Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.
Aggressive victims--children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression--experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim…
Burk, Linnea R; Park, Jong-hyo; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Goldsmith, H Hill; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Essex, Marilyn J
This prospective investigation sought to discriminate children who were both aggressive towards and victimized by peers in the first grade, from those who were only aggressive, only victimized, or neither (i.e., socially adjusted), using early child and family risk factors. Two hundred thirty-eight children, their mothers, and teachers participated in a longitudinal study since birth. All three aggressor/victim subgroups showed greater temperamental dysregulation than the socially adjusted children, but only aggressive victims had significantly poorer social perception skills. Aggressive victims were distinguished from aggressors by greater exposure to maternal depression and from victims by lower levels of early inhibition, but they shared the experiences of negative family emotional expressiveness with aggressors and greater mother-child negativity with victims. The identification of early risk factors is crucial to prevention and early intervention efforts that have the potential to attenuate the long term emotional, social, and academic problems associated with aggressive victim status. PMID:18092191
Burk, Linnea R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J
Aggressive victims-children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression-experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim subgroups have focused on preadolescents and/or adolescents. Further, whether children who exhibit early and persistent patterns of aggression and victimization continue to experience greater mental health problems and functional impairments through the transition to adolescence is not known. This study followed 344 children (180 girls) previously identified as socially adjusted, victims, aggressors, or aggressive victims at Grade 1 (Burk et al. 2008) to investigate their involvement in peer bullying through Grade 5. The children, their mothers, and teachers reported on children's involvement in peer aggression and victimization at Grades 1, 3, and 5; and reported on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, inattention and impulsivity, as well as academic functioning, physical health, and service use at Grades 5, 7, and 9. Most children categorized as aggressive victims in Grade 1 continued to be significantly involved in peer bullying across elementary school. Children with recurrent aggressive victim status exhibited higher levels of some mental health problems and greater school impairments across the adolescent transition when compared to other longitudinal peer status groups. This study suggests screening for aggressive victim status at Grade 1 is potentially beneficial. Further early interventions may need to be carefully tailored to prevent and/or attenuate later psychological, academic, and physical health problems. PMID:20811772
Arnocky, Steven; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Adolescent peer-aggression has recently been considered from the evolutionary perspective of intrasexual competition for mates. We tested the hypothesis that peer-nominated physical aggression, indirect aggression, along with self-reported bullying behaviors at Time 1 would predict Time 2 dating status (one year later), and that Time 1 peer- and self-reported peer victimization would negatively predict Time 2 dating status. Participants were 310 adolescents who were in grades 6 through 9 (ages 11-14) at Time 1. Results showed that for both boys and girls, peer-nominated indirect aggression was predictive of dating one year later even when controlling for age, peer-rated attractiveness, and peer-perceived popularity, as well as initial dating status. For both sexes, self-reported peer victimization was negatively related to having a dating partner at Time 2. Findings are discussed within the framework of intrasexual competition. PMID:22947638
Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Garandeau, Claire F.; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study investigated the independent and interacting effects of classroom-level embeddedness (i.e., hierarchical vs. egalitarian) and classroom density on the perceived popularity and social preference of aggressive and victimized 3rd-4th grade students (N = 881). A cohesive blocking procedure was used to compute embeddedness. Multilevel…
Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey
Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.
Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Hart, Craig H.; Albano, Anthony D.; Marshall, Shawna J.
Little is known about the behavior of preschool children belonging to peer sociometric status groups (popular, average, rejected, neglected, and controversial) in cultural contexts outside North America. This study examined the social interactions of Italian preschoolers. The sample consisted of 266 Italian preschoolers (mean age of 64 months).…
Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy
For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…
Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.
Studied early family experiences of boys who later emerged as both aggressive and bullied during middle childhood. Found that aggressive victims had experienced more punitive, hostile, and abusive family treatment than others. Nonvictimized aggressors had greater exposure to adult aggression, but not victimization, than the normative group,…
Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire
Several research studies have reported an elevated level of aggression in rapes committed by multiple perpetrators compared to rapes committed by lone suspects. Several factors that have been linked to elevated aggression in generic samples of rape were examined for the first time with a sample of multiple perpetrator rapes. Factors that might be associated with victim resistance were also investigated. Victim and offender characteristics, as well as the behaviors displayed by victims and offenders, were extracted from the police files of 89 multiple perpetrator stranger rapes perpetrated against female victims in the United Kingdom. These behaviors were rated for their level of suspect (non-sexual) aggression and victim resistance, respectively. Degree of victim resistance was significantly and positively associated with suspect aggression. Older victims were the recipients of significantly higher levels of suspect aggression. Victims who were incapacitated from drugs and/or alcohol were less likely to be the recipients of suspect aggression. Group leaders displayed more aggression towards the victim than the followers in the groups. The number of perpetrators was significantly related to the degree of resistance displayed by the victim with offences perpetrated by fewer suspects being characterized by more victim resistance. Research regarding cognitive appraisal during criminal interactions and the respective roles of offenders is referred to in considering these relationships. PMID:23740469
Kliewer, Wendy; Dibble, Ashley E; Goodman, Kimberly L; Sullivan, Terri N
This study examined physiological correlates (cortisol and α-amylase [AA]) of peer victimization and aggression in a sample of 228 adolescents (45% male, 55% female; 90% African American; M age = 14 years, SD = 1.6 years) who participated in a longitudinal study of stress, physiology, and adjustment. Adolescents were classified into victimization/aggression groups based on patterns with three waves of data. At Wave 3, youth completed the Social Competence Interview (SCI), and four saliva samples were collected prior to, during, and following the SCI. Repeated-measures analyses of variance with victimization/aggression group as the predictor, and physiological measures as outcomes, controlling for time of day, pubertal status, and medication use revealed significant Group × SCI Phase interactions for salivary AA (sAA), but not for cortisol. The results did not differ by sex. For analyses with physical victimization/aggression, aggressive and nonaggressive victims showed increases in sAA during the SCI, nonvictimized aggressors showed a decrease, and the normative contrast group did not show any change. For analyses with relational victimization/aggression, nonaggressive victims were the only group who demonstrated sAA reactivity. Incorporating physiological measures into peer victimization studies may give researchers and clinicians insight into youth's behavior regulation, and help shape prevention or intervention efforts. PMID:22559136
Kennedy, Elizabeth; Perry, David G.
The goal of this study was to investigate the social-cognitive functioning of aggressive and victimized elementary school children. A total of 149 fourth- through seventh-graders responded to a peer nomination inventory designed to assess children's tendencies toward aggression and victimization. Self-report questionnaires were then administered…
Gomes, Melissa M.
Purpose. Relational aggression, rumor spreading, backstabbing, and social isolation, is psychologically damaging for adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to provide an explanation of victimization response after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization. Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization was generated. Girls voiced feelings of hurt and anger after the experience and expressed the following ways of coping as a result: distancing from others, retaliation against the aggressor, discussing their feelings with friends and family, writing their feelings down, and/or confronting the aggressor. Clinical Implications. Nurses should be aware of the phenomenon and asses, for incidences of relational aggression victimization so that they may provide strategies to assist the adolescent and her family with positive coping mechanisms in order to prevent maladaptive responses. PMID:21994828
Shao, Aihui; Liang, Lichan; Yuan, Chunyong; Bian, Yufang
This study used the latent class analysis (LCA) to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1) Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2) There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3) Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionaires. (4) As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children. PMID:24740096
van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert
Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…
Swan, Suzanne C; Gambone, Laura J; Van Horn, M Lee; Snow, David L; Sullivan, Tami P
Theories and measures of women's aggression in intimate relationships are only beginning to be developed. This study provides a first step in conceptualizing the measurement of women's aggression by examining how well three widely used measures (i.e., the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS), the Sexual Experiences Survey [SES], and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory [PMWI]) perform in assessing women's perpetration of and victimization by aggression in their intimate relationships with men. These constructs were examined in a diverse sample of 412 African American, Latina, and White women who had all recently used physical aggression against a male intimate partner. The factor structures and psychometric properties of perpetration and victimization models using these measures were compared. Results indicate that the factor structure of women's perpetration differs from that of women's victimization in theoretically meaningful ways. In the victimization model, all factors performed well in contributing to the measurement of the latent victimization construct. In contrast, the perpetration model performed well in assessing women's physical and psychological aggression but performed poorly in assessing women's sexual aggression, coercive control, and jealous monitoring. Findings suggest that the power and control model of intimate partner violence (IPV) may apply well to women's victimization but not as well to their perpetration of violence. PMID:23012348
Ostrov, Jamie M; Godleski, Stephanie A
A secondary analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was conducted to test the mechanisms by which relational aggression in third grade was associated both directly and indirectly with relational victimization in sixth grade. A large sample (N = 1,035; 522 girls; M = 8.3 years old; SD = 0.23) and multiple informants (teacher, child, and parent report) and methods were used to test several theoretically driven hypotheses. Our path analysis model suggested evidence for both direct and indirect pathways consistent with the sequential social process model of peer harassment. Relational aggression was significantly associated with future relational victimization even after controlling for physical aggression and gender. Loneliness mediated the direct association between relational aggression and peer victimization. A second model testing the reverse direction of effect revealed that relational victimization in third grade predicted relational aggression in sixth grade and was associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms in fifth grade, but there was no evidence for any of the indirect pathways. PMID:23880393
Klipfel, Katherine M; Claxton, Shannon E; van Dulmen, Manfred H M
The frequent occurrence of aggression within committed romantic relationships is well documented. However, little is known about experiences of interpersonal aggression within casual sexual relationships and experiences. This study aimed to describe the occurrence of emotional, physical, and sexual aggression victimization within committed romantic relationships, casual dating relationships, friends-with-benefit relationships, booty-calls, and one-night stands. College students (N = 172) provided data regarding the lifetime occurrence of emotional, physical, and sexual aggression across different forms of casual sexual relationships and experiences (friends-with-benefits, booty-call, casual dating, one-night stands, committed relationships). Emotional, physical, and sexual subtypes of aggression were reported across all casual sexual relationships and experiences. While a higher percentage of individuals who had been involved in committed relationships reported experiencing at least one form of aggression (approximately 69%), prevalence of at least one form of aggression ranged from approximately 31% to 36% for the various casual sexual relationships/experiences. Across relationships/experiences, emotional and sexual aggression were more common than physical aggression. The findings from this study indicate that emotional, physical, and sexual aggression occur across types of relationships and experiences. Thus, the current study underscores the importance of considering casual dating, friends-with-benefits, booty-calls, and one-night stands when assessing interpersonal aggression. PMID:24176987
Alexander, E. Carlene; And Others
Examines self-reported histories of victimization among two groups of men. Violence, provocation, hostility, and aggression inventories were administered to a prosocial group of firefighters and an antisocial group of incarcerated felons. Fourteen of the 15 possible behavioral-abuse correlations were significant when both groups were considered…
Lam, Bess Y H; Raine, Adrian; Lee, Tatia M C
Prior longitudinal studies have established the relationship between schizophrenia and violence. However, previous studies on aggression and schizotypal personality are scarce. The present study examines whether peer victimization mediates the relationship between schizotypy and reactive-proactive aggression, and whether theory of mind (ToM) moderates this mediation. Schizotypy, peer victimization, reactive-proactive aggression, and ToM were assessed in 237 undergraduates. Peer victimization mediated the relationship between schizotypy and reactive aggression. ToM moderated this mediation effect; although peer victimization partially explains the schizotypy–aggression relationship, higher ToM skills weakened the detrimental effect of schizotypy on peer victimization which in turn reduces reactive aggression. In contrast, the moderated mediation was not significant for the proactive aggression model. Findings help delineate the underlying mechanism of the relationship between schizotypy and aggression. It is suggested that aggression could be reduced by enhancing ToM skills, thereby reducing peer victimization and the resultant schizotypy. PMID:27336052
Lam, Bess Y H; Raine, Adrian; Lee, Tatia M C
Prior longitudinal studies have established the relationship between schizophrenia and violence. However, previous studies on aggression and schizotypal personality are scarce. The present study examines whether peer victimization mediates the relationship between schizotypy and reactive-proactive aggression, and whether theory of mind (ToM) moderates this mediation. Schizotypy, peer victimization, reactive-proactive aggression, and ToM were assessed in 237 undergraduates. Peer victimization mediated the relationship between schizotypy and reactive aggression. ToM moderated this mediation effect; although peer victimization partially explains the schizotypy-aggression relationship, higher ToM skills weakened the detrimental effect of schizotypy on peer victimization which in turn reduces reactive aggression. In contrast, the moderated mediation was not significant for the proactive aggression model. Findings help delineate the underlying mechanism of the relationship between schizotypy and aggression. It is suggested that aggression could be reduced by enhancing ToM skills, thereby reducing peer victimization and the resultant schizotypy. PMID:27336052
Graham, Sandra; Bellmore, Amy D.; Mize, Jennifer
An ethnically diverse sample of 6th-grade students completed peer nomination procedures that were used to create subgroups of students with reputations as victims, aggressors, aggressive victims, and socially adjusted (neither aggressive nor victimized). Self-report data on psychological adjustment, attributions for peer harassment, and perceived…
Toblin, R.L.; Schwartz, D.; Hopmeyer Gorman, A.; Abou-ezzeddine, T.
This study examined the social-cognitive and behavioral attributes of children who are concurrently aggressive and victimized by their peers. The characteristics of these ''aggressive victims'' were examined in comparison to bullies, passive victims, and normative comparison children. The sample included 240 urban Los Angeles elementary school…
Hershcovis, M. Sandy; Barling, Julian
In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in…
Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C; Baucom, Brian R; Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L
Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and whether attitudes justifying aggression strengthen those associations. College student participants (N = 378, 32% males) self-selected into an online study in which they reported on 2 days of alcohol/drug use and on aggression perpetration and victimization (including physical, psychological and electronic aggression, and sexual coercion) with friends and dating partners. Using regression to test for nonequivalence of predictor and outcome variables, we found bidirectional effects for males only. Males' substance use was associated with an increased likelihood on the same day of aggression perpetration and of aggression victimization; males' aggression perpetration and aggression victimization were associated with an increased likelihood of substance use on the same day. Females did not show significant contingencies between substance use and aggression in either direction. Males' attitudes justifying male-to-female aggression were associated with their aggression perpetration and victimization and their justification of female-to-male aggression strengthened the link between substance use and aggression perpetration. With interpersonal aggression and substance use being significant problems on college campuses, many colleges offer separate preventive intervention programs aimed at these public health challenges; this study suggests possible benefits of an integrated approach that addresses connections between alcohol/drug use and aggression. PMID:23697863
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…
Yarkovsky, Nicole; Timmons Fritz, Patti A
The present study examined relations between attachment style, age at first sexual intercourse, and dating aggression (DA) victimization. In all, 137 heterosexual female undergraduate students 18 to 25 years of age (M = 20.76, SD = 1.87) completed an online questionnaire that included questions regarding sexual history, attachment style (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale), and DA (Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory). Initial bivariate correlations revealed that women reported higher rates of DA victimization if they were more anxiously attached (r = .30, p = .000), had an earlier age at vaginal sexual debut (r = -.19, p = .015), and had an earlier age at oral sexual debut (r = -.15, p = .046); however, when entered into a predictive multivariate model, neither the addition of anxious attachment nor an early age at sexual debut accounted for a significant amount of variance above and beyond control variables. Although we were unable to affirm anxious attachment and an early age at first intercourse as risk factors for DA victimization, posthoc analyses emphasized the need to control for social desirability when gathering information on sensitive topics in clinical and research settings. PMID:24106148
Siddique, Julie A
By now, age and marital status are well-established correlates of criminal victimization, including adult women's sexual victimization. National crime statistics, as well as a large body of scholarly literature, have specified that younger women and unmarried women are at comparatively higher risk of sexual victimization than older women and married women. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across diverse situational contexts of sexual victimization. The current study used data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine whether the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of sexual victimization varied across victimization experiences involving three victim-offender relationships: stranger, acquaintance, and intimate partner. Results indicate both similarities and differences in the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across these three situational contexts of victimization. As expected, age was a significant predictor of victimization in all models; however, younger women's increased risk of victimization was far more pronounced for acquaintance and intimate partner victimization experiences as compared with stranger experiences. Also, consistent with prior research, unmarried women were at higher risk of victimization in all models; however, within unmarried status categories, separated women were at highest risk of both intimate partner and acquaintance victimization experiences as compared with never married or divorced women. PMID:25846759
Yeung Shi Chung, Valerie; McGuire, Jonathan; Langdon, Robyn
A large body of literature suggests that schizophrenia and nonclinical schizotypal personality traits, or "schizotypy," are associated with increased aggression. However, recent studies focused on school-aged Asian samples have examined the relationship between schizotypal personality and 2 distinct forms of aggression: reactive and proactive aggression. This study aimed to investigate whether schizotypal personality traits would be associated more strongly with reactive, compared with proactive, aggression in an adult Western sample and whether victimization experiences mediated the schizotypy-reactive aggression relation. One hundred twenty-one Australian university undergraduates completed self-report inventories measuring levels of schizotypal personality, reactive and proactive aggression, and victimization. Results showed that, as hypothesized, schizotypal personality traits were more strongly associated with reactive than proactive aggression and that victimization experiences mediated the schizotypy-reactive aggression relationship. While acknowledging the limitations of nonclinical schizotypy research, the findings are discussed with regard to possible implications for the treatment of aggression in schizophrenia. PMID:26785057
Modecki, Kathryn L.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Vernon, Lynnette
Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of…
Elsaesser, Caitlin; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David
Research conducted over the last decade has documented both the high rates of and serious consequences associated with both victimization and perpetration of relational aggression. This study examines risk for involvement in relational aggression and victimization among middle school youth, evaluating both individual beliefs about violence, as…
Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Kopp, Jessica
This investigation examines the extent to which characteristics of the teacher-child relationship (closeness, dependency, and conflict) are predictive of changes in children's peer victimization and aggressive behavior over the course of a school year. Relational and physical forms of victimization and aggression were studied, and changes in peer…
Williford, Anne Powell; Brisson, Daniel; Bender, Kimberly A.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.; Forrest-Bank, Shandra
The developmental period characterized by the transition from childhood and elementary school to early adolescence and middle school has been associated with increases in aggressive behavior and peer victimization. Few longitudinal studies, however, have examined the stability of aggression and victimization during this critical transition. This…
Swan, Suzanne C.; Gambone, Laura J.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Snow, David L.; Sullivan, Tami P.
Theories and measures of women’s aggression in intimate relationships are only beginning to be developed. This study provides a first step in conceptualizing the measurement of women’s aggression by examining how well three widely used measures perform in assessing women’s perpetration of and victimization by aggression in their intimate relationships with men (i.e., the Conflict Tactics Scales 2; Straus, Hamby, & Warren, 2003, the Sexual Experiences Survey; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987, and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory; Tolman, 1999). These constructs were examined in a diverse sample of 412 African American, Latina, and White women who had all recently used physical aggression against a male intimate partner. The factor structures and psychometric properties of perpetration and victimization models using these measures were compared. Results indicate that the factor structure of women’s perpetration differs from that of women’s victimization in theoretically meaningful ways. In the victimization model, all factors performed well in contributing to the measurement of the latent victimization construct. In contrast, the perpetration model performed well in assessing women’s physical and psychological aggression, but performed poorly in assessing women’s sexual aggression, coercive control, and jealous monitoring. Findings suggest that the power and control model of intimate partner violence may apply well to women’s victimization, but not as well to their perpetration. PMID:23012348
Bettencourt, Amie; Farrell, Albert; Liu, Weiwei; Sullivan, Terri
This study identified classes of adolescents who differed in their patterns of reported aggression and victimization, examined the stability of these patterns, and explored factors associated with changes in patterns across time. Participants were 477 students from an urban and an adjoining county school system. The overall sample was 48% male and had an average age of 11.3 years. The urban sample was predominantly African American (80%); the county sample was primarily Caucasian (40%) and African American (38%). Self-report aggression and victimization measures completed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of seventh grade were analyzed using latent class analyses and latent transition analyses. Support was found for four classes: nonvictimized aggressors, aggressive-victims, predominantly victimized, and well-adjusted youth. Emotion dysregulation, anxiety, and site were associated with membership in the aggressive-victim class in the expected direction, providing support for the validity of the classes. The well-adjusted class was the most stable in class membership over time; the predominantly victimized class was the least stable. In addition, nonvictimized aggressors and predominantly victimized youth were more likely than those in the well-adjusted class to transition into the aggressive-victim class. These findings suggest notable stability in aggressor/victim classes over time and emphasize the importance of developing prevention programs that target the unique needs of distinct aggressor/victim classes in adolescence. PMID:23186101
Bettencourt, Amie F; Farrell, Albert D
Peer victimization is a common problem among adolescents that has been linked to a variety of adjustment problems. Youth involved in peer victimization represent a heterogeneous group who may differ not only in their levels of victimization and perpetration, but also in the factors that influence their behavior. The current study used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups of aggressive and victimized youth, and to examine social-cognitive and environmental factors that differ across these subgroups. Participants were a predominantly African-American (i.e., 68 %) sample of 502 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders (45 % male, Mean age = 12.6 years) attending three urban public middle schools, who completed self-report measures of aggression, victimization, and associated individual and contextual factors. LCA identified four classes of adolescents representing non-victimized aggressors, aggressive-victims, predominantly victimized youth, and well-adjusted youth. Class differences were found on measures of beliefs supporting fighting, beliefs against fighting, perceived effectiveness of inept nonviolent responses to conflict, behavioral intentions to engage in aggressive and nonviolent behavior, self-efficacy for nonviolent behavior, and peer and parental support for aggression and nonviolence. For example, within the two classes of victimized youth, aggressive-victims reported greater intentions to engage in physical aggression and inept nonviolent behavior, and were more likely to agree with beliefs supporting the use of instrumental and reactive aggression, and beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary compared to predominantly victimized youth. These findings emphasize the importance of developing preventive interventions that target the specific needs of distinct subgroups of adolescents. PMID:23160659
Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Baucom, Brian R.; Bennett, Diana C.; Guran, Elyse L.
Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and…
Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Flynn, Andrea; Tremblay, Paul F; Wells, Samantha
Research has shown a consistent link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and depression, although this association may vary by gender, role in IPV (victim, perpetrator, or bidirectional), and aggression severity. We evaluated these factors in a telephone survey of 14,063 Canadians. All three factors were found to affect the association of depression with IPV. Specifically, depression was more strongly associated with IPV by a partner (i.e., victimization) for women but with aggression toward a partner (i.e., perpetration) for men. Severity of aggression was associated with increased risk of depression for both one-sided and bidirectional aggression by a partner but more strongly for one-sided aggression toward a partner. These findings suggest that research, prevention, and treatment should focus on all roles in IPV, not just male-to-female aggression. PMID:23155723
Cooley, John L; Fite, Paula J
The current short-term longitudinal study evaluated whether anger and sadness regulation moderated the associations between peer victimization and physical and relational forms of aggression over a 6-month period. Participants included 278 predominantly Caucasian children (51.8% female) between 8 and 12 years of age (M = 9.33, SD = 0.99). Peer victimization was assessed at Time 1 using child- and teacher-reports, and teachers provided ratings of children's aggressive behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. Children also completed self-report measures of anger and sadness regulation at Time 1. Results from multilevel models provided support for the notion that children's ability to effectively regulate their feelings of anger and sadness influences the relations among peer victimization and forms of aggression over time. As anticipated, high levels of anger regulation attenuated the link between child-reported peer victimization and physical aggression. Further, when levels of anger regulation were high, teacher-reported peer victimization predicted subsequent decreases in physical aggression. Contrary to expectations, however, high levels of anger and sadness regulation exacerbated the association between child-reported peer victimization and relational aggression, and teacher-reported peer victimization predicted decreases in relational aggression over time when levels of anger regulation were low. Directions for future research and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:26168955
Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan
Using the general strain theory as a theoretical framework, the present longitudinal study investigated both face-to-face and cyber victimization in relation to cyber-displaced aggression. Longitudinal data were collected from 130 (70 women) young adults who completed measures assessing their victimization (face-to-face and cyber), cyber aggression, and both face-to-face and cyber-displaced aggression. Findings indicated that victimization in both social contexts (face-to-face and cyber) contributed to cyber-displaced aggression 6 months later (Time 2), after controlling for gender, cyber aggression, face-to-face displaced aggression, and cyber-displaced aggression at Time 1. A significant two-way interaction revealed that Time 1 cyber victimization was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber-displaced aggression when young adults had higher levels of face-to-face victimization at Time 1. Implications of these findings are discussed as well as a call for more research investigating displaced aggression in the cyber context. PMID:22974350
Orpinas, Pamela; McNicholas, Caroline; Nahapetyan, Lusine
Relational aggression refers to harming others through damaging or manipulating peer relationships. In a cohort of students surveyed annually from middle to high school, this study identified groups of adolescents who followed distinct trajectories of perpetration and of victimization of relational aggression, compared the proportion of boys and girls in each trajectory, and examined the overlap between perpetration and victimization trajectories. The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Students completed yearly surveys from Grade 6-12. We used group-based trajectory modeling to identify the trajectories. Adolescents followed three developmental trajectories of perpetration and three similar trajectories of victimization: Low (lowest aggression), Moderate, and High Declining (high in middle school, with a steep decline in high school). All trajectories declined from Grade 6-12. The largest groups were the Low perpetration (55%) and Low victimization (48%). Relational aggression trajectories differed by gender: more boys reported perpetration, and more girls reported victimization. For perpetration, slightly more boys than girls were classified in the two trajectories of higher aggression. For victimization, significantly fewer girls than boys were classified in the Low trajectory, and significantly more girls than boys were classified in the Moderate trajectory. There was substantial overlap of the perpetration and victimization trajectories. These findings highlight the importance of implementing programs to reduce relational aggression for boys and for girls. Aggr. Behav. 41:401-412, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26918429
Rothmund, Tobias; Gollwitzer, Mario; Klimmt, Christoph
Two experimental studies were used to investigate how interacting with aggressive virtual characters in video games affects trust and cooperation of players. Study 1 demonstrates that experiencing virtual aggression from a victim's perspective can impair players' investments in a subsequent common goods dilemma situation. This effect is mediated by reduced expectations of trust in the cooperativeness of interaction partners. In Study 2 the same effect was replicated by using a different cooperation task and by investigating the moderating role of justice sensitivity from a victim's perspective as a dispositional factor. Participants transferred less money to an unknown partner in a trust game after exposure to aggressive nonplayer characters in a video game. This effect was stronger for people high in victim sensitivity. Results of both studies can be interpreted in line with the sensitivity to mean intentions model and add to the body of research on violent media effects. PMID:21177877
Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
Using a genetically informed design based on 197 Monozygotic and Dizygotic twin pairs assessed in grade 4, this study examined 1) whether, in line with a gene-environment correlation (rGE), a genetic disposition for physical aggression or relational aggression puts children at risk of being victimized by their classmates, and 2) whether this rGE is moderated by classroom injunctive norm salience in regard to physical or relational aggression. Physical aggression and relational aggression, as well as injunctive classroom norm salience in regard to these behaviors, were measured via peer nominations. Peer victimization was measured via self-reports. Multi-Level Mixed modeling revealed that children with a genetic disposition for either aggressive behavior are at higher risk of being victimized by their peers only when classroom norms are unfavourable toward such behaviors. However, when classroom injunctive norms favor aggressive behaviors, a genetic disposition for physical or relational aggression may actually protect children against peer victimization. These results lend further support to the notion that bullying interventions must include the larger peer context instead of a sole focus on victims and bullies. PMID:25723009
Chan, Sherilynn F.; La Greca, Annette M.
Background: Adolescent substance use represents a significant public health concern. Growing research has linked peer victimization with substance use among youth; however, less attention has been devoted to the role of cyber victimization specifically, while controlling for peer aggression. Objective: This study examined the unique associations…
Farrell, Albert D; Mehari, Krista R; Kramer-Kuhn, Alison; Goncy, Elizabeth A
Relations among witnessing violence, victimization, and physical aggression were investigated within a high-risk sample of 1,156 sixth graders. Longitudinal, multilevel analyses were conducted on two waves of data from two cohorts of students in 37 schools from four communities. The sample was 65% male and 67% African American. Neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, witnessing violence, victimization, and physical aggression were strongly and positively correlated at the school level. Contrary to hypothesis, exposure to violence did not mediate the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage on changes in physical aggression. As expected, witnessing violence and physical aggression had bidirectional longitudinal effects on each other at the student level. In contrast, there were no cross-variable relations between changes in violent victimization and aggression over time. PMID:24410717
Leenaars, Lindsey; Lester, David
A study of 106 undergraduate students found that scores on measures of indirect aggression, both as aggressors and as victims, given to separate respondents, were associated with scores on measures of anger discomfort, silencing the self, and subscales of the Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory (1957). A second study, of 113 undergraduate…
Aceves, Mario J.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.
Prospective associations between violent victimization, the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship, and the subsequent onset of violent aggression were examined. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), participants were divided into violent and non-violent cohorts based on whether they had committed an act…
Barchia, Kirstin; Bussey, Kay
Despite wide recognition of the important role of student bystanders in influencing peer aggression in schools, little is currently known about what influences students to intervene in defense of peer aggression victims. This longitudinal study involving 1,167 primarily white adolescents (aged 12-15 years, 613 females) investigated the role of…
Lamarche, Veronique; Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Perusse, Daniel
This study examined (a) the predictive link between peer victimization and children's reactive and proactive aggression, and (b) the potential moderating effect of reciprocal friends' reactive and proactive aggression in this context. The study also examined whether these potential moderating effects of friends' characteristics were stronger with…
Ellis, Wendy E.; Zarbatany, Lynne
This study examined variation in friendship formation and friendship stability as a function of children's and their friends' victimization, overt aggression, and relational aggression. Participants were 605 pre- and early adolescents in fifth through eighth grades (M age = 12.05) assessed twice over a three-month period. Scores for stability and…
Russell, Brenda; Kraus, Shane W.; Ceccherini, Traci
This study investigated a rural sample of boys' and girls' (N = 205) perceptions of what behaviors constitute bullying and examined whether being a victim of aggression was predictive of perpetrating physical and relational aggression. Results indicated that predictors of perpetrating relational aggression included victimization of relational…
Bernards, Sharon; Graham, Kathryn
Some research suggests that the risk of physical aggression by an intimate partner is related to marital status, but this relationship may vary across cultures and by gender. In the present study, we systematically examine the relationship between marital status and physical partner aggression by gender across 19 countries. Logistic and multilevel regression confirmed previous findings of lower rates of physical aggression for legally married versus cohabiting and separated/divorced women and men across most, but notably, not all countries. Single status was associated with higher risk in some countries and lower in others reflecting possible cultural differences in risk for different marital statuses. For example, single women had significantly lower rates of victimization than did married women in India where violence against wives is often accepted. The variation in the cross-cultural findings highlights the importance of examining both men and women and considering the cultural context when interpreting the relationship between partner aggression and marital status. PMID:24039342
Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian
This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…
Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.
Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…
Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine Adams
The connections between early maltreatment and later aggression are well established in the literature, however gaps remain in our understanding of developmental processes. This study investigates the cascading life course linkages between victimization experiences from childhood through early adulthood and later aggressive behavior. The diverse, at-risk sample is of particular importance to child and adolescent specialists, as it represents highly vulnerable youth accessible through conventional school settings. In addition to direct pathways from proximal life periods, path analysis revealed significant indirect mediated pathways through which earlier life victimization contributes to aggressive behaviors in later life periods as well as revictimization. Multivariate regressions support theorized cumulative effects of multi-form victimization as well as distinct contributions of victimization domains (emotional, witnessing, physical, property, and sexual) in explaining aggressive behavior. Consistent with theorizing about the developmental impact of early maltreatment, results bolster the importance of interrupting pathways from victimization to revictimization and later aggression. Findings are evaluated in light of implications for early identification and prevention programming. PMID:26190900
Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L; Vernon, Lynette; Vernon, Lynnette
Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of known correlates of cyber-aggression: problem behavior, (low) self-esteem, and depressed mood, in a large and diverse sample of youth (N = 1,364; 54.6% female; 12-14 years old at T1). Findings demonstrate that developmental increases in problem behavior across grades 8-10 predict both cyber-perpetration and victimization in grade 11. Developmental decreases in self-esteem also predicted both grade 11 perpetration and victimization. Finally, early depressed mood predicted both perpetration and victimization later on, regardless of developmental change in depressed mood in the interim. Our results reveal a clear link between risky developmental trajectories across the early high school years and later cyber-aggression and imply that mitigating trajectories of risk early on may lead to decreases in cyber-aggression at a later date. PMID:23242509
Shin, Jung-Hee; Hong, Jun Sung; Yoon, Jina; Espelage, Dorothy L
The focus of this study was to examine whether interparental conflict, maternal parenting behaviors, and children's friendship quality varied as a function of peer aggression/victim subgroups among a sample of 227 elementary school children and their mothers in South Korea. Both self-report and peer-report data indicated that the majority of the students were uninvolved in peer aggression situations, and the number of participants in the subgroups (aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims) varied depending on the source of report. According to the self-report data, victims and aggressor-victims reported a higher level of maternal rejection than uninvolved youth. Aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims reported higher maternal neglect than uninvolved youth. The highest level of interparental conflict was reported by victims, followed by aggressors. Interestingly, no significant differences were found in positive functioning of friendship quality among the subgroups, although results indicated a significant difference among groups in negative friendship quality. PMID:24368677
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R
A three-wave longitudinal study among ethnically diverse preadolescents (N = 597 at Time 1, ages 9-11) was conducted to examine adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, victimization, and peer liking indexed by peer acceptance and friendships. A series of nested structural equation models tested the hypothesized links among these peer-domain factors. It was hypothesized that (1) relational aggression trails both adaptive and maladaptive processes, linking to more peer victimization and more peer liking, whereas physical aggression is maladaptive, resulting in more peer victimization and less peer liking; (2) physical and relational victimization is maladaptive, relating to more aggression and less peer liking; (3) peer liking may be the social context that promotes relational aggression (not physical aggression), whereas peer liking may protect against peer victimization, regardless of its type; and (4) peer liking mediates the link between forms of aggression and forms of peer victimization. Results showed that higher levels of peer liking predicted relative increases in relational aggression (not physical aggression), which in turn led to more peer liking. On the other hand, more peer liking was predictive of relative decreases in relational aggression and relational victimization in transition to the next grade (i.e., fifth grade). In addition, relational victimization predicted relative increases in relational aggression and relative decreases in peer liking. Similarly, physical aggression was consistently and concurrently associated more physical victimization and was marginally predictive of relative increases in physical victimization in transition to the next grade. More peer liking predicted relative decreases in physical victimization, which resulted in lower levels of peer liking. The directionality and magnitude of these paths did not differ between boys and girls. PMID:24318459
Catanzaro, Mary F.
This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…
Pouwels, J Loes; Cillessen, Antonius H N
Previous research suggests that the prevalence of aggression is high among low-income urban youth who have to cope with a number of psychological stressors. Less is known about the early development and consequences of aggression and peer victimization prior to adolescence in these contexts. This study examined the correlates, interplay, and consequences of aggression and victimization among children in a low-income urban context. Data were collected in the spring of grades 1, 2, and 3. The final sample included 333 children (59.5 % girls, M = 6.46 years). Each year, children completed sociometric and peer assessments in their classrooms. A cross-lagged panel model with extended effects showed that aggression was relatively stable over time, whereas victimization was less stable. Aggression and victimization became increasingly less correlated over time. Further, early victimization negatively predicted later aggression for boys, but positively for girls. Growth curve modeling showed that initial aggression and victimization were associated with initial behavioral and relational problems. Early aggression, but not victimization, predicted relative stable or increasing in behavioral and relational problems over time. The results underscore the importance of a developmental perspective on early childhood aggression and victimization in high-risk contexts, in order to understand their implications for adjustment in adolescence. PMID:23196376
Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan
Adolescents experience various forms of strain in their lives that may contribute jointly to their engagement in cyber aggression. However, little attention has been given to this idea. To address this gap in the literature, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of peer rejection on the relationship between cyber victimization at Time 1 (T1) and subsequent cyber aggression at Time 2 (T2; 6 months later) among 261 (150 girls) 6th, 7th, and 8th graders. Our findings indicated that both peer rejection and cyber victimization were related to T2 peer-nominated and self-reported cyber aggression, both relational and verbal, after controlling for gender and T1 cyber aggression. Furthermore, T1 cyber victimization was related more strongly to T2 peer-nominated and self-reported cyber aggression at higher levels of T1 peer rejection. These results extend previous findings regarding the relationship between peer rejection and face-to-face aggressive behaviors to the cyber context. In addition, our findings underscore the importance of utilizing multiple methods, such as peer-nomination and self-report, to assess cyber aggression in a school setting. PMID:23299177
Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine Adams
The connections between early maltreatment and later aggression are well established in the literature, however gaps remain in our understanding of developmental processes. This study investigates the cascading lifecourse linkages between victimization experiences from childhood through early adulthood andlater aggressive behavior. The diverse, at-risk sample is of particular importance to child and adolescent specialists, as it represents highly vulnerable youth accessible through conventional school settings. In addition to direct pathways from proximal life periods, path analysis revealed significant indirect mediated pathways through which earlier life victimizationcontributes to aggressive behaviors in later life periods as well as revictimization. Multivariateregressions support theorized cumulative effects of multi-form victimization as well as distinct contributions of victimization domains (emotional, witnessing, physical, property, and sexual) in explaining aggressive behavior.Consistent with theorizing about the developmental impact of early maltreatment, results bolster the importance of interrupting pathways from victimization to revictimization and later aggression. Findings are evaluated in light of implications for early identification and prevention programming. PMID:26190899
Reed, Mark D.; Greenwald, Jason Y.
Examined significance of survivor-victim relationship in understanding grief following sudden death bereavement by suicide or accident. Results showed that survivor-victim attachment was more important than survivor status (parent versus sibling/child) in explaining grief reactions. Compared to accident survivors, suicide survivors experienced…
Badaly, Daryaneh; Duong, Mylien T; Ross, Alexandra C; Schwartz, David
The perpetration and receipt of electronic aggression have largely been assessed with self-report questionnaires. Using a sample of 573 adolescents, the current study compared the psychometric properties of a peer-nomination measure of electronic aggression and victimization to the more widely used self-report approach. Estimates of the reliability, stability, and concordance of peer- and self-report assessments were adequate, mirroring those from research on aggressive exchanges in school. Analyses of validity and utility revealed that peer-nominations, compared to self-reports, provide overlapping and distinct information on adolescents' social, emotional, and academic adjustment. Overall, these findings provide evidence that peer-nominations are a reliable, valid, and useful means for measuring electronic aggression and victimization. Future work will benefit from their incorporation into multi-method assessments. PMID:26255245
Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Oberleitner, Lindsay M.S.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.
Forty substance using, male offenders of intimate partner violence completed measures of alcohol use and relationship status acceptance during a pretreatment screening session. They also completed a measure of verbal aggression after each month of a 12 week intervention program. Treatment length, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship status acceptance were used to assess the frequency of verbal aggression at each of the four assessment periods in a repeated measures ANCOVA. Main effects were detected for both alcohol and acceptance variables such that greater verbal aggression was observed among participants with a recent history of heavy episodic drinking and failure to accept the status of the relationship with their female victim. The interaction between time in treatment and relationship status acceptance was significant and showed that participants who accepted their relationship status reported low verbal aggression across measurement occasions while those who did not accept their relationship status reported high initial verbal aggression that decreased over treatment. PMID:23680991
Morrow, Michael T.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Rubin, Ronnie M.; McAuliffe, Meghan D.
The goal of the current study was to investigate whether peer rejection and peer victimization mediated the relation between children's aggressive behaviors and depressive symptoms. Participants were 533 fourth- and fifth-grade children (289 girls and 244 boys). Data on aggression and peer victimization were collected through teacher and peer…
Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.
The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…
As part of a longitudinal study of children's social development, this study explored preschool home environments of elementary school children who were persistently bullied and victimized by their peers. Subjects included approximately 200 children randomly sampled from predominantly lower and middle socioeconomic populations. One-fourth of the…
Berger, Joshua L; Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A
The authors recently developed a psychometrically valid measure of legal and administrative (LA) intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization (Hines, Douglas, & Berger, 2014). The current article explores the impact of actual and threatened LA aggression on the mental health of male physical IPV victims and their children. In the current study, a sample of 611 men who sought help after experiencing physical IPV from their female partners completed a survey assessing the types and extent of IPV that occurred in their relationship, including LA aggression, their own mental health outcomes, and the mental health of their oldest child. A series of OLS regressions indicated that after controlling for covariates, actual LA aggression was associated with more symptoms of PTSD and depression in male victims, and that both threatened and actual LA aggression were associated with higher levels of affective and oppositional defiant symptoms in the men's school age children. The current findings suggest that it is important to screen couples for the presence of LA aggression and male partners and their children should be referred for mental health treatment if LA aggression is occurring in the relationship. Aggr. Behav. 42:346-361, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26522849
Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Seguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel
This study investigated the relation between theory of mind and reactive and proactive aggression, respectively, as well as the moderating role of peer victimization in this context. The 574 participants were drawn from a longitudinal study of twins. Theory of mind was assessed before school entry, when participants were 5 years old. Reactive and…
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Low, Sabina K.; Jimerson, Shane R.
Existing scholarship suggests that classroom practices, teacher attitudes, and the broader school environment play a critical role in understanding the rates of student reports of aggression, bullying, and victimization as well as correlated behaviors. A more accurate understanding of the nature, origins, maintenance, and prevalence of bullying…
Wiens, Brenda A.; Haden, Sara C.; Dean, Kristin L.; Sivinski, Jennifer
Prior research has shown relations between peer victimization, aggression, and adolescent substance use. However, there is a need for further research in this area, especially among rural populations, as rural youth have high rates of substance use but less access to mental health resources in their communities. The present study examined…
Frey, Karin S.; Newman, Jodi Burrus; Onyewuenyi, Adaurennaya C.
Coders used real-time focal-child sampling methods to observe the playground behavior and victimization experiences of 600 third to sixth grade youth. Person-centered analyses yielded three profiles that specified aggressive function (reactive, proactive) and form (direct, indirect), and conformed to social-information-processing functional…
Velasquez, Ana Maria; Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Saldarriaga, Lina Maria; Lopez, Luz Stella; Bukowski, William M.
Contextual differences in the association between different forms of aggressive behavior and victimization were studied with a sample of 197 boys and 149 girls from mixed-sex schools and in 336 girls from all-girl schools (M = 10.21 years of age) in two cities in Colombia. Results showed that boys generally engage in more physical than relational…
Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.
This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer…
Wright, Michelle F.
The present study examined multiple sources of strain, particular cyber victimization, and perceived stress from parents, peers, and academics, in relation to late adolescents' (ages 16-18; N = 423) cyber aggression, anxiety, and depression, each assessed 1 year later (Time 2). Three-way interactions revealed that the relationship between Time 1…
Camodeca, Marina; Goossens, Frits A.
Background: The present study aimed to investigate children's social information processing (SIP) and emotions in the bullying situation, taking into account reactive and proactive aggression. More specifically, we investigated the way in which children interpret social information, which goals they select, how they evaluate their responses and…
Blakely-McClure, Sarah J; Ostrov, Jamie M
When studying adolescent development, it is important to consider two key areas that are salient for teens, which are self-concept and peer relations. A secondary analysis of the National Institute of Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was conducted to examine the prospective bidirectional associations between self-concept and peer relations. To date, how social development broadly and peer relations in particular (e.g., relational aggression and victimization) affect self-concept domains is not fully understood. Using a large sample (N = 1063; 532 girls; M = 11.14 years; SD = .59) with multiple informants, the present study examined whether fifth grade relational aggression and sixth grade relational victimization was associated with adolescent self-concept in three key domains (i.e., academic, sports, physical appearance). A significant direct effect emerged, such that relational aggression in middle childhood was associated with decreases in academic self-concept and increases in sports self-concept in adolescence. Analyses also revealed that having higher levels of domain specific self-concept led to decreases in relational aggression across the transition to adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of examining bidirectional prospective associations between relational aggression, relational victimization, and domain specific self-concept. Implications for future research and clinical intervention are discussed. PMID:26419234
Pronk, Rhiarne E.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.
Early adolescent girls and boys (N = 33) with known histories of relational aggression and/or victimization gave detailed accounts of the nature, frequency, intensity, course, and impact of relational aggression among their peers. They also described reasons for, and forms of, aggression after being prompted by a series of hypothetical vignettes.…
Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan
Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman's (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent's aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent's friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members' likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends' attitudes, and their friends' aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores. PMID:25152562
Mathieson, Lindsay C; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Crick, Nicki R
Although there is considerable evidence that relational victimization is associated with depressive symptoms in youth, our understanding about the mechanisms by which victimization and depressive symptoms are linked is limited. The current study explored ruminating about victimization experiences as a potential mechanism that might contribute to an understanding of the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. We also tested the specificity of the proposed models by controlling for and testing parallel models of a highly related behavior: relational aggression. A sample of 499 adolescents from sixth through eighth grades participated. Teacher reports were used to assess relational victimization and relational aggression. Self-reports were used to assess depressive symptoms and rumination. The results showed that rumination partially mediated the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. No moderation effect was found. In contrast, rumination moderated the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational aggression was associated with depressive symptoms for those adolescents who were also ruminators. Thus, ruminating about victimization experiences appears to be an important mechanism that functions differently for relational aggression and relational victimization in conferring risk for depressive symptoms. The findings offer important practical implications for those working with adolescents and also lay the groundwork for future research. PMID:25047295
Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M
Although research has documented the prevalence and health correlates of sexual aggression among women who have experienced severe partner violence (PV), no research has documented the parallel issues among male victims of severe PV. Research also suggests that children of female victims of both physical and sexual PV have worse mental health than children of female victims of physical PV only, but no research has assessed the mental health of children whose fathers experienced both physical and sexual PV. We surveyed 611 men who experienced physical PV from their female partners and sought help. We assessed the types and extent of various forms of PV, the men's mental and physical health, and the mental health of their oldest child. Results showed that almost half of the men experienced sexual aggression in their relationship, and 28 % severe sexual aggression. Increasing levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization was associated with greater prevalence and types of other forms of PV. In addition, greater levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization among the men was significantly associated with depression symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health symptoms, and poor health, and attention deficit and affective symptoms among their children. These associations held after controlling for demographics and other violence and trauma exposure. Discussion focused on the importance of broadening our conceptualization of PV against men by women to include sexual aggression as well. PMID:25501862
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Nesdale, Drew; McGregor, Leanne; Mastro, Shawna; Goodwin, Belinda; Downey, Geraldine
Perceiving that one is rejected is an important correlate of emotional maladjustment. Yet, self-perceptions can substantially differ from classmate-reports of who is rejected. In this study, discrepancies between self- and classmate-reports of rejection were identified in 359 Australian adolescents (age 10-12 years). As expected, adolescents who overestimated rejection reported more rejection sensitivity and felt more victimized by their peers, but were not seen by peers as more victimized. Adolescents who underestimated rejection identified themselves as high in overt aggression, and their peers identified them as high in overt and relational aggression and low in prosocial behavior. Yet, underestimators' feelings of friendship satisfaction did not seem to suffer and they reported low rejection sensitivity. Results suggest that interventions to promote adolescent health should explicitly recognize the different needs of those who do and do not seem to perceive their high rejection, as well as adolescents who overestimate their rejection. PMID:24215970
Duong, Mylien T.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Kelly, Brynn M.; Tom, Shelley R.
This study examines the relation between maternal physical discipline and victimization by peers, as moderated by child aggression. The sample consisted of 211 Hong Kong Chinese children (98 boys, 113 girls; average age of 11.9). Physical discipline was assessed with a questionnaire completed by mothers, and victimization by peers and aggression…
Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Yu, Chengfu; Zhen, Shuangju; Huang, Shihua
Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls), we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:26347704
Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Yeung, Rachel
Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents’ experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring) and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and aggression. We also examined the effects of individual differences in emotional and behavioral problems. We used questionnaire data from a population-based sample of youth 12–18 years old who were in dating relationships (n = 149). Parental monitoring emerged as a protective factor in reducing both dating victimization and relational aggression. Our findings also point to a significant transfer of aggression in peer relationships to relational aggression in dating relationships. PMID:27307651
Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S
Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages 14–16, n = 230) tested the impact of a 6-session intervention that taught an incremental theory (a belief in the potential for personal change). Compared to no-treatment and coping skills control groups, the incremental theory group behaved significantly less aggressively and more prosocially 1 month postintervention and exhibited fewer conduct problems 3 months postintervention. The incremental theory and the coping skills interventions also eliminated the association between peer victimization and depressive symptoms. PMID:23106262
Fandrem, Hildegunn; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Roland, Erling
This study compares levels of bullying others, victimization, and aggressiveness in native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway and shows how bullying is related to proactive and reactive aggressiveness. The sample consists of 2,938 native Norwegians (1,521 girls, 1,417 boys) and 189 immigrant adolescents (97 girls, 92 boys) in…
Pouwels, J. Loes; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Previous research suggests that the prevalence of aggression is high among low-income urban youth who have to cope with a number of psychological stressors. Less is known about the early development and consequences of aggression and peer victimization prior to adolescence in these contexts. This study examined the correlates, interplay, and…
Hellström, Lisa; Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt
The current study examined concordance and discordance between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression with respect to the number of students identified as victims. Swedish adolescents (N = 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire. A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression were compared in order to elucidate the unique…
Rascle, Olivier; Traclet, Alan; Souchon, Nicolas; Coulomb-Cabagno, Genevieve; Petrucci, Carrie
The purpose of this study was to investigate the aggressor-victim difference in perceived legitimacy of aggression in soccer as a function of score information (tied, favorable, unfavorable), sporting penalization (no risk, yellow card, red card), and type of aggression (instrumental, hostile). French male soccer players (N = 133) read written…
Navarro, Raul; Larranaga, Elisa; Yubero, Santiago
This paper presents data concerning culturally prescribed gender traits and their influence on bullying/victimization problems and aggressive tendencies from a wide sample of 1,654 Spanish adolescents. The aims of this study were to clarify the effect of masculine traits on male and female secondary students' aggression, and also to explore the…
Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H
This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372261
The lack of official data on rape has been a challenge for researchers in Brazil. Two recently published studies were based on law enforcement and medical records. Although these studies represent important progress in research on rape in the country, they have several limitations. In order to obtain more realistic rates, the current article reviews Brazilian studies on self-reported sexual aggression and victimization in individuals over 14 years of age. Forty-one studies were identified through electronic searches and reference verification. From 1% to 40% of women and 1% to 35% of men reported some form of victimization in the previous year. The male perpetration incidence ranged from 2% to 44%. Despite the wide variability, these rates were much higher than those provided by official data. The results suggest that sexual orientation is associated with vulnerability. Mixed findings were found concerning race. Most studies were based on convenience samples and focused on female victimization. Male victimization has received increasing attention, but studies on self-reported perpetration are still limited. PMID:27487443
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel
Using a genetically informed design, this study examined the additive and interactive effects of genetic risk, personal peer victimization experiences, and peer victimization experienced by others on children's aggression and depression symptoms. Of major interest was whether these effects varied depending on whether or not the victimized others were children's close friends. The sample comprised 197 monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs reared together (95 female pairs) assessed in Grade 4. Each twin's victimization experiences and victimization experienced by his or her friends and other classmates were measured using individuals' reports about their own levels of peer victimization. Aggression was assessed using peer nominations, and depression was measured using self-reports. Indicative of a possible social-learning mechanism or the emotional contagion of anger, multilevel regressions showed that personal victimization experiences were related to especially high levels of aggression when close friends where also highly victimized, albeit only in boys. Moreover, in line with social comparison theory, the effect of frequent personal victimization experiences on depressive feelings was much weaker when close friends were also highly victimized than when close friends were not or were only rarely victimized. Finally, a high level of peer victimization experienced by other classmates was related to a lower level of aggression in girls and boys, possibly because of a heightened sense of threat in classrooms where many suffer attacks from bullies. All of these results were independent of children's genetic risk for aggression or depression. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:21967566
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Sawyer, Anne L.
This article examines the link between involvement in bullying, as either a bully, victim, or bully/victim, and attitudes toward violence and perceptions of safety among 16,012 middle and high school students. Analyses indicated that 37.6% were frequently involved in bullying. Bully/victims were the most likely to report feeling unsafe and…
Espelage, Dorothy L; Low, Sabina K; Jimerson, Shane R
Existing scholarship suggests that classroom practices, teacher attitudes, and the broader school environment play a critical role in understanding the rates of student reports of aggression, bullying, and victimization as well as correlated behaviors. A more accurate understanding of the nature, origins, maintenance, and prevalence of bullying and other aggressive behavior requires consideration of the broader social ecology of the school community. However, studies to date have predominantly been cross-sectional in nature, or have failed to reflect the social-ecological framework in their measurement or analytic approach. Thus, there have been limited efforts to parse out the relative contribution of student, classroom, and organizational-level factors. This special topic section emphasizes a departure from a focus on student attitudes and behaviors, to a social-contextual approach that appreciates how much features of the school environment can mitigate or perpetuate aggression. This collection of articles reflects innovative and rigorous approaches to further our understanding of climate, and has implications for theory, measurement, prevention, and practice. These studies highlight the influence of school climate on mental health, academic achievement, and problem behavior, and will hopefully stimulate interest in and further scholarship on this important topic. PMID:25198615
Closson, Leanna M; Hymel, Shelley
Previous studies exploring the link between social status and behavior have predominantly utilized measures that do not provide information regarding toward whom aggression or prosocial behavior is directed. Using a contextualized target-specific approach, this study examined whether high- and low-status adolescents behave differently toward peers of varying levels of status. Participants, aged 11-15 (N = 426, 53 % females), completed measures assessing aggression and prosocial behavior toward each same-sex grademate. A distinct pattern of findings emerged regarding the likeability, popularity, and dominance status of adolescents and their peer targets. Popular adolescents reported more direct aggression, indirect aggression, and prosocial behavior toward popular peers than did unpopular adolescents. Well-accepted adolescents reported more prosocial behavior toward a wider variety of peers than did rejected adolescents. Finally, compared to subordinate adolescents, dominant adolescents reported greater direct and indirect aggression toward dominant than subordinate peers. The results highlight the importance of studying target-specific behavior to better understand the status-behavior link. PMID:27083913
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel
Using a genetically informed design, this study examined the additive and interactive effects of genetic risk, personal peer victimization experiences, and peer victimization experienced by others on children's aggression and depression symptoms. Of major interest was whether these effects varied depending on whether or not the victimized others…
Toomey, Russell B.; Card, Noel A.; Casper, Deborah M.
The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression, and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported…
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Low, Sabina K.
This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who…
Runions, Kevin C.
Background: The role of reactive aggression in the development of peer victimization remains unclear due in part to a failure to account for confounding problems of behavioural undercontrol (e.g., hyperactivity). As well, the school social context has rarely been examined to see whether these risks are mediated by relationships with teachers.…
Kunst, Maarten J. J.
The current study was developed to explore the associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), level of compensation for pain and suffering, and employment status in a sample of victims of violence (n = 226) who had held a full-time job at time of victimization and had filed a claim with the Dutch Victim Compensation Fund (DVCF)…
Low, Sabina; Espelage, Dorothy
Community violence exposure results in heightened risk for engaging in and being a victim of interpersonal violence. Despite this robust literature, few studies have specifically examined how the relation between community violence exposure, peer aggression, and victimization is modified by individual, peer, and familial influences (considered jointly). In the current study, we used risk and resiliency theory to examine links between community violence exposure and peer aggression and victimization. Impulsivity and parental monitoring were examined as potential moderators of the link between community violence exposure and outcomes, both directly and indirectly via deviant behavior. Survey data on bullying involvement, fighting, deviancy, parental monitoring, and impulsivity were collected on 3 occasions over an 18-month period among a large cohort of adolescents (N = 1,232) in 5th-7th grades. Structural equation modeling suggests that for both male and female adolescents, impulsivity exacerbates the effects of community violence exposure by increasing involvement in deviant behavior. Parental monitoring buffered the effects of community violence exposure on perpetration and victimization (for males and female adolescents) via reduced involvement in deviant behavior. Findings suggest that impulsivity and parental monitoring are implicated in modifying the effects of community violence exposure on both victimization and perpetration through deviancy, although deviancy is not as potent of a predictor for victimization. Thus, prevention efforts would seem to be optimally targeted at multiple ecological levels, including parental involvement and peer networks. PMID:24635595
Espelage, Dorothy L; Polanin, Joshua R; Low, Sabina K
This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who completed survey measures of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Teachers and staff (n = 1,447) completed a school environment survey. Bivariate associations between school-level and student self-reports indicated that as teacher and staff perceive aggression as a problem in their school, students reported greater bully perpetration, fighting, peer victimization, and less willingness to intervene. Further, as staff and teacher report greater commitment to prevent bullying and viewed positive teacher and student relationships, there was less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization, and greater willingness to intervene. In a model where all school environment scales were entered together, a school commitment to prevent bullying was associated with less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization. Student-reports of bully perpetration and peer victimization were largely explained by staff and teacher commitment to bully prevention, whereas fighting and willingness to intervene were largely explained by student characteristics (e.g., gender). We conclude that efforts to address bullying and victimization should involve support from the school administration. School psychologists should play an active role in the school climate improvement process, by creating a school climate council consisting of students, parents, and teachers; administering school climate measures; identifying specific school improvement targets from these data, and engaging all stakeholders in the ongoing school improvement plan. PMID:25089334
Card, Noel A.; Casper, Deborah M.
The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported gender nonconformity were associated with higher self- and peer-reports of overt and relational victimization and aggression among males and females. The association between peer-reported gender nonconformity and peer-reported overt aggression was moderated by participant sex, such that the association was stronger for females compared to males. Results suggest that perceived gender nonconformity is associated with problematic peer relations, especially among females, in early adolescence and implications of these associations are discussed. PMID:26236066
Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study. PMID:23606625
Jia, Mary; Mikami, Amori Yee
This study investigated the predictive relations between externalizing behavior, peer preference and friendship quantity, and bully status and victim status among children becoming acquainted with one another for the first time. Children ages 6.8-9.8 years (24 with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; 113 typically developing; 72 girls) attended a 2-week summer day camp grouped into same-age, same-sex classrooms with previously unacquainted peers. Externalizing behavior (via parent and teacher ratings) was measured before the start of camp; peer preference and friendship quantity (via peer nominations) were measured in the middle of camp, and bully status and victim status (via peer nominations) were measured at the end of camp. Low peer preference mediated the positive association between externalizing behavior and bully status. Both peer preference and friendship quantity moderated the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as between externalizing behavior and victim status; whereas high peer preference protected against both bully status and victim status, friendship quantity protected against victim status but exacerbated bully status. Some gender differences were found within these pathways. Peer preference, compared to friendship quantity, appears to have a more consistently protective role in the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as victim status. PMID:25411126
Ybarra, Michele L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Purpose Examine whether: 1) among youth who report being bullied, differential power and repetition are useful in identifying youth who are more or less affected by the victimization experience; and 2) bullying and more generalized peer aggression are distinct or overlapping constructs. Methods Data for the Teen Health and Technology (THT) study were collected online between August 2010 and January 2011 from 3,989 13–18 year olds. Data from the Growing up with Media (GuwM) study (Wave 3) were collected online in 2008 from 1,157 12–17 year olds. Results In the THT study, youth who reported neither differential power nor repetition had the lowest rates of interference with daily functioning. Youth who reported either differential power or repetition had higher rates; but the highest rates of interference with daily functioning were observed among youth who reported both differential power and repetition. In the GuwM study, youth were victims of online generalized peer aggression (30%) or both online generalized peer aggression and cyberbullying (16%), but rarely cyberbullying alone (1%). Conclusions Both differential power and repetition are key in identifying youth who are bullied and at particular risk for concurrent psychosocial challenge. Each feature needs to be measured directly. Generalized peer aggression appears to be a broader form of violence compared to bullying. It needs to be recognized that youth who are victimized but do not meet the criteria of bullying have elevated rates of problems. They are an important, albeit non-bullied, group of victimized youth to be included in research. PMID:24726463
Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E
This paper reports two prospective investigations of the role of friendship in the relation between peer victimization and grade point averages (GPA). Study 1 included 199 children (105 boys, 94 girls; mean age of 9.1 years) and Study 2 included 310 children (151 boys, 159 girls; mean age of 8.5 years). These children were followed for two school years. In both projects, we assessed aggression, victimization, and friendship with a peer nomination inventory, and we obtained children's GPAs from a review of school records. Peer victimization was associated with academic declines only when children had either a high number of friends who were above the classroom mean on aggression or a low number of friends who were below the classroom mean on aggression. These results highlight the importance of aggression levels among friends for the academic adjustment of victimized children. PMID:18330690
Bettencourt, Amie F.; Farrell, Albert D.
Peer victimization is a common problem among adolescents that has been linked to a variety of adjustment problems. Youth involved in peer victimization represent a heterogeneous group who may differ not only in their levels of victimization and perpetration, but also in the factors that influence their behavior. The current study used latent class…
Mahoney, Bere; Davies, Michelle; Scurlock-Evans, Laura
International surveys of victims show crime rates in England and Wales, including hate crimes, are among the highest in Europe. Nevertheless, sexual minority status is a less considered risk factor in general victimization research. This study used sexual minority status and sex to predict victimization across British Crime Surveys from 2007-2010. Logistic regression analyses showed sexual minority status groups were more likely than heterosexuals to be victimized from any and some specific crimes. However, bisexuals rather than lesbians or gay men were more consistently victimized, notably by sexual attacks and within the household. Implications for understanding victimization among these groups are discussed. PMID:24972149
Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others
The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…
Gaertner, Lowell; Iuzzini, Jonathan; O’Mara, Erin M.
Two experiments examined the hypothesis that social rejection and perceived groupness function together to produce multiple-victim incidents of aggression. When a rejecter’s group membership is salient during an act of rejection, the rejectee ostensibly associates the rejecter’s group with rejection and retaliates against the group. Both experiments manipulated whether an aggregate of three persons appeared as separate individuals or members of an entity-like group and whether one of those persons rejected the participant. Consistent with the hypothesis, participants who experienced both rejection and perceived groupness behaved more aggressively against the aggregate (Experiment 1) and evidenced less favorable affective associations toward the aggregate (Experiment 2) than did participants who did not experience both rejection and perceived groupness. PMID:19079568
d'Avila, Sergio; Campos, Ana Cristina; Cavalcante, Gigliana Maria Sobral; Silva, Carlos Jose de Paula; da Nóbrega, Lorena Marques; Ferreira, Efigenia Ferreira E
The objective of this cross-sectional census study was to characterize agression and land-based transport accidents in a city in the Northeast of Brazil. Data was analyzed from live victims who were treated at a forensic service (N = 2.379). In the descriptive analysis, the majority of events were represented by aggression (71.6%); which occurred on weekdays (65%), with 35.1% at night. Trauma occurred to the whole body (63.6%) and to soft tissue (74.2%). On the basis of multiple correspondence analysis, two dimensions were formed: the first dimension (internal reliability = 0.654) was formed by the cause of the event, the trauma and the age group and the second dimension (reliability = 0.514), by age group, occupation and civil status. Three groups with distinct profiles were formed for accidents and aggression: young women who suffered aggression, with trauma to the face and soft tissues during the evening and at weekends; adult men who suffered car accidents, in the morning and on work days; and retired elderly widowers, who were run over. PMID:25760128
Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Cooley, John L.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Pederson, Casey A.; Vernberg, Eric M.
This study examined associations between physical and relational forms of aggression and victimization and risk for willingness to engage in substance use and actual use in a sample of 231 (50% male) second- through fourth-grade students (mean age = 8.3 years). Physical aggression was more strongly associated with risk for substance use outcomes…
Littleton, Heather; Axsom, Danny; Grills-Taquechel, Amie
How a victim of rape characterizes her assault has potential implications for her postassault experiences and revictimization risk. Prior research has identified several potential benefits to not conceptualizing one's experience as a form of victimization. The current study sought to identify whether there are costs to not acknowledging rape as…
Badaly, Daryaneh; Kelly, Brynn M.; Schwartz, David; Dabney-Lieras, Karen
Prior empirical work has documented that the dynamics of social standing can play a critical role in the perpetration and receipt of aggression during adolescence. Recently, investigators have emphasized the emergence of new, electronic modalities for aggressive acts. Our longitudinal project therefore considered electronic forms of aggression and…
Bailey, Amy Kate; Tolnay, Stewart E.; Beck, E.M.; Laird, Jennifer D.
This paper presents the first evidence yielded by a newly-compiled database of known lynch victims. Using information from the original census enumerators’ manuscripts, we identify the individual- and household-level characteristics of more than 900 black males lynched in ten southern states between 1882 and 1930. First, we use the information gathered for successfully linked cases to present a profile of individual-level and household-level characteristics of a large sample of lynch victims. Second, we compare these characteristics to a randomly-generated sample of black men living in the counties where lynchings occurred. We use our findings from this comparative analysis to assess the empirical support for alternative theoretical perspectives on the selection of individuals as victims of southern mob violence. Third, we consider whether the individual-level risk factors for being targeted as a lynch victim varied substantially over time or across space. Our results demonstrate that victims were generally less embedded within the social and economic fabric of their communities than were other black men, suggesting that social marginality increased the likelihood of being targeted for lynching. These findings were generally consistent across decades, and within different socio-demographic contexts. PMID:25067845
Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi
This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…
Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Barker, Edward D.; Vitaro, Frank; Girard, Alain; Tremblay, Richard; Perusse, Daniel
Aggressive behavior in middle childhood is at least partly explained by genetic factors. Nevertheless, estimations of simple effects ignore possible gene-environment interactions (G x E) or gene-environment correlations (rGE) in the etiology of aggression. The present study aimed to simultaneously test for G x E and rGE processes between…
Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Dweck, Carol S.
Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages…
Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie; Geiger, Tasha C.; Morales, Julie R.
The current study adopts a relational vulnerability model to examine the association between hostile attribution bias and relational aggression. Specifically, the relational vulnerability model implicates the interactive effects of a number of relational risk factors in the development of relational aggression. A sample of 635 3rd, 4th, and 5th…
Slashinski, Melody J; Coker, Ann L; Davis, Keith E
This study used the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) of women and men to estimate noncohabitating dating violence prevalence by type (physical, forced sex, and stalking), associations between dating violence and other types of interpersonal violence across the lifespan, and association of dating violence with longer-term mental health including substance abuse. Among respondents aged 18 to 65, 8.3% of 6,790 women and 2.4% of 7,122 men experienced physical aggression, forced sex, or stalking victimization by a dating partner. Few (20.6% of women and 9.7% of men) reported more than one type of dating violence. Childhood physical aggression by a parent or guardian was strongly associated with subsequent dating violence risk for men and women. Dating violence (physical aggression specifically) was associated with current depressive symptoms, current therapeutic drug use (antidepressants, tranquilizers, or pain medications), and current recreation drug use for women. Implications for parents, survivors, health care, and service providers are discussed. PMID:15109116
Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine
The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Sagioglou, Christina
Seven studies (overall N = 3690) addressed the relation between people's subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and their aggression levels. Based on relative deprivation theory, we proposed that people low in subjective SES would feel at a disadvantage, which in turn would elicit aggressive responses. In 3 correlational studies, subjective SES was negatively related to trait aggression. Importantly, this relation held when controlling for measures that are related to 1 or both subjective SES and trait aggression, such as the dark tetrad and the Big Five. Four experimental studies then demonstrated that participants in a low status condition were more aggressive than were participants in a high status condition. Compared with a medium-SES condition, participants of low subjective SES were more aggressive rather than participants of high subjective SES being less aggressive. Moreover, low SES increased aggressive behavior toward targets that were the source for participants' experience of disadvantage but also toward neutral targets. Sequential mediation analyses suggest that the experience of disadvantage underlies the effect of subjective SES on aggressive affect, whereas aggressive affect was the proximal determinant of aggressive behavior. Taken together, the present research found comprehensive support for key predictions derived from the theory of relative deprivation of how the perception of low SES is related to the person's judgments, emotional reactions, and actions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267323
Berger, Christian; Batanova, Milena; Cance, Jessica Duncan
The present study tests whether aggression and prosocial behavior can coexist as part of a socially functional and adaptive profile among early adolescents. Using a person-centered approach, the study examined early adolescents' likelihood of being classified into profiles involving aggressive and prosocial behavior, social status (popular, liked, cool), machiavellianism, and both affective and cognitive components of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking, respectively). Participants were 1170 early adolescents (10-12 years of age; 52% male) from four schools in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. Through latent profile analysis, three profiles emerged (normative-low aggressive, high prosocial-low aggressive, and high aggressive-high popular status). Both empathic concern and perspective taking were higher in the high prosocial-low aggressive profile, whereas the high aggressive-high popular status profile had the lowest scores on both empathy components as well as machiavellianism. No profile emerged where aggressive and prosocial behaviors were found to co-exist, or to be significantly above the mean. The results underscore that aggressive behavior is highly contextual and likely culturally specific, and that the study of behavioral profiles should consider social status as well as socio-emotional adjustment indicators. These complex associations should be taken into consideration when planning prevention and intervention efforts to reduce aggression or school bullying and to promote positive peer relationships. PMID:25987411
Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N; Kliewer, Wendy
Threat appraisals-individuals' perceptions of how stressful situations may threaten their well-being-are an important but understudied mechanism that could explain links between peer victimization and adjustment. The goal of the present study was to examine relationships between physical and relational victimization by peers, threats to the self, and aggression, anxiety, and depression to better understand the cognitive evaluations that make youth vulnerable to negative adjustment. The sample comprised two cohorts of African American adolescents (N = 326; 54 % female; M = 12.1; SD = 1.6) and their maternal caregivers, who participated in three waves of a longitudinal study. Path models revealed significant direct effects from Time 1 relational victimization, but not physical victimization, to Time 2 threat appraisals (i.e., negative self-evaluations and negative evaluations by others), controlling for Time 1 threat appraisals. Significant direct effects were found from Time 2 threats of negative evaluations by others to Time 3 youth-reported aggression, controlling for Time 1 and Time 2 aggression. Significant direct effects also were found from Time 2 threats of negative self-evaluations to T3 youth-reported depression, controlling for Time 1 and Time 2 depression. Overall, findings highlight the need to consider the role of threats to the self in pathways from peer victimization to adjustment and the implications these appraisals have for youth prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:22990883
The Overlap of Youth Violence Among Aggressive Adolescents with Past-Year Alcohol Use—A Latent Class Analysis: Aggression and Victimization in Peer and Dating Violence in an Inner City Emergency Department Sample
Whiteside, Lauren K.; Ranney, Megan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Walton, Maureen A.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify overlap and violence types between peer and dating aggression and victimization using latent class analysis (LCA) among a sample of aggressive adolescents with a history of alcohol use and to identify risk and protective factors associated with each violence class. Method: From September 2006 to September 2009, a systematic sample of patients (14–18 years old) seeking care in an urban emergency department were approached. Adolescents reporting any past-year alcohol use and aggression completed a survey using validated measures including types of violence (severe and moderate aggression, severe and moderate victimization with both peers and dating partners). Using LCA, violence classes were identified; correlates of membership in each LCA class were determined. Results: Among this sample (n = 694), LCA identified three classes described as (a) peer aggression (PA) (52.2%), (b) peer aggression + peer victimization (PAPV) (18.6%), and (c) multiple domains of violence (MDV) (29.3%). Compared with those in the PA class, those in the PAPV class were more likely to be male, report injury in a fight, and have delinquent peers. Compared with the PA class, those in the MDV class were more likely to be female, African American, report injury in a fight, carry a weapon, experience negative consequences from alcohol use, and have delinquent peers and more family conflict. Compared with the PAPV class, those in the MDV class were likely to be female, African American, receive public assistance, carry a weapon, experience negative consequences from alcohol use, and use marijuana. Conclusions: There is extensive overlap of victimization and aggression in both peer and dating relationships. Also, those with high rates of violence across relationships have increased alcohol misuse and marijuana use. Thus, violence-prevention efforts should consider addressing concomitant substance use. PMID:23200158
Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram
This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47 boys with no disabilities in general…
Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan
Adolescents experience various forms of strain in their lives that may contribute jointly to their engagement in cyber aggression. However, little attention has been given to this idea. To address this gap in the literature, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of peer rejection on the relationship between cyber…
Wright, Michelle F.
The literature on cyber aggression is advancing, revealing many risk factors associated with the involvement in these behaviors. Academic correlates, particularly academic performance, have received some attention, with few studies utilizing longitudinal designs. The present study examined these associations among 673 8th graders (51% female) from…
The effects of victim of bullying reputation on adolescents' choice of friends: mediation by fear of becoming a victim of bullying, moderation by victim status, and implications for befriending interventions.
Boulton, Michael J
Research has shown that victims of bullying fare less well on measures of peer affiliation than nonvictims, but less is known about the direction of effects and the mechanisms involved. Three linked studies addressed the latter two issues using an experimental paradigm with hypothetical vignettes (N=360). In Experiment 1, among both boys and girls and pupils in Years 7, 8, and 9 (n=120), participants were significantly less likely to (a) agree to act as a formal befriender to, (ii) believe that they would attempt to form a friendship with, and (iii) think that their peers would form friendships with a pupil new to their school if the description of the new pupil signaled that he or she had (vs. had not) been the victim of bullying in previous schools. Experiment 2 confirmed this "victim reputation" effect with a different sample (n=120) and found support for the hypothesis that it was mediated by the belief that associating with victims leads to an increased risk of becoming a victim (the "associating with victims is risky" effect). Experiment 3 (n=120) further replicated the original victim reputation effect and showed that the associating with victims is risky mediation effect was itself moderated by participants' current victim status; the effect was stronger among participants that were high (vs. low) in current victimization. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:22703707
McGee, Marjorie G.
This study examined the extent to which disability status, alone and in combination with other social identities, was associated with differential levels of exposure to peer victimization. Logistic analyses of survey responses from eleventh graders completing the 2008 Oregon Healthy Teen survey (N = 7,091) utilized an intersectional,…
Kokko, Katja; Simonton, Sharon; Dubow, Eric; Lansford, Jennifer E; Olson, Sheryl L; Huesmann, L Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Pulkkinen, Lea; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S
Using data from two American and one Finnish long-term longitudinal studies, we examined continuity of general aggression from age 8 to physical aggression in early adulthood (age 21-30) and whether continuity of aggression differed by country, sex, and parent occupational status. In all samples, childhood aggression was assessed via peer nominations and early adulthood aggression via self-reports. Multi-group structural equation models revealed significant continuity in aggression in the American samples but not in the Finnish sample. These relations did not differ by sex but did differ by parent occupational status: whereas there was no significant continuity among American children from professional family-of-origin backgrounds, there was significant continuity among American children from non-professional backgrounds. PMID:24990543
Kokko, Katja; Simonton, Sharon; Dubow, Eric; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Pulkkinen, Lea; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.
Using data from two American and one Finnish long-term longitudinal studies, we examined continuity of general aggression from age 8 to physical aggression in early adulthood (age 21–30) and whether continuity of aggression differed by country, sex, and parent occupational status. In all samples, childhood aggression was assessed via peer nominations and early adulthood aggression via self-reports. Multi-group structural equation models revealed significant continuity in aggression in the American samples but not in the Finnish sample. These relations did not differ by sex but did differ by parent occupational status: whereas there was no significant continuity among American children from professional family-of-origin backgrounds, there was significant continuity among American children from non-professional backgrounds. PMID:24990543
Although ecology is often cited as an important factor in prevention, it is infrequently incorporated to the evaluation of intervention effects. This study tests the moderating role of three developmental microsystems (family, peer, and school) on a family-focused intervention to prevent violence. The family intervention was part of the Multisite Violence Prevention Project, a trial involving random assignment of 37 schools to four conditions: 1) a universal intervention composed of a student social-cognitive curriculum and teacher training, 2) a selective multiple family group intervention, 3) these two interventions combined, and 4) a no-intervention control condition. The present study focused on 1,113 eligible families from two cohorts. Students attending schools that were randomly assigned to the selective family intervention were compared with students in other conditions. Composite indicators of risk were formulated for each microsystem and entered as moderators of intervention effects on violence and aggression perpetration and overt and relational victimization. Results of intent-to-treat and dose-weighted analyses indicated that peer risk moderated outcomes, but family and school risk did not. Intervention effects were limited to youth with elevated peer risk at the outset of intervention. This pattern points to the importance of peer groups in the effects of family-focused interventions, particularly with high-risk early adolescent youth. More generally, the results illustrate the importance of mesosystems for understanding prevention effects. PMID:23203511
Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Baker, Courtney N.; Paskewich, Brooke S.; Leff, Stephen S.
While much prior research has documented the negative associations between aggression, peer relationships, and social skills, other research has begun to examine whether forms of aggression also may be associated with prosocial skills and increased social status. However, few studies have examined these associations within diverse samples of…
Estell, David B.
While much work has shown that aggressive and disruptive behavior in schools may be reinforced by friends and, for some individuals, enhanced social status in the classroom, few studies have examined these phenomena at school entry. This study sought to examine aggressive behavior patterns in kindergarten children in relation to other individual…
Ellis, Wendy E.; Zarbatany, Lynne
Group status was examined as a moderator of peer group socialization of deviant, aggressive, and prosocial behavior. In the fall and 3 months later, preadolescents and early adolescents provided self-reported scores for deviant behavior and group membership, and peer nominations for overt and relational aggression, prosocial behavior, and social…
Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth; Meyer, Silke; Akers, Caroline
Given the far-reaching social, personal, and economic costs of crime and violence, as well as the lasting health effects, understanding how women respond to domestic violence and the types of help sought are critical in addressing intimate partner violence. We use a nationally representative dataset (Canadian General Social Survey, Personal Risk, 1999) to examine the help-seeking behaviors of female intimate partner violence victims (N = 250). Although victims of violent crime often do not call the police, many victims, particularly women who have been battered by their partner rely on family, friends, social service, and mental health interventions in dealing with the consequences of violent crime. We examine the role of income, education, and employment status in shaping women's decisions to seek help, and we treat these economic variables as symbolic and relative statuses as compared to male partners. Although family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the dynamics of intimate partner violence with respect to the structural dimensions of sociodemographic factors, feminist researchers connect economic power to family dynamics. Drawing on these literatures, we tap the power in marital and cohabiting relationships, rather than treating these variables as simply socioeconomic resources. Controlling for other relevant variables we estimate a series of multivariate models to examine the relationship between status compatibilities and help-seeking from both formal and informal sources. We find that status incompatibilities between partners that favor women increase the likelihood of seeking support in dealing with the impact of violence. PMID:22946106
Lafko, Nicole; Murray-Close, Dianna; Shoulberg, Erin K
The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the unique associations between two subtypes of low peer status, peer rejection and unpopularity, and changes in relational victimization over time. This study also investigated if these associations were moderated by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) reactivity to peer stress. Sixty-one girls attending (M(age) = 11.91 years, SD = 1.62; predominantly Caucasian) a residential summer camp were followed across 1 calendar year. Participants' skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia were assessed during a laboratory stress protocol. Peer rejection and unpopularity were measured using peer nomination techniques and counselors reported on relational victimization. Both unpopularity and rejection were associated with increased relational victimization over time among girls who exhibited reciprocal SNS activation (i.e., high SNS reactivity coupled with PNS withdrawal). Rejection was also associated with subsequent victimization among girls exhibiting reciprocal PNS activation (i.e., low SNS reactivity, PNS activation). Findings underscore the biosocial interactions between low peer status and physiological reactivity in the prediction of peer maltreatment over time. PMID:24246017
Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene
The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys ("N" = 1,665) and girls ("N" = 1,637) ("M" age = 13.60). In line with the…
Tobin, Casey; Duncan, Jenny
Peer victimization is an all too common occurrence in schools throughout the United States, affecting millions of adolescents every year. Involvement in peer victimization carries devastating consequences that can last a lifetime. Recent research indicates males and females engage in different forms of victimization, with males displaying more…
Hawley, Patricia H.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Mize, Jennifer A.; McNamara, Kelly A.
Several lines of theory and research suggest that power (e.g., social dominance) and status (e.g., social prominence and positive peer regard) are enjoyed by those blessed with good looks. The present work addresses the relations among physical attractiveness, power, status, and aggression from a resource control theoretic perspective that…
Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Little, Todd D.; Hawley, Patricia H.
Little prior research has examined children's interpersonal perceptions of peers from a social relations model framework. This study examines the degree of actor and partner variances, as well as generalised and dyadic reciprocities, in a sample of 351 sixth graders' peer nominations of different forms and functions of aggression and aspects of…
Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Baker, Courtney N; Paskewich, Brooke S; Leff, Stephen S
While much prior research has documented the negative associations between aggression, peer relationships, and social skills, other research has begun to examine whether forms of aggression also may be associated with prosocial skills and increased social status. However, few studies have examined these associations within diverse samples of elementary aged youth. The current study examined the associations between aggression, popularity, social preference, and leadership among 227 urban, ethnic minority (74 % African American, 9 % bi-racial including African American, 12 % other ethnic minorities, and 5 % European American) elementary school youth (average age 9.5 years, 48.5 % female). Results indicated that in an urban, high risk environment, displaying aggressive behaviors was associated with increased perceived popularity, decreased social preference, and, in some cases, increased perceived leadership. The results also suggested gender differences in the association between the forms of aggression (i.e. relational and overt) and popularity. The current study underscores the importance of examining youth leadership along with forms of aggression and social status among urban minority youth. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are highlighted. PMID:23086015
Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan
The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…
Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Esmaeili, Alirez; Dortaj, Fariborz; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status. PMID:26316753
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously. PMID:25046125
Houser, John J; Mayeux, Lara; Cross, Cassandra
Research has identified links between dating and aversive behavior such as aggression and bullying in adolescence, highlighting the need for studies that further our understanding of romantic relationships and their dynamics during this period. This study tested the associations between dating popularity and overt and relational aggression, social preference, and peer popularity. Of particular interest were the moderating roles of social preference and peer popularity in the association of aggression with dating popularity. Further moderation by gender was also explored. Participants were 478 ninth-graders (48% girls) with peer nomination scores for peer status, aggression, and dating popularity. Dating popularity was positively correlated with popularity, social preference, and overt and relational aggression. Regression models indicated that popular, overtly aggressive girls were seen as desirable dating partners by their male peers. Relational aggression was associated with dating popularity for both boys and girls, especially for youths who were well-liked by peers. These findings are interpreted in light of developmental-contextual perspectives on adolescent romantic relationships and Resource Control Theory. PMID:25169129
Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
Using a sample of 767 children (403 girls, 364 boys), this study aimed to (a) identify groups with distinct trajectories of peer victimization over a 6-year period from primary school through the transition to secondary school, and (b) examine the associated personal (i.e., aggression or internalizing problems) and familial (family status, socioeconomic status, the parent-child relationship) predictors. Peer victimization was assessed via self-reports from Grades 4 through 9 (ages 10 through 15 years), aggression and internalizing problems were assessed in Grade 4 via peer nominations, and the parent-child relationship was assessed in Grade 7 (i.e., right after the transition to secondary school) via parent-reports. Growth Mixture modeling revealed 1 group (62%) who experienced little victimization in primary school and even less in secondary school, another group (31%) who was victimized in primary but not or much less in secondary school, and a third group (7%) who was chronically victimized in both school contexts. Boys were more likely than girls to follow any elevated victimization trajectory. Chronic victimization across primary and secondary school was predicted by nonintact family status and a combination of both internalizing problems and aggression compared with nonvictimized youth. In contrast, transitory victimization during primary but not in secondary school was predicted by aggression, but not internalizing problems. Support as well as conflict in the parent-child relationship also showed significant, albeit distinct associations with the different peer victimization trajectories. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27253264
Koss, Mary P.; And Others
Rape is believed to be one of the most underreported crimes with 3 to 10 rapes committed for every one that is reported. Rape represents an extreme behavior which can be placed on a continuum of sexual aggression defined by degrees of coercion and force. The prevalence of sexual aggression among college students nationally was examined in 3,187…
Sherman, Martin F.; Smith, Robert J.
With the increased number of women in the work force, sexual harassment is receiving increased attention from the federal government, journalists, researchers, and counselors. To investigate the influence of two contextual variables (status of the initiator and age of the victim) on perceptions of sexual harassment allegations, 123 college…
Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Munniksma, Anke; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis
To understand the complex nature of bullies' acceptance and rejection, this article considered goal-framing effects of status and affection as they relate to the gender of the bully (male vs. female bullies), the target (male vs. female victims), and the evaluator (acceptance and rejection from male vs. female classmates). The hypotheses were…
Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Dortaj, Fariborz; Esmaeili, Alireza; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally, driver behavior rather than technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In a previous study, we showed that among young Iranian male traffic offenders, poor mental health status, along with aggression, predicted poor driving behavior. The aims of the present study were twofold, to determine whether this pattern could be replicated among non-traffic offenders, and to compare the mental health status, aggression, and driving behavior of male traffic offenders and non-offenders. Methods A total of 850 male drivers (mean age =34.25 years, standard deviation =10.44) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Of these, 443 were offenders (52.1%) and 407 (47.9%) were non-offenders with lowest driving penalty scores applying for attaining an international driving license. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering socio-demographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer mental health status, and worse driving behavior. Among non-offenders, multiple regression indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer health status and driving behavior. Further, the predictive power of poorer mental health status, but not aggression, for driving behavior was replicated for male non-offenders. PMID:26300646
Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study investigated moderating effects of classroom friendship network structures (centralization and density), teacher-student attunement on aggression and popularity, and gender on changes in the social status of aggression over 1 school year. Longitudinal multilevel analyses with 2 time points (fall and spring) were conducted on a sample of…
Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath; Shivprasad, Dasappa; Dayakar, Anitha; Deepthi, Cherian Anna
Background: Endosulfan is a highly toxic agrichemical used in the cashew plantations. The Stockholm Convention held in April 2011 recommended a global ban on the manufacture and use of endosulfan because of its adverse effects on human health and the environment. Its impact on the quality of food, water, and beverages; and its ability to cause neurobehavioral disorders, congenital malformations in female subjects, and abnormalities related to the male reproductive system are studied, but however information regarding the oral health of endosulfan victims is scant. Objectives: To assess the oral health status of the endosulfan victim in rehabilitation center. Method and Methodology: A cross sectional study on 18 subjects of 4-50 years of age were interviewed and examined using modified WHO oral health assessment proforma (1997) in Endosulfan Relief and Remediation Cell in Kokkada, Belthangady Taluk, Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India. Results: Among the subjects, 10 (>50%) were found to be in age group <20 years. The overall oral health status of the endosulfan victim's in rehabilitation center considered to be poor, as many of the subjects suffered from major medical problems like mental retardation, physical disabilities etc. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for special attention from government and voluntary organization to improve overall health status of the victims. PMID:26941528
Katz, Jennifer; Colbert, Samuel; Colangelo, Liane
This research examined bystander responses to 1 of 4 potential party rape scenarios. Undergraduate women (N = 249) imagined attending a party either alone or with three friends where a sober man led an intoxicated potential victim (either male or female) into a bedroom. After random assignment to conditions, participants reported on intent to help and barriers to helping the potential victim. In contrast to the classic bystander effect, bystanders in groups intended to offer more help than lone bystanders. Bystanders also intended to offer more help to potential female than male victims and experienced more barriers to helping male victims. Two of these barriers (lack of personal responsibility to help and identifying risk) explained the lower intentions to help potential male victims. Potential male victims were more likely than female victims to be perceived as gay, and bystanders reported the least intentions to help presumably gay men at risk. PMID:25929141
Sandell, M. I.
Any reduction in the fitness of a breeding female induced by the settlement of additional females with her mate creates a conflict between the sexes over mating system. In birds, females are often aggressive towards other females but few studies have been able to quantify the importance of female-female aggression for the maintenance of monogamy. This study of the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris, quantifies male and female behaviour towards a potential prospecting female, presented in a cage during the pre-laying period, and relates it to the subsequent mating status of the male. A solitary breeding male was given the opportunity to attract an additional mate, which almost half of the males did. No biometric characters of the male or female were related to the subsequent mating status. Males demonstrated mate-attraction behaviour towards the caged female but the behaviour of the male did not predict the likelihood to attract an additional female. However, the proportion of time that the female spent near the potential settler was related to mating status, indicating that females that reacted more strongly towards a potential female competitor maintained their monogamous status. These results suggest that female behaviour may play an important role in shaping the mating system of facultatively polygynous species.
McQuiller Williams, LaVerne; Porter, Judy L
Partner violence is a pervasive public health concern that has received significant attention over the past three decades. Although a number of studies have reported that college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing are at an increased risk of experiencing partner violence compared with their hearing counterparts, little is known about partner violence perpetration among college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing. Furthermore, beyond disability, studies examining partner violence among students with disabilities tend to ignore other potential risk factors that may increase the risk of partner violence as a victim and/or a perpetrator. This exploratory study examines the extent of partner violence among male and female college students by auditory status and the relationship between experiencing and perpetrating partner abuse (i.e., physical abuse and psychological abuse) and child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing abuse and experiencing child physical abuse). The study also examines gender differences in the relationship between child maltreatment and physical and psychological abuse victimization and perpetration. Data were collected from a sample of approximately 680 college students at a northeastern university. Findings indicate that having witnessed interparental abuse as a child was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Having been a child victim of parental abuse was not significant for any of the abuse measures. Gender was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Deaf students were significantly more likely to report all abuse measures. Implications and directions for further research are discussed. PMID:25287415
German, Don-Nee E.; And Others
Forty female incest victims, ages 12-18, were administered personality and self-concept assessments. Subjects were found to be shy, expedient, guilt-prone, aggressive, realistic, and withdrawn and to have low overall self-concept. Subjects showed more confidence about physical appearance and intellectual and school status than other aspects of…
D'Esposito, Susan E.; Blake, Jamilia; Riccio, Cynthia A.
This study explored how certain personality traits, behaviors, and social status may be associated with who is targeted as a victim of peer aggression. The sample consisted of 233 students in sixth through eighth grades from rural communities. Results indicate that symptoms of anxiety, a high sense of inadequacy, and elevated social stress are…
Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Sibling aggression is a common form of intra-familial aggression, yet has been largely neglected by research. Using an inclusive measure of sibling aggression, this study investigated, firstly, prevalence of sibling aggression and associations with family and household characteristics, and secondly, the relationship between sibling aggression and peer bullying. Participants were 4,237 adolescents from Wave 1 of Understanding Society. Four types of sibling aggression were measured: physical, verbal, stealing and teasing, and combined into composite measures of victimization and perpetration. Regression analysis identified associations with demographic characteristics, family and sibling composition, parent-child relationships and socioeconomic status and explored the link between sibling aggression and involvement in peer bullying. Using a broad definition, sibling aggression was found to be widespread, with 46% of all participants being victimized and 36% perpetrating aggression. Household and family characteristics, including a large family size, male siblings, and financial difficulties were associated with greater rates of sibling aggression. Parenting behavior showed the strongest relationship: harsh parenting increased the risk of sibling aggression while positive parenting protected against it. Sibling aggression was also homotypically related to involvement in peer bullying. Victimization by siblings significantly increased the odds of being a victim of peer bullying, and perpetrators of sibling aggression were more likely to be both peer bullies and bully-victims. Considering the adverse effects of sibling aggression on physical and mental health, the study provides pointers for efforts to reduce the risk of sibling aggression. Furthermore, the link with peer bullying suggests that school anti-bullying efforts should also take account of children's sibling relationships. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25187483
Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart
The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while influence processes were controlled for. Furthermore, the effects of network characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and transitivity), gender, and social status on friendship selection were examined. The starting assumption of this study was that selection effects based on aggression might have been overestimated in previous research as a result of failing to consider influence processes and alternative characteristics that steer friendship formation. The results show that selection effects of both physical and relational aggression disappeared when network effects, gender, and social status were taken into account. Particularly gender and perceived popularity appeared to be far more important determinants of friendship selection over time than aggression. Moreover, a peer influence effect was only found for relational aggression, and not for physical aggression. These findings suggest that similarity in aggression among befriended adolescents can be considered to be mainly a by-product rather than a leading dimension in friendship selection. PMID:21688275
Blank, D A; Yang, W
Aggression in ungulates is a very common behavior which serves a great variety of social functions, the most important of which is territorial protection from intruders. Typically during the rut, territorial males in Antilopinae species have access to mating females, and territoriality leads to a drastic change in the males' lifestyle as they spend most of their aggressive efforts on protecting their territories from other males. In contrast, non-territorial males generally behave in a constant manner all year round, with most of their aggression spent on hierarchical interactions within groups. In this paper, we discuss the differences in aggressive behaviors between territorial and non-territorial males of goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa). We found that territorial males of this species demonstrated most of their aggressive displays, such as threat postures and space-claim patterns, to other territorial males-neighbors, but rarely chased after them at the end of a conflict. Inversely, territorial males frequently chased non-territorial and immature males while only occasionally demonstrating aggressive patterns. Non-territorial males mostly chased other males in their agonistic interactions, displaying threat postures less often than territorial males, but also showing aggressive patterns not found in territorial males. So we concluded that territorial and non-territorial males of goitered gazelles had different repertoires of aggressive behaviors, and when adult males switched their social status from territorial during the rut to non-territorial outside the rut, they obviously changed their preference in aggressive behaviors accordingly. PMID:25242724
Zverina, Michaela; Stam, Henderikus J.; Babins-Wagner, Robbie
In contrast to the abundance of research on women victims, this article sheds light on the discourse of men who are self-identified as victims of their female partners' abuse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most salient identity constructions and abuse conceptualizations among participants of group psychotherapy for men who have…
Slee, Phillip T.; Rigby, Ken
Considers Australian and overseas research that highlights the extent of child-on-child violence and the effect of peer group victimization on both the perpetrator and victim. Examines how such personalized aggression is reflected in the child's psychological well-being and peer relations. Also considers the nature of school intervention programs…
Gumpel, Thomas P.; Wiesenthal, Vered; Söderberg, Patrik
This study had three primary goals: to explore the relationship between narcissism, participant roles, and aggression; to examine the role of gender as a moderating influence on narcissism-based aggression; and to examine how these variables work together to influence aggressive outcomes in a sample of aggressive middle and high school students.…
We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities. PMID:26839467
Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong-Uk
We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities. PMID:26839467
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses.…
Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Copp, Jennifer E
Using longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 927), we examined physical victimization, poor quality, and depression among young adults in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depression with the inclusion of prior depression, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. With the inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depression. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depression. Associations between victimization and depression did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor quality on depression conditional on gender. Thus, victimization occurs within relationships characterized by a range of negative dynamics. Multifaceted relationship-centered prevention efforts are more useful than focusing only on the use of aggression with a partner. PMID:25131276
Faris, Robert; Felmlee, Diane
Literature on aggression often suggests that individual deficiencies, such as social incompetence, psychological difficulties, or troublesome home environments, are responsible for aggressive behavior. In this article, by contrast, we examine aggression from a social network perspective, arguing that social network centrality, our primary measure…
Giang, Michael T; Graham, Sandra
This study used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify and classify individuals into aggressor and victim latent classes. Participants were over 2,000 sixth grade students who completed peer nomination procedures that identified students who had reputations as perpetrators and/or victims of physical, verbal, or relational harassment. Results showed five latent classes. Consistent with previous research, LCA identified latent classes of victims, aggressors, and socially adjusted students. However, rather than a single aggressive-victim subgroup, LCA identified latent classes of highly-victimized aggressive-victims and highly-aggressive aggressive-victims. Comparisons showed differences in mean profiles and classification criteria between LCA and traditional dichotomization approaches. Adjustment outcomes showed that highly-victimized aggressive-victims generally experienced greater negative psychological and social adjustment outcomes than highly-aggressive aggressive-victims. Implications of these findings for better assessment of victim and aggressor subgroups were discussed. PMID:17828767
Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
Using a sample of 767 children (403 girls, 364 boys), this study aimed to (a) identify groups with distinct trajectories of peer victimization over a 6-year period from primary school through the transition to secondary school, and (b) examine the associated personal (i.e., aggression or internalizing problems) and familial (family status,…
Cerulli, Catherine; Cerulli, Jennifer; Santos, Elizabeth J.; Lu, Najii; He, Hua; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; White, Anne Marie; Tu, Xin
Objectives To explore whether the health status of intimate partner violence (IPV) victims warrants pharmacies to be portals for public health promotion. Specific objectives included: 1) Identify prevalence of IPV including Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault (DV/SA) in a community sample; 2) Describe characteristics and correlates of DV/SA relative to those who did not report DV/SA; and 3) Explore whether DV/SA status is related to mental health medication use. Design A secondary analysis of a countywide random telephone survey, the Monroe County Adult Health Survey 2006 (MCAHS), which collects prevalence data on health behaviors and health status indicators. Setting Upstate New York Participants English and Spanish speaking respondents under 65 years of age answering four questions to assess DV/SA. Interventions None Main Outcome Measure To determine whether those reporting DV/SA are at increased odds for mental health medication use controlling for other socio-demographic and health related variables. Results The survey response rate was 30.3% with 1,881 respondents fitting inclusion. Those reporting DV/SA were almost twice as likely to utilize mental health medications. However, when controlling for other variables, only poor mental and physical health were significant in increasing the odds of mental health medication use. Conclusion Analyses suggest DV/SA victims in a community sample do utilize mental health medications. When controlling for other variables, they report worse physical and mental health. If pharmacies are suitable portals for DV/SA outreach, curricula would need to provide the knowledge and skills needed to take an active role in this public health promotion. PMID:20199963
Taylor, Katherine A.; Sullivan, Terri N.; Kliewer, Wendy
Threat appraisals--individuals' perceptions of how stressful situations may threaten their well-being--are an important but understudied mechanism that could explain links between peer victimization and adjustment. The goal of the present study was to examine relationships between physical and relational victimization by peers, threats to the…
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Welter, Nicole
Aggression among pupils is one of the frequent sources of stress in school. Aggression among pupils can display diverse forms and also has different origins. In this contribution, bullying, mobbing and relational aggression as different forms of aggression were described, based on recent research. In addition, a psychoanalytic treatment of a female adolescent is presented who suffered from mobbing. The treatment includes 70 hours work with the female patient and additional work with her parents. Based on this case study, it became obvious that it necessary to precisely analyse the own contribution for eliciting and maintaining aggression. PMID:18361185
Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…
Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of violence, while data on
Kupersmidt, J B; Coie, J D
The comparative effectiveness of preadolescent aggressive behavior, peer rejection, and school functioning were evaluated in the prediction of adolescent delinquency and school maladjustment. Fifth-grade children (n = 112, 69% white, 53% male, M = 11 years old) were followed forward for 7 years until the end of high school. Rejected children were more likely to have a nonspecific negative outcome and more types of negative outcomes than average, popular, or neglected children, particularly among the white students. However, in regression models containing sex, race, aggression, frequent school absences, low grades, and rejection, the only significant predictor of juvenile delinquency or of a nonspecific negative outcome was aggression toward peers. Both aggression and frequent school absences were significant predictors of early school withdrawal. Analyses for the white children in the sample revealed that both rejection and aggression best predicted to the nonspecific negative outcome, whereas aggression alone best predicted to school dropout and to having one or more police contacts. Implications for future longitudinal outcome research and for risk-group identification in racially heterogeneous samples are discussed. PMID:2245729
Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Sechler, Casey M; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky
A social-cognitive framework was used to generate and test hypotheses regarding the role of children's causal attributions for peer victimization in predicting how they cope with such experiences. It was hypothesized that attributions would be differentially associated with coping as a function of the direction (i.e., upward, horizontal, or downward) of the social comparison reflected in children's perceived cause for their peer victimization. Self- and peer-reports were collected on 224 (97 boys, 127 girls) fourth- and sixth-grade ethnically diverse students (M age = 10.6 years, SD = 1.08 years). Only children who had been targeted for peer aggression within the preceding two months were included to ensure they had a basis for answering questions regarding the cause of their victimization and how they coped. Data were gathered in the fall and spring of the academic school year and included reports of causal attributions, victimization, aggression, peer acceptance, and coping with victimization. Multiple regression analyses provided preliminary evidence that children's attributions were differentially predictive of changes in coping responses. For example, attributing victimization to one's race predicted decreases in seeking friend support and increases in nonchalance, whereas attributing it to not being as "cool" as others was associated with increases in seeking teacher and friend support, but decreases in nonchalance. Results suggest that children's attributions may reflect the resources they have available to them to cope with victimization. Such resources may be due to social status, or they may be due to the extent to which children blame themselves for the victimization (e.g., the degree to which they expect sympathy and help). Implications of these differential patterns of attributions and coping strategies for children's adjustment are discussed. PMID:23506020
Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.
Objective This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Method Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual’s demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother’s and adolescents’ behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Results Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Conclusions Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context. PMID:25914852
Mouttapa, Michele; Valente, Tom; Gallaher, Peggy; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Unger, Jennifer B.
This study examined whether bullies, victims, and aggressive victims (those who are both bullies and victims) differed on classroom social network variables, gender, and ethnicity. Survey data were collected from a primarily Latino and Asian sample of 1,368 Southern California 6th graders (mean age = 11.3 years). Logistic regression analyses were…
Wilczenski, Felicia L.; And Others
Because of escalating violence in our nation's schools and neighborhoods, childhood aggression is receiving intense public scrutiny. This article offers a systemic perspective for understanding the pervasive problem of bullying and victimization by clarifying adult attitudes toward childhood aggression; by reviewing the familial, educational, and…
Hunter, Simon C.; Boyle, James M. E.; Warden, David
Background: An important element of many anti-bullying programmes is encouraging victims to tell someone about their predicament. Research has already reported prevalence of telling, who/when children tell and efficacy of telling. However, seeking help can be viewed as a coping behaviour, and coping processes such as appraisal and emotion may be…
Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina
This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social status. Analyses on victim-defender dyads showed…
Solberg, Mona E.; Olweus, Dan; Endresen, Inger M.
Background: The reported prevalence of bully-victims and aggressive/provocative victims varies quite considerably in previous research, and only a few studies have reported prevalence rates across grades. There is also a lack of detailed analyses of the extent to which victims are also bullies, and bullies are also victims. Aims: To study the…
Zheng, Yu-Zhen; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Yi; Ding-Lin, Xiao-Xiao; Wen, Jing; Yang, Hong; Liu, Qian-Wen; Luo, Kong-Jia; Huang, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Jun-Ying; Fu, Jian-Hua
AIM: To investigate the influence of nodal status on response and clarify the optimal treatment for operable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1490 OSCC patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy between December 1996 and December 2009 at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The surgical approach and the number of resected lymph nodes (LNs) were considered in the assessment of surgery. Patients were classified according to their nodal statuses (N0 vs N1 vs N2-3). Overall survival was defined as the time from the date of death or final follow-up. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences between curves were assessed by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with prognosis. Statistical significance was assumed at a P < 0.05. RESULTS: With a median time from surgery to the last censoring date for the entire cohort of 72.2 mo, a total of 631 patients were still alive at the last follow-up and the median survival time was 35.5 mo. The surgical approach (left transthoracic vs Ivor-Lewis/tri-incisional) was verified as independent prognostic significance in patients with N0 or N1 status, but not in those with N2-3 status. Similar results were also observed with the number of resected LNs (≤ 14 vs ≥ 15). Compared with surgery alone, combined therapy achieved better outcomes in patients with N1 or N2-3 status, but not in those with N0 status. For those with N2-3 status, neither the surgical approach nor the number of resected LNs reached significance by univariate analysis, with unadjusted HRs of 0.826 (95%CI: 0.644-1.058) and 0.849 (95%CI: 0.668-1.078), respectively, and aggressiveness of surgery did not influence the outcome; the longest survival was observed in those patients who received the combined therapy. CONCLUSION: Combined therapy has a positive role in OSCC with LN
Scherer, Heidi L.
Over the past decade, several authors have conducted studies on samples of college students to gain a greater understanding of victimization among this population. This body of research has demonstrated that in comparison to the general public, college students are more likely to report having experienced sexual and stalking victimization. At the…
The Effects of Victim of Bullying Reputation on Adolescents' Choice of Friends: Mediation by Fear of Becoming a Victim of Bullying, Moderation by Victim Status, and Implications for Befriending Interventions
Boulton, Michael J.
Research has shown that victims of bullying fare less well on measures of peer affiliation than nonvictims, but less is known about the direction of effects and the mechanisms involved. Three linked studies addressed the latter two issues using an experimental paradigm with hypothetical vignettes (N = 360). In Experiment 1, among both boys and…
Parkhill, Michele R; Pickett, Scott M
Although numerous studies document a link between child sexual abuse and later sexual assault perpetration in men, little research has examined why this relationship exists. One potential mechanism may be emotional regulation difficulties. The current study utilizes a college sample of 132 men to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties on the relationship between experiencing child sexual abuse and later sexual aggression. Although emotion regulation difficulties in general was not significantly related to sexual aggression, one facet, impulse control difficulties, emerged as a significant mediator of the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual aggression. Intervention programs should focus on the care that children receive following sexual abuse, with particular emphasis on how emotion regulation abilities may be impacted. PMID:27561122
Meka, Phanni bhushann; Jarjapu, Sarika; Nanchari, Santhoshi Rani; Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar; Edathara, Prajitha Mohandas; Gorre, Manjula; Cingeetham, Anuradha; Vuree, Sugunakar; Annamaneni, Sandhya; Dunna, Nageswara Rao; Mukta, Srinivasulu; B, Triveni; Satti, Vishnupriya
LCN2 (Lipocalin 2) is a 25 KD secreted acute phase protein, reported to be a novel regulator of angiogenesis in breast cancer. Up regulation of LCN2 had been observed in multiple cancers including breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and ovarian cancer. However, the role of LCN2 promoter methylation in the formation of microvessels is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of LCN 2 promoter methylation with microvessel formation and tumor cell proliferation in breast cancer patients. The LCN2 promoter methylation status was studied in 64 breast cancer tumors by methylation specific PCR (MSP). Evaluation of microvessel density (MVD) and Ki67 cell proliferation index was achieved by immunohistochemical staining using CD34 and MIB-1 antibodies, respectively. LCN2 promoter unmethylation status was observed in 43 (67.2%) of breast cancer patients whereas LCN2 methylation status was seen in 21 (32.8%). Further, LCN2 promoter unmethylation status was associated with aggressive tumor phenotype and elevated mean MVD in breast cancer patients. PMID:26163623
Closson, Leanna M.
This study involved an examination of the role of perceived popularity and social dominance in the social behaviors used within early adolescents' (N = 387) friendship cliques. A status hierarchy between cliques within each grade (based on peer-rated perceived popularity) and a status hierarchy between individuals within each clique (based on…
Nicolosi, Júlia Teixeira; de Carvalho, Viviane Fernandes; Sabatés, Ana Llonch; Paggiaro, André Oliveira
Teenagers may experience physiological and psychological changes when they suffer from a severe burn. The aim of this study was to assess the state of health of teenagers who were undergoing a rehabilitation process following a severe burn. A cross-sectional field study was carried out with 63 teenagers and young adults who had suffered burns. The tests applied were social, demographic, and clinical instruments. The specific tests included the Burn Specific Health Scale-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Functional Independence Measurement. The results were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, variance analysis, and Cronbach's reliability analysis. The social and demographic analysis of the population has shown a prevalence of female (60.3%), single subjects (93.7%), and ages between 12 and 20 years (mean age of 15.95 years). The mean total body surface area burn was 23.84%, with accidents as the main causative factor (92.10%). More than half (52.4%) reported functional and aesthetic effects after the burn, with 81% concerned about the visible scar. Cronbach's reliability analysis has shown statistically confident results for all the instruments as applied. The multivariate analysis showed a correlation between the work domain and marital status, whereas there was no evidence to show a correlation between sex, age, physical or aesthetic sequelae or visibility of burns, and depression, self-esteem, functional independence, or current state of health. The results obtained prove the reliability of the instruments applied, making it possible to assess the state of teenagers and young adults health during the rehabilitation process. PMID:24297081
Moss, H B; Mezzich, A; Yao, J K; Gavaler, J; Martin, C S
An association between childhood aggression and risk for subsequent development of a substance abuse disorder is now well-accepted. In order to better understand the relationship between the presence of paternal substance abuse and aggression among their offspring, 10-12 year old sons of fathers with (n = 34) and without (n = 39) a history of a substance abuse disorder were contrasted on demographics, aggressivity, biological indices of reproductive maturation, and the presence of psychiatric diagnoses. In addition, personality factors, the potential for physical abuse, and psychiatric diagnoses were also ascertained among their fathers. Sons of substance-abusing fathers were found to be significantly more aggressive than sons of nonsubstance abusers. However, they also differed from comparison boys on the basis of SES and school grade attained, as well as the proportion with specific psychiatric disorders. Substance-abusing fathers differed from nonsubstance-abusing men in terms of personality factors and the presence of specific psychiatric disorders, including antisocial personality. They also showed significantly higher child abuse potential scores. A multiple regression analysis of factors contributing to aggression in the boys revealed that a paternal personality factor characterized by stress reactivity, alienation, and aggression was the most robust contributor to aggression among the boys. The boys' diagnoses of attention deficit disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and lower household socioeconomic status were also significant predictors of aggressivity. Contrary to expectations, paternal, psychiatric diagnoses, substance abuse status, and potential for physical abuse were noncontributory. The results suggest potential mechanisms by which both aggression and risk for substance abuse may be transmitted from father to son. PMID:7639206
Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.
Examining longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 927), we assessed associations between physical victimization by an intimate partner, indicators of poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms among young adult men and women in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In zero-order models, we found that physical victimization increased depressive symptoms. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depressive symptoms with the inclusion of prior depressive symptoms, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. Yet with the additional inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depressive symptoms. The associations between victimization and depressive symptoms did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor relationship quality on depressive symptoms conditional on gender. Thus, depressive symptoms are similarly responsive to intimate partner victimization, and for both women and men these associations were not significant with the inclusion of indicators of poor relationship quality. Findings underscored that victimization often occurs within relationship contexts characterized by a range of negative dynamics; thus multifaceted relationship-centered prevention and intervention efforts are likely to be more useful than those focusing only on negative messages about the use of aggression with an intimate partner. PMID:25131276
Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.
Similarity in early adolescent friends' general aggressiveness is well known, but questions remain regarding the degree to which friends aggress against the same victims. The authors examined this by administering the newly created Dyadic Aggression and Victimization Inventory to 417 sixth- through eighth-grade boys and girls (53%). Friends …
Barry, John J; Lembke, Anna; Bullock, Kim D
Interventions that have been utilized to control seizures in people with epilepsy have been employed by the psychiatric community to treat a variety of disorders. The purpose of this review will be to give an overview of the most prominent uses of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and devices like the Vagus Nerve Stimulator (VNS) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of psychiatric disease states. By far, the most prevalent use of these interventions is in the treatment of mood disorders. AEDs have become a mainstay in the effective treatment of Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of valproic acid for acute mania, and lamotrigine for BAD maintenance therapy. AEDs are also effectively employed in the treatment of anxiety and aggressive disorders. Finally, VNS and TMS are emerging as possibly useful tools in the treatment of more refractory depressive illness. PMID:15112459
Background Data regarding the impact of early risk factors on later involvement in bullying are scarce. We investigated the impact of preschool behaviors, family characteristics (socio-economic status, family breakup) and parental mental health on bullying and victimization at age 11 (T1) and age 13.5 (T2). Methods longitudinal data from a subsample of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) (T1: N = 982; T2: N = 977). TRAILS is a prospective study of adolescent mental health in a mixed urban and rural region of the Netherlands. At T1 parents reported on family characteristics, parental mental health and retrospectively on children's preschool behavior at age 4-5. Schoolmates reported involvement of adolescents in bullying or victimization at T1 and T2. Results Children with preschool anxiety were less likely to be bully/victim at T1. Children with preschool aggressiveness were more likely to be bully (T1), bully/victim (T1 and T2) and victim (T2) and children with good preschool motor functioning were more likely to be bully (T1) and less likely to be victim (T1 and T2). Children from low socioeconomic status families were more likely be to be bully, victim, or bully/victim and less likely to be uninvolved both at T1 and T2. Finally, children from intact two parent families were more likely to be uninvolved at T2. Conclusion Preschool behavioral, emotional and motor problems, socioeconomic status, and family breakup are related to involvement in bullying at a later age. Prevention of bullying and its consequences can be enhanced by focusing on risk groups in early life. PMID:21645403
Schacter, Hannah L; White, Samantha J; Chang, Vickie Y; Juvonen, Jaana
This study examines the role of characterological self-blame as a unique risk factor associated with other known risk factors (depression and its behavioral and social correlates) for continued victimization across the 1st year of middle school. Relying on a large, ethnically diverse sample of 1,698 young adolescents (M(age) = 11.57, SD = .39; 55% female), self-report assessments in the fall and spring included perceptions of victim status, depressive symptoms, friendships, aggression, and responses to a hypothetical victimization vignette assessing both appraisals (characterological self-blame) and behavioral reactions (helpless responding). In addition to depression, characterological self-blame emerged as the most consistent unique risk factor for subsequent victimization. Mediation analysis suggested that the continuity of victimization between fall and spring could be partially explained by increases in characterological self-blame and depressive symptoms. In addition, cross-lagged panel analyses indicated reciprocal relations between peer victimization and characterological self-blame, suggesting cyclical processes. The study findings suggest that attribution retraining in the beginning of middle school might help prevent escalating risk for continued peer victimization. PMID:24483145
Ivarsson, Tord; Broberg, Anders G; Arvidsson, Tomas; Gillberg, Christopher
Adolescents in junior high school (n = 237), completed a questionnaire on bullying as it relates to victim and to perpetrator status, suicidality and biographical data. Psychological symptoms were assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) supplemented by school health officers blind assessments. Bullying was common: bully only (18%), victim only (10%) and victim and bully (9%). Bullies had mainly externalizing symptoms (delinquency and aggression) and those of the victim and bully group both externalizing and internalizing symptoms as well as high levels of suicidality. Adolescents in the bully only group were more likely to be boys and to have attention problems. Moreover, a substantial proportion of the adolescents in the victim only group were judged by school health officer to have psychiatric symptoms and to function socially less well. PMID:16757465
SOUTO, Rafaella Q.; ARAÚJO, Francisco K. C. D.; XAVIER, Alidianne F. C.; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro L.
Background: Violence against women is a serious social problem and affects mainly young women. This study aimed to evaluate sexual violence against women in Campina Grande, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of 886 forensic medical reports of sexual violence from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Campina Grande, Brazil, was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009. Sociodemographic variables related to victims, offenders and aggressions were analyzed. Significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of rape (32.8%) were confirmed, the majority of victims aged between 0 and 19 years (89.9%), were single (98.8%) and had low educational level (86.9%), with association with marital status (P = 0.02). The sex offender was known to the victim in 84.2% of cases and in 93.8% of cases, he acted alone. There was an association between rape and the relationship with the offenders (P = 0.01) and the age of the offenders (P = 0.03). The rape occurred in most cases at the home of victims (49.3%), with the use of violence in 72.3% of cases, but only 5.7% of the victims exhibited physical injuries. There was an association between rape and variables date of occurrence (P = 0.001), previous virginity (P = 0.001) and violence during practice (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Over one third of women were victims of rape, predominantly adolescents, unmarried and with low educational level. The offenders were known to the victims, and acted alone in most situations, making use of physical violence. PMID:26811812
Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839
de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R
Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status. PMID:25467027
Rassenti, Laura Z.; Jain, Sonia; Keating, Michael J.; Wierda, William G.; Grever, Michael R.; Byrd, John C.; Kay, Neil E.; Brown, Jennifer R.; Gribben, John G.; Neuberg, Donna S.; He, Feng; Greaves, Andrew W.; Rai, Kanti R.
Leukemia-cell expression of ZAP-70, CD38, or unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes (U-IGHV) each is associated with aggressive disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To assess the relative strength of each marker, we defined thresholds for designating a case as positive for CD38 or ZAP-70 in a test cohort of 307 patients and used these data-defined criteria to stratify patients in an independent cohort of 705 patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that ZAP-70 was the strongest risk factor. Knowledge of the IGHV mutation status or CD38 did not improve our ability to predict the time to first treatment except for ZAP-70–negative cases, which could be segregated into 2 groups of intermediate-risk or low-risk disease based on whether they expressed unmutated or mutated IGHV. ZAP-70 maintained its high relative prognostic value for the subset of patients with early-stage, asymptomatic disease, including patients evaluated within 1 year of diagnosis. Although it is premature to recommend therapy based on these risk factors, patients with ZAP-70–positive CLL cells should be monitored closely for disease progression as they have a median time from diagnosis to requiring initial therapy by standard criteria of approximately 3 years. PMID:18577710
Sontag, Lisa M.; Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.; Lyndon, Sarah T.
To date, relatively little is known about differences between perpetrators and victims of cyber and traditional forms of aggression. Hence, this study investigated differences among traditional and cyber aggressors and victims on psychosocial characteristics typically examined in research on traditional aggression and victimization, specifically…
Risser, Scott D.
To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…
McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…
Tisak, Marie S.; Wichorek, Michele George; Tisak, John
Adolescents, 12 to 18 years (N = 962), were asked how often they worried about, heard about, witnessed, were victimized by, and committed aggression at or near their schools. Social, moderate physical, and violent aggression were assessed. Females heard, worried, and witnessed more social aggression than males, but both were victims and/or…
Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li
The primary purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between aggressive behavior and social and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of children (N = 1,171; 591 boys, 580 girls; initial M age = 9 years) in China participated in the study. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected in Grades 3 and 4 from multiple sources including peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results indicated that the main effects of aggression on adjustment were more evident than those of adjustment on aggression. Moreover, aggression was negatively associated with later leadership status and positively associated with later peer victimization, mainly for high-achieving children. The results suggested that consistent with the resource-potentiating model, academic achievement served to enhance the positive development of children with low aggression. On the other hand, although the findings indicated fewer main effects of adjustment on aggression, loneliness, depression, and perceived social incompetence positively predicted later aggression for low-achieving, but not high-achieving, children, which suggested that consistent with the stress-buffering model, academic achievement protected children with psychological difficulties from developing aggressive behavior. The results indicate that academic achievement is involved in behavioral and socioemotional development in different manners in Chinese children. Researchers should consider an integrative approach based on children's behavioral, psychological, and academic functions in designing prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23557214
Dettenborn, Harry; Lautsch, Erwin
Reports on a study of 2,553 students' attitudes toward aggression in schools. Finds differentiated results based on demographic data and with the students' personal involvement in the aggressive acts as either the perpetrator or victim. Discusses practical consequences of the study for schools. (CFR)
Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Objective Reciprocal longitudinal associations among weight-related behaviors and cognitions and peer relations constructs were examined among adolescent males and females. Methods Participants included 576 adolescents aged 10–14 years, in grades 6–8. Measures assessed body dissatisfaction, negative weight-related cognitions, weight management behaviors, muscle-gaining behaviors, body mass index (BMI), likeability, popularity, and victimization at two time points, approximately 11 months apart. Multiple group path analyses were conducted to examine the reciprocal longitudinal associations between the peer relations constructs and weight-related behaviors and cognitions, controlling for participants’ Time 1 BMI, pubertal development, and age. Results Higher levels of body dissatisfaction were associated longitudinally with decreases in popularity. Higher popularity and lower likeability each were associated longitudinally with increases in negative body-related cognitions. Higher popularity was associated longitudinally with muscle-gaining behaviors for boys. Conclusions Findings suggest highly popular and disliked adolescents may be at greater risk of weight-related behaviors and cognitions than other adolescents. PMID:19667053
Stephens, Kari A; George, William H
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and behavioral indicators, measured across three time points. Positive effects are found for rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, and behavioral intentions to rape. Only rape myth acceptance and victim empathy effects sustain at the 5-week follow-up. High-risk men are generally unaffected by the intervention although low-risk men produced larger effects than the entire sample. Results suggest rape prevention studies must assess risk status moderation effects to maximize prevention for high-risk men. More research is needed to develop effective rape prevention with men who are at high risk to rape. PMID:18591366
Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James
Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence. PMID:24331300
Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; De Winter, Andrea F; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan
Research on bullying and victimization largely rests on univariate analyses and on reports from a single informant. Researchers may thus know too little about the simultaneous effects of various independent and dependent variables, and their research may be biased by shared method variance. The database for this Dutch study was large (N = 1,065) and rich enough to allow multivariate analysis and multi-source information. In addition, the effect of familial vulnerability for internalizing and externalizing disorders was studied. Gender, aggressiveness, isolation, and dislikability were most strongly related to bullying and victimization. Among the many findings that deviated from or enhanced the univariate knowledge base were that not only victims and bully/victims but bullies as well were disliked and that parenting was unrelated to bullying and victimization once other factors were controlled. PMID:16060813
Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.
Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…
Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M
This research examines how family dynamics like interparental conflict, family violence, and quality of parenting are associated with young children's experiences of sibling victimization. We use nationally representative data from interviews with caregivers of 1,726 children aged 2 to 9 years of age. We hypothesized different family dynamics predictors for a composite of common types of sibling victimization (property, psychological, and mild physical aggression) in comparison to severe physical sibling victimization (victimization that includes physical aggression with a weapon and/or injury). Multinomial regression results showed that sibling victimization in general was associated with negative family dynamics but that children in the severe group had even less parental warmth, poor parental supervision, and greater exposure to interparental conflict and family violence than children in the common types victimization group. Different aspects of family dynamics contribute to sibling victimization, but possibly in different ways and with different consequences. The findings underscore the importance of a family systems theory approach to clinical and intervention work. PMID:25111955
Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals. PMID:12733420
Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Hessel, Elenda T.; Schmidt, Jennifer D.
Peer victimization has been implicated as a traumatic stressor that compromises children’s long-term mental health, yet a dearth of prospective research specifically demonstrates lasting effects of early victimization. This research examined whether early (2nd grade) victimization and increasing (2nd – 5th grade) victimization independently predicted depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior (overt and relational) in 5th grade. Participants included 433 children (238 girls, 195 boys). Children reported on peer victimization and depressive symptoms; teachers reported on peer victimization and aggressive behavior. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that both early and increasing victimization made unique contributions to subsequent depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior. Relational aggression was particularly likely to follow victimization in girls. PMID:21229448
Burton, D L
Three groups of boys in Washington State care (37 sexually aggressive, 17 physically aggressive, and 15 nonaggressive) are compared on measures of behavior and cognition. Bandura's Social Cognition theory is offered as a possible explanation for sexual aggression by children. Two theory-based hypothesis are tested. First, are sexually aggressive children cognitively deficient when compared to the other groups? Second, do the sexually aggressive children have cognitive distortions about their behavior and about sex? Similarities were found in the aggressive and sexually aggressive groups on several measures. Physically aggressive boys were found to have some sexual behavior problems. Sexually aggressive boys were also found to be physically aggressive. Physically aggressive boys were found to have the least severe and least frequent victimization history. No support was found for the first hypothesis, while some evidence of cognitive distortions regarding both social behavior and sex was found in the sexually aggressive children. Discussion and some implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:10418769
Hunter, Simon C.; Boyle, James M. E.; Warden, David
Background: The experiences of peer-victimization and bullying are often treated empirically as though they are conceptually indistinct. Both involve repeated aggression, but definitions of bullying additionally emphasize the importance of aggressor intent and imbalance of power between the aggressor and the victim (Olweus, 1978; Whitney & Smith,…
Hanish, Laura D.; Ryan, Patti; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.
The goal of this study was to investigate differences in the social context of peer victimization for preschoolers and kindergarteners. Data were collected from 168 children. For preschoolers, neither social acceptance nor friendships were significantly related to peer victimization. Instead, playing with peers and exposure to aggressive peers…
Georgiou, Stelios N.
Background: Social learning literature is used in order to describe the contextual parameters of peer aggression, and specifically bullying and victimization. Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal characteristics on their child's victimization or bullying experience at school. Sample: The participants were 252…
Edmondson, Lynne; Zeman, Laura Dreuth
Common in the research literature on bullying is the dichotomy of bullying and victim behavior. The present definition of a bully is a person who has engaged in repeated acts of aggression or harm to persons over whom he or she has power. The literature on bullies examines gender differences at length. However, the bully-victim literature has yet…
Sugimura, Niwako; Rudolph, Karen D.
This research examined the hypothesis that temperament and sex moderate the contribution of peer victimization to children's subsequent adjustment (aggression and depressive symptoms). Children (125 boys, 158 girls; M age = 7.95 years, SD = 0.32; 77.7% White, 22.3% minority) and teachers reported on overt and relational victimization. Parents…
Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley
This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents aged 12-18 (57% females) reported the frequency of involvement in bullying and victimization. Participants were categorized as bullies (14.3%), bully-victims (3.9%), and victims (9.7%). Moral judgment, moral justifications, and emotion attributions to a hypothetical perpetrator of a moral transgression (relational aggression) were assessed. Bullies showed more morally disengaged reasoning than non-involved students. Bully-victims more frequently indicated that violating moral rules is right. Victims produced more victim-oriented justifications (i.e., more empathy) but fewer moral rules. Among victims, the frequency of morally responsible justifications decreased and the frequency of deviant rules increased with age. The findings are discussed from an integrative moral developmental perspective. PMID:23039330
Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Salmivalli, Christina; Cillessen, Antonius H N
This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects) and whether victimization of friends contributed to changes in victimization (influence effects). This was done for peer-reported relational and physical victimization separately in two middle schools (total N = 480; N = 220, 47% girls, in School 1; N = 260, 52% girls, in School 2) across three time points (Grades 6 through 8; M ages 11.5-13.5). Gender, ethnicity, and baseline aggression were controlled as individual predictors of victimization. Similarity in physical victimization predicted friendship formation, whereas physical victimization was not influenced by friends' victimization but rather by adolescents' own physical aggression. Peer influence effects existed for relational victimization, in that adolescents with victimized friends were more likely to increase in victimization over time as well, over and above the effect of adolescents' own relational aggression. These selection and influence effects were not further qualified by gender. The results suggested that both selection and influence processes as well as individual characteristics play a role in the co-evolution of friendships and victimization, but that these processes are specific for different types of victimization. PMID:23446945
Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.
Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…
Holt, Melissa K.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Research indicates that social support plays a protective role among adolescents, but little research has explicitly evaluated its function among youth involved in bullying. Accordingly, this study examined relations among social support, bully/victim status, and psychological distress in a sample of 784 ethnically diverse youth. We assessed…
Bejerot, Susanne; Plenty, Stephanie; Humble, Alice; Humble, Mats B
Children who are clumsy are often bullied. Nevertheless, motor skills have been overlooked in research on bullying victimization. A total of 2,730 Swedish adults (83% females) responded to retrospective questions on bullying, their talents in physical education (i.e., coordination and balls skills) and school academics. Poor talents were used as indicators of poor gross motor skills and poor academic skills. A subset of participants also provided information on educational level in adulthood, childhood obesity, belonging to an ethic minority in school and socioeconomic status relative to schoolmates. A total of 29.4% of adults reported being bullied in school, and 18.4% reported having below average gross motor skills. Of those with below average motor skills, 48.6% were bullied in school. Below average motor skills in childhood were associated with an increased risk (OR 3.01 [95% CI: 1.97–4.60]) of being bullied, even after adjusting for the influence of lower socioeconomic status, poor academic performance, being overweight, and being a bully. Higher odds for bully victimization were also associated with lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.29 [95% CI: 1.45–3.63]), being overweight (OR 1.71 [95% CI: 1.18–2.47]) and being a bully (OR 2.18 [95% CI: 1.53–3.11]). The findings indicate that poor gross motor skills constitute a robust risk-marker for vulnerability for bully victimization. Aggr. Behav. 39:453–461, 2013. © 2013 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley-Blackwell PMID:23784933
Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit
School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…
Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Hosan, Naheed E.
The current study bridges research on peer relational and physical victimization with research on ethnic victimization and situates this research in the context of ethnic diversity. Specifically, the authors investigate how ethnic, relational, and physical victimization relate to concurrent levels of depression/anxiety and physical aggression and…
Sulkowski, Michael L.; Bauman, Sheri; Wright, Savannah; Nixon, Charisse; Davis, Stan
The phenomenology of peer victimization in youth from immigrant and non-immigrant US families was investigated in the current study. Specifically, differences in how youth were victimized, their responses to being victimized, and how peer bystanders responded to peer aggression incidents involving youth from these respective groups were…
Sevcikova, Anna; Smahel, David; Otavova, Mlada
The goal of this study was to explore how victims of cyberbullying perceive online aggressive attacks and when they see them as harmful. Interviews were carried out with 16 cybervictimised participants aged 15-17 years. The findings showed differences in the perception of online victimisation when perpetrated by an anonymous Internet user versus…
Andrews, Naomi C Z; Hanish, Laura D; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Santos, Carlos E
Are early adolescent victims of peer-directed aggression youth who hold prominent positions in the social hierarchy or those who are socially marginalized? The present study tackles this question by testing for linear and curvilinear relationships between social network prestige and physical and relational forms of peer victimization for boys and girls. Participants were 952 middle schoolers (age range = 10-14 years; 49.9 % girls; 44 % Latino). Participants nominated victims and friends; friendship nominations were used to calculate social network prestige. Both hypotheses received support, with variation by gender. Girls high in social network prestige were highly victimized. For boys, those both high and low in social network prestige were highly victimized, whereas those at mid-levels of social network prestige were low in victimization. The findings are discussed in relation to a social dominance model of peer-directed aggression, and the practical implications are discussed in relation to protecting youth who are frequent targets of peer victimization. PMID:26920566
Kozlowski, Karen Phelan; Warber, Kathleen M.
Girls respond to peer attacks of indirect social aggression in various ways. This study explores when and how victims retaliate against their aggressors. Qualitative interviews with 15 adolescent girls ages 10-16 suggest that victims of social aggression are likely to retaliate when their aggressors communicate the following: identity attacks,…
Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Taiariol, Jennifer; Yoon, Jina
The role of family and school-level variables on relational aggression and relational victimization was investigated among 158 fourth- and fifth-grade children. Family cohesion, maternal and paternal responsiveness, and school climate were hypothesized to be significant predictors of relational aggression and relational victimization. The results…
Card, Noel A; Hodges, Ernest V E
Similarity in early adolescent friends' general aggressiveness is well known, but questions remain regarding the degree to which friends aggress against the same victims. The authors examined this by administering the newly created Dyadic Aggression and Victimization Inventory to 417 sixth- through eighth-grade boys and girls (53%). Friends were found to share more targets for aggression than nonfriends, even after general levels of aggression were controlled (all ps < .05). Moreover, greater sharing of targets with friends relative to nonfriends was more pronounced among aggressive youths than nonaggressive youths, especially among aggressive youths' best friends relative to their other friends. Generally, these findings were similar across boys and girls as well as among older and younger youths. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17087564
Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou
This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender. PMID:26773898
This study examined the relationship between countries' dominant cultural values (i.e., individualism and collectivism) and (a) school principals' perceptions of aggressive student behavior and (b) students' self-reports of being aggressively victimized in school. Data on student aggression and victimization were collected across 62 countries in nationally representative samples of fourth and eighth graders (N = 428,566) and their principals (N = 15,043) by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007. Students were asked about three forms of aggressive victimization: physical, verbal, and relational; principals about two forms of aggressive student behavior: physical and verbal. Country-level regression analyses revealed that the level of cultural individualism, according to the individualism index (IDV) by Hofstede, Hofstede, and Minkov (2010), was not significantly related to either form of student-reported victimization. However, school principals reported aggressive student behavior more often the more individualist, and hence less collectivist, their country's culture. This relation was evident in the principals' reports on 4th and 8th grade students' aggressive behavior for both physical and verbal aggression. Multilevel analyses revealed that cultural individualism was still a powerful predictor of principal-reported aggressive student behavior after controlling for school and country characteristics. The discussion outlines reasons why principals' reports of aggressive student behavior are probably more valid indicators of student aggression than student self-reports of victimization, thereby supporting the hypothesis of culture-dependency of aggression. PMID:23494751
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…
Jenson, Jeffrey M; Dieterich, William A
We report results from a group-randomized trial of a prevention program aimed at preventing bullying and other aggressive behaviors. Fourth grade classrooms at 28 public elementary schools were assigned to receive selected modules of the Youth Matters prevention curriculum or to a no-treatment control condition. Cross-classified multilevel models were fitted to four waves of data collected over 2 years to test the effect of the intervention on self-reported bullying and bully victimization. No systematic change in bullying other students was observed. In a continuous outcome growth model, bully victim scale scores declined over the course of the study and the rate of decline in victimization was significantly higher in experimental schools relative to control schools. But the results from binary outcome growth models indicate no significant treatment effects on bully status or bully victim status over time. Implications of findings for the implementation of anti-bullying strategies in urban public school settings are discussed. PMID:17968657
Smith, Alexandra; Crouch, Simon; Howell, Debra; Burton, Cathy; Patmore, Russell; Roman, Eve
Aim To examine the influence of patient’s age and socio-economic status on treatment and outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); an aggressive curable cancer, with an incidence rate that increases markedly with age but varies little with socio-economic status. Methods Set within a representative UK population of around 4 million, data are from an established patient cohort. This report includes all patients (≥18years) newly diagnosed with DLBCL 2004–2012, with follow-up to February 2015. Results Of the 2137 patients (median age 70.2 years) diagnosed with denovo DLBCL, 1709 (80%) were treated curatively/intensively and 1161(54.3%) died during follow-up. Five-year overall and relative survival (RS) estimates were 46.2% (95% CI 44.0–48.4%) and 54.6% (52.1%-57.0%) respectively for all patients, and 58.5% (56.1–60.9%) and 67.0% (64.3–69.6%) for intensively treated patients. 96.3% of patients <55 years (366/380) and 96.4% of those with the best performance status (543/563) were treated curatively: 5-year RSs being 77.9% (73.1–82%) and 87.1% (82.5–90.6%) respectively. At the other end of the age/fitness spectrum, 33.3% of those ≥85 years (66/198) and 41.1% with the worst performance (94/225) were treated curatively: the corresponding 5-year RSs being 50.5% (27.1–69.0%) and 22.9% (14.0–33.2%). The proportion of patients whose cancer was fully staged fell with increasing age and worsening performance status. No socio-economic variations with treatment, stage at presentation or outcome were detected. Conclusions Performance status is more discriminatory of survival than chronological age, with fitter patients benefiting from treatment across all ages. Socio-economic factors are not predictive of outcome in patients with DLBCL in the UK. PMID:26341588
Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Lyons, Brent J
Types of perpetrators of workplace aggression can vary considerably, and recent research has demonstrated that aggression from different perpetrator categories has different implications for victims. We extended research on multifoci aggression and explored affective and cognitive pathways linking verbal aggression from four perpetrator types--supervisors, coworkers, customers, and significant others--and employee morale and turnover intention. Data from a sample of 446 working adults indicated that both emotional strain and employees' corresponding judgments of their social exchange relationships with these perpetrators served as the mechanisms for the association between aggression from supervisors, coworkers, and customers and morale and turnover intention. Coworker aggression had a direct association with turnover intention and significant other aggression was related to turnover intention only through emotional strain. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22122549
Humphrey, Jamie L; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R
This study examined the correlation of peer victimization to psychosocial adjustment in a sample of children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 303 files of youth who received a psycho-educational assessment were reviewed; of these, 116 had an ADHD diagnosis. The data collected included the Child Behavior Checklist (which includes items assessing peer victimization), Conner's Parent Rating Scale, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale and Children's Depression Inventory. Peer victimization was positively correlated with parent reports of anxiety, depression, social problems, delinquent behavior and aggressive behavior. Children with a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis with ADHD reported higher rates of peer victimization than those without a comorbid diagnosis. Children diagnosed with ADHD along with a comorbid externalizing psychiatric diagnosis experienced higher rates of peer victimization than those with a comorbid internalizing psychiatric diagnosis. The implications of this study concerning peer victimization and psychosocial adjustment in children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:17709359
Kaynak, Övgü; Lepore, Stephen J.; Kliewer, Wendy; Jaggi, Lena
Peer victimization is linked to adjustment problems in youth, including aggressive behavior, yet not all victimized youth are aggressive. The present study investigated whether youth’s anger regulation coping might attenuate the positive association between peer victimization and subsequent aggressive behavior. Longitudinal data from 485 7th-grade students (55% female, mean age = 12.84 years) and their teachers were collected in the fall and six months later. Teacher ratings of youth aggressive behavior at follow-up were the primary outcome, with statistical adjustments for baseline aggressive behavior and demographics. Results from multilevel models showed significant interactive effects of baseline anger regulation and peer victimization on residualized teacher-rated aggressive behaviors that were consistent with the hypothesis that anger regulation played a protective role: under high levels of peer victimization, youth with higher levels of anger regulation displayed lower levels of aggressive behavior than their counterparts with lower levels of anger regulation. These findings suggest that targeting and improving students’ ability to regulate their anger may be protective in the face of peer victimization and reduce subsequent aggressive behavior. PMID:25309013
Leenaars, Lindsey; Rinaldi, Christina M.
This study examines the role of sex, gender role orientation, social representations of indirect aggression, and indicators of psychosocial adjustment in indirect aggression and victimization in an emerging adult sample. A total of 42 participants (19 men, 23 women) recruited are required to complete the questionnaires, along with 18 participants…