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Sample records for agressividade ao amor

  1. AMORE: Applied Momentum for Orbital Refuse Elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, M.

    2014-09-01

    The need for active orbital debris remediation has increasingly gained acceptance throughout the space community throughout the last decade as the threat to our assets has also increased. While there have been a wide variety of conceptual solutions proposed, a debris removal system has yet to be put in place. The challenges that stand in the way of action are formidable and range from technical to political to economic. The AMORE concept is a nascent technique that has the potential to address these challenges and bring active debris remediation into reality. It uses an on-orbit low energy neutral particle beam (~10 keV, TBD) to impart momentum onto medium (5mm 10 cm) debris objects in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), thereby reducing their kinetic energy and expediting their reentry. The advantage of this technique over other proposed concepts is that it does not require delta-V intensive rendezvous, has an effective range that allows daily access to hundreds of debris objects, and does not create policy concerns over violation of international treaties. In essence, AMORE would be a medium-sized high power satellite with one or more particle beams fed by a large propellant tank, and an on-board tracking sensor that provides beam control. The particle beam would be similar to existing Xenon Hall Effect thrusters being used today, with the addition of a beam lens that would focus and aim the beam. The primary technical challenge of this concept is the focusing, pointing, and closed loop control of the beam that is necessary to maintain effective momentum transfer at ranges up to 100 km. This effective range is critical in order to maximize daily access to debris objects. Even in the densely populated 800 km debris band, it can be expected that a single AMORE system would be within 100 km of a debris object less than an hour a day. Space is big, and range is critical for timely, cost effective debris removal. Initial analysis indicates that a single AMORE vehicle operating in

  2. Meteorites from recent amor-type orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    We report here the discovery of a recent meteorite shower in Antarctica, the members of which have very high natural thermoluminescence levels. It is apparent from these data that the shower has been on Earth only a short time (approximately 1000 years) and the meteorite probably came to Earth through rapid (less than 10 exp 5 years) evolution from an orbit with perihelion greater than 1.1 AU, similar to Amor asteroids. Only a very small number of meteorites, including a few modern falls, appear to have had similar orbital histories.

  3. Application of AMOR in Craniofacial Rabbit Bone Bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anthony; Chee, Young Deok; Kook, Joong-Ki; Zadeh, Homayoun H.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous molecular and cellular mediators modulate tissue repair and regeneration. We have recently described antibody mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR) as a novel strategy for bioengineering bone in rat calvarial defect. This entails application of anti-BMP-2 antibodies capable of in vivo capturing of endogenous osteogenic BMPs (BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7). The present study sought to investigate the feasibility of AMOR in other animal models. To that end, we examined the efficacy of a panel of anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a polyclonal Ab immobilized on absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) to mediate bone regeneration within rabbit calvarial critical size defects. After 6 weeks, de novo bone formation was demonstrated by micro-CT imaging, histology, and histomorphometric analysis. Only certain anti-BMP-2 mAb clones mediated significant in vivo bone regeneration, suggesting that the epitopes with which anti-BMP-2 mAbs react are critical to AMOR. Increased localization of BMP-2 protein and expression of osteocalcin were observed within defects, suggesting accumulation of endogenous BMP-2 and/or increased de novo expression of BMP-2 protein within sites undergoing bone repair by AMOR. Considering the ultimate objective of translation of this therapeutic strategy in humans, preclinical studies will be necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of AMOR in progressively larger animal models. PMID:25705677

  4. Physical properties of Aten, Apollo and Amor asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, Lucy-Ann; Tholen, David J.; Veeder, Glenn J.

    1989-01-01

    Data available on the physical properties of a group of planet-crossing asteroids, the Aten, Apollo, and Amor objects (AAAO) (include data on the taxonomy, mineralogical surface composition, diameter, rotation rate, shape, and surface texture) are presented together with the type of observations used for obtaining these data. These data show that the population of the AAAO is diverse in all of their physical characteristics. This diversity implies that the AAAO come from multiple sources and had different evolutionary histories.

  5. AO Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.; Piggott, D. H.; Morris, S. L.

    1982-04-01

    The first UBV light curves of the system AO Cam are presented, and reveal a W UMa light curve with a period of 0.329917 days. Fourier coefficients for the full B and V light curves were used to place approximate empirical limits on the 75-80 deg inclination, fill-out parameter of approximately 0.8, and mass-ratio in the 0.7-0.8 range, following the methods of Rucinski (1973, 1974). The spectral type of the system is about G5.

  6. Amor: Investigating The Triple Asteroid System 2001 SN263

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T.; Bellerose, Julie; Lee, P.; Prettyman, T.; Lawrence, D.; Smith, P.; Gaffey, M.; Nolan, M.; Goldsten, J.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Farquhar, R.; Heldmann, J.; Reddy, V.; Williams, B.; Chartres, J.; DeRosee, R.; Dunham, D.

    2010-10-01

    The Amor mission will rendezvous and land at the triple Near-Earth Asteroid system (153591) 2001 SN263 and execute detailed, in-situ science investigations. The spacecraft reaches 2001 SN263 by using a two-year ΔVEGA (ΔV-Earth Gravity Assist) trajectory with a relatively low launch C3 of 33.5 km2/s2. Rendezvous will enable reconnaissance activities including global and regional imaging, shape modeling, system dynamics, and compositional mapping. After landing, Amor will conduct in-situ imaging (panoramic to microscopic scale) and compositional measurements to include elemental abundance. The main objectives are to 1) establish in-situ the long-hypothesized link between C-type asteroids and the primitive carbonaceous chondrite (CC) meteorites, 2) investigate the nature, origin and evolution of C-type asteroids, and 3) investigate the origin and evolution of a multiple asteroid system. The mission also addresses the distribution of volatiles and organic materials, impact hazards, and resources for future exploration. Amor is managed by NASA Ames Research Center in partnership with Orbital Sciences, KinetX, MDA, and Draper with heritage instruments provided by Ball Aerospace, JHU/APL, and Firestar Engineering. The science team brings experience from NEAR, Hayabusa, Deep Impact, Dawn, LCROSS, Kepler, and Mars missions. In this paper, we describe the science, mission design, and main operational challenges of performing in-situ science at this triple asteroid system. Challenges include landing on the asteroid components, thermal environment, short day-night cycles, and the operation of deployed instruments in a low gravity (10^-5 g) environment.

  7. On kissing and sighing: Renaissance homoerotic love from Ficino's De Amore and Sopra Lo Amore to Cesare Trevisani's L'impresa (1569).

    PubMed

    Maggi, Armando

    2005-01-01

    This essay investigates the homoerotic connotations present in the so-called treatises on love, a popular philosophical and literary genre of the Italian Renaissance. The referential text of this sixteenth- century genre is Marsilio Ficino's De amore (1484), a deeply innovative interpretation of Plato's Symposium. Focusing on the initial section of Ficino's text, Maggi highlights some important structural differences between the De amore and the Symposium. Moreover, by comparing Ficino's Latin text with his own subsequent Italian translation (Sopra lo amore, 1544), Maggi examines how Ficino interprets some key terms such as appearance and splendor. The second part of the essay studies Cesare Trevisani's L'impresa (1569), a later treatise on love with an explicit homoerotic foundation. PMID:16338898

  8. Retinal AO OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Miller, Donald T.

    The last two decades have witnessed extraordinary advances in optical technology to image noninvasively and at high resolution the posterior segment of the eye. Two of the most impactful technological advancements over this period have arguably been optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adaptive optics (AO). The strengths of these technologies complement each other and when combined have been shown to provide unprecedented, micron-scale resolution (<3 μm) in all three dimensions and sensitivity to image the cellular retina in the living eye. This powerful extension of OCT, that is AO-OCT, is the focus of this chapter. It presents key aspects of designing and implementing AO-OCT systems. Particular attention is devoted to the relevant optical properties of the eye that ultimately define these systems, AO componentry and operation tailored for ophthalmic use, and of course use of the latest technologies and methods in OCT for ocular imaging. It surveys the wide range of AO-OCT designs that have been developed for retinal imaging, with AO integrated into every major OCT design configuration. Finally, it reviews the scientific and clinical studies reported to date that show the exciting potential of AO-OCT to image the microscopic retina and fundus in ways not previously possible with other noninvasive methods and a look to future developments in this rapidly growing field.

  9. Resonances and librations of some Apollo and Amor asteroids with the Earth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, W.-H.; Mehra, R.

    1973-01-01

    The orbital evolution of the Apollo asteroids 1620 Geographos and 1685 Toro and Amor asteroids 433 Eros, 1221 Amor, and 1627 Ivar are investigated by numerical integration. All these asteroids, with the exception of Geographos, exhibit systematic orbital couplings with the Earth during the time interval studied (1600-2350 A.D.). 1685 Toro is captured into libration once with Venus due to the 13.5 resonance, and once with the Earth due to the 8:5 resonance. Both librations are unstable because of the effect of the 13:8 near commensurability of the Venus-Earth system. 433 Eros exhibits no libration pattern; the regular variation of its orbital period is due to the beat-effect of the 4:7 resonance with the Earth.

  10. The AMOR Arabinogalactan Sugar Chain Induces Pollen-Tube Competency to Respond to Ovular Guidance.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Akane G; Inatsugi, Rie; Jiao, Jiao; Kotake, Toshihisa; Kuwata, Keiko; Ootani, Kento; Okuda, Satohiro; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Maruyama, Daisuke; Iwai, Hiroaki; Garénaux, Estelle; Sato, Chihiro; Kitajima, Ken; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Mori, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Junichiro; Itami, Kenichiro; Sasaki, Narie; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-04-25

    Precise directional control of pollen-tube growth by pistil tissue is critical for successful fertilization of flowering plants [1-3]. Ovular attractant peptides, which are secreted from two synergid cells on the side of the egg cell, have been identified [4-6]. Emerging evidence suggests that the ovular directional cue is not sufficient for successful guidance but that competency control by the pistil is critical for the response of pollen tubes to the attraction signal [1, 3, 7]. However, the female molecule for this competency induction has not been reported. Here we report that ovular methyl-glucuronosyl arabinogalactan (AMOR) induces competency of the pollen tube to respond to ovular attractant LURE peptides in Torenia fournieri. We developed a method for assaying the response capability of a pollen tube by micromanipulating an ovule. Using this method, we showed that pollen tubes growing through a cut style acquired a response capability in the medium by receiving a sufficient amount of a factor derived from mature ovules of Torenia. This factor, named AMOR, was identified as an arabinogalactan polysaccharide, the terminal 4-O-methyl-glucuronosyl residue of which was necessary for its activity. Moreover, a chemically synthesized disaccharide, the β isomer of methyl-glucuronosyl galactose (4-Me-GlcA-β-(1→6)-Gal), showed AMOR activity. No specific sugar-chain structure of plant extracellular matrix has been identified as a bioactive molecule involved in intercellular communication. We suggest that the AMOR sugar chain in the ovary renders the pollen tube competent to the chemotropic response prior to final guidance by LURE peptides. PMID:27068416

  11. Discovery and dynamical characterization of the Amor-class asteroid 2012 XH16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, I.; Cernis, K.; Boyle, R. P.; Laugalys, V.

    2014-03-01

    The near-Earth asteroid belt is continuously replenished with material originally moving in Amor-class orbits. Here, the orbit of the dynamically interesting Amor-class asteroid 2012 XH16 is analysed. This asteroid was discovered with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) at the Mt Graham International Observatory as part of an ongoing asteroid survey focused on astrometry and photometry. The orbit of the asteroid was computed using 66 observations (57 obtained with VATT and 9 from the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory-Spacewatch II project) to give a = 1.63 au, e = 0.36, i = 3.76°. The absolute magnitude of the asteroid is 22.3 which translates into a diameter in the range 104-231 m, assuming the average albedos of S-type and C-type asteroids, respectively. We have used the current orbit to study the future dynamical evolution of the asteroid under the perturbations of the planets and the Moon, relativistic effects, and the Yarkovsky force. Asteroid 2012 XH16 is locked close to the strong 1:2 mean motion resonance with the Earth. The object shows stable evolution and could survive in near-resonance for a relatively long period of time despite experiencing frequent close encounters with Mars. Moreover, results of our computations show that the asteroid 2012 XH16 can survive in the Amor region at most for about 200-400 Myr. The evolution is highly chaotic with a characteristic Lyapunov time of 245 yr. Jupiter is the main perturber but the effects of Saturn, Mars and the Earth-Moon system are also important. In particular, secular resonances with Saturn are significant.

  12. The Orbital Evolution of 2007 VA85, an Amor-type Asteroid on a Retrograde Orbit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankiewicz, P.; Włodarczyk, I.

    2010-06-01

    Among the known population of asteroids on retrograde orbits (i > 90°) we found an object classified as an Amor-type asteroid. During the analysis of the first results of astrometry, we found some possible Earth-impact solutions for this asteroid. After taking into account the latest observations, we excluded any significant impact solution. However, this asteroid is the first known example of potentially hazardous object on a retrograde orbit. We also investigated the orbital evolution of 2007 VA85 (1 My in the past), obtaining possible scenarios of its dynamical origin.

  13. Focusing neutron reflectometry: Implementation and experience on the TOF-reflectometer Amor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahn, J.; Glavic, A.

    2016-06-01

    Neutron reflectometry is a powerful tool to investigate chemical and magnetic depth profiles near surfaces. The advantages of neutrons compared to x-rays are their sensitivity to isotopes, the high penetration capabilities and the high sensitivity to magnetic induction. The biggest disadvantage however is the low flux available, which leads to much longer counting times on much larger samples. In order to boost the performance of neutron reflectometers, a focusing guide system was developed and realised over recent years. Here we report on the application and performance of a down-scaled demonstrator of such a Selene guide, installed as an add-on on the time-of-flight (TOF) reflectometer Amor at the PSI. Due to the limited size of the guide, the flux is concentrated to a footprint of at most 2 mm width. It is thus possible to avoid illumination of contacts even on small samples. Despite the fact that typical samples measured on Amor with a size of 10 × 10mm2 are markedly under illuminated, the presented set-up leads to a reduction in counting time of 80%. The use of the demonstrator thus allows for in-situ or in-operando investigations with a time resolution of a few minutes for a qz range from 0.005Å-1 to 0.08Å-1. Besides a short recapitulation of the concept of focusing reflectometry, a detailed description of the data reduction and its quality is given, followed by an application example.

  14. Netchain coordinator services in pork supply chains including inspections according to the AMOR principle.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Juliane; Ellebrecht, Susanne; Petersen, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a mutual inspection concept between livestock production and processing, coordinated by a netchain coordinator acting as the service provider. The concept is based on an analysis of demand and offer with respect to the coordination of livestock health status certificates. Surveys have been conducted amongst piglet producers and pig fatteners (nfarmers=206) to reflect the demand for coordination services. Another survey amongst service providers (nproviders=21) determines the availability of these services. The results show a clear demand amongst farmers for the netchain coordinator services of livestock health status certificates. It has also been found that some service providers offer audit and monitoring procedures to enable certification with highly varying degrees of service quality. Based on the surveys, the joint organisation of livestock health status certificates between producer, fattener and service provider will be presented. It will be shown that for greater efficiency, coordination should be based on the principles of Alliances for the Mutual Organisation of Risk oriented inspection strategies (AMOR). To enable the mutual organisation of inspections, four key steps have been identified to develop and test AMOR as an innovative form of cooperation: (i) inspection design, (ii) responsibilities and tasks, (iii) information and communication structures, and (iv) shared cost and benefit model. PMID:23611336

  15. AO Group Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2005-10-04

    The Adaptive Optics (AO) Group in I Division develops and tests a broad range of advanced wavefront control technologies. Current applications focus on: Remote sensing, High power lasers, Astronomy, and Human vision. In the area of remote sensing, the AO Group leads a collaborative effort with LLNL's Nonproliferation, Arms Control & International Security (NAI) Directorate on Enhanced Surveillance Imaging. The ability to detect and identify individual people or vehicles from long-range is an important requirement for proliferation detection and homeland security. High-resolution imaging along horizontal paths through the atmosphere is limited by turbulence, which blurs and distorts the image. For ranges over {approx}one km, visible image resolution can be reduced by over an order of magnitude. We have developed an approach based on speckle imaging that can correct the turbulence-induced blurring and provide high resolution imagery. The system records a series of short exposure images which freeze the atmospheric effects. We can then estimate the image magnitude and phase using a bispectral estimation algorithm which cancels the atmospheric effects while maintaining object information at the diffraction limit of the imaging system.

  16. Discovery, Observational Data and the Orbit of the Amor Group Asteroid 2010 BT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černis, K.; Zdanavičius, J.; Wlodarczyk, I.; Stonkutė, E.

    A project devoted to astrometric and photometric observations of asteroids at the Molėtai Observatory is described. One of its most important results is the discovery of the asteroid 2010 BT3 belonging to the Amor group of the near-Earth objects. The results of astrometric and photometric observations of the asteroid are presented. The brightness variations of the asteroid are found to be about 0.2 mag in R. The orbit of the asteroid was computed from 96 observations. This orbit, combined with the apparent brightness, gives the absolute magnitude 21.34 mag and the diameter between 160 m and 360 m, taking albedos of S-type and C-type asteroids, respectively.

  17. Development of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for Multiphysics and Multifidelity Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Turinsky, Paul

    2015-02-09

    This project investigated the development and utilization of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for nuclear systems simulation applications. AMoR refers to utilization of several models of physical phenomena which differ in prediction fidelity. If the highest fidelity model is judged to always provide or exceeded the desired fidelity, than if one can determine the difference in a Quantity of Interest (QoI) between the highest fidelity model and lower fidelity models, one could utilize the fidelity model that would just provide the magnitude of the QoI desired. Assuming lower fidelity models require less computational resources, in this manner computational efficiency can be realized provided the QoI value can be accurately and efficiently evaluated. This work utilized Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) to evaluate the QoI, by convoluting the GPT solution with the residual of the highest fidelity model determined using the solution from lower fidelity models. Specifically, a reactor core neutronics problem and thermal-hydraulics problem were studied to develop and utilize AMoR. The highest fidelity neutronics model was based upon the 3D space-time, two-group, nodal diffusion equations as solved in the NESTLE computer code. Added to the NESTLE code was the ability to determine the time-dependent GPT neutron flux. The lower fidelity neutronics model was based upon the point kinetics equations along with utilization of a prolongation operator to determine the 3D space-time, two-group flux. The highest fidelity thermal-hydraulics model was based upon the space-time equations governing fluid flow in a closed channel around a heat generating fuel rod. The Homogenous Equilibrium Mixture (HEM) model was used for the fluid and Finite Difference Method was applied to both the coolant and fuel pin energy conservation equations. The lower fidelity thermal-hydraulic model was based upon the same equations as used for the highest fidelity model but now with coarse spatial

  18. The AMoRE: Search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Park, HyangKyu

    2015-10-28

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo-based Rare process Experiment) collaboration is using calcium molybdate ({sup dep48}Ca {sup 100}MoO{sub 4}) crystals enriched in {sup 100}Mo and depleted in {sup 48}Ca to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (DBD) of {sup 100}Mo using at the underground laboratory in Korea. Metallic magnetic calorimeters operating a milliKelvin temperatures are used as temperature sensors to measure heat and light signals from the crystals. The simultaneous and fast detection capabilities for both phonons and photons, and their excellent energy resolution provide powerful methods for identifying DBD signals and rejecting background events, which are mainly due to random coincidences between two uncorrelated two-neutrino-double-beta decays of {sup 100}Mo. The AMoRE-Pilot experiment that is currently underway uses a 1.5 kg, five-element array of {sup dep48}Ca {sup 100}MoO{sub 4} crystals. The ultimate goal is a ∼200 kg array of crystals and a half-life sensitivity of order 10{sup 26} years, which will access the inverted hierarchy region for effective Majorana neutrino masses, i.e., 0.02 to 0.05 eV. In this talk, we present recent progress on the development of low-background calcium molybdate detectors and results from room- and milli-Kelvin temperatures. Sensitivities based on GEANT4 simulations that incorporate measured background are reported.

  19. Low Temperature CaMoO4 Crystal Detectors for the AMoRE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Hamb; AMoRE Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo-based Rare process Experiment) project is an international experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo. Excellent energy resolution and particle-type discrimination are essential to improve the experimental sensitivity in rare event search experiments of this type. Here we report performances of low temperature detectors composed of CaMoO4 crystals and metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs). Both of heat (phonon) and light (photon) measurements were carried at tens of milli-Kelvin temperatures. The FWHM energy resolution was obtained to be 5-9 keV for environmental gamma ray peaks in the phonon channel. Clear separation (better than 15 σ) was found for alpha and electron events with heat/light ratio comparison. Pulse shape discrimination with phonon signal only was also successful with better than 15 σ of discrimination power. Moreover, signal rise-time with the MMC sensors was faster than 1 ms. It may improve rejection ability for random coincidences of two neutrinos double beta decay events that is one of major background sources for the experiment.

  20. The AMoRE: Search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, HyangKyu

    2015-10-01

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo-based Rare process Experiment) collaboration is using calcium molybdate (dep48Ca 100MoO4) crystals enriched in 100Mo and depleted in 48Ca to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (DBD) of 100Mo using at the underground laboratory in Korea. Metallic magnetic calorimeters operating a milliKelvin temperatures are used as temperature sensors to measure heat and light signals from the crystals. The simultaneous and fast detection capabilities for both phonons and photons, and their excellent energy resolution provide powerful methods for identifying DBD signals and rejecting background events, which are mainly due to random coincidences between two uncorrelated two-neutrino-double-beta decays of 100Mo. The AMoRE-Pilot experiment that is currently underway uses a 1.5 kg, five-element array of dep48Ca 100MoO4 crystals. The ultimate goal is a ˜200 kg array of crystals and a half-life sensitivity of order 1026 years, which will access the inverted hierarchy region for effective Majorana neutrino masses, i.e., 0.02 to 0.05 eV. In this talk, we present recent progress on the development of low-background calcium molybdate detectors and results from room- and milli-Kelvin temperatures. Sensitivities based on GEANT4 simulations that incorporate measured background are reported.

  1. Purifications of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, AMoRE

    SciTech Connect

    Park, HyangKyu

    2015-08-17

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo based Rare process Experiment) collaboration is going to use calcium molybdate crystals to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo isotope. In order to make the crystal, we use calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders as raw materials. Therefore it is highly necessary to reduce potential sources for radioactive backgrounds such as U and Th in the powders. In this talk, we will present our studies for purification of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders.

  2. MEMS AO for Planet Finding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

  3. Aperture masking behind AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Michael J.

    2012-07-01

    Sparse Aperture-Mask Interferometry (SAM or NRM) behind Adaptive Optics (AO) has now come of age, with more than a dozen astronomy papers published from several 5-10m class telescopes around the world. I will describe the reasons behind its success in achieving relatively high contrasts ( 1000:1 at lambda/ D) and repeatable binary astronomy at the diffraction limit, even when used behind laser-guide star adaptive optics. Placed within the context of AO calibration, the information in an image can be split into pupil-plane phase, Fourier amplitude and closure-phase. It is the closure-phase observable, or its generalisation to Kernel phase, that is immune to pupil-plane phase errors at first and second-order and has been the reason for the technique's success. I will outline the limitations of the technique and the prospects for aperture-masking and related techniques in the future.

  4. Cometas: Das Lendas aos Fatos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    O descobrimento de cometas, devido ao seu aparecimento espetacular, tem registro nas mais antigas culturas humanas. A primeira referência situa-se no ano de 1095 antes de Cristo [a.C.; HO; HO, 1962]. A quantidade de registros de descobrimentos cometários, principalmente provenientes do território chinês em particular e do oriente em geral, aumentou gradualmente a partir do quarto século depois de Cristo (d.C.). É de origem chinesa a primeira referência ao cometa P/Halley no ano de 240 a.C. [VOELZKE, 1993]. Com o desenvolvimento da astronomia relativamente às técnicas observacionais os descobrimentos bem como as observações cometárias aumentaram sensivelmente a partir do século XVII, sendo que a partir do século XIX um novo incremento ocorreu devido ao emprego da fotografia e a resultante melhora de sensibilidade na observação.

  5. "This Is My Body Which Will Be Given up for You": Federico Garcia Lorca's "Amor de Don Perlimplin" and the "Auto Sacramental" Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badenes, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    "Amor de Don Perlimplin con Belisa en su jardin" is one of Federico Garcia Lorca's shortest plays as well as one of his deepest. Its theme is love, particularly the interaction between spiritual longing and carnal desire, body and soul, humanity and divinity. These are aspects found in Roman Catholic Eucharistic theology which the…

  6. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  7. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  8. The triple system AO Monocerotis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Hynek, T.; Melcer, L. Å.

    2010-05-01

    The variable star AO Mon is a relatively bright but seldom investigated early-type eccentric eclipsing binary. Thirty new eclipses were measured as a part of our long-term observational project or derived from previous measurements. Based on a new solution of the current O-C diagram, we found for the first time a rapid apsidal advance superimposed with a light-time effect caused by a third unseen body in the system. Their short periods are 33.8 years and 3.6 years for the apsidal motion and the third-body circular orbit, respectively. The observed internal structure constant was derived to be log k2, obs = -2.23, which is close to the theoretically expected value. The relativistic as well as the third-body effects on the apsidal advance are negligible, as they are only about 3% of the total apsidal motion rate. Partly based on observations secured at the South African Astronomical Observatory, Sutherland, South Africa, in April 2004.

  9. Isolation and complete genome sequence of the thermophilic Geobacillus sp. 12AMOR1 from an Arctic deep-sea hydrothermal vent site.

    PubMed

    Wissuwa, Juliane; Stokke, Runar; Fedøy, Anita-Elin; Lian, Kjersti; Smalås, Arne Oskar; Steen, Ida Helene

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus have been isolated from a wide variety of habitats worldwide and are the subject for targeted enzyme utilization in various industrial applications. Here we report the isolation and complete genome sequence of the thermophilic starch-degrading Geobacillus sp. 12AMOR1. The strain 12AMOR1 was isolated from deep-sea hot sediment at the Jan Mayen hydrothermal Vent Site. Geobacillus sp. 12AMOR1 consists of a 3,410,035 bp circular chromosome and a 32,689 bp plasmid with a G + C content of 52 % and 47 %, respectively. The genome comprises 3323 protein-coding genes, 88 tRNA species and 10 rRNA operons. The isolate grows on a suite of sugars, complex polysaccharides and proteinous carbon sources. Accordingly, a versatility of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) and peptidases were identified in the genome. Expression, purification and characterization of an enzyme of the glycoside hydrolase family 13 revealed a starch-degrading capacity and high thermal stability with a melting temperature of 76.4 °C. Altogether, the data obtained point to a new isolate from a marine hydrothermal vent with a large bioprospecting potential. PMID:26913091

  10. The Magellan Telescope adaptive secondary AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird M.; Gasho, Victor; Kopon, Derek; Hinz, Phil M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson

    2008-07-01

    The Magellan Clay telescope is a 6.5m Gregorian telescope located in southern Chile at Las Campanas Observatory. The Gregorian design allows for an adaptive secondary mirror that can be tested off-sky in a straight-forward manner. We have fabricated a 85 cm diameter aspheric adaptive secondary with our subcontractors and partners. This secondary has 585 actuators with <1 msec response times. The chopping adaptive secondary will allow low emissivity AO science. We will achieve very high Strehls (~98%) in the Mid-IR AO (8-26 microns) with the BLINC/MIRAC4 Mid-IR science camera. This will allow the first "super-resolution" and nulling Mid-IR studies of dusty southern objects. We will employ a high order (585 mode) pyramid wavefront sensor similar to that used in the Large Binocular Telescope AO systems. The relatively high actuator count will allow modest Strehls to be obtained in the visible (~0.8μm). Our visible light AO (Vis AO) science camera is fed by an advanced ADC and beamsplitter piggy-backed on the WFS optical table. The system science and performance requirements, and an overview the design, interface and schedule for the Magellan AO system are presented here.

  11. The AMORE Protocol for Advanced-Stage and Recurrent Nonorbital Rhabdomyosarcoma in the Head-and-Neck Region of Children: A Radiation Oncology View

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Leo E.C.M.; Koedooder, Kees; Pieters, Bradley R.; Grient, Hans N.B. van der; Kar, Marlou van de; Buwalda, Joeri; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Merks, Johannes H.M.; Strackee, Simon D.; Freling, Nicole J.; Koning, Caro C.E.

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: A multidisciplinary approach, consisting of consecutive Ablative Surgery, MOld technique with afterloading brachytherapy and immediate surgical REconstruction (AMORE) applied after chemotherapy, was designed for children with rhabdomyosarcoma in the head-and-neck region. Analysis of the first 42 patients was performed. Methods and Materials: After macroscopically radical tumor resection, molds were constructed for each individual to fit into the surgical defect. The molds, made of 5-mm-thick layers of thermoplastic rubber, consisted of different parts. Flexible catheters were positioned between layers. After brachytherapy, the molds were removed. Surgical reconstruction was performed during the same procedure. Results: Dose to the clinical target volume varied from 40 to 50 Gy for the primary treatment (31 patients) and salvage treatment groups (11 patients). There were 18 females and 24 males treated from 1993 until 2007. Twenty-nine tumors were located in the parameningeal region, and 13 were located in the nonparameningeal region. Patient age at the time of AMORE was 1.2-16.9 years (average, 6.5 years). Follow-up was 0.2-14.5 years (average, >5.5 years). Eleven patients died, 3 with local recurrence only, 6 with local and distant disease, 1 died of distant metastases only, and 1 patient died of a second primary tumor. Overall 5-year survival rates were 70% for the primary treatment group and 82% for the salvage group. Treatment was well tolerated, and acute and late toxicity were mild. Conclusions: The AMORE protocol yields good local control and overall survival rates, and side effects are acceptable.

  12. Into the blue: AO science with MagAO in the visible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Phil; Morzinski, Katie; Wu, Ya-Lin; Kopon, Derek; Riccardi, Armando; Esposito, Simone; Puglisi, Alfio; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    We review astronomical results in the visible (λ<1μm) with adaptive optics. Other than a brief period in the early 1990s, there has been little astronomical science done in the visible with AO until recently. The most productive visible AO system to date is our 6.5m Magellan telescope AO system (MagAO). MagAO is an advanced Adaptive Secondary system at the Magellan 6.5m in Chile. This secondary has 585 actuators with < 1 msec response times (0.7 ms typically). We use a pyramid wavefront sensor. The relatively small actuator pitch (~23 cm/subap) allows moderate Strehls to be obtained in the visible (0.63-1.05 microns). We use a CCD AO science camera called "VisAO". On-sky long exposures (60s) achieve <30mas resolutions, 30% Strehls at 0.62 microns (r') with the VisAO camera in 0.5" seeing with bright R < 8 mag stars. These relatively high visible wavelength Strehls are made possible by our powerful combination of a next generation ASM and a Pyramid WFS with 378 controlled modes and 1000 Hz loop frequency. We'll review the key steps to having good performance in the visible and review the exciting new AO visible science opportunities and refereed publications in both broad-band (r,i,z,Y) and at Halpha for exoplanets, protoplanetary disks, young stars, and emission line jets. These examples highlight the power of visible AO to probe circumstellar regions/spatial resolutions that would otherwise require much larger diameter telescopes with classical infrared AO cameras.

  13. Investigations of a novel fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, H.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. M.; Levin, L. A.; Sweetman, A.; Tverberg, J.; Hoem, S.; Steen, I.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    . Few species are common to both the deep and the shallow vents, but some gastropod species show a structured population difference between the sites. Our data indicate that there has been a migration of vent fauna into the Arctic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean rather than from the known vent sites further south in the Atlantic Ocean. The discovery and sampling of these new arctic vent fields provide unique data to further understand the migration of vent organisms and interactions between different deep sea chemosynthetic environments. Based on the high degree of local adaptation and specialization of fauna from the studied sites we propose the AMOR to be a new zoogeographical province for vent fauna.

  14. Characterization of an AO-OCT system

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J W; Zawadzki, R J; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Werner, J S

    2007-07-26

    Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-volumetric-resolution, images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has been under development for 2 years and has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging [1]. The current system uses an AOptix bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for low-order, high-stroke correction [2] and a 140-actuator Boston Micromachines DM for high-order correction [3]. We are beginning to investigate the potential for increasing the image contrast in this system using higher-order wavefront correction. The first step in this analysis is to quantify the residual wavefront error (WFE) in the current system. Developing an error budget is a common tool for improved performance and system design in astronomical AO systems [4, 5]. The process for vision science systems is also discussed in several texts e.g. [6], but results from this type of analysis have rarely been included in journal articles on AO for vision science. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of a future high-contrast system. In general, an AO system error budget must include an analysis of three categories of residual WFE: errors in measuring the phase, errors caused by limitations of the DM(s), and errors introduced by temporal variation. Understanding the mechanisms and relative size of these errors is critical to improving system performance. In this paper we discuss the techniques for characterizing these error sources in the AO-OCT system. It is useful to first calculate an error budget for the simpler case using a model eye, and then add the additional errors introduced for the case of a human subject. Measurement error includes calibration error, wavefront sensor (WFS) CCD noise, and sampling errors. Calibration errors must be measured by an external system. Typically this

  15. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinache, Frantz; Guyon, O.; Lozi, J.; Tamura, M.; Hodapp, K.; Suzuki, R.; Hayano, Y.; McElwain, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    While the existence of large numbers of extrasolar planets around solar type stars has been unambiguously demonstrated by radial velocity, transit and microlensing surveys, attempts at direct imaging with AO-equipped large telescopes remain unsuccessful. Because they supposedly offer more favorable contrast ratios, young systems consitute prime targets for imaging. Such observations will provide key insights on the formation and early evolution of planets and disks. Current surveys are limited by modest AO performance which limits inner working angle to 0.2", and only reach maximum sensitivity outside 1". This translates into orbital distances greater than 10 AU even on most nearby systems, while only 5 % of the known exoplanets have a semimajor axis greater than 10 AU. This calls for a major change of approach in the techniques used for direct imaging of the direct vicinity of stars. A sensible way to do the job is to combine coronagraphy and Extreme AO. Only accurate and fast control of the wavefront will permit the detection of high contrast planetary companions within 10 AU. The SCExAO system, currently under assembly, is an upgrade of the HiCIAO coronagraphic differential imaging camera, mounted behind the 188-actuator curvature AO system on Subaru Telescope. This platform includes a 1000-actuator MEMS deformable mirror for high accuracy wavefront correction and a PIAA coronagraph which delivers high contrast at 0.05" from the star (5 AU at 100 pc). Key technologies have been validated in the laboratory: high performance wavefront sensing schemes, spider vanes and central obstruction removal, and lossless beam apodization. The project is designed to be highly flexible to continuously integrate new technologies with high scientific payoff. Planned upgrades include an integral field unit for spectral characterization of planets/disks and a non-redundant aperture mask to push the performance of the system toward separations less than lambda/D.

  16. Experimental comparison of Wide Field AO control schemes using the Homer AO bench.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisot, Amélie; Petit, Cyril; Fusco, Thierry

    2011-09-01

    Wide Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) concepts, such as Laser Tomography AO (LTAO) or Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) have been developed in order to overcome the anisoplanatism limit of classical AO. Most of the future AO-assisted instruments of ELTs rely on such concepts which have raised critical challenges such as tomographic estimation and from laser and natural guide star combined with efficient DM(s) control. In that context, the experimental validation of the various clever control solutions proposed by several teams in the past years is now essential to reach a level of maturity compatible with their implementation in future WFAO developments for ELT. The ONERA wide field AO facility (HOMER bench) has been developed for these very issues. Gathering a 3D turbulence generator, laser and natural guide stars, two deformable mirrors with variable altitude positions and a PC-based flexible and user-friendly RTC , HOMER allows the implementation and comparison of control schemes from the simplest least-square to the optimal Linear Quadratic Gaussian solutions including Virtual DM and Pseudo-closed loop approaches. After a description of the bench internal calibrations and ultimate performance, all the control schemes are compared experimentally. Their evolutions as a function of wavefront sensors SNR as well as their robustness to calibration / model errors are particularly emphasised. Finally, we derive from the previous works some specific calibrations and identifications procedures ensuring both robustness and efficiency of WFAO systems and we extrapolate their applications to the future ELT AO systems.

  17. MEMS DM development at Iris AO, Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbrecht, Michael A.; He, Min; Kempf, Carl J.; Besse, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Iris AO is actively developing piston-tip-tilt (PTT) segmented MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) and adaptive optics (AO) controllers for these DMs. This paper discusses ongoing research at Iris AO that has advanced the state-of-the-art of these devices and systems over the past year. Improvements made to open-loop operation and mirror fabrication enables mirrors to open-loop flatten to 4 nm rms. Additional testing of an anti snap-in technology was conducted and demonstrates that the technology can withstand 100 million snap-in events without failure. Deformable mirrors with dielectric coatings are shown that are capable of handling 630 W/cm2 of incident laser power. Over a localized region on the segment, the dielectric coatings can withstand 100kW/cm2 incident laser power for 30 minutes. Results from the first-ever batch of PTT489 DMs that were shipped to pilot customers are reported. Optimizations made to the open-loop PTT controller are shown to have latencies of 157.5 μs and synchronous array update rates of nearly 6.5 kHz. Finally, plans for the design and fabrication of the next-generation PTT939 DM are presented.

  18. Into the Blue: AO Science in the Visible with MagAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird; Males, Jared; Morzinski, Katie; Kopon, Derek; Follette, Kate; Rodigas, Timothy; Hinz, Philip; Wu, Ya-Lin; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tison

    2013-12-01

    The Magellan Clay telescope is a 6.5m Gregorian telescope located in Chile at Las Campanas Observatory. We have fabricated an 85 cm diameter aspheric adaptive secondary with our subcontractors and partners, MagAO passed acceptance tests in spring 2012, and the entire System was commissioned from Nov 17 to Dec 7, 2012. This secondary has 585 actuators with < 1 msec response times (0.7 ms typically). We fabricated a high order (585 mode) pyramid wavefront sensor (similar to that of LBT's FLAO). The relatively high actuator count allows moderate Strehls to be obtained in the visible (0.63-1.05 microns). We have built an CCD science camera called "jVisAO". On-sky long exposures (60s) achieve 30% Strehls at 0.62 microns (r') with the VisAO camera in 0.5" seeing with bright R < 8 mag stars. These relatively high optical wavelength Strehls are made possible by our powerful combination of a next generation ASM and a Pyramid WFS with 200-400 controlled modes and 1000 Hz loop frequencies. To minimize non-common path errors and enable visible AO the VisAO science camera is fed by an advanced triplet ADC and is piggy-backed on the WFS optical board itself. Despite the ability to make 25 mas images we still have ~4 mas of resolution loss to residual vibrations. We will discuss what the most difficult aspects are for visible AO on ELTs scaling from our experience with MagAO.

  19. The first VisAO-fed integral field spectrograph: VisAO IFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird M.; Kopon, Derek; Males, Jared R.; Gasho, Victor; Brutlag, Kevin M.; Uomoto, Alan

    2010-07-01

    We present the optomechanical design of the Magellan VisAO Integral Field Spectrograph (VisAO IFS), designed to take advantage of Magellan's AO system and its 85.1cm concave ellipsoidal Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM). With 585 actuators and an equal number of actively-controlled modes, this revolutionary second generation ASM will be the first to achieve moderate Strehl ratios into the visible wavelength regime. We have designed the VisAO IFS to be coupled to either Magellan's LDSS-3 spectrograph or to the planned facility M2FS fiber spectrograph and to optimize VisAO science. Designed for narrow field-of-view, high spatial resolution science, this lenslet-coupled fiberfed IFS will offer exciting opportunities for scientific advancement in a variety of fields, including protoplanetary disk morphology and chemistry, resolution and spectral classification of tight astrometric binaries, seasonal changes in the upper atmosphere of Titan, and a better understanding of the black hole M-sigma relation.

  20. Testing the VLT AO facility with ASSIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuik, Remko; Arsenault, Robin; Boland, Wilfried; Deep, Atul; Delabre, Bernard; Hubin, Norbert; Kolb, Johann; La Penna, Paolo; Molster, Frank; Wiegers, Emiel

    2010-07-01

    The testing and verification of ESO Very Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Facility (VLT-AOF) requires new and innovative techniques to deal with the absence of an intermediate focus on the telescope. ASSIST, The Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator, was developed to provide a testing facility for the ESO AOF and will allow off-telescope testing of three elements of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility; the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the AO systems for MUSE and HAWK-I (GALACSI and GRAAL). ASSIST will provide a full testing environment which includes an interferometric testing mode for the DSM, an on-axis testing mode with a single wavefront sensor and full operation testing modes for both the AO systems. Both natural as well as laser guide stars will be simulated under various asterisms and a realistic turbulent atmosphere will be provided for varying atmospheric conditions. ASSIST passed its final design review and is now being manufactured, integrated and tested and will be operational in mid 2011, in time for first testing with the DSM.

  1. AO Observations of Three Powerful Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W; van Bruegel, W; Quirrenbach, A

    2002-08-01

    The host galaxies of powerful radio sources are ideal laboratories to study active galactic nuclei (AGN). The galaxies themselves are among the most massive systems in the universe, and are believed to harbor supermassive black holes (SMBH). If large galaxies are formed in a hierarchical way by multiple merger events, radio galaxies at low redshift represent the end-products of this process. However, it is not clear why some of these massive ellipticals have associated radio emission, while others do not. Both are thought to contain SMBHs, with masses proportional to the total luminous mass in the bulge. It either implies every SMBH has recurrent radio-loud phases, and the radio-quiet galaxies happen to be in the ''low'' state, or that the radio galaxy nuclei are physically different from radio-quiet ones, i.e. by having a more massive SMBH for a given bulge mass. Here we present the first results from our adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy pilot program on three nearby powerful radio galaxies. Initiating a larger, more systematic AO survey of radio galaxies (preferentially with Laser Guide Star equipped AO systems) has the potential of furthering our understanding of the physical properties of radio sources, their triggering, and their subsequent evolution.

  2. Measuring Atmospheric Dynamics on Titan with AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamkovics, Mate; de Pater, I.; Hartung, M.

    2009-05-01

    The cycling of fluid methane between Titan's atmosphere and surface, via seemingly familiar meteorological phenomena, is often compared to Earth's hydrology. Near-IR observations with AO resolve the moon's 1" disk, measure spatial variation in both the surface reflectivity and scattering in the atmosphere, and constrain the methane cycle. Forward models of the atmosphere are compared to observations and used to identify and quantify sources and altitudes of atmospheric opacity; including aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The ubiquitous submicron aerosol hazes are tracers of global stratospheric dynamics over yearly timescales. Cloud properties may constrain the tropospheric circulation and are observed to change on hourly, daily, and seasonal timescales. Here we present observations of the daily life-cycle of a cloud system, a signature of tropospheric precipitation, seasonal changes in aerosol, and discuss the models that are used to quantify the observed meteorology.

  3. The Magellan Telescope Adaptive Secondary AO System: a visible and mid-IR AO facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird M.; Gasho, Victor; Kopon, Derek; Males, Jared; Follette, Katherine B.; Brutlag, Kevin; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson

    2010-07-01

    The Magellan Clay telescope is a 6.5m Gregorian telescope located in Chile at Las Campanas Observatory. The Gregorian design allows for an adaptive secondary mirror that can be tested off-sky in a straightforward manner. We have fabricated a 85 cm diameter aspheric adaptive secondary with our subcontractors and partners, the ASM passed acceptance tests in July 2010. This secondary has 585 actuators with <1 msec response times (0.7 ms typically). This adaptive secondary will allow low emissivity AO science. We will achieve very high Strehls (~98%) in the Mid-IR (3-26 microns) with the BLINC/MIRAC4 Mid-IR science camera. This will allow the first "super-resolution" and nulling Mid-IR studies of dusty southern objects. We will employ a high order (585 mode) pyramid wavefront sensor similar to that now successfully used at the Large Binocular Telescope. The relatively high actuator count will allow modest Strehls to be obtained in the visible (0.63-1.05 μm). Moderate (~20%) Strehls have already been obtained at 0.8 μm at the LBT with the same powerful combination of a next generation ASM and Pyramid WFS as we are providing for Magellan. Our visible light AO (VisAO) science camera is fed by an advanced triplet ADC and is piggy-backed on the WFS optical board. We have designed an additional "clean-up" very fast (2 kHz) tilt stabilization system for VisAO. Also a high-speed shutter will be used to block periods of poor correction. The VisAO facility can be reconfigured to feed an optical IFU spectrograph with 20 mas spaxels. The entire system passed CDR in June 2009, and is now finished the fabrication phase and is entering the integration phase. The system science and performance requirements, and an overview the design, interface and schedule for the Magellan AO system are presented here.

  4. LGS-AO Imaging of Every Kepler Planet Candidate: the Robo-AO KOI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas; Morton, Timothy; Ziegler, Carl; Nofi, Larissa; Atkinson, Dani; Riddle, Reed

    2015-12-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging, to search for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We will present the results from searching for companions around over 3,000 Kepler planet hosts in 2012-2015. We will describe our first data release covering 715 planet candidate hosts, and give a preview of ongoing results including improved statistics on the likelihood of false positive planet detections in the Kepler dataset, many new planets in multiple star systems, and new exotic multiple star systems containing Kepler planets. We will also describe the automated Robo-AO survey data reduction methods, including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for extremely large adaptive optics surveys. Our first data release covered 715 objects, searching for companions from 0.15” to 2.5” separation with contrast up to 6 magnitudes. We measured the overall nearby-star-probability for Kepler planet candidates to be 7.4+/-1.0%, and we will detail the variations in this number with stellar host parameters. We will also discuss plans to extend the survey to other transiting planet missions such as K2 and TESS as Robo-AO is in the process of being re-deployed to the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak for 3 years and a higher-contrast Robo-AO system is being developed for the 2.2-m UH telescope on Maunakea.

  5. Electromagnetic DM technology meets future AO demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelinck, Roger; Rosielle, Nick; Steinbuch, Maarten; Doelman, Niek

    New deformable mirror technology is developed by the Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Delft University of Technology and TNO Science and Industry. Several prototype adaptive deformable mirrors are realized mirrors, up to 427 actuators and ∅150mm diameter, with characteristics suitable for future AO systems. The prototypes consist of a 100µm thick, continuous facesheet on which low voltage, electromagnetic, push-pull actuators impose out-of-plane displacements. The variable reluctance actuators with ±10µm stroke and nanometer resolution are located in a standard actuator module. Each module with 61 actuators connects to a single PCB with dedicated, 16 bit, PWM based, drivers. A LVDS multi-drop cable connects up to 32 actuator modules. With the actuator module, accompanying PCB and multi-drop system the deformable mirror technology is made modular in its mechanics and electronics. An Ethernet-LVDS bridge enables any commercial PC to control the mirror using the UDP standard. Latest results of the deformable mirror technology development are presented.

  6. Low-order AO system in LAMOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Liu, Genrong; Zhang, Yong; Qi, Yongjun

    2006-06-01

    The large sky area multi-object fiber spectroscopic telescope (LAMOST) is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope with its main optical axis on the meridian plane tilted by an angle of 25° to the horizontal. The clear aperture is 4m, working in optical band. The light path is 60m long when working in observing mode and it will be doubled if work in auto-collimation mode. So the image quality is affected clearly by the ground seeing and the dome seeing. In order to improve the seeing condition of the long light path, we enclosed the spherical primary and the focus unit in a tunnel enclosure and cooled the tunnel. This is an effective but passive method. Corresponding experiments and simulations show the main part of the aberrations caused by the ground seeing and dome seeing is slowly changed low order items such as tip-tilt, defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberration. Thus we plan to develop the low-order AO system based on the low-cost 37-channel OKO deformable mirror for the telescope to better the ground seeing and the dome seeing, not aimed to reach diffraction limited image. This work is being carried on now.

  7. First closed-loop visible AO test results for the advanced adaptive secondary AO system for the Magellan Telescope: MagAO's performance and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Kopon, Derek A.; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Phil; Morzinski, Katie; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson; Riccardi, Armando; Esposito, Simone; Puglisi, Alfio; Pinna, Enrico; Busoni, Lorenzo; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Argomedo, Javier

    2012-07-01

    The heart of the 6.5 Magellan AO system (MagAO) is a 585 actuator adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) with <1 msec response times (0.7 ms typically). This adaptive secondary will allow low emissivity and high-contrast AO science. We fabricated a high order (561 mode) pyramid wavefront sensor (similar to that now successfully used at the Large Binocular Telescope). The relatively high actuator count (and small projected ~23 cm pitch) allows moderate Strehls to be obtained by MagAO in the “visible” (0.63-1.05 μm). To take advantage of this we have fabricated an AO CCD science camera called "VisAO". Complete “end-to-end” closed-loop lab tests of MagAO achieve a solid, broad-band, 37% Strehl (122 nm rms) at 0.76 μm (i’) with the VisAO camera in 0.8” simulated seeing (13 cm ro at V) with fast 33 mph winds and a 40 m Lo locked on R=8 mag artificial star. These relatively high visible wavelength Strehls are enabled by our powerful combination of a next generation ASM and a Pyramid WFS with 400 controlled modes and 1000 Hz sample speeds (similar to that used successfully on-sky at the LBT). Currently only the VisAO science camera is used for lab testing of MagAO, but this high level of measured performance (122 nm rms) promises even higher Strehls with our IR science cameras. On bright (R=8 mag) stars we should achieve very high Strehls (>70% at H) in the IR with the existing MagAO Clio2 (λ=1-5.3 μm) science camera/coronagraph or even higher (~98% Strehl) the Mid-IR (8-26 microns) with the existing BLINC/MIRAC4 science camera in the future. To eliminate non-common path vibrations, dispersions, and optical errors the VisAO science camera is fed by a common path advanced triplet ADC and is piggy-backed on the Pyramid WFS optical board itself. Also a high-speed shutter can be used to block periods of poor correction. The entire system passed CDR in June 2009, and we finished the closed-loop system level testing phase in December 2011. Final system acceptance (

  8. AO 0235+164 and Surrounding Field: Surprising HST Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbidge, E. M.; Beaver, E. A.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    Results obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope on the highly variable radio, x-ray, and gamma-ray emitting QSO (or BL Lac object) AO 0235 + 164 are presented and analyzed. WFPC2 images were obtained in 1994 June, when AO 0235 + 164 was bright (m approx. 17), and the results are described in Sec. 3. After subtraction of the PSF of the QSO, hereafter called AO following the nomenclature of Yanny et al. (1989), the companion object named A, 2 sec south of AO, is discovered not to be an elliptical galaxy as hypothesized earlier, but to be an AGN object, with a central UV-bright point-source nucleus and faint surrounding nebulosity extending to AO. The second companion object 1.3 sec east of AO discovered by Yanny et al. (1989) and named object Al, appears more like a normal spiral galaxy. We have measured the positions, luminosities, and colors of some 30 faint objects in the field around AO 0235 + 16; most are extended and may be star-forming galaxies in a loose group or cluster. Our most surprising result of the HST observations comes from FOS spectra obtained in 1995 July, discussed in Sec. 4. Because of a positioning error of the telescope and AO's faintness at that time (m approx. 20), object A was observed instead of the intended target AO. Serendipitously, we discovered A to have broad deep BALQSO-type absorptions of C IV, Si IV, N V shortward of broad emissions. A is thus ejecting high velocity, highly ionized gas into the surrounding IGM. We discuss in Sec. 5 the relationship of the objects in the central 10 sec X 1O sec region around AO, where redshifts z(sub e) = 0.94, z(sub a) = 0.524, 0.851 in AO, (sub e) = 0.524 and Z(sub BAL)=0.511 in A, are found. We hypothesize that some of the 30 faint objects in the 77 sec. x 77 sec. field may be part of a large star-forming region at z approx. 0.5, as suggested for a few objects by Yanny et al. (1989). The proximity of two highly active extragalactic objects, AO 0235+164 and its AGN companion A, is remarkable and

  9. A natural analogue for CO2 leakage: The release and fate of CO2 at the Jan Mayen vent fields (AMOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumberger, T.; Lilley, M. D.; Pedersen, R. B.; Thorseth, I. H.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is seen as a new possible technique for reducing the emission of industrial CO2 to the atmosphere. To evaluate the risks of sub-seabed CO2 storage, the European Commission is supporting the international and multi-disciplinary ECO2 project. Among other objectives, this project is dealing with evaluating the likelihood of leakage and the resulting possible impacts on marine ecosystems. In the framework of the ECO2 project, the release and dispersal of CO2 have been studied at several natural seep sites. In this study, we present geochemical data collected at the natural CO2 leakage analogue, Jan Mayen vent fields (JMVF). The basalt-hosted JMVF are located at 71° N on the southern end of the ultra-slow spreading Mohns Ridge, which is part of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) system. The JMVF are composed of several venting sites, spread over a large area. These venting areas include focused high-temperature venting and diffuse low-temperature fluid flow vents as well as areas where free gas bubbles are released. Over the past few years, we have repeatedly visited and extensively sampled these vent fields to study the release and fate of CO2 in this natural seep area. One of our main objectives was to constrain the CO2 content of the widely emitted gas and to study its dispersion and fate in the water column. We have also investigated hydrate formation, which is observed at various locations. The venting fluids are chemically characterized by CO2 concentrations of up to 110 mmol/kg, having an associated isotopic composition representing a mantle carbon source. Thus, the CO2 concentrations measured at the JMVF represent the high-end compared to the concentration range of most other basalt-hosted hydrothermal mid-ocean ridge systems. Even though the concentrations of the emitted CO2 vary over time and with the type of venting (focused flow, diffuse flow or bubbles), the overall release is continuously high. The dispersion of the

  10. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO Project: Progress and Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Martinache, F.; Guyon, O.; Clergeon, C.; Garrel, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios>90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1 λ/D. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss two exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which is a integral field spectrograph as well as VAMPIRES, a visible aperture masking experiment based on polarimetric analysis of circumstellar disks.

  11. SCExAO: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control ("speckle nulling"). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield greater than 90% Strehl ratio and enable 10(exp 6) -10(exp 7) contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  12. SCExAO: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control (``speckle nulling''). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield > 90% Strehl ratio and enable 106-107 contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  13. Reproducibility of the Tronzo and AO classifications for transtrochanteric fractures☆

    PubMed Central

    Mattos, Carlos Augusto; Jesus, Alexandre Atsushi Koza; Floter, Michelle dos Santos; Nunes, Luccas Franco Bettencourt; Sanches, Bárbara de Baptista; Zabeu, José Luís Amim

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the reproducibility of the Tronzo and AO classifications for transtrochanteric fractures. Method This was a cross-sectional study in which the intraobserver and interobserver concordance between two readings made by 11 observers was analyzed. The analysis of the variations used the kappa statistical method. Results Moderate concordance was found in relation to the AO classification, while slight concordance was found for the Tronzo classification. Conclusion This study found that the AO/Asif classification for transtrochanteric presented greater intra and interobserver reproducibility and that greater concordance was correlated with greater experience of the observers. Without division into subgroups, the AO/Asif classification was shown, as described in the literature, to be acceptable for clinical use in relation to transtrochanteric fractures of the femur, although it did not show absolute concordance, given that its concordance level was only moderate. Nonetheless, its concordance was better than that of the Tronzo classification. PMID:26535193

  14. LGS-AO Imaging of Every Kepler Planet Candidate: the Robo-AO KOI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas Michael; Baranec, Christoph; Morton, Timothy; Ziegler, Carl; Atkinson, Dani; Riddle, Reed

    2015-08-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging, to search for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We will present the results from searching for companions around over 3,000 Kepler planet hosts in 2012-2015. We will describe our first data release covering 715 planet candidate hosts, and give a preview of ongoing results including improved statistics on the likelihood of false positive planet detections in the Kepler dataset, many new planets in multiple star systems, and new exotic multiple star systems containing Kepler planets.We will also describe the automated Robo-AO survey data reduction methods, including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for extremely large adaptive optics surveys.Our first data release covered 715 objects, searching for companions from 0.15” to 2.5” separation with contrast up to 6 magnitudes. We measured the overall nearby-star-probability for Kepler planet candidates to be 7.4+/-1.0%, and we will detail the variations in this number with stellar host parameters. We will also discuss several KOIs of particular interest, including KOI-191 and KOI-1151, which are both multi-planet systems with detected stellar companions whose unusual planetary system architecture might be best explained if they are ``coincident multiple'' systems, with several transiting planets shared between the two stars. Finally, we will discuss and update the 98%-confidence evidence from our survey that third bodies in star/planet systems produce an excess of close-in giant planets.

  15. A Large-Telescope Natural Guide Star AO System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, David; Milman, Mark; Needels, Laura

    1994-01-01

    None given. From overview and conclusion:Keck Telescope case study. Objectives-low cost, good sky coverage. Approach--natural guide star at 0.8um, correcting at 2.2um.Concl- Good performance is possible for Keck with natural guide star AO system (SR>0.2 to mag 17+).AO-optimized CCD should b every effective. Optimizing td is very effective.Spatial Coadding is not effective except perhaps at extreme low light levels.

  16. Beyond the Blur: Construction and Characterization of the First Autonomous AO System, and, An AO Survey of Magnetar Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh Prakash

    Adaptive optics (AO) corrects distortions created by atmospheric turbulence and delivers diffraction-limited images on ground-based telescopes. The vastly improved spatial resolution and sensitivity has been utilized for studying everything from the magnetic fields of sunspots upto the internal dynamics of high-redshift galaxies. This thesis about AO science from small and large telescopes is divided into two parts: Robo-AO and magnetar kinematics. In the first part, I discuss the construction and performance of the world's first fully autonomous visible light AO system, Robo-AO, at the Palomar 60-inch telescope. Robo-AO operates extremely efficiently with an overhead < 50s, typically observing about 22 targets every hour. We have performed large AO programs observing a total of over 7,500 targets since May 2012. In the visible band, the images have a Strehl ratio of about 10% and achieve a contrast of upto 6 magnitudes at a separation of 1‧‧. The full-width at half maximum achieved is 110-130 milli-arcsecond. I describe how Robo-AO is used to constrain the evolutionary models of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars by measuring resolved spectral energy distributions of stellar multiples in the visible band, more than doubling the current sample. I conclude this part with a discussion of possible future improvements to the Robo-AO system. In the second part, I describe a study of magnetar kinematics using high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) AO imaging from the 10-meter Keck II telescope. Measuring the proper motions of five magnetars with a precision of upto 0.7 milli-arcsecond/yr -1, we have more than tripled the previously known sample of magnetar proper motions and proved that magnetar kinematics are equivalent to those of radio pulsars. We conclusively showed that SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20 were ejected from the stellar clusters with which they were traditionally associated. The inferred kinematic ages of these two magnetars are 6 +/- 1.8 kyr and 650 +/-3 00

  17. High-Performance CCSDS AOS Protocol Implementation in FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Pang, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) space data link protocol provides a framing layer between channel coding such as LDPC (low-density parity-check) and higher-layer link multiplexing protocols such as CCSDS Encapsulation Service, which is described in the following article. Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS AOS protocol implementation needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate.

