607

Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

2012-03-01

425

Social Information Processing, Experiences of Aggression in Social Contexts, and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines social information processing and experiences of aggression in social contexts as predictors of different forms of aggressive behavior. A sample of 102 boys (aggressive, average, competent, and victimized students) was investigated with a prospective design in Grade 7\\/8 and again in Grade 9\\/10. Results show an aggressive-impulsive response repertoire strongly predicted self-reported and teacher-reported physical aggression, verbal

Friedrich Lösel; Thomas Bliesener; Doris Bender

2007-01-01

426

Risk Assessment for suicide behaviour : Clinical Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an audio-visual about risk assessment of suicide behavior. Part 1. Reformulating the concept of RISK and a New instrument for assessment: Risk assessment is an important clinical responsibility, which can be ‘life-saving’. Literature on risk factors has become voluminous; however a traditional risk assessment does not take into account the most relevant factors. This reflects the prevailing conceptualization

Amresh Srivastava; Charles Nelson

2009-01-01

427

MicroRNA122 is a key regulator of alpha-fetoprotein expression and influences the aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is not only a widely used biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance, but is also clinically recognized as linked with aggressive tumour behaviour. Here we show that deregulation of microRNA122, a liver-specific microRNA, is a cause of both AFP elevation and a more biologically aggressive phenotype in HCC. We identify CUX1, a direct target of microRNA122, as a

Kentaro Kojima; Akemi Takata; Charles Vadnais; Motoyuki Otsuka; Takeshi Yoshikawa; Masao Akanuma; Yuji Kondo; Young Jun Kang; Takahiro Kishikawa; Naoya Kato; Zhifang Xie; Weiping J. Zhang; Haruhiko Yoshida; Masao Omata; Alain Nepveu; Kazuhiko Koike

2011-01-01

428

Aggression During Early Years -- Infancy and Preschool  

PubMed Central

Introduction This review explores the meaning and origins of aggression in early years. Eight pathways to aggression with origins in early childhood are suggested. These include: the contribution of individual factors; the effects of disturbed family dynamics; parental characteristics and parenting practices; the impact of exposure to violence and the influence of attachment relationships. Other influences such as: aggression relating to psychiatric/medical syndromes; the influence of neurodevelopment pathways and psychodynamic explanations, such as aggressive behavior in relation to mothers’ reflective capacity are also discussed. Conclusion While several routes to aggression have been proposed, no single factor is sufficient to explain the development of aggressive behavior. Longitudinal studies are sorely needed to observe aggressive behavior in children and to monitor their developmental trajectories.

Reebye, Pratibha

2005-01-01

429

Managing disruptive behaviour disorders in children.  

PubMed

The age at which individuals are most physically aggressive is 22 months. However, some children fail to inhibit this normal aggression and by the time they are three or four are showing signs of oppositional defiant disorder. In older children persistent antisocial behaviour is classified as conduct disorder. At any age, antisocial behaviour is on a continuum, and while the most severe 5% or so will meet diagnostic criteria, those falling short are often described as having conduct problems. Epidemiological follow-up surveys show that the risk of poor outcomes in antisocial children is very high. The causes are multiple but two sets of factors stand out. First, genetic predisposition. Even children adopted away from violent or criminal parents have three or four times the rate of antisocial behaviour and second, poor parenting. Watching and waiting is a reasonable strategy if the antisocial behaviour is not very severe. It is important to be vigilant for severe tantrums or aggression occurring almost every day, harsh, rough, or inconsistent parenting and coexistent ADHD. If severity is moderate, referral to an evidence-based parenting group would be a good first move. If this fails to make things better, or if the child or parent has a comorbid condition, referral to CAMHS is indicated. For older children, aged 10 to 17, there are effective interventions such as anger management CBT and parenting groups for adolescents. PMID:23808127

Stephen, Scott; Bailey, Clare

2013-05-01

430

The character of behavioural symptoms on admission to three Canadian long-term care homes.  

PubMed

Objectives: We determined the prevalence and nature of behavioural symptoms at the time of admission to a long-term care home (LTCH) and occurrence of resident-to-resident aggressive behaviour associated with behavioural symptoms within three months following admission. Method: The Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and Aggressive Behaviour Scale were completed at the time residents were admitted into the LTCH. A chart review, conducted three months after admission into the LTCH, abstracted documented resident-to-resident aggression. Three LTCHs located in Ontario, Canada participated in the study. Results: During a 16-month period, 339 individuals admitted to the LTCHs comprised the study sample. A comparison was made between residents with and without dementia. At admission, residents with dementia had a greater number of behavioural symptoms than those without dementia (mean = 3.79, SD = 3.32 versus mean = 2.56, SD = 2.24, respectively; t(200) = 1.91; p = 0.059). Residents with and without dementia exhibited similar behaviours but differed on the prevalence of these behaviours. The most frequently reported behavioural symptoms for residents in both groups were verbal agitation and non-aggressive physical behaviours. The most frequently recorded aggressive behaviour for all residents was 'resisting care'. In the three months post admission, 79 (23%) residents were involved in a documented incident that involved aggressive behaviour to another resident. Conclusion: A standardized comprehensive assessment for admission to a LTCH is an important strategy that can be used to identify behavioural symptoms and plan appropriate care management. PMID:23777187

Brazil, Kevin; Maitland, Janine; Walker, Marianne; Curtis, Alice

2013-06-18

431

Defensive Behaviour and the after Effects of Brain Stimulation in the Ring Dove (Streptopelia Risoria).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aggressive, defensive and fearful behaviour was elicited in ring doves by electrical stimulation of the forebrain, hypothalamus and midbrain. Stimulation in the forebrain produced very variable results: responses elicited from the midbrain were very stere...

D. Harwood D. M. Vowles

1968-01-01

432

Fighting for a leaf: agonistic behaviour in Malagasy frogs of the genus Guibemantis (Anura: Mantellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anuran vocalizations have a broad role in communication. In many cases, some calls help to avoid escalation to aggressive interactions that are energetically costly. The calling activity and agonistic behaviour of a Guibemantis sp. aff. bicalcaratus are here reported based on observations made at the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale de Betampona, East Madagascar. In addition, we describe a novel “aggressive” call

Gonçalo M. Rosa; Franco Andreone

2011-01-01

433

Identifying key factors associated with aggression on acute inpatient psychiatric wards.  

PubMed

Aggressive behaviour is a critical issue for modern acute psychiatric services, not just because of the adverse impact it has on patients and staff, but also because it puts a financial strain on service providers. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of patient violence to other variables: patient characteristics, features of the service and physical environment, patient routines, staff factors, the use of containment methods, and other patient behaviours. A multivariate cross sectional design was utilised. Data were collected for a six month period on 136 acute psychiatric wards in 26 NHS Trusts in England. Multilevel modelling was conducted to ascertain those factors most strongly associated with verbal aggression, aggression toward objects, and physical aggression against others. High levels of aggression were associated with a high proportion of patients formally detained under mental health legislation, high patient turnover, alcohol use by patients, ward doors being locked, and higher staffing numbers (especially qualified nurses). The findings suggest that the imposition of restrictions on patients exacerbates the problem of violence, and that alcohol management strategies may be a productive intervention. Insufficient evidence is available to draw conclusions about the nature of the link between staffing numbers and violence. PMID:19363731

Bowers, Len; Allan, Teresa; Simpson, Alan; Jones, Julia; Van Der Merwe, Marie; Jeffery, Debra

2009-04-01

434

Resolving social conflict among females without overt aggression.  

PubMed

Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression. PMID:24167306

Cant, Michael A; Young, Andrew J

2013-10-28

435

Driving anger, emotional and instrumental aggressiveness, and impulsiveness in the prediction of aggressive and transgressive driving.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the potential contribution of three predictors of aggressive and transgressive behaviors on the road: driving anger, impulsiveness and aggressiveness. A total of 455 participants (laypersons), of all age and gender, filled self-reported measures evaluating driving anger, impulsiveness, two forms of aggressiveness (instrumental and emotional forms), driving behaviors and aggressive and transgressive behaviors. Main results indicate: (1) a significant gender effect for almost all variables; (2) gender was involved in the prediction of Lapses and Errors; (3) driving anger, impulsiveness and aggressiveness were involved in a complementary manner in the prediction of aggressive and transgressive driving; (4) Aggressiveness and Impeded Progress were the best predictors of violations and aggressive violations. Results support that transgressive driving behaviors are relevant indicators of aggressive driving. PMID:22836116

Berdoulat, Emilie; Vavassori, David; Sastre, María Teresa Muñoz

2012-07-25

436

Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000aPersistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial

Marielle E. Abrahamse; Marianne Junger; E. Lidewei Chavannes; Frederique J. G. Coelman; Frits Boer; Ramon J. L. Lindauer

2012-01-01

437

The role of the serotonergic system at the interface of aggression and suicide.  

PubMed

Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the multifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homoeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and identify new effective therapies for these conditions. PMID:23333677

Bortolato, M; Pivac, N; Muck Seler, D; Nikolac Perkovic, M; Pessia, M; Di Giovanni, G

2013-01-16

438

Machine analysis of facial behaviour: Naturalistic and dynamic behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in

Maja Pantic

2009-01-01

439

Better Behaviour. Building Success through Better Behaviour Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many children have all sorts of difficulties in their lives, which set up barriers to learning. This book demonstrates how teachers can help them face personal challenges. It contains: ideas for stress proofing children; guidance on teaching problem-solving skills; and explanations of cognitive behaviour therapy.|

Long, Rob

2005-01-01

440

Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations\\u000a in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly\\u000a unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal

Nicholas K. Cheung; Xenia Doorenbosch; John G. Christie

2011-01-01

441

The neurobiology of abnormal manifestations of aggression--a review of hypothalamic mechanisms in cats, rodents, and humans.  

PubMed

Aggression research was for long dominated by the assumption that aggression-related psychopathologies result from the excessive activation of aggression-promoting brain mechanisms. This assumption was recently challenged by findings with models of aggression that mimic etiological factors of aggression-related psychopathologies. Subjects submitted to such procedures show abnormal attack features (mismatch between provocation and response, disregard of species-specific rules, and insensitivity toward the social signals of opponents). We review here 12 such laboratory models and the available human findings on the neural background of abnormal aggression. We focus on the hypothalamus, a region tightly involved in the execution of attacks. Data show that the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling attacks (general activation levels, local serotonin, vasopressin, substance P, glutamate, GABA, and dopamine neurotransmission) undergo etiological factor-dependent changes. Findings suggest that the emotional component of attacks differentiates two basic types of hypothalamic mechanisms. Aggression associated with increased arousal (emotional/reactive aggression) is paralleled by increased mediobasal hypothalamic activation, increased hypothalamic vasopressinergic, but diminished hypothalamic serotonergic neurotransmission. In aggression models associated with low arousal (unemotional/proactive aggression), the lateral but not the mediobasal hypothalamus is over-activated. In addition, the anti-aggressive effect of serotonergic neurotransmission is lost and paradoxical changes were noticed in vasopressinergic neurotransmission. We conclude that there is no single 'neurobiological road' to abnormal aggression: the neural background shows qualitative, etiological factor-dependent differences. Findings obtained with different models should be viewed as alternative mechanisms rather than conflicting data. The relevance of these findings for understanding and treating of aggression-related psychopathologies is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Extrasynaptic ionotropic receptors'. PMID:23085544

Haller, Jozsef

2012-10-17

442

Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

Parsonson, Barry S.

2012-01-01

443

Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression.  

PubMed

The primary goal of this investigation was to determine whether executive functioning (EF) would moderate the alcohol-aggression relation. Participants were 310 (152 men and 158 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF as well as non-EF skills were measured with 13 validated neuropsychological tests. Following the consumption of either an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (S. Taylor, 1967), in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. EF was negatively related to aggressive behavior for men, regardless of beverage group, even when controlling for non-EF skills. Furthermore, alcohol increased aggression only for men with lower EF scores. Finally, the mere belief that alcohol was consumed suppressed aggression for women but not for men. PMID:15535787

Giancola, Peter R

2004-11-01

444

Progesterone receptors mediate male aggression toward infants  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine mechanisms that mediate male aggression toward infants are poorly understood. Although testosterone is known to enhance aggression in other social contexts, evidence that it modulates aggression toward infants is equivocal. We have found that male progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mice exhibit no infanticidal behavior and little aggression toward young. Male PRKO mice also display significantly enhanced parental behaviors. In wild-type mice, blockade of PR induces a behavioral phenotype similar to that of the PRKO males, whereas progesterone exacerbates aggressive tendencies toward infants. Aggressive behaviors directed toward adult males, by contrast, are unaffected by progesterone, PR antagonism, or PR gene deletion. Previously thought to be of diminished importance in male animals, PRs play a critical and specific role in modulating infant-directed behaviors in male mice.

Schneider, Johanna S.; Stone, Marielle K.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Horton, Teresa H.; Lydon, John; O'Malley, Bert; Levine, Jon E.

2003-01-01

445

77 FR 47080 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Stop Bullying Video Challenge  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Requirements and Registration for ``Stop Bullying Video Challenge'' AGENCY: Health Resources...HHS), announces the launch of the ``Stop Bullying Video Challenge.'' Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among...

2012-08-07

446

Wiring Pathways to Replace Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The previous article in this series introduced the triune brain, the three components of which handle specialized life tasks. The survival brain, or brain stem, directs automatic physiological functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, and mobilizes fight/flight behaviour in times of threat. The emotional (or limbic) brain activates positive…

Bath, Howard

2006-01-01

447

Low skin conductance activity in infancy predicts aggression in toddlers 2 years later.  

PubMed

Low autonomic nervous system activity is claimed to be a biomarker for aggressive and antisocial behavior. Although there is evidence that low skin conductance activity (SCA) accounts for variation in the severity of antisocial behavior and predicts the onset of aggression in children and adults, it is unknown whether SCA measured in infancy can predict the development of aggression. We measured SCA in 70 typically developing 1-year-old infants at baseline, during an orienting habituation paradigm, and during a fear challenge. We also observed the infants' fear behavior, and each mother rated her infant's temperament and her attachment to her child. At follow-up, mothers rated the children at 3 years old for aggressive and nonaggressive behavior problems. Low infant SCA predicted aggressive behavior, but there was no association between SCA and nonaggressive behavior problems. Mothers' ratings of the infants' temperament and their maternal attachment and the infants' observed fearlessness did not predict later aggression. These results suggest that SCA is a specific biomarker for aggression in low-risk samples of infants. PMID:23592651

Baker, Erika; Shelton, Katherine H; Baibazarova, Eugenia; Hay, Dale F; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

2013-04-16

448

Behaviour disorders in children with an intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Behaviour disorders are frequent in children with an intellectual disability, regardless of the underlying etiology. They are often disabling, and can create problems in everyday life and can mask, or reveal, an organic or psychiatric illness. Such behaviours are often chronic and more than one may be present in the same individual. This is further complicated by the fact that parents often do not seek help for the problem, perhaps believing that it is due to the child’s disability and cannot be treated. The present review describes some general concepts dealing with the management of behaviour disorders commonly seen in children and youth with an intellectual disability, and gives a high level overview of behaviours commonly problematic in this patient population including sleep disturbances, agitated and aggressive behaviours, and self-injury behaviour. In general, while pharmacological treatment is possible, behavioural intervention is a more effective and better tolerated form of treatment.

Ageranioti-Belanger, Stacey; Brunet, Suzanne; D'Anjou, Guy; Tellier, Genevieve; Boivin, Johanne; Gauthier, Marie

2012-01-01

449

Cooperation and competition: nepotistic tolerance and intrasexual aggression in western bluebird winter groups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Dickinson, J. L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.

2009-01-01

450

Octopamine and occupancy: an aminergic mechanism for intruder-resident aggression in crickets  

PubMed Central

Aggression is a behavioural strategy for securing resources (food, mates and territory) and its expression is strongly influenced by their presence and value. While it is known that resource holders are generally highly aggressive towards intruding consexuals and usually defeat them, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are not known. In a novel intruder–resident paradigm for field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus), we show that otherwise submissive losers of a preceding aggressive encounter readily fight and often defeat aggressive winners after occupying an artificial shelter. This aggression enhancing effect first became evident after 2 min residency, and was maximal after 15 min, but absent 15 min after shelter removal. The residency effect was abolished following non-selective depletion of biogenic amines from the central nervous system using reserpine, or semi-selective depletion of octopamine and dopamine using ?-methyl-tyrosine, but not following serotonin depletion using ?-methyl-tryptophan. The residency effect was also abolished by the treatment with phentolamine, an ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist, or epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, or by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker. We conclude that crickets evaluate residency as a rewarding experience that promotes aggressive motivation via a mechanism involving octopamine, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline.

Rillich, Jan; Schildberger, Klaus; Stevenson, Paul A.

2011-01-01

451

The Functions of Aggression by Male Teenagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selectionist theory states that violence by males toward male peers originally served specific functions and violence to female peers served others. Differences in self-reported victimization and perpetration in studies of 1,452 high school students were hypothesized. In Study 1, male-to-male aggression was reported to be more prevalent than male-to-female aggression. For male-to-male aggression, perpetrator reports agreed with or exceeded

N. Zoe Hilton; Grant T. Harris; Marnie E. Rice

2000-01-01

452

Aggressive behavior model in schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the optimal model for explaining the aggressive behavior of schizophrenic patients in relation to certain behavioral variables including anger, schizophrenic symptoms, and cognitive function. Schizophrenic patients were evaluated with the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) for aggressive behaviors, with irritability and resentment; with the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) for anger; with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Grooved Pegboard Test for cognitive function; and with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenic symptoms. The structural equation model (SEM) in AMOS 7 for the score of "aggressive behavior in the last week" in the MOAS, was used for statistical analysis. For the SEM, two factors (irritability and resentment) were selected from the BDHI and constituted the anger construct. Through factor analysis, two factors (executive function and motor function) were selected from the cognitive function measurements to constitute the cognitive function construct. Two factors (positive and negative symptoms) in the PANSS constituted the symptom construct. The best model for aggressive behavior (MOAS) with three constructs revealed a direct, significant path of "anger emotion to aggressive behavior". This result suggests that the aggressive behavior of schizophrenic patients is directly related to anger. Schizophrenic symptoms and cognitive function were indirectly related to aggressive behavior through the relationship between the emotion of anger and aggressive behavior. PMID:19359046

Song, Hyunjoo; Min, Sung Kil

2009-04-08

453

Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.  

PubMed

Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

Cardwell, Michael Steven

2013-09-01

454

Urocortin 2 modulates aspects of social behaviour in mice.  

PubMed

Urocortin 2 (UCN2), a member of the corticotropin-releasing hormone family, is involved in the regulation of stress-related behaviours in rodents. To determine its physiological function we generated mice lacking UCN2 by applying a classical knockout strategy. We examined hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, anxiety- and depression-related behaviours without finding significant differences between mutant and wild-type littermates. Investigating social abilities we observed, that male, but not female, UCN2 knockout animals showed an altered social behaviour. Here we report that male UCN2 null mice showed more passive social interactions and reduced aggressiveness in comparison to wild-type animals. In conclusion, UCN2 seems to modulate aggressive behaviour in male mice. Furthermore, our findings provide additional evidence for previously reported sex-specific effects of UCN2. PMID:22640813

Breu, Johannes; Touma, Chadi; Hölter, Sabine M; Knapman, Alana; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M

2012-05-26

455

Aggressive Problem-Solving Strategies, Aggressive Behavior, and Social Acceptance in Early and Late Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relations between aggressive problem-solving strategies and aggressive behavior, and the intervening role of social acceptance in that relation in early and late adolescence. The subjects were 1655 11- and 17-year-old adolescents (863 girls and 792 boys). They completed a questionnaire measuring aggressive problem-solving strategies, while assessments of aggressive behavior and social acceptance were obtained by peer

Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

2002-01-01

456

Handball and Aggression: An investigation of adolescent handball players’ perceptions of aggressive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated different forms of aggression in a cross-sectional study of 14- to 16-year-old male handball players in Norway. Players responded to an inventory measuring an aggressive winning strategy (Instrumental Aggres-sion) containing items like: “I often play aggressively to win the game” as well as personal dispositions to act with anger caused by a frustrating or aversive event (Reactive

Tor Stornes; Erling Roland

2004-01-01

457

Automatic Effects of Alcohol and Aggressive Cues on Aggressive Thoughts and Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have shown that alcohol increases aggression. In this article it is proposed that the link between alcohol and aggression is so strong that mere exposure to alcohol-related cues will automatically activate aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Two experiments tested this automaticity theory of alcohol-related aggression. In Experiment 1, participants exposed to alcohol- or weapon-related primes made faster lexical decisions

Baptiste Subra; Dominique Muller; L. Begue; Brad J. Bushman; Florian Delmas

2010-01-01

458

Isolation Associated Aggression - A Consequence of Recovery from Defeat in a Territorial Animal  

PubMed Central

Population density has profound influences on the physiology and behaviour of many animal species. Social isolation is generally reported to lead to increased aggressiveness, while grouping lowers it. We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of isolation and grouping on aggression in a territorial insect, the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllusbimaculatus. Substantiating early observations, we show that dyadic contests between weight-matched, adult male crickets taken from groups rarely escalate beyond threat displays, whereas interactions between pairs of previously isolated crickets typically escalate to physical fights lasting several seconds. No significant differences were found between 1, 2 and 6-day isolates, or between individuals grouped for a few hours or lifelong. Unexpectedly, crickets grouped in immediate proximity within individual mesh cages that precluded fighting while permitting visual, olfactory and mechanical, antennal contact, were as aggressive as free isolates. This suggests that reduced aggression of grouped animals may be an acquired result of fighting. Supporting this notion, isolated crickets initially engage in vigorous fights when first grouped, but fighting intensity and duration rapidly decline to the level of life-long grouped crickets within only 10 min. Furthermore, grouped crickets become as aggressive as life-long isolates after only 3 hours of isolation, and on the same time course required for crickets to regain their aggressiveness after social defeat. We conclude that the reduced aggressiveness of grouped crickets is a manifestation of the loser effect resulting from social subjugation, while isolation allows recovery to a state of heightened aggressiveness, which in crickets can be considered as the default condition. Given the widespread occurrence of the loser effect in the Animal Kingdom, many effects generally attributed to social isolation are likely to be a consequence of recovery from social subjugation.

Stevenson, Paul A.; Rillich, Jan

2013-01-01

459

Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

2012-01-01

460

Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a

Barbara Krahé; Ingrid Möller; L. Rowell Huesmann; Lucyna Kirwil; Juliane Felber; Anja Berger

2011-01-01

461

Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

1995-01-01

462

Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

2011-01-01

463

Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

1995-01-01

464

Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.  

PubMed

Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near future represent a low-cost, noninvasive tool to assess the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:21796377

Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

2011-07-28

465

Determinants of seclusion after aggression in psychiatric inpatients.  

PubMed

Some aggressive incidents in psychiatric wards result in seclusion, whereas others do not. We used the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised and the mental health trust's database to identify determinants that predicted seclusion after aggression. These consisted of demographic, diagnostic, contextual, and aggression characteristics and were analyzed in a multilevel logistic regression. This showed associations between seclusion and aggression for the following: younger age, involuntary status, history of previous aggression, physical or dangerous violence, aggression being directed against objects, and a more severe incident. Thus, seclusion after aggression appears to be mainly predicted by aggression itself. PMID:22835750

Vruwink, Fleur J; Noorthoorn, Eric O; Nijman, Henk L I; Vandernagel, Joanneke E L; Hox, Joop J; Mulder, Cornelis L

2012-01-12

466

Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behaviour: a critical review  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To establish the link between frontal lobe dysfunction and violent and criminal behaviour, based on a review of relevant literature.?METHODS—Articles relating evidence of frontal lobe dysfunction with violence or crime were collected through a MEDLINE search using the keyword "frontal lobe" combined with the terms "aggression," "violence," "crime," "antisocial personality disorder," "psychopathy," "impulse control disorders", and "episodic dyscontrol." Reference lists were then searched for additional articles.?RESULTS—High rates of neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported in persons with violent and criminal behaviour suggest an association between aggressive dyscontrol and brain injury, especially involving the frontal lobes. The studies reviewed support an association between frontal lobe dysfunction and increased aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Focal orbitofrontal injury is specifically associated with increased aggression. Deficits in frontal executive function may increase the likelihood of future aggression, but no study has reliably demonstrated a characteristic pattern of frontal network dysfunction predictive of violent crime.?CONCLUSIONS—Clinically significant focal frontal lobe dysfunction is associated with aggressive dyscontrol, but the increased risk of violence seems less than is widely presumed. Evidence is strongest for an association between focal prefrontal damage and an impulsive subtype of aggressive behaviour.??

Brower, M; Price, B

2001-01-01

467

Children's Moral Reasoning regarding Physical and Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school children's moral reasoning concerning physical and relational aggression was explored. Fourth and fifth graders rated physical aggression as more wrong and harmful than relational aggression but tended to adopt a moral orientation about both forms of aggression. Gender differences in moral judgments of aggression were observed,…

Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Galotti, Kathleen M.

2006-01-01

468

Children's Moral Reasoning regarding Physical and Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Elementary school children's moral reasoning concerning physical and relational aggression was explored. Fourth and fifth graders rated physical aggression as more wrong and harmful than relational aggression but tended to adopt a moral orientation about both forms of aggression. Gender differences in moral judgments of aggression were observed,…

Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Galotti, Kathleen M.

2006-01-01

469

Playground Contexts for Aggression for Preschoolers with Hyperactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the naturalistic conditions that set the occasion for aggressive behavior in three preschoolers with hyperactivity and aggression (H\\/A). Peer and teacher responses to preschoolers' aggression were also investigated. For a total of 114 aggressive instances observed, relatively low percentages of aggression in social play with at least one other child were documented. The antecedent condition that was

Melissa Stormont; Sandra Beyda; Teresa Javorsky; Phillip Belfiore

2000-01-01

470

Attitudes and Dating Aggression: A Cognitive Dissonance Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between attitudes about dating aggression and select dating aggressive behaviors (verbal aggression and jealous behavior) in high school students. Our hypothesis, derived from cognitive dissonance theory, was that discrepancies between self-reported attitudes and aggressive behavior at Time 1 (i.e., putative cognitive dissonance) would predict decreases in aggression between Time 1 and Time 2 beyond what

Julie A. Schumacher; Amy M. Smith Slep

2004-01-01

471

Lorenz Was Right! Or Does Aggressive Energy Accumulate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence supporting the fact that innate mechanisms of regulation of aggressive behavior as a result of a repeated experience of aggression ending in victories are transformed into pathological mechanisms based on accumulation of neurochemical shifts in the brain, enhancing aggressiveness, and forming aggressive motivation in aggressive winners. This confirms the concept by Lorenz on the existence of a mechanism (but

N. N. Kudryavtseva

2004-01-01

472

Direct and Indirect Aggression on Prime-Time Network Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of 3 types of aggression on prime-time television during the spring of 2005. Verbal aggression was found to be the most prevalent, followed by indirect and physical. Physical aggression appeared more frequently among Caucasians and males. Female characters were more involved in indirect aggression, while verbal aggression was sex neutral. In general, minority racial and

Jack Glascock

2008-01-01

473

Environment Contributors to Aggression in Two Forensic Psychiatric Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies examining aggression in psychiatric hospitals have focused primarily on the clinical and demographic characteristics of aggressive inpatients. Contextual contributors to aggression, while often acknowledged, have less often been the focus of research. This study considered the effects of aspects of physical environment on aggression. The opportunity to examine these environmental contributors to inpatient aggression arose from the closure of

Michael Daffern; Maggie M. Mayer; Trish Martin

2004-01-01

474

Neuropharmacology of brain-stimulation-evoked aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is reviewed concerning the brain areas and neurotransmitters involved in aggressive behavior in the cat and rodent. In the cat, two distinct neural circuits involving the hypothalamus and PAG subserve two different kinds of aggression: defensive rage and predatory (quiet-biting) attack. The roles played by the neurotransmitters serotonin, GABA, glutamate, opioids, cholecystokinin, substance P, norepinephrine, dopamine, and acetylcholine in

Allan Siegel; Thomas A. P. Roeling; Thomas R Gregg; Menno R Kruk

1999-01-01

475

Digital Aggression: Cyberworld Meets School Bullies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyberbullying is a category of bullying that occurs in the digital realm and affects students at astonishing rates. Unlike traditional bullying, in which displays of aggression may be evident to bystanders, the ramification of cyberbullying occurs through unconventional strategies (e.g., text messaging, online Web logs, video sharing). As a result, episodes of digital aggression may be camouflaged by the advancement

Mickie Wong-Lo; Lyndal M. Bullock

2011-01-01

476

Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

2013-01-01

477

WEAPONS AS AGGRESSION-ELICITING STIMULI  

Microsoft Academic Search

TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STIMULI COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH AGGRESSION CAN ELICIT AGGRESSIIVE RESPONSES FROM PEOPLE READY TO ACT AGGRESSIVELY. 100 MALE UNIVERSITY SS RECEIVED EITHER 1 OR 7 SHOCKS, SUPPOSEDLY FROM A PEER, AND WERE THEN GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOCK THIS PERSON. IN SOME CASES A RIFLE AND REVOLVER WERE NEAR THE SHOCK KEY. THESE WEAPONS WERE SAID TO

LEONARD BERKOWITZ; ANTHONY LEPAGE

1967-01-01

478

Pathways to Aggression in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited victim-aggressor pattern is hypothesized in which children who

MALCOLM W. WATSON; KURT W. FISCHER; JASMINA BURDZOVIC ANDREAS; KEVIN W. SMITH

479

The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

Brock, Barbara L.

2010-01-01

480

Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

2010-01-01

481

Anger rumination: an antecedent of athlete aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anger rumination (the propensity to think almost obsessively over past experiences that have provoked negative affect in the form of anger) and athlete aggression. It was predicted that high levels of anger rumination would be associated with an increased propensity to aggress.Method. A questionnaire comprising the Anger Rumination

J. P Maxwell

2004-01-01

482

Novel mechanisms for neuroendocrine regulation of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1849, Berthold demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for aggressive behavior in roosters. Since then, research on the neuroendocrinology of aggression has been dominated by the paradigm that the brain receives gonadal hormones, primarily testosterone, which modulate relevant neural circuits. While this paradigm has been extremely useful, recent studies reveal important alternatives. For example, most vertebrate species are seasonal

Kiran K. Soma; Melissa-Ann L. Scotti; Amy E. M. Newman; Thierry D. Charlier; Gregory E. Demas

2008-01-01

483

Cartoon violence and aggression in youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript reviews the literature concerning the effects of animated violence on aggressive behavior in youth. It begins with an overview of the research on children's and adolescents' perceptions of violence in cartoons. Next, the effects of cartoon violence on aggressive behavior across development are reviewed. In each section, the importance of the presence (or absence) of comedic elements in

Steven J. Kirsh

2006-01-01

484

Pathways to Aggression in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited…

Watson, Malcolm W.; Fischer, Kurt W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Smith, Kevin W.

2004-01-0