  18. Initial Performance of the Keck AO Wavefront Controller System

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E M; Acton, D S; An, J R; Avicola, K; Beeman, B V; Brase, J M; Carrano, C J; Gathright, J; Gavel, D T; Hurd, R L; Lai, O; Lupton, W; Macintosh, B A; Max, C E; Olivier, S S; Shelton, J C; Stomski, P J; Tsubota, K; Waltjen, K E; Watson, J A; Wizinowich, P L

    2001-03-01

    The wavefront controller for the Keck Observatory AO system consists of two separate real-time control loops: a tip-tilt control loop to remove tilt from the incoming wavefront, and a deformable mirror control loop to remove higher-order aberrations. In this paper, we describe these control loops and analyze their performance using diagnostic data acquired during the integration and testing of the AO system on the telescope. Disturbance rejection curves for the controllers are calculated from the experimental data and compared to theory. The residual wavefront errors due to control loop bandwidth are also calculated from the data, and possible improvements to the controller performance are discussed.

  19. Apple fruit copper amine oxidase isoforms: peroxisomal MdAO1 prefers diamines as substrates, whereas extracellular MdAO2 exclusively utilizes monoamines.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Adel; Trobacher, Christopher P; Cooke, Alison R; Meyers, Ashley J; Hall, J Christopher; Shelp, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    4-Aminobutyrate (GABA) accumulates in apple fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. A potential source of GABA is the polyamine putrescine, which can be oxidized via copper-containing amine oxidase (CuAO), resulting in the production 4-aminobutanal/Δ(1)-pyrroline, with the consumption of O2 and release of H2O2 and ammonia. Five putative CuAO genes (MdAO genes) were cloned from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Empire) fruit, and the deduced amino acid sequences found to contain the active sites typically conserved in CuAOs. Genes encoding two of these enzymes, MdAO1 and MdAO2, were highly expressed in apple fruit and selected for further analysis. Amino acid sequence analysis predicted the presence of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 tripeptide in MdAO1 and an N-terminal signal peptide and N-glycosylation site in MdAO2. Transient expression of green fluorescent fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts or onion epidermal cells revealed a peroxisomal localization for MdAO1 and an extracellular localization for MdAO2. The enzymatic activities of purified recombinant MdAO1 and MdAO2 were measured continuously as H2O2 production using a coupled reaction. MdAO1 did not use monoamines or polyamines and displayed high catalytic efficiency for 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine, whereas MdAO2 exclusively utilized aliphatic and aromatic monoamines, including 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Together, these results indicate that MdAO1 may contribute to GABA production via putrescine oxidation in the peroxisome of apple fruit under controlled atmosphere conditions. MdAO2 seems to be involved in deamination of 2-phenylethylamine, which is a step in the biosynthesis of 2-phenylethanol, a contributor to fruit flavor and flower fragrance. PMID:25378687

  20. AMoRE: Collaboration for searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the isotope of {sup 100}Mo with the aid of {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} as a cryogenic scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Khanbekov, N. D.

    2013-09-15

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo based Rare process Experiment) Collaboration is planning to employ {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} single crystals as a cryogenic Scintillation detector for studying the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the isotope {sup 100}Mo. A simultaneous readout of phonon and scintillation signals is performed in order to suppress the intrinsic background. The planned sensitivity of the experiment that would employ 100 kg of {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} over five years of data accumulation would be T{sub 1/2}{sup 0{nu}} = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 26} yr, which corresponds to values of the effective Majorana neutrino mass in the range of Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket m{sub {nu}} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {approx} 0.02-0.06 eV.

  1. Holocene Evolution of Qing'ao Embayment, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, A. D.; Yu, F.; Chen, B.; Zheng, Z.; Wang, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Holocene evolution of the Qing'ao embayment, Nan'ao Island, southern China, is primarily the result of the interaction of tectonic activity, climate variation and changes in relative sea level. Characterizing the evolutionary history of the relatively small Qing'ao embayment during the Holocene will help improve our understanding of the driving mechanisms of coastal evolution in the area. To reconstruct the Holocene evolution history we analyzed the grain size, loss on ignition (LOI) and carbonate content of modern and core samples. Modern environmental analogs were examined in surface samples ranging from the coastal sand dunes through to offshore. The results of these modern samples suggest that dune sand (mean size of ~2.33Phi) are slightly finer than beach sand (mean size of 2.13Phi), and nearshore sediment is much coarser than offshore sediment (mean size of 5.90Phi). This modern analogs were then applied to 8 percussion cores from the Qing'ao embayment. A chronological framework obtained from 11 radiocarbon samples suggests that the embayment started to accept deposition since early Holocene, ~8500 cal. yr. BP. Three main phases of Holocene evolution were identified. A basin wide shell-rich sand sheet forms the basal Holocene facies and overlies clay rich presumably Pleistocene sediments or bedrock. This facies records an initial sedimentation phase associated with the early Holocene transgression into the embayment (~8500-6000 cal. yr. BP). The basal facies grades upward to a mixed sandy-mud facies which includes lagoonal clayey-silts, flood tide delta sands and records an estuarine phase lasting from ~6000-1000 cal. yr. BP that appears coincident with falling regional sea levels. Coincident with the estuarine phase is a period of coastal dune building recorded as yet undated massive sands that are found in the upper fill. Toward the end of the estuarine phase it is apparent that dune migration has restricted the lagoon entrance and that this was

  2. Diffraction limited operation with ARGOS: a hybrid AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaglia, M.; Busoni, L.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.

    2010-07-01

    ARGOS, the Laser Guide Star (LGS) facility of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), implements a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) system, using 3 low-altitude beacons, to improve the resolution over the 4'×4' FoV of the imager and Multi Object Spectrograph (MOS) LUCIFER. In this paper we discuss the performance and the reconstruction scheme of an hybrid AO system using the ARGOS Rayleigh beacons complemented with a single faint high-altitude star (NGS or sodium beacon) to sense the turbulence of the upper atmosphere allowing an high degree of on-axis correction. With the ARGOS system, the NGS-upgrade can be immediately implemented at LBT using the already existing Pyramid WFS offering performance similar to the NGS AO system with the advantage of a larger sky coverage.

  3. High-Resolution Imaging of Asteroids/Satellites with AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, William

    2012-02-01

    We propose to make high-resolution observations of asteroids using AO, to measure size, shape, and pole position (spin vectors), and/or to search for satellites. We have demonstrated that AO imaging allows determination of the pole/dimensions in 1 or 2 nights on a single target, rather than the years of observations with lightcurve inversion techniques that only yield poles and axial ratios, not true dimensions. Our new technique (KOALA) combines AO imaging with lightcurve and occultation data for optimum size/shape determinations. We request that LGS be available for faint targets, but using NGS AO, we will measure several large and intermediate asteroids that are favorably placed in spring/summer of 2012 for size/shape/pole. Accurately determining the volume from the often-irregular shape allows us to derive densities to much greater precision in cases where the mass is known, e.g., from the presence of a satellite. We will search several d! ozen asteroids for the presence of satellites, particularly in under-studied populations, particularly NEOs (we have recently achieved the first-ever optical image of an NEO binary [Merline et al. 2008b, IAUC 8977]). Satellites provide a real-life lab for testing collisional models. We will search for satellites around special objects at the request of lightcurve observers, and we will make a search for debris in the vicinity of Pluto, in support of the New Horizons mission. Our shape/size work requires observations over most of a full rotation period (typically several hours).

  4. LDEF results for polymer matrix composite experiment AO 180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents a summary of the results obtained to-date on a polymer matrix composite experiment (AO 180) located at station D-12, about 82 deg off the 'ram' direction. Different material systems comprised of graphite, boron, and aramid (Kevlar) fiber reinforcements were studied. Although previous results were presented on in-situ thermal-vacuum cycling effects, particularly dimensional changes associated with outgassing, additional comparative data will be shown from ground-based tests on control and flight samples. The system employed was fully automated for thermal-vacuum cycling using a laser interferometer for monitoring displacements. Erosion of all three classes of materials due to atomic oxygen (AO) will also be discussed, including angle of incidence effects. Data from this experiment will be compared to published results for similar materials in other LDEF experiments. Composite materials' erosion yields will be presented on an AO design nomogram useful for estimating total material loss for given exposure conditions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Optical properties of these materials will also be compared with control samples. A survey of the damage caused by micrometeoroids/debris impacts will be addressed as they relate to polymer matrix composites. Correlations between hole size and damage pattern will be given. Reference to a new nomogram for estimating the number distribution of micrometeoroid/debris impacts for a given space structure as a function of time in LEO will be addressed based on LDEF data.

  5. SIMS chemical and isotopic analysis of impact features from LDEF experiments AO187-1 and AO187-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadermann, Frank J.; Amari, Sachiko; Foote, John; Swan, Pat; Walker, Robert M.; Zinner, Ernst

    1995-01-01

    Previous secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of extended impact features from LDEF capture cell experiment AO187-2 showed that it is possible to distinguish natural and man-made particle impacts based on the chemical composition of projectile residues. The same measurement technique has now been applied to specially prepared gold target impacts from experiment AO187-1 in order to identify the origins of projectiles that left deposits too thin to be analyzed by conventional energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results indicate that SIMS may be the method of choice for the analysis of impact deposits on a variety of sample surfaces. SIMS was also used to determine the isotopic compositions of impact residues from several natural projectiles. Within the precision of the measurements all analyzed residues show isotopically normal compositions.

  6. [Investigation on circulation of Ao shi shang han jin jing lu (Ao's Golden mirror of cold pathogenic diseases) in Japan].

    PubMed

    Liang, Rong

    2003-01-01

    Being the earliest extant work on tongue diagnostics, Ao shi jin jing lu was block-printed and published in 1654 after it was spread into Japan, on the basis of which many kinds of manuscripts were made. This book not only exerted profound influence on the Kampo diagnostics in Edo age, but also laid down a foundation for the formation of pulse diagnostic school of tongue diagnostics in Kampo medicine. PMID:12921588

  7. Identification of system misregistrations during AO-corrected observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béchet, C.; Thiébaut, É.; .; Tallon, M.; Kolb, J.; Madec, P.-Y.

    2011-09-01

    The E-ELT will be equipped with a deformable mirror inside the telescope. The performance of reconstruction and control depends on the calibration of the interaction matrix- or a model of the interaction matrix- , which characterizes the system and the relationship between the commands sent to the deformable mirrors (DM) and the wavefront sensors (WFS) slopes. Such a calibration will be more complex than for the current systems at the VLT since it will have to be at least partly measured on sky and for a much larger number of degrees of freedom (more than 5000). In addition, gravity or temperature variations for instance are likely to introduce slow evolution of the matching between the M4 Deformable mirror and the WFS geometry. This can occur during observations and therefore degrade the adaptive optics (AO) correction. To relax the need of frequent painful calibrations and to prevent a loss of performance due to misregistrations, we investigate how to track the evolution of the interaction matrix errors in closed-loop without introducing any degradation in the observations. This is done thanks to identification methods and optimization theory. First, we formally describe the problem and the difficulties of such an identification in closed-loop configuration. Then, we present 2 solutions, based on the optimization of the error of estimates of the WFS slopes, at the output of the closed-loop AO. The performance of the methods and their limitations are discussed formally and thanks to numerical simulations of a high order AO system. We finally explore to which extent these methods currently studied for the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the VLT can be applied to the E-ELT.

  8. Intramedullary locking femoral nails. Experience with the AO nail.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A. B.; Yeates, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    The AO interlocking nail was introduced to the Ulster Hospital, Dundonald in 1988 and since then has been used in over 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures. We have reviewed 45 patients with 46 femoral shaft fractures treated between June 1988 and April 1990. These included four compound fractures and 13 comminuted fractures. The results compare favourably with other series. The union rate was 98% and there were no instances of deep infection. The alternative treatment methods available are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. Images Fig 3 Fig 5 PMID:1785145

  9. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C03 The IDE mounting plate and the detector frames are coated with a brown stain similiar to that seen on the other experiments in this and other trays located nearby. The stain seems to be slightly darker along the lower edge of the solar sensor mounting plate. The colors and designs seen on the detectors are reflections of the surrounding area. The thin brown film on the detectors metallic surface has resulted in a duller reflection of a technician, in the upper left, and other items.

  10. Stream-Field Interactions in the Magnetic Accretor AO Piscium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Coel; van Zyl, Liza

    2005-06-01

    UV spectra of the magnetic accretor AO Psc show absorption features for half the binary orbit. The absorption is unlike the wind-formed features often seen in similar stars. Instead, we attribute it to a fraction of the stream that overflows the impact with the accretion disk. Rapid velocity variations can be explained by changes in the trajectory of the stream depending on the orientation of the white dwarf's magnetic field. Hence, we are directly observing the interaction of an accretion stream with a rotating field. We compare this behavior to that seen in other intermediate polars and in SW Sex stars.

  11. Titanium alloys (AoN) and their involvement in osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    Danza, Matteo; Zollino, Ilaria; Candotto, Valentina; Cura, Francesca; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osseointegration is essential for a long-term successful and inflammation-free dental implant. Such a result depends on osteoblastic cells growth and differentiation at the tissue-implant interface. The aim of this study was to compare two different AoN titanium layers (GR4 and GR5) to investigate which one had a greater osteoconductive power using human osteoblasts (HOb) culture at two different time-points. Materials and Methods: The expression levels of some bone-related (ALPL, COL1A1, COL3A1, SPP1, RUNX2, and SPARC) were analyzed using real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). Results: Real-time RT-PCR data showed that after 3 days of treatment with TiA4GR, the genes up-regulated were COL3A1, ALPL, SPP1, and RUNX2. Moreover, no difference in gene expression was noticed 4 days later. On the other hand, the genes that overexpressed after 3 days of treatment with AoN5GR were ALPL, SPP1, and RUNX2. In both cases, the expression of COL1A1 and SPARC was negatively regulated. Conclusion: Our data showed that both titanium surfaces led to osteoblasts recruitment, maturation, and differentiation, thus promoting osseointegration at the tissue-implant interface. PMID:23814585

  12. Robo-AO: autonomous and replicable laser-adaptive-optics and science system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, C.; Riddle, R.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Law, N.; Tendulkar, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Dekany, R.; Bui, K.; Davis, J.; Burse, M.; Das, H.; Hildebrandt, S.; Punnadi, S.; Smith, R.

    2012-07-01

    We have created a new autonomous laser-guide-star adaptive-optics (AO) instrument on the 60-inch (1.5-m) telescope at Palomar Observatory called Robo-AO. The instrument enables diffraction-limited resolution observing in the visible and near-infrared with the ability to observe well over one-hundred targets per night due to its fully robotic operation. Robo-AO is being used for AO surveys of targets numbering in the thousands, rapid AO imaging of transient events and long-term AO monitoring not feasible on large diameter telescope systems. We have taken advantage of cost-effective advances in deformable mirror and laser technology while engineering Robo-AO with the intention of cloning the system for other few-meter class telescopes around the world.

  13. Searching and Studying Binary Asteroids with AO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Descamps, P.; Berthier, J.; Hestroffer, D.; de Pater, I.; Conrad, A.; Le Mignant, D.; Chaffee, F.; Gavel, D.

    2003-05-01

    Our group has conducted adaptive optics observations of asteroids since 2001. Our main goal is the search and study of binary asteroids using several AO systems (Lick, Keck, VLT) and related technique such as Appulse (Berthier and Marchis, 2002) and Laser Guide Star observations (Marchis et al., AGU-EGS, 2003) to broaden the sample of asteroids observed from the main-belt out to the Kuiper Belt. We focussed our program last year on Trojan Asteroids. Six of them were observed using Appulses with Keck AO ( ˜0.05-0.10", mv=15.4-18.5), 6 with the LGS at Lick ( ˜0.25-0.35", mv<16) and 12 with the VLT/NACO system ( ˜0.10-0.14"; mv<16.7). None of these observations reveals the presence of a companion. Based on this sample, and including 617 Patroclus binary asteroid discovered by Merline et al. (IAU, 7741, 2001), we deduce that the proportion of binary Trojan asteroids larger than 40 km is less than 4%. We will promote and discuss a technique of the analysis of negative discovery in large samples. In January 2003, we conducted an observing campaign spanning 5 days of 121 Hermione with NACO, the new AO system offered at VLT. This C-type asteroid was discovered by Merline et al. (IAU, 7980, 2002). The companion, 6.1 mag fainter than the primary, is easily detected despite the faintness of the asteroid (mv ˜13). We use the method described in Marchis et al. (Icarus, 2003) to determine the orbit of the companion. Its orbital elements are a=794.7+/-2.1 km, and P=1.643+/-0.005 days. We derived a mass =1.47E19 kg, and a density of 3.1+/-0.8 g cm-3 (using IRAS diameter of 209+/-4.7 km). Considering typical densities of meteorite analogues (CI or CM carboneceous chondrite) would led to an extremely low macro-porosity of p<3%. This suggests that the volume of Hermione is ˜30% larger, which is also supported by our resolved images of this body. This work supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, based partly on observations

  14. Nao/ao Variability In The Coupled Bergen Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorteberg, A.; Furevik, T.; Bentsen, M.; Drange, H.; Kvamsto, N. G.; Thorstensen-Kindem, I.

    A new fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model, known as the Bergen Climate Model (BCM), has been developed. The coupled model can be run with stretched co- ordinates both in the atmosphere and ocean and consists of the atmospheric model ARPEGE/IFS, and a global version of the isopycnal ocean model MICOM, including a sea ice model. The atmospheric model ARPEGE/IFS (c22) is a spectral model devel- oped jointly by Meteo-France and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The ocean circulation model is the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MI- COM). Several modifications have been done to the MICOM model including the incorporation of a thermodynamic and dynamic sea ice model, the use of tempera- ture as a prognostic variable instead of salinity, and the use of a metric scale factor in both lateral, so the model can easily be configured on a general orthogonal grid. Also,the thickness diffusion has been modified to better handle diffusion near bottom topography and the base of the mixed layer. Coupling has been done with the library OASIS where 14 different fields are ex- changed using Montecarlo mapping and subgrid interpolation. Continental runoff into the correct rivers and discharge into the correct ocean grid cells are performed using the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) data set. Results will be present from a 300 years flux adjusted control integration of BCM with todays climate, using a unstretched T63 truncation in the atmosphere and a 0.8 by 2.4 degree resolution (near the equator gradually transforming to approximate square grid cells towards the poles) in the ocean. The model output has been analysed for large scale variability in both the ocean and atmosphere, with emphasise on the North Atlantic and Arctic climate. Statistical properties of the NAO/AO signal, and its im- pacts on the climate components, are identified and compared with observations. The NAO/AO mode of variability show up in the model with

  15. LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C09 The flight photograph was taken during the LDEF retrieval and provides an on-orbit view of the C09 integrated tray. When comparing this photograph with the prelaunch photograph, very little difference can be seen. A brown stain is visible around some of the fasteners and on mounting plates. The stain has been attributed to outgassing and contamination from the LDEF and experiment related materials being flown. When compared to the prelaunch photograph, the C09 integrated tray seems to be in excellent condition. The Interplanetary Dust Experiment appears to have a thin brown stain around some of the fasteners and also a small rectangular stain, in the center, along the bottom edge of the detector mounting plate. The IDE seems to be in excellent condition with all hardware intact. The colors seen in the detectors is a reflection of the Orbiter's white cargo bay liner.

  16. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C09 The postflight photograph was taken prior to the experiment tray being removed from the LDEF. The tray corner clamp blocks are un-anodized aluminum and that alone accounts for the major difference in color between the corner clamp blocks and the center clamp blocks. The IDE mounting plate and the detector frames and detectors seem to be in excellent condition. Close inspection of the photograph reveals several locations where impacts on detector surfaces are visible. A faint gold or tan stain can be seen around several of the fasteners and in a rectangular configuration, near the center, along the bottom edge of the detector mounting plate. Stains can also be seen near the top right edge of the solar sensor, on the mounting plate, and around the extreme edges of the solar sensor baseplate. The colors and designs seen on the detectors are reflections of the surrounding area.

  17. The 1987 outburst of the BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J. R.; Smith, A. G.

    1989-08-01

    The violently variable BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164 displayed a 3.24 magnitude outburst in early 1987. This outburst was observed intensively from Rosemary Hill Observatory in three colors. Long term monitoring observations made at Rosemary Hill are examined in an effort to find any recurring timescales associated with this outburst and previous large amplitude outbursts. The energetics of the 1987 outburst are analyzed in terms of the Shields and Wheeler model of a magnetized accretion disk. The timescales identified in the power spectrum (2.8 and 1.6 yr) are input into the model as the storage timescales. Since the emitted energy calculated from the optical burst cannot be stored in a magnetized disk at an allowable radius, it is concluded that either the storage timescales are longer than those identified in the power spectrum, or relativistic beaming effects must be considered, with a Doppler factor of 1.3 to 1.6.

  18. NFIRAOS: first facility AO system for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herriot, Glen; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jenny; Boyer, Corinne; Byrnes, Peter; Caputa, Kris; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Hill, Alexis; Ljusic, Zoran; Pazder, John; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Smith, Malcolm; Spano, Paolo; Szeto, Kei; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wevers, Ivan; Wang, Lianqi; Wooff, Robert

    2014-07-01

    NFIRAOS, the Thirty Meter Telescope's first adaptive optics system is an order 60x60 Multi-Conjugate AO system with two deformable mirrors. Although most observing will use 6 laser guide stars, it also has an NGS-only mode. Uniquely, NFIRAOS is cooled to -30 °C to reduce thermal background. NFIRAOS delivers a 2-arcminute beam to three client instruments, and relies on up to three IR WFSs in each instrument. We present recent work including: robust automated acquisition on these IR WFSs; trade-off studies for a common-size of deformable mirror; real-time computing architectures; simplified designs for high-order NGS-mode wavefront sensing; modest upgrade concepts for high-contrast imaging.

  19. Robo-AO KP: A new era in robotic adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Duev, Dmitry; Ziegler, Carl; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.; Atkinson, Dani Eleanor; Tanner, Angelle M.; Zhang, Celia; Ray, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Robo-AO is the first and only fully automated adaptive optics laser guide star AO instrument. It was developed as an instrument for 1-3m robotic telescopes, in order to take advantage of their availability to pursue large survey programs and target of opportunity observations that aren't possible with other AO systems. Robo-AO is currently the most efficient AO system in existence, and it can achieve an observation rate of 20+ science targets per hour. In more than three years of operations at Palomar Observatory, it has been quite successful, producing technology that is being adapted by other AO systems and robotic telescope projects, as well as several high impact scientific publications. Now, Robo-AO has been selected to take over operation of the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1m telescope. This will give Robo-AO KP the opportunity to pursue multiple science programs consisting of several thousand targets each during the three years it will be on the telescope. One-sixth of the observing time will be allocated to the US community through the NOAO TAC process. This presentation will discuss the process adapting Robo-AO to the KPNO 2.1m telescope, the plans for integration and initial operations, and the science operations and programs to be pursued.

  20. LDEF: Dosimetric measurement results (AO 138-7 experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourrieau, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the objectives of the AO 138-7 experiment on board the LDEF was a total dose measurement with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD 100). Two identical cases, both including 5 TLDs inside various aluminum shields, are exposed to the space environment in order to obtain the absorbed dose profile induced. Radiation fluence received during the total mission length was computed, taking into account the trapped particles (solar maximum and solar minimum periods) and the cosmic rays; due to the magnetospheric shielding, the solar proton fluences are negligible on the LDEF orbit. The total dose induced by these radiations inside a semi-infinite plane shield of Al are computed with radiation transport codes. TLD reading are performed after flight; due to the mission duration increase, a post-flight calibration was necessary in order to cover the range of the flight induced dose. The results obtained, similar (+ or - 30 pct.) in both cases, are compared with the dose profile computation. In practice, these LDEF results, with less than a factor 1.4 between measurements and forecasts, reinforce the validity of the computation methods and models used for the long term evaluation of space radiation intensity on low inclination Earth orbits.

  1. Atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiment AO171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Array Materials Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment (SAMPLE), AO171, contained in total approximately 100 materials and materials processes with a 300 specimen complement. With the exception of experiment solar cell and solar cell modules, all test specimens were weighed before flight, thus allowing an accurate determination of mass loss as a result of space exposure. Since almost all of the test specimens were thermal vacuum baked before flight, the mass loss sustained can be attributed principally to atomic oxygen attack. The atomic oxygen effects observed and measured in five classes of materials is documented. The atomic oxygen reactivity values generated for these materials are compared to those values derived for the same materials from exposures on short term shuttle flights. An assessment of the utility of predicting long term atomic oxygen effects from short term exposures is given. This experiment was located on Row 8 position A which allowed all experiment materials to be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 6.93 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(sup 2) as a result of being positioned 38 degrees off the RAM direction.

  2. LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10 The flight/on-orbit photograph of the G10 experi ment tray was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval. A light brown stain can be seen on the experiment tray flanges and to a lesser degree on the IDE Chemglaze Z tained their integrity. A light tan stain on the solar sensor base plate, located in the center of the tray, is more easily seen than that on the IDE mounting plate. Surface defects are highly visible due to the lighting conditions existing at the time the photograph was taken. The lighting angle is such that many impact craters can be seen. Two (2) detectors, located in the twenty (20) detector layout in the lower left corner of the tray, seem to have defects. A triangular shaped discoloration appears on the second detector from the left and in the second row from the bottom. Another irregular shaped discoloration can be seen on the fourth detector from the left and in the third row from the bottom. These discolorations appear to be due to material and/or fabrication defects and not reflected light. The blue colors on the detector's mirror like surface are caused by reflections of the LDEF surroundings.

  3. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10 The IDE experiment appears to be in excellent condition in the postflight photograph. All bond joints seem to have survived the space environment and the experiment hardware seems to be intact. The direction and intensity of the artificial light source has caused hot spots and reflections that tend to wash out the brown stain on the exposed surfaces. A close inspection of individual detectors reveal locations where impacts have occurred and damage is present. In the detector layout in the lower left corner of the tray, two detectors continue to show the discolorations observed in the flight photograph. A triangular shape can be seen in the detector located in the second horizontal row from the bottom and the second vertical row from the left. The other detector, located in the third horizontal row from the bottom and the fourth vertical row from the left has an irregular shaped, very faint, discolora tion. The blue color in the detectors metallic surface is caused by reflections of the surrounding area.

  4. Ruled and holographic experiment (AO 138-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnemason, Francis

    1993-01-01

    The AO 138-5 experiment was designed, via the FRECOPA (FRench COoperative PAyload) experiment with the aim to study the optical behavior of different diffraction gratings submitted to space vacuum long exposure and solar irradiation. Samples were ruled and holographic gratings, masters or replica, and some additional control mirrors with various coatings. The experiment was located on the B3, trailing edge of the LDEF and was protected against Atomic Oxygen flux. The experienced thermal cycling was evaluated from -23 C to 66 C during the flight, 34,000 orbits. The samples (two batches of four pieces) were located on a dedicated plate, by a pair of equivalent gratings or mirrors; optical faces were located on the external side. The plate was inside a canister, which had been opened in space for ten months. When the satellite returned to Kennedy Space Center, the remaining vacuum in the canister was still correct. The analysis focused on the triple point characterization including light efficiency, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level. Tests were conducted on control mirrors and gratings (rules and holographic master or replica) loaded but not exposed to cosmic dust or direct solar irradiations. They did not show any significant variations. Solar exposure had damaged the coating (aluminum and platinum) reflectivity in the Ultra-Violet region; the degradation is higher with the gratings, in terms of efficiency. However, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level tests revealed no additional changes.

  5. Four year experience with the AO Anterior Thoracolumbar Locking Plate.

    PubMed

    Thalgott, J S; Kabins, M B; Timlin, M; Fritts, K; Giuffre, J M

    1997-05-01

    For decades spinal surgeons have attempted to design simple, single stage anterior internal fixation systems for the thoracic and lumbar spine. Early devices presented both biomechanical and technical problems. The AO Anterior Thoracolumbar Locking Plate (ATLP) was designed to solve some of the problems encountered with early anterior instrumentation. The ATLP system is constructed in Commercially Pure titanium. It is a low profile device indicated for use for unstable burst fractures in the anterior column; metastatic tumor management; and degenerative diseases of the thoracolumbar spine between levels T10 and L5. Implantation of the device involves direct anterior decompression with sagittal reduction and corpectomy. This is followed by grafting reconstruction, and plate fixation. This device has been implanted in 25 patients with an average follow-up of 38 months. There were five (5) broken screws in three (3) patients, and no broken plates. Implant related postoperative complications included two misplaced screws. Preliminary results indicate that the ATLP system seems to be a safe, low profile, MRI/CT compatible device that provides definitive single stage fixation of the anterior spinal column. PMID:9160452

  6. Ruled and holographic experiment (AO 138-5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnemason, Francis

    1993-04-01

    The AO 138-5 experiment was designed, via the FRECOPA (FRench COoperative PAyload) experiment with the aim to study the optical behavior of different diffraction gratings submitted to space vacuum long exposure and solar irradiation. Samples were ruled and holographic gratings, masters or replica, and some additional control mirrors with various coatings. The experiment was located on the B3, trailing edge of the LDEF and was protected against Atomic Oxygen flux. The experienced thermal cycling was evaluated from -23 C to 66 C during the flight, 34,000 orbits. The samples (two batches of four pieces) were located on a dedicated plate, by a pair of equivalent gratings or mirrors; optical faces were located on the external side. The plate was inside a canister, which had been opened in space for ten months. When the satellite returned to Kennedy Space Center, the remaining vacuum in the canister was still correct. The analysis focused on the triple point characterization including light efficiency, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level. Tests were conducted on control mirrors and gratings (rules and holographic master or replica) loaded but not exposed to cosmic dust or direct solar irradiations. They did not show any significant variations. Solar exposure had damaged the coating (aluminum and platinum) reflectivity in the Ultra-Violet region; the degradation is higher with the gratings, in terms of efficiency. However, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level tests revealed no additional changes.

  7. Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laganaro, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

  8. SCExAO as a precursor to an ELT exoplanet direct imaging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; Singh, Garima; Vievard, Sebastien; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Garrel, Vincent; Norris, Barnaby; Tuthill, Peter; Stewart, Paul; Huby, Elsa; Perrin, Guy; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2013-12-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios>90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1 lambda/D and an ideal testbed for exploring coronagraphic techniques for ELTs. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss several exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which is a integral field spectrograph as well as VAMPIRES, a visible aperture masking experiment based on polarimetric analysis of circumstellar disks. In addition we will elucidate the unique role extreme AO systems will play in enabling high precision radial velocity spectroscopy for the detection of small companions.

  9. MagAO: Status and on-sky performance of the Magellan adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Kopon, Derek; Hinz, Phil M.; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Puglisi, Alfio; Pinna, Enrico; Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Bailey, Vanessa; Follette, Katherine B.; Rodigas, T. J.; Wu, Ya-Lin; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Busoni, Lorenzo; Hare, Tyson; Uomoto, Alan; Weinberger, Alycia

    2014-07-01

    MagAO is the new adaptive optics system with visible-light and infrared science cameras, located on the 6.5-m Magellan "Clay" telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The instrument locks on natural guide stars (NGS) from 0th to 16th R-band magnitude, measures turbulence with a modulating pyramid wavefront sensor binnable from 28×28 to 7×7 subapertures, and uses a 585-actuator adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) to provide at wavefronts to the two science cameras. MagAO is a mutated clone of the similar AO systems at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) at Mt. Graham, Arizona. The high-level AO loop controls up to 378 modes and operates at frame rates up to 1000 Hz. The instrument has two science cameras: VisAO operating from 0.5-1μm and Clio2 operating from 1-5 μm. MagAO was installed in 2012 and successfully completed two commissioning runs in 2012-2013. In April 2014 we had our first science run that was open to the general Magellan community. Observers from Arizona, Carnegie, Australia, Harvard, MIT, Michigan, and Chile took observations in collaboration with the MagAO instrument team. Here we describe the MagAO instrument, describe our on-sky performance, and report our status as of summer 2014.

  10. Robo-AO: Initial results from the first autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, R. L.; Baranec, C.; Law, N. M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, S.; Hogstrom, K.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.; Kulkarni, S.; Punnadi, S.; Smith, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large surveys are discovering thousands of objects which require further characterization at high angular resolution. The demands on space-based observatories and large telescopes with AO systems leave them generally unavailable for large high angular resolution surveys. To address this gap, we have developed Robo-AO, the first robotic laser AO system, as an economical and efficient imaging instrument for 1-3 m class telescopes. Observations of over 200 stellar objects per night have routinely been performed, with target-to-target observation overheads of less than 1.5 minutes. Scientific programs of several thousands of targets can be executed in mere weeks, and Robo-AO has already completed the three largest AO surveys to date.

  11. AO-308: the high-order adaptive optics system at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumko, Sergey; Gorceix, Nicolas; Choi, Seonghwan; Kellerer, Aglaé; Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.; Abramenko, Volodymyr; Richards, Kit; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Marino, Jose

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we present Big Bear Solar Observatory's (BBSO) newest adaptive optics system - AO-308. AO-308 is a result of collaboration between BBSO and National Solar Observatory (NSO). AO-308 uses a 357 actuators deformable mirror (DM) from Xinetics and its wave front sensor (WFS) has 308 sub-apertures. The WFS uses a Phantom V7.3 camera which runs at 2000 Hz with the region of interest of 416×400 pixels. AO-308 utilizes digital signal processors (DSPs) for image processing. AO-308 has been successfully used during the 2013 observing season. The system can correct up to 310 modes providing diffraction limited images at all wavelengths of interest.

  12. Multi-conjugate AO for the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Béchet, C.; Le Louarn, M.; Tallon, M.; Sánchez-Capuchino, J.; Collados Vera, M.

    2012-07-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) will be a 4-meter diameter world-class facility, optimized for studies of the magnetic coupling between the deep photosphere and upper chromosphere. It will specialize in high spatial resolution observations and therefore it has been designed to incorporate an innovative built-in Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system (MCAO). It combines a narrow field high order sensor that will provide the information to correct the ground layer and a wide field low order sensor for the high altitude mirrors used in the MCAO mode. One of the challenging particularities of solar AO is that it has to be able to correct the turbulence for a wide range of observing elevations, from zenith to almost horizon. Also, seeing is usually worse at day-time, and most science is done at visible wavelengths. Therefore, the system has to include a large number of high altitude deformable mirrors. In the case of the EST, an arrangement of 4 high altitude DMs is used. Controlling such a number of mirrors makes it necessary to use fast reconstruction algorithms to deal with such large amount of degrees of freedom. For this reason, we have studied the performance of the Fractal Iterative Method (FriM) and the Fourier Transform Reconstructor (FTR), to the EST MCAO case. Using OCTOPUS, the end-to-end simulator of the European Southern Observatory, we have performed several simulations with both algorithms, being able to reach the science requirement of a homogeneous Strehl higher that 50% all over the 1 arcmin field of view.

  13. A reflective Gaussian coronagraph for ExAO: laboratory performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ryeojin; Close, Laird M.; Siegler, Nick; Nielsen, Eric L.; Stalcup, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    We report laboratory results of a coronagraphic testbed to assess the intensity reduction differences between a "Gaussian" tapered focal plane coronagraphic mask and a classical hard-edged "Top Hat" function mask at Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) Strehl ratios of ~94%. However, unlike a traditional coronagraph design, we insert a reflective focal plane mask at 45 ° to the optical axis and used a "spot of Arago blocker" (axicon stop) before a final image in order to block additional mask edge-diffracted light. The testbed simulates the optical train of ground-based telescopes (in particular the 8.1m Gemini North telescope) and includes one spider vane and different mask radii (r= 1.9λ/D, 3.7λ/D, 7.4λ/D) and two types of reflective focal plane masks (hard-edged "Top Hat" and "Gaussian" tapered profiles). In order to investigate the performance of these competing coronagraphic designs with regard to extra-solar planet detection sensitivity, we utilize the simulation of realistic extra-solar planet populations (Nielsen et al. 2006). With an appropriate translation of our laboratory results to expected telescope performance, a "Gaussian" tapered mask radius of 3.7λ/D with an axicon stop performs best (highest planet detection sensitivity). For a full survey with this optimal design, the simulation predicts ~30% more planets detected compared to a similar sized "Top Hat" function mask with an axicon stop. Using the best design, the "point contrast ratio" between the stellar PSF peak and the coronagraphic PSF at 10λ/D (0.4" in H band if D = 8.1m) is 1.4 x 10 6. This is ~10 times higher than a classical Lyot "Top Hat" coronagraph.

  14. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The postflight photograph shows little change of the exposed surfaces when compared with the prelaunch photograph. Although not noticable in the photograph, a light coating of contamination was seen on all experiment surfaces in this location. The difference in colors of the IDE detectors, located on the right hand mounting plate, is a result of the reflected surroundings and not related to space exposure. A close observation of the detector surfaces reveal that some damage has occured from meteroid and/or debris impacts. One impact crater can be seen, upper right quadrant, on the detector located in the sixth (6th) row down from the top and the fifth (5th) row from the right. Other impacts, smaller in size, show as small white dots on the detector surface. The solar sensor seems to have changed little, if any. However, the color of the solar array baseplate, showing indications of contamination, appears to be darker than the detector mounting plate. The center section cover plate shows little change when compared with the pre-launch photograph. However, during inspection, a light coat of the brown contamination has been observed on all surfaces. The color of the bonding material (RTV) used to secure several thin specimen, sapphire, to individual mounting plates has changed from pink to gold. At one location, that of a single specimen, the bonding material is more gray than gold in color. This has been attributed to the specimen being considerably thicker. The EPDS thermal cover in the right hand side of the tray shows a light coating of brown contamination on the Chemglaze II A-276 white paint.

  15. AO Capabilities at the MMT for the User

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Hart, Michael M.

    2009-05-01

    The MMT operates a facility natural guide star (NGS) AO system. Diffraction limited imaging and medium and high resolution spectroscopy in the near IR are offered over the full isoplanatic field with the ARIES instrument.The system also offers imaging with unique sensitivity in the thermal IR from 3 to 10 microns thanks to its use of an adaptive secondary mirror. L and M band imaging is offered with Clio which has a 12x15 arcsec field of view with Nyquist sampling if the diffraction limt. Recent M band images from Clio show the planetary system around HR8799. In addition, 10 - 25 micron imaging is offered with the MIRAC camera, which may also be operated as a Bracewell nulling interferometer. In this mode, two large subapertures are defined within the pupil. Light from the two is combined so as to cancel the light from an unresolved star through destructive interference, while the environs are imaged in constructive interference. In this way, dust disks and planetary systems may be imaged with greatly improved contrast. The MMT also operates the first astronomical adaptive optics system to employ multiple laser guide stars (LGS). Its initial operational mode, ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO), provides uniform stellar wavefront correction within the 2 arcmin diameter laser beacon constellation, routinely reducing the stellar image widths to < 0.3 arcsec in the J - K bands. An imaging camera,PISCES, is available for these bands with 2 arcmin field of view sampled at 0.1 arcsec/pixel. In addition, L and M band imaging will be available with Clio in the fall of 2009, opening up near all-sky coverage with near-diffraction limited image quality and emissivity of just 7%.

  16. LDEF: Dosimetric measurement results (AO 138-7 experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourrieau, J.

    1993-01-01

    One of the objectives of the AO 138-7 experiment on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a total dose measurement with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD 100). Two identical packages, both of them including five TLD's inside various aluminum shields, are exposed to the space environment in order to obtain the absorbed dose profile. Radiation fluence received during the total mission length was computed, taking into account the trapped particles (AE8 and AP8 models during solar maximum and minimum periods) and the cosmic rays; due to the magnetospheric shielding the solar proton fluences are negligible on the LDEF orbit. The total dose induced by these radiations inside a semi infinite plane shield of aluminum are computed with the radiation transport codes available at DERTS. The dose profile obtained is in good agreement with the evaluation by E.V. Benton. TLD readings are performed after flight; due to the mission duration increase a post flight calibration was necessary in order to cover the range of the in flight induced dose. The results obtained, similar (plus or minus 30 percent) for both packages, are compared with the dose profile computation. For thick shields it seems that the measurements exceed the forecast (about 40 percent). That can be due to a cosmic ray and trapped proton contributions coming from the backside (assumed as perfectly shielded by the LDEF structure in the computation), or to an underestimate of the proton or cosmic ray fluences. A fine structural shielding analysis should be necessary in order to determine the origin of this slight discrepancy between forecast and in flight measurements. For the less shielded dosimeters, mainly exposed to the trapped electron flux, a slight overestimation of the dose (less than 40 percent) appears. Due to the dispersion of the TLD's response, this cannot be confirmed. In practice these results obtained on board LDEF, with less than a factor 1.4 between measurements and forecast

  17. Bringing the visible universe into focus with Robo-AO.

    PubMed

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M; Ramaprakash, A N; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K; Davis, Jack T C; Dekany, Richard G; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Morton, Timothy D; Ofek, Eran O; Punnadi, Sujit

    2013-01-01

    a high-power laser beam in the direction of the astronomical target to create an artificial reference of known shape, also known as a 'laser guide star'. The Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system, employs a 10-W ultraviolet laser focused at a distance of 10 km to generate a laser guide star. Wavefront sensor measurements of the laser guide star drive the adaptive optics correction resulting in diffraction-limited images that have an angular resolution of ~0.1 arc seconds on a 1.5-m telescope. PMID:23426078

  18. Bringing the Visible Universe into Focus with Robo-AO

    PubMed Central

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Ramaprakash, A.N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K.; Davis, Jack T.C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Ofek, Eran O.; Punnadi, Sujit

    2013-01-01

    focus a high-power laser beam in the direction of the astronomical target to create an artificial reference of known shape, also known as a 'laser guide star'. The Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system2,3 employs a 10-W ultraviolet laser focused at a distance of 10 km to generate a laser guide star. Wavefront sensor measurements of the laser guide star drive the adaptive optics correction resulting in diffraction-limited images that have an angular resolution of ~0.1 arc seconds on a 1.5-m telescope. PMID:23426078

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel bacterium, Sphingomonas bisphenolicum strain AO1, that degrades bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Oshiman, Ko-ichi; Tsutsumi, Yuji; Nishida, Tomoaki; Matsumura, Yoshinobu

    2007-04-01

    Bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, BPA), which is used as a synthetic resin material or a plasticizer, is a pollutant that possesses endocrine-disrupting activity. Bioremediation of BPA is used to decrease its polluting effects, and here we report a novel bacterial strain AO1, which is able to degrade BPA. This strain was isolated using enrichment cultivation from a soil sample from a vegetable-growing field; the sample was one of 500 soil samples collected across Japan. Strain AO1 degraded 100 mg/l BPA to an undetectable level within 6 h in MYPG medium (containing malt extract, yeast extract, peptone, and glucose) and within 48 h in minimum medium containing 1% glucose at 30 degrees C. Strain AO1 can utilize BPA as a sole source of carbon and as an energy source under aerobic conditions. The estrogenic activity of BPA in MYPG medium was ultimately reduced by strain AO1, although the activity initially increased. Taxonomical analysis showed that strain AO1 is closely related to Sphingomonas chlorophenolicum and S. herbicidovorans, neither of which have a capacity for BPA degradation. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strain AO1 is a novel species of the Sphingomonas genus, and we designated AO1 as S. bisphenolicum. PMID:16821103

  20. Calibration of a curvature sensor/bimorph mirror AO system: interaction matrix measurement on MACAO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberti, Sylvain; Bonnet, Henri; Fedrigo, Enrico; Ivanescu, Liviu; Kasper, Markus E.; Paufique, Jerome

    2004-10-01

    The accurate calibration of an AO system is fundamental in order to reach the top performance expected from design. To improve this aspect, we propose procedures for calibrating a curvature AO system in view of optimizing performances and robustness, based on the experience accumulated by the ESO AO team through the development of MACAO systems for VLTI and SINFONI. The approach maximizes the quality of the Interaction Matrix (IM) while maintaining the system in its linear regime and minimizing noise and bias on the measurement.

  1. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The prelaunch photograph shows the six (6) inch deep Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) master control tray. The tray has three (3) mounting/cover plates elevated on fiberglass stand-offs to provide clearance and protection for hardware and electronics located underneath. The stand-offs also raise the plates to a level that minimizes shading of detectors by the tray sidewalls. The mounting plate located at the left hand end of the tray is populated with eighty (80) metaloxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type impact sensors and one (1) solar sensor that is located approximately in the center of the mounting plate. The IDE sensors are two (2) inch diameter MOS capacitor structures approximately 250 um thick. The detectors are formed by growing either 0.4um or 1.0um thick silicon oxide, SiO2, layer on the 250um thick, B-doped polished silicon wafer. The top metal contact, the visible surface, was formed by vapor deposition of 1000A of aluminum on the SiO2 surface. Aluminum was also vapor deposited on the backside to form the contact with the silicon substrate. Gold wires are bonded to the front and back aluminum layers for use in connecting the detectors to the circuits. The complete wafers, IDE detectors, are mounted on chromic anodized aluminum frames by bonding the detector backside to the aluminum frame with a space qualified RTV silicon adhesive, de-volatized RTV-511. The difference in colors of the detectors is caused by reflections in the metallized surfaces. A reflection of one of the technicians is visible in the three (3) rows of detector on the left hand side of the mounting plate. The solar sensor, located at the mounting plate center, consist of four (4) silicon solar cells connected in series and associated circuity bonded to an aluminum baseplate. The solar sensor registered each orbital sunrise independant of LDEF orientation at the time of sunrise. When IDE solar sensor data from the six

  2. East Asian winter temperature variation associated with the combined effects of AO and WP pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-04-01

    The combined effects of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) over the last 56 years (1958/59-2013/2014) were investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (Park and Ahn, 2015). The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phases of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the EAWM and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were of-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500hPa circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. It explained the possible mechanism of the combined effects of the AO and WP on the circulation related to EAWM. Reference Park, H.-J., and J.-B. Ahn (2015) Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature, Clim. Dyn. DOI:10.1007/s00382-015-2763-2. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMIPA2015-2081.

  3. Building a reliable, scalable and affordable RTC for AO instruments on ELTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratadour, Damien; Sevin, Arnaud; Perret, Denis; Brule, Julien

    2013-12-01

    Addressing the unprecedented amount of computing power needed by the ELTs AO instruments real-time controllers (RTC) is one of the key technological developments required for the design of the next generation AO systems. Throughput oriented architectures such as GPUs, providing orders of magnitude greater computational performance than high-end CPUs, have recently appeared as attractive and economically viable candidates since the fast emergence of devices capable of general purpose computing. However, using for real-time applications a I/0 device which cannot be scheduled nor controlled internally by the operating system but is sent commands through a closed source driver comes with a number of challenges. Building on the experience of almost real-time end-to-end simulations using GPUs, and relying on the development of the COMPASS platform, a unified and optimized framework for AO simulations and real-time control, our team has engaged into the development of a scalable, heterogeneous GPU-based prototype for an AO RTC. In this paper, we review the main challenges arising when utilizing GPUs in real-time systems for AO and rank them in terms of impact significance and available solutions. We present our strategy, to mitigate these issues including the general architecture of our prototype, the real-time core and additional dedicated components for data acquisition and distribution. Finally, we discuss the expected performance in terms of latency and jitter on the basis of realistic benchmarks and focusing on the dimensioning of the MICADO AO module RTC.

  4. Robo-AO: Initial results from the first autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, R.; Baranec, C.; Law, N. M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, S.; Hogstrom, K.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.; Kulkarni, S.; Punnadi, S.; Smith, R.

    2014-03-01

    Large surveys, such as the Kepler mission and Palomar Transient Factory, are discovering upwards of thousands of objects which require further characterization at angular resolutions significantly finer than normally allowed by atmospheric seeing. The demands on precious space-based observatories (i.e. Hubble Space Telescope) and large telescopes with adaptive optics (AO) systems (i.e. Keck, VLT, Gemini) leave them generally unavailable for high angular resolution surveys of more than a few hundred targets at a time. To address the gap between scientific objects and available telescopes, we have developed Robo-AO, the first robotic laser AO system, as an economical and efficient imaging instrument for the more readily available 1-3 m class telescopes. The Robo-AO system system demonstrates angular resolutions approaching the visible diffraction limit of the Palomar 60-inch telescope. Observations of over 200 stellar objects per night have routinely been performed, with target-to-target observation overheads of less than 1.5 minutes. Scientific programs requiring high-resolution follow-up characterization of several thousands of targets can thus be executed in mere weeks, and Robo-AO has already completed the three largest AO surveys to date.

  5. Parameterising E-ELT AO PSFs for detailed science simulations for HARMONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Thatte, Niranjan

    2013-12-01

    With the first ELTs around the corner it is becoming ever more important to determine observational strategies and assess the prospective success of observing programs prior to making the observations. To this end, scientific simulations need to become more refined to understand the criteria required for a specific science case. We address the science simulations for HARMONI, an AO assisted first light integral field spectrograph (IFS) for the E-ELT. AO PSFs vary markedly as a function of wavelength and type of AO system used, so there is need to create detailed PSFs across all IFS wavelength channels for accurate simulations. Detailed AO simulations have shown that for LTAO on the E-ELT, Strehl ratios can vary from 0.5E-3 in V-band up to 0.5 in K-band. Using a single PSF for an entire datacube (especially with large instantaneous wavelength coverage) could introduce misleading features into simulated observations using HARMONI. We have developed a method to parameterize detailed PSFs using analytical models, which can then be interpolated as a function of wavelength. This allows us to create accurate, but computationally inexpensive, AO PSF datacubes for HARMONI simulations. This shall be developed to cover LTAO, SCAO and GLAO/no-AO PSFs for a range of observing parameters.

  6. Mining the Apollo and Amor asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleary, B.

    1977-01-01

    Earth-approaching asteroids could provide raw materials for space manufacturing. For certain asteroids the total energy per unit mass for the transfer of asteroidal resources to a manufacturing site in high earth orbit is comparable to that for lunar materials. For logistical reasons the cost may be many times less. Optical studies suggest that these asteroids have compositions corresponding to those of carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites, with some containing large quantities of iron and nickel; other are thought to contain carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen, elements that appear to be lacking on the moon. The prospect that several new candidate asteroids will be discovered over the next few years increases the likelihood that a variety of asteroidal resource materials can be retrieved on low-energy missions.

  7. Requirements Modeling with the Aspect-oriented User Requirements Notation (AoURN): A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussbacher, Gunter; Amyot, Daniel; Araújo, João; Moreira, Ana

    The User Requirements Notation (URN) is a recent ITU-T standard that supports requirements engineering activities. The Aspect-oriented URN (AoURN) adds aspect-oriented concepts to URN, creating a unified framework that allows for scenario-based, goal-oriented, and aspect-oriented modeling. AoURN is applied to the car crash crisis management system (CCCMS), modeling its functional and non-functional requirements (NFRs). AoURN generally models all use cases, NFRs, and stakeholders as individual concerns and provides general guidelines for concern identification. AoURN handles interactions between concerns, capturing their dependencies and conflicts as well as the resolutions. We present a qualitative comparison of aspect-oriented techniques for scenario-based and goal-oriented requirements engineering. An evaluation carried out based on the metrics adapted from literature and a task-based evaluation suggest that AoURN models are more scalable than URN models and exhibit better modularity, reusability, and maintainability.

  8. [Discussion on academic origin of Ao shi shang han jin jing lu (Ao's Records of golden mirror on cold pathogenic diseases].

    PubMed

    Liang, Rong; Wang, Zhaoping

    2002-07-01

    Ao shi shang han jin jing lu (Ao's Records of Golden Mirror on Cold Pathogenic Diseases) is the extant first work of lingual diagnosis. It is demonstrated that the author of this book is categorized under the school of Liu Wansu based on the location of disease, the nature of disease, therapies and drugs, and pathogenesis in pathological lingual pictures described in this book. The lingual diagnosis was based on Liu Wansu's theory of fire - heat, and used for diagnosing warm diseases. Intuitionistic vision was used in this book to prove the direct relation between red tongue and heat syndrome, which was the important joint for the theory of warm diseases to derive from the theory of cold pathogenic diseases. At the same time, the set up of the model of diagnosis and treatment for red tongue - inner heat syndrome, and clearing inner heat is established. PMID:12639446

  9. Optical-X-ray Observations of BL Lacertae Object AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Emily S.; Webb, James R.; Balonek, Thomas J.; McGrath, Elizabeth; Shrader, Chris R.

    1998-11-01

    The BL Lacertea object AO 0235+164 dramatically increased in brightness on October 20, 1997. This outburst was observed with the 1 meter SARA (Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy) telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) located southwest of Tucson, Arizona. As a result of our observations, AO 0235+164 was also observed during the outbust by the Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment (RXTE) and Foggy Bottom Observaotry, Colgate Univserity, New York as a part of a Target of Opportunity (TOO) program. We present here the historical lightcurve of AO 0235+164, Optical observations during the ourtburst from the SARA and Foggy Bottom Observatories and X-ray observations from RXTE. Also, we present multifrequency data during this period and compare the variability of the Optical and X-ray bands.

  10. Deep-water sponges (Porifera) from Bonaire and Klein Curaçao, Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Van Soest, Rob W M; Meesters, Erik H W G; Becking, Leontine E

    2014-01-01

    Four submersible dives off the coast of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands) and Klein Curaçao (Curaçao) to depths of 99.5-242 m, covering lower mesophotic and upper dysphotic zones, yielded 52 sponge specimens belonging to 31 species. Among these we identified 13 species as new to science. These are Plakinastrella stinapa n. sp., Pachastrella pacoi n. sp., Characella pachastrelloides n. sp., Geodia curacaoensis n. sp., Caminus carmabi n. sp., Discodermia adhaerens n. sp., Clathria (Microciona) acarnoides n. sp., Antho (Acarnia) pellita n. sp., Parahigginsia strongylifera n. sp., Calyx magnoculata n. sp., Neopetrosia dutchi n. sp., Neopetrosia ovata n. sp. and Neopetrosia eurystomata n. sp. We also report an euretid hexactinellid, which belongs to the rare genus Verrucocoeloidea, recently described (2014) as V. liberatorii Reiswig & Dohrmann. The remaining 18 already known species are all illustrated by photos of the habit, either in situ or 'on deck', but only briefly characterized in an annotated table to confirm their occurrence in the Southern Caribbean. The habitat investigated-steep limestone rocks, likely representing Pleistocene fossil reefs--is similar to deep-water fossil reefs at Barbados of which the sponges were sampled and studied by Van Soest and Stentoft (1988). A comparison is made between the two localities, showing a high degree of similarity in sponge composition: 53% of the present Bonaire-Klein Curaçao species were also retrieved at Barbados. At the level of higher taxa (genera, families) Bonaire-Klein Curaçao shared approximately 80% of its lower mesophotic and upper dysphotic sponge fauna with Barbados, despite a distance between them of 1000 km, indicating high faunal homogeneity. We also preliminarily compared the shallow-water (euphotic) sponge fauna of Curaçao with the combined data available for the Barbados, Bonaire and Klein Curaçao mesophotic and upper dysphotic sponges, which resulted in the conclusion that the two faunas show only

  11. [Study on Provenance of Kraak Porcelains from "Nan'ao I" Shipwreck].

    PubMed

    Du, Jing-nan; Chen, Yue; Li, Nai-sheng; Ming, Chao-fang; Zhu, Jian; Luo, Wu-gan

    2015-06-01

    The "Kraak Porcelain" was a kind of Blue and White Porcelain which exported from China to Europe in Ming and Qing period. The study of Kraak Porcelain is a focus issue in international field of porcelain research. In 2007, the discovery of "Nan'ao I" Shipwreck of Ming Dynasty and the porcelains loaded in it, provided precious materials for the research on Kraak Porcelain. In this paper, we explored the provenance of 10 Kraak Porcelain samples from Nan'ao I, using both traditional visual method and WDXRF. PMID:26601402

  12. SWAS-AOS: the first acousto-optical spectrometer in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frerick, Johannes; Klumb, Markus; Schieder, Rudolf; Tolls, Volker; Winnewisser, Gisbert F.

    1999-12-01

    On December 5, 1998, the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite has been launched with a PEGASUS carrier after more than 3 years delay. SWAS is observing molecular line signals (H2O, 13CO, Cl, O2 and H2 18O) from astronomical sources at frequencies between 487 and 557 GHz. SWAS is the first sub-millimeter heterodyne space mission, and, for the spectral analysis of the received signals, it carries the first acousto-optical spectrometer (AOS) in space. The AOS has been built at University of Cologne, and it covers 1.4 GHz bandwidth with approximately 1400 frequency channels. The total weight is 7.5 kg and the power consumption is 5.5 Watts only. The very stable temperature conditions on SWAS allow longtime integrations at total observing times far above 100 hours still with radiometric performance. So far, the AOS- spectra have not been degraded by particle hits, particularly the CCD detector of the AOS does not exhibit any visible effect due to cosmic rays. SWAS has already observed many interstellar sources in our galaxy. Emission of water is seen to be very abundant, while signals of molecular oxygen seem to be too weak to be observable.

  13. Performance of a MEMS-based AO-OCT system using Fourier Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J; Zawadzki, R; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Werner, J S

    2009-01-21

    Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-resolution (3.5 {micro}m isotropic), 3-D images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging. The current system uses an AOptix bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for low-order, high-stroke correction and a 140-actuator Boston Micromachines DM for high-order correction. Developments to improve performance or functionality of the instrument are on-going. Based on previous work in system characterization we have focused on improved AO control. We present preliminary results and remaining challenges for a newly implemented Fourier transform reconstructor (FTR). The previously reported error budget analysis is also reviewed and updated, with consideration of how to improve both the amount of residual error and the robustness of the system. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of future systems.

  14. GPS-Based Navigation And Orbit Determination for the AMSAT AO-40 Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, George; Moreau, Michael; Carpenter, Russell; Bauer, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The AMSAT OSCAR-40 (AO-40) spacecraft occupies a highly elliptical orbit (HEO) to support amateur radio experiments. An interesting aspect of the mission is the attempted use of GPS for navigation and attitude determination in HEO. Previous experiences with GPS tracking in such orbits have demonstrated the ability to acquire GPS signals, but very little data were produced for navigation and orbit determination studies. The AO-40 spacecraft, flying two Trimble Advanced Navigation Sensor (TANS) Vector GPS receivers for signal reception at apogee and at perigee, is the first to demonstrate autonomous tracking of GPS signals from within a HEO with no interaction from ground controllers. Moreover, over 11 weeks of total operations as of June 2002, the receiver has returned a continuous stream of code phase, Doppler, and carrier phase measurements useful for studying GPS signal characteristics and performing post-processed orbit determination studies in HEO. This paper presents the initial efforts to generate AO-40 navigation solutions from pseudorange data reconstructed from the TANS Vector code phase, as well as to generate a precise orbit solution for the AO-40 spacecraft using a batch filter.

  15. Improvement of phase diversity algorithm for non-common path calibration in extreme AO context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Clélia; Fusco, Thierry; Sauvage, Jean-François; Mugnier, Laurent

    2008-07-01

    Exoplanet direct imaging with a ground-based telescope needs a very high performance adaptive optics (AO) system, so-called eXtreme AO (XAO), a coronagraph device, and a smart imaging process. One limitation of AO system in operation remains the Non Common Path Aberrations (NCPA). To achieve the ultimate XAO performance, these aberrations have to be measured with a dedicated wavefront sensor placed in the imaging camera focal plane, and then pre-compensated using the AO closed loop process. In any events, the pre-compensation should minimize the aberrations at the coronagraph focal plane mask. An efficient way for the NCPA measurement is the phase diversity technique. A pixel-wise approach is well-suited to estimate NCPA on large pupils and subsequent projection on the deformable mirror with Cartesian geometry. However it calls for a careful regularization for optimal results. The weight of the regularization is written in close-form for un-supervised tuning. The accuracy of NCPA pre-compensation is below 8 nm for a wide range of conditions. Point-by-point phase estimation improves the accuracy of the Phase Diversity method. The algorithm is validated in simulation and experimentally. It will be implemented in SAXO, the XAO system of the second generation VLT instrument: SPHERE.

  16. Development of vibration source requirements for TMT to ensure AO performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Doug; Thompson, Hugh

    2013-12-01

    In order for TMT to deliver the required adaptive optics (AO) image quality, vibrationsources throughout the observatory need to be understood and their resulting optical response characterized.The sensitivity to vibration has been determined using a finite element model of the telescopestructure and mirror segments coupled to optical models. Frequency dependent models of the AO, activeoptics and mount control systems are included allowing end-to-end assessment of vibration sourceson AO-corrected image quality; future work will improve estimates of the propagation of vibrationsfrom equipment in the summit support building and enclosure to the telescope pier. Modeling separatelypredicts effects on image jitter caused by relative rigid body motion of main optical elements, and thedynamic motion of the 492 individual primary mirror segments. These results have been used to developallocated requirements on source amplitudes at different locations and as a function of frequency, whichwill lead to subsystem design requirements (e.g. for isolation systems at various locations both in thesupport building and enclosure and on the telescope structure). In order to meet an aggressive target forthis contribution to the AO error budget, vibration forces on the telescope itself must be limited to a fewNewtons in the most sensitive frequency range of 5-20Hz; larger forces of order 100N can be toleratedfor equipment mounted off the telescope in the summit facilities building.

  17. Effects of adrenergic agents on the expression of zebrafish (Danio rerio) vitellogenin Ao1

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Naida; Jin Xia; He Jiangyan; Yin Zhan

    2009-07-01

    Teleost vitellogenins (VTGs) are large multidomain apolipoproteins, traditionally considered to be estrogen-responsive precursors of the major egg yolk proteins, expressed and synthesized mainly in hepatic tissue. The inducibility of VTGs has made them one of the most frequently used in vivo and in vitro biomarkers of exposure to estrogen-active substances. A significant level of zebrafish vtgAo1, a major estrogen responsive form, has been unexpectedly found in heart tissue in our present studies. Our studies on zebrafish cardiomyopathy, caused by adrenergic agonist treatment, suggest a similar protective function of the cardiac expressed vtgAo1. We hypothesize that its function is to unload surplus intracellular lipids in cardiomyocytes for 'reverse triglyceride transportation' similar to that found in lipid transport proteins in mammals. Our results also demonstrated that zebrafish vtgAo1 mRNA expression in heart can be suppressed by both {alpha}-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (PE) and {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (ISO). Furthermore, the strong stimulation of zebrafish vtgAo1 expression in plasma induced by the {beta}-adrenergic antagonist, MOXIsylyl, was detected by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Such stimulation cannot be suppressed by taMOXIfen, an antagonist to estrogen receptors. Thus, our present data indicate that the production of teleost VTG in vivo can be regulated not only by estrogenic agents, but by adrenergic signals as well.

  18. An Infrared Optimized AO System for a 15 - 20m Class Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandl, Bernhard R.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Herter, Terry L.; Kulkarni, Jayant

    2003-02-01

    Despite the relatively large number of proposed 'extremely large telescopes' very few of them concentrate on the thermal infrared as their main operating wavelengths. An IR-optimized large telescope located in the Atacama dessert at about 5500m altitude, where many atmospheric windows in the mid-IR open up, would be ideal to study astronomical targets that are either intrinsically red or heavily obscured by dust. A large aperture in the order of 15 - 20m requires adaptive optics correction out to λ<= 20 μm with the least possible thermal emission from the instrument itself. Here we discuss a specialized, integrated AO system that provides diffraction-limited performance in the thermal infrared (at λ>=2.5 μm). This approach is very different from the AO systems proposed for other 10m+ class telescopes. We present the basic concept of such an IR-optimized AO system, based on a 2m chopping adaptive secondary. We derive its technical specifications: configuration, bandwidth, and degrees of freedom show its predicted performance for typical seeing in terms of Strehl ratio as a function of limiting guide star magnitude, wavelength and corrected field-of-view. We also briefly address the science that this AO system/telescope would be ideal for.

  19. Outcome of Surgical Treatment of AO Type C Pelvic Ring Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Do Hyeon; Kim, Nam Ki; Won, Jun Sung; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the radiologic and clinical outcomes of AO type C pelvic ring injury and identify the prognostic factors. Materials and Methods We studied 53 patients who were treated for AO type C pelvic ring injury from January 2002 to February 2010. Mean age and mean follow-up duration were 42.4 years and 14 months, respectively. We had 8 cases of AO type C1-1, 19 cases of C1-2, 11 cases of C1-3, 6 cases of C2 and 9 cases of C3 injury. We analyzed type of fracture, displacement, method of fixation and associated injuries. Radiologic outcome was evaluated with Matta and Saucedo criteria and clinical outcome was evaluated using Majeed score. Results The average Majeed score was 86.2 distributing as 36 excellent cases, 15 good cases and 2 fair cases. Using radiologic Matta and Saucedo criteria, patients were divided as 31 excellent cases, 17 good cases and 5 fair cases. There was no significant difference between the outcomes of anterior, posterior and antero-posterior fixation. Neurologic injury was the reason for an unsatisfactory functional outcome. We identified two cases with complication, one with postoperative infection and the other with nonunion following anterior-posterior fixation. Conclusion Satisfactory radiologic and clinical outcomes were obtained with open reduction and internal fixation in the management of AO type C pelvic ring injuries. Neurologic injuries affected the clinical outcome.

  20. Improved tilt sensing in an LGS-based tomographic AO system based on instantaneous PSF estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veran, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Laser guide star (LGS)-based tomographic AO systems, such as Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO), Multi-Object AO (MOAO) and Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), require natural guide stars (NGSs) to sense tip-tilt (TT) and possibly other low order modes, to get rid of the LGS-tilt indetermination problem. For example, NFIRAOS, the first-light facility MCAO system for the Thirty Meter Telescope requires three NGSs, in addition to six LGSs: two to measure TT and one to measure TT and defocus. In order to improve sky coverage, these NGSs are selected in a so-called technical field (2 arcmin in diameter for NFIRAOS), which is much larger than the on-axis science field (17x17 arcsec for NFIRAOS), on which the AO correction is optimized. Most times, the NGSs are far off-axis and thus poorly corrected by the high-order AO loop, resulting in spots with low contrast and high speckle noise. Accurately finding the position of such spots is difficult, even with advanced methods such as matched-filtering or correlation, because these methods rely on the knowledge of an average spot image, which is quite different from the instantaneous spot image, especially in case of poor correction. This results in poor tilt estimation, which, ultimately, impacts sky coverage. We propose to improve the estimation of the position of the NGS spots by using, for each frame, a current estimate of the instantaneous spot profile instead of an average profile. This estimate can be readily obtained by tracing wavefront errors in the direction of the NGS through the turbulence volume. The latter is already computed by the tomographic process from the LGS measurements as part of the high order AO loop. Computing such a wavefront estimate has actually already been proposed for the purpose of driving a deformable mirror (DM) in each NGS WFS, to optically correct the NGS spot, which does lead to improved centroiding accuracy. Our approach, however, is much simpler, because it does not require the complication of extra DMs

  1. Safety evaluation of pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS): genotoxicity and sub-chronic studies.

    PubMed

    Garthoff, Jossie A; Heemskerk, Suzanne; Hempenius, Rixta A; Lina, Ben A R; Krul, Cyrille A M; Koeman, Jan H; Speijers, Gerrit J A

    2010-06-01

    Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates to be used in infant formulae and medical nutrition. To support its safety, the genotoxic potential of pAOS was evaluated. pAOS was not mutagenic in the Ames test. Positive results were obtained in the chromosome aberration test only at highly cytotoxic concentrations. The effects obtained in the mouse lymphoma test were equivocal; pAOS was not mutagenic in vivo. A sub-chronic dietary study, preceded by 4-week parental and in utero exposure phase, investigated general safety. Administration of pAOS did not affect parental health nor pup characteristics. No effects specific for acidic oligosaccharides were observed in the subsequent sub-chronic study. Slight diffuse hyperplasia of epithelial layer of the urinary bladder was noted to result from concurrently elevated urinary sodium, due to high sodium in pAOS, and elevated urinary pH. This phenomenon was confirmed in a mechanistic (sub-chronic) study. In contrast, in rats fed pAOS in combination with NH(4)Cl, an acidifying agent, the induced low urinary pH completely prevented the development of urothelial hyperplasia. Hyperplasia induced by this mechanism in rats is considered not relevant to man. Based on the current knowledge we consider pAOS safe for human consumption under its intended use. PMID:20026148

  2. 76 FR 52972 - United States v. Regal Beloit Corp. and A.O. Smith Corp.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Columbia in United States v. Regal Beloit Corporation. and A.O. Smith Corporation., Civil Action No. 1:11... acquisition by Regal Beloit Corporation (``RBC'') of the electric motor business of A.O. Smith Corporation...., Suite 8700, Washington, DC 20530, Plaintiff, v. Regal Beloit Corporation, 200 State Street,...

  3. The 384-channel prototype of DM Electronics for ELT AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Kris; Atwood, Jenny; Herriot, Glen; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Spanò, Paolo; Zielinski, Adam

    2014-08-01

    High order AO subsystems of the ELT require technological advancements in the Deformable Mirror (DM) construction and corresponding improvements in the drive electronics. Advanced prototyping is currently under way at NSI-Herzberg to reduce risks of deploying untried technology in the TMT AO subsystem NFIRAOS. We have developed a 96-channel output module and constructed a sub-scale DM Electronics prototype NDME384 with 384 output channels based on 4 such modules. French DM vendor Cilas has fabricated the NFIRAOS DM Breadoboard with 360 piezoelectric actuators in a 60×6 matrix, to demonstrate the DM technology to be deployed in NFIRAOS wavefront correctors. We present the results of testing our NDME384 prototype while driving the NFIRAOS DM Breadoboard.

  4. Identification and calibration of the interaction matrix parameters for AO and MCAO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neichel, Benoit; Parisot, Amelie; Petit, Cyril; Fusco, Thierry; Rigaut, François

    2012-07-01

    New tomographic Adaptive Optics (AO) concepts require a good knowledge of the system geometry and characteristics. These parameters are used to feed the tomographic reconstructors. In this paper we present a method to precisely identify the parameters required to construct an accurate synthetic set of models such as inuence functions, mis-registrations, directions of analysis or altitude of the DMs. The method is based on a multiparameter t of the interaction matrix. This identication method nds also its application in high contrast AO systems, such as SPHERE : in that case it is used as a diagnostic tool in order to precisely realign the system. The method has been tested and successfully implemented on HOMER, SPHERE and GeMS. Experimental results for these three systems are presented.

  5. CANARY phase B: on-sky open-loop tomographic LGS AO results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Tim; Gendron, Eric; Basden, Alastair; Martin, Olivier; Osborn, James; Henry, David; Hubert, Zoltan; Sivo, Gaetano; Gratadour, Damien; Chemla, Fanny; Sevin, Arnaud; Cohen, Matthieu; Younger, Eddy; Vidal, Fabrice; Wilson, Richard; Butterley, Tim; Bitenc, Urban; Reeves, Andrew; Bharmal, Nazim; Raynaud, Henri-François; Kulcsar, Caroline; Conan, Jean-Marc; Huet, Jean-Michel; Perret, Denis; Dickson, Colin; Atkinson, David; Bailie, Tom; Longmore, Andy; Todd, Stephen; Talbot, Gordon; Morris, Simon; Rousset, Gérard; Myers, Richard

    2014-07-01

    CANARY is an on-sky Laser Guide Star (LGS) tomographic AO demonstrator that has been in operation at the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma since 2010. In 2013, CANARY was upgraded from its initial configuration that used three off-axis Natural Guide Stars (NGS) through the inclusion of four off-axis Rayleigh LGS and associated wavefront sensing system. Here we present the system and analysis of the on-sky results obtained at the WHT between May and September 2014. Finally we present results from the final `Phase C' CANARY system that aims to recreate the tomographic configuration to emulate the expected tomographic AO configuration of both the AOF at the VLT and E-ELT.

  6. Efficient control schemes with limited computation complexity for Tomographic AO systems on VLTs and ELTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, C.; Le Louarn, M.; Fusco, T.; Madec, P.-Y.

    2011-09-01

    Various tomographic control solutions have been proposed during the last decades to ensure efficient or even optimal closed-loop correction to tomographic Adaptive Optics (AO) concepts such as Laser Tomographic AO (LTAO), Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO). The optimal solution, based on Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach, as well as suboptimal but efficient solutions such as Pseudo-Open Loop Control (POLC) require multiple Matrix Vector Multiplications (MVM). Disregarding their respective performance, these efficient control solutions thus exhibit strong increase of on-line complexity and their implementation may become difficult in demanding cases. Among them, two cases are of particular interest. First, the system Real-Time Computer architecture and implementation is derived from past or present solutions and does not support multiple MVM. This is the case of the AO Facility which RTC architecture is derived from the SPARTA platform and inherits its simple MVM architecture, which does not fit with LTAO control solutions for instance. Second, considering future systems such as Extremely Large Telescopes, the number of degrees of freedom is twenty to one hundred times bigger than present systems. In these conditions, tomographic control solutions can hardly be used in their standard form and optimized implementation shall be considered. Single MVM tomographic control solutions represent a potential solution, and straightforward solutions such as Virtual Deformable Mirrors have been already proposed for LTAO but with tuning issues. We investigate in this paper the possibility to derive from tomographic control solutions, such as POLC or LQG, simplified control solutions ensuring simple MVM architecture and that could be thus implemented on nowadays systems or future complex systems. We theoretically derive various solutions and analyze their respective performance on various systems thanks to numerical simulation. We discuss the optimization of their performance and

  7. Real-time control for the high order, wide field DRAGON AO test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Bharmal, Nazim A.; Bitenc, Urban; Dipper, Nigel; Morris, Tim; Myers, Richard; Reeves, Andrew; Younger, Eddy

    2014-07-01

    DRAGON is a high order, wide field AO test-bench at Durham. A key feature of DRAGON is the ability to be operated at real-time rates, i.e. frame rates of up to 1kHz, with low latency to maintain AO performance. Here, we will present the real-time control architecture for DRAGON, which includes two deformable mirrors, eight wavefront sensors and thousands of Shack-Hartmann sub-apertures. A novel approach has been taken to allow access to the wavefront sensor pixel stream, reducing latency and peak computational load, and this technique can be implemented for other similar wavefront sensor cameras with no hardware costs. We report on experience with an ELT-suitable wavefront sensor camera. DRAGON will form the basis for investigations into hardware acceleration architectures for AO real-time control, and recent work on GPU and many-core systems (including the Xeon Phi) will be reported. Additionally, the modular structure of DRAGON, its remote control capabilities, distribution of AO telemetry data, and the software concepts and architecture will be reported. Techniques used in DRAGON for pixel processing, slope calculation and wavefront reconstruction will be presented. This will include methods to handle changes in CN2 profile and sodium layer profile, both of which can be modelled in DRAGON. DRAGON software simulation techniques linking hardware-in-the-loop computer models to the DRAGON real-time system and control software will also be discussed. This tool allows testing of the DRAGON system without requiring physical hardware and serves as a test-bed for ELT integration and verification techniques.

  8. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of the AO classification for operatively treated distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    van Buijtenen, Jesse M; van Tunen, Mischa L C; Zuidema, Wietse P; Heilbron, Emile A; de Haan, Jeroen; de Vet, Henrica C W; Derksen, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    The reproducibility of the AO classification for distal radius fractures remains a topic of debate. Previous studies showed variable reproducibility results. Important treatment decisions depend on correct classification, especially in comminuted, intra-articular fractures. Therefore, reliable reproducibility results need to be undisputedly determined. Hence, the study objective was to assess inter- and intra-observer agreement of the AO classification for operatively treated distal radius fractures. A database of 54 radiographs of all AO types (A, B and C) and groups (A2-3, B1-3, and C1-3) of distal radius fractures was assessed in twofold. Likewise, a subset of 152 radiographs of solely C-type groups (C1-3) was assessed. All fractures were classified by six observers with different experience levels: three consultant trauma surgeons, one sixth-year trauma surgery resident, a consultant trauma radiologist, and an intern with limited experienced. The inter-observer agreement of both main types and groups was moderate (κ = 0.49 resp. κ = 0.48) in combination with a good intra-observer agreement (κ = 0.68 resp. κ = 0.70). The inter-observer agreement of the subset C-type fractures group was fair (κ = 0.27) with moderate intra-observer agreement (κ = 0.43). According to these results, the reproducibility of the AO classification of main types and groups of distal radius fractures based on conventional radiographs is insufficient (κ < 0.50), especially at group level of C-type fractures. PMID:26614083

  9. World-wide deployment of Robo-AO visible-light robotic laser adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas Michael; Lu, Jessica R.; Tonry, John; Tully, R. Brent; Wright, Shelley; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Severson, Scott; Choi, Philip; Ramaprakash, A.; Chun, Mark; Connelley, Mike; Tokunaga, Alan; Hall, Donald

    2015-08-01

    In the next few years, several modest-sized telescopes around the world will be upgraded with autonomous laser adaptive optics systems based on the Robo-AO prototype deployed at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope. The prototype commenced scientific operations in June 2012 and more than 19,000 observations have since been performed at the ~0.12" visible-light diffraction limit. We are planning to move the prototype system to the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak for a 3-year deployment which will serve a consortium of users including Caltech, the University of Hawai`i, IUCAA, NCU and institutions in China. Additionally, 2 months per year will be made available to the US astronomical community.New Robo-AO systems are in various stages of development: a clone by IUCAA for the 2-m IGO telescope in India; a natural guide star variant, KAPAO, by Pomona College at the 1-m Table Mountain telescope in California; and second generation Robo-AO systems are planned for the 3-m IRTF and 2.2-m University of Hawai'i telescopes on Maunakea, Hawai`i. The latter will exploit Maunakea's excellent observing conditions to provide higher Strehl ratios, sharper imaging, ~0.07", and correction to lambda = 400 nm. An additional infrared integral-field spectrograph will be fed by the UH 2.2-m Robo-AO system to quickly classify transients, such as supernovae and asteroids, discovered by the ATLAS system in Hawai`i.

  10. Enabling technologies for visible adaptive optics: the Magellan adaptive secondary VisAO camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopon, Derek; Males, Jared; Close, Laird M.; Gasho, Victor

    2009-08-01

    Since its beginnings, diffraction-limited ground-based adaptive optics (AO) imaging has been limited to wavelengths in the near IR (λ>1μm) and longer. Visible AO (λ>1μm) has proven to be difficult because shorter wavelengths require wavefront correction on very short spatial and temporal scales. The pupil must be sampled very finely, which requires dense actuator spacing and fine wavefront sampling with large dynamic range. In addition, atmospheric dispersion is much more significant in the visible than in the near-IR. Imaging over a broad visible band requires a very good Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC). Even with these technologies, our AO simulations using the CAOS code, combined with the optical and site parameters for the 6.5m Magellan telescope, demonstrate a large temporal variability of visible (λ=0.7μm) Strehl on timescales of 50 ms. Over several hundred milliseconds, the visible Strehl can be as high at 50% and as low as 10%. Taking advantage of periods of high Strehl requires either the ability to read out the CCD very fast, thereby introducing significant amounts of read-noise, or the use of a fast asynchronous shutter that can block the low-Strehl light. Our Magellan VisAO camera will use an advanced ADC, a high-speed shutter, and our 585 actuator adaptive secondary to achieve broadband (0.5-1.0 μm) diffraction limited images on the 6.5m Magellan Clay telescope in Chile at Las Campanas Observatory. These will be the sharpest and deepest visible direct images taken to date with a resolution of 17 mas, a factor of 2.7 better than the diffraction limit of the Hubble Space Telescope.

  11. AO modelling for wide-field E-ELT instrumentation using Monte-Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Morris, Simon; Morris, Tim; Myers, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Extensive simulations of AO performance for several E-ELT instruments (including EAGLE, MOSAIC, HIRES and MAORY) have been ongoing using the Monte-Carlo Durham AO Simulation Package. We present the latest simulation results, including studies into DM requirements, dependencies of performance on asterism, detailed point spread function generation, accurate telescope modelling, and studies of laser guide star effects. Details of simulations will be given, including the use of optical models of the E-ELT to generate wave- front sensor pupil illumination functions, laser guide star modelling, and investigations of different many-layer atmospheric profiles. We discuss issues related to ELT-scale simulation, how we have overcome these, and how we will be approaching forthcoming issues such as modelling of advanced wavefront control, multi-rate wavefront sensing, and advanced treatment of extended laser guide star spots. We also present progress made on integrating simulation with AO real-time control systems. The impact of simulation outcomes on instrument design studies will be discussed, and the ongoing work plan presented.

  12. SCExAO: the most complete instrument to characterize exoplanets and stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozi, Julien; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Doughty, Danielle; Pathak, Prashant; Goebel, Sean; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument, currently under development for the Subaru Telescope, optimally combines state-of-the-art technologies to directly study exoplanets and stellar environments at the diffraction limit, both in visible and infrared light (0.6 to 2.4 um). The instrument already includes an ultra-fast visible pyramid wavefront sensor operating at 3.5 kHz, a 2k-actuator deformable mirror, a set of optimal coronagraphs that can work as close as 1 l/D, a low-order wavefront sensor, a high-speed speckle control, and two visible interferometric modules, VAMPIRES and FIRST. Stability of the wavefront correction has already been demonstrated on sky, and SCExAO is already producing scientific results. After the integration of the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) CHARIS and a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) in 2016, SCExAO will be one of the most powerful and effective tools for characterizing exoplanets and disks.

  13. Using the Fingerprinting Method to Customize RTLS Based on the AoA Ranging Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jachimczyk, Bartosz; Dziak, Damian; Kulesza, Wlodek J.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) have the ability to precisely locate the position of things and people in real time. They are needed for security and emergency applications, but also for healthcare and home care appliances. The research aims for developing an analytical method to customize RTLSs, in order to improve localization performance in terms of precision. The proposed method is based on Angle of Arrival (AoA), a ranging technique and fingerprinting method along with an analytically defined uncertainty of AoA, and a localization uncertainty map. The presented solution includes three main concerns: geometry of indoor space, RTLS arrangement, and a statistical approach to localization precision of a pair of location sensors using an AoA signal. An evaluation of the implementation of the customized RTLS validates the analytical model of the fingerprinting map. The results of simulations and physical experiments verify the proposed method. The research confirms that the analytically established fingerprint map is the valid representation of RTLS’ performance in terms of precision. Furthermore, the research demonstrates an impact of workspace geometry and workspace layout onto the RTLS’ performance. Moreover, the studies show how the size and shape of a workspace and the placement of the calibration point affect the fingerprint map. Withal, the performance investigation defines the most effective arrangement of location sensors and its influence on localization precision. PMID:27314354

  14. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 1; Respective Influences of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Climate Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.

    2005-01-01

    We utilize the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model and 8 different climate change experiments, many of them focused on stratospheric climate forcings, to assess the relative influence of tropospheric and stratospheric climate change on the extratropical circulation indices (Arctic Oscillation, AO; North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). The experiments are run in two different ways: with variable sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to allow for a full tropospheric climate response, and with specified SSTs to minimize the tropospheric change. The results show that tropospheric warming (cooling) experiments and stratospheric cooling (warming) experiments produce more positive (negative) AO/NAO indices. For the typical magnitudes of tropospheric and stratospheric climate changes, the tropospheric response dominates; results are strongest when the tropospheric and stratospheric influences are producing similar phase changes. Both regions produce their effect primarily by altering wave propagation and angular momentum transports, but planetary wave energy changes accompanying tropospheric climate change are also important. Stratospheric forcing has a larger impact on the NAO than on the AO, and the angular momentum transport changes associated with it peak in the upper troposphere, affecting all wavenumbers. Tropospheric climate changes influence both the A0 and NAO with effects that extend throughout the troposphere. For both forcings there is often vertical consistency in the sign of the momentum transport changes, obscuring the difference between direct and indirect mechanisms for influencing the surface circulation.

  15. Microwelding of various metallic materials under ultravacuum (AO 138-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assie, Jean Pierre; Conde, Eric

    1991-01-01

    The first finding from the AO 138-10 is that cold welding never occurred, and that microwelds didn't even affect the reference (presumably microweld prone) pairs of metals consisting of gold, silver, and chromium. The scientific disappointment from these results must be tempered by the notion of a static AO 138-10 experiment, reflecting the passive character of the global Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight. Thus far, it has been theorized that cold welding results from the peeling of the oxide layer, that is formed in an earth environment, by the space environment since such a layer no longer grows in space. In fact, such stripping of the oxide layer supposes relative motion of the contacting materials. In the absence of such motion, as in this experiment, oxidation will preserve its integrity and continue to prevent microwelding. More bewildering is that there was no microwelding of the reference pairs. Even though AO 138-10 failed scientific expectations, as did the LDEF structure with cold welding, the positive, functional aspect to keep in mind is the safe operation of single-shot (appendage releasing and/or latching) mechanisms, unhindered by microwelding in a space vacuum, as now demonstrated by the statically representative pairs of materials. Other aspects of the experiment are discussed.

  16. Using the Fingerprinting Method to Customize RTLS Based on the AoA Ranging Technique.

    PubMed

    Jachimczyk, Bartosz; Dziak, Damian; Kulesza, Wlodek J

    2016-01-01

    Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) have the ability to precisely locate the position of things and people in real time. They are needed for security and emergency applications, but also for healthcare and home care appliances. The research aims for developing an analytical method to customize RTLSs, in order to improve localization performance in terms of precision. The proposed method is based on Angle of Arrival (AoA), a ranging technique and fingerprinting method along with an analytically defined uncertainty of AoA, and a localization uncertainty map. The presented solution includes three main concerns: geometry of indoor space, RTLS arrangement, and a statistical approach to localization precision of a pair of location sensors using an AoA signal. An evaluation of the implementation of the customized RTLS validates the analytical model of the fingerprinting map. The results of simulations and physical experiments verify the proposed method. The research confirms that the analytically established fingerprint map is the valid representation of RTLS' performance in terms of precision. Furthermore, the research demonstrates an impact of workspace geometry and workspace layout onto the RTLS' performance. Moreover, the studies show how the size and shape of a workspace and the placement of the calibration point affect the fingerprint map. Withal, the performance investigation defines the most effective arrangement of location sensors and its influence on localization precision. PMID:27314354

  17. PHOTOMETRIC EVOLUTION OF SNe Ib/c 2004ao, 2004gk, AND 2006gi

    SciTech Connect

    Elmhamdi, Abouazza; Kordi, Ayman; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Danziger, I. John

    2011-04-20

    Photometric observations of three core collapse supernovae (SNe 2004ao, 2004gk, and 2006gi), covering about 200 days of evolution, are presented and analyzed. The photometric behavior of the three objects is consistent with their membership in the envelope-stripped Type Ib/c class. Pseudobolometric light curves are constructed. The corresponding measured e-folding times are found to be faster compared to the {sup 56}Co decay (i.e., 111.3 days), suggesting that a proportion of {gamma}-rays increasing with time have escaped without thermalization, owing to the low-mass nature of the ejecta. SN 2006gi has almost identical post-maximum decline phase luminosities as SN 1999ex and found to be similar to both SNe 1999dn and 1999ex in terms of the quasi-bolometric shape, placing it among the fast decliner Ib objects. SN 2004ao appears to fit within the slow decliner Ib SNe. SNe 2004ao and 2004gk display almost identical luminosities in the [50-100] day time interval, similar to SN 1993J. A preliminary simplified {gamma}-ray deposition model is described and applied to the computed pseudobolometric light curves, allowing one to find a range in the ejecta and {sup 56}Ni masses. The optical and quasi-bolometric light curves and the B - V color evolution of SN 2004gk are found to show a sudden drop after day 150. Correlating this fact to dust formation is premature and requires further observational evidence.

  18. Adaptive Optics at Optical Wavelengths: Test Observations of Kyoto 3DII Connected to Subaru Telescope AO188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubayashi, K.; Sugai, H.; Shimono, A.; Akita, A.; Hattori, T.; Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y.; Takeyama, N.

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) enables us to observe objects with high spatial resolution, which is important in most astrophysical observations. Most AO systems are operational at near-infrared wavelengths but not in the optical range, because optical observations require a much higher performance to obtain the same Strehl ratio as near-infrared observations. Therefore, to enable AO-assisted observations at optical wavelengths, we connected the Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II (Kyoto 3DII), which can perform integral field spectroscopy, to the second generation AO system of the Subaru Telescope (AO188). We developed a new beam-splitter that reflects light below 594 nm for the wavefront sensors of AO188 and transmits above 644 nm for Kyoto 3DII. We also developed a Kyoto 3DII mount at the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru Telescope. In test observations, the spatial resolution of the combined AO188–Kyoto 3DII was higher than that in natural seeing conditions, even at 6500 Å. The full width at half maximum of an undersampled (1.5 spaxels) bright guide star (7.0 mag in the V-band) was 0.″12.

  19. Closed-loop tomographic control on HOMER wide-field AO bench: experimental results and identification issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisot, Amelie; Costille, Anne; Petit, Cyril; Fusco, Thierry

    2010-07-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) has a limited corrected field of view because of the anisoplanatism effect. Wide Field AO (WFAO) concepts, such as Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO), have been developed to overcome this limitation. These complex WFAO systems raise critical challenges such as tomographic control and calibrations. We present new results obtained in closed-loop configuration with the laboratory bench HOMER which is devoted to implementation and validation of these WFAO concepts in the perspective of future VLT/ELT AO systems. Turbulence is generated with rotating phase screens and multi-directional analysis is performed. Tomographic control relies on Linear Quadratic Gaussian control (LQG). The correction can be applied thanks to two Deformable Mirrors (DM). We also focus on calibration issues and models identification. We investigate in particular identification of relative geometry of the wave front sensors, DM altitude and asterism and its impact on performance.

  20. Increasing Efficiency at the NTF by Optimizing Model AoA Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Bradley L.; Spells, Courtney

    2006-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is a national resource for aeronautical research and development. The government, military and private industries rely on the capability of this facility for realistic flight data. Reducing the operation costs and keeping the NTF affordable is essential for aeronautics research. The NTF is undertaking an effort to reduce the time between data points during a pitch polar. This reduction is being driven by the operating costs of a cryogenic facility. If the time per data point can be reduced, a substantial cost savings can be realized from a reduction in liquid nitrogen (LN2) consumption. It is known that angle-of-attack (AoA) positioning is the longest lead-time item between points. In January 2005 a test was conducted at the NTF to determine the cause of the long lead-time so that an effort could be made to improve efficiency. The AoA signal at the NTF originates from onboard instrumentation then travels through a number of different systems including the signal conditioner, digital voltmeter, and the data system where the AoA angle is calculated. It is then fed into a closed loop control system that sets the model position. Each process along this path adds to the time per data point affecting the efficiency of the data taking process. Due to the nature of the closed loop feed back AoA control and the signal path, it takes approximately 18 seconds to take one pitch pause point with a typical AoA increment. Options are being investigated to reduce the time delay between points by modifying the signal path. These options include: reduced signal filtering, using analog channels instead of a digital volt meter (DVM), re-routing the signal directly to the AoA control computer and implementing new control algorithms. Each of these has potential to reduce the positioning time and together the savings could be significant. These timesaving efforts are essential but must be weighed against

  1. Effects of The NAO/ao Fluctuations Upon Precipitation Over Sardinia In The 20th Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, A.

    The effects at regional scale of decadal fluctuation of the NAO/AO on the 20th cen- tury precipitation over Sardinia will be analyzed. Decadal variations of precipitation will initially be described, by use of the Standardized Anomaly Index (Katz &Glantz, 1986) based on two indicators: the cumulated precipitation (the classical approach) and the number of rainy days. A clear decreasing trend in the last two deacdes, statis- tically significant at the 1% level, will be highlighted. A short survey of connections with MSLP and 500hPA Geopotential Height fields will be used to give an overview of dependence of Sardinia (regional) precipitation on synoptic-scale and planetary scale features. In the following part, three different paradigms of the NAO/AO will be used: the classical two point obscillation, the PCA analysis of MSLP (Thompson &Wallace, 1998) and the centers of action approach (Machel et al., 1998). The results of the anal- ysis of the effects of NAO/AO (described in the former three ways) on precipitation will enable to discuss how such a teleconnection influences regional precipitation on this part of the Mediterranean. Statistical significance of each result will be provided during the presentation. Katz, R., Glantz, M., 1986. "Anatomy of a Rainfall Index". Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 764-771. Mächel, M., Kapala, A., Flohn, H., 1998. "Behaviour of the Centers of Action above the Atlantic since 1881. Part I: Characteristics of seasonal and interannual Variability". Int. Jou. of Climatol., 18, 1-22. Thopson, D. W. J., Wallace, J. M., 1998. "The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields". Geoph. Res. Let., 25, 1297- 1300.

  2. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO135 : Effect of Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors, Tray E05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO135 : Effect of Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors, Tray E05 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors Experiment (AO135) consist of twenty detectors of three different types of materials, lithium-tantalate, strontium-barium-niobate and triglycine-sulfide. The Pyroelectric infrered detector experiment is an integral part of the Active Optical System Component Experiment (S0050) that contains 136 test specimen and is located in a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray. The experiment tray is divided into six sections, each consisting of a 1/4 inch thick chromic anodized aluminum base plate and a 1/16th inch thick aluminum hat shaped structure for mounting the test specimen. The test specimen are typi- cally placed in fiberglass-epoxy retainer strip assemblies prior to installation on the hat shaped mounting structure. Five of the six sections are covered by a 1/8 inch thick anodized aluminum sun screen with openings that allowed 56 percent transmission over the central region. Two subexperiments, The Optical Materials and UV Detectors Experiment (S0050-01) consist of 15 optical windows, filters and detectors and occupies one of the trays six sub-sections and The Optical Substrates and Coatings Experiment (S0050-02 ) that includes 12 substrates and coatings and a secondary experiment, The Holographic Data Storage Crystal Experiment (AO044) with four crystals, are also mounted in the integrated tray. The experiment structure was assembled with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners.

  3. LDEF (Postflight), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, Tray D12 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF-II facility prior to removal of experiment trays from the LDEF. The Polymer Matrix Composite Materials experiment appears the same as in the flight photograph. The composite containing the aramid (Kevlar) fibers has changed from a yellow to a light brown color and the cylinderical tubes containing the boron and carbon fiber materials have changed from a light green tint to a brown color. The experiment mounting hardware and fasteners seem to be intact and in very good condition.

  4. Optical Photometry of the flaring gamma-ray blazar AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pursimo, Tapio; Losada, Illa R.; Messa, Matteo; Gafton, Emanuel; Ojha, Roopesh

    2016-03-01

    We report optical photometry of the blazar AO 0235+164 obtained with the 2.56m Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma to look for any enhanced optical activity associated with a recent flare in the daily averaged gamma-ray flux seen in the public lightcurve of the Fermi/LAT instrument: http://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/FTP/glast/data/lat/catalogs/asp/current/lightcurves/0235+164_86400.png Fermi/LAT first reported a detection of gamma-ray activity from this source in Sep, 2008 (ATel#1744) and a short timescale flare in Oct 14, 2008 (ATel#1784).

  5. Tomographic separation of composite spectra - The components of the O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of the short-period, double-lined O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cas are analyzed. Archival data from IUE (16 spectra uniformly distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with a tomography algorithm to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, O9.5 III and O8 V, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. An intensity ratio of 0.5-0.7 (primary brighter) at 1600 A is compatible with the data.

  6. Monitoring Io volcanism with AO telescopes during and after the NH flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Spencer, J. R.; Lopes, R. M.; Davies, A. G.; Dumas, C.

    2007-12-01

    To support the New Horizons (NH) Jupiter encounter we monitored Io's volcanic activity using high angular resolution images in the near infrared (1-5 microns) provided by adaptive optics (AO) systems available on 8-10m class telescopes. We initiated the campaign on Feb. 25 2007 with data obtained with the VLT-Yepun telescope (ESO, Paranal, Chile), just before NH closest approach. We continued monitoring with the Gemini North telescope (Hawaii, USA). The last observation was taken on May 28 2007. Numerous active volcanoes are visible in the data but the Tvashtar eruption is by far the most energetic. Extremely high angular resolution data from NH revealed fine detail of the eruption, such as the presence of an active plume [1]. This volcano has an interesting past history. It was seen as a powerful eruption from Nov. 26 1999 during the Galileo I25 [2] flyby to Feb. 19 2001 from the ground [3]. It was dormant or below our ground-based limit of detection (T<330 K assuming an area of 460 km2) between Dec 2001 and May 2004 [4,5]. The re-awakening of the volcano was reported by Laver et al. [6] in April 2006 based on Keck Adaptive Optics (AO) observations. Our last Gemini AO observation taken on May 26 shows that Tvashtar was still very active. Based on the previous behavior of this volcano [7] it is very likely that the activity reported in 2007 is a continuation of the Tvashtar-2006 eruption. Other hot spots, such as Loki Patera, Pele, and a new hot spot located north of Loki Patera, were seen in our data. We will describe the global picture of Io's volcanic activity derived from our observations, comparing it with previous observations from the Galileo spacecraft and using ground-based AO. 1. Spencer et al., AGU, this session, 2007 2. McEwen et al., Science, 288, 1193-1198, 2000 3. Marchis et al. Icarus, 160, 124-131, 2002 4. Marchis et al., Icarus, 176, 1, 2005 5. Marchis et al., AGU Fall meeting, V33C-1483, 2004 6. Laver et al., Icarus, in press, 2006 7. Milazzo et

  7. Preliminary results from the chemistry of micrometeoroid experiment (AO 187-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Bernhard, R. P.; See, Thomas H.; Warren, J.; Brownlee, Don E.; Laurance, M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of experiment AO 187-1 was to expose high purity substrates of suitable cratering properties to obtain detailed crater statistics that may be converted into projectile masses and fluxes and to chemically characterize as many impactors as possible. The latter information would hopefully reveal distinct classes of natural and man-made particles in low-Earth orbit. It was found that crater that yield residues show that natural and man-made impactors may be differentiated and that diversity exists within each group. 'Chondritic' compositions dominate among natural particles, yet some craters contain unmelted fragments of minerals (Olivine and pyroxene).

  8. The optical periodic analysis of BL Lac object AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongtao

    2014-05-01

    BL Lac object AO 0235+164 is a well-known object. We collect a large number of effective observation in B, V, R and I band from historical literatures. The possible periods are analyzed by means of discrete correlation function (DCF) method, structure function (SF) method and Jurkevich (J-K) method. The results show that there are possible periodic variations of 2.63-2.66 years in B band, 2.79-2.84 years in V band, 2.57-2.87 years in R band, 2.62-2.88 years in I band, respectively.

  9. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 The prelaunch photograph shows the two (2) clam shell type canisters in their closed position. The canister shells are made of aluminum sheet material with end caps of diecast aluminum. The baseplate and support structure are fabricated from 6000 series aluminum. Fasteners are non-magnetic stainless steel. The electrical box and the stainless steel tubing located on the baseplate protect the drive system wiring. The experiment contains a timing mechanism that provides the intelligence to open the canisters after the Orbiter has departed the area and any initial outgassing or offgassing has occurred.

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Campylobacter jejuni Infections in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Endtz, Hubert P.; van West, Hanneke; Godschalk, Peggy C. R.; de Haan, Lidewij; Halabi, Yaskara; van den Braak, Nicole; Kesztyüs, Barbara I.; Leyde, Ewald; Ott, Alewijn; Verkooyen, Roel; Price, Lawrence J.; Woodward, David L.; Rodgers, Frank G.; Ang, C. Wim; van Koningsveld, Rinske; van Belkum, Alex; Gerstenbluth, Izzy

    2003-01-01

    A steady increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with a seasonal preponderance, almost exclusively related to Campylobacter jejuni, and a rise in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter enteritis have been reported from Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. We therefore investigated possible risk factors associated with diarrhea due to epidemic C. jejuni. Typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified four epidemic clones which accounted for almost 60% of the infections. One hundred six cases were included in a case-control study. Infections with epidemic clones were more frequently observed in specific districts in Willemstad, the capital of Curaçao. One of these clones caused infections during the rainy season only and was associated with the presence of a deep well around the house. Two out of three GBS-related C. jejuni isolates belonged to an epidemic clone. The observations presented point toward water as a possible source of Campylobacter infections. PMID:14662945

  11. OCam with CCD220, the Fastest and Most Sensitive Camera to Date for AO Wavefront Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Downing, Mark; Hubin, Norbert; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves; Skegg, Michael; Robbins, Mark; Denney, Sandy; Suske, Wolfgang; Jorden, Paul; Wheeler, Patrick; Pool, Peter; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Davies, Ian; Reyes, Javier; Meyer, Manfred; Baade, Dietrich; Kasper, Markus; Arsenault, Robin; Fusco, Thierry; Diaz Garcia, José Javier

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, subelectron readout noise has been achieved with a camera dedicated to astronomical wavefront-sensing applications. The OCam system demonstrated this performance at a 1300 Hz frame rate and with 240 × 240 pixel frame size. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON jointly funded e2v Technologies to develop a custom CCD for adaptive optics (AO) wavefront-sensing applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240 × 240 pixel frame-transfer eight-output back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This article demonstrates, for the first time, subelectron readout noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1300 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e- pixel-1 frame-1. It reports on the quantitative performance characterization of OCam and the CCD220, including readout noise, dark current, multiplication gain, quantum efficiency, and charge transfer efficiency. OCam includes a low-noise preamplifier stage, a digital board to generate the clocks, and a microcontroller. The data acquisition system includes a user-friendly timer file editor to generate any type of clocking scheme. A second version of OCam, called OCam2, has been designed to offer enhanced performance, a completely sealed camera package, and an additional Peltier stage to facilitate operation on a telescope or environmentally challenging applications. New features of OCam2 are presented in this article. This instrumental development will strongly impact the performance of the most advanced AO systems to come.

  12. Closed-loop focal plane wavefront control with the SCExAO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Aims: This article describes the implementation of a focal plane based wavefront control loop on the high-contrast imaging instrument SCExAO (Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics). The sensor relies on the Fourier analysis of conventional focal-plane images acquired after an asymmetric mask is introduced in the pupil of the instrument. Methods: This absolute sensor is used here in a closed-loop to compensate for the non-common path errors that normally affects any imaging system relying on an upstream adaptive optics system.This specific implementation was used to control low-order modes corresponding to eight zernike modes (from focus to spherical). Results: This loop was successfully run on-sky at the Subaru Telescope and is used to offset the SCExAO deformable mirror shape used as a zero-point by the high-order wavefront sensor. The paper details the range of errors this wavefront-sensing approach can operate within and explores the impact of saturation of the data and how it can be bypassed, at a cost in performance. Conclusions: Beyond this application, because of its low hardware impact, the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) can easily be ported in a wide variety of wavefront sensing contexts, for ground- as well space-borne telescopes, and for telescope pupils that can be continuous, segmented or even sparse. The technique is powerful because it measures the wavefront where it really matters, at the level of the science detector.

  13. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00302 LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) on the LDEF. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners.

  14. LDEF (Flight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 EL-1994-00680 LDEF (Flight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 The flight photograph was taken with the LDEF on the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing the spacecraft in the cargo bay. The canisters are in their open condition (they were expected to open about two (2) weeks after launch and close about eleven (11) months into the mission) with three (3) full panels and 3/4th of the fourth panel covered with a highly reflective gold foil (>99.99 percent pure).The remaining area is covered with strips of other detector materials: zirconium, beryllium, titanium, platium, aluminum, carbon, Kapton, polyethylene and TEFLON®. The exposed fasteners are non-magnetic stainless steel. All of the exposed materials seem to be secure and no damage is evident. The contamination stain that has changed the white paint dot on the tray clamp blocks to brown also coats the tray flanges and the aluminum canister hardware. The end support beam scuff plate in the photograph was a bright yellow prior to launch but is a much darker, mustard yellow after the space exposure.

  15. Tc-99m complexes of new functionalized propylene amine oxime (PnAO) ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Kothari, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    1994-05-01

    Three new functionalized PnAO ligands, 3,3,9,9-tetra-methyl-6-R-4, 8-diazaundecane-2,10-dionedioxime (R=benzyl, p-nitrobenzyl and p-aminobenzyl) were synthesised. Tc-99m complexes of these ligands were prepared by direct reduction of Tc-99m O{sub 4}{sup -} using stannous tartrate in the presence of ligands at pH 9.0. Complexation yields were greater than 95% at 1h and 24h post preparation as assessed by ITLC, HPLC and extraction into CHCl3. All three of the complexes were neutral and lipophilic (logP > 2.0) and eluted as single peak from a RP HPLC column. Biodistribution studies of the Tc-99m complexes of the benzyl and the nitrobenzyl derivatives were done in Wistar rats. Both complexes showed brain uptake but were washed out of the brain similar to the behavior of Tc-99m PnAO.

  16. Spiromastixones A-O, antibacterial chlorodepsidones from a deep-sea-derived Spiromastix sp. fungus.

    PubMed

    Niu, Siwen; Liu, Dong; Hu, Xinxin; Proksch, Peter; Shao, Zhongzhe; Lin, Wenhan

    2014-04-25

    Fifteen new depsidone-based analogues named spiromastixones A-O (1-15) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a deep-sea Spiromastix sp. fungus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis in association with chemical conversion. Spiromastixones A-O are classified into two subtypes based on the orientation of ring C relative to ring A, while the n-propyl substituents on rings A and C are rarely seen in natural products. Most analogues are substituted by various numbers of chlorine atoms. All compounds exhibited significant inhibition against Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values ranging from 0.125 to 8.0 μg/mL. In addition, compounds 6-10 displayed potent inhibitory effects against methicillin-resistant bacterial strains of S. aureus (MRSA) and S. epidermidis (MRSE), while 10 also inhibited the growth of the vancomycin-resistant bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium (VRE). The structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:24571273

  17. The MeJA-inducible copper amine oxidase AtAO1 is expressed in xylem tissue and guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghuge, Sandip A; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine to 4-aminobutanal with the production of the plant signal molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonia. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene At4g14940 (AtAO1, previously referred to as ATAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed in lateral root cap cells and developing xylem, especially in root protoxylem and metaxylem precursors. In our recent study, we demonstrated that AtAO1 expression is strongly induced in the root vascular tissues by the wound-signal hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the H2O2 derived by the AtAO1-driven oxidation of putrescine, mediates the MeJA–induced early protoxylem differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. H2O2 may contribute to protoxylem differentiation by signaling developmental cell death and by acting as co-substrate in peroxidase-mediated cell wall stiffening and lignin polymerization. Here, by the means of AtAO1 promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase (AtAO1::GFP-GUS) fusion analysis, we show that a strong AtAO1 gene expression occurs also in guard cells of leaves and flowers. The high expression levels of AtAO1 in tissues or cell types regulating water supply and water loss may suggest a role of the encoded protein in water balance homeostasis, by modulating coordinated adjustments in anatomical and functional features of xylem tissue and guard cells during acclimation to adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26241131

  18. The new Arecibo Observatory Remote Optical Facility (AO-ROF) in Culebra Island, Puerto Rico: Current Status and Future Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, P. T.

    2015-12-01

    The idea of establishing the Arecibo Observatory Remote Optical Facility (AO-ROF) in the island of Culebra is a solution to mitigate the ever cumulative quantity of cloud, fog, and rain that has distressed observations at the Arecibo Observatory (AO) during major optical campaigns and observations. Given Culebra Island's favorable geographical and climatological characteristics as its low elevation and geographic location, it appears to have more steady weather conditions than Arecibo, so therefore it provides more availability for optical observations. Placed on Culebra, optical instruments can observe the same thermospheric volume over AO sampled by the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR). This capability will become especially important during the High Frequency (HF) facility is on operation. Small and large scale irregularities created by that HF can be readily observed and tracked from the Culebra site, and simultaneous observations from AO of the same atmospheric volume will permit direct vector measurements of dynamical evolution of the irregularities. This work presents a discussion of the current status of AO-ROF facility, as well the future projects.

  19. GOALS, STRATEGIES AND FIRST DISCOVERIES OF AO327, THE ARECIBO ALL-SKY 327 MHz DRIFT PULSAR SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Deneva, J. S.; Stovall, K.; Martinez, J. G.; Jenet, F.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bates, S. D.; Bagchi, M.; Freire, P. C. C.

    2013-09-20

    We report initial results from AO327, a drift survey for pulsars with the Arecibo telescope at 327 MHz. The first phase of AO327 will cover the sky at declinations of –1° to 28°, excluding the region within 5° of the Galactic plane, where high scattering and dispersion make low-frequency surveys sub-optimal. We record data from a 57 MHz bandwidth with 1024 channels and 125 μs sampling time. The 60 s transit time through the AO327 beam means that the survey is sensitive to very tight relativistic binaries even with no acceleration searches. To date we have detected 44 known pulsars with periods ranging from 3 ms to 2.21 s and discovered 24 new pulsars. The new discoveries include 3 ms pulsars, three objects with periods of a few tens of milliseconds typical of young as well as mildly recycled pulsars, a nuller, and a rotating radio transient. Five of the new discoveries are in binary systems. The second phase of AO327 will cover the sky at declinations of 28°-38°. We compare the sensitivity and search volume of AO327 to the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey and the GBT350 drift survey, both of which operate at 350 MHz.

  20. Interannual variations of the blocking high over the Ural Mountains and its association with the AO/NAO in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Qingyun; Ji, Liren; Peng, Jingbei

    2012-04-01

    This paper analyzes interannual variations of the blocking high over the Ural Mountains in the boreal winter and their association with the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO). In January, the relationship between the Ural blocking high (UR) and the AO index is statistically significant. The UR tends to occur more frequently and with greater strength during negative AO periods. Some strong URs also occur during positive AO phases (positive UR-AO events), as in January 2008. This paper discusses the characteristics of atmospheric circulation in the cases of positive UR-AO events and contrast cases (negative UR-AO events). The eastward extending of the Icelandic Low (IL) center and the associated NAO dipole anomaly pattern in the upstream region may play a more important role for the UR-AO events. When the center of the IL shifts eastward to 30°W, the amplitude of zonal wavenumber 2 (wavenumber 3) is intensified in the positive (negative) UR-AO events, which favors positive (negative) height anomalies over the Urals. Further analyses indicate that the intensified zonal wind in high latitudes and weakened zonal wind in midlatitudes over the North Atlantic Ocean render the eastward shift of the IL and the NAO dipole anomaly pattern. The Ural blocking in January 2008 bears similar characteristics to the positive UR-AO events.

  1. LDEF (Flight), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, Tray D12 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval. During the mission, the tray surface was at an angle of approximately ninety-eight (98) degrees to the orbital velocity vector and therefore exposed to a lower atomic oxygen flux than if parallel with the velocity vector. A very light stain is present on white paint dots on experiment tray clamps along the lower edge of the tray. The Polymer Matrix Composite Materials experiment has several changes to material colors. The composite containing the aramid (Kevlar) fibers has changed from a yellow to a light brown color and the cylindrical tubes containing the boron and carbon fiber materials have changed from a light green tint to a brown color.

  2. Toward a large lightweight mirror for AO: development of a 1m Ni coated CFRP mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Brooks, D.; Strangwood, M.

    2008-07-01

    We present our recent developments towards the construction of a large, thin, single-piece mirror for adaptive optics (AO). Our current research program aims to have completed fabrication and testing of a 1m diameter, nickel coated carbon-fibre reinforced cyanate ester resin mirror by the last quarter of 2009. This composite mirror material is being developed to provide a lightweight and robust alternative to thin glass shell mirrors, with the challenge of future large deformable mirrors such as the 2.5m M4 on the E-ELT in mind. A detailed analysis of the material properties of test mirror samples is being performed at the University of Birmingham (UK), the first results of which are discussed and presented here. We discuss the project progress achieved so far, including fabrication of the 1m flat moulds for the replication process, manufacturing and testing methods for 20 cm diameter sample mirrors and system simulations.

  3. ShaneAO: wide science spectrum adaptive optics system for the Lick Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavel, Donald; Kupke, Renate; Dillon, Daren; Norton, Andrew; Ratliff, Chris; Cabak, Jerry; Phillips, Andrew; Rockosi, Connie; McGurk, Rosalie; Srinath, Srikar; Peck, Michael; Deich, William; Lanclos, Kyle; Gates, John; Saylor, Michael; Ward, Jim; Pfister, Terry

    2014-07-01

    A new high-order adaptive optics system is now being commissioned at the Lick Observatory Shane 3-meter telescope in California. This system uses a high return efficiency sodium beacon and a combination of low and high-order deformable mirrors to achieve diffraction-limited imaging over a wide spectrum of infrared science wavelengths covering 0.8 to 2.2 microns. We present the design performance goals and the first on-sky test results. We discuss several innovations that make this system a pathfinder for next generation AO systems. These include a unique woofer-tweeter control that provides full dynamic range correction from tip/tilt to 16 cycles, variable pupil sampling wavefront sensor, new enhanced silver coatings developed at UC Observatories that improve science and LGS throughput, and tight mechanical rigidity that enables a multi-hour diffraction-limited exposure in LGS mode for faint object spectroscopy science.

  4. Sub-rubble communities of Curaçao and Bonaire coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesters, E.; Knijn, R.; Willemsen, P.; Pennartz, R.; Roebers, G.; van Soest, R. W. M.

    1991-12-01

    The distribution and abundance of sessile organisms under coral rubble has been studied at Bonaire and Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Species richness under rubble is extremely high with at least 367 species of which sponges, tunicates and bryozoans are the most important. Shallow sub-rubble communities can be considered refuges as the majority of these species are crypt-obligate. Sub-rubble communities may also have a preserve function for sponges, but do not harbour enough corals to ensure a quick coral recolonization of the reef surface after a major disaster. Cryptic community composition is affected by depth and pollution, and differs substantially between the two neighbouring islands, possibly as a result of different bottom characteristics. Biomass of the sub-rubble communities may contribute considerably to total reef biomass. Diversity varies inversely with increased depth and increased rubble size, possibly indicating abiotic control (e.g. physical disturbance by wave action and reef slope substrate collapse).

  5. Analysis of Optical Variations of BL Lac Object AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong-tao, Wang

    2014-03-01

    Historical optical BVRI band data are combined on the BL Lac object AO 0235 + 164. In order to examine the possible existence of lags and correlations between variations in different optical bands from this source, a statistical analysis is performed through the Discrete Correlation Function (DCF) method. Monte Carlo simulations called Flux Redistribution/Random Subset Selection (FR/RSS) are performed to obtain statistically meaningful values for the cross-correlation time lags and their related uncertainties. The analysis confirms that the variations in different optical light curves are strongly correlated, with no or very weak lag within the errors. Long term variability of color indices are also analysed. No color variabilities are found.

  6. Selected Examples of Solar and Extra-Solar Planetary Science with AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird M.; Lenzen, Rainer; Biller, Beth; Brandner, Wolfgang; Hartung, Markus

    High spatial resolution planetary science has seen a large boost from AO observations complementing space missions. Adaptive optics is particularly well suited for planetary astronomy since solar system bodies have temporal behavior well suited to multiple epochs of observation. Here we will just highlight some very recent examples: Uranus's rings (de Pater et al. 2002), volcanoes on Io (Marchis et al. 2002), the surface of 3 Juno (Baliunas et al. 2003), and binary asteroids (Merline et al. 2002). In addition, we will present "first light" sensitivities from a high contrast simultaneous differential imager (SDI) device. This device (called NACO SDI) can detect an extrasolar planet 25,000 times fainter just 0.5" from its parent star in 40 min of VLT time at 6 sigma. These are the highest contrast astronomical images taken to date.

  7. Eutrophication threatens Caribbean seagrasses - An example from Curaçao and Bonaire.

    PubMed

    Govers, Laura L; Lamers, Leon P M; Bouma, Tjeerd J; de Brouwer, Jan H F; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-12-15

    Seagrass beds are globally declining due to human activities in coastal areas. We here aimed to identify threats from eutrophication to the valuable seagrass beds of Curaçao and Bonaire in the Caribbean, which function as nursery habitats for commercial fish species. We documented surface- and porewater nutrient concentrations, and seagrass nutrient concentrations in 6 bays varying in nutrient loads. Water measurements only provided a momentary snapshot, due to timing, tidal stage, etc., but Thalassia testudinum nutrient concentrations indicated long-term nutrient loads. Nutrient levels in most bays did not raise any concern, but high leaf % P values of Thalassia in Piscadera Bay (∼0.31%) and Spanish Water Bay (∼0.21%) showed that seagrasses may be threatened by eutrophication, due to emergency overflow of waste water and coastal housing. We thus showed that seagrasses may be threatened and measures should be taken to prevent loss of these important nursery areas due to eutrophication. PMID:25256296

  8. FlyEyes: integrating CCID-35 into PUEO AO system at CFHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kevin K. Y.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Lin, Chueh-Jen; Benedict, Tom; Lai, Olivier; Ward, Jeff; Salmon, Derrick; Luppino, Gerry; Beletic, James; Dorn, Reinhold; Puget, Pascal; Burke, Barry; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2006-06-01

    A project to upgrade PUEO, the CFHT AO system, was first proposed in 2002. As part of the upgrade effort, a technology project was conceived to evaluate and characterize the backside-illuminated CCID-35 detector as suitable a replacement for the array of avalanche photo diode modules (APDs) in the curvature wavefront sensor. The CCID-35 was envisioned to replace an array of expensive APDs thus providing a cost-effective means of upgrading PUEO to a higher-order system. Work on the project, dubbed FlyEyes, occurred sporadically until Oct 2005 but substantial progress has been made since. This paper was intended to report on the performance of FlyEyes in PUEO but unfortunately the instrument was not ready for tests at the time of this writing. This paper summarizes the progress made on the project thus far and touches upon some of the difficulties encountered.

  9. LDEF (Postflight), AO187-02 : Chemical and Isotropic Measurements of Micrometeoroids by Secondary Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO187-02 : Chemical and Isotropic Measurements of Micrometeoroids by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Tray E08 This postflight photograph shows an experiment that has been severely degraded due to orbital exposure on the leading edge of the LDEF. The metallic coated thin Mylar film has been lost on each of the capture cells. As the thin Mylar film failed, the material curled tightly into small conical shapes and can be seen still attached to the aluminum mounting structure edges of many capture cells. Close examination of capture cells near the tray center clearly show the four individual high purity germanium plates with some of the bonding material exposed between plates. The green tint on the germanium plate at the right edge of the experiment tray is a reflection from the lights in the high bay area of SAEF II at KFC. Dim reflections from various sources can be seen on other sections of the experiment.

  10. Development and operation of an off-limb solar AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Gregory Edward

    An Adaptive Optics system capable of locking-on to off-limb prominence structure has been proven successful. It has been shown to allow for diffraction limited spectroscopy and polarimetry of prominence structure. Spectroscopic data obtained using the Off-Limb AO system have been shown to contain a trove of information regarding the nature of solar prominences. In particular a Rayleigh-Taylor instability was seen in part of this data set. Such instabilities, and the rising plumes that result from them, are thought to be critical clues to the longterm persistence of quiescent solar prominences. This adaptive optics system will allow scientists to come one step closer to understanding the true nature of solar prominences.

  11. User perceptions on coastal resource state and management options in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Debrot, A O; Nagelkerken, I

    2000-12-01

    Public environmental awareness and support for management measures are key determinants of the scope for successful implementation of natural resource management. To assess user perceptions and opinions on resource state and potential management options for the coastal zone of Curaçao, we queried 250 coastal resource users from around the island (sport divers, part-time artisanal fishermen and recreational boaters) using questionnaires. There is wide awareness of a long-term decline in coastal resource condition as measured by various indicators. Even among fishermen there was wide awareness of anthropogenic contributors to the decline, broad agreement of management measures required and a general willingness to contribute to management by means of annual license fees. Some of the more salient findings include the endorsement by fishermen of the current ban on spearfishing (81%), the regulation of the beach seine fishery for scad (77%), the introduction of fish reserves (72%), special protection for sea turtles (90%), conch (82%), and lobsters (72%), and notable support for gradual elimination of trap fisheries (45%). Also, both divers (65%) and boaters (92%) expressed the importance to them of an attractive coastline, with both groups expressing preference for natural (un-built) coastline (>74%) above other categories. Management based on the concept "user pays", as already implemented in the Netherlands Antilles on Saba and Bonaire, is well supported by the resource user public. A review of other main constraints such as finances and institutional capacity, shows that conditions are quite favorable for implementation of new legislation. Modem coral reef management is urgently needed in Curaçao to safeguard a key natural resource and concerted action is called for on the part of government agencies, legislators and elected officials. PMID:15266797

  12. Robotic laser adaptive optics imaging of 715 Kepler exoplanet candidates using Robo-AO

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit; Baranec, Christoph; Ravichandran, Ganesh; Johnson, John Asher; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.

    2014-08-10

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging to search for blended nearby stars, which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. In this paper, we present the results from the 2012 observing season, searching for stars close to 715 Kepler planet candidate hosts. We find 53 companions, 43 of which are new discoveries. We detail the Robo-AO survey data reduction methods including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for large adaptive optics surveys. Our survey is sensitive to objects from ≈0.''15 to 2.''5 separation, with magnitude differences up to Δm ≈ 6. We measure an overall nearby-star probability for Kepler planet candidates of 7.4% ± 1.0%, and calculate the effects of each detected nearby star on the Kepler-measured planetary radius. We discuss several Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) of particular interest, including KOI-191 and KOI-1151, which are both multi-planet systems with detected stellar companions whose unusual planetary system architecture might be best explained if they are 'coincident multiple' systems, with several transiting planets shared between the two stars. Finally, we find 98% confidence evidence that short-period giant planets are two to three times more likely than longer-period planets to be found in wide stellar binaries.

  13. Interdecadal changes in the Asian winter monsoon variability and its relationship with ENSO and AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Seo, Ye-Won; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Lee, June-Yi; Kajikawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-08-01

    Interdecadal changes in the Asian winter monsoon (AWM) variability are investigated using three surface air temperature datasets for the 55-year period of 1958-2012 from (1) the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis 1 (NCEP), (2) combined datasets from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-yr reanalysis and interim data (ERA), and (3) Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA). Particular attention has been paid to the first four empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of the AWM temperature variability that together account for 64% of the total variance and have been previously identified as predictable modes. The four modes are characterized as follows: the first mode by a southern warming over the Indo-western Pacific Ocean associated with a gradually increasing basin-wide warming trend; the second mode by northern warming with the interdecadal change after the late 1980s; the third and fourth modes by north-south triple pattern, which reveal a phase shift after the late 1970s. The three reanalyses agree well with each other when producing the first three modes, but show large discrepancy in capturing both spatial and temporal characteristics of the fourth mode. It is therefore considered that the first three leading modes are more reliable than the rest higher modes. Considerable interdecadal changes are found mainly in the first two modes. While the first mode shows gradually decreasing variance, the second mode exhibits larger interannual variance during the recent decade. In addition, after the late 1970s, the first mode has a weakening relationship with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) whereas the second mode has strengthening association with the Artic Oscillation (AO). This indicates an increasing role of AO but decreasing role of ENSO on the AWM variability. A better understanding of the interdecadal change in the dominant modes would contribute toward advancing in

  14. Bioremediation of bisphenol-A polluted soil by Sphingomonas bisphenolicum AO1 and the microbial community existing in the soil.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoshinobu; Akahira-Moriya, Ayako; Sasaki-Mori, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2'-Bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane) is an artificial pollutant that is easily detected in soil and water environments. BPA decomposition and removal from the environment is relatively difficult due to its stability. This study evaluated the BPA decomposition and removal activities of the microbial community existing in the soil with or without Sphingomonas bisphenolicum AO1, and revealed the toxic effects of BPA towards the microbial community. The microbial community in soil was able to degrade BPA at 1.0 mg·g(-1) soil or lower, although its degradation was slow. On the other hand, BPA at more than 10 mg·g(-1) soil was not only degraded by the microbial community but also decreased its diversity, suggesting that BPA is harmful to many microorganisms. PCR-TTGE analysis and the cloned 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that Sphingomonadales, Xanthomonadales, Burkholderiales and Pseudomonadales in the microbial community might independently or cooperatively degrade BPA. On the other hand, supplementation with strain AO1 was able to significantly improve the BPA decomposition activity of the microbial community in soil even at 10 mg BPA·g(-1) soil, although BPA at 100 mg·g(-1) soil overwhelmed the BPA decomposition activity of strain AO1. Furthermore, it was also concluded that strain AO1 could not inhabit BPA purified soil after decomposition of BPA by strain AO1 and the soil microbial community, suggesting that the application of strain AO1 could be a low-burden method for the decomposition and removal of BPA from the natural environment. PMID:25817811

  15. The Magellan Adaptive Secondary VisAO Camera: diffraction-limited broadband visible imaging and 20mas fiber array IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopon, Derek; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine

    2010-07-01

    The Magellan Adaptive Secondary AO system, scheduled for first light in the fall of 2011, will be able to simultaneously perform diffraction limited AO science in both the mid-IR, using the BLINC/MIRAC4 10μm camera, and in the visible using our novel VisAO camera. The VisAO camera will be able to operate as either an imager, using a CCD47 with 8.5 mas pixels, or as an IFS, using a custom fiber array at the focal plane with 20 mas elements in its highest resolution mode. In imaging mode, the VisAO camera will have a full suite of filters, coronagraphic focal plane occulting spots, and SDI prism/filters. The imaging mode should provide ~20% mean Strehl diffraction-limited images over the band 0.5-1.0 μm. In IFS mode, the VisAO instrument will provide R~1,800 spectra over the band 0.6-1.05 μm. Our unprecedented 20 mas spatially resolved visible spectra would be the highest spatial resolution achieved to date, either from the ground or in space. We also present lab results from our recently fabricated advanced triplet Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC) and the design of our novel wide-field acquisition and active optics lens. The advanced ADC is designed to perform 58% better than conventional doublet ADCs and is one of the enabling technologies that will allow us to achieve broadband (0.5-1.0μm) diffraction limited imaging and wavefront sensing in the visible.

  16. Ionic Polymer-Coated Laccase with High Activity and Enhanced Stability: Application in the Decolourisation of Water Containing AO7

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Pan, Bingcai

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating dyes in environmental water purification remains a formidable challenge. Laccase is a unique, environmentally friendly and efficient biocatalyst that can degrade pollutants. However, the use of laccase for the degradation of pollutants is considerably limited by its susceptibility to environmental changes and its poor reusability. We fabricated a novel biocatalyst (LacPG) by coating polyethylenimine onto the native laccase (Lac) followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The stability of the resulting LacPG was highly enhanced against pH variations, thermal treatments and provided better long-term storage with a negligible loss in enzymatic activity. Compared to Lac, LacPG exhibited significantly higher decolourisation efficiency in the degradation of a representative azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), which resulted from the electrostatic attraction between the coating and AO7. LacPG was separated from the AO7 solution using an ultrafiltration unit. The increased size and modified surface chemistry of LacPG facilitated ultrafiltration and reduced membrane fouling. LacPG exhibited enhanced stability, high catalytic activity and favourable properties for membrane separation; therefore, LacPG could be continuously reused in an enzymatic membrane reactor with a high efficiency for decolourising water containing AO7. The developed strategy appears to be promising for enhancing the applicability of laccase in practical water treatment. PMID:25652843

  17. Ionic Polymer-Coated Laccase with High Activity and Enhanced Stability: Application in the Decolourisation of Water Containing AO7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Pan, Bingcai

    2015-02-01

    Eliminating dyes in environmental water purification remains a formidable challenge. Laccase is a unique, environmentally friendly and efficient biocatalyst that can degrade pollutants. However, the use of laccase for the degradation of pollutants is considerably limited by its susceptibility to environmental changes and its poor reusability. We fabricated a novel biocatalyst (LacPG) by coating polyethylenimine onto the native laccase (Lac) followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The stability of the resulting LacPG was highly enhanced against pH variations, thermal treatments and provided better long-term storage with a negligible loss in enzymatic activity. Compared to Lac, LacPG exhibited significantly higher decolourisation efficiency in the degradation of a representative azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), which resulted from the electrostatic attraction between the coating and AO7. LacPG was separated from the AO7 solution using an ultrafiltration unit. The increased size and modified surface chemistry of LacPG facilitated ultrafiltration and reduced membrane fouling. LacPG exhibited enhanced stability, high catalytic activity and favourable properties for membrane separation; therefore, LacPG could be continuously reused in an enzymatic membrane reactor with a high efficiency for decolourising water containing AO7. The developed strategy appears to be promising for enhancing the applicability of laccase in practical water treatment.

  18. Ionic polymer-coated laccase with high activity and enhanced stability: application in the decolourisation of water containing AO7.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Pan, Bingcai

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating dyes in environmental water purification remains a formidable challenge. Laccase is a unique, environmentally friendly and efficient biocatalyst that can degrade pollutants. However, the use of laccase for the degradation of pollutants is considerably limited by its susceptibility to environmental changes and its poor reusability. We fabricated a novel biocatalyst (LacPG) by coating polyethylenimine onto the native laccase (Lac) followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The stability of the resulting LacPG was highly enhanced against pH variations, thermal treatments and provided better long-term storage with a negligible loss in enzymatic activity. Compared to Lac, LacPG exhibited significantly higher decolourisation efficiency in the degradation of a representative azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), which resulted from the electrostatic attraction between the coating and AO7. LacPG was separated from the AO7 solution using an ultrafiltration unit. The increased size and modified surface chemistry of LacPG facilitated ultrafiltration and reduced membrane fouling. LacPG exhibited enhanced stability, high catalytic activity and favourable properties for membrane separation; therefore, LacPG could be continuously reused in an enzymatic membrane reactor with a high efficiency for decolourising water containing AO7. The developed strategy appears to be promising for enhancing the applicability of laccase in practical water treatment. PMID:25652843

  19. Na+ Transport by the A1AO-ATP Synthase Purified from Thermococcus onnurineus and Reconstituted into Liposomes*

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Florian; Lim, Jae Kyu; Langer, Julian D.; Kang, Sung Gyun; Müller, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The ATP synthase of many archaea has the conserved sodium ion binding motif in its rotor subunit, implying that these A1AO-ATP synthases use Na+ as coupling ion. However, this has never been experimentally verified with a purified system. To experimentally address the nature of the coupling ion, we have purified the A1AO-ATP synthase from T. onnurineus. It contains nine subunits that are functionally coupled. The enzyme hydrolyzed ATP, CTP, GTP, UTP, and ITP with nearly identical activities of around 40 units/mg of protein and was active over a wide pH range with maximal activity at pH 7. Noteworthy was the temperature profile. ATP hydrolysis was maximal at 80 °C and still retained an activity of 2.5 units/mg of protein at 45 °C. The high activity of the enzyme at 45 °C opened, for the first time, a way to directly measure ion transport in an A1AO-ATP synthase. Therefore, the enzyme was reconstituted into liposomes generated from Escherichia coli lipids. These proteoliposomes were still active at 45 °C and coupled ATP hydrolysis to primary and electrogenic Na+ transport. This is the first proof of Na+ transport by an A1AO-ATP synthase and these findings are discussed in light of the distribution of the sodium ion binding motif in archaea and the role of Na+ in the bioenergetics of archaea. PMID:25593316

  20. Project summary: Emerging technology assessment of phostrip, a/o, and bardenpho processes for biological phosphorus removal

    SciTech Connect

    1985-03-01

    This technology assessment addresses the process capabilities and limitations of three proprietary processes (PhoStrip, A/O, and Bardenpho) to biologically remove phosphorus from municipal wastewaters. The primary objective of this report is to provide guidance to individuals involved with reviewing new processes as part of the Innovative and Alternative Technology Program.

  1. The Robo-AO KOI Survey: Laser Adaptive Optics Imaging of Every Kepler Exoplanet Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed L.

    2016-01-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star (KOI) with laser adaptive optics imaging to hunt for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions. With the unparalleled efficiency provided by the first fully robotic adaptive optics system, we perform the critical search for nearby stars (0.15" to 4.0" separation with contrasts up to 6 magnitudes) that pollute the observed planetary transit signal, contributing to inaccurate planetary characteristics or astrophysical false positives. We present approximately 3300 high resolution observations of Kepler planetary hosts from 2012-2015, with ~500 observed nearby stars. We measure an overall nearby star probability rate of 16.2±0.8%. With this large dataset, we are uniquely able to explore broad correlations between multiple star systems and the properties of the planets which they host. We then use these clues for insight into the formation and evolution of these exotic systems. Several KOIs of particular interest will be discussed, including possible quadruple star systems hosting planets and updated properties for possible rocky planets orbiting in the habitable zone.

  2. Factors contributing to inconsistent condom use among heterosexual men in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bertens, Madelief G B C; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Schaalma, Herman P

    2013-01-01

    This study explored, from a public health perspective, factors that contribute to inconsistent condom use by men in Curaçao through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 21 heterosexual men. The findings show that there is an important disconnect between what is considered culturally appropriate sexual behaviour for men and women and condom use, that diverging from prescribed notions of masculinity and femininity in order to use condoms consistently is difficult, and that condom use is particularly problematic in the context of concurrent partnerships and sexual economic exchanges. Participants further reported that Caribbean family structures, whereby mothers assume the role as primary caregiver and fathers contribute biologically but, to a much lesser extent socially, also have an impact on condom use. Additionally, consistent condom use was reported to be impeded by a cultural taboo on talking seriously about sex and sexual health. In their totality, findings provide important input from men for the development of sexual health promotion interventions that are cognizant of the cultural context in which inconsistent condom use occurs, and that are geared not only to the individual level but also to the interpersonal and structural levels. PMID:23350609

  3. Integration of SAXO, the VLT-SPHERE extreme AO : final performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Thierry; Sauvage, Jean-François; Petit, Cyril; Costille, Anne; Dohlen, Kjetil; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Mouillet, David; Puget, Pascal; Gluck, Laurence; Rochat, Sylvain; Baruffolo, Andrea; Salasnich, Bernardo; Kasper, Markus; Suarez, Marcos; Soenke, Christian; Fedrigo, Enrico; Baudoz, Pierre; Sevin, Arnaud; Perret, Denis; Wildi, François

    2013-12-01

    The direct imaging of exoplanet is an up to date instrumental challenge, as well as a scientific exciting goal. Contrary to indirect methods, the study of exoplanet's own light witnesses for biomarkers presence in their atmosphere. Observing such a faint object close to its bright host star requires dedicated instrumental observation from the ground. SPHERE and GPI are two of these instruments, currently on final AIT phase, for a very first light during this year. Both instruments developed during the last 5 years are composed of extremely high performance AO system (XAO) able to compensate for the optical deformation caused by the turbulence of earth atmosphere. Moreover, the final performance of such a system is limited by the static light residuals present in the imaging focal plane, caused by uncorrected static optical aberrations. The direct imaging of exoplanet therefore also requires to perform self-calibration in order to attenuate these residual and enhance the coronagraphic extinction. This paper presents the final ongoing AIT results of the SPHERE instrument, and mainly focuses on XAO aspects. An exhaustive view of last SAXO performance in lab is shown. In particular, such improvement as the Optimised Modal Gain, optimized Kalman filtering of vibration, and Garbage collection are the key point to reach the final performance. The behavior of the instrument with realistic turbulence strength, wind speed, flux conditions are studied. The self-calibration module, based on phase diversity measurement of NCPA, demonstrates the ultimate performance of the instrument, in term of flux extinction and future scientific results.

  4. Ruled and holographic experiment (AO 138-5). [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnemason, Francis

    1992-01-01

    The AO 138-5 experiment has been designed, via the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) experiment with the aim to study the optical behavior of different diffraction gratings submitted to space vacuum long exposure and solar radiation. Samples were rules and holographic gratings, masters or replica, and some additional control mirrors with various coatings. The experiment was located on the B3, trailing edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and has been protected against atomic oxygen flux. The experienced thermal cycling has been evaluated from -23 C to 66 C during the flight, 34,000 orbits. The analysis has been focused on the triple point characterization including light efficiency, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level. Tests were conducted on control mirrors and gratings loaded but not exposed to cosmic dust or solar irradiations. They did not show any significant variations. Solar exposure has damaged the coating reflectivity in the ultraviolet region, the degradation is higher with the gratings, in terms of efficiency. However, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level tests revealed no additional changes.

  5. Lycibarbarspermidines A-O, New Dicaffeoylspermidine Derivatives from Wolfberry, with Activities against Alzheimer's Disease and Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng-Qun; Fan, Hong-Xia; He, Rong-Rong; Xiao, Jia; Tsoi, Bun; Lan, Kang-Hua; Kurihara, Hiroshi; So, Kwok-Fai; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

    2016-03-23

    Fifteen new dicaffeoylspermidine derivatives, lycibarbarspermidines A-O (1-15), were isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum (wolfberry). The structures were unambiguously determined by spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Dicaffeoylspermidine derivatives, a rare kind of plant secondary metabolites, are primarily distributed in the family of Solanaceae. Only six compounds were structurally identified, and all of them are acyclic aglycones. Compounds 1-15 are the first glycosidic products of dicaffeoylspermidine derivatives, and compounds 14-15 are the first cyclization products of dicaffeoylspermidine derivatives. Moreover, dicaffeoylspermidine derivatives were first isolated and identified from wolfberry. The short-term memory assay on a transgenic fly Alzheimer's disease (AD) model showed that 1-15 exhibited different levels of anti-AD activity. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay revealed that 1-15 all displayed antioxidant capacity. Both anti-AD and antioxidant functions are related to the effects of wolfberry. Therefore, dicaffeoylspermidine derivatives are considered beneficial constituents responsible for the antiaging, neuroprotective, anti-AD, and antioxidant effects of wolfberry. PMID:26953624

  6. LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties, Tray A01 The Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties experiment postflight photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility during the period when the LDEF was being transferred from the Orbiter cargo bay to the KSC Payload Transporter. The photograph shows considerably more detail than the flight photograph. The horizontal lines on the honeycomb panel that appear to be cracks from space exposure are instead fine lines of excess epoxy resin formed during the bagging and curing process. The harsh white color of the epoxy adhesive along the rivet lines is from the lighting conditions in the OPF. The brown discoloration on the paint dots and the stain on the aluminum mounting strips appear to have changed little from the flight photograph. The greater detail does show that a stain exists at most composite and mounting strip interfaces.

  7. An Analysis of Characteristics of Education Institutions Supported by AoA for Planning and Development of Instructional Programs in Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Bruce M.

    The institutional characteristics of postsecondary colleges and universities that were successful in all Administration on Aging (AoA) grant program competitions for career training or personnel in aging through the 1980-81 academic year are analyzed. The sustaining ability of first-time grantees in new AoA program competitions are compared to see…

  8. LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00354 LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment from the LDEF. The color of the white paint dots on the exper- iment tray clamp blocks appear to be unchanged. The LDEF structure, the intercostal on the right, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black Earth end thermal panel. Aluminum pieces of the degraded CVCHPE thermal cover that were shown lodged in the vent area between the intercostal and the black thermal panel in the flight photograph are gone. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external surface of the CVCHPE has changed from that observed in the flight photograph. The thin vapor deposited aluminum coating, left after the Kapton eroded, is essentially gone with only fragments left near the edges of the thermal blanket. Pieces of a layer of Dacron mesh (bridle vail) material, used to separate the thermal cover from the thermal

  9. Fine Analysis of 121 Hermione, 45 Eugenia, and 90 Antiope Binary Asteroid Systems With AO Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Descamps, P.; Hestroffer, D.; Berthier, J.; de Pater, I.

    2004-11-01

    We report on a campaign of adaptive optics observations which focuses on 121 Hermione, 45 Eugenia, and 90 Antiope binary asteroids performed with ESO-VLT and Keck II telescopes in 2003-2004. A precessing Keplerian model was used to describe the motion of their companion. The orbital elements are determined accurately using data spanning more than 2 years. The satellite of 121 Hermione revolves at a= 775+/-14 km from the primary in P=2.5714+/-0.001 days with a low eccentricity (e=0.008+/-0.004) and retrograde orbit w.r.t. to the primary's equator (i=175+/-4 deg considering a pole solution (1.9,13.2) deg in ecliptic EQJ2000). The sense of revolution was unambiguously estimated from images separated by a few hours. Keck AO data taken in December 2003 revealed the bi-lobated shape of the primary. The nominal bulk density as derived from observed size of the primary and its 209 km IRAS diameter is 1.2+/-0.3 g/cm3 (Marchis et al., Icarus, 2004). Future observations with better angular resolution will allow us to see if 121 Hermione is a triple system. The orbit of Petit-Prince, moonlet of 45 Eugenia, was constrained using Feb. and Mar. 2004 AO data recorded at the VLT (a=1196+/-4 km, P= 4.7244+/-0.001 days, e=0, i=163+/-6 deg with a pole solution (133+/-3,-40+/-3 deg) in ecliptic B1950), leading to a bulk density of 1.17 g/cm3 considering its 215 km IRAS diameter. Both models predict successfully the positions reported for the discovery of Petit-Prince on Nov. 1998 and of S/2001 (121) 1 by Merline et al. (1999 and 2002). We will also present results on the same-size binary asteroid 90 Antiope, using the same analysis. Feb. and Mar. 2004 VLT-NACO data confirmed that both components are similar (with a Dm 2.4 and a diameter of 110+/-16 km). A preliminary analysis of Feb. and Mar. 2004 VLT data confirms that both components, separated by 170+/-1 km, with a revolution period P=16.5268 +- 0.0001h, are quasi-similar (with a Dm ˜ 2.4% and a diameter of 110+/-16 km) leading to

  10. LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00020 LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The flight photograph of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays right flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The LDEF structure, top intercostal, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black thermal panel. Aluminum particles from the degraded CVCHPE thermal blanket are also visible in this area. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of an atomic oxygen experiment (see S1001) by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external CVCHPE materials have changed significantly. The Kapton on the thermal blanket aluminized Kapton cover appears to be completely eroded, except under Kel-F buttons used to secure the blanket, leaving only the very thin vapor deposited aluminum coating as a cover. Parts of the aluminum coating residue has moved to

  11. Revolutionary visible and infrared sensor detectors for the most advanced astronomical AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guieu, Sylvain; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Rothman, Johan; de Borniol, Eric D.; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Coussement, Jérome; Kolb, Johann; Hubin, Norbert; Derelle, Sophie; Robert, Clélia; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Rochat, Sylvain; Delpoulbé, Alain; Lebouqun, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-07-01

    We report in this paper decisive advance on the detector development for the astronomical applications that require very fast operation. Since the CCD220 and OCAM2 major success, new detector developments started in Europe either for visible and IR wavelengths. Funded by ESO and the FP7 Opticon European network, the NGSD CMOS device is fully dedicated to Natural and Laser Guide Star AO for the E-ELT with strong ESO involvement. The NGSD will be a 880x840 pixels CMOS detector with a readout noise of 3 e (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate and providing digital outputs. A camera development, based on this CMOS device and also funded by the Opticon European network, is ongoing. Another major AO wavefront sensing detector development concerns IR detectors based on Avalanche Photodiode (e- APD) arrays within the RAPID project. Developed by the SOFRADIR and CEA/LETI manufacturers, the latter offers a 320x255 8 outputs 30 microns IR array, sensitive from 0.4 to 3 microns, with less than 2 e readout noise at 1600 fps. A rectangular window can also be programmed to speed up even more the frame rate when the full frame readout is not required. The high QE response, in the range of 70%, is almost flat over this wavelength range. Advanced packaging with miniature cryostat using pulse tube cryocoolers was developed in the frame of this programme in order to allow use on this detector in any type of environment. The characterization results of this device are presented here. Readout noise as low as 1.7 e at 1600 fps has been measured with a 3 microns wavelength cut-off chip and a multiplication gain of 14 obtained with a limited photodiode polarization of 8V. This device also exhibits excellent linearity, lower than 1%. The pulse tube cooling allows smart and easy cooling down to 55 K. Vibrations investigations using centroiding and FFT measurements were performed proving that the miniature pulse tube does not induce measurable vibrations to the optical bench, allowing use of this

  12. Systemic lupus erythematosus on the Caribbean island of Curaçao: an epidemiological investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Nossent, J C

    1992-01-01

    To determine the incidence, prevalence, and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a well delineated black population in the Caribbean basin data were collected on the disease course of all patients with definite SLE seen during a 10 year period (1980-9) using three different sources of information (hospital records, private practice records, and death certificates). Ninety four patients were identified giving an average annual incidence rate of 4.6/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4 to 8.8), which showed little variation during the study period. Twenty five patients (27%) died during the study period, giving a point prevalence of 47/100,000 (CI 34.1 to 51.1) in 1990. In women aged 15-44 years the annual incidence (12/100,000; CI 5.3 to 18.9) was highest, whereas in women aged 44-65 years the 1990 point prevalence rate (one in 526; CI 469 to 625) was highest. Annual mortality was 1.7/100,000 (CI -0.8 to 4.2) with a female to male ratio of 5.3. Renal disease was the most common complication, occurring in 73 (78%) patients. Thus the transatlantic movement from an area with a (presumably) low prevalence of SLE (Central Africa) has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of SLE in the black population of Curaçao, indicating that environmental factors may prevail over genetic factors in the expression of this disease. PMID:1466595

  13. Climate Factors as Important Determinants of Dengue Incidence in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Limper, M; Thai, K T D; Gerstenbluth, I; Osterhaus, A D M E; Duits, A J; van Gorp, E C M

    2016-03-01

    Macro- and microclimates may have variable impact on dengue incidence in different settings. We estimated the short-term impact and delayed effects of climate variables on dengue morbidity in Curaçao. Monthly dengue incidence data from 1999 to 2009 were included to estimate the short-term influences of climate variables by employing wavelet analysis, generalized additive models (GAM) and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) on rainfall, temperature and relative humidity in relation to dengue incidence. Dengue incidence showed a significant irregular 4-year multi-annual cycle associated with climate variables. Based on GAM, temperature showed a U-shape, while humidity and rainfall exhibited a dome-shaped association, suggesting that deviation from mean temperature increases and deviation from mean humidity and rainfall decreases dengue incidence, respectively. Rainfall was associated with an immediate increase in dengue incidence of 4.1% (95% CI: 2.2-8.1%) after a 10-mm increase, with a maximum increase of 6.5% (95% CI: 3.2-10.0%) after 1.5 month lag. A 1 °C decrease of mean temperature was associated with a RR of 17.4% (95% CI: 11.2-27.0%); the effect was inversed for a 1°C increase of mean temperature (RR= 0.457, 95% CI: 0.278-0.752). Climate variables are important determinants of dengue incidence and provide insight into its short-term effects. An increase in mean temperature was associated with lower dengue incidence, whereas lower temperatures were associated with higher dengue incidence. PMID:26122819

  14. [Morphology of bone threads following implantation of 2 mm AO miniscrews in the midfacial area].

    PubMed

    Bähr, W

    1989-02-01

    How well an osteosynthesis screw holds depends on the amount of friction between the thread flank of the screw and the bone thread. Factors undermining the mechanical integrity of the bone thread, such as cracks, can lead to reduced friction and consequently less ability to hold. To investigate the micromorphology of the bone thread in the thin bone of the midface, 131 bony implant beds of 2-mm AO miniscrews and 10 drill holes which had been pretapped but received no screws were studied by incident light and scanning electron microscopy. The angle of insertion of the screws was varied to assess the effect this has on the implant bed surface. In 30 of the 131 implant beds the insertion axis of the screws corresponded to the axis of the threaded or unthreaded drill holes. Sixty-six of the screws had been inserted at an inclination of greater than or equal to 10 degrees to the axis of the pretapped hole. Twenty pretapped implant beds had an inclination between 0 degrees and 10 degrees to the drill hole. Finally, 15 bone threads formed by inclining the screws upon insertion into untapped drill holes were also studied. Both pretapped and untapped implant bed surfaces were damaged with cracks, as well as signs of squashing, crushing and shearing stress. The extent of the damage often varied in the different implant beds as well as at different locations in the same implant bed. The pretapped implant beds seemed to have a relatively smoother surface when the drill or threader and the screws had the same axis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2711189

  15. Screw fixation of medial malleolar fractures: a cadaveric biomechanical study challenging the current AO philosophy.

    PubMed

    Parker, L; Garlick, N; McCarthy, I; Grechenig, S; Grechenig, W; Smitham, P

    2013-12-01

    The AO Foundation advocates the use of partially threaded lag screws in the fixation of fractures of the medial malleolus. However, their threads often bypass the radiodense physeal scar of the distal tibia, possibly failing to obtain more secure purchase and better compression of the fracture. We therefore hypothesised that the partially threaded screws commonly used to fix a medial malleolar fracture often provide suboptimal compression as a result of bypassing the physeal scar, and proposed that better compression of the fracture may be achieved with shorter partially threaded screws or fully threaded screws whose threads engage the physeal scar. We analysed compression at the fracture site in human cadaver medial malleoli treated with either 30 mm or 45 mm long partially threaded screws or 45 mm fully threaded screws. The median compression at the fracture site achieved with 30 mm partially threaded screws (0.95 kg/cm(2) (interquartile range (IQR) 0.8 to 1.2) and 45 mm fully threaded screws (1.0 kg/cm(2) (IQR 0.7 to 2.8)) was significantly higher than that achieved with 45 mm partially threaded screws (0.6 kg/cm(2) (IQR 0.2 to 0.9)) (p = 0.04 and p < 0.001, respectively). The fully threaded screws and the 30mm partially threaded screws were seen to engage the physeal scar under an image intensifier in each case. The results support the use of 30 mm partially threaded or 45 mm fully threaded screws that engage the physeal scar rather than longer partially threaded screws that do not. A 45 mm fully threaded screw may in practice offer additional benefit over 30 mm partially threaded screws in increasing the thread count in the denser paraphyseal region. PMID:24293597

  16. Postoperative bedrest improves the alignment of thoracolumbar burst fractures treated with the AO spinal fixator

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yen; Yen, David; Hopman, Wilma M.

    2009-01-01

    Background A loss of reduction due to inadequate support of the anterior column when using short-segment instrumentation to treat burst fracture and novel methods for support of the anterior column through a posterior approach to augment posterior instrumentation have been reported in the literature. We hypothesized that if anterior column support is an important adjunct to posterior short-segment instrumentation, then avoidance of axial load until sufficient anterior column healing occurs, allowing load-sharing with the implant, would improve spinal alignment at follow-up. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study in which consecutive patients who had instrumentation and fusion with the AO spinal fixator were immediately ambulated after surgery or had 4 weeks of bedrest. We measured kyphosis and wedge angles preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and at the time of final follow-up. We used radiologic measures to assess instrumentation and bone failure. Results We found significant differences in the mean loss of wedge and kyphosis angle correction between patients immediately ambulated and those who had 4 weeks of bedrest (0.71º v. − 4.73º for wedge and 1.81º v. − 6.55º for kyphosis, respectively). There was significant correlation between instrumentation and bone failure in both the immediate ambulation and bedrest groups. Conclusion Bedrest improves the maintenance of intraoperative sagittal alignment correction, which is in agreement with the theory that inadequate support of the anterior spinal column is the mechanism for loss of reduction when using short-segment instrumentation to treat burst fractures. Therefore, addressing the anterior column directly through anterior surgery or by employing novel techniques in posterior surgery is recommended if one of the goals of treatment is to maintain the sagittal correction achieved at the time of surgery. Trying to achieve this goal by addressing posterior implant design or bone quality alone

  17. First light curve analyses of binary systems AO Aqr, CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulaş, B.; Ulusoy, C.

    2015-11-01

    Using the data from the public database of the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) we performed the very first light curve analyses of the three eclipsing binary systems AO Aqr, CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7. The physical parameters of the systems were determined by the PHOEBE (Prša and Zwitter, 2005) software. From an analysis of the ASAS data it was concluded that AO Aqr was found to be a contact binary system while CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7 were found to be near-contact and detached binaries, respectively. Finally, the locations of the components, corresponding to the estimated physical parameters, in the HR diagram were also discussed.

  18. Relativistic blast-wave model for the rapid flux variations of AO 0235+164 and other compact radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.

    1978-01-01

    A relativistic blast-wave version of a signal-screen model is developed which can adequately explain the details of the flux-density and structural variations of compact extragalactic radio sources. The relativistic motion implied by flux variations is analyzed with respect to the synchrotron spectrum of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 observed during outbursts, and a signal-screen model for rapidly expanding shells produced by ultrarelativistic blast waves is examined. The approximate observed structure of the blast wave at three stages in its evolution is illustrated, each stage is described, and the model is applied to the flux density outburst in AO 0235+164 observed in late 1975. The results show that a relativistic blast-wave model can in general reproduce the main features of the observed flux variations in compact sources. Some problems with the proposed model are briefly discussed.

  19. Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Treated by the AO Hook Fixation System: A Four Year Follow-Up of an Alternative Technique

    PubMed Central

    Pengas, Ioannis P; Assiotis, Angelos; Kokkinakis, Michail; Khan, Wasim S; Meyers, Paul; Arbuthnot, James; Mcnicholas, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Surgical fixation is recommended for stable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions that have failed nonoperative management and for all unstable lesions. In this study we set out to describe and evaluate an alternative method of surgical fixation for such lesions. Five knees with unstable OCD lesions in four male adolescent patients with open physes were treated with the AO Hook Fixation System. The outcome was evaluated both clinically and with three separate outcome systems (IKDC 2000, KOOS, Lysholm) at one and a mean four year follow-up. We demonstrated excellent clinical results in all patients. At four years, all scoring systems demonstrated statistically significant improvement when compared to the preoperative status. Our study suggests that the AO Hook Fixation System is an alternative method of surgical intervention with comparable medium term results with other existing modes of fixation and the added biomechanical advantage of the absence of distracting forces during hardware removal. PMID:25067976

  20. High energy resolution observation of the Crab and AO535 plus 26 in the hard X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameury, J. M.; Boclet, D.; Durouchoux, P.; Cline, T.; Teegarden, B.; Tueller, J.; Paciesas, W.; Haymes, R.

    A number of uncertainties exist currently regarding the existence of gamma-ray lines in the Crab spectrum. An investigation was, therefore, conducted, and the Crab was observed for eight hours during a balloon flight from Palestine, TX, on September 26, 1980. It appeared that the binary source AO535 plus 26 contaminated the Crab data. It was, however, possible to separate the two sources. The obtained results are discussed and evaluated. It is found that the possibility of a line at 73 keV with the intensity reported by Ling et al. (1979) can be excluded for the obtained data. The 400 keV line cannot be ruled out. The results concerning AO535 plus 26 are very different from those previously obtained.

  1. High energy resolution observation of the Crab and AO535 plus 26 in the hard X-ray range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hameury, J. M.; Boclet, D.; Durouchoux, P.; Cline, T.; Teegarden, B.; Tueller, J.; Paciesas, W.; Haymes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A number of uncertainties exist currently regarding the existence of gamma-ray lines in the Crab spectrum. An investigation was, therefore, conducted, and the Crab was observed for eight hours during a balloon flight from Palestine, TX, on September 26, 1980. It appeared that the binary source AO535 plus 26 contaminated the Crab data. It was, however, possible to separate the two sources. The obtained results are discussed and evaluated. It is found that the possibility of a line at 73 keV with the intensity reported by Ling et al. (1979) can be excluded for the obtained data. The 400 keV line cannot be ruled out. The results concerning AO535 plus 26 are very different from those previously obtained.

  2. AoRim15 is involved in conidial stress tolerance, conidiation and sclerotia formation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Kikuma, Takashi; Jin, Feng Jie; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    The serine-threonine kinase Rim15p is a master regulator of stress signaling and is required for stress tolerance and sexual sporulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, in filamentous fungi that reproduce asexually via conidiation, the physiological function of Rim15p homologs has not been extensively analyzed. Here, we functionally characterized the protein homolog of Rim15p in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, by deleting and overexpressing the corresponding Aorim15 gene and examining the role of this protein in stress tolerance and development. Deletion of Aorim15 resulted in an increase in the sensitivity of conidia to oxidative and heat stresses, whereas conidia of the Aorim15 overexpressing strain were more resistant to these stresses. These results indicated that AoRim15 functions in stress tolerance, similar to S. cerevisiae Rim15p. Phenotypic analysis revealed that conidiation was markedly reduced by overexpression of Aorim15 in A. oryzae, and was completely abolished in the deletion strain. In addition, the formation of sclerotia, which is another type of developmental structure in filamentous fungi, was decreased by the deletion of Aorim15, whereas Aorim15 overexpression increased the number of sclerotia. These results indicated that AoRim15 is a positive regulator of sclerotia formation and that overexpression of AoRim15 shifts the developmental balance from conidiation towards sclerotia formation. Collectively, we demonstrated that AoRim15 is involved in the stress tolerance of conidia and differentially regulates between the two developmental fates of conidiation and sclerotia formation. PMID:26467693

  3. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey. II. Adaptive Optics Imaging of 969 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Schonhut, Jessica; Crepp, Justin

    2016-07-01

    We initiated the Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey in 2012 to observe each Kepler exoplanet candidate host star with high angular resolution, visible light, laser adaptive optics (AOs) imaging. Our goal is to find nearby stars lying in Kepler's photometric apertures that are responsible for the relatively high probability of false-positive exoplanet detections and that cause underestimates of the size of transit radii. Our comprehensive survey will also shed light on the effects of stellar multiplicity on exoplanet properties and will identify rare exoplanetary architectures. In this second part of our ongoing survey, we observed an additional 969 Kepler planet candidate hosts and we report blended stellar companions up to {{Δ }}m≈ 6 that contribute to Kepler's measured light curves. We found 203 companions within ˜4″ of 181 of the Kepler stars, of which 141 are new discoveries. We measure the nearby star probability for this sample of Kepler planet candidate host stars to be 10.6% ± 1.1% at angular separations up to 2.″5, significantly higher than the 7.4% ± 1.0% probability discovered in our initial sample of 715 stars; we find the probability increases to 17.6% ± 1.5% out to a separation of 4.″0. The median position of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) observed in this survey are 1.°1 closer to the galactic plane, which may account for some of the nearby star probability enhancement. We additionally detail 50 Keck AO images of Robo-AO observed KOIs in order to confirm 37 companions detected at a <5σ significance level and to obtain additional infrared photometry on higher significance detected companions.

  4. ShaneAO: an enhanced adaptive optics and IR imaging system for the Lick Observatory 3-meter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupke, Renate; Gavel, Donald; Roskosi, Constance; Cabak, Gerald; Cowley, David; Dillon, Daren; Gates, Elinor L.; McGurk, Rosalie; Norton, Andrew; Peck, Michael; Ratliff, Christopher; Reinig, Marco

    2012-07-01

    The Lick Observatory 3-meter telescope has a history of serving as a testbed for innovative adaptive optics techniques. In 1996, it became one of the first astronomical observatories to employ laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics as a facility instrument available to the astronomy community. Work on a second-generation LGS adaptive optics system, ShaneAO, is well underway, with plans to deploy on telescope in 2013. In this paper we discuss key design features and implementation plans for the ShaneAO adaptive optics system. Once again, the Shane 3-m will host a number of new techniques and technologies vital to the development of future adaptive optics systems on larger telescopes. Included is a woofer-tweeter based wavefront correction system incorporating a voice-coil actuated, low spatial and temporal bandwidth, high stroke deformable mirror in conjunction with a high order, high bandwidth MEMs deformable mirror. The existing dye laser, in operation since 1996, will be replaced with a fiber laser recently developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. The system will also incorporate a high-sensitivity, high bandwidth wavefront sensor camera. Enhanced IR performance will be achieved by replacing the existing PICNIC infrared array with an Hawaii 2RG. The updated ShaneAO system will provide opportunities to test predictive control algorithms for adaptive optics. Capabilities for astronomical spectroscopy, polarimetry, and visible-light adaptive optical astronomy will be supported.

  5. Open-loop control of SCExAO's MEMS deformable mirror using the Fast Iterative Algorithm: speckle control performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Célia; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Bradley, Colin; Clergeon, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) deformable mirrors (DMs) are widely utilized in astronomical Adaptive Optics (AO) instrumentation. High precision open-loop control of MEMS DMs has been achieved by developing a high accuracy DM model, the Fast Iterative Algorithm (FIA), a physics-based model allowing precise control of the DM shape. Accurate open-loop control is particularly critical for the wavefront control of High- Contrast Imaging (HCI) instruments to create a dark hole area free of most slow and quasi-static speckles which remain the limiting factor for direct detection and imaging of exoplanets. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system is one of these high contrast imaging instruments and uses a 1024-actuator MEMS deformable mirror (DM) both in closed-loop and open-loop. The DM is used to modulate speckles in order to distinguish (i) speckles due to static and slow-varying residual aberrations from (ii) speckles due to genuine structures, such as exoplanets. The FIA has been fully integrated into the SCExAO wavefront control software and we report the FIA’s performance for the control of speckles in the focal plane.

  6. HIGH RESOLUTION H{alpha} IMAGES OF THE BINARY LOW-MASS PROPLYD LV 1 WITH THE MAGELLAN AO SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.-L.; Close, L. M.; Males, J. R.; Follette, K.; Morzinski, K.; Kopon, D.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.

    2013-09-01

    We utilize the new Magellan adaptive optics system (MagAO) to image the binary proplyd LV 1 in the Orion Trapezium at H{alpha}. This is among the first AO results in visible wavelengths. The H{alpha} image clearly shows the ionization fronts, the interproplyd shell, and the cometary tails. Our astrometric measurements find no significant relative motion between components over {approx}18 yr, implying that LV 1 is a low-mass system. We also analyze Large Binocular Telescope AO observations, and find a point source which may be the embedded protostar's photosphere in the continuum. Converting the H magnitudes to mass, we show that the LV 1 binary may consist of one very-low-mass star with a likely brown dwarf secondary, or even plausibly a double brown dwarf. Finally, the magnetopause of the minor proplyd is estimated to have a radius of 110 AU, consistent with the location of the bow shock seen in H{alpha}.

  7. Novel UNC-44 AO13 ankyrin is required for axonal guidance in C. elegans, contains six highly repetitive STEP blocks separated by seven potential transmembrane domains, and is localized to neuronal processes and the periphery of neural cell bodies.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Anthony J; Boontrakulpoontawee, Pratumtip; Rebeiz, Natalie; Domanus, Marc; Otsuka, Dawn; Velamparampil, Nena; Chan, Sabrina; Vande Wyngaerde, Marshall; Campagna, Sarah; Cox, Andrea

    2002-03-01

    Conventional ankyrins are cortical cytoskeletal proteins that form an ankyrin-spectrin meshwork underlying the plasma membrane. We report here the unusual structure of a novel ankyrin (AO13 ankyrin, 775,369 Da, 6994 aa, pI = 4.45) that is required for proper axonal guidance in Caenorhabditis elegans. AO13 ankyrin contains the ANK repeat and spectrin-binding domains found in other ankyrins, but differs from all others in that the acidic carboxyl region contains six blocks of serine/threonine/glutamic acid/proline rich (STEP) repeats separated by seven hydrophobic domains. The STEP repeat blocks are composed primarily of sequences related to ETTTTTTVTREHFEPED(E/D)X(n)VVESEEYSASGSPVPSE (E/K)DVE(H/R)VI, and the hydrophobic domains contain sequences related to PESGEESDGEGFGSKVLGFAKK[AGMVAGGVVAAPVALAAVGA]KAAYDALKKDDDEE, which includes a potential transmembrane domain (in brackets). Recombinant protein fragments of AO13 ankyrin were used to prepare polyclonal antisera against the spectrin-binding domain (AO271 Ab), the conventional ankyrin regulatory domain (AO280 Ab), the AO13 ankyrin STEP domain (AO346 Ab), the AO13 ankyrin STEP + hydrophobic domain (AO289 Ab), and against two carboxyl terminal domain fragments (AO263 Ab and AO327 Ab). Western blot analysis with these Ab probes demonstrated multiple protein isoforms. By immunofluorescence microscopy, the antispectrin-binding and regulatory domain (AO271 and AO280) antibodies recognized many cell types, including neurons, and stained the junctions between cells. The AO13 ankyrin-specific (AO289 and AO346) antibodies showed a neurally restricted pattern, staining nerve processes and the periphery of neural cell bodies. These results are consistent with a role for AO13 ankyrin in neural development. PMID:11891667

  8. Diferentes metodologias aplicadas ao ensino de astronomia no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto à Escola Estadual Colònia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com très turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos com idades entre 16 e 19 anos. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questíes dissertativas e objetivas, aplicado pelo professor titular da sala, que era o mesmo nas très turmas, para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar um trabalho de intervenção nas classes envolvidas utilizando, em cada uma, metodologias diferentes: (A) sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervençíes necessárias; (B) de forma tradicional, com auxílio de multimídias para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderam novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as très metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores aplicaçíes, os resultados iniciais foram comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%, turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando que houve um avanço significativo na turma B, a turma A manteve seu índice e a turma C evoluiu, porém não tanto quanto a B. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas vocè acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente. Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, sendo a mais significativa. Outra conclusão muito importante é que apesar de o tema Astronomia ser amplamente

  9. Future change of water vaiables from HadGEM2-AO simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon-Hyun; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Johan; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Chunho

    2013-04-01

    hydrology-atmosphere for water resource planning. Arora et al. (1999) and Oki and Sud (1998) developed a method for routing river flows through GCM grid cells. Accordingly, reliable forecasts are expected to help water managers and users with long lead time decisions, leading to greater water use efficiency and better risk management (Wang, 2012). SO, we analysed hydrological cycle and drought index from precipitation, evaporation, runoff, soil moisture, river outflow, and so on using atmosphere-ocean coupled model which called by HadGEM2-AO. Details and added information by this climate projection system about the future water cycle's change will be presented at the workshop. Acknowledgments: This research has been supported by project NIMR-2013-B-2 of the National Institute of Meteorological Research in Korea Meteorological Administration.

  10. LDEF (Postflight), AO044 : Holographic Data Storage Crystals for LDEF, Tray E05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The Holographic Data Storage Crystals for LDEF Experiment (AO044) consist of four crystals of lithium niobate, three crystals contain recorded holograms and one crystal is an unrecorded control sample. The Holographic Data Storage experiment is an integral part of the Active Optical System Component Experiment (S0050) that contains 136 test specimen and is located in a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray. The experiment tray is divided into six sections, each consisting of a 1/4 inch thick chromic anodized aluminum base plate and a 1/16th inch thick aluminum hat shaped structure for mounting the test specimen. The test specimen are typically placed in fiberglass-epoxy retainer strip assemblies prior to installation on the hat shaped mounting structure. Five of the six sections are covered by a 1/8 inch thick anodized aluminum sun screen with openings that allowed 56 percent transmission over the central region. Two subexperiments, The Optical Materials and UV Detectors Experiment (S0050-01) consist of 15 optical windows, filters and detectors and occupies one of the trays six sub-sections and The Optical Substrates and Coatings Experiment (S0050-02 ) that includes 12 substrates and coatings and a secondary experiment, ThePyroelectric Infrared Detectors Experiment with twenty detectors, are also mounted in the integrated tray. The experiment structure was assembled with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The experiment hardware appears to be intact with no apparent damage. The excess blue color in the flight photograph is no longer present. The paint dots on the tray clamp blocks, initially white, are brown and tray flanges appear to have a light tan discoloration. The experiment sun screens and base plate also appear to have the same discoloration. The exposed experiment test specimen and their fiberglass-epoxy mountings appear to have

  11. LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties, Tray A07 The postflight photograph was taken in the Operations and Control (O&C) facility after the LDEF had been transferred from the KSC Payload Transporter to the LDEF Assembly and Transport System (LATS) and shows more detail than the flight photograph. The areas on the aluminum mounting strips where the coating has been scraped and/or abraided can be seen in greater detail under the better lighting conditions. The coating color remains essentially the same. The white paint dots on the tray clampblocks have changed little from the orginal color. PMR-15 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The PMR-15 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-009) postflight photograph provides more detail than the flight photograph. The geometric pattern seen on the flight photograph is not visible, however, the horizontal lines, cracks and/or crazing, observed previously are better defined. A gray haze or dust appears to cover the gray/brown panel surface. The yellow colored identification numbers seem to be a little lighter than in the flight photograph but the white marking in the upper left corner do not appear to have changed. Scratch marks/abrasions on the lower left edge of panel were on prelaunch photographs. F-178/T300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (cocured) - The 178/T300 graphite-polyimide panel (T40T30060-005) seems to have changed in color from the light gray in the flight photograph to a brownish gray. The yellow identification numbers seem lighter while the white marking in the upper left corner appear brighter. The fine horizontal lines, cracks and/or crazing, are still visible on the panel surface. F178/T300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The 178/T300 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-001) seems to have changed to a brownish gray from the light gray color seen in the flight photograph

  12. Modeling the effect of high altitude turbulence in wide-field correlating wavefront sensing and its impact on the performance of solar AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Tallon, M.; Langlois, M.; Béchet, C.; Collados Vera, M.

    2014-08-01

    Solar Adaptive Optics (AO) shares many issues with night-time AO, but it also has its own particularities. The wavefront sensing is performed using correlations to efficiently work on the solar granulation as a reference. The field of view for that measurement usually is around 10". A sensor collecting such a wide field of view averages wavefront information from different sky directions, and the anisoplanatism thus has a peculiar impact on the performance of solar AO and MCAO systems. Since we are entering the era of large solar telescopes (European Solar Telescope, Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) understanding this issue is crucial to evaluate its impact on the performance of future AO systems. In this paper we model the correlating wide field sensor and the way it senses the high altitude turbulence. Thanks to this improved modelling, we present an analysis of the influence of this sensing on the performance of each AO configuration, conventional AO and MCAO. In addition to the analytical study, simulations similar to the case of the EST AO systems with FRiM-3D (the Fractal Iterative Method for Atmospheric tomography) are used in order to highlight the relative influence of design parameters. In particular, results show the performance evolution when increasing the telescope diameter. We analyse the effect of high altitude turbulence correlation showing that increasing the diameter of the telescope does not degrade the performance when correcting on the same spatial and temporal scales.

  13. Dynamical relations between asteroids, meteorites and Apollo-Amor objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-09-01

    A Monte Carlo technique has been used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It is found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The region adjacent to the 3:1 Jovian commensurability resonance (2.5 AU) is unique in providing material in the required quantity and orbital distribution of the ordinary chondrites. This region should also supply a comparable preatmospheric flux of carbonaceous meteorites. The innermost asteroid belt (2.17-2.25 AU), via the nu6 secular resonance, provides a flux about 9 percent of that of the ordinary chondrites, and appears to be the strongest candidate for the basaltic achondrite source region. It is unlikely that a significant number of meteorites originate beyond 2.6 AU. It is specualted that enstatite achondrites are derived from the Hungaria region, interior to the main belt, and that iron and stony-iron meteorites originate from many main-belt sources interior to 2.6 AU.

  14. Plant Reproduction: AMOR Enables Males to Respond to Female Signals.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Coimbra, Silvia

    2016-04-25

    The pollen tube of flowering plants undertakes a long journey to transport two sperm cells for double fertilization. New work on pollen tube guidance has identified an arabinogalactan-derived ovular factor that primes tubes to respond to female gametophyte-secreted attraction signals. PMID:27115687

  15. The interobserver reliability of classification systems for radial head fractures: the Hotchkiss modification of the Mason classification and the AO classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Sheps, David M.; Kiefer, Krystina R.L.; Boorman, Richard S.; Donaghy, John; Lalani, Aleem; Walker, Richard; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Radial head fractures are common injuries, and there is little information on the reliability of classification systems for such injuries. The purpose of our study was to report the interobserver reliability of 2 commonly used classification systems: the Hotchkiss modification of the Mason classification and the AO classification systems. Methods We compiled the radiographs from a cohort series of 43 patients with radial head fractures, and 5 observers classified the radiographs according to both classification systems. Additionally, we collapsed the systems, with types II and III combined for the Hotchkiss classification and the final digit dropped for the AO classification. We calculated percent agreement, the κ statistic and the associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The mean percent agreement was 72.3% (95% CI 65.8%–78.9%) for the Hotchkiss classification and 37.7% (95% CI 30.5%–44.9%) for the AO classification. The κ statistic was 0.585 (0.541–0.661) for the Hotchkiss classification and 0.261 (0.240–0.350) for the AO classification. The mean percent agreement was 89.3% (86.6%–92.0%) for the consolidated Hotchkiss classification and 67.4% (54.6%–80.3%) for the consolidated AO classification. The κ statistic was 0.760 (0.691–0.805) for the consolidated Hotchkiss classification and 0.455 (0.372–0.521) for the consolidated AO classification. Conclusion The interobserver reliability for the Hotchkiss modification of the Mason classification was moderate, and that for the AO classification was fair according to the criteria of Landis and Koch. Collapsing the Hotchkiss classification improved the reliability to substantial, and collapsing the AO system improved reliability to the lower end of moderate. PMID:19680511

  16. Laboratory results and status update for Pathfinder, the LINC-NIRVANA NGS ground-layer AO subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopon, Derek; Conrad, Al; Bertram, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kürster, Martin; Berwein, Juergen; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Viotto, Valentina; Bergomi, Maria; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Baumeister, Harald; De Bonis, Fulvio; Hofferbert, Ralph; Brunelli, Alessandro; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Bizenberger, Peter; Briegel, Florian; Meschke, Daniel; Mohr, Lars; Zhang, Xianyu; Kittmann, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The full LINC-NIRVANA instrument will be one of the most complex ground-based astronomical systems ever built. It will consist of multiple subsystems, including two multi-conjugate ground layer AO systems (MCAO) that drive the LBT adaptive secondaries, two mid-high layer AO systems with their own Xynetics 349 actuator DM's, a fringe tracker, and a beam combiner. In order to mitigate risk, we take a modular approach to instrument testing and commissioning by decoupling these subsystems individually. The first subsystem tested on-sky will be one of the ground-layer AO systems, part of a test-bed known as the Pathfinder. The Pathfinder consists of a 12-star pyramid WFS that drives one of the LBT's adaptive secondaries, a support structure known as "The Foot," and the infrared test camera (IRTC), which is used for acquisition and alignment. The 12 guide stars are acquired by moveable arms called "star enlargers," each of which contains its own optical path. The Pathfinder will be shipped from MPIA in Heidelberg, Germany to the LBT mountain lab on Mt. Graham, Arizona in February. The system will be unpacked, assembled in the LBT clean room, and internally optically aligned. We present the results of our system tests, including star enlarger alignment and system alignment. We also present our immediate plans for on-sky closed loop tests on the LBT scheduled for early Fall. Because plans for all ELTs call for ground layer correction, the Pathfinder provides valuable preliminary information not only for the full LINC-NIRVANA system, but also for future advanced MCAO systems.

  17. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  18. Multiplicity in the Jupiter Trojan Population: Low density of 617 Patroclus with Keck LGS AO and Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Hestroffer, D.; Descamps, P.; Berthier, J.; Bouchez, A. H.; Campbell, R. D.; Chin, J. C. Y.; van Dam, M. A.; Hartman, S. K.; Johnasson, E. M.; Lafon, R. E.; Le Mignant, D.; de Pater, I.; Stomski, P. J.; Summers, D. M.; Wizinovich, P. L.; Wong, M. H.

    2005-12-01

    The system 617 Patroclus, the only binary Trojan known, was discovered in 2001 with the Hokupa'a Gemini-8m AO system. Because of their faintness (magnitude in visible mv>15.5), Trojan asteroids cannot be directly observed by most of the AO systems. In 2004, a Laser Guide Star (LGS) AO system was offered on the Keck-10m. We initiated an observing campaign, recording direct images of the 617 Patroclus double system in broadband filters with the NIRC2 near-infrared camera. The orbital parameters of the system were estimated using two methods and by including additional Gemini archive data (2001-2002), we obtained a consistent and accurate solution. The two components, separated by 680±20 km, revolve around their center of mass in 4.289±0.004 days in a roughly circular orbit (e ˜0.02-0.02). Using the thermal measurements by Fernandez et al. (2003), we derive (with a beaming parameter η =0.94) a radius of R1= 60.9 km and R2= 56.3 km (with an error of 1.6 km and an Av= 0.04). Even considering the uncertainty in the volume of the components, the density of 617 Patroclus (ρ = 0.8±0.15 g/cm3) is extremely low, if compared with the bulk-density of known binary C-type main-belt asteroids (ρ 1.2 g/cm3, see Marchis et al., ACM, 2005). Assuming that the system is made of the same material as Ganymede or Callisto (uncompressed density of 1.6 g/cm3), the bulk density yields to a macro-porosity of ˜50%. A more realistic smaller porosity (p ˜15 different composition, such as more water ice in the interior of 617 Patroclus, suggesting a formation in the distant outer regions of the solar system (Morbidelli et al., Nature, 2005). The origin of this tightly bound system will be also discussed (Marchis et al., Nature, in press, 2005). We will present a quality comparison of the LGS Keck system with various techniques and different AO systems, discussing the interest of this technique to broaden the search for multiple asteroids in all minor planet populations. This work was

  19. Optimal Sensor Arrangements in Angle of Arrival (AoA) and Range Based Localization with Linear Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Sanvidha C. K.; Pathirana, Pubudu N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the linear separation requirements for Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and range sensors, in order to achieve the optimal performance in estimating the position of a target from multiple and typically noisy sensor measurements. We analyse the sensor-target geometry in terms of the Cramer–Rao inequality and the corresponding Fisher information matrix, in order to characterize localization performance with respect to the linear spatial distribution of sensors. Here in this paper, we consider both fixed and adjustable linear sensor arrays. PMID:24036585

  20. Getting lucky with adaptive optics: diffraction-limited resolution in the visible with current AO systems on large and small telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, N. M.; Dekany, R. G.; Mackay, C. D.; Moore, A. M.; Britton, M. C.; Velur, V.

    2008-07-01

    We have recently demonstrated diffraction-limited resolution imaging in the visible on the 5m Palomar Hale telescope. The new LAMP instrument is a Lucky Imaging backend camera for the Palomar AO system. Typical resolutions of 35-40 mas with Strehls of 10-20% were achieved at 700nm, and at 500nm the FWHM resolution was as small as 42 milliarcseconds. In this paper we discuss the capabilities and design challenges of such a system used with current and near future AO systems on a variety of telescopes. In particular, we describe the designs of two planned Lucky Imaging + AO instruments: a facility instrument for the Palomar 200" AO system and its PALM3K upgrade, and a visible-light imager for the CAMERA low-cost LGS AO system planned for the Palomar 60" telescope. We introduce a Monte Carlo simulation setup that reproduces the observed PSF variability behind an adaptive optics system, and apply it to predict the performance of 888Cam and CAMERA. CAMERA is predicted to achieve diffraction-limited resolution at wavelengths as short as 350 nm. In addition to on-axis resolution improvements we discuss the results of frame selection with the aim of improving other image parameters such as isoplanatic patch sizes, showing that useful improvements in image quality can be made by Lucky+AO even with very temporally and spatially undersampled data.

  1. THE FIRST CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK IMAGED IN SILHOUETTE AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS: MagAO IMAGING OF ORION 218-354

    SciTech Connect

    Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Wu, Ya-Lin; Morzinski, Katie M.; Hinz, Philip; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Kopon, Derek; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa

    2013-09-20

    We present high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) corrected images of the silhouette disk Orion 218-354 taken with Magellan AO (MagAO) and its visible light camera, VisAO, in simultaneous differential imaging mode at Hα. This is the first image of a circumstellar disk seen in silhouette with AO and is among the first visible light AO results in the literature. We derive the disk extent, geometry, intensity, and extinction profiles and find, in contrast with previous work, that the disk is likely optically thin at Hα. Our data provide an estimate of the column density in primitive, ISM-like grains as a function of radius in the disk. We estimate that only ∼10% of the total submillimeter derived disk mass lies in primitive, unprocessed grains. We use our data, Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, and previous results from the literature to make the first self-consistent multiwavelength model of Orion 218-354. We find that we are able to reproduce the 1-1000 μm spectral energy distribution with a ∼2-540 AU disk of the size, geometry, small versus large grain proportion, and radial mass profile indicated by our data. This inner radius is a factor of ∼15 larger than the sublimation radius of the disk, suggesting that it is likely cleared in the very interior.

  2. [Review of 40 years AO/ASIF. The development of the Veterinary Surgical Working Group for Osteosynthesis Questions(AO) in Veterinary Medicine (AOVET) and a systematic operative fracture treatment in animals].

    PubMed

    Kasa, G; Kasa, F; Kasa, A; Pohler, O

    2011-01-01

    With respect to the founding of the AOVET in 1969, the development of the systematic osteosynthesis in large and small animals is reviewed. With the introduction of the stable OS techniques corresponding to the principles and operative techniques developed by the organization of ASIF/AO (hum), the systematic operative fracture treatment in animals expanded remarkably. The application of the "absolutely" stable compression osteosynthesis was the basis for the successful fracture treatment in large animals. The systematic osteosynthesis in small animals was realized through the generation of a multitude of stabilization techniques for the different fracture types in the various anatomical areas and for special orthopaedic interventions. This was achieved through a specifically developed implant- instrument system and corresponding operation methods. This development was supported by instruction courses, published manuals and visiting fellowships. The extensive collaboration in research and development led to an increasing understanding of the diverse bone healing processes. The AOVET enjoyed a progressing integration into the AO/ASIF (hum) organization. PMID:22134662

  3. Use of a single 2.0-mm locking AO reconstruction titanium plate in linear, non-comminuted, mandible fractures

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Babu S.; Makwana, Kalpesh G.; Patel, Aditi M.; Tandel, Ramanuj C.; Shah, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the following study is to prospectively evaluate the use of a single Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) 2.0-mm locking reconstruction plate for linear non-comminuted mandibular fractures without the use of a second plate. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of a sample of 10 patients who reported to the department with fractures of the mandible and were treated over a period of 24 months from November 2010 to November 2012. Out of these, there were 8 male patients and 2 female patients. There were four cases of isolated parasymphysis fractures, 1 of the case had a parasymphysis fracture associated with subcondylar fracture, 4 had a body fracture and 2 had a symphysis fracture. Results: All patients had satisfactory fracture reduction and a successful treatment outcome without major complications. Only one patient (10%) developed minor complications. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated that treating linear non-comminuted mandibular fractures with a single AO 2.0-mm locking reconstruction plate provides excellent stability at the fracture site which in turn leads to sound bone healing and early functional rehabilitation. PMID:24987599

  4. AO/NAO response to climate change: 2. Relative importance of low- and high-latitude temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-06-01

    We address the issue of why different models may be getting different responses of the AO/NAO in climate change experiments. The results from part 1 (Rind et al., 2005) suggest that for substantive climate changes, the differences are likely to be found in the patterns of tropospheric climate change, rather than from the stratosphere. We assess the various tropospheric forcings through a variety of experiments. We first use extreme paleoclimate experiments (Ice Age, Paleocene) which feature large variations in the low level latitudinal temperature gradient; the results show that under these circumstances, changes in the eddy transport of sensible heat, and in situ high latitude forcing, dominate the AO response. We next test the effect of more modest SST temperature gradient changes in the current climate, and find a similar result with a model configuration that does not easily transport the low level temperature changes into the upper troposphere. We then reanalyze the results from different 2 × CO2 experiments with the GISS model and find that they can be understood by assessing: (1) the magnitude of tropical SST warming; (2) the translations of that warming into the upper troposphere; (3) the change in the extratropical low altitude temperature gradient; and (4) the change in the high latitude SST/sea ice response. We suggest that these features might explain the varying results among modeling groups, and that forecasts will not converge until these features do.

  5. Tetrahedral tilting and ferroelectricity in Bi2AO5 (A=Si, Ge) from first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Janghee; Kim, Bog G.; Mori, Shigeo; Oguchi, Tamio

    2016-03-01

    The properties of a tetrahedron containing Bi2AO5 (A=Si, Ge) are examined using Ab initio calculations and symmetry mode analysis. Stabilization of the polar phase is observed in both compounds with a monoclinic Cc phase. In the monoclinic ground state, the tilting angle (ϕ1) of tetrahedron is 7.21° and 21.94° for the Si and Ge compound, respectively. The relationship between a primary order parameter and the tetrahedral tilting is identified and an analytical formula between them is proposed by analyzing the structure. The detailed layer-by-layer polarization calculations shows that the main polarization component originates from the tetrahedron tilting of the AO4 unit, and the analytical relationship between the primary order parameter and spontaneous polarization is also calculated. This B3LYP hybrid functional calculation provides a band gap of 4.44 eV and 4.18 eV for Bi2SiO5 and Bi2GeO5, respectively. The main difference between the two compounds is also analyzed based on the electronic structure and electron localization function analysis.

  6. Prolonged plume volcanism in the Caribbean Large Igneous Province: New insights from Curaçao and Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewen, Matthew W.; Duncan, Robert A.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Krawl, Kyle

    2013-10-01

    We present 36 new 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating age determinations from the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) providing evidence for extended periods of volcanic activity and suggest a new tectonomagmatic model for the province's timing and construction. These new 40Ar-39Ar ages for the Curaçao Lava Formation (CLF) and Haiti's Dumisseau Formation show evidence for active CLIP volcanism from 94 to 63 Ma. No clear changes in geochemical character are evident over this period. The CLF has trace element signatures (e.g., Zr/Nb = 10-20) and flat rare earth element (REE) trends consistent with plume volcanism. The Dumisseau Formation also has plume-like geochemistry and steeper REE trends similar to ocean island basalts. Volcanism in the Dumisseau Formation appears to have largely ceased by 83 Ma while at Curaçao it continued until 63 Ma. A rapidly surfacing and melting plume head alone does not fit this age distribution. Instead, we propose that the residual Galapagos plume head, following initial ocean plateau construction, was advected eastward by asthenospheric flow induced by subducting oceanic lithosphere. Slab rollback at the Lesser Antilles and Central America subduction zones created an extensional regime within the Caribbean plate. Mixing of plume with upwelling asthenospheric mantle provided a source for intermittent melting and eruption through the original plateau over a ˜30 Ma period.

  7. The Triaxial Ellipsoid Diameters and Rotational Pole of Asteroid (9) Metis from AO at Gemini and Keck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Merline, W. J.; Conrad, A.; Dumas, C.; Tamblyn, P.; Christou, J.; Carry, B.; Chapman, C.

    2012-10-01

    From Adaptive Optics (AO) images of (9) Metis at 14 epochs over 2008 December 8 and 9 at Gemini North, triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 218x175x112 km are derived with fitting uncertainties of 3x3x47 km. However, by including just two more AO images from Keck-II in June and August of 2003 in a global fit, the fitting uncertainty of the small axis drops by more than a third because of the lower sub-Earth latitude afforded in 2003 (-28°) compared to 2008 (+47°), and the triaxial ellipsoid diameters become 218x175x129 km with fitting uncertainties of 3x3x14 km. We have estimated the systematic uncertainty of our method to be 4.1, 2.7, and 3.8%, respectively, for the three diameters. These values were recently derived (Drummond et al., in prep) from a comparison of KOALA (Carry et al, Planetary and Space Science 66, 200-212) and our triaxial ellipsoid analysis of four asteroids. Quadratically adding this systematic error with the fitting error, the total uncertainty for Metis becomes 9x5x15 km. Concurrently, we find an EQJ2000 rotational pole at [RA; Dec]=[185° +19°] or in ecliptic coordinates, [λ ; β ]=[176° +20°] (ECJ2000).

  8. A new polymer-based laccase for decolorization of AO7: long-term storage and mediator reuse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Pan, Bingcai; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu

    2014-07-01

    To address the bottlenecks of laccase-based catalysis, i.e., poor long-term stability and potential secondary pollution caused by synthetic mediator, we fabricated a new biocatalyst (N-PS-Lac) through adsorption of laccase onto polystyrene anion exchangers (N-PS) binding quaternary ammonium groups. After 2-year storage, the residual activity of N-PS-Lac remained as high as 101.7%, while that for native laccase was only 14.6%. Also, N-PS-Lac exhibited improved durability against pH variation and thermal treatment at 60°C. Gaussian curve fitting of FT-IR spectra indicated that laccase conformation of N-PS-Lac was rigidified, possibly because of the host geometric restriction and the host-laccase electrostatic attraction. A two-step method, i.e., adsorption of an azo dye AO7 by N-PS and then ectopic degradation by the immobilized laccase, was proposed to reuse the mediator HOBT for seven cyclic runs, where N-PS-Lac kept the constant decolorization efficiency. AO7 solution was detoxified completely after decolorization by the two-step method. PMID:24862000

  9. English vowel production by native Mandarin speakers: Influences of AoA, LoR, education, perception, and orthography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Yu, Yan Helen

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates relations among several factors that are expected to influence vowel production in second language learning, including AoA, LoR, L2 and general education, L2 perception, and orthography. Vowel production will be examined through duration and formant frequency measurements and listener identification. The results will be analyzed in relation to educational background and language use. Among the educational factors examined are general education level, English education (in their native land and/or New York City), and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin (Pinyin or Zhuyin). The language-use factors include AoA, LoR, language spoken at work and at home, and perception of English vowels. The hypotheses addressed include: (1) educational background, language use, and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin all influence L2 English speakers perception and production of English vowels; (2) the more accurately an L2 listener discriminates a vowel contrast, the more distinctly he/she produces that contrast.

  10. Simultaneous removal of nutrients from milking parlor wastewater using an AO2 sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using a lab-scale, anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor ((AO)2 SBR) to simultaneously remove biological organics, nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy milking parlor wastewater was investigated in this study. Three hydraulic retention times (HRT = 2.1, 2.7, and 3.5 days) and three mixing-to-process time ratios (TM/TP = 0.43, 0.57, and 0.68) were evaluated as two controlling factors using a 3 × 3 experimental design to determine the optimal combination. Results showed that the HRT of 2.7 days with TM/TP = 0.57 was the best to achieve simultaneous nutrients removal for the influent with initial soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of about 2000 mg L(-1) (only 0.55 mg L(-1) NH4-N, < 0.1 mg L(-1) nitrate, and 0.14 mg L(-1) soluble phosphorus in the effluent). Good correlations between pH and ORP, and ORP and DO, were also obtained with correlation coefficients all higher than or equal to 0.975. These relationships could be used to develop real-time control strategies to optimize the duration of each operating phase in the (AO)2 SBR system to save energy and enhance treatment efficiency. PMID:25723066

  11. Evidence of a plasmid-encoded oxidative xylose-catabolic pathway in Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1.

    PubMed

    Mihasan, Marius; Stefan, Marius; Hritcu, Lucian; Artenie, Vlad; Brandsch, Roderich

    2013-01-01

    Due to its high abundance, the D-xylose fraction of lignocellulose provides a promising resource for production of various chemicals. Examples of efficient utilization of d-xylose are nevertheless rare, mainly due to the lack of enzymes with suitable properties for biotechnological applications. The genus Arthrobacter, which occupies an ecological niche rich in lignocellulosic materials and containing species with high resistance and tolerance to environmental factors, is a very suitable candidate for finding D-xylose-degrading enzymes with new properties. In this work, the presence of the pAO1 megaplasmid in cells of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans was directly linked to the ability of this microorganism to ferment D-xylose and to sustain longer log growth. Three pAO1 genes (orf32, orf39, orf40) putatively involved in degradation of xylose were identified and cloned, and the corresponding proteins purified and characterized. ORF40 was shown to be a homotetrameric NADP(+)/NAD(+) sugar dehydrogenase with a strong preference for d-xylose; ORF39 is a monomeric aldehyde dehydrogenase with wide substrate specificity and ORF32 is a constitutive expressed transcription factor putatively involved in control of the entire catabolic pathway. Based on analogies with other pentose degradation pathways, a putative xylose oxidative pathway similar to the Weimberg pathway is postulated. PMID:23063486

  12. Implications of 187Os isotopic heterogeneities in a mantle plume: evidence from Gorgona Island and Curaçao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Richard J.; Storey, Michael; Kerr, Andrew C.; Tarney, John; Arndt, Nicholas T.

    1999-03-01

    Recent work has suggested that the mafic-ultramafic volcanism in evidence throughout portions of the Caribbean, Central America, and northern South America, including the islands of Gorgona and Curaçao, was generated as part of a middle-Cretaceous, large igneous province. New Re-Os isochron results for tholeiitic basalts from Gorgona and Curaçao indicate crystallization ages of 89.2 ± 5.2 and 85.6 ± 8.1 Ma, respectively, consistent with reported Ar ages. The Gorgona ultramafic suite shows a large range in initial Os isotopic composition, with γ Os values ranging from -0.5 to +12.4. This large range reflects isotopic heterogeneities in the mantle source similar to those observed for modern ocean island basalts. In contrast to ocean island basalts, however, Os isotopic compositions do not correlate with variations in Nd, Sr, or Pb isotopic compositions, which are within the range of depleted mid-ocean ridge basalts. The processes that produced these rocks evidently resulted in the decoupling of Os isotopes from the Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic systems. Picrites from Curaçao have very uniform, chondritic initial Os isotopic compositions, with initial γ Os values ranging only from -0.4 to ±1.4. Basalts from Curaçao, however, define an isochron with a 187Os-enriched initial isotopic composition (γ Os = +9.5). In contrast to the 187Os-enriched ultramafic rocks from Gorgona, the enrichment in these basalts could have resulted from lithospheric contamination. If the Gorgona and Curaçao rocks were derived from the same plume, Os results, combined with Sr, Nd, and Pb data indicate a heterogeneous plume, with multiple compositionally and isotopically distinct domains. The Os isotopic results require derivation of Os from a minimum of two distinct reservoirs, one with a composition very similar to the chondritic average and one with long-term enriched Re/Os. Oceanic crustal recycling has been invoked to explain most of the 187Os enrichments that have been observed in

  13. A novel mammalian expression system derived from components coordinating nicotine degradation in arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1.

    PubMed

    Malphettes, Laetitia; Weber, Cornelia C; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Schoenmakers, Ronald G; Aubel, Dominique; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design and detailed characterization of 6-hydroxy-nicotine (6HNic)-adjustable transgene expression (NICE) systems engineered for lentiviral transduction and in vivo modulation of angiogenic responses. Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1 encodes a unique catabolic machinery on its plasmid pAO1, which enables this Gram-positive soil bacterium to use the tobacco alkaloid nicotine as the exclusive carbon source. The 6HNic-responsive repressor-operator (HdnoR-O(NIC)) interaction, controlling 6HNic oxidase production in A.nicotinovorans pAO1, was engineered for generic 6HNic-adjustable transgene expression in mammalian cells. HdnoR fused to different transactivation domains retained its O(NIC)-binding capacity in mammalian cells and reversibly adjusted transgene transcription from chimeric O(NIC)-containing promoters (P(NIC); O(NIC) fused to a minimal eukaryotic promoter [P(min)]) in a 6HNic-responsive manner. The combination of transactivators containing various transactivation domains with promoters differing in the number of operator modules as well as in their relative inter-O(NIC) and/or O(NIC)-P(min) spacing revealed steric constraints influencing overall NICE regulation performance in mammalian cells. Mice implanted with microencapsulated cells engineered for NICE-controlled expression of the human glycoprotein secreted placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) showed high SEAP serum levels in the absence of regulating 6HNic. 6HNic was unable to modulate SEAP expression, suggesting that this nicotine derivative exhibits control-incompatible pharmacokinetics in mice. However, chicken embryos transduced with HIV-1-derived self-inactivating lentiviral particles transgenic for NICE-adjustable expression of the human vascular endothelial growth factor 121 (VEGF121) showed graded 6HNic response following administration of different 6HNic concentrations. Owing to the clinically inert and highly water-soluble compound 6HNic, NICE-adjustable transgene control

  14. Not your "typical island woman": anorexia nervosa is reported only in subcultures in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Melanie A; Hermans, Karin M E; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W

    2004-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), once thought to be a problem of wealthier, Western countries has now been documented in survey studies and case reports across geographic and economic groups; however, few epidemiological studies including interview have been done on these populations. We report on a comprehensive study on Curaçao, a Caribbean island in economic transition, where the majority of the population is of predominantly black African origin. As part of an epidemiological study on the island of Curaçao indigenous cases of AN were identified. Participants were interviewed and asked to complete standardized measures of eating behaviors and cultural attitudes. In addition, matched controls completed the same measures and were seen in a focus group to assess their knowledge of eating disorders and perceived current and future challenges to young Curaçao women. Six of the nine indigenous cases of AN were successfully traced; all were of mixed race. No cases of anorexia were found among the majority black population. The women with AN were from the high-education and high-income sectors of the society and the majority had spent time overseas. The women with a history of anorexia reported higher levels of perfectionism and anxiety than the matched controls. All of the women reported challenges to maintaining an active professional and personal life and viewed themselves as different from the norm. Women who presented with AN evidenced vulnerability to a triple threat to identity formation: (1) they were of mixed race, aspiring to fit into the mobile elite (and mostly white) subgroup while distancing themselves from the black majority; (2) they had the means for education and travel that left them caught between modern and traditional constructs of femininity; and (3) they had lived overseas, and therefore struggled upon reentry with the frustrations of what was possible within the island culture. The race, class and overseas exposures of the women with anorexia were

  15. ROSAT guest investigator program (AO-1). On a search for coronal x ray emissions from white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have suggested that cool magnetic white dwarfs may be sources of X-ray coronal emission and proposed several prominent candidates for this emission. One of these candidates (EG 250) was approved for the C-category observation by the National and International Committee and was observed by ROSAT on April 17, 1991. Unfortunately, the granted exposure time (1071 s) was much shorter than that which was required by theoretical predictions to observe coronal X-ray emission from this object. The tape containing the data was send to us in November 1991. Since then we have analyzed the data visiting the ROSAT Science Center at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The analysis of the data taken during this short observation show, as expected, no X-rays. It is our hope that EG 250 will be observed again during the AO-2 phase of pointed observations, as 10,000 s of observing time was granted to V. Trimble for the C-category observation of this star. We have a close contact with Dr. Trimble regarding this matter. Because our all targets (GD 90, KUV 2316-123 and GD 356) proposed for the observation during the AO-2 phase of pointed observations have been approved by the National and International Committee, we have installed the required software at NASA/MSFC to be able to carry out the data analysis in Huntsville. Two of our targets have already been observed (KUV 2316-123 was observed on Dec. 3, 1991 with 10,000 s of the exposure time, and GD 356 was observed on Jan 4, 1992 with 5,000 s of the exposure time). We just received the data and will begin the analysis soon. The results of our analysis will be reported to the scientific community by publishing papers in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Our intention is to submit a paper when the analysis of the data taken during AO2 is completed. The data taken during the observation of EG 250 will be a part of this paper.

  16. Search of Binary Jupiter-Trojan Asteroids with Laser Guide Star AO systems: a moon around 624 Hektor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, Franck; Berthier, J.; Wong, M. H.; Descamps, P.; Hestroffer, D.; Colas, F.; de Pater, I.; Vachier, F.

    2006-09-01

    In 2006, we initiated a search for multiple asteroids in Jupiter Trojan L4 population with Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGS AO) technology on 8-10m class telescopes. To maximize the chance of detecting companion, we prioritized Trojan asteroids that could be member of collisional families in our search (see the PeTrA project and Beaugé and Roig (A&A, 2001)). Our first night was performed on July 17 2006 UT with the Keck LGS AO system. Twenty targets up to the 18th magnitude in R band were observed mostly in Kp broadband filter with an angular resolution 0.06 arcsec. Images of 624 Hektor, our brightest target (predicted V=14.4) revealed the presence of a moonlet companion (Marchis et al., IAU, 2006, provisional designation S/2006(624)1) located at 0.36” ( 1150 km) from the primary with a peak SNR 25. The resolved primary has a bilobated shape, but it is unclear if the primary is a contact or separated binary. It can be approximated as an ellipse with major and minor axes 2a = 350 km and 2b = 210 km (108 and 65 milli-arcseconds). The pole solution λ=329°, β=-25° in ecliptic B1950 (Magnusson 1989, and updated table) is in agreement with the observations. Based on the integrated brightness ratio between the moonlet and the primary of about 6.5, the diameter of S/2006(624)1 is estimated to be about 15 km. Additional observations will be recorded using the Keck and Gemini LGS AO system in Aug-Sept. 2006 aiming to estimate the orbit of the moonlet. The conditions of observations seem optimal since the system will be seen pole-on during this period. 624 Hektor is the first binary asteroid found in the L4 point and the first Trojan possessing a moonlet companion. The result of this campaign of observations, including Aug-Sept. observations, will be discussed.

  17. ROSAT guest investigator program (AO-1). On a search for coronal X ray emissions from white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1992-03-01

    We have suggested that cool magnetic white dwarfs may be sources of X-ray coronal emission and proposed several prominent candidates for this emission. One of these candidates (EG 250) was approved for the C-category observation by the National and International Committee and was observed by ROSAT on April 17, 1991. Unfortunately, the granted exposure time (1071 s) was much shorter than that which was required by theoretical predictions to observe coronal X-ray emission from this object. The tape containing the data was send to us in November 1991. Since then we have analyzed the data visiting the ROSAT Science Center at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The analysis of the data taken during this short observation show, as expected, no X-rays. It is our hope that EG 250 will be observed again during the AO-2 phase of pointed observations, as 10,000 s of observing time was granted to V. Trimble for the C-category observation of this star. We have a close contact with Dr. Trimble regarding this matter. Because our all targets (GD 90, KUV 2316-123 and GD 356) proposed for the observation during the AO-2 phase of pointed observations have been approved by the National and International Committee, we have installed the required software at NASA/MSFC to be able to carry out the data analysis in Huntsville. Two of our targets have already been observed (KUV 2316-123 was observed on Dec. 3, 1991 with 10,000 s of the exposure time, and GD 356 was observed on Jan 4, 1992 with 5,000 s of the exposure time). We just received the data and will begin the analysis soon. The results of our analysis will be reported to the scientific community by publishing papers in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Our intention is to submit a paper when the analysis of the data taken during AO2 is completed. The data taken during the observation of EG 250 will be a part of this paper.

  18. A SURVEY OF THE HIGH ORDER MULTIPLICITY OF NEARBY SOLAR-TYPE BINARY STARS WITH Robo-AO

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Reed L.; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.

    2015-01-20

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i' band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over 10'' to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their subsystems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods from 10{sup 3.5} to 10{sup 5} days is 0.12 ± 0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of subsystems in both components of the outer binary is correlated. The relatively large abundance of 2+2 quadruple systems is a new finding, and will require more exploration of the formation mechanism of multiple star systems. We also targeted close binaries with periods less than 100 yr, searching for their distant tertiary components, and discovered 17 certain and 2 potential new triples. In a subsample of 241 close binaries, 71 have additional outer companions. The overall frequency of tertiary components is not enhanced, compared to all (non-binary) targets, but in the range of outer periods from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7.5} days (separations on the order of 500 AU), the frequency of tertiary components is 0.16 ± 0.03, exceeding the frequency of similar systems among all targets (0.09) by almost a factor of two. Measurements of binary stars with Robo-AO allowed us to compute first orbits for 9 pairs and to improve orbits of another 11 pairs.

  19. Final performance and lesson-learned of SAXO, the VLT-SPHERE extreme AO: from early design to on-sky results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, T.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Petit, C.; Costille, A.; Dohlen, K.; Mouillet, D.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Kasper, M.; Suarez, M.; Soenke, C.; Fedrigo, E.; Downing, M.; Baudoz, P.; Sevin, A.; Perret, D.; Barrufolo, A.; Salasnich, B.; Puget, P.; Feautrier, F.; Rochat, S.; Moulin, T.; Deboulbé, A.; Hugot, E.; Vigan, A.; Mawet, D.; Girard, J.; Hubin, N.

    2014-08-01

    The extreme AO system, SAXO (SPHERE AO for eXoplanet Observation), is the heart of the SPHERE system, feeding the scientific instruments with flat wave front corrected from all the atmospheric turbulence and internal defects. We will present the final performance of SAXO obtained during the instrument AIT in Europe as well as the very first on-sky results. The main requirements and system characteristics will be recalled and the full AO loop performance will be quantified and compared to original specifications. It will be demonstrated that SAXO meets or even exceeds (especially its limit magnitude and its jitter residuals) its challenging requirements (more than 90% of SR in H band and a 3 mas residual jitter). Finally, after 10 years of AO developments, from early design to final on-sky implementations, some critical system aspects as well as some important lesson-learned will be presented in the perspective of the future generation of complex AO systems for VLTs and ELTs.

  20. Electrothermal Annealing (ETA) Method to Enhance the Electrical Performance of Amorphous-Oxide-Semiconductor (AOS) Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs).

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Kim, Eungtaek; Lee, Myung Keun; Park, Jun-Young; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Jun, Sungwoo; Park, Sang-Hee K; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-09-14

    An electro-thermal annealing (ETA) method, which uses an electrical pulse of less than 100 ns, was developed to improve the electrical performance of array-level amorphous-oxide-semiconductor (AOS) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The practicality of the ETA method was experimentally demonstrated with transparent amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) TFTs. The overall electrical performance metrics were boosted by the proposed method: up to 205% for the trans-conductance (gm), 158% for the linear current (Ilinear), and 206% for the subthreshold swing (SS). The performance enhancement were interpreted by X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), showing a reduction of oxygen vacancies in a-IGZO after the ETA. Furthermore, by virtue of the extremely short operation time (80 ns) of ETA, which neither provokes a delay of the mandatory TFTs operation such as addressing operation for the display refresh nor demands extra physical treatment, the semipermanent use of displays can be realized. PMID:27552134

  1. Open Reduction for AO/OTA 81-B3 (Hawkins 3) Talar Neck Fractures: The Natural Delivery Method.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R B; Auston, Darryl A

    2016-03-01

    Fractures of the talar neck with subtalar and tibiotalar joint dislocation (AO/OTA 81-B3) represent a treatment challenge for the orthopedic surgeon. The magnitude of deformity and complexity of the pathoanatomy adds to concerns for soft tissue embarrassment to convey an urgency of surgical intervention. Previous studies have described the several techniques for talar reduction, including medial malleolar osteotomy, posterior Schanz pin manipulation, or posteromedial incision to facilitate relocation at the time of definitive open treatment. We describe a simple technique for stepwise surgical intervention using adjuncts to reduction on the surgical field that facilitate an atraumatic relocation of the displaced body fragment through a standard lateral incision, simplifying fixation of the residual talar neck fracture. A reasonable metaphor for the technique is its similarity to reducing an obstetric shoulder dystocia in the delivery of a newborn infant. PMID:26709817

  2. AO-OCT for in vivo mouse retinal imaging: Application of adaptive lens in wavefornt sensorless aberration correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Pugh, Edward N.; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate Adaptive optics - Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) with modal sensorless Adaptive Optics correction with the use of novel Adaptive Lens (AL) applied for in-vivo imaging of mouse retinas. The AL can generate low order aberrations: defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberration that were used in an adaptive search algorithm. Accelerated processing of the OCT data with a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) permitted real time extraction of image projection total intensity for arbitrarily selected retinal depth plane to be optimized. Wavefront sensorless control is a viable option for imaging biological structures for which AOOCT cannot establish a reliable wavefront that could be corrected by wavefront corrector. Image quality improvements offered by adaptive lens with sensorless AO-OCT was evaluated on in vitro samples followed by mouse retina data acquired in vivo.

  3. Long-term dynamics of the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata on deep reefs in Curaçao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugues, M. M.; Bak, R. P. M.

    2008-06-01

    Lobophora variegata occurs in the eulittoral zone and in deep water on coral reefs in Curaçao. An analysis of the long-term (1979-2006) changes in the vertical distribution of the macroalga in permanent quadrats indicated a significant increase in cover of the deepwater community. In 1998, Lobophora covered 1 and 5% of the quadrats at 20 and 30 m, respectively. By 2006, these values had risen to 25 and 18%, precipitating a shift in abundance of corals and macroalgae at both depths. This increase coincided with losses in coral cover, possibly linked to bleaching, disease and storm-related mortality in deep water plating Agaricia corals. In contrast, macroalgae remained relatively rare (<6% cover) on shallower (10 m) and deeper (40 m) reefs despite declines in coral cover also occurring at these depths, illustrating the depth-dependent dynamics of coral reefs. Several hypotheses are suggested to explain these changes.

  4. [Study on bio-contact oxidation A/O process of Guanting Reservior water under low temperature].

    PubMed

    He, Xing-hai; Wu, Jiang-jin; Chang, Li-chun; Wei, Shu-jun; Ke, Jian-ming

    2004-01-01

    The results of the experiments showed that biological contact A/O process could run steadily under low temperature and had better removal effect for ammonia nitrogen and had some removal effect for COD and TN from water of Guanting Reservoir. When the temperature dropped greatly, removal ratio of ammonia nitrogen dropped evidently, but gradually rose and remained at high removal level at last. Under the conditions of the experiment that the temperature was 0-5 degrees C and influent ammonia nitrogen was about 10 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen removal rate remained more than 95% at last. The change of temperature had no evident influence on removal effect of COD. And the conclusion could be got by microscope that under the temperature at 0-5 degrees C the microorganism in the biofilm still had a good activity. PMID:15330431

  5. The First AO Classification System for Fractures of the Craniomaxillofacial Skeleton: Rationale, Methodological Background, Developmental Process, and Objectives.

    PubMed

    Audigé, Laurent; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Di Ieva, Antonio; Prein, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    Validated trauma classification systems are the sole means to provide the basis for reliable documentation and evaluation of patient care, which will open the gateway to evidence-based procedures and healthcare in the coming years. With the support of AO Investigation and Documentation, a classification group was established to develop and evaluate a comprehensive classification system for craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures. Blueprints for fracture classification in the major constituents of the human skull were drafted and then evaluated by a multispecialty group of experienced CMF surgeons and a radiologist in a structured process during iterative agreement sessions. At each session, surgeons independently classified the radiological imaging of up to 150 consecutive cases with CMF fractures. During subsequent review meetings, all discrepancies in the classification outcome were critically appraised for clarification and improvement until consensus was reached. The resulting CMF classification system is structured in a hierarchical fashion with three levels of increasing complexity. The most elementary level 1 simply distinguishes four fracture locations within the skull: mandible (code 91), midface (code 92), skull base (code 93), and cranial vault (code 94). Levels 2 and 3 focus on further defining the fracture locations and for fracture morphology, achieving an almost individual mapping of the fracture pattern. This introductory article describes the rationale for the comprehensive AO CMF classification system, discusses the methodological framework, and provides insight into the experiences and interactions during the evaluation process within the core groups. The details of this system in terms of anatomy and levels are presented in a series of focused tutorials illustrated with case examples in this special issue of the Journal. PMID:25489387

  6. The Comparison of Compression Hip Screw and Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty for the Treatment of AO Type A2 Intertrochanteric Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yee-Suk; Hur, Jae-Seung; Hwang, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Il-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of osteosynthesis using compression hip screw fixation versus bipolar hemiarthroplasty in AO type A2 intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods From March 2003 to December 2009, 89 patients were included in this study. They were treated using compression hip screws (43 cases) or bipolar hemiarthroplasty (46 cases). The mean age of patients was 77.7 years (65-94 years) and the mean follow-up period was 5.9 years (1-8.3 years). For comparison of the outcomes in the two groups, statistical analyses were performed with parameters including anesthesia time, operation time, amount of transfusion, hospital stay, general complications, clinical outcome, time of partial weight-bearing using a walker, and radiological failure rate. Results Differences in the amount of transfusion, general complications, and clinical outcome (Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score) were not statistically significant between the two groups. The bipolar hemiarthroplasty group showed better results than the compression hip screw group for anesthesia time and the time of partial weight-bearing using a walker. Radiological failures were observed in hips in one case (2.2%) of bipolar hemiarthroplasty, and in four cases (9.3%) of compression hip screw fixation. Conclusion Among elderly individuals with AO type A2 intertrochanteric fractures, patients treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty were able to perform early ambulation. However, no significant difference in operation time, amount of postoperative transfusion, clinical results, hospital stay, and radiological failure rate was observed between the bipolar hemiarthroplasty and compression hip screw fixation groups.

  7. Prolonged Mantle Melting Revealed in the Curaçao Lava Formation: Implications for the Origin of the Caribbean Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawl, K.; Duncan, R. A.; Kent, A. J.; Loewen, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Curaçao Lava Formation (CLF), a ~5 km thick section of submarine-erupted lava flows, hyaloclastites, dikes and sills, provides a ~30 Ma record of the magmatic processes involved in the formation of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). The CLF presents ol-tholeiitic and picritic compositions, exposed along the southern transform margin of the CLIP, that are typical of other in situ and tectonized pieces of this ocean plateau. The wide range of recently acquired 40Ar-39Ar ages (62 to 93 Ma) obtained for the Curaçao lavas contradicts previous proposals that the CLF formed over a relatively short period (1-2 million years), but is similar to extended volcanic histories recorded in Haiti (Dumisseau Fm) and at the Beata Ridge. Petrochemical modeling using MELTS indicates that the CLF rock compositions could have formed by fractional crystallization of high-MgO parental magmas with broadly similar major element contents, generated during multiple melting events over this prolonged period. The persistently flat rare earth element patterns in rocks spanning the full age range of the CLF can be reproduced by 10-30% partial melting of a predominantly depleted mantle source with a minor enriched component. The geochemical and age data and modeling results are consistent with a mantle dynamic model for the CLIP in which lateral displacement of mantle plume head material beneath the Caribbean plateau results from subduction-driven mantle flow, which allows for the generation of magmas from a continuously replenished mantle source over approximately 30 million years. While no subduction influence is seen in CLF compositions, the island does record intrusive, arc-related rocks.

  8. The First AO Classification System for Fractures of the Craniomaxillofacial Skeleton: Rationale, Methodological Background, Developmental Process, and Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Audigé, Laurent; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Ieva, Antonio Di; Prein, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Validated trauma classification systems are the sole means to provide the basis for reliable documentation and evaluation of patient care, which will open the gateway to evidence-based procedures and healthcare in the coming years. With the support of AO Investigation and Documentation, a classification group was established to develop and evaluate a comprehensive classification system for craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures. Blueprints for fracture classification in the major constituents of the human skull were drafted and then evaluated by a multispecialty group of experienced CMF surgeons and a radiologist in a structured process during iterative agreement sessions. At each session, surgeons independently classified the radiological imaging of up to 150 consecutive cases with CMF fractures. During subsequent review meetings, all discrepancies in the classification outcome were critically appraised for clarification and improvement until consensus was reached. The resulting CMF classification system is structured in a hierarchical fashion with three levels of increasing complexity. The most elementary level 1 simply distinguishes four fracture locations within the skull: mandible (code 91), midface (code 92), skull base (code 93), and cranial vault (code 94). Levels 2 and 3 focus on further defining the fracture locations and for fracture morphology, achieving an almost individual mapping of the fracture pattern. This introductory article describes the rationale for the comprehensive AO CMF classification system, discusses the methodological framework, and provides insight into the experiences and interactions during the evaluation process within the core groups. The details of this system in terms of anatomy and levels are presented in a series of focused tutorials illustrated with case examples in this special issue of the Journal. PMID:25489387

  9. Characterization of OCam and CCD220: the fastest and most sensitive camera to date for AO wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Downing, Mark; Hubin, Norbert; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves; Skegg, Michael; Robbins, Mark; Denney, Sandy; Suske, Wolfgang; Jorden, Paul; Wheeler, Patrick; Pool, Peter; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Davies, Ian; Reyes, Javier; Meyer, Manfred; Baade, Dietrich; Kasper, Markus; Arsenault, Robin; Fusco, Thierry; Diaz-Garcia, José Javier

    2010-07-01

    For the first time, sub-electron read noise has been achieved with a camera suitable for astronomical wavefront-sensing (WFS) applications. The OCam system has demonstrated this performance at 1300 Hz frame rate and with 240×240-pixel frame rate. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON2 have jointly funded e2v technologies to develop a custom CCD for Adaptive Optics (AO) wavefront sensing applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240×240 pixel frame-transfer 8-output back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This paper demonstrates sub-electron read noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1300 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e-/pixel/frame. It reports on the comprehensive, quantitative performance characterization of OCam and the CCD220 such as readout noise, dark current, multiplication gain, quantum efficiency, charge transfer efficiency... OCam includes a low noise preamplifier stage, a digital board to generate the clocks and a microcontroller. The data acquisition system includes a user friendly timer file editor to generate any type of clocking scheme. A second version of OCam, called OCam2, was designed offering enhanced performances, a completely sealed camera package and an additional Peltier stage to facilitate operation on a telescope or environmentally rugged applications. OCam2 offers two types of built-in data link to the Real Time Computer: the CameraLink industry standard interface and various fiber link options like the sFPDP interface. OCam2 includes also a modified mechanical design to ease the integration of microlens arrays for use of this camera in all types of wavefront sensing AO system. The front cover of OCam2 can be customized to include a microlens exchange mechanism.

  10. Dealing with the forecast of the optical turbulence as a tool to support astronomy assisted by AO facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masciadri, Elena; Lascaux, Franck; Fini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    In the context of the research activities related to the forecast of the optical turbulence and the atmospherical parameters being relevant for ground-based astronomy we focus here our attention on two specific topics: 1. pros and cons of different solutions to supply wind speed and direction stratification on the whole atmosphere all along a night to support AO facilities; 2. the necessity of instrumentation for optical turbulence monitoring (vertical profiles on the whole atmosphere) to be used operationally. In the last two decades the development and the use of different vertical profilers covering the whole atmosphere or part of it in application to the astronomy took place. Several instruments based on different principles (with associated pros and cons) have been applied in different contexts in astronomy with a main use in the site characterization and site selection. Time changed and the necessity of the astronomy supported by AO facilities is much more demanding with a diversification of applications. Recently, motivated by a precise necessity related to the identification of an absolute reference to carry out studies on optical turbulence forecasts (MOSE project), we carried out a verification of the reliability of a few instruments that lead us to put in evidence some limitations for a few of them. At the same time such a detailed analysis permitted us to clarify the nature of some astroclimatic parameters. The main conclusion at which we arrived is two-fold. From one side we could trace a list of warnings related to different uses of such instruments. On the other side we could identify open problems that indicate that there is still space for research in the field of turbulence monitoring in application to the astronomy. Some suggestions are proposed.

  11. [Carbon/nitrogen Removal and Bacterial Community Structure Change in an A/O Activated Sludge System Under Different Dissolved Oxygen Conditions].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Guo-hua; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Jun-yan; Qi, Lu; Wang, Hong-chen

    2015-07-01

    Carbon and nitrogen removal performance and microbial community structure under different dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions (3, 2, 1 and 0. 5 mg . L -1) in an anoxic/oxic (A/O) system were investigated. The results showed that the A/O activated sludge system still had an excellent performance in removing carbon and nutrient under low DO condition (0. 5 mg . L-1). The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH4+ -N) and total nitrogen (TN) were 89. 7%, 98. 3% and 88. 0% respectively. The PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the bacterial community structure changed greatly under different DO conditions. However, there was still a high bacterial diversity even at low DO level, which ensured the functional stability of the A/O system. On the basis of the results of the phylogenetic tree, bacterial communities were observed to be very abundant, and Proteobacteria was identified as the dominant bacteria. PMID:26489332

  12. Effect of ring size on properties of technetium amine oxime complexes. X-ray structure of TcO/sub 2/Pent(AO)/sub 2/, which contains an unusual eight-membered chelate ring, and TcOEn(AO)/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Jurisson, S.; Aston, K.; Fair, C.K.; Schlemper, E.O.; Sharp, P.R.; Troutner, D.E.

    1987-10-21

    A series of neutral technetium(V) complexes have been synthesized (TcO(AO)/sub 2/, TcOEn(AO)/sub 2/, TcO/sub 2/Bn(AO)/sub 2/, and TcO/sub 2/Pent(AO)/sub 2/) in which the length of the hydrocarbon backbone of the amine oxime ligand is varied to effect chemical changes in the resultant complexes. Pn(AO)/sub 2/, 3,3,9,9-tetramethyl-4,8-diazaundecane-2,10-dione dioxime, is the prototype for these ligands. In this series of technetium(V) complexes in which the overall ring size is varied, both monooxo and trans-dioxo cores are observed, and an unusual eight-member chelate ring with the technetium(V) center is found with TcO/sub 2/Pent(AO)/sub 2/. TcO/sub 2/Pent(AO)/sub 2/ x CHCl/sub 3/, TcCl/sub 6/O/sub 4/C/sub 17/H/sub 33/, crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P anti 1, with a = 1.418 (2) A, b = 13.940 (7) A, c = 18.992 (10) A, ..cap alpha.. = 69.29 (4)/sup 0/, ..beta.. = 90.00 (3)/sup 0/, ..gamma.. = 83.69 (3)/sup 0/, and Z = 4. TcOEn(AO)/sub 2/, TcO/sub 3/N/sub 4/C/sub 12/H/sub 23/, crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbca, with a = 11.581 (2) A, b = 12.596 (4) A, c = 21.155 (3) A, and Z = 8.

  13. Promoter isolation and characterization of GhAO-like1, a Gossypium hirsutum gene similar to multicopper oxidases that is highly expressed in reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Lambret-Frotté, Julia; Artico, Sinara; Muniz Nardeli, Sarah; Fonseca, Fernando; Brilhante Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fatima; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most economically important cultivated crops. It is the major source of natural fiber for the textile industry and an important target for genetic modification for both biotic stress and herbicide tolerance. Therefore, the characterization of genes and regulatory regions that might be useful for genetic transformation is indispensable. The isolation and characterization of new regulatory regions is of great importance to drive transgene expression in genetically modified crops. One of the major drawbacks in cotton production is pest damage; therefore, the most promising, cost-effective, and sustainable method for pest control is the development of genetically resistant cotton lines. Considering this scenario, our group isolated and characterized the promoter region of a MCO (multicopper oxidase) from Gossypium hirsutum, named GhAO-like1 (ascorbate oxidase-like1). The quantitative expression, together with the in vivo characterization of the promoter region reveals that GhAO-like1 has a flower- and fruit-specific expression pattern. The GUS activity is mainly observed in stamens, as expected considering that the GhAO-like1 regulatory sequence is enriched in cis elements, which have been characterized as a target of reproductive tissue specific transcription factors. Both histological and quantitative analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana have confirmed flower (mainly in stamens) and fruit expression of GhAO-like1. In the present paper, we isolated and characterized both in silico and in vivo the promoter region of the GhAO-like1 gene. The regulatory region of GhAO-like1 might be useful to confer tissue-specific expression in genetically modified plants. PMID:26692462

  14. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 EL-1994-00089 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays left flange and lower flange appear to be discolored by a dark brown stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays upper flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal cover appears to be specular and

  15. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05 EL-1994-00088 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp block of the experiment trays lower flange appears to be discolored by a dark brown stain. The tray flanges also appear to be discolored but with a lighter stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays upper flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF

  16. Monitoring Io volcanic activity using the Keck AO system: 2-5μm sunlit and eclipse observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; de Pater, I.; Le Mignant, D.; Roe, H. G.; Fusco, T.; Graham, J. R.; Prange, R.; Macintosh, B.

    2002-12-01

    Galileo provided us with spectacular images of the volcanically active Io moon over the last 7 years, but we understand little about the physical processes occurring on this moon. Groundbased monitoring programs help characterize the long time evolution of Io's volcanic activity, such as the frequency, spatial distribution and temperature of hot spots and outbursts. Our group started a monitoring program of Io's volcanic activity using the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system and its recently installed near-infrared camera NIRC2. Here we report groundbased observations of Io conducted in December 2001 (UT), at 0.05" resolution (120-140 km on Io) in K', i.e., ~4 times better than HST and than global Galileo NIMS images. Our 1-5 micron data enable us to determine the temperature of individual hot spots, a key parameter for geophysical/volcanic flow models. We will present: i) Io in reflected sunlight in K', L', and M bands. We used Io itself as reference source for the wavefront sensor of the AO system. Our L and M-band images show both reflected sunlight and thermal emission from volcanic hot spots. The contrast of images is enhanced using the MISTRAL deconvolution algorithme. The 12 images taken on 10 days provides a complete survey of Io surface during one full rotation. 26 active hot spots were detected on the entire surface in L band (3.8μm), approximatively three times more in M band (4.7μm). One active hot spot is seen in K band (2.2μm) in the Pele area. A study of individual hot spot (temperature, emission area, nature) will be presented. ii) Io in eclipse. While Io is in Jupiter's shadow, it is invisible to the wavefront sensor, but its hot spots are easily visible in the near-infrared. We imaged Io during the 18 Dec. 2001 eclipse using Ganymede (30" from Io, moving relative to Io at ~0.5"/min) as a reference source. A dozen of faint hot spots are detected at both K' and L', allowing temperature estimates for each of them. Keck Science team is composed of

  17. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 EL-1994-00391 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The paint dots on the experiment tray clamp blocks, originally white, appearsDE:to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be coated but with a lighter colored stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at leastDE:one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The

  18. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05 EL-1994-00311 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a brown stain. Outlines of experiment tray clamp blocks are clearly visible on the upper and lower tray flanges. The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the

  19. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08 EL-1994-00661 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp block of the experiment trays upper flange and the right end of the experiment trays lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The tray flanges appear to be discolored by a light brown stain and the ground strap located in the center of the lower flange appears intact but a much darker copper color than in the prelaunch photograph. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored

  20. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02 EL-1994-00385 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The white paint dot on the experiment tray clamp blocks located at the center of the trays lower and left flanges and at the right end of the trays upper flange appear to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be coated but with a lighter colored stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an

  1. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 EL-1994-00272 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF and the silvered TEFLON® thermal cover removed. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. A copper coated pressure sensitive tape was used to provide an electrical ground strap between the thermal cover and the LDEF structure. All experiment hardware appears to be in prelaunch condition and securely in place. The three cylindrical pressure vessels containing the experiment detectors are shown mounted in the experiment tray with the frame for mounting the

  2. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05 EL-1994-00184 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The paint dots on the experiment tray clamp blocks, originally white, appears to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be coated but with a lighter colored stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE

  3. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray F04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray F04 EL-1994-00171 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray F04 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal cover appears to be specular and intact. The circular damaged locations that appeared to to be impact points in the flight photograph are not as apparent in the reflections and is less taut cover. The wrinkled spots on the thermal cover are areas

  4. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C06 EL-1994-00206 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C06 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a light brown stain. Outlines of experiment tray clamp blocks are clearly visible on the lower tray flanges.The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays upper flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments

  5. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A02 EL-1994-00387 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A02 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The white paint dot on the experiment tray clamp blocks located at the center of the trays upper and right flanges and at the left end of the trays lower flange appear to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be coated but with a lighter colored stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar with a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an

  6. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02 EL-1994-00131 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays left flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal cover appears to be intact with out visible

  7. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C05 EL-1994-00205 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C05 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a brown stain that provides outlines of the experiment tray clamp blocks that are clearly visible on the upper and lower tray flanges.The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground

  8. SRT Evaluation of AIRS Version-6.02 and Version-6.02 AIRS Only (6.02 AO) Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula; Blaisdell, John

    2012-01-01

    Version-6 contains a number of significant improvements over Version-5. This report compares Version-6 products resulting from the advances listed below to those from Version-5. 1. Improved methodology to determine skin temperature (T(sub s)) and spectral emissivity (Epsilon(sub v)). 2. Use of Neural-net start-up state. 3. Improvements which decrease the spurious negative Version-5 trend in tropospheric temperatures. 4. Improved QC methodology. Version-6 uses separate QC thresholds optimized for Data Assimilation (QC=0) and Climate applications (QC=0,1) respectively. 5. Channel-by-channel clear-column radiances R-hat(sub tau) QC flags. 6. Improved cloud parameter retrieval algorithm. 7. Improved OLR RTA. Our evaluation compared V6.02 and V6.02 AIRS Only (V6.02 AO) Quality Controlled products with those of Version-5.0. In particular we evaluated surface skin temperature T(sub s), surface spectral emissivity Epsilon(sub v), temperature profile T(p), water vapor profile q(p), OLR, OLR(sub CLR), effective cloud fraction alpha-Epsilon, and cloud cleared radiances R-hat(sub tau) . We conducted two types of evaluations. The first compared results on 7 focus days to collocated ECMWF truth. The seven focus days are: September 6, 2002; January 25, 2003; September 29, 2004; August 5, 2005; February 24, 2007; August 10, 2007; and May 30, 2010. In these evaluations, we show results for T(sub s), Epsilon(sub v), T(p), and q(p) in terms of yields, and RMS differences and biases with regard to ECMWF. We also show yield trends as well as bias trends of these quantities relative to ECMWF truth. We also show yields and accuracy of channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau) for V6.02 and V6.02 AO. Version-5 did not contain channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau). In the second type of evaluation, we compared V6.03 monthly mean Level-3 products to those of Version-5.0, for four different months: January, April, July, and October; in 3 different years 2003, 2007, and 2011

  9. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10 EL-1994-00122 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at KSC during removal of the LDEF from the Orbiters cargo bay. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays upper flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal covers surface appears to have changed from specular to opaque (glossy white) with many black dots of various sizes that appear to be impact craters. An impact

  10. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10 EL-1994-00019 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays left flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal covers surface appears to have changed from

  11. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10 EL-1994-00162 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility during removal of the LDEF from the Orbiter's payload bay. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal covers surface appears to have changed from specular to opaque with numerous black dots of various sizes that appear to be impact craters. Many of the craters appear to have

  12. A proposed adhesin AoMad1 helps nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora recognizing host signals for life-style switching.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lianming; Shen, Renfei; Mo, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jinkui; Ji, Xinglai; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-08-01

    The nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora is an important natural enemy of nematodes. It can capture nematodes by producing a special mycelial structure called adhesive network or trap. The trap is also a signature of the fungus switching from the saprophytic lifestyle to the predacious lifestyle. At present, little is known about the mechanism of lifestyle switch in nematode-trapping fungi. Here we describe the effect of a cell wall protein called AoMad1 on lifestyle switch. The disruption of the AoMad1-encoding gene in A. oligospora resulted in the formation of more traps in the presence of nematodes. Interestingly, the mutant strain was more sensitive to certain nitrogen sources as trap inducers than the wild type strain. The microscopic examinations revealed that the AoMad1-deletion mutant lacked cell surface adhesive materials and the cell wall structures were more porous than wild-type strains. A great of genes were differentially expressed by transcriptomic analysis when trap formation was induced by sodium nitrate compared to the wild type strain, many of them were related to nitrogen metabolism, host-pathogen interaction and mycelia development. The results suggest that AoMad1 plays an important role in life style switching in A. oligospora. PMID:25724687

  13. Cooperativity among defect sites in AO2+x and A4O9 (A=U,Np,Pu) : Density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, D. A.; Lezama, J.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Deo, C.; Conradson, S. D.

    2009-01-01

    Actinide dioxides derived from the AO2 fluorite lattice are of high technological relevance due to their application in nuclear reactor fuels. In this paper we use density functional theory calculations to study the oxidation of uranium, neptunium and plutonium dioxides, AO2 ( A=U , Np, or Pu), in O2 and O2/H2O environments. We pay particular attention to the formation of oxygen clusters (cooperativity) in AO2+x and how this phenomenon governs oxidation thermodynamics and the development of ordered A4O9 compounds. The so-called split di-interstitial, composed of two nearest-neighbor octahedral oxygen interstitials that dislocate one regular fluorite lattice oxygen ion to form a cluster of triangular geometry, is predicted to be the fundamental building block of the most stable cluster configurations. We also identify how the formation of oxygen defect clusters and the degree of oxidation in AO2+x are both governed by the ability of the O2p orbitals of the interstitial-like (+x) ions to hybridize with regular fluorite lattice ions.

  14. Sea-level history of past interglacial periods from uranium-series dating of corals, Curaçao, Leeward Antilles islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Pandolfi, John M.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Schumann, R. Randall

    2012-09-01

    Curaçao has reef terraces with the potential to provide sea-level histories of interglacial periods. Ages of the Hato (upper) unit of the "Lower Terrace" indicate that this reef dates to the last interglacial period, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.5. On Curaçao, this high sea stand lasted at least 8000 yr (~ 126 to ~ 118 ka). Elevations and age of this reef show that late Quaternary uplift rates on Curaçao are low, 0.026-0.054 m/ka, consistent with its tectonic setting. Ages of ~ 200 ka for corals from the older Cortalein unit of the Lower Terrace correlate this reef to MIS 7, with paleo-sea level estimates ranging from - 3.3 m to + 2.3 m. The estimates are in agreement with those for MIS 7 made from other localities and indicate that the penultimate interglacial period was a time of significant warmth, on a par with the present interglacial period. The ~ 400 ka (MIS 11) Middle Terrace I on Curaçao, dated by others, may have formed from a paleo-sea level of + 8.3 to + 10.0 m, or (less likely) + 17 m to + 20 m. The lower estimates are conservative compared to previous studies, but still require major ice sheet loss from Greenland and Antarctica.

  15. Sea-level history of past interglacial periods: New evidence from uranium-series dating of corals from Curaçao, Leeward Antilles islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Pandolfi, John M.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Schumann, R. Randall

    2012-01-01

    Curaçao has reef terraces with the potential to provide sea-levelhistories of interglacialperiods. Ages of the Hato (upper) unit of the "Lower Terrace" indicate that this reef dates to the last interglacialperiod, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.5. On Curaçao, this high sea stand lasted at least 8000 yr (~ 126 to ~ 118 ka). Elevations and age of this reef show that late Quaternary uplift rates on Curaçao are low, 0.026–0.054 m/ka, consistent with its tectonic setting. Ages of ~ 200 ka for corals from the older Cortalein unit of the Lower Terrace correlate this reef to MIS 7, with paleo-sea level estimates ranging from - 3.3 m to + 2.3 m. The estimates are in agreement with those for MIS 7 made from other localities and indicate that the penultimate interglacialperiod was a time of significant warmth, on a par with the present interglacialperiod. The ~ 400 ka (MIS 11) Middle Terrace I on Curaçao, dated by others, may have formed from a paleo-sea level of + 8.3 to + 10.0 m, or (less likely) + 17 m to + 20 m. The lower estimates are conservative compared to previous studies, but still require major ice sheet loss from Greenland and Antarctica.

  16. Since When or How Often? Dissociating the Roles of Age of Acquisition (AoA) and Lexical Frequency in Early Visual Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorni, Roberta; Manfredi, Mirella; Proverbio, Alice Mado

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of both word age of acquisition (AoA) and frequency of occurrence on the timing and topographical distribution of ERP components. The processing of early- versus late-acquired words was compared with that of high-frequency versus low-frequency words. Participants were asked to perform an…

  17. Liquid freshwater transport and Polar Surface Water characteristics in the East Greenland Current during the AO-02 Oden expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Johan; Björk, Göran; Rudels, Bert; Winsor, Peter; Torres, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Dynamical features of the East Greenland Current (EGC) are synthesized from a survey conducted by the Swedish icebreaker Oden during the International Arctic Ocean - 02 expedition (AO-02) in May 2002 with emphasis on the liquid freshwater transport and Polar Surface Water. The data include hydrography and lowered acoustic doppler current profiler (LADCP) velocities in eight transects along the EGC, from the Fram Strait in the north to the Denmark Strait in the south. The survey reveals a strong confinement of the low-salinity polar water in the EGC to the continental slope/shelf-a feature of relevance for the stability of the thermohaline circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean. The southward transport of liquid freshwater in the EGC was found to vary considerably between the sections, ranging between 0.01 and 0.1 Sverdrup. Computations based on geostrophic as well as LADCP velocities give a section-averaged southward freshwater transport of 0.06 Sverdrup in the EGC during May 2002. Furthermore, Oden data suggest that the liquid freshwater transport was as large north of the Fram Strait as it was south of the Denmark Strait.

  18. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF BLAZAR AO 0235+164 IN THE 2008-2009 FLARING STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J. M.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Caraveo, P. A. E-mail: madejski@slac.stanford.edu E-mail: silvia.raino@ba.infn.it E-mail: knalew@colorado.edu; Collaboration: Fermi-LAT Collaboration; GASP-WEBT consortium; F-GAMMA; Iram-PdBI; Kanata; RXTE; SMARTS; Swift-XRT; and others

    2012-06-01

    The blazar AO 0235+164 (z = 0.94) has been one of the most active objects observed by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) since its launch in Summer 2008. In addition to the continuous coverage by Fermi, contemporaneous observations were carried out from the radio to {gamma}-ray bands between 2008 September and 2009 February. In this paper, we summarize the rich multi-wavelength data collected during the campaign (including F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, Kanata, OVRO, RXTE, SMARTS, Swift, and other instruments), examine the cross-correlation between the light curves measured in the different energy bands, and interpret the resulting spectral energy distributions in the context of well-known blazar emission models. We find that the {gamma}-ray activity is well correlated with a series of near-IR/optical flares, accompanied by an increase in the optical polarization degree. On the other hand, the X-ray light curve shows a distinct 20 day high state of unusually soft spectrum, which does not match the extrapolation of the optical/UV synchrotron spectrum. We tentatively interpret this feature as the bulk Compton emission by cold electrons contained in the jet, which requires an accretion disk corona with an effective covering factor of 19% at a distance of 100 R{sub g}. We model the broadband spectra with a leptonic model with external radiation dominated by the infrared emission from the dusty torus.

  19. Multi-wavelength Observations of Blazar AO 0235+164 in the 2008-2009 Flaring State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Rastawicki, D.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Richards, J. L.; Sbarra, C.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Szostek, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Moderski, R.; Nalewajko, K.; Sikora, M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Benítez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Blinov, D. A.; Boettcher, M.; Bravo Calle, O. J. A.; Buemi, C. S.; Carosati, D.; Chen, W. P.; Diltz, C.; Di Paola, A.; Dolci, M.; Efimova, N. V.; Forné, E.; Gurwell, M. A.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Jordan, B.; Kimeridze, G.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Lin, H. C.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nilsson, K.; Oksman, M.; Roustazadeh, P.; Sievers, A.; Sigua, L. A.; Sillanpää, A.; Takahashi, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Troitsky, I. S.; Umana, G.; GASP-WEBT Consortium; Angelakis, E.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Nestoras, I.; Riquelme, D.; F-GAMMA; Krips, M.; Trippe, S.; Iram-PdBI; Arai, A.; Kawabata, K. S.; Sakimoto, K.; Sasada, M.; Sato, S.; Uemura, M.; Yamanaka, M.; Yoshida, M.; Kanata; Belloni, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; RXTE; Bonning, E. W.; Isler, J.; Urry, C. M.; SMARTS; Hoversten, E.; Falcone, A.; Pagani, C.; Stroh, M.; (Swift-XRT

    2012-06-01

    The blazar AO 0235+164 (z = 0.94) has been one of the most active objects observed by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) since its launch in Summer 2008. In addition to the continuous coverage by Fermi, contemporaneous observations were carried out from the radio to γ-ray bands between 2008 September and 2009 February. In this paper, we summarize the rich multi-wavelength data collected during the campaign (including F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, Kanata, OVRO, RXTE, SMARTS, Swift, and other instruments), examine the cross-correlation between the light curves measured in the different energy bands, and interpret the resulting spectral energy distributions in the context of well-known blazar emission models. We find that the γ-ray activity is well correlated with a series of near-IR/optical flares, accompanied by an increase in the optical polarization degree. On the other hand, the X-ray light curve shows a distinct 20 day high state of unusually soft spectrum, which does not match the extrapolation of the optical/UV synchrotron spectrum. We tentatively interpret this feature as the bulk Compton emission by cold electrons contained in the jet, which requires an accretion disk corona with an effective covering factor of 19% at a distance of 100 R g. We model the broadband spectra with a leptonic model with external radiation dominated by the infrared emission from the dusty torus.

  20. Extreme Exoplanet Direct Imaging: New Results with GPI and SCExAO and the Path to Imaging Another Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne

    2015-12-01

    We describe the discovery of a bright, young Kuiper belt-like debris disk around HD 115600, a ˜ 1.4--1.5 M_{⊙}, ˜ 15 Myr old member of the Sco-Cen OB Association. Our H-band coronagraphy/integral field spectroscopy from the Gemini Planet Imager shows the ring has a (luminosity scaled) semi major axis of (˜ 22 AU) ˜ 48 AU, similar to the current Kuiper belt. The disk appears to have neutral scattering dust, is eccentric (e ˜ 0.1--0.2), and could be sculpted by analogues to the outer solar system planets. Spectroscopy of the disk ansae reveal a slightly blue to gray disk color, consistent with major Kuiper belt chemical constituents, where water-ice is a very plausible dominant constituent. Besides being the first object discovered with the next generation of extreme adaptive optics systems (i.e. SCExAO, GPI, SPHERE), HD 115600's debris ring and planetary system provides a key reference point for the early evolution of the solar system, the structure and composition of the Kuiper belt, and the interaction between debris disks and planets.

  1. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties, Tray A01 The Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties experiment is located in two (2) three (3) inch deep peripheral trays, A01 and A07. The experiment hardware configuration in the A01 tray consists of a graph- ite-epoxy honeycomb sandwich panel in the lower one half (1/2) of the tray, a graphite-epoxy panel in the upper right one third (1/3rd) section and two (2) graphite-polyimide panels, one in the upper center and one in the upper left sections of the experiment tray. The panels are supported by a substructure and held in place with aluminum strips and non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The mounting system, designed to allow for differential thermal expansion, minimizes the risk of inducing high stresses into the test panels.

  2. Rise of The Machines: First Year Operations of The Robo-AO Visible-Light Laser-Adaptive-Optics Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, C.; Riddle, R.; Law, N.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, S.; Hogstrom, K.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.

    2013-09-01

    Robo-AO is the first autonomous laser adaptive optics system and science instrument operating on sky. With minimal human oversight, the system robotically executes large scale surveys, monitors long-term astrophysical dynamics and characterizes newly discovered transients, all at the visible diffraction limit. The average target-to-target operational overhead, including slew time, is a mere 86 s, enabling up to ~200 observations per night. The first of many envisioned systems went live in June 2012, and has since finished 51 nights of science observing at the Palomar Observatory 60-inch (1.5 m) telescope, with over 5,600 robotic observations executed as of March 2013. The system will be augmented in late 2013 with a low-noise wide field infrared camera, which will double as a tip-tilt sensor, to widen the spectral bandwidth of observations, increase available sky coverage as well as enable deeper visible imaging using adaptive-optics sharpened infrared tip-tilt guide sources.

  3. Intracavity KTP optical parametric oscillator driven by a KLM Nd:GGG laser with a single AO modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Li, Tao; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Qiao, Wenchao

    2015-05-01

    An intracavity KTiOPO4 (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a Kerr lens mode-locking (KLM) Nd:GGG laser near 1062 nm with a single AO modulator was realized for the first time. The mode-locking pulses of the signal wave were obtained with a short duration of subnanosecond and a repetition rate of several kilohertz (kHz). Under a diode pump power of 8.25 W, a maximum output power of 104 mW at signal wavelength near 1569 nm was obtained at a repetition rate of 2 kHz. The highest pulse energy and peak power were estimated to be 80 μJ and 102 kW at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, respectively. The shortest pulse duration was measured to be 749 ps. By considering the Gaussian spatial distribution of the photon density and the Kerr-lens effect in the gain medium, a set of the coupled rate equations for QML intracavity optical parametric oscillator are given and the numerical simulations are basically fitted with the experimental results.

  4. A Diffraction-limited Survey for Direct Detection of Halpha Emitting/Accreting ExtraSolar Planets with the 6.5m Magellan Telescope and the MagAO Visible AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird

    TECHNICAL BACKGROUND: An advanced adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) with 585 actuators was commissioned at the 6.5-m Magellan Telescope at one of the world’s best sites (Las Campanas Observatory; LCO) in Chile. By the end of the commissioning run (April 2013) the MagAO system was regularly producing the highest spatial resolution deep images to date (0.023” deep images at Halpha (0.656 microns); Close et al. 2013). This is due to its 378 corrective modes at 1kHz on a 6.5-m telescope. Strehl ratis>20% at Halpha were obtained in 75% of the seeing statistics at the site. We propose here to utilize MagAO’s absolutely unique ability to take Halpha, continuum (0.643 microns), and L’ (3.8 microns) thermal images (all simultaneously) to carry out a novel survey to: Discover a population of the lowest mass young accreting extrasolar planets imaged to date. to characterize the spatial distribution, and estimate accretion rates, of young extrasolar planets >5AU, to understand the influence of planets on transitional disk gaps. THEORY BACKGROUND: Extrasolar planets are very difficult to image directly since planets become very faint below ~8 Mjup (Jupiter masses) for ages >1 Myr and such massive planets are rare. There is a class of young stars that are still accreting yet have SED (and often imaging) evidence of a lack of dust and gas inside a r=5-140 AU “gap”. These “transitional disks” are believed to be transitioning into “disk free” stars. These gaps are believed to be maintained by planets that continuously clear (though scattering or accretion) the optically thin gaps. Indeed large >10 AU gaps (>few Hill spheres) must be maintained by multiple ~1 Mjup planets (Dodson-Robinson & Salyk 2011). Since gas must pass through each of these gaps to continuously supply the accreting star, simulations suggest that these “gap planets” are also crossing points for these gas streamers on their way to the star. These streamers “force-feed” these planets a

  5. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10 EL-1994-00018 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the clamp blocks located at the center of the experiment trays upper and right flanges appear to be in prelaunch condition while the one located at the left end of the trays lower flange appears slightly discolored. Note the dark brown stain on the LDEF structure adjacent to the edge of the black thermal cover. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays right flange is

  6. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07 EL-1994-00087 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays left flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored but the paint dot on the clamp block located at the right end of the upper flange appears to be stained less. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the

  7. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01 EL-1994-00134 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dot , originally white, on the experiment tray clamp block located at the center of the trays lower flange appears to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment trays lower flange also appears to be coated but with a much lighter stain. The paint dots on clamp blocks at each end of the trays upper flange appear to be discolored very little. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the

  8. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07 EL-1994-00062 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dot on the center clamp block of the experiment trays upper flange appears to be in prelaunch condition but the paint dot on the clamp block located at the right end of the lower flange appears to be slightly discolored. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments

  9. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05 EL-1994-00038 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp block of the experiment trays upper flange and on the tray clamp blocks at each end of the trays lower flange appear to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be discolored by the stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical

  10. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07 EL-1994-00207 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear to be discolored by a light brown stain. An outline of experiment tray clamp block locations is clearly visible on the experiment trays upper flange and to a lesser extent on its lower flange. The holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to

  11. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07 EL-1994-00312 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The outline of the experiment tray clamp blocks is clearly visible on the upper tray flange and to a lesser extent on the lower flange. The holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The prelaunch photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the experiment tray on the LDEF. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the

  12. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01 EL-1994-00188 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The white paint dot on the experiment tray clamp block located at the center of the trays lower flange appears to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment trays lower flange also appear to be coated but with a lighter colored stain. The white paint dots on clamp blocks at each end of the trays upper flange appear to be discolored very little. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is

  13. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11 EL-1994-00010 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp block of the experiment trays left flange and on the clamp blocks located at the upper and lower ends of the experiment trays right flange appear to be in near prelaunch condition. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover

  14. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08 EL-1994-00212 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a brown stain. Outlines of experiment tray clamp blocks are clearly visible on the upper and lower experiment tray flanges.The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the

  15. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11 EL-1994-00299 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a light brown stain. Outlines of experiment tray clamp blocks are faint but visible on the upper and lower experiment tray flanges.The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground

  16. Effect of temperature downshifts on a bench-scale hybrid A/O system: Process performance and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hexi; Li, Xiangkun; Chu, Zhaorui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Effect of temperature downshifts on process performance and bacterial community dynamics was investigated in a bench-scale hybrid A/O system treating real domestic wastewater. Results showed that the average COD removal in this system reached 90.5%, 89.1% and 90.3% for Run 1 (25 °C), Run 2 (15 °C) and Run 3 (10 °C), respectively, and variations in temperature barely affected the effluent COD concentration. The average removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N were 98.4%, 97.8%, 95.7%, and that of TN were 77.1%, 61.8%, 72% at 25 °C, 15 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Although the hybrid system was subjected to low temperature, this process effectively removed NH4(+)-N and TN even at 10 °C with the average effluent concentrations of 2.4 mg/L and 14.3 mg/L, respectively. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that when the operation temperature decreased from 25 °C to 10 °C, the richness and diversity indexes of the system decreased in the sludge samples, while underwent an increase in the biofilm samples. Furthermore, the major heterotrophic bacteria consisted of Lewinella, Lutimonas, Chitinophaga and Fluviicola at 10 °C, which could be central to effective COD removal at low temperature. Additionally, Azospira, one denitrifying-related genus increased from 0.4% to 4.45% in the biofilm samples, with a stable TN removal in response to temperature downshifts. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira increased significantly in the biofilm samples, implying that the attached biofilm contributed to more nitrification at low temperature. PMID:27035388

  17. Laser Tomographic AO system for an Integral Field Spectrograph on the E-ELT : the ATLAS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Thierry; Meimon, Serge; Thatte, N.; Shnetler, H.; Clénet, Yann; Cohen, M.; Paufique, J.; Ammans, J. P.; Clarke, F.; Dournaux, J. L.; Ferrari, M.; Gratadour, D.; Hubin, N.; Jagourel, P.; Michau, V.; Petit, C.; Tecza, M.

    2011-09-01

    ATLAS (Advanced Tomography with Laser for AO system) is the LTAO module of the E-ELT. It should be combined with an Integral Field Spectrograph (HARMONI). It aims at providing a diffraction limited PSF (SR around 50% in K band) in a small scientific FoV for a very significant part of the sky (more than 60% of the whole sky). 6 Laser Guide Stars (located on a 4.3 arcmin ring) will be used together with 2 Natural Guide Stars to be picked off in a 2 arcmin FoV. A MMSE-based RTC algorithm will be considered to obtain an optimal tomographic reconstruction of the turbulent volume and correct for Laser defects (cone effects). A first concept of the module combined with opto-mechanical implementation and associated performance has been proposed in the frame of the E-ELT instrumentation phase A study. Further modifications and optimisations have been proposed to account for IFS-HARMONI specificities. In this presentation, the main ATLAS components are described and their specificities and innovation highlighted. In particular, a new concept for the natural guide star wavefront sensor (based on a focal plane measurement scheme) is proposed providing extremely good sky coverage. In addition, the impact of Cn^2 mis-calibrations is analyzed and solutions to mitigate this error are proposed. In addition, the specific HARMONI requirements are presented as well as their impacts on ATLAS design, calibration procedures and operational concept. An integrated approach for a common implementation of ATLAS-HARMONI is presented. Results show the feasibility of the concept, its versatility and a relative simplicity which is a good first step toward a potential implementation in the early years of the E-ELT.

  18. Color changes in the red-green plates of the 50-year-old AO HRR color vision test.

    PubMed

    Lee, David Y

    2006-01-01

    The original AO HRR color vision test has been considered by many as one of the best plate tests. It is still accepted by many governmental agencies for color vision certification. In their 1954 publication, Hardy, Rand, and Rittler stated that specially compounded inks were used for printing to avoid color changes with time. Fifty years later, it is both important and interesting to determine whether the wear and tear cause significant color changes. The chance finding of a never-used second edition offers an opportunity to evaluate the color changes. A GretagMacbeth Spectrolino spectrophotometer was used to measure the chromaticities of the never-used book, and an extensively used book. Four plates (#4, 7, 13, 16), selected randomly from the four red-green sections, were analyzed. The colored dots from each of the eight plates were plotted on a CIE chromaticity diagram. Isocolor lines were drawn to evaluate chromatic alignment. Chromaticities for plates #4 and 7 are significantly different between the two books. With regard to alignment with isocolor lines, the extensively used book is better than the never-used book for plate #4. There is significant misalignment on plate #7 for both books. Chromaticities for plates #13 and 16 are essentially identical between books, all with good alignment with isocolor lines. The overall comparison shows that the chromatic alignment characteristics of the extensively used book are not worse than the never-used book. Since colors in these plates have to be aligned with both the protan and deutan axes, any significant color changes would have disturbed this delicate requirement. The findings of many plates with good alignment, and the lack of differences on plates #13 and 16 between books, suggest that there are no significant color changes over time. Differences between books on plates #4 and 7 were likely the result of the original printing process. PMID:16962013

  19. Variability of the Amundsen Sea Low and the Associated Regional Sea Ice Trends in the AO-UMUKCA Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jrrar, Amna; Abraham, N. Luke; Holland, David; Pyle, John A.

    2015-04-01

    Significant Sea ice loss in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, and regional warming in West Antarctica and the Antarctica Peninsula have been observed over the past few decades. These changes are affected by the presence of the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL), a quasi-stationary area of climatological low pressure that exists over the South Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean between the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea. Previous studies have shown that the circulation in the ASL sector region is strongly influenced by large-scale patterns of atmospheric variability, such as the southern annular mode (SAM) and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Studies have also demonstrated a deepening of the ASL, particularly in austral spring and to a lesser extent autumn, the former related to decreases in the underlying cyclone central pressures and the latter previously suggested as due to stratospheric ozone depletion. However, two recent studies have demonstrated that surface warming related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) reduces the surface pressure in the Amundsen Sea and contributes to the observed dipole-like sea-ice redistribution between the Ross and Amundsen-Bellingshausen seas and to the Antarctic Peninsula warming. We use the recently developed atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model AO-UMUKCA to investigate factors affecting the variability of the ASL and subsequently sea ice trends in the Amundsen-Bellingshausen seas. We use output from two simulations, a pre-industrial control integration forced with 1850s climate, and a time slice integration forced with 2000s climate. The control integration is used to estimate the internal variability of ASL, and in calculating the modeled sea ice trends in absence of external forcing. We investigate whether changes in the ASL, and subsequently sea ice trends are linked to variability in tropical sea surface temperatures. The different combinations of SAM-ENSO phase are also studied and linked to changes in

  20. Spatiotemporal and species-specific patterns of diseases affecting crustose coralline algae in Curaçao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéré, G.; Steneck, R. S.; Nugues, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Distribution and abundance of coral diseases have been well documented, but only a few studies considered diseases affecting crustose coralline algae (CCA), particularly at the species level. We investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of diseases affecting CCA along the south coast of Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Two syndromes were detected: the Coralline White Band Syndrome (CWBS) previously described and the Coralline White Patch Disease (CWPD) reported here for the first time. Diseases were present at all six study sites, and our results did not reveal a relationship between disease occurrence and human influence. Both diseases were more prevalent on the shallower reef flat than on the deeper reef slope, and during the warm/rainy season than during the cold/dry season. The patterns observed were consistent with a positive link between temperature and disease occurrence. Reef flat communities were dominated by Neogoniolithon mamillare and Paragoniolithon solubile, whereas deeper habitats were dominated by Hydrolithon boergesenii. Diseases affected all the species encountered, and no preferable host was detected. There was a significant relationship between both disease occurrences and CCA cover. Monitoring of affected patches revealed that 90 % of lesions in CWBS increased in size, whereas 88 % of CWPD lesions regenerated over time. CWBS linear progression rate did not vary between seasons or species and ranged from 0.15 to 0.36 cm month-1, which is in the same order of magnitude as rates previously documented. We conclude that diseases have the potential to cause major loss in CCA cover, particularly in shallow waters. As CCA play a key role in reef ecosystems, our study suggests that the emergence of diseases affecting these algae may pose a real threat to coral reef ecosystems. The levels of disease reported here will provide a much-needed local baseline allowing future comparisons.

  1. Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β PIC b. I. Direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-IR with NICI {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Kopon, Derek; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Chun, Mark; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Hayward, Thomas L. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c and others

    2014-05-01

    We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (Y{sub S} , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.''010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10{sup –5}. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH {sub 4S,1%} (1.58 μm), K{sub S} (2.18 μm), and K {sub cont} (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L {sub bol}/L {sub ☉}) = –3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M {sub Jup} for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L {sub bol}-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T {sub eff} = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R {sub Jup}, this T {sub eff} is ∼250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.

  2. Start-up of a two-stage bioaugmented anoxic-oxic (A/O) biofilm process treating petrochemical wastewater under different DO concentrations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingbo; Ma, Fang; Chang, Chein-Chi; Cui, Di; Wang, Li; Yang, Jixian; Wang, Liang

    2009-07-01

    The traditional two-stage anoxic-oxic (A/O) activated sludge process might be inefficient in pollutants removal and could not ensure the effluent quality. By installing polyurethane foams as carriers and inoculating specialized bacteria in the oxic compartments, the activated sludge systems could be transformed into bioaugmented biofilm processes to enhance the removal efficiency to recalcitrant pollutants. Optimal environment should be provided for the bioaugmented bacteria during systems' start-up. In the present research, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was studied as a crucial environmental factor on the performances of the bioagumented systems. The results indicated that the system adopted lower DO concentration took less time to start-up, performed higher pollutants removal efficiency and stronger resistance to shock loadings compared to the system with higher DO level. This was the first attempt to evaluate the importance of DO concentration on the start-up of the two-stage bioaugmented A/O biofilm process. PMID:19329304

  3. Site symmetry of AO{sub 4} complexes (A are s- or p-elements of periods III and IV) in crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Serezhkin, V. N. Savchenkov, A. V.; Urusov, V. S.

    2010-03-15

    The symmetry of the sites occupied in crystal structures by 17 405 crystallographically different A atoms (A are s or p elements of periods III and IV) entering the composition of AO{sub 4}{sup z-} complexes has been analyzed. A periodicity in the ability of A atoms for implementing a certain site symmetry is established. Some features of the stereochemistry of A elements in the dependence of their position in the periodic table are discussed.

  4. High-resolution Images of Orbital Motion in the Orion Trapezium Cluster with the LBT AO System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, L. M.; Puglisi, A.; Males, J. R.; Arcidiacono, C.; Skemer, A.; Guerra, J. C.; Busoni, L.; Brusa, G.; Pinna, E.; Miller, D. L.; Riccardi, A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Xompero, M.; Kulesa, C.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Argomedo, J.; Brynnel, J.; Esposito, S.; Mannucci, F.; Boutsia, K.; Fini, L.; Thompson, D. J.; Hill, J. M.; Woodward, C. E.; Briguglio, R.; Rodigas, T. J.; Briguglio, R.; Stefanini, P.; Agapito, G.; Hinz, P.; Follette, K.; Green, R.

    2012-04-01

    The new 8.4 m LBT adaptive secondary AO system, with its novel pyramid wavefront sensor, was used to produce very high Strehl (gsim 75% at 2.16 μm) near-infrared narrowband (Brγ: 2.16 μm and [Fe II]: 1.64 μm) images of 47 young (~1 Myr) Orion Trapezium θ1 Ori cluster members. The inner ~41 × 53'' of the cluster was imaged at spatial resolutions of ~0farcs050 (at 1.64 μm). A combination of high spatial resolution and high S/N yielded relative binary positions to ~0.5 mas accuracies. Including previous speckle data, we analyze a 15 year baseline of high-resolution observations of this cluster. We are now sensitive to relative proper motions of just ~0.3 mas yr-1 (0.6 km s-1 at 450 pc); this is a ~7 × improvement in orbital velocity accuracy compared to previous efforts. We now detect clear orbital motions in the θ1 Ori B 2 B 3 system of 4.9 ± 0.3 km s-1 and 7.2 ± 0.8 km s-1 in the θ1 Ori A 1 A 2 system (with correlations of P.A. versus time at >99% confidence). All five members of the θ1 Ori B system appear likely a gravitationally bound "mini-cluster." The very lowest mass member of the θ1 Ori B system (B 4; mass ~0.2 M ⊙) has, for the first time, a clearly detected motion (at 4.3 ± 2.0 km s-1 correlation = 99.7%) w.r.t. B 1. However, B 4 is most likely in a long-term unstable (non-hierarchical) orbit and may "soon" be ejected from this "mini-cluster." This "ejection" process could play a major role in the formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona University system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of

  5. HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES OF ORBITAL MOTION IN THE ORION TRAPEZIUM CLUSTER WITH THE LBT AO SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Close, L. M.; Males, J. R.; Skemer, A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Xompero, M.; Kulesa, C.; Puglisi, A.; Busoni, L.; Pinna, E.; Riccardi, A.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Argomedo, J.; Esposito, S.; Mannucci, F.; Arcidiacono, C.; Guerra, J. C.; Brusa, G.; Miller, D. L.; Brynnel, J.; Boutsia, K.; and others

    2012-04-20

    The new 8.4 m LBT adaptive secondary AO system, with its novel pyramid wavefront sensor, was used to produce very high Strehl ({approx}> 75% at 2.16 {mu}m) near-infrared narrowband (Br{gamma}: 2.16 {mu}m and [Fe II]: 1.64 {mu}m) images of 47 young ({approx}1 Myr) Orion Trapezium {theta}{sup 1} Ori cluster members. The inner {approx}41 Multiplication-Sign 53'' of the cluster was imaged at spatial resolutions of {approx}0.''050 (at 1.64 {mu}m). A combination of high spatial resolution and high S/N yielded relative binary positions to {approx}0.5 mas accuracies. Including previous speckle data, we analyze a 15 year baseline of high-resolution observations of this cluster. We are now sensitive to relative proper motions of just {approx}0.3 mas yr{sup -1} (0.6 km s{sup -1} at 450 pc); this is a {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign improvement in orbital velocity accuracy compared to previous efforts. We now detect clear orbital motions in the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B{sub 2} B{sub 3} system of 4.9 {+-} 0.3 km s{sup -1} and 7.2 {+-} 0.8 km s{sup -1} in the {theta}{sup 1} Ori A{sub 1} A{sub 2} system (with correlations of P.A. versus time at >99% confidence). All five members of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system appear likely a gravitationally bound 'mini-cluster'. The very lowest mass member of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system (B{sub 4}; mass {approx}0.2 M{sub Sun }) has, for the first time, a clearly detected motion (at 4.3 {+-} 2.0 km s{sup -1}; correlation = 99.7%) w.r.t. B{sub 1}. However, B{sub 4} is most likely in a long-term unstable (non-hierarchical) orbit and may 'soon' be ejected from this 'mini-cluster'. This 'ejection' process could play a major role in the formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs.

  6. SIMS chemical analysis of extended impacts on the leading and trailing edges of LDEF experiment AO187-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amari, S.; Foote, J.; Simon, Charles G.; Swan, P.; Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Jessberger, E. K.; Lange, G.; Stadermann, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment AO187-2 consisted of 237 capture cells, 120 on the leading edge and 117 on the trailing edge. Each cell was made of polished Ge plates covered with 2.5 micron thick mylar foil at 200 microns from the Ge. Although all leading edge cells and 105 trailing edge cells had lost their plastic covers during flight, optical and electron microscope examination revealed extended impacts in bare cells from either edge that apparently were produced by high velocity projectiles while the plastic foils were still in place. Detailed optical scanning yielded 53 extended impacts on 100 bare cells from the trailing edge that were selected for SIMS chemical analysis. Lateral multi-element ion probe profiles were obtained on 40 of these impacts. Material that can be attributed to the incoming projectiles was found in all analyzed extended compact features and most seem to be associated with cosmic dust particles. However, LDEF deposits are systematically enriched in the refractory elements Al, Ca, and Ti relative to Mg and Fe when compared to IDP's collected in the stratosphere and to chondritic compositions. These differences are most likely due to elemental fractionation effects during the high velocity impact but real differences between interplanetary particles captured on LDEF and stratospheric IDP's cannot be excluded. Recently we extended our studies to cells from the leading edge and the covered cells from the trailing edge. The 12 covered cells contain 20 extended impact candidates. Ion probe analysis of 3 yielded results similar to those obtained for impacts on the bare cells from the trailing edge. Optical scanning of the bare leading edge cell also reveals many extended impacts (42 on 22 cells scanned to date), demonstrating that the cover foils remained intact at least for some time. However, SIMS analysis showed elements that can reasonably be attributed to micrometeoroids in only 2 out of 11 impacts. Eight impacts

  7. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties, Tray A07 The Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties experiment fills two (2) three (3) inch deep peripheral trays, A01 and A07. The experiment in the A07 experiment tray, shown in this photograph, consist of three (3) Graphite-Polyimide laminate panels and associated mounting hardware. Each panel occupies one third (1/3) of the LDEF experiment tray; a PMR-15 precured graphite-polyimide panel (T40T30060-009) in the right one third section, a F-178/T300 cocured graphite-polyimide panel (T40T30060-005) in the center one third section and a F-178/T300 precured graphite-polyimide panel (T40T30060-001) is in the left one third section of the tray. The panels are held in place with aluminum strips and non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The aluminum strips are covered with a dull gold coating over most of the exposed surface. The coating has been scraped from the aluminum mounting strip near the upper left tray corner. The mounting system, designed to allow for differential thermal expansion, minimizes the risk of inducing high stresses into the test panels. PMR-15 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The PMR-15 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-009) is a uniform dark brown with a yellow identification number. The panel has several off-white marks in the lower right corner and light grayish-brown discolorations can be seen behind the identification number and behind the off-white marks. F-178/T300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (cocured) - The F178/T300 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-005) is also a dark brown with a yellow identification number and small offwhite marks in the lower right corner. F-178/300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The F178/300 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-001) is a dark brown color with a yellow identification number and

  8. LDEF (Flight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Grap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties, Tray A07 The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on the tray clampblocks have changed little from the orginal white color. The dots along the lower tray flange seem to have a faint light brown tint. The dull gold coating observed on the aluminum mounting strips in the prelaunch photograph has turned to a medium brown. The areas where the coating was scraped or abraided away appears as a metallic surface. PMR-15 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The PMR-15 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-009) appears to have changed from the prelaunch brown color to a light gray. A geometric pattern, probably the results of the laminating process, is visible on the panel surface. Fine horizontal lines, cracks and/or crazing, can be seen over the geometrical pattern. The yellow colored identification numbers seem to be a little darker in the flight photograph but the white marking in the upper left corner do not appear to have changed. Scratch marks / abrasions on the lower left edge of panel were on prelaunch photographs. F-178/T300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (cocured) - The 178/T300 graphite-polyimide panel (T40T30060-005) seems to have changed from the pre-launch dark brown to a light gray color. The yellow identification numbers seem darker in the flight photograph while the white marking in the upper left corner appear brighter. There appears to be fine horizontal lines, cracks and/or crazing, on the panel surface. F178/T300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The 178/T300 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-001) seems to have changed from the prelaunch dark brown color with a lighter brown area along its vertical center, extending from top to bottom, to a uniform light gray color. The yellow

  9. Tracing The Origin Of Methane And Water On Mars: Mapping Regions Of Active Release At Ultra-high Spatial Resolution Using Keck And VLT Under AO Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, G. L.; Campbell, R.; Lyke, J.; Conrad, A.; Encrenaz, T.; Hartogh, P.; Kauefl, U.; Novak, R. E.; Tokunaga, A.

    2009-09-01

    Strong release of methane from active regions on Mars has been reported in northern summer (1) and southern spring (2). The spatial resolution of these measurements was about 500 km, sufficient to reveal discrete active regions. Regions of methane release appear mainly over ancient terrain (Noachian/Hesperian) known to have a rich hydration history, and often marked by fossae or other scarps. However, higher resolution is needed to test whether methane release is confined to a small number of narrowly defined vents or is widely distributed over the 500 km footprint. If narrowly confined, the plume should have correspondingly higher local density, enhancing spectral searches for water, methane, their isotopologues, and other trace gases that could reveal aspects of methane generation and depth of release. Ground-based telescopes equipped with both adaptive optics (AO) and high dispersion infrared spectrometers have delivered much higher spatial resolution on planetary bodies, but until now have not been applied to Mars. We acquired images and spectra of Mars under AO control at infrared wavelengths, using Keck-2 and ESO-VLT. In June 2009, we acquired test images with NIRC2/Keck-2 using AO in the natural guide star mode and achieved 0.12” FWHM resolution at 3.0 µm wavelength (Mars diameter was 4.7"). Diffraction-limited performance (0.06” at 3 µm) is expected during follow-up observations in September 2009. We observed Mars with UT1 under AO control (MACAO) in August and September 2009, and acquired spectra with CRIRES. We expect to achieve spatial resolution approaching 40 km in November-December 2009, representing a reduction in area by nearly a factor of 100 compared with earlier non-AO searches. Preliminary results will be presented. This work was funded by NASA grants 08-PAST08-0034 (Planetary Astronomy) and 08-PATM080-0031 (Planetary Atmospheres). 1. Mumma, Villanueva, Novak et al., Science 323, 1041 (2009) 2. Villanueva, Mumma, Novak, (in prep) 2009.

  10. Kahua A'o: A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Place and Culture-based Geoscience Teacher Education and Curriculum Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinwood, I.; Stone, K.; Spencer, L.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o is a collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation aimed at developing science curriculum grounded in Hawaiian culture and place-based education. The project team is composed of members who contribute expertise in meteorology, geology, curriculum development, and Hawaiian language. To date, six lessons have been produced, four with a focus in meteorology and two with a focus in geology. The lessons are geared towards the middle school level, but can easily be adapted for other levels. Each lesson combines a scientific topic with relevant Hawaiian language resources. Serving as the main source for resources is the Hawaiian language newspaper archive, which is an online database of 75,000 pages from newspapers that were published between 1834 and 1948. By incorporating Hawaiian language newspaper articles into science lessons, we aim to teach science through culture and show a history of scientific inquiry intrinsic to Hawaiian culture in order to generate more interest in science among Hawai'i students, especially native Hawaiian students, who are underrepresented in scientific fields. Since most of the articles are specific to the Hawaiian Islands, all students will find more relevance with the lesson through place-based education. Kahua A'o lessons are currently being piloted with groups of public school teachers. Bishop Museum is also incorporating elements of the meteorology lessons into their science education curriculum. The goal of Kahua A'o is to become the first of many such interdisciplinary collaborations, especially those that utilize the rich repository of untapped knowledge in the Hawaiian language newspaper archive.

  11. Translation between the Neer- and the AO/OTA-classification for proximal humeral fractures: do we need to be bilingual to interpret the scientific literature?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The reporting and interpretation of data from clinical trials of proximal humeral fractures are hampered by the use of two partly incommensurable fracture classification systems: the Neer classification and the AO/OTA classification. It remains difficult to interpret and generalize results, to conduct prognostic studies, and to obtain consensus on treatment recommendations when concise definitions and a common ‘fracture language’ are lacking. Thus, we compared both classifications systems using primary data from large clinical studies to assess how thoroughly both systems conveyed clinically important classification information. Methods Classification data from each study were organized in a cross-table covering the 432 theoretically possible combinations between the 16 Neer categories and the 27 AO/OTA subgroups, and the plausibility of all observed combinations were assessed and discussed by the authors until consensus. Results We analyzed primary data from 2530 observations from seven studies providing primary data from both classification systems. Thirty-five percent (151 out of 432) of the combinations were considered ‘not plausible’ and thirty-four percent (149 out of 432) were considered ‘problematic’. Conclusions Clinically important information was lost within both classification systems. Most important, the varus/valgus distinction was not found within the Neer classification and a clear definition of displacement was lacking in the AO/OTA classification. We encourage surgeons and researches to report data from both classification systems for a more thorough description of the fracture patterns and to enable cross-checking of the coding. A suitable table for cross-checking of the coding is provided herein. PMID:23442552

  12. Backside-illuminated, high-QE, 3e- RoN, fast 700fps, 1760x1680 pixels CMOS imager for AO with highly parallel readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, Mark; Kolb, Johann; Baade, Dietrich; Balard, Philippe; Dierickx, Bart; Defernez, Arnaud; Dupont, Benoit; Feautrier, Philippe; Finger, Gert; Fryer, Martin; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guillaume, Christian; Hubin, Norbert; Iwert, Olaf; Jerram, Paul; Jorden, Paul; Pike, Andrew; Pratlong, Jerome; Reyes, Javier; Stadler, Eric; Walker, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    The success of the next generation of instruments for 8 to 40-m class telescopes will depend upon improving the image quality (correcting the distortion caused by atmospheric turbulence) by exploiting sophisticated Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. One of the critical components of the AO systems for the E-ELT has been identified as the Laser/Natural Guide Star (LGS/NGS) WaveFront Sensing (WFS) detector. The combination of large format, 1760x1680 pixels to finely sample (84x84 sub-apertures) the wavefront and the spot elongation of laser guide stars, fast frame rate of 700 (up to 1000) frames per second, low read noise (< 3e-), and high QE (> 90%) makes the development of such a device extremely challenging. Design studies by industry concluded that a thinned and backside-illuminated CMOS Imager as the most promising technology. This paper describes the multi-phased development plan that will ensure devices are available on-time for E-ELT first-light AO systems; the different CMOS pixel architectures studied; measured results of technology demonstrators that have validated the CMOS Imager approach; the design explaining the approach of massive parallelism (70,000 ADCs) needed to achieve low noise at high pixel rates of ~3 Gpixel/s ; the 88 channel LVDS data interface; the restriction that stitching (required due to the 5x6cm size) posed on the design and the solutions found to overcome these limitations. Two generations of the CMOS Imager will be built: a pioneering quarter sized device of 880x840 pixels capable of meeting first light needs of the E-ELT called NGSD (Natural Guide Star Detector); followed by the full size device, the LGSD (Laser Guide Star Detector). Funding sources: OPTICON FP6 and FP7 from European Commission and ESO.

  13. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of the late-Cretaceous picrites and basalts of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles: a remnant of an oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, A. C.; Tarney, John; Marriner, Giselle F.; Klaver, Gerard T.; Saunders, Andrew D.; Thirlwall, Matthew F.

    1996-06-01

    The island of Curaçao in the southern Caribbean Sea is composed mainly of a thick sequence (>5 km) of pillow lavas, grading upwards from picrites at the base of the exposed section, to basalts nearer the top. Modelling suggests that picrites are related to the basalts by fractional crystallisation. Initial radiogenic isotope ratios of the picrites have a restricted compositional range: ɛNd=+6.1 to +6.6, 87Sr/86Sr=0.70296 0.70319; whereas the basalts display a wider range of compositions: ɛNd=+6.6 to +7.6, 87Sr/86Sr=0.70321 0.70671. This variation in isotope ratios between basalts and picrites may be due to the assimilation of altered oceanic crust (or possibly partial melts of such crust) by a picritic magma along with fractional crystallisation. The relatively narrow range of Nd and Pb isotopic compositions in the Curaçao lavas suggests either that the source region was homogeneous, or that melts from a heterogeneous mantle source were well mixed before eruption. Chondritic to slightly light rare earth element enriched patterns, combined with long-term light rare earth element depletion (positive ɛNd), suggest that the lavas were formed by polybaric melting of spinel lherzolite, with small a contribution from garnet lherzolite melts. High-MgO lavas, the absence of a subduction related chemistry, and the chemical similarity to other oceanic plateaux, suggest a mantle plume origin for the Curaçao lava succession. The Curaçao volcanic sequence is part of an oceanic plateau formed at about 88 90 Ma, fragments of which are dispersed around the Caribbean as well as being obducted onto the western margin of Colombia and Ecuador. The occurrence of high-Mg lavas throughout this Cretaceous Caribbean Colombian igneous province requires anomalously hot mantle (>200° C hotter than ambient upper mantle) over a large part of a putative plume head, which is inconsistent with some mantle plume models.

  14. Construction of a mouse Aos1-Uba2 chimeric SUMO-E1 enzyme, mAU, and its expression in baculovirus-insect cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tomofumi; Yuasa, Eri; Kanemaru, Ayumi; Saito, Masayuki; Saitoh, Hisato

    2014-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a highly conserved protein that is covalently attached to target proteins. This posttranslational modification, designated SUMOylation, is a major protein-conjugation-driven strategy designed to regulate structure and function of cellular proteins. SUMOylation consists of an enzymatic cascade involving the E1-activating enzyme and the E2-conjugating enzyme. The SUMO-E1 enzyme consists of two subunits, a heterodimer of activation of Smt3p 1 (Aos1) and ubiquitin activating enzyme 2 (Uba2), which resembles the N- and C-terminal halves of ubiquitin E1 (Uba1). Herein, we describe the rational design of a single polypeptide version of SUMO-E1, a chimera of mouse Aos1 and Uba2 subunits, termed mAU, in which the functional domains appear to be arranged in a fashion similar to Uba1. We also describe the construction of a mAU plasmid for expression in a baculovirus-insect cell system and present an in situ SUMOylation assay using the recombinant mAU. Our results showed that mAU has SUMO-E1 activity, thereby indicating that mAU can be expressed in baculovirus-insect cells and represents a suitable source of SUMO-E1. PMID:24637489

  15. The a subunit of the A1AO ATP synthase of Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 contains two conserved arginine residues that are crucial for ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gloger, Carolin; Born, Anna-Katharina; Antosch, Martin; Müller, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Like the evolutionary related F1FO ATP synthases and V1VO ATPases, the A1AO ATP synthases from archaea are multisubunit, membrane-bound transport machines that couple ion flow to the synthesis of ATP. Although the subunit composition is known for at least two species, nothing is known so far with respect to the function of individual subunits or amino acid residues. To pave the road for a functional analysis of A1AO ATP synthases, we have cloned the entire operon from Methanosarcina mazei into an expression vector and produced the enzyme in Escherichia coli. Inverted membrane vesicles of the recombinants catalyzed ATP synthesis driven by NADH oxidation as well as artificial driving forces. [Formula: see text] as well as ΔpH were used as driving forces which is consistent with the inhibition of NADH-driven ATP synthesis by protonophores. Exchange of the conserved glutamate in subunit c led to a complete loss of ATP synthesis, proving that this residue is essential for H+ translocation. Exchange of two conserved arginine residues in subunit a has different effects on ATP synthesis. The role of these residues in ion translocation is discussed. PMID:25724672

  16. The stimulating role of subunit F in ATPase activity inside the A1-complex of the Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A1AO ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dhirendra; Sielaff, Hendrik; Sundararaman, Lavanya; Bhushan, Shashi; Grüber, Gerhard

    2016-02-01

    A1AO ATP synthases couple ion-transport of the AO sector and ATP synthesis/hydrolysis of the A3B3-headpiece via their stalk subunits D and F. Here, we produced and purified stable A3B3D- and A3B3DF-complexes of the Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A-ATP synthase as confirmed by electron microscopy. Enzymatic studies with these complexes showed that the M. mazei Gö1 A-ATP synthase subunit F is an ATPase activating subunit. The maximum ATP hydrolysis rates (Vmax) of A3B3D and A3B3DF were determined by substrate-dependent ATP hydrolysis experiments resulting in a Vmax of 7.9 s(-1) and 30.4 s(-1), respectively, while the KM is the same for both. Deletions of the N- or C-termini of subunit F abolished the effect of ATP hydrolysis activation. We generated subunit F mutant proteins with single amino acid substitutions and demonstrated that the subunit F residues S84 and R88 are important in stimulating ATP hydrolysis. Hybrid formation of the A3B3D-complex with subunit F of the related eukaryotic V-ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or subunit ε of the F-ATP synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed that subunit F of the archaea and eukaryotic enzymes are important in ATP hydrolysis. PMID:26682760

  17. A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2013-01-01

    A second species of the blenniiform genus Haptoclinus is described from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Haptoclinus dropi sp. n. differs from the northwestern Caribbean Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke and Robins, 1974, in having 29 total dorsal-fin elements-III-I-XIII, 12 (vs. 31-III-I-XIV, 13 or III-I-XIII, 14); 19 anal-fin soft rays (vs. 20-21); 12 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13); 12 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 13); and the first dorsal-fin spine longer than the second (vs. the second longer than the first). It further differs from Haptoclinus apectolophus in lacking scales (vs. three-quarters of body densely scaled), in having a distinctive pattern of spotting on the trunk and fins in preservative (vs. no spotting), and in lacking a fleshy flap on the anterior rim of the posterior nostril (vs. flap present). Color in life is unknown for Haptoclinus apectolophus, and the color description presented for the new species constitutes the first color information for the genus. Familial placement of Haptoclinus remains questionable, but the limited relevant information obtained from morphological examination of the new species provides additional support for a close relationship with the Chaenopsidae. Haptoclinus dropi represents one of numerous new teleost species emerging from sampling to 300 m off Curaçao as part of the Smithsonian Institution's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). PMID:23794919

  18. Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Phalangeal Fracture Treated with Dorsolateral Approach or Post-middle Approach Using AO Mini Titanium Plate.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Liu, Shen; Chen, Guoting; Li, Zengchun; Liu, Yangzhou; Sun, Guixin; Lu, Qingyou; Li, Xia; Tan, Jun; Guan, Ming

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical outcomes of various fixation methods for proximal phalangeal fractures with Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) mini titanium plate by dorsolateral approach or post-middle approach. Clinical results of 62 fingers of 53 patients with proximal phalangeal fracture were evaluated. For dorsolateral approach, the lateral bundle of the extensor tendon was drawn away to expose the fracture part of the bone. After reduction, the plate was located at the dorsolateral side of the bone. For post-middle approach, the extensor tendon was split to expose the fracture part of the bone. After reduction, the plate was fixed to the proximal phalangeal side of the bone, and the extensor tendon was repaired with 3-0 nonabsorbable silk sutures. We found low overall complication rates in both groups. The mean total active motion (TAM) for the dorsolateral group and post-middle group was 234.60° ± 22.63° and 221.08° ± 25.69°, respectively. There was a statistical significance between the two groups (P = 0.037 < 0.05), indicating that TAM was notably affected by various fixation methods. With AO mini titanium plate, movement in dorsolateral approach group was significantly higher than in post-middle approach group. Dorsolateral approach is an acceptable technique of incision for proximal phalangeal fractures. PMID:26730082

  19. DIFFRACTION-LIMITED VISIBLE LIGHT IMAGES OF ORION TRAPEZIUM CLUSTER WITH THE MAGELLAN ADAPTIVE SECONDARY ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEM (MagAO)

    SciTech Connect

    Close, L. M.; Males, J. R.; Morzinski, K.; Kopon, D.; Follette, K.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P.; Wu, Y-L.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Riccardi, A.; Pinna, E.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Uomoto, A; Hare, T.

    2013-09-10

    We utilized the new high-order (250-378 mode) Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high spatial resolution observations in ''visible light'' with MagAO's VisAO CCD camera. In the good-median seeing conditions of Magellan (0.''5-0.''7), we find MagAO delivers individual short exposure images as good as 19 mas optical resolution. Due to telescope vibrations, long exposure (60 s) r' (0.63 {mu}m) images are slightly coarser at FWHM = 23-29 mas (Strehl {approx}28%) with bright (R < 9 mag) guide stars. These are the highest resolution filled-aperture images published to date. Images of the young ({approx}1 Myr) Orion Trapezium {theta}{sup 1} Ori A, B, and C cluster members were obtained with VisAO. In particular, the 32 mas binary {theta}{sup 1} Ori C{sub 1} C{sub 2} was easily resolved in non-interferometric images for the first time. The relative positions of the bright trapezium binary stars were measured with {approx}0.6-5 mas accuracy. We are now sensitive to relative proper motions of just {approx}0.2 mas yr{sup -1} ({approx}0.4 km s{sup -1} at 414 pc)-this is a {approx}2-10 Multiplication-Sign improvement in orbital velocity accuracy compared to previous efforts. For the first time, we see clear motion of the barycenter of {theta}{sup 1} Ori B{sub 2} B{sub 3} about {theta}{sup 1} Ori B{sub 1}. All five members of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system appear likely to be a gravitationally bound ''mini cluster'', but we find that not all the orbits can be both circular and co-planar. The lowest mass member of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system (B{sub 4}; mass {approx}0.2 M{sub Sun }) has a very clearly detected motion (at 4.1 {+-} 1.3 km s{sup -1}; correlation = 99.9%) w.r.t. B{sub 1}. Previous work has suggested that B{sub 4} and B{sub 3} are on long-term unstable orbits and will be ejected from this ''mini cluster''. However, our new ''baseline'' model of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system suggests a more hierarchical system than previously thought, and so

  20. Telescópio de pequeno porte como suporte ao ensino em cidades com intensa poluição luminosa II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Para a maioria dos estudantes, sua passagem pelo ensino formal fundamental envolve a transmissão de fatos que devem ser guardados para um exame, a habilidade para lembrar fórmulas e, eventualmente, a repetição de experimentos que devem produzir resultados exigidos pelo professor. O resultado deste modelo de ensino, ao longo dos anos, é conhecido por todos: desconhecimento e descontentamento, por parte dos estudantes, de temas relativos ao papel e aos processos da ciência. Acreditamos que a Astronomia, pelo seu caráter observacional, é uma das áreas do conhecimento que pode contribuir neste cenário. A Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro possui um telescópio Meade LX-200 (25cm) que, juntamente com as câmeras CCD ST-7E e ST8E, tem sido utilizado em projetos voltados aos estudantes do ensino médio desde o ano 2000. Tais projetos envolvem a condução de um projeto de pesquisa observacional num nível apropriado, e possibilitam o contato com técnicas e novas tecnologias: computador, software para manipulação de dados e gráficos, programas de tratamento e redução de dados, uso de equipamentos óptico-eletrônicos (telescópio e CCD), bem como o processo de aquisição de conhecimento. Dentro da proposta dos anos anteriores, priorizamos projetos de uma noite, ou seja, procuramos trabalhar com fenômenos que apresentem variabilidade com intervalo de recorrência relativamente curto. Em todos os casos, optamos pela fotometria diferencial, que tem se mostrado bastante eficiente para o céu luminoso como o da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Neste painel, apresentamos alguns dos projetos desenvolvidos no último ano, com 25 estudantes. Apresentamos os resultados da observação da variável pulsante AI Vel (V = 6,6) e da variável cataclísmica FO Aqr (V = 13,5), e do monitoramento do trânsito da lua de Júpiter, Europa, ocorrido em 30 de abril de 2003. As curvas de luz produzidas para as primeiras estão concordantes com as da literatura, assim

  1. Prolonged volcanic history for the Curaçao Lava Formation inferred from new 40Ar-39Ar ages and trace phase geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewen, M. W.; Duncan, R. A.; Krawl, K.; Kent, A. J.; Sinton, C. W.; Lackey, J.

    2011-12-01

    Popular models have suggested that the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) formed from the initial plume head of the Galapagos hotspot. A key exposure of CLIP lavas is the Curaçao Lava Formation (CLF), a 5 km section of lavas and sills on the island of Curaçao. The CLF contains a broad compositional range of submarine lavas from picrite pillows at the base of the identified section to plagioclase-clinopyroxene tholeiitic lavas, hyaloclastites, and poikilitic sills at the top. Despite the regional significance of the CLF to the tectonic interpretation of the CLIP, only whole rock geochemistry and a few 40Ar-39Ar ages exist for Curaçao. These ages suggest formation of the lavas around 89 Ma and the poikilitic sills around 75 Ma. However, Mid-Albian (~110 Ma) fossil ammonites from a single locality of intercalated sediments suggest a considerably older formation for the CLF. This older age of formation has been used to justify alternate formation models for the CLIP to a Galapagos plume initiation. Here we present new 40Ar-39Ar ages for the lavas and sills of the CLF that indicate a younger and more extended volcanic history than previously recognized. We have identified lava sequences from several localities on the island that erupted 62-66 Ma as well as lavas and sills that fall within previously recognized age ranges. The youngest ages are obtained on samples directly adjacent to the Mid-Albian ammonite locality. These results suggest that large portions of the CLF (1) significantly postdate initiation of the CLIP, and (2) may not be compatible with an origin related to the initiation of the Galapagos hotspot. It is important to note, however, that the previous 89 Ma ages from Curaçao lavas are closer to ages from CLIP lavas on Haiti that reach 90-94 Ma and are spatially located near the picrites on Curaçao. These diverse ages also require significant reinterpretation of the CLF as a complex association of lavas potentially spanning 30 million years

  2. Phosphorylation of the Aspergillus oryzae Woronin body protein, AoHex1, by protein kinase C: evidence for its role in the multimerization and proper localization of the Woronin body protein

    PubMed Central

    Juvvadi, Praveen Rao; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Woronin body, a specialized peroxisome, is a unique organelle involved in septal pore sealing and protecting filamentous fungus from excessive cytoplasmic bleeding. We recently characterized the Aohex1 gene encoding the major protein of the Woronin body in the fungus Aspergillus oryzae. Although three-dimensional microscopy revealed plugging of the septal pore by Woronin body, the mechanism of its formation remains unknown. We report here a reduction in the oligomeric forms (dimeric and tetrameric) of AoHex1 upon λ-phosphatase treatment, which indicated that AoHex1 phosphorylation in vivo facilitates its oligomerization. Concomitant with the presence of a highly conserved predicted PKC (protein kinase C)-phosphorylatable site (Ser151), the recombinant AoHex1 was phosphorylated by PKC in vitro and the administration of the PKC inhibitors, bisindolylmaleimide I and chelerythrine, resulted in the reduction of the oligomeric forms of AoHex1 in vivo. While spherical dot-like Woronin bodies were visualized by expressing the dsred2–Aohex1 and egfp (enhanced green fluorescent protein)–Aohex1 constructs in A. oryzae, treatment with the PKC inhibitors caused an abnormal localization to ring-like structures. In addition to the reduced phosphorylation of the mutagenized recombinant AoHex1[S151A] (Ser151 to alanine substitution) by PKC in vitro, the overexpression of Aohex1[S151A] as dsred2 fusion against the wild-type background also showed reduction of the oligomeric forms of the endogenous AoHex1 and its perturbed localization to ring-like structures in vivo. In conclusion, the present study implicates the relevance of PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the Woronin body protein, AoHex1, for its multimerization and proper localization. PMID:17441786

  3. Determinação de regiões de órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

    2003-08-01

    Neste Trabalho estamos investigando regiões do sistema Terra-Lua que contêm órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua visando a utilização destas órbitas em futuras missões de veículos espaciais como alternativas de trajetórias com baixo custo de manutenção. Adotando-se o problema restrito de três corpos, Terra-Lua-partícula, a localização e a extensão destas regiões de estabilidade foram investigadas numericamente considerando como estável toda órbita que permanece ao redor a Lua por, no mínimo, 1000 dias com energia de dois corpos da partícula em relação à Lua negativa. A estabilidade de tais regiões está associada a duas famílias de órbitas periódicas simples H1 e H2 e a órbitas quase-periódicas associadas a elas. Uma vez identificadas as regiões de estabilidade passamos a analisá-las introduzindo, paulatinamente, outras interações relevantes ao sistema como as perturbações do Sol (via problema restrito de quatro corpos), das marés, da pressão de radiação e do achatamento terrestre. Os resultados encontrados até o momento mostram que a perturbação do Sol é a única que reduz significativamente o tamanho das regiões de estabilidade. Também estamos investigando o comportamento de tais regiões quando características intrínsecas do sistema como as excentricidades das órbitas da Terra e da Lua e a inclinação da órbita Lua são consideradas. Com este estudo estamos reunindo informações que nos permitirão compreender a evolução das regiões de estabilidade no sistema Terra-Lua, bem como estabelecer parâmetros adequados para a utilização das trajetórias estáveis em futuras missões espaciais. Agradecimentos: Este projeto conta com o apoio do CNPq, da Capes e da Fapesp.

  4. [Long-term results of compression-osteosynthesis with three AO-screws for spongiosa in fractures of the femur-neck (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Penschuck, C; Zilch, H; Brenner, M

    1982-02-01

    Between 1969 and 1978 in 42 patients fractures of the femur-neck were treated with three AO-screws for spongiosa (screws with a short thread). Late results in these patients are reported. The interval between operation and follow-up was in average 90 months. In no case pseudarthrosis had developed; the rate of necrosis of the femur head was 23.8%. The method is suitable in selected cases of medial fractures of the femur-neck, type I and II, and in lateral fractures, preferably in younger patients. The results in fractures of type III according to Pauwels show, that in advanced age these fractures should be treated with a partial or total prosthesis, because the rate of necrosis of the femur-head cannot be lowered. PMID:7072000

  5. An extreme-AO search for giant planets around a white dwarf. VLT/SPHERE performance on a faint target GD 50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Ertel, S.; Wahhaj, Z.; Milli, J.; Scicluna, P.; Bertrang, G. H.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Little is known about the planetary systems around single white dwarfs, although there is strong evidence that they do exist. Aims: We performed a pilot study with the extreme-AO system on the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) on the Very Large Telescopes (VLT) to look for giant planets around a young white dwarf, GD 50. Methods: We were awarded science verification time on the new ESO instrument SPHERE. Observations were made with the InfraRed Dual-band Imager and Spectrograph in classical imaging mode in H band. Results: Despite the faintness of the target (14.2 mag in R band), the AO loop was closed and a strehl of 37% was reached in H band. No objects were detected around GD 50. We achieved a 5-sigma contrast of 6.2, 8.0, and 8.25 mag at 0.̋2, 0.̋4, and 0.̋6 and beyond, respectively. We exclude any substellar objects more massive than 4.0 MJ at 6.2 au, 2.9 MJ at 12.4 au, and 2.8 MJ at 18.6 au and beyond. This rivals the previous upper limit set by Spitzer. We further show that SPHERE is the most promising instrument available to search for close-in substellar objects around nearby white dwarfs. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program 60.A-9373(A).Figure 4 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Volcanic activity of Io observed in December 2001 with the Keck AO system: 2-5μ m sunlit and eclipse observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; de Pater, I.; Le Mignant, D.; Roe, H.; Fusco, T.; Graham, J. R.; Prange, R.; Macintosh, B.; Keck Science Team

    2002-09-01

    Volcanically active Io remains a mysterious and intriguing moon, despite numerous spacecraft flybys. Groundbased monitoring programs help characterize the time evolution of Io's volcanic activity, such as the frequency, spatial distribution and temperature of hot spots and outbursts. The satellite was observed intensively in December 2001 with the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system and its recently installed near-infrared camera NIRC2. The spatial resolution after applying the MISTRAL myopic deconvolution method (130 km in K band and 200 km in L band) is better than that of the global images from the Galileo/NIMS instrument. A movie produced from 12 pictures taken every 30o in Ionian longitude provides a complete survey of Io's surface during one full rotation. A total of 26 active hot spots were detected in L band (3.8μ m), and approximatively three times more in M band (4.7μ m). One active hot spot is seen in K band (2.2μ m) in the Pele area. While Io is in Jupiter's shadow, it is invisible to the wavefront sensor, but its hot spots are easily visible in the near-infrared. We imaged Io during the 18 Dec. 2001 eclipse using Ganymede (30" from Io, moving relative to Io at 0.5"/min) as a reference source. Although isoplanatic effects limited AO performance, numerous spots are detected at both K' and L'. We will show the results of detailed studies (temperature, emission area, nature) for several of the hot spots. Keck Science team is composed of S. Kwok, P. Amico, R. Campbell, F. Chaffee, A. Conrad, A. Contos, B. Goodrich, G. Hill, D. Sprayberry, P. Stomski, P. Wizinowich (W.M. Keck Observatory). This work has been supported in part by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST-9876783.

  7. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberransand L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus,Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, includingBathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropomaspecies. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  8. A Worldwide Analysis of the Reliability and Perceived Importance of an Injury to the Posterior Ligamentous Complex in AO Type A Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Gregory D.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Koerner, John D.; Oner, F. Cumhur; Fehlings, Michael G.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Kandziora, Frank; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of spine surgeons. Objective To determine the reliability with which international spine surgeons identify a posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) injury in a patient with a compression-type vertebral body fracture (type A). Methods A survey was sent to all AOSpine members from the six AO regions of the world. The survey consisted of 10 cases of type A fractures (2 subtype A1, 2 subtype A2, 3 subtype A3, and 3 subtype A4 fractures) with appropriate imaging (plain radiographs, computed tomography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and the respondent was asked to identify fractures with a PLC disruption, as well as to indicate if the integrity of the PLC would affect their treatment recommendation. Results Five hundred twenty-nine spine surgeons from all six AO regions of the world completed the survey. The overall interobserver reliability in determining the integrity of the PLC was slight (kappa = 0.11). No substantial regional or experiential difference was identified in determining PLC integrity or its absence; however, a regional difference was identified (p < 0.001) in how PLC integrity influenced the treatment of type A fractures. Conclusion The results of this survey indicate that there is only slight international reliability in determining the integrity of the PLC in type A fractures. Although the biomechanical importance of the PLC is not in doubt, the inability to reliably determine the integrity of the PLC may limit the utility of the M1 modifier in the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:26430591

  9. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two "golden basses" found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberrans and L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus, Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, including Bathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3-135 m, 30-150 m, 133-411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182-241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropoma species. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini. PMID:24899845

  10. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberrans and L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus, Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, including Bathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropoma species. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini. PMID:24899845

  11. Reconstruction of High Dynamic Range Images: Simulations of LBT Observations of a Stellar Jet, a Pathfinder Study for Future AO-Assisted Giant Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Camera, A.; Antoniucci, S.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Lorenzetti, D.; Nisini, B.; Arcidiacono, C.

    2014-02-01

    We present simulated Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) infrared narrow-band observations of a star-jet system, in conjunction with improved and optimized deconvolution and image reconstruction algorithms, considering two cases of interest: single-dish direct imaging with an AO-assisted camera and imaging through a Fizeau interferometer that combines the beams of the two mirrors of LBT. We aim at understanding what accuracy can be obtained with the use of present AO-assisted large telescopes (such as LBT) and what improvements an interferometric instrument (such as LINC-NIRVANA) will be able to provide. The proposed deconvolution method is based on the target decomposition as a sum of a point source (the star) and an extended source (the jet). By assuming Poisson noise we add to the negative logarithm of the likelihood a regularization term enforcing smoothness of the jet component. Finally, we use a Richardson-Lucy-like method for the minimization of this function. This approach is an improvement of a method proposed by Lucy in 1994 for accurate photometric restoration of HST images and called two channel photometric restoration. We denote the new method as the multi-component Richardson-Lucy (MC-RL) method. The analysis of the reconstructed objects shows that the MC-RL method applied to the interferometric observations allows us to evaluate the width and the spatial intensity profile of the jet down to 20 mas with an accuracy better than about 20% in the best case of a central star fainter than 10 mag. These limits allow us to obtain a very good reconstruction of the jet acceleration region very close to the exciting source, which would provide fundamental scientific information on the jet collimation degree and eventually on its launching mechanism. As concerns the proposed MC-RL method, it demonstrates a good performance in the reconstruction of images with a very high dynamic range. It can be improved in several directions, by increasing both its efficiency

  12. Summary Report of the First International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances and Workshop on AoA/Model Deformation Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping; Burner, Alpheus W.; Finley, Tom D.

    1998-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances was sponsored under the auspices of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), Hampton, Virginia. Held at the LaRC Reid Conference Center, the Symposium provided an open international forum for presentation, discussion, and exchange of technical information among wind tunnel test technique specialists and strain gauge balance designers. The Symposium also served to initiate organized professional activities among the participating and relevant international technical communities. The program included a panel discussion, technical paper sessions, tours of local facilities, and vendor exhibits. Over 130 delegates were in attendance from 15 countries. A steering committee was formed to plan a second international balance symposium tentatively scheduled to be hosted in the United Kingdom in 1998 or 1999. The Balance Symposium was followed bv the half-day, Workshop on Angle of Attack and Model Deformation on the afternoon of October 25. The thrust of the Workshop was to assess the state of the art in angle of attack (AoA) and model deformation measurement techniques and to discuss future developments.

  13. Electron spin resonance and radiocarbon dating of coral deposited by Holocene tsunami events on Curaçao, Bonaire and Aruba (Netherlands Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, Ulrich; Schellmann, Gerhard; Scheffers, Anja; Kelletat, Dieter; Kromer, Bernd; Uwe Kasper, Haino

    2003-05-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of coral has become an efficient geochronological tool for studying the last 500,000 years. This study presents results of ESR dating of Holocene coral from Curaçao, Bonaire and Aruba, Leeward Netherlands Antilles. The coral accumulated in rubble ridges and ramparts onshore and the depositional process is attributed to a series of tsunami events. In addition to the calculation of equivalent dose ( DE) values, it is crucial for ESR dating to obtain the correct D0 value for each sample. The annual dose rate ( D0) estimation of the samples in this study is uncertain as the timing of the tsunami event and the residence time of a component of the dated sediment in different environments (marine versus terrestrial) is difficult to quantify. Assuming that the tsunami event deposited coral shortly after death, the ESR and 14C ages of 22 samples reaching from 3650 to 128 years correspond well with each other. This confirms the idea that the living coral reef was partly destroyed by tsunami events. The ESR dating uncertainties coincide with the variability of 14C ages caused by the marine reservoir effect. The local marine reservoir effect was estimated using four recent samples from 1920 and provided values between 375 and 595 yr BP.

  14. Summary Report of the First International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances and Workshop on AoA/Model Deformation Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping; Burner, Alpheus W.; Finley, Tom D.

    1999-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances was sponsored under the auspices of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), Hampton, Virginia during October 22-25, 1996. Held at the LaRC Reid Conference Center, the Symposium provided an open international forum for presentation, discussion, and exchange of technical information among wind tunnel test technique specialists and strain gauge balance designers. The Symposium also served to initiate organized professional activities among the participating and relevant international technical communities. The program included a panel discussion, technical paper sessions, tours of local facilities, and vendor exhibits. Over 130 delegates were in attendance from 15 countries. A steering committee was formed to plan a second international balance symposium tentatively scheduled to be hosted in the United Kingdom in 1998 or 1999. The Balance Symposium was followed by the half-day Workshop on Angle of Attack and Model Deformation on the afternoon of October 25. The thrust of the Workshop was to assess the state of the art in angle of attack (AoA) and model deformation measurement techniques and to discuss future developments.

  15. Soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164 as a tracer of elemental abundances at z approximately 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madejski, Greg

    1994-01-01

    We report the soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lac object AO 0235+164, observed with the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC). This object (z = 0.94) has an intervening galaxy (or a protogalactic disk) at z = 0.524 present in the line of sight, producing both radio and optical absorption lines in the background BL Lac continuum. The X-ray spectrum exhibits a substantial soft X-ray cutoff, corresponding to several times that expected from our own Galaxy; we interpret that excess cutoff as due to the intervening galaxy. The comparison of the hydrogen column density inferred from the 21 cm radio data and the X-ray absorption allows, in principle, the determination of the elemental abundances in the intervening galaxy. However, the uncertainties in both the H I spin temperature and X-ray spectral parameters only loosely restrict these abundances to be 2 +/- 1 solar, which even at the lower limit appears higher than that inferred from studies of samples of optical absoprtion-line systems.

  16. Traditional healing practices originating in Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao: A review of the literature on psychiatry and Brua.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Poulina, Igmar T; van Gellecum, Trevor L; Hoek, Hans W

    2015-12-01

    Brua is an Afro-Caribbean religion and healing tradition from the southern part of the former Netherlands Antilles. Like other Caribbean healing traditions, it plays a significant role in shaping how individuals experience and express disorders which Western health professionals consider to require psychiatric care. Because little has been published on Brua, and because patients from Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao are often reluctant to discuss their commitment to this tradition, they are often misdiagnosed and either over- or undertreated by biomedically trained health professionals. The present paper provides a review of the literature on Brua and its relation to psychiatry. A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, the Ovid database, Google Scholar, and the historical literature. Our search yielded 35 texts on Brua, including three peer-reviewed scientific papers and eight academic theses. From those texts Brua emerges as a holistic patchwork of creolized beliefs and practices which are considered to be both cause and remedy for a wide variety of ailments. Despite the fact that tension between the Brua discourse and Western-oriented psychiatric practice is significant, adherence to Brua does not seem to cause much patient delay in help-seeking. However, belief in Brua as a possible source of mental and physical complaints, as well as patients' frequent recourse to Brua practices, including the use of hallucinogens, may affect the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. PMID:26062555

  17. New Extinction and Mass Estimates from Optical Photometry of the Very Low Mass Brown Dwarf Companion CT Chamaeleontis B with the Magellan AO System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Barman, Travis S.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Follette, Katherine B.; Bailey, Vanessa; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa

    2015-03-01

    We used the Magellan adaptive optics system and its VisAO CCD camera to image the young low mass brown dwarf companion CT Chamaeleontis B for the first time at visible wavelengths. We detect it at r', i', z', and YS . With our new photometry and T eff ~ 2500 K derived from the shape of its K-band spectrum, we find that CT Cha B has AV = 3.4 ± 1.1 mag, and a mass of 14-24 MJ according to the DUSTY evolutionary tracks and its 1-5 Myr age. The overluminosity of our r' detection indicates that the companion has significant Hα emission and a mass accretion rate ~6 × 10-10 M ⊙ yr-1, similar to some substellar companions. Proper motion analysis shows that another point source within 2'' of CT Cha A is not physical. This paper demonstrates how visible wavelength adaptive optics photometry (r', i', z', YS ) allows for a better estimate of extinction, luminosity, and mass accretion rate of young substellar companions. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  18. Effect of aeration rate on the emission of N2O in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (A/O SBRs).

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Li, Shanping; Xie, Huijun; Wang, Jinhe; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Yiran; Zhang, Huayong

    2010-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a significant greenhouse gas, and biological nitrogen removal systems have been shown to be a significant N(2)O source. To evaluate the control parameters for N(2)O emission in the wastewater treatment process, N(2)O emissions were compared in the activated sludge from anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (A/O SBRs) acclimated under different aeration rates, and fed with synthetic wastewater. Results showed that a higher aeration rate led to a smaller N(2)O emission, while reactors acclimated under mild aeration performed the best in terms of nitrogen removal efficiency. Most of the N(2)O was produced during the aerobic phase, regardless of the aeration rate. Trace studies showed that incomplete denitrification appeared to be the major process responsible for high N(2)O emission at a low aeration rate (Run 1), while incomplete nitrification was the reason for N(2)O emission at a higher aeration rate (Run 2 and Run 3). For enhancing the efficiency of nitrogen removal while lowering energy consumption and reducing N(2)O emission, the optimal aeration rate would be 2.7 L(air)/(L(reactor) . h), in terms of the synthetic wastewater used. PMID:20347772

  19. [Heavy metal accumulation during last hundred years and its assessment of potential ecological risk in the coastal wetland of Qi'ao Island, Pearl River Estuary of China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-jun; Ye, Xiang; Li, Tuan-jie; Huang, Cai-bin

    2011-05-01

    The processes of fine sediment transport and deposition can record some relative anthropogenic information in estuarine environments. Grain size analysis of the sediment core collected from coastal wetland of Qi'ao Island in the Pearl River Estuary of China show that the sediment is mainly composed by clayey silt, and the mean grain size, contents of clay and silt increase upward gradually. Chronology analysis show that the sedimentation rate above 59 cm is about 4.15 cm x a(-1), and 0.97 cm x a(-1) beneath 59 cm. Heavy metal analysis indicate that the contents of the each heavy metal increased slowly with a slight intensity of potential ecological risk; however, from 1966 to 1992, the heavy metal contents increased obviously because of the quick social-economy development around the Pearl River Estuary area, and the order of polluting degree of these heavy metals in core sediment is Cd > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. The potential ecological risk intensity of Cd increased from slight risk before 1966 to strong risk since 1992, and the potential ecological risk intensities other heavy metal are slight risk; the potential ecological risk index is weak level. The variations of core sediment heavy metal contents and its ecological risk assessments along the vertical profile reveal the interaction processes and intent of anthropogenic influences from the areas around the Pearl River Estuary and the catchments. PMID:21780584

  20. Long-term monitoring of the blazars AO 0235+164 and S5 0716+714 in the optical and radio ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkova, V. S.; Vol'vach, A. E.; Kardashev, N. S.; Larionov, M. G.; Vlasyuk, V. V.; Spiridonova, O. I.; Vol'vach, L. N.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.

    2015-09-01

    Long-term, multi-frequency optical and radio monitoring data for the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) AO 0235+164 and S5 0716+714 are used to derive the characteristics of their radiation on time scales from hours to decades. Structure-function and harmonic analyses are carried out to determine the parameters of the radiation of these AGNs and explain their physical characteristics. Periodic components that could be associated with the motion of companions along an orbit in a close binary system of two supermassive black holes are identified. Both of the analysis methods used yield consistent results for the harmonic components. The results obtained are consistent with the idea that we are viewing systems of two supermassive black holes in a stage of their evolution that is close to coalescence. The substantial energy release of these AGNs can be interpreted as dynamical losses arising during the motion of the companion about the common center of gravity in a dense accreting medium, sometimes crossing through the accretion disk.

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Di'ao Xin Xue Kang Capsule and Compound Danshen Tablet in Patients With Symptomatic Chronic Stable Angina

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanan; Hu, Siyuan; Li, Guoxin; Xue, Jie; Li, Zhuoming; Liu, Xiangling; Yang, Xiyan; Dong, Bo; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Shurong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Bingwei; Wang, Liying; Liu, Songshan; Chen, Qiguang; Shen, Chunti; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yongyan

    2014-01-01

    A high proportion of patients with stable angina remains symptomatic despite multiple treatment options. Di'ao Xinxuekang (XXK) capsule and Compound Danshen (CDS) tablet have been approved for treating angina pectoris for more than 20 years in China. We compare the anti-anginal effectiveness of XXK capsule and CDS tablet in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, superiority trial was conducted in 4 study sites. 733 patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina were included in the full analysis set. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients who were angina-free and the proportion of patients with normal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during 20 weeks treatment. Compared with CDS, XXK significantly increased the proportion of angina-free patients, but no significant difference was noted in the proportion of patients with normal ECG recordings. Weekly angina frequency and nitroglycerin use were significantly reduced with XXK versus CDS at week 20. Moreover, XXK also improved the quality of life of angina patients as measured by the SAQ score and Xueyu Zheng (a type of TCM syndrome) score. We demonstrate that XXK capsule is more effective for attenuating anginal symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina, compared with CDS tablet. PMID:25394847

  2. AMOR: a proposed cooperative effort to improve outcomes of childhood cancer in Central America.

    PubMed

    Antillon, Federico; Baez, Fulgencio L; Barr, Ronald; Barrantes Zamorra, Jose C; Carrasco, Ligia Fu; Moreno, Belgica; Bonilla, Miguel M; Tognoni, Gianni; Valsecch, Maria G; Howard, Scott; Ribeiro, Raul C; Masera, Giuseppe

    2005-08-01

    The dramatic reduction of pediatric cancer mortality rates has been one of the greatest accomplishments of contemporary medicine. About 80% of children with cancer are now expected to be cured by current therapies. However, most of the world's children have no access to cancer treatment. The translation of effective pediatric cancer therapies to impoverished regions of the world presents an enormous challenge to the health care profession. Over the past 20 years, efforts have been under way to extend adequate cancer treatment to an increasing number of children in developing countries. These initiatives, collectively designated "twinning programs," consist essentially of a partnership between a pediatric cancer unit in a developing country and a group of health care providers in the developed world. Here we review the twinning programs that have been implemented in Central America, discuss their impact on the development of local resources and the outcome of childhood cancer, and propose a collaborative research initiative aimed at improving the international dissemination of progress in pediatric hematology-oncology. PMID:15806545

  3. The Discursive Construction of (A)Moral Names: Religion versus Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Muhammed Shahriar; Abedin, Zainul

    2011-01-01

    Bangla, as spoken in Bangladesh, is inseparable from the nation itself. The language movement of 1952, where several people died, played a significant role in the independence and the birth of Bangladesh. In fact, on 17th November 1999, UNESCO immortalized the movement by proclaiming 21st February as the International Mother Language Day. Bangla,…

  4. Alienation, Servility and Amorality: Relating Gogol's Portrayal of Bureaupathology to an Accountability Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie; Lumby, Jacky

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the insights literature can bring to administrative and bureaucratic critique, focusing on the work of Nikolai Gogol. Gogol's satire of bureaucracy presages many subsequent social science analyses. These encompass the fundamental ruptures in society caused by a surfeit of bureaucracy in "The Nose" and, on a more psychological…

  5. Physical studies of Apollo-Amor asteroids - UBVRI photometry of 1036 Ganymed and 1627 Ivar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, G.; Magnusson, P.; Harris, A. W.; Young, J. W.; Belkora, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The 1036 Ganymed and 1627 Ivar photoelectric lightcurves presently discussed indicate in the former case a drastic lightcurve shape change, in conjunction with a significant increase of the synodic rotation period; a substantial change in viewing conditions during the apparition, and a complex interaction between these changes and the asteroid's irregular shape, are indicated by the change. In the latter asteroid's case, a prograde rotation rate is apparent in the observed decrease in synodic period. Both asteroids' phase curves exhibit deviations from the H-G magnitude system phase function at large phase angles.

  6. "Veinte poemas de amor y Canto general," Pablo Neruda. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and discover…

  7. On the Location of the gamma-Ray Outburst Emission in the BL Lacertae Object AO 0235 + 164 Through Observations Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gomez, Jose L.; Laehteenmaeki, Anne; Smith, Paul S.; Nilsson, Kari; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Aller, Margo F.; Heidt, Jochien; Gurwell, Mark; Thum, Clemens; Wehrle, Ann E.; Nikolashvili, Maria G.; Aller, Hugh D.; Benitez, Erika; Blinov, Dmitriy A.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Hiriart, David; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Joshi, Manasvita; Kimeridze, Givi N.; Kurtanidze, Omar M.; Kurtanidze, Sofia O.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array images at A = 7 mm with approx.0.15 milliarcsec resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7 mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary "core" and in the superluminal knot, both parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long timescales (months/ years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter timescales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.

  8. MOSE: a feasibility study for optical turbulence forecast with the Meso-Nh mesoscale model to support AO facilities at ESO sites (Paranal and Armazones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masciadri, Elena; Lascaux, Franck

    2012-07-01

    We present very encouraging preliminary results obtained in the context of the MOSE project, an on-going study aiming at investigating the feasibility of the forecast of the optical turbulence and meteorological parameters (in the free atmosphere as well as in the boundary and surface layer) at Cerro Paranal (site of the Very Large Telescope - VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the European Extremely Large Telescope - E-ELT), both in Chile. The study employs the Meso-Nh atmospheric mesoscale model and aims at supplying a tool for optical turbulence forecasts to support the scheduling of the scientific programs and the use of AO facilities at the VLT and the E-ELT. In this study we take advantage of the huge amount of measurements performed so far at Paranal and Armazones by ESO and the TMT consortium in the context of the site selection for the E-ELT and the TMT to constraint / validate the model. A detailed analysis of the model performances in reproducing the atmospheric parameters (T, V, p, H, ...) near the ground as well as in the free atmosphere, is critical and fundamental because the optical turbulence depends on most of these parameters. This approach permits us to provide an exhaustive and complete analysis of the model performances and to better define the model operational application. This also helps us to identify the sources of discrepancies with optical turbulence measurements (when they appear) and to discriminate between different origins of the problem: model parameterization, initial conditions, ... Preliminary results indicate a great accuracy of the model in reproducing most of the main meteorological parameters in statistical terms as well as in each individual night in the free atmosphere and in proximity of the surface. The study is co-funded by ESO and INAF-Arcetri (Italy).

  9. Processes controlling the seasonal and spatial variations in sulfate profiles in the pore water of the sediments surrounding Qi'ao Island, Pearl River Estuary, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zijun; Zhou, Huaiyang; Ren, Dezhang; Gao, Hang; Li, Jiangtao

    2015-04-01

    Marine sediments are the main sink for seawater sulfate and bacterial sulfate reduction is a major component of the global sulfur cycle. Nevertheless, the factors controlling sulfate reduction in the coastal estuary sediments that undergo spatial and temporal variations are still not fully understood. In this study, we measured the concentrations of SO42-, Cl-, CH4, and DIC, and the δ13C of DIC in the pore water of five sampling stations surrounding the Qi'ao Island, Pearl River Estuary, Southern China during the dry season in November 2011 and during the wet season in May 2012. The results showed that the dilution-mixing of the Pearl River with low-concentration sulfate significantly affects the downcore profiles of the sulfate concentrations in the pore water of these estuary sediments. During the wet season, the dilution-mixing of the layers from the top of the sediments to a depth of 14-18 cm occurred at the different sampling stations. In this layer, the sulfate reduction is not appreciable based on the plot of the pore water Cl- and SO42-. Below the dilution-mixing layers, however, sulfate reduction that is driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs. In our comparison, it appeared that the AOM played more important role in the consumption of the pore water sulfate in May 2012 than in November 2011. Meanwhile, we observed a relatively good correlation (r2=0.64) between the depth of the sulfate-methane interface (SMI) and the sulfate concentration in the pore water of the top sediments in dry season, indicating that the pore water sulfate concentration appears to be a primary controlling factor for the depth of the SMI in this estuary. These results highlight the need for an integrated analysis of the hydrologically driven the variations in the sulfate profiles to improve our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of C, Fe and S and their budgets in estuarine environments.

  10. Future changes in summer precipitation in regional climate simulations over the Korean peninsula forced by multi-RCP scenarios of HadGEM2-AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Jin, Chun-Sil; Kim, Gayoung; Choi, Yonghan; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Hong, Song-You; Min, Seung-Ki; Park, Seong-Chan; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the regional climate of the Korean Peninsula (KP) was dynamically downscaled using a high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) forced by multi- representative concentration pathways (RCP) scenarios of HadGEM2-AO, and changes in summer precipitation were investigated. Through the evaluation of the present climate, the RCM reasonably reproduced long-term climatology of summer precipitation over the KP, and captured the sub-seasonal evolution of Changma rain-band. In future projections, all RCP experiments using different RCP radiative forcings (i.e., RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 runs) simulated an increased summer precipitation over the KP. However, there were some differences in changing rates of summer precipitation among the RCP experiments. Future increases in summer precipitation were affected by future changes in moisture convergence and surface evaporation. Changing ranges in moisture convergences among RCP experiments were significantly larger than those in surface evaporation. This indicates that the uncertainty of changes in summer precipitation is related to the projection of the monsoon circulation, which determines the moisture convergence field through horizontal advection. Changes in the sub-seasonal evolution of Changma rain-band were inconsistent among RCP experiments. However, all experiments showed that Changma rain-band was enhanced during late June to early July, but it was weakened after mid-July due to the expansion of the western North Pacific subtropical high. These results indicate that precipitation intensity related to Changma rain-band will be increased, but its duration will be reduced in the future.

  11. Studies of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago water transport and its relationship to basin-local forcings: Results from AO-FVCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Gao, Guoping; Lai, Zhigang; Curry, Beth; Lee, Craig M.; Lin, Huichan; Qi, Jianhua; Xu, Qichun

    2016-06-01

    A high-resolution (up to 2 km), unstructured-grid, fully coupled Arctic sea ice-ocean Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (AO-FVCOM) was employed to simulate the flow and transport through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) over the period 1978-2013. The model-simulated CAA outflow flux was in reasonable agreement with the flux estimated based on measurements across Davis Strait, Nares Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Jones Sounds. The model was capable of reproducing the observed interannual variability in Davis Strait and Lancaster Sound. The simulated CAA outflow transport was highly correlated with the along-strait and cross-strait sea surface height (SSH) difference. Compared with the wind forcing, the sea level pressure (SLP) played a dominant role in establishing the SSH difference and the correlation of the CAA outflow with the cross-strait SSH difference can be explained by a simple geostrophic balance. The change in the simulated CAA outflow transport through Davis Strait showed a negative correlation with the net flux through Fram Strait. This correlation was related to the variation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the slope current over the Beaufort Sea and Greenland shelves. The different basin-scale surface forcings can increase the model uncertainty in the CAA outflow flux up to 15%. The daily adjustment of the model elevation to the satellite-derived SSH in the North Atlantic region outside Fram Strait could produce a larger North Atlantic inflow through west Svalbard and weaken the outflow from the Arctic Ocean through east Greenland.

  12. Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

  13. SPHERE eXtreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, C.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Fusco, T.; Sevin, A.; Suarez, M.; Costille, A.; Vigan, A.; Soenke, C.; Perret, D.; Rochat, S.; Barrufolo, A.; Salasnich, B.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Dohlen, K.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Wildi, F.; Kasper, M.; Conan, J.-M.; Kulcsár, C.; Raynaud, H.-F.

    2014-08-01

    The SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument is an ESO project aiming at the direct detection of extra-solar planets. SPHERE has been successfully integrated and tested in Europe end 2013 and has been re-integrated at Paranal in Chile early 2014 for a first light at the beginning of May. The heart of the SPHERE instrument is its eXtreme Adaptive Optics (XAO) SAXO (SPHERE AO for eXoplanet Observation) subsystem that provides extremely high correction of turbulence and very accurate stabilization of images for coronagraphic purpose. However, SAXO, as well as the overall instrument, must also provide constant operability overnights, ensuring robustness and autonomy. An original control scheme has been developed to satisfy this challenging dichotomy. It includes in particular both an Optimized Modal Gain Integrator (OMGI) to control the Deformable Mirror (DM) and a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control law to manage the tip-tilt (TT) mirror. LQG allows optimal estimation and prediction of turbulent angle of arrival but also of possible vibrations. A specific and unprecedented control scheme has been developed to continuously adapt and optimize LQG control ensuring a constant match to turbulence and vibrations characteristics. SPHERE is thus the first operational system implementing LQG, with automatic adjustment of its models. SAXO has demonstrated performance beyond expectations during tests in Europe, in spite of internal limitations. Very first results have been obtained on sky last May. We thus come back to SAXO control scheme, focusing in particular on the LQG based TT control and the various upgrades that have been made to enhance further the performance ensuring constant operability and robustness. We finally propose performance assessment based on in lab performance and first on sky results and discuss further possible improvements.

  14. Future changes in summer precipitation in regional climate simulations over the Korean Peninsula forced by multi-RCP scenarios of HadGEM2-AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Jin, Chun-Sil; Kim, Gayoung; Choi, Yonghan; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Hong, Song-You; Min, Seung-Ki; Park, Seong-Chan; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the regional climate of the Korean Peninsula (KP) was dynamically downscaled using a high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) forced by multi- representative concentration pathways (RCP) scenarios of HadGEM2-AO, and changes in summer precipitation were investigated. Through the evaluation of the present climate, the RCM reasonably reproduced long-term climatology of summer precipitation over the KP, and captured the sub-seasonal evolution of Changma rain-band. In future projections, all RCP experiments using different RCP radiative forcings (i.e., RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 runs) simulated an increased summer precipitation over the KP. However, there were some differences in changing rates of summer precipitation among the RCP experiments. Future increases in summer precipitation were affected by future changes in moisture convergence and surface evaporation. Changing ranges in moisture convergences among RCP experiments were significantly larger than those in surface evaporation. This indicates that the uncertainty of changes in summer precipitation is related to the projection of the monsoon circulation, which determines the moisture convergence field through horizontal advection. Changes in the sub-seasonal evolution of Changma rain-band were inconsistent among RCP experiments. However, all experiments showed that Changma rain-band was enhanced during late June to early July, but it was weakened after mid-July due to the expansion of the western North Pacific subtropical high. These results indicate that precipitation intensity related to Changma rain-band will be increased, but its duration will be reduced in the future.

  15. Using UPLC-QTOF-MS to analyze the chemical changes between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of San-Ao-Tang.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Qian, Yefei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, ErXin; Yao, Xin; Ma, Shiping

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, a chemical profiling approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS) was proposed to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of traditional medicine combinatorial formulae and validated using San-Ao-Tang (SAT) as a model combinatorial formula. SAT is an effective traditional Chinese medicine, which is usually used in treating asthma and other diseases of the respiratory system. Two decoctions were prepared: traditional decoction, which is a water extract of three mixed constituent herbs of SAT; and dispensing granule decoction, which is a mixed water extract of each individual herb of SAT. Batches of these two decoction samples were subjected to UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS analysis and the data sets of t(R)-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis to holistically compare their differences. Once a clear classification trend was found in the score plot, further statistics were performed to generate points at the two ends of S, and the components that correlated to these ions were regarded as the most changed components during decoction of the combinatorial formula. The changed components were identified by comparing the mass/ultraviolet spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formulae with those of the known compounds published in the literature. Using the proposed approach, global chemical differences were found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, like ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, licorice saponine H2, licorice saponine G2 and amygdalin. PMID:23572319

  16. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis among school girls of Chuang-Wei and Nan-Ao Districts in I-Lan County and Man-Chow District in Ping-Tung County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, D; Liu, H Y; Fan, P C

    1981-03-01

    By using the naked eye examination and comb method, a field survey and combing collection of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) among school girls in three different area (Man-Chow, Nan-Ao and Chuang-Wei) of Taiwan were performed from July 1979 to February, 1980. The general infestation rate of head louse was 39.8% (or 998/2,509). In the primary schools, comparatively, the rate at Man-Chow (66.7%) was highest, the next at Nan-Ao (55.4%) and the lowest at Chuang-Wei (39.4%). While in the junior high schools, the rate was apparently higher at Nan-Ao (38.4%) than that at Man-Chow (15.6%) and Chang-Wei (12.0%). The highest rate in the primary schools was found in 3rd graders except at Chuang-Wei in 5th graders. The corresponding figure in the junior high schools was found in 1st graders except at Nan-Ao in 2nd graders. Of 774 infested girls studied, according to the number of lice per infested girl, the percentages of infestation in the 5 groups were: the very light (nits only) 54.5, light (1-10) 38.5, moderate (11-50) 6.5, heavy (51-100) 0.4 and very heavy (over 100) 0.1 respectively. Of 2,178 head lice examined, 53.0% was nymphs; 28.7% females; 18.2% males. The average number of head louse in each infested girl 6.2. PMID:7261698

  17. Magellan Adaptive Optics First-light Observations of the Exoplanet β Pic b. II. 3-5 μm Direct Imaging with MagAO+Clio, and the Empirical Bolometric Luminosity of a Self-luminous Giant Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzinski, Katie M.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andy J.; Close, Laird M.; Hinz, Phil M.; Rodigas, T. J.; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Follette, Katherine B.; Kopon, Derek; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Wu, Ya-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Young giant exoplanets are a unique laboratory for understanding cool, low-gravity atmospheres. A quintessential example is the massive extrasolar planet β Pic b, which is 9 AU from and embedded in the debris disk of the young nearby A6V star β Pictoris. We observed the system with first light of the Magellan Adaptive Optics (MagAO) system. In Paper I we presented the first CCD detection of this planet with MagAO+VisAO. Here we present four MagAO+Clio images of β Pic b at 3.1 μm, 3.3 μm, L‧, and {M}\\prime , including the first observation in the fundamental CH4 band. To remove systematic errors from the spectral energy distribution (SED), we re-calibrate the literature photometry and combine it with our own data, for a total of 22 independent measurements at 16 passbands from 0.99 to 4.8 μm. Atmosphere models demonstrate the planet is cloudy but are degenerate in effective temperature and radius. The measured SED now covers >80% of the planet's energy, so we approach the bolometric luminosity empirically. We calculate the luminosity by extending the measured SED with a blackbody and integrating to find log({{L}}{bol}/{{L}}⊙ ) \\=\\-3.78+/- 0.03. From our bolometric luminosity and an age of 23 ± 3 Myr, hot-start evolutionary tracks give a mass of 12.7 ± 0.3 {{M}}{Jup}, radius of 1.45 ± 0.02 {{R}}{Jup}, and Teff of 1708 ± 23 K (model-dependent errors not included). Our empirically determined luminosity is in agreement with values from atmospheric models (typically -3.8 dex), but brighter than values from the field-dwarf bolometric correction (typically -3.9 dex), illustrating the limitations in comparing young exoplanets to old brown dwarfs.

  18. Constitutive activation of the fucAO operon and silencing of the divergently transcribed fucPIK operon by an IS5 element in Escherichia coli mutants selected for growth on L-1,2-propanediol.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y M; Lu, Z; Lin, E C

    1989-01-01

    L-1,2-Propanediol is an irretrievable end product of L-fucose fermentation by Escherichia coli. Selection for increased aerobic growth rate on propanediol results in the escalation of basal synthesis of the NAD+-linked oxidoreductase encoded by fucO, a member of the fuc regulon for the utilization of L-fucose. In general, when fucO becomes constitutively expressed, two other simultaneous changes occur: the fucA gene encoding fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase becomes constitutively expressed and the fucPIK operon encoding fucose permease, fucose isomerase, and fuculose kinase becomes noninducible. In the present study, we show that fucO and fucA form an operon which is divergently transcribed from the adjacent fucPIK operon. In propanediol-positive and fucose-negative mutants the cis-controlling region shared by the operons fucAO and fucPIK is lengthened by 1.2 kilobases. DNA hybridization identified the insertion element to be IS5. This element, always oriented in the same direction with the left end (the BglII end) proximal to fucA, apparently causes constitutive expression of fucAO and noninducibility of fucPIK. The DNA of the fucAO operon and a part of the adjacent fucP was sequenced. Images PMID:2553671

  19. Application of 'Six Sigma{sup TM}' and 'Design of Experiment' for Cementation - Recipe Development for Evaporator Concentrate for NPP Ling AO, Phase II (China) - 12555

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrmann, Henning; Perdue, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Cementation of radioactive waste is a common technology. The waste is mixed with cement and water and forms a stable, solid block. The physical properties like compression strength or low leach ability depends strongly on the cement recipe. Due to the fact that this waste cement mixture has to fulfill special requirements, a recipe development is necessary. The Six Sigma{sup TM}' DMAIC methodology, together with the Design of experiment (DoE) approach, was employed to optimize the process of a recipe development for cementation at the Ling Ao nuclear power plant (NPP) in China. The DMAIC offers a structured, systematical and traceable process to derive test parameters. The DoE test plans and statistical analysis is efficient regarding the amount of test runs and the benefit gain by getting a transfer function. A transfer function enables simulation which is useful to optimize the later process and being responsive to changes. The DoE method was successfully applied for developing a cementation recipe for both evaporator concentrate and resin waste in the plant. The key input parameters were determined, evaluated and the control of these parameters were included into the design. The applied Six Sigma{sup TM} tools can help to organize the thinking during the engineering process. Data are organized and clearly presented. Various variables can be limited to the most important ones. The Six Sigma{sup TM} tools help to make the thinking and decision process trace able. The tools can help to make data driven decisions (e.g. C and E Matrix). But the tools are not the only golden way. Results from scoring tools like the C and E Matrix need close review before using them. The DoE is an effective tool for generating test plans. DoE can be used with a small number of tests runs, but gives a valuable result from an engineering perspective in terms of a transfer function. The DoE prediction results, however, are only valid in the tested area. So a careful selection of input

  20. Comment on ``An enhanced polarization mechanism for the metal cations modified amorphous TiO2 based electrorheological materials'' by Qing Wu, Bin Yuan Zhao, Chen Fang and Ke Ao Hu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.-H.; Park, B. J.; Choi, H. J.

    2006-12-01

    Comments on a recent article on an enhanced polarization mechanism for the metal cations modified amorphous TiO2 based electrorheological materials are presented, based upon an examination of the yield stress, which is a function of electric-field strength, of the materials. Using the deduced critical electric-field strengths, we find that the universal yield stress equation proposed collapses the data given by Qing Wu, Bin Yuan Zhao, Chen Fang, Ke Ao Hu, Eur. Phys. J. E 17, 63 (2005), onto a single curve.

  1. Expression of Cry1Ac in transgenic tobacco plants under the control of a wound-inducible promoter (AoPR1) isolated from Asparagus officinalis to control Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Gulbitti-Onarici, Selma; Zaidi, Mohsin Abbas; Taga, Ibrahim; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-07-01

    Expression of cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was evaluated under the control of a wound-inducible AoPR1 promoter from Asparagus officinalis in transgenic tobacco plants. The leaves of transgenic plants were mechanically wounded to evaluate the activity of the AoPR1 promoter in driving the expression of Cry1Ac protein at the wound site. Our results indicate that mechanical wounding of transgenic plants was effective in inducing the expression of Cry1Ac protein. As a result of this induction, the accumulated levels of Cry1Ac protein increased during 6-72 h post-wounding period. The leaves of transgenic tobacco plants were evaluated for resistance against Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta in insect bioassays in two different ways. The detached tobacco leaves were either fed directly to the insect larvae or they were first mechanically wounded followed by a 72 h post-wounding feeding period. Complete protection of mechanically wounded leaves of transgenic plants was observed within 24 h of the bioassay. The leaves of transgenic plants fed directly (without pre-wounding) to the larvae achieved the same level of protection between 24 and 72 h of the bioassay. PMID:19353306

  2. Connectivity across the Caribbean Sea: DNA barcoding and morphology unite an enigmatic fish larva from the Florida straits with a new species of sea bass from deep reefs off Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Johnson, G David

    2014-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy, in which multiple disciplines are combined to address questions related to biological species diversity, is a valuable tool for identifying pelagic marine fish larvae and recognizing the existence of new fish species. Here we combine data from DNA barcoding, comparative morphology, and analysis of color patterns to identify an unusual fish larva from the Florida Straits and demonstrate that it is the pelagic larval phase of a previously undescribed species of Liopropoma sea bass from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. The larva is unique among larvae of the teleost family Serranidae, Tribe Liopropomini, in having seven elongate dorsal-fin spines. Adults of the new species are similar to the golden bass, Liopropoma aberrans, with which they have been confused, but they are distinct genetically and morphologically. The new species differs from all other western Atlantic liopropomins in having IX, 11 dorsal-fin rays and in having a unique color pattern-most notably the predominance of yellow pigment on the dorsal portion of the trunk, a pale to white body ventrally, and yellow spots scattered across both the dorsal and ventral portions of the trunk. Exploration of deep reefs to 300 m using a manned submersible off Curaçao is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species, improving our genetic databases, and greatly enhancing our understanding of deep-reef fish diversity in the southern Caribbean. Oh the mother and child reunion is only a moment away. Paul Simon. PMID:24825118

  3. Connectivity across the Caribbean Sea: DNA Barcoding and Morphology Unite an Enigmatic Fish Larva from the Florida Straits with a New Species of Sea Bass from Deep Reefs off Curaçao

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Johnson, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy, in which multiple disciplines are combined to address questions related to biological species diversity, is a valuable tool for identifying pelagic marine fish larvae and recognizing the existence of new fish species. Here we combine data from DNA barcoding, comparative morphology, and analysis of color patterns to identify an unusual fish larva from the Florida Straits and demonstrate that it is the pelagic larval phase of a previously undescribed species of Liopropoma sea bass from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. The larva is unique among larvae of the teleost family Serranidae, Tribe Liopropomini, in having seven elongate dorsal-fin spines. Adults of the new species are similar to the golden bass, Liopropoma aberrans, with which they have been confused, but they are distinct genetically and morphologically. The new species differs from all other western Atlantic liopropomins in having IX, 11 dorsal-fin rays and in having a unique color pattern–most notably the predominance of yellow pigment on the dorsal portion of the trunk, a pale to white body ventrally, and yellow spots scattered across both the dorsal and ventral portions of the trunk. Exploration of deep reefs to 300 m using a manned submersible off Curaçao is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species, improving our genetic databases, and greatly enhancing our understanding of deep-reef fish diversity in the southern Caribbean. Oh the mother and child reunion is only a moment away. Paul Simon. PMID:24825118

  4. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao

  5. "Tras de un Amoroso Lance" como Estructura Expresiva (The Poem, "Behind the Amorous Cast" as an Expressive Structure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratosevich, Nicolas

    1967-01-01

    An analysis of a poem by San Juan de la Cruz (St. John of the Cross), the sixteenth century Spanish mystic, identifies symbols and images, explains themes, and offers a synthesis of his structural patterns. The poem, "Tras de amoroso lance", deals with the theme of the search of the beloved (i.e., the soul) for the lover, and incorporates the…

  6. Neptunian Satellites observed with Keck AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Urata, R.; de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S.; Hammel, H. B.; Berthier, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Neptunian system was observed on 9 different nights between July 2002 and October 2003 with the 10-m Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and its facility instrument NIRC2 coupled with the Adaptive Optics system. Data were recorded in J (1.2μ m), and H (2.2μ m) bands. The angular resolution achieved on a one-minute integration time image is 0.50 arcsec, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 1100 km. The images display small structures such as the rings (de Pater et al. 2004), clouds in the atmosphere (Gibbard et al. 2003), and inner satellites, mainly Proteus, Larissa, Galatea, Despina, and Thalassa. On the 40 images, the positions and intensities of the satellites detected were accurately measured fitting the signal with a gaussian profile. The center of Neptune was obtained by fitting the disk position with an ellipse. After correcting for the detector distortion, we compared the satellite positions with the predicted ones delivered by several ephemerides. We used the JPL (NEP016 + NEP022 + DE405) and two IMCCE ephemerides, an old version (VSOP87+Owen et al., 1991) and a more recent one (DE405+Le Guyader et al., 1993). All cases, we confirmed the presence of an apparent shift between the predicted and the observed positions. Table 1 (see http://astron.berkeley.edu/ fmarchis/Science/Neptune/Satellites/) summarizes the mean distance of the shift for satellites most frequently observed and the various ephemerides. In this presentation, we will report the positions of the satellites, and present their color and possible photometric variations derived from the observations. This work has been partially supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST - 9876783.

  7. 6A-O-[(4-biphenylyl)acetyl]-alpha-, -beta-, and -gamma-cyclodextrins and 6A-deoxy-6A-[[(4-biphenylyl)acetyl]amino]-alpha-, -beta-, and -gamma-cyclodextrins: potential prodrugs for colon-specific delivery.

    PubMed

    Uekama, K; Minami, K; Hirayama, F

    1997-08-15

    Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are known to be fermented to small saccharides by colonic microflora, whereas they are only slightly hydrolyzable and thus are not easily absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. This property of CyDs is particularly useful for colon-specific delivery of drugs. In this study, an antiinflammatory 4-biphenylylacetic acid (BPAA) was selectively conjugated onto one of the primary hydroxyl groups of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CyDs through an ester or amide linkage, 6A-O-[(4-biphenylyl)acetyl[-alpha-, -beta-, and -gamma-CyDs (1-3) and 6A-deoxy-6A-[[(4-biphenylyl)acetyl]amino]-alpha-, -beta-, and -gamma-CyDs (4-6). In rat cecal and colonic contents (10%, w/v), 1 and 3 released more than 95% of BPAA within 1-2 h, and 2 released about 50% of the drug within 12 h. The amide prodrugs, 4-6, did not release BPAA in the cecal contents, but gave BPAA/maltose or BPAA/triose conjugates linked through an amide bond. On the other hand, these prodrugs were found to be stable in the contents of rat stomachs and small intestines, in intestinal or liver homogenates, and in rat blood. The serum levels of BPAA increased about 3 h after oral administration of 1 and 3 to rats, accompanying a marked increase in the serum levels, whereas 2 and 4-6 resulted in little increase of the serum levels. These facts suggest that BPAA is released after the ring opening of CyDs followed by the ester hydrolysis, and the BPAA activation takes place site-specifically in the cecum and colon. Therefore, the present CyD prodrug approach provides a versatile means of constructing a novel colon-specific drug delivery system. PMID:9276021

  8. Discovery of 2-(1H-indol-5-ylamino)-6-(2,4-difluorophenylsulfonyl)-8-methylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one (7ao) as a potent selective inhibitor of Polo like kinase 2 (PLK2).

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V Ramana; Akula, Balireddy; Jatiani, Shashidhar; Vasquez-Del Carpio, Rodrigo; Billa, Vinay K; Mallireddigari, Muralidhar R; Cosenza, Stephen C; Venkata Subbaiah, D R C; Bharathi, E Vijaya; Pallela, Venkat R; Ramkumar, Poornima; Jain, Rinku; Aggarwal, Aneel K; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2016-02-15

    Several families of protein kinases have been shown to play a critical role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, particularly progression through mitosis. These kinase families include the Aurora kinases, the Mps1 gene product and the Polo Like family of protein kinases (PLKs). The PLK family consists of five members and of these, the role of PLK1 in human cancer is well documented. PLK2 (SNK), which is highly homologous to PLK1, has been shown to play a critical role in centriole duplication and is also believed to play a regulatory role in the survival pathway by physically stabilizing the TSC1/2 complex in tumor cells under hypoxic conditions. As a part of our research program, we have developed a library of novel ATP mimetic chemotypes that are cytotoxic against a panel of cancer cell lines. We show that one of these chemotypes, the 6-arylsulfonyl pyridopyrimidinones, induces apoptosis of human tumor cell lines in nanomolar concentrations. The most potent of these compounds, 7ao, was found to be a highly specific inhibitor of PLK2 when profiled against a panel of 288 wild type, 55 mutant and 12 lipid kinases. Here, we describe the synthesis, structure activity relationship, in vitro kinase specificity and biological activity of the lead compound, 7ao. PMID:26762835

  9. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Glaucoma (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Schuman, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapidly evolving, robust technology that has profoundly changed the practice of ophthalmology. Spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) increases axial resolution 2- to 3-fold and scan speed 60- to 110-fold vs time domain OCT (TD-OCT). SD-OCT enables novel scanning, denser sampling, and 3-dimensional imaging. This thesis tests my hypothesis that SD-OCT improves reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity for glaucoma detection. Methods OCT progress is reviewed from invention onward, and future development is discussed. To test the hypothesis, TD-OCT and SD-OCT reproducibility and glaucoma discrimination are evaluated. Forty-one eyes of 21 subjects (SD-OCT) and 21 eyes of 21 subjects (TD-OCT) are studied to test retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement reproducibility. Forty eyes of 20 subjects (SD-OCT) and 21 eyes of 21 subjects (TD-OCT) are investigated to test macular parameter reproducibility. For both TD-OCT and SD-OCT, 83 eyes of 83 subjects are assessed to evaluate RNFL thickness and 74 eyes of 74 subjects to evaluate macular glaucoma discrimination. Results Compared to conventional TD-OCT, SD-OCT had statistically significantly better reproducibility in most sectoral macular thickness and peripapillary RNFL sectoral measurements. There was no statistically significant difference in overall mean macular or RNFL reproducibility, or between TD-OCT and SD-OCT glaucoma discrimination. Surprisingly, TD-OCT macular RNFL thickness showed glaucoma discrimination superior to SD-OCT. Conclusions At its current development state, SD-OCT shows better reproducibility than TD-OCT, but glaucoma discrimination is similar for TD-OCT and SD-OCT. Technological improvements are likely to enhance SD-OCT reproducibility, sensitivity, specificity, and utility, but these will require additional development. PMID:19277249

  10. Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy for Surface Eye Disease (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Fraunfelder, Frederick Web

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of new treatments with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on some external eye conditions. Methods In this retrospective case study, 6 separate series from a single tertiary care referral center practice are described. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was used to treat conjunctival amyloidosis, primary pterygia, recurrent pterygia, advancing wavelike epitheliopathy (AWLE), superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK), and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Results Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Two of them had recurrence of the amyloidosis, which cleared with subsequent treatment. Eighteen patients with primary pterygia had excision and cryotherapy with 1 recurrence. Of 6 subjects who presented with recurrent pterygia, 4 had a second recurrence after excision and cryotherapy. In 5 patients with AWLE, the condition resolved within 2 weeks without recurrence or the need for subsequent cryotherapy. Four patients with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Disease recurred in 2 patients and 3 of 7 eyes, although subsequent cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. Two patients and 3 eyelids with palpebral VKC were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. VKC recurred in all cases. Conclusions Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to the surface of the eye is effective in treating AWLE, and SLK. Excision followed by cryotherapy is successful in treating conjunctival amyloidosis and primary pterygia Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is unsuccessful in the treatment of recurrent pterygia and VKC. PMID:19277243

  11. An AO-assisted Variability Study of Four Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, R.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Strader, J.; Hakala, P.; Catelan, M.; Peacock, M. B.; Simunovic, M.

    2016-09-01

    The image-subtraction technique applied to study variable stars in globular clusters represented a leap in the number of new detections, with the drawback that many of these new light curves could not be transformed to magnitudes due to severe crowding. In this paper, we present observations of four Galactic globular clusters, M 2 (NGC 7089), M 10 (NGC 6254), M 80 (NGC 6093), and NGC 1261, taken with the ground-layer adaptive optics module at the SOAR Telescope, SAM. We show that the higher image quality provided by SAM allows for the calibration of the light curves of the great majority of the variables near the cores of these clusters as well as the detection of new variables, even in clusters where image-subtraction searches were already conducted. We report the discovery of 15 new variables in M 2 (12 RR Lyrae stars and 3 SX Phe stars), 12 new variables in M 10 (11 SX Phe and 1 long-period variable), and 1 new W UMa-type variable in NGC 1261. No new detections are found in M 80, but previous uncertain detections are confirmed and the corresponding light curves are calibrated into magnitudes. Additionally, based on the number of detected variables and new Hubble Space Telescope/UVIS photometry, we revisit a previous suggestion that M 80 may be the globular cluster with the richest population of blue stragglers in our Galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  12. Deconvolution-based super resolution for post-AO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbillet, Marcel; La Camera, Andrea; Chesneau, Olivier; Millour, Florentin; Girard, Julien; Prato, Marco

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents preliminary results on NACO/VLT images of close binary stars obtained by means of a Richardson-Lucy-based algorithm of super-resolution, where down to less than a half-resolution element is attained, and with confirmation from VLTI observations in one of the cases treated. A new gradient method, the scaled gradient projection (SGP), permitting the acceleration of the used method, is also tested with the same scope.

  13. Safety of Intravitreally Administered Recombinant Erythropoietin (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the safety and potential retinal toxicity of intravitreally administered erythropoietin (EPO) in a rodent animal model. Methods Forty-two healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into one of 7 groups (N = 6 per group): control, sham injection, vehicle injection, and EPO injections of 50 ng (5 U), 100 ng (10 U), 250 ng (25 U), and 625 ng (62.5 U). Only the right eye was treated in each animal. Standard full-field dark- and light-adapted electroretinography (ERG) was obtained at 1 day prior to injection and then on postinjection days 3, 7, 14, and 21. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured at the conclusion of each ERG recording. Animals were sacrificed and the eyes underwent histologic examination with light microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results Rod peak, scotopic, and photopic responses (amplitude and latency) were not statistically different in the animals receiving 50 to 100 ng EPO. In the 250-ng group, the photopic b-wave amplitude at day 21 was elevated (P <.05), whereas in the 625-ng group, the scotopic OP3 latency ratio was higher at baseline (P <.05). No significant histologic abnormalities were noted except for one animal (625-ng group) with qualitative differences in retinal layer thickness and cellular density. Conclusions Intravitreal administration of EPO (at doses up to 625 ng) does not cause adverse effects on retinal function as assessed by ERG. Moreover, single intravitreal dosing does not appear to elicit retinal neovascularization. Further investigation is warranted to assess fully the potential of this neuroprotective cytokine as a treatment for glaucoma. PMID:19277250

  14. Blazar AO 0235+164 brightens in optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Borman, G. A.; Jorstad, S. G.

    2014-08-01

    We perform optical photometric and polarimetric monitoring of selected gamma-ray blazars using 0.7-m AZT-8 telescope (Crimean Obs.,, Russia), LX-200 0.4-m telescope (St.Petersburg Univ., Russia) (see http://vo.astro.spbu.ru/program ) and 1.8-m Perkins telescope (Lowell Obs., AZ, USA) (http://www.bu.edu/blazars/VLBAproject.html ), partly in the frames of WEBT/GASP project.

  15. Contactless Large Deformable Mirrors: ELT AO corrector technology available now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele

    2011-09-01

    We present our design of ESO E-ELT M4 deformable mirror and GMT Adaptive Secondary Mirrors unit. Both systems are based on our consolidated design of large deformable mirrors for 8-m class telescopes, successfully implemented on MMT and LBT and currently in advanced construction and testing phase for VLT and Magellan telescopes respectively. We describe the main features of the technology adopted: thin Zerodur mirror shell with contactless voice coil motors, co-located capacitive sensors to close a local position loop at each actuator, centralized control by force feedforward, embedded real time control and communication electronics. We then highlight how the same concept has been scaled up on the E-ELT M4AU and the GMT-ASM cases, adapting the technology to deal with thousands of actuators, while maintaining its intrinsic advantages: tolerance to actuators' failures, mechanical de-coupling and relaxed tolerances between correcting mirror and reference structure, large stroke, hysteresis-free behavior. For the next generation systems, we report the predicted performances based on the actual results attained on our 1-m class DMs currently in use: the LBT adaptive secondary for the GMT-ASM and the 330 actuators Demonstration Prototype for the E-ELT M4AU.

  16. Titan Imagery with Keck AO during and after Probe Entry

    SciTech Connect

    de Pater, I; Adamkovics, M; Bouchez, A H; Brown, M E; Gibbard, S G; Marchis, F; Roe, H G; Schaller, E L; Young, E

    2006-02-03

    We present adaptive optics data from the 10-m W.M. Keck telescope that were taken during the time the Huygens probe descended through Titan's atmosphere, and on the days following touch-down. The spatial resolution of the images is typically {approx}0.04-inch, or {approx}240 km on Titan (60 km/pixel). No probe entry signal was detected at levels exceeding 0.8 {micro}Jy (3-{sigma}) per pixel (0.01-inch), which although within the range of predicted flux levels, cannot constrain any models. We present data on Titan's surface, troposphere and stratosphere during the days following probe entry, when the solar phase angle varied from 0.05{sup o} up to 0.8{sup o}, with the Sun in the West. Contrary to expectation, the data often showed the East side to be brightest. Adding data obtained with Keck and Gemini over the past few years reveals that the East-West asymmetry can be explained by a combination of the solar phase angle effect together with a general preponderance of haze on Titan's East or morning hemisphere. The troposphere was characterized by quiescent weather; only a few small clouds were present near the south pole, at typical altitudes of 30-40 km. While stratospheric haze was prominent over the northern hemisphere, tropospheric haze dominated the south, from the S. pole up to latitudes of {approx} -45{sup o}. An intriguing observation is that obtained at 1.22 {micro}m, which revealed haze in the form of a collar at -60{sup o}, in contrast to the polar haze cap as usually seen. A comparison of narrow band JHK images of Titan's surface with that obtained by Cassini ISS shows a striking resemblance in small-scale features. After a decent attempt to remove the atmosphere from the images, the surface contrast between dark and bright areas may be larger at 2 {micro}m than at 1.6 and 1.3 {micro}m. If true, this could imply that the dark areas on Titan's surface are covered by a coarser grained frost than the bright areas, and/or that there are more absorbers, such as NH{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}SH frost, in these dark areas.

  17. A process activity monitor for AOS/VS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckosky, R. A.; Lindley, S. W.; Chapman, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    With the ever increasing concern for computer security, users of computer systems are becoming more sensitive to unauthorized access. One of the initial security concerns for the Shuttle Management Information System was the problem of users leaving their workstations unattended while still connected to the system. This common habit was a concern for two reasons: it ties up resources unnecessarily and it opens the way for unauthorized access to the system. The Data General MV/10000 does not come equipped with an automatic time-out option on interactive peripherals. The purpose of this memorandum is to describe a system which monitors process activity on the system and disconnects those users who show no activity for some time quantum.

  18. Gene Transcription Profile of the Detached Retina (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Zacks, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Separation of the neurosensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) yields many morphologic and functional consequences, including death of the photoreceptor cells, Müller cell hypertrophy, and inner retinal rewiring. Many of these changes are due to the separation-induced activation of specific genes. In this work, we define the gene transcription profile within the retina as a function of time after detachment. We also define the early activation of kinases that might be responsible for the detachment-induced changes in gene transcription. Methods: Separation of the retina from the RPE was induced in Brown-Norway rats by the injection of 1% hyaluronic acid into the subretinal space. Retinas were harvested at 1, 7, and 28 days after separation. Gene transcription profiles for each time point were determined using the Affymetrix Rat 230A gene microarray chip. Transcription levels in detached retinas were compared to those of nondetached retinas with the BRB-ArrayTools Version 3.6.0 using a random variance analysis of variance (ANOVA) model. Confirmation of the significant transcriptional changes for a subset of the genes was performed using microfluidic quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. Kinase activation was explored using Western blot analysis to look for early phosphorylation of any of the 3 main families of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK): the p38 family, the Janus kinase family, and the p42/p44 family. Results: Retinas separated from the RPE showed extensive alterations in their gene transcription profile. Many of these changes were initiated as early as 1 day after separation, with significant increases by 7 days. ANOVA analysis defined 144 genes that had significantly altered transcription levels as a function of time after separation when setting a false discovery rate at ≤0.1. Confirmatory RT-PCR was performed on 51 of these 144 genes. Differential transcription detected on the microarray chip was confirmed by qRT-PCR for all 51 genes. Western blot analysis showed that the p42/p44 family of MAPK was phosphorylated within 2 hours of retinal-RPE separation. This phosphorylation was detachment-induced and could be inhibited by specific inhibitors of MAPK phosphorylation. Conclusions: Separation of the retina from the RPE induces significant alteration in the gene transcription profile within the retina. These profiles are not static, but change as a function of time after detachment. These gene transcription changes are preceded by the activation of the p42/p44 family of MAPK. This altered transcription may serve as the basis for many of the morphologic, biochemical, and functional changes seen within the detached retina. PMID:20126507

  19. Extreme AO Observations of Two Triple Asteroid Systems with SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Beauvalet, L.; Marchis, F.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M.; Nielsen, E. L.; Vachier, F.

    2016-04-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.

  20. FRIDA: the AO Second generation Instrument for GTC, Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, B.; Acosta, J.; Álvarez, L. C.; Bringas, V.; Cardiel, N.; Corrales, A.; Cuevas, S.; Chapa, O.; Díaz, J. J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; Garzón, F.; Hammersley, P.; Keiman, C.; Lara, G.; López, J. A.; López, P.; Lucero, D.; Moreno, H.; Pascual, S.; Patrón, J.; Prieto, A.; Rodríguez, A.; Uribe, J.; Watson, A.

    2013-05-01

    FRIDA (inFRrared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) is being designed as a diffraction limited instrument with broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy capabilities to operate in the wavelength range 0.9-2.4 μm. FRIDA is a collaborative project between the main GTC partners, namely, Spain, Mexico and University of Florida. The present paper provides an updated overview of the instrument development.

  1. Vacuum deposited optical coatings experiment (AO 138-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlier, Jean

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to test the optical behavior of 20 components and coatings subjected to space exposure. Most of them are commonly used for their reflective or transmittive properties in spaceborne optics. They consist in several kind of metallic and dielectric mirrors designed for the 0.12 to 10 microns spectrum, UV, and NIR bandpass filters, visible, and IR antireflecting coatings, visible/IR dichroic beam splitters, and visible beam splitter. The coatings were deposited on various substrates such as glasses, germanium, magnesium fluoride, quartz, zinc selenide, and kanigened aluminum. Several coating materials were used such as Al, Ag, Au, MgF2, LaF3, ThF3, ThF4, SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, MgO, Ge, and ZnSe. Five samples of each component were manufactured. Two flight samples were mounted in such a way that one was directly exposed to space and the other looking backwards. The same arrangement was used for the spare samples stored on ground in a box identical to the flight one and they were kept under vacuum during the LDEF mission. Finally, one set of reference components was stocked in a sealed box under a dry nitrogen atmosphere. By comparing the preflight and postflight optical performances of the five samples of each component, it is possible to detect the degradations due to the space exposure.

  2. Ruled and holographic gratings experiment (AO 138-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnemason, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Experiments on the the Long Duration Exposure Facility involving the study of the behavior of diffraction gratings, ruled replica, holographic, and ion etched masters with a long exposure to the space environment are discussed. To separate the metallic coatings compartment, some mirrors were added to the experiment. In order to be free from grating senescence on ground, one set of reference compounds was stored. Two sets of compounds were loaded, exposed, and shaded typed, in order to differentiate vacuum influences and sun illumination, cosmic dust, and radiation incidences. The investigation of possible damages was operated according to the fundamental triple point of view of wavefront flatness, absolute efficiency, and stray light level.

  3. Contrast analysis and stability on the ExAO testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J; Thomas, S; Gavel, D; Dillon, D; Macintosh, B

    2008-06-10

    High-contrast adaptive optics systems, such as those needed to image extrasolar planets, are known to require excellent wavefront control and diffraction suppression. The Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at UC Santa Cruz is investigating limits to high-contrast imaging in support of the Gemini Planet Imager. Previous contrast measurements were made with a simple single-opening prolate spheroid shaped pupil that produced a limited region of high-contrast, particularly when wavefront errors were corrected with the 1024-actuator Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror currently in use on the testbed. A more sophisticated shaped pupil is now being used that has a much larger region of interest facilitating a better understanding of high-contrast measurements. In particular we examine the effect of heat sources in the testbed on PSF stability. We find that rms image motion scales as 0.02 {lambda}/D per watt when the heat source is near the pupil plane. As a result heat sources of greater than 5 watts should be avoided near pupil planes for GPI. The safest place to introduce heat is near a focal plane. Heat also can effect the standard deviation of the high-contrast region but in the final instrument other sources of error should be more significant.

  4. Study of cosmic dust particles on board LDEF: The FRECOPA experiments AO138-1 and AO138-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandeville, J. C.; Borg, Janet

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments, within the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) and devoted to the detection of cosmic dust, were flown on the LDEF. A variety of sensors and collecting devices have made possible the study of impact processes on materials of technological interest. Preliminary examination of hypervelocity impact features gives valuable data on size distribution and nature of interplanetary dust particles in low earth orbit, within the 0.5 to 300 micrometer size range. Most of the events detected on the trailing face of LDEF are expected to be the result of impacts of meteoritic particles only. So far, chemical analysis of craters by EDS clearly shows evidence of elements (Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe) consistent with cosmic origin. Systematic occurrence of C and O in crater residues is an important result, to be compared with the existence of CHON particles detected in P-Halley comet nucleus. Crater size distribution is in good agreement with results from other dust experiments flown on LDEF. However, no crater smaller than 1.5 micron was observed, thus suggesting a cutoff in the near earth particle distribution. Possible origin and orbital evolution of micrometeoroids is discussed.

  5. The Interplanetary Network Supplement to the Fermi GBM Catalog - An AO-2 and AO-3 Guest Investigator Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, K.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Meegan, C.; von Kienlin, A.; Rau, A.; Zhang, X.; Golenetskii, S.; Aptekar, R.; Mazets, E.; Pal'shin, V.; Fredericks, D.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Boynton, W.; Fellows, C.; Harshman, K.; Starr, R.; Goldsten, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first two years of operation of the Fermi GBM, the 9-spacecraft Interplanetary Network (IPN) detected 158 GBM bursts with one or two distant spacecraft, and triangulated them to annuli or error boxes. Combining the IPN and GBM localizations leads to error boxes which are up to 4 orders of magnitude smaller than those of the GBM alone. These localizations comprise the IPN supplement to the GBM catalog, and they support a wide range of scientific investigations.

  6. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introducción al Estudio de la Astronomía en la Formación Inicial de Profesores de Física.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introdução ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formação Inicial de Professores de Física

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had. The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Este es el informe de una actividad para presentar un estudio introductorio de la Astronomía, desarrollado con una clase de futuros profesores de física en una universidad pública brasileña. Esta actividad tuvo como objetivo centrar las nociones de espacialidad, las concepciones alternativas de los participantes y el proceso de interacción entre pares, y consistió en la representación en un espacio tridimensional, de los modelos del universo que los participantes habían. Los resultados, que se clasificaron en universo miscelania, geocéntrico, heliocéntrico y acentrico, se analizaron cualitativamente. Son identificadas análisis de la actividad por los participantes, e hizo observaciones sobre su uso como recurso para la enseñanza de la astronomía y la formación de docentes. Trata-se do relato de uma atividade de introdução ao estudo da Astronomia, desenvolvida com uma turma de futuros professores de Física, em uma universidade pública brasileira. Tal atividade teve como meta privilegiar noções de espacialidade, as concepções alternativas dos participantes e o processo de interação entre pares e constou da representação, em um espaço tridimensional, dos

  7. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  8. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  9. Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies AO2, AO3 and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters AO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1998-01-01

    This final report uses ROSAT observations to analyze two different studies. These studies are: Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies; and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters.

  10. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  11. Study of meteoroid impact craters on various materials (AO 138-1). Attempt at dust debris collection with stacked detectors (AO 138-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandeville, Jean Claude

    1991-01-01

    Part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray allocated to French experiments, known as FRECOPA payload, was devoted to the study of dust particles. Two passive experiments were flown: one composed of a set of glass and metallic samples and one composed of multilayer thin foils detectors. In addition to these experiments, a broad variety of materials were exposed to the bombardment of microparticles and provide more data. Thick target experiment comprises selected metallic (Al, Au, Cu, W, Stainless Steel) 250 microns thick and glass surfaces 1.5 mm thick. Crater size distribution from these thick target experiments enable, with the aid of lab calibrations by solid particle accelerators, the evaluation of the incident microparticle flux in the near earth environment. The aim of the multiple foil penetration and collection experiment is primarily to study the feasibility of multilayer thin film detectors acting as energy sorters in order to collect micrometeoroids, if not in their original shape, at least as 'breakup' fragments suitable for chemical analysis. Foil thicknesses range from 0.75 to 5 microns of Al.

  12. A Ao ka Po A Po ke Ao (Until Night Becomes Day, Until Day Becomes Night): Revolution: A Journey of Self-Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, C. Mamo

    2013-01-01

    C. Mamo Kim is a Native Hawaiian leader and political activist in Hawai'i. In 1986 she began healing people of diseases from which their doctors had already pronounced they would be imminently dying or chronically doomed to suffer. By merely placing her hands on or near the body she was able to completely reverse the diseases or chronic…

  13. Key Learning Competencies across Place and Time: Kimihia Te Ara Totika, Hei Oranga Mo To Ao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Margaret; Peters, Sally; Davis, Keryn; Bartlett, Claire; Bashford, Nadine; Berry, Paula; Greenslade, Susie; Molloy, Sue; O'Connor, Nikki; Simpson, Mere; Smith, Yvonne; Williams, Tina; Wilson-Tukaki, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The overarching aim of this research in the proposal was the following: In a number of early childhood centres and early years school classrooms that have already begun to explore in this area, to investigate effective pedagogy designed to develop five learning competencies over time. This project was developed in response to curriculum reform in…

  14. Kinematics of the Central Kiloparsec in Cygnus A from AO Integral Field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylor, Kevin; Rude, G.; Medling, A.; Canalizo, G.; Max, C. E.; Antonucci, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    We present Keck Integral Field Unit observations and long-slit spectroscopy of the central regions of Cygnus A using laser guide star adaptive optics. Our near-IR images show a bi-conic structure clearly seen in Pa-alpha emission and a more flattened structure perpendicular to the axis of the radio jets that is only visible in H_2 emission. Both of these structures are strongly suggestive of an obscuring torus around a heavily extinguished quasar nucleus. We use the integral field spectroscopy to develop velocity maps and model the kinematics of the entire region. We thus set constraints on the torus geometry and obtain an estimate for the mass of the supermassive black hole.

  15. Use of Uas in a High Mountain Landscape: the Case of Gran Sommetta Rock Glacier (ao)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Delaloye, R.; Diotri, F.; Forlani, G.; Fornari, M.; Morra di Cella, U.; Pogliotti, P.; Roncella, R.; Santise, M.

    2015-08-01

    Photogrammetry has been used since long time to periodically control the evolution of landslides, either from aerial images as well as from ground. Landslides control and monitoring systems face a large variety of cases and situations: in hardly accessible environments, like glacial areas and high mountain locations, it is not simple finding a survey method and a measurement control system, which are capable to reliably assess, with low costs, the expected displacement and its accuracy. For this reason, the behaviour of these events presents the geologists and the surveyor each time with different challenges. The use of UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) represents, in this context, a recent and valid option to perform the data acquisition both in safety and quickly, avoiding hazards and risks for the operators while at the same time containing the costs. The paper presents an innovative monitoring system based on UAS-photogrammetry, GNSS survey and DSM change detection techniques to evaluate the Gran Sommetta rock glacier surface movements over the period 2012-2014. Since 2012, the surface movements of the glacier are monitored by ARPAVdA (a regional environmental protection agency) as a case study for the impact of climate change on high-mountain infrastructures. In such scenarios, in fact, a low-cost monitoring activity can provide important data to improve our knowledge about glacier dynamics connected to climate changes and to prevent risks in anthropic Alps areas. To evaluate the displacements of the rock glacier different techniques were proposed: the most reliable uses the orthophoto of the area and rely on a manual identification of corresponding features performed by a trained operator. To further limit the costs and improve the density of displacement information two automatic procedures were developed as well.

  16. XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory Guest Observer program (AO-1) at CASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.

    2003-01-01

    In this research program, we obtained and analyzed X-ray observations of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 110 (HD 165688) using the XMM-Newton space-based observatory. Radio observations were also obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope located in New Mexico and operated by the Natl. Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). This star was targeted for observations primarily because it is believed to be a single WR star without a companion. Single WR stars are thought to emit X-rays from cool plasma in shocks distributed throughout their powerful stellar winds. However, there has been little observational work done to test this idea since single WR stars are relatively weak X-ray sources and have been difficult to detect with previous generation telescopes. The launch of XMM-Newton provides a new telescope that is much more sensitive than its predecessors, allowing single WR stars to be studied in detail for the first time. X-ray emission was clearly detected from WR 110. Analysis of its spectrum yields a surprising result. Its X-ray emitting plasma is distributed over a range of temperatures and is dominated by relatively cool plasma with a characteristic temperature T is approximately 6 million K. Such plasma can be explained by existing theoretical wind shock models. However, the spectrum also shows hotter plasma whose temperature is uncertain but is thought to be in excess of T approximately 30 million K. The origin of this hotter plasma is yet unknown, but possible mechanisms are identified

  17. Delta XTE Spacecraft Solar Panel Deployment, Hangar AO at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The footage shows technicians in the clean room checking and adjusting the deployment mechanism of the solar panel for XTE spacecraft. Other scenes show several technicians making adjustments to software for deployment of the solar panels.

  18. First biological and dosimetric results of the free flyer biostack experiment AO015 on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitz, G.; Buecker, H.; Facius, R.; Horneck, G.; Schaeffer, M.; Schott, J. U.; Bayonove, J.; Beaujean, R.; Benton, E. V.; Delpoux, M.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of the Biostack Experiment are to study the effectiveness of the structured components of the cosmic radiation to bacterial spores, plant seeds, and animal cysts for a long duration spaceflight and to get dosimetric data such as particle fluences and spectra and total doses for the Long Duration Exposure Facility orbit. The configuration of the experiment packages allows the localization of the trajectory of the particles in each biological layer and to correlate the potential biological impairment or injury with the physical characteristics of the responsible particle. Although the Biostack Experiment was designed for a long duration flight of only nine months, most of the biological systems show a high hatching or germination rate. Some of the first observations are an increase of the mutation rate of embryonic lethals in the second generation of Arabidopsis seeds, somatic mutations, and a reduction of growth rates of corn plants and a reduction of life span of Artemia salina shrimps. The different passive detector systems are also in a good shape and give access to a proper dosimetric analysis. The results are summarized, and some aspects of future analysis are shown.

  19. Study of factors determining the radiation sensitivity of quartz crystal oscillators (AO189)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, J. S.; Venables, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Quartz resonators fabricated from two different grades of quartz material and selected for their susceptibility to radiation damage as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were tested prior to the LDEF flight. These resonators were then flown on the LDEF mission where they were exposed to the radiation environment of low Earth orbit. Post-flight tests were then conducted to determine any differences in resonator performance caused by the space exposure. Results of the TEM analysis of the quartz material and preflight and postflight measurements of the flight resonators and of the space and ground based control resonators are presented. Further planned work on the TEM analysis of the quartz materials will also be outlined.

  20. [Surgical management of bone metastases of the lower extremity with AO interlocking nail].

    PubMed

    Krawzak, H W; Heistermann, H P; Ibing, H P; Meffert, R; Hohlbach, G

    1996-01-01

    Between January 1991 and June 1995 we have operated on 19 patients (9 male, 10 female) with 22 skeletal metastases of the lower limb (19 femora, 3 tibiae) using a static interlocking nail. Closed intramedullary nailing without resection of the metastasis has been established as our standard procedure. We have stabilized 15 patients with advanced osteolysis and seven pathological fractures. Sixteen patients underwent postoperative local radiation therapy with 40 Gy. As intraoperative complications we have observed one fracture of an osteolysis and one death due to fat embolism. Postoperatively there were observed one seroma, one haematoma and one patient with non fatal pulmonary embolism following DVT. Two patients died within the first 30 postoperative days because of tumor progression. All patients surviving longer than 30 days could be mobilized under full weight-bearing. Morphine like analgetics for metastasis related pain were no longer needed. A secondary instability has not been observed within a mean survival time of 199 days (811 longest follow up). Closed intramedullary nailing in combination with postoperative local radiation therapy seems to be an appropriate and technically non demanding procedure to stabilize skeletal metastases of the lower limb in patients with a short or medium-term expectation of life. PMID:9027156

  1. Meridional variation in tropospheric methane on Titan observed with AO spectroscopy at Keck and VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Rojo, Patricio M.; Corlies, Paul; Barnes, Jason W.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Brown, Robert H.; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Clark, Roger N.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Sotin, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of the tropospheric methane on Titan was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Ground-based observations at 1.5 μm (H-band) were performed during the same night using instruments with adaptive optics at both the W.M. Keck Observatory and at the Paranal Observatory on 17 July 2014 UT. The integral field observations with SINFONI on the VLT covered the entire H-band at moderate resolving power, R = λ / Δλ ≈ 1500 , while the Keck observations were performed with NIRSPAO near 1.5525 μm at higher resolution, R ≈ 25, 000 . The moderate resolution observations are used for flux calibration and for the determination of model parameters that can be degenerate in the interpretation of high resolution spectra. Line-by-line calculations of CH4 and CH3D correlated k distributions from the HITRAN 2012 database were used, which incorporate revised line assignments near 1.5 μm . We fit the surface albedo and aerosol distributions in the VLT SINFONI observations that cover the entire H-band window and used these quantities to constrain the models of the high-resolution Keck NIRSPAO spectra when retrieving the methane abundances. Cassini VIMS images of the polar regions, acquired on 20 July 2014 UT, are used to validate the assumption that the opacity of tropospheric aerosol is relatively uniform below 10 km. We retrieved methane abundances at latitudes between 42°S and 80°N. The tropospheric methane in the Southern mid-latitudes was enhanced by a factor of ∼10-40% over the nominal profile that was measured using the GCMS on Huygens. The northern hemisphere had ∼90% of the nominal methane abundance up to polar latitudes (80°N). These measurements suggest that a source of saturated polar air is equilibrating with dryer conditions at lower latitudes.

  2. Effect of AO/UV/RD exposure on spaceborne diffusers: a comparative experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minjie; Si, Fuqi; Liu, Cheng; Lu, Yihuai; Wang, Yu; Wang, Shimei; Zeng, Yi; Jiang, Yu; Zhou, Haijin; Liu, Wenqing

    2015-11-01

    The environmental measuring instrument (EMI) is a nadir-viewing wide-field imaging spectrometer, which adopts spaceborne diffusers in in-flight calibration systems, including an aluminum diffuser and a quartz volume diffuser. Spaceborne diffusers, are the key components of in-flight calibration systems, and are used to introduce sunlight into the EMI. Hemispheric reflectance and bidirectional reflectance distribution function were experimentally measured to analyze spaceborne diffuser performance. Radiation exposure experiments on atomic oxygen, UV, and radiation dose of the spaceborne diffusers were performed at ground level because the EMI works in low Earth orbit space environments. Effects of radiation exposure on spaceborne diffusers were discussed in detail. Protective methods were introduced to reduce the effects of the space environment, and an in-orbit monitoring method was also proposed. PMID:26560568

  3. 76 FR 4726 - Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, Worldwide Services Group, Including Workers Whose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    .... The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 8, 2010 (75 FR 68622). At the request of... workers are related to the supply of service desk/help desk services providing the first level...

  4. Higher Irradiance and Photodynamic Therapy for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joan W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using verteporfin was the first pharmacologic therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration and changed the treatment paradigm for a major, blinding disease. The experimental work in the nonhuman primate was essential in developing treatment parameters for verteporfin PDT that could successfully occlude choroidal neovascularization with limited injury to the neural retina. Early in the preclinical primate studies, we hypothesized that higher irradiances could be used for ocular PDT than had been used in dermatology and other applications, which typically utilized an irradiance of 150 to 200 mW/cm2. We set out to test the feasibility of irradiances up to 1800 mW/cm2. Methods PDT was applied to normal monkey eyes using verteporfin/benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) (2 mg/kg) mixed with low-density lipoprotein in DMSO, and 692-nm light, with a spot size 1250μm, fluence approximately 50 J/cm2, and irradiance varying from 150 (treatment time, 6 minutes) to 1800 mW/cm2 (treatment time, 30 seconds). Photocoagulation lesions were applied using 514-nm and 692-nm laser light without drug, with irradiance of 18,750 to 200,000 mW/cm2 and spot size of 500 μm. Treatment effect was evaluated by fundus photography, angiography, and light and electron microscopy with collagen denaturation as a marker of thermal injury. Results Verteporfin/BPD PDT at irradiances of 150 to 1800 mW/cm2 showed no collagen denaturation in contrast to photocoagulation lesions without dye (irradiance 10-fold and higher). Conclusions Verteporfin PDT could safely be performed at higher irradiances, permitting a clinically practical therapy. Ultimately, clinical trials demonstrated that verteporfin PDT could limit moderate vision loss in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Although anti-VEGF therapy has replaced PDT as a first-line therapy, PDT may still have a role, perhaps in combination therapies. Further investigations to optimize drug delivery and to better understand the molecular mechanisms of PDT effects in both choroidal neovascularization and retina will improve its application in macular diseases. PMID:19277246

  5. M S MOLECULARES Rumo aos limites da miniaturiza o - (Molecular Magnets - towards the limits of miniaturization)

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Mario S; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F

    2010-01-01

    Por s culos, acreditou-se que o magnetismo s se manifestava em metais, como aqueles contendo ferro; hoje, a imagem mais comum de um m talvez seja a daquelas plaquinhas flex veis coladas geladeira com propagandas dos mais diversos tipos. O leitor conseguiria imaginar um material puramente org nico daqueles que formam os seres vivos como magn tico? E m s do tamanho de mol culas? fato: ambos existem. Esses novos materiais, conhecidos como magnetos moleculares, descobertos e desenvolvidos em v rios laborat rios do mundo, j re nem longa lista de aplica es, do tratamento do c ncer a refrigeradores ecol gicos, passando pela transmiss o de eletricidade sem perda de calor e a fabrica o de computadores extremamente velozes.

  6. Compositional analysis of projectile residues on LDEF instrument AO187-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Horz, F.

    1992-01-01

    Impact craters greater than 30 microns and associated projectile residues were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA). Objectives were to analyze a statistically significant number of projectiles to evaluate their chemical variability and possible clustering into discrete particle types. Bay A11 exposed six collector surfaces of anodized 1100-T4 (greater than 99 percent pure) aluminum sheets, 0.32 cm thick, yielding an exposed surface area of 1.1 sq. m. Four of the six panels have been retained at JSC, and were optically scanned, one (A11E00E) was prepared for SEM/EDX analysis. Bay A03 was occupied by high purity (99.99 percent) gold sheets, 0.5 mm thick, yielding an exposed surface area of 0.85 sq. m. Sample processing included the optical scanning (6X), labeling, and dislodging (by a punch-die device) of each individual impact greater than 75 microns for the aluminum and 30 microns for the gold. The 209 craters were dislodged form A11E00E, having crater diameters up to 3500 microns. Optical examination of the gold surfaces detected 238 craters, 198 of which were retained at JSC and analyzed via SEM/EDX. The analytical procedures included maximizing the geometric efficiency (take-off angles), using relatively long count times (500-1000 sec) and sufficiently high accelerating currents (25-30Kev). Despite diligent examination, a large number of craters did not exhibit measurable signals above background. Detectable resides were classified as either micrometeoritic or as man-made debris.

  7. Progress report on the ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment (AO178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A.; Osullivan, D.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) is based on a modular array of 192 side-viewing solid state nuclear track detector stacks. These stacks were mounted in sets of four in 48 pressure vessels employing sixteen peripheral Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) trays. The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced scientific yield from the UHCRE. The geometry factor for high energy cosmic ray nuclei, allowing for Earth shadowing, was 30 sq m-sr, giving a total exposure factor of 170 sq m-sr-y at an orbital inclination of 28.4 degrees. Scanning results indicate that about 3000 cosmic ray nuclei in the charge region with Z greater than 65 were collected. This sample is more than ten times the current world data in the field (taken to be the data set from the HEAO-3 mission plus that from the Ariel-6 mission) and is sufficient to provide the world's first statistically significant sample of actinide (Z greater than 88) cosmic rays. Results to date are presented including details of ultra-heavy cosmic ray nuclei, analysis of pre-flight and post-flight calibration events and details of track response in the context of detector temperature history. The integrated effect of all temperature and age related latent track variations cause a maximum charge shift of +/- 0.8 e for uranium and +/- 0.6 e for the platinum-lead group. The precision of charge assignment as a function of energy is derived and evidence for remarkably good charge resolution achieved in the UHCRE is considered. Astrophysical implications of the UHCRE charge spectrum are discussed.

  8. Hypervelocity impact microfoil perforations in the LEO space environment (LDEF, MAP AO-023 experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Stevenson, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Microabrasion Foil Experiment comprises arrays of frames, each supporting two layers of closely spaced metallic foils and a back-stop plate. The arrays, deploying aluminum and brass foil ranging from 1.5 to some 30 microns were exposed for 5.78 years on NASA's LDEF at a mean altitude of 458 km. They were deployed on the North, South, East, West, and Space pointing faces; results presented comprise the perforation rates for each location as a function of foil thickness. Initial results refer primarily to aluminum of 5 microns thickness or greater. This penetration distribution, comprising 2,342 perforations in total, shows significantly differing characteristics for each detector face. The anisotropy confirms, incorporating the dynamics of particulate orbital mechanics, the dominance of incorporating extraterrestrial particulates penetrating thicknesses greater than 20 microns in Al foil, yielding fluxes compatible with hyperbolic geocentric velocities. For thinner foils, a disproportionate increase in flux of particles on the East, North, and South faces shows the presence of orbital particulates which exceed the extraterrestrial component perforation rate at 5 micron foil thickness by a factor of approx. 4.

  9. "Assurance of Learning (AoL) Methods Just Have to Be Good Enough"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Business, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Kathryn Martell (PhD, University of Maryland; BA, University of Chicago) is Associate Dean of the School of Business and Professor of Management at Montclair State University. Prior to 2002, she was Associate Dean for Academic Affairs at the School of Business at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville (1999-2002). Since the new accreditation…

  10. New Frontiers AO: Advanced Materials Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) Engine Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry C.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Material Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) engine is a high performance (I(sub sp)), higher thrust, radiation cooled, storable bi-propellant space engine of the same physical envelope as the High Performance Apogee Thruster (HiPAT(TradeMark)). To provide further information about the AMBR engine, this document provides details on performance, development, mission implementation, key spacecraft integration considerations, project participants and approach, contact information, system specifications, and a list of references. The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) leads the technology development of the AMBR engine. Their NASA partners were Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Aerojet leads the industrial partners selected competitively for the technology development via the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process.

  11. Resposta do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg ao "ringdown" de buraco negros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, C. A.; Aguiar, O. D.; Magalhães, N. S.

    2003-08-01

    Acredita-se que quando duas estrelas de nêutrons coalescem, elas, eventualmente, formam um buraco negro com massa igual a soma das massas dos objetos originais. Durante a formação do buraco negro, o espaço-tempo em torno do sistema sofre perturbações que se propagam na forma de radiação gravitacional. A forma de onda associada a radiação gravitacional, durante este estágio, aproxima-se a uma senóide exponencialmente amortecida. Este tipo de sinal é conhecido como "ringdown", e seu comportamento e parametrização são muito bem conhecidos. Neste trabalho, simulamos computacionalmente sinais provenientes do "ringdown" de buracos negros, com a finalidade de testar o desempenho do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg em observá-los, quando entrar em funcionamento. Este primeiro teste teórico ajudou-nos a criar estratégias de detecção de sinais imersos no ruído instrumental. Calculamos a relação sinal-ruído como uma função da frequência, bem como sua integral dentro da faixa de sensibilidade do detector. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o detector Schenberg terá sensibilidade suficiente para detectar este tipo de sinal, proveniente de fontes astrofísicas localizadas dentro de um raio de ~100kpc.

  12. Using MASS for AO simulations: a note on the comparison between MASS and Generalized SCIDAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, G.; Sarazin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on the comparison between the Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) and Generalized Scintillation Detection and Ranging (G-SCIDAR) profiler techniques have suggested significant discrepancies between the results delivered by the two instruments. MASS has been largely used in the recent site testing campaigns for the future next generation giant telescopes [i.e. the European Extremely Large Telescope, the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)] and is still used to monitor the conditions of world-class astronomical sites, as well as to deliver free atmosphere turbulence profiles to feed Adaptive Optics performance simulations. In this paper, we explore a different approach in the comparison between MASS and Generalized SCIDAR techniques with respect to previous studies, in order to provide a method for the use of the MASS data bases accumulated at European Southern Obseratory Paranal Observatory in Adaptive Optics simulations.

  13. Preliminary performance analysis of the Multi-Conjugate AO system of the EST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, Icíar; Béchet, Clémentine; Langlois, Maud; Tallon, Michel; Collados, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST), a 4-meter diameter world-class facility, has been designed to measure the properties of the solar magnetic field with great accuracy and high spatial resolution. For that reason, it incorporates an innovative built-in Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system (MCAO), featuring 4 high altitude DM's. It combines a narrow field high order wavefront sensor, providing the information to correct the ground layer, and a wide field lower order sensor to control the higher altitude mirrors. Using sensors collecting wide field of view information has several implications, i.e. it averages wavefront information from different sky directions, making the Strehl ratio to drop for low elevation observations. So far these effects have not been studied in MCAO. We analyze this effect by using the Fractal Iterative Method (FrIM), which incorporates a wide field Shack-Hartmann, and we performed end to end simulations of the EST MCAO system to analyze the performance of this system for a large range of elevations, as required in solar observations, and depending on the asterism geometry and number and height of DM's, in order to find the best system configuration.

  14. Ku I Ke Ao: Hawaiian Cultural Identity and Student Progress at Kamehameha Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stender, Robert Holoua

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between Hawaiian cultural identity and student progress at Kamehameha Elementary School (KES) is the focal point of this study. As the student demographics continue to evolve at Kamehameha Schools, most recently with increasing numbers of children coming from orphan and indigent backgrounds, teachers want greater understanding of…

  15. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF PHOSTRIP, A/O, AND BARDENPHO PROCESSES FOR BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An engineering evaluation of three proprietary processes for biological removal of phosphorus from municipal wastewater was conducted. The report presents for each process: Technology description; Technology evaluation; Development status; Equivalent technologies comparison; Asse...

  16. The Orbit of 617 Patroclus Binary Trojan System from Keck LGS AO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Hestroffer, D.; Descamps, P.; Berthier, J.; Bouchez, A. H.; Campbell, R. D.; Chin, J. C. Y.; van Dam, M. A.; Hartman, S. K.; Johansson, E. M.; Lafon, R. E.; Le Mignant, D.; de Pater, I.; Stomski, P. J.; Summers, D. M.; Wizinovitch, P. L.; Wong, M. H.

    2005-08-01

    We report the results from Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics observations in 2004-2005 of 617 Patroclus using the NIRC2 camera at the W. M. Keck Observatory. An observing campaign which focuses on this only known binary Trojan asteroid, was initiated by our group. Both components of the system were detected at 5 different epochs between Nov. 2004 and May 2005 with an angular separation between 45 and 190 mas and a Dm ˜0.17. The orbital parameters were estimated independently using two algorithms, a Monte-Carlo technique (Hestroffer and Vachier, IAU-ACM, 2005), and a visual binary method (Descamps, Cel. Mech., 2005): a= 685±40 km, e = 0.02±0.02, P = 4.287±0.002 or P= 2.391±0.003 corresponding to a total mass of 1.4 x 1018 or 4.3 x 1018 ± 0.2 kg. Considering recent radiometric measurements by Fernandez et al., (AJ, 126, 2003), the radii of components would be R1= 60.9 km and R2=56.3 km (error ˜1.6 km and with η =0.94), leading to an averaged bulk density of 0.8 or 2.6 ±0.1 g/cm3. The factor of ˜2 uncertainty in the period will be removed using additional observations from CADC archive (in progress). In contrast to what was observed for a Kuiper-belt binary system (1998WW31 in Veillet et al., Nature, 2002), the low eccentricity is more common of main-belt binaries, indicating that dissipation effects must be considered. This work was partly supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics and a KPAC NASA grant.

  17. The Role of Omega-3 Dietary Supplementation in Blepharitis and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Macsai, Marian S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) are common sources of complaints from patients. To evaluate the effect on ocular symptoms, ocular findings, and serum and meibomian gland contents, patients with blepharitis and MGD were prospectively evaluated to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Methods In a prospective randomized placebo-controlled masked trial, patients with simple obstructive MGD and blepharitis, who had discontinued all topical medications and tetracyclines, received oral omega-3 dietary supplementation consisting of two 1000-mg capsules 3 times a day. Patients were examined every 3 months for 1 year with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) objective clinical measures, including tear production and stability, ocular surface and meibomian gland health, and biochemical plasma, red blood cell (RBC), and meibum evaluation. Primary outcome measures were change in tear breakup time (TBUT), meibum score, and overall OSDI score at 1 year. Results At 1 year, the omega-3 group had a 36% and 31% reduction in their omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios in RBCs and plasma, respectively (P = .3), whereas the placebo group demonstrated no change. At 12 months, the omega-3 group had an improvement in TBUT, OSDI score, and meibum score. Changes in meibum content were observed in the omega-3 group (P = .21); the level of meibum saturated fatty acids decreased. Conclusions This trial demonstrated a decrease in the RBC and plasma ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 in patients taking omega-3 dietary supplementation, as compared to controls, and improvements in their overall OSDI score, TBUT, and meibum score. This is the first demonstration of an induced change in the fatty acid saturation content in meibum as a result of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19277245

  18. Experimental study of AO and T1 modes of the concert harp.

    PubMed

    Le Carrou, J L; Gautier, F; Foltête, E

    2007-01-01

    String instruments are usually composed of a set of strings, a soundboard, and a soundbox with sound holes, which is generally designed to increase the sound level by using the acoustic resonances of the cavity. In the case of the harp, the soundbox and especially the sound holes are primarily designed to allow access to the strings for their mounting. An experimental modal analysis, associated to measurements of the acoustic velocity in the holes, shows the importance of two particular modes labeled A0 and T1 as it was done for the guitar and the violin. Their mode shapes involve coupled motions of the soundboard's bending and of the oscillations of the air pistons located in the sound holes. The A0 mode is found above the frequency of the lowest acoustically significant structural mode T1. Thus, the instrument does not really take advantage of the soundbox resonance to increase its radiated sound in low frequencies. However, contribution of mode A0 is clearly visible in the response of the instrument, confirming the importance of the coupling between the soundboard and the cavity. PMID:17297809

  19. End-to-end communication test on variable length packet structures utilizing AOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warner H.; Sank, V.; Fong, Wai; Miko, J.; Powers, M.; Folk, John; Conaway, B.; Michael, K.; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a communication test, which successfully demonstrated the transfer of losslessly compressed images in an end-to-end system. These compressed images were first formatted into variable length Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packets in the Advanced Orbiting System Testbed (AOST). The CCSDS data Structures were transferred from the AOST to the Radio Frequency Simulations Operations Center (RFSOC), via a fiber optic link, where data was then transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The received data acquired at the White Sands Complex (WSC) was transferred back to the AOST where the data was captured and decompressed back to the original images. This paper describes the compression algorithm, the AOST configuration, key flight components, data formats, and the communication link characteristics and test results.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A FAINT COMPANION TO ALCOR USING MMT/AO 5 {mu}m IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Mamajek, Eric E.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Hinz, Philip M.; Meyer, Michael R.

    2010-03-15

    We report the detection of a faint stellar companion to the famous nearby A5V star Alcor (80 UMa). The companion has M-band ({lambda} = 4.8 {mu}m) magnitude 8.8 and projected separation 1.''11 (28 AU) from Alcor. The companion is most likely a low-mass ({approx}0.3 M {sub sun}) active star which is responsible for Alcor's X-ray emission detected by ROSAT (L {sub X} {approx_equal} 10{sup 28.3} erg s{sup -1}). Alcor is a nuclear member of the Ursa Major star cluster (UMa; d {approx_equal} 25 pc, age {approx_equal} 0.5 Gyr), and has been occasionally mentioned as a possible distant (709'') companion of the stellar quadruple Mizar ({zeta} UMa). Comparing the revised Hipparcos proper motion for Alcor with the mean motion for other UMa nuclear members shows that Alcor has a peculiar velocity of 1.1 km s{sup -1}, which is comparable to the predicted velocity amplitude induced by the newly discovered companion ({approx}1 km s{sup -1}). Using a precise dynamical parallax for Mizar and the revised Hipparcos parallax for Alcor, we find that Mizar and Alcor are physically separated by 0.36 {+-} 0.19 pc (74 {+-} 39 kAU; minimum 18 kAU), and their velocity vectors are marginally consistent ({chi}{sup 2} probability 6%). Given their close proximity and concordant motions we suggest that the Mizar quadruple and the Alcor binary be together considered the second closest stellar sextuplet. The addition of Mizar-Alcor to the census of stellar multiples with six or more components effectively doubles the local density of such systems within the local volume (d < 40 pc)

  1. Foil perforation particulate impact records on LDEF MAP AO023: Incident mass distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Sullivan, K.

    1991-01-01

    An array of multiple foils varying from 1.5 to 3.0 microns exposed on Long Duration Exposure Facility's (LEDF's) geocentrically stabilized exposure platform provides perforation distributions which relate to particulate flux mass distributions and impact velocity in LDEF's orbital reference frame. The application of physical modeling enables a preliminary separation into orbital and interplanetary components, both of which have differing velocities and hence penetration effectiveness. Thin foil hypervelocity calibration data and parametric penetration formulae developed to relate target hole diameter to projectile dimensions are critically examined and a new formula offered for the ballistic limit situation. Incorporating projectile density, target density, and target strength and dimensional scaling from submicron particulates to centimeter scale data, it contrast very significantly with previous formulae in the interpretation of space impact data. Perforation flux distributions for the leading, trailing, and space pointing faces and associated mass distributions for the two populations are presented.

  2. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    , al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  3. Curiosity Is Not Good--But It's Not Bad, Either

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, David

    2012-01-01

    Curiosity is vital quality of the creative work. However, in the classroom, educators seem to view curiosity as alternately amoral, virtuous, or dangerous. Education's stance towards curiosity is, in a word, curious. Conversely, the author says, curiosity is inherently amoral--neither good nor bad--and the subject is ripe for an exploration of the…

  4. 76 FR 40983 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TANTO AMOR. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel TANTO AMOR is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel:...

  5. Microwelding (or cold-welding) of various metallic materials under the ultra-vacuum LDEF experiment AO 138-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assie, Jean-Pierre; Conde, Eric

    1992-01-01

    The FRECOPA experimentation, as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission, of mechanical and electrical parts of spacecraft in space ultra-vacuum has demonstrated freedom from any cold welding including microweld effects. This, as theorized, is due to integrity in space of the earthly grown oxygen layer. A further experimentation, a dynamic one this time, could provide a wealth of scientific data, yielding reliable material selecting criteria.

  6. Effects of ultra-vacuum and space environment on contact ohmic resistance: LDEF experiment AO 138-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assie, Jean-Pierre; Perotto, Alfred

    1992-01-01

    The FRECOPA experimentation of chemical resistance of electrical connector contacts, as described, has evidenced the detrimental time variations of nickel plated conductors and gilded copper contacts, irrespective of crimping storage or metal peening conditions. With a view to reorient aluminum technology a silvered aluminum conductor/gilded aluminum contact solution was evaluated.

  7. Recent Evolution of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay as seen by ALOS AVNIR-2 Data (ADEN AO 3643)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroin, Jean-Paul; Bilaudeau, Clelia; Deffontaines, Benoit

    2008-11-01

    The ALOS AVNIR-2 scene acquired on October 24, 2007 has been used for drawing a new map of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay. This area is characterised by a large dry-fallen tidal flat, one of the largest in the world. The tidal records indicate that the ALOS datatake was acquired in favorable conditions, the elevation of the sea at 2.56 m being very close to the theoretical minimum value (about 2.30 m). In these conditions, the largest tidal flat observed by a sun-synchronous satellite on the Mont Saint-Michel Bay is exposed.

  8. A Keck LGS AO Search for Brown Dwarf and Planetary Mass Companions to Upper Scorpius Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth; Allers, Katelyn; Liu, Michael; Close, Laird M.; Dupuy, Trent

    2011-03-01

    We searched for binary companions to 20 young brown dwarfs in the Upper Scorpius association (145 pc, 5 Myr, nearest OB association) with the Laser Guide Star adaptive optics system and the facility infrared camera NIRC2 on the 10 m Keck II telescope. We discovered a 0farcs14 companion (20.9 ± 0.4 AU) to the <0.1 M sun object SCH J16091837-20073523. From spectral deconvolution of integrated-light near-IR spectroscopy of SCH1609 using the SpeX spectrograph (Rayner et al. 2003), we estimate primary and secondary spectral types of M6 ± 0.5 and M7 ± 1.0, corresponding to masses of 79 ± 17 M Jup and 55 ± 25 M Jup at an age of 5 Myr and masses of 84 ± 15 M Jup and 60 ± 25 M Jup at an age of 10 Myr. For our survey objects with spectral types later than M8, we find an upper limit on the binary fraction of <9% (1σ) at separations of 10-500 AU. We combine the results of our survey with previous surveys of Upper Sco and similar young regions to set the strongest constraints to date on binary fraction for young substellar objects and very low mass stars. The binary fraction for low-mass (<40 M Jup) brown dwarfs in Upper Sco is similar to that for T dwarfs in the field; for higher mass brown dwarfs and very low mass stars, there is an excess of medium-separation (10-50 AU projected separation) young binaries with respect to the field. These medium-separation binaries will likely survive to late ages.

  9. 76 FR 54928 - Export Administration Regulations: Netherlands Antilles, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Timor-Leste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Notices, the most recent being that of August 12, 2010, 75 FR 50681 (August 16, 2010) has continued the....S.C. app. 5; 22 U.S.C. 7201 et seq.; 22 U.S.C. 7210; E.O. 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 228; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783; Notice of August 12, 2011, 76 FR...

  10. Optical design of FRIDA, the integral-field spectrograph and imager for the AO system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sánchez, Beatriz; Chapa, Oscar; Espejo, Carlos; Flores-Meza, Rubén; Lara, Gerardo; Álvarez, Luis C.; Keiman, Carolina

    2008-07-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS) capabilities with low, intermediate and high spectral resolutions to operate in the wavelength range 0.9 - 2.5 μm. The integral field unit is based on a monolithic image slicer based on the University of Florida FISICA. Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Rockwell 2K×2K detector. FRIDA will be based at a Nasmyth focus of GTC, behind the GTCAO system. The FRIDA optical design, stray light analysis, tolerance analysis and manufacturing feasibility are described in this contribution.

  11. AO13. High energy, low methane syngas from low-rank coals for coal-to-liquids production

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, Andrew; Goyal, Amit; McCabe, Kevin; Gangwal, Santosh

    2015-06-30

    An experimental program was undertaken to develop and demonstrate novel steam reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, and methane under high temperature and sulfur environments at lab scale. Several catalysts were developed and synthesized along with some catalysts based on recipes found in the literature. Of these, two had good resistance at 90 ppm H2S with one almost not affected at all. Higher concentrations of H2S did affect methane conversion across the catalyst, but performance was fairly stable for up to 200 hours. Based on the results of the experimental program, a techno-economic analysis was developed for IGCC and CTL applications and compared to DOE reference cases to examine the effects of the new technology. In the IGCC cases, the reformer/POX system produces nearly the same amount of electricity for nearly the same cost, however, the reformers/POX case sequesters a higher percentage of the carbon when compared to IGCC alone. For the CTL case the economics of the new process were nearly identical to the CTL case, but due to improved yields, the greenhouse gas emissions for a given production of fuels was approximately 50% less than the baseline case.

  12. Analysis of LDEF experiment AO187-2: Chemically and isotopic measurements of micrometeoroids by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Numerous 'extended impacts' found in both leading and trailing edge capture cells have been successfully analyzed for the chemical composition of projectile residues by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Most data have been obtained from the trailing edge cells where 45 of 58 impacts have been classified as 'probably natural' and the remainder as 'possibly man-made debris.' This is in striking contrast to leading edge cells where 9 of 11 impacts so far measured are definitely classified as orbital debris. Although all the leading edge cells had lost their plastic entrance foils during flight, the rate of foil failure was similar to that of the trailing edge cells, 10 percent of which were recovered intact. Ultra-violet embrittlement is suspected as the major cause of failure on both leading and trailing edges. The major impediment to the accurate determination of projectile chemistry is the fractionation of volatile and refractory elements in the hypervelocity impact and redeposition processes. This effect had been noticed in simulation experiment but is more pronounced in the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) capture cells, probably due to the higher average velocities of the space impacts. Surface contamination of the pure Ge surfaces with a substance rich in Si but also containing Mg and Al provides an additional problem for the accurate determination of impactor chemistry. The effect is variable, being much larger on surfaces that were exposed to space than in those cells that remained intact. Future work will concentrate on the analyses of more leading edge impacts and the development of new SIMS techniques for the measurement of elemental abundances in extended impacts.

  13. Keck and VLT AO Observations and Models of the Uranian Rings During the 2007 Ring Plane Crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Dunn, D. E.; Stam, D.; Showalter, M.; Min, M.; Hammel, H.; Matthews, K.; Gibbard, S.; van Dam, M.; Hartung, M.

    2012-10-01

    We observed the uranian rings at and near the ring plane crossing (RPX) of 16 August 2007 using the Keck and VLT telescopes, both equipped with near-infrared cameras coupled to adaptive optics systems. The rings are partially obscuring each other when they are close edge-on; we therefore developed a model to analyze the observations. The model was tested by Dunn, de Pater and Stam (2010) against observations of the uranian rings that were taken in July 2004. In this poster we present results based on a comparison of the RPX Keck and VLT observations with models. Main conclusions: 1) The zeta ring appears to be vertically extended (full width 860 km); 2) the zeta ring is centrally condensed; 3) the extension of the eta ring is optically thin, but contains macroscopic material; 4) there is a broad dust sheet throughout the system that contains very small dust grains (g=0.85 rather than 0.7). This work has been funded through NASA’s Planetary Astronomy Program and the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics.

  14. Progress on Analysis of Keck AO Observations of the Uranian Rings around the Time of the 2007 Ring Plane Crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Dunn, D.; Hammel, H.; Showalter, M.; Gibbard, S.; Matthews, K.; van Dam, M.; Sromovsky, L.; Fry, P.

    2010-10-01

    In 2007, the rings of Uranus appeared edge-on as seen from Earth for the first time since their 1977 discovery. Three ring plane crossings (RPXs) occurred from Earth's perspective over a 9.5 months period: 3 May 2007, 16 August 2007, and 20 February 2008. The Sun crossed the ring plane on 7 December 2007 (equinox). We observed at and near RPX using the Keck telescope equipped with the NIRC2 camera coupled to the adaptive optics system. This period includes the RPX on August 16, and observations of the dark (unlit) face of the rings (May-August; December) and the lit side under small ring inclination angles (August-September). Together with observations obtained in previous and later years, the data cover a wide range of viewing and emission geometries. As the rings are partially obscuring each other when the rings are close to being edge-on, we developed a model to analyze the observations. The model was tested by Dunn, de Pater and Stam (2010, Icarus 208, 927-937) against observations of the uranian rings that were taken in July 2004. Since then we made several improvements to the model to optimize it for low ring inclination angles. In this talk we compare Keck observations with models under a wide range different viewing and illumination angles.

  15. Keck and VLT AO Observations and Models of the Uranian Rings During the 2007 Ring Plane Crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, I.; Dunn, D. E.; Hammel, H. B.; Showalter, M. R.; Gibbard, S.; Matthews, K.; van Dam, M.; Sromovsky, L.; Fry, P.; Stam, D.; Hartung, M.; Nicholson, P.

    2011-10-01

    We observed the uranian rings at and near the ring plane crossing (RPX) of 16 August 2007 using the Keck and VLT telescopes, both equipped with nearinfrared cameras coupled to adaptive optics systems. The rings are partially obscuring each other when they are close edge-on, therefore we developed a model to analyze the observations. The model was tested by Dunn, de Pater and Stam (2010) against observations of the uranian rings that were taken in July 2004. In this talk we present results based on a comparison of the RPX Keck and VLT observations with models.

  16. Tug of war between AO-hybridization and aromaticity in dictating structures of Li-doped alkali clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrova, Anastassia N.

    2012-04-01

    Hybridization of atomic orbitals is a widely appreciated phenomenon in organic chemistry. Here, we demonstrate that hybridization also can dramatically impact the shapes of small all-alkali metal clusters, and oppose σ-aromaticity in defining cluster shapes. The valence-iso-electronic LiNa4- and LiK4- clusters adopt different global minimum structures: LiNa4- is a planar C2v (1A1) species distorted from the perfect pentagon, and LiK4- is a planar square D4h (1A1g) species with Li being in the centre. This effect is rooted in the different degrees of the 2s-2p hybridization in Li in response to binding to Na versus K.

  17. SIMS chemical analysis of extended impacts on the leading and trailing edges of LDEF experiment AO187-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amari, S.; Foote, J.; Swan, P.; Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Lange, G.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous 'extended impacts' found in both leading and trailing edge capture cells were successfully analyzed for the chemical composition of projectile residues by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Most data were obtained from the trailing edge cells where 45 of 58 impacts were classified as 'probably natural' and the remainder as 'possibly man-made debris.' This is in striking contrast to leading edge cells where 9 of 11 impacts so far measured are definitely classified as orbital debris. Although all the leading edge cells had lost their plastic entrance foils during flight, the rate of foil failure was similar to that of the trailing edge cells, 10 percent of which were recovered intact. Ultraviolet embrittlement is suspected as the major cause of failure on both leading and trailing edges. The major impediment to the accurate determination of projectile chemistry is the fractionation of volatile and refractory elements in the hypervelocity impact and redeposition processes. This effect had been noted in a simulation experiment but is more pronounced in the LDEF capture cells, probably due to the higher average velocities of the space impacts. Surface contamination of the pure Ge surfaces with a substance rich in Si, but also containing Mg and Al, provides an additional problem for the accurate determination of impactor chemistry. The effect is variable, being much larger on surfaces that were exposed to space than in those cells that remained intact. Future work will concentrate on the analyses of more leading edge impacts and the development of new SIMS techniques for the measurement of elemental abundances in extended impacts.

  18. SIMS chemical analysis of extended impact features from the trailing edge portion of experiment AO187-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amari, Sachiko; Foote, John; Simon, Charles; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Lange, Gundolf; Stadermann, Frank; Swan, Pat; Walker, Robert M.; Zinner, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    One hundred capture cells from the trailing edge, which had lost their cover foils during flight, were optically scanned for extended impact features caused by high velocity projectiles impinging on the cells while the foils were still intact. Of the 53 candidates, 24 impacts were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy for the chemical composition of the deposits. Projectile material was found in all impacts, and at least 75 percent of them appear to be caused by interplanetary dust particles. Elemental ratios are fractionated, with refractory elements enriched in the impacts relative to interplanetary dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Although this could be due to systematic differences in the compositions, a more likely explanation is volatility fractionation during the impact process.

  19. Concept study of a multi-object AO system for the EAGLE instrument on the European ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, T.; Rousset, G.; Assémat, F.; Neichel, B.; Gendron, E.; Myers, R. M.; Morris, T.; Chemla, F.; Robert, C.; Bryson, I.; Cuby, J. G.

    2008-07-01

    EAGLE is a wide FoV (5 arcmin diameter), multi-objects (at least 20) integral-field spectrograph (R>4000) for the E-ELT. The top level requirements are to concentrate 30 to 40 % of the photons collected by the E-ELT in a focal area of 75x75 mas2 in H band. This leads to the selection of the Multi Object Adaptive Optics in order to deliver such a performance in a so-large FoV. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the error budget for an MOAO system in EAGLE. It is based on numerical simulation results. The budget is splitted in LGS and NGS contributions. The analysis leads to share the specifications between low spatial frequencies and high spatial frequencies in the wave-front errors. Finally a preliminary conceptual design of the MOAO system is deduced including 9 LGS for tomography and a 9000 actuator deformable mirror per channel.

  20. The solar system at 10 parsec: exploiting the ExAO of LBT in the visual wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangalini, M.; Pedichini, F.; Centrone, Mauro; Esposito, S.; Farinato, J.; Giallongo, E.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Pinna, E.

    2014-08-01

    By exploiting the high strehl ratio PSF (point spread function) provided by the large binocular telescope (LBT), a high contrast visual camera working in the range 650-700 nm can deliver impressive results with the help of a simple coronagraph. In the framework of a feasibility study of such instrument, numerical simulations have been conducted to assess its performances in terms of contrast enhancement in real seeing conditions. Both simulated and recorded time series of adaptive optics residual aberrations are in fact used to estimate the contrast enhancement achieved with this imager in different seeing conditions and with different occulting masks. The results obtained are extremely promising and provide useful information for the detection of reflected light of Jupiter-like planets orbiting nearby stars in the range of 5÷10 pc.

  1. Danusia Latosinski on the Work that Won City College Norwich This Year's AoC President's Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latosinski, Danusia

    2009-01-01

    The transition from school to college can be a daunting experience for any young adult. But for someone who suffers from Asperger Syndrome (AS)--an Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) which affects how a person makes sense of the world, processes information and relates to other people--adapting to new surroundings and meeting new people is an even…

  2. Employment Issues in Social Work With the Elderly. AoA Occasional Papers in Gerontology. No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rones, Philip L.; Wash, Patrick

    This report provides information on demand for social workers in the field of aging, supply of persons to fill these jobs, adequacy of their training and skill levels, and barriers to effective use of social service staff. Part 1 identifies types of jobs that social workers hold in the field of aging and range of setting in which they perform…

  3. A new high-resolution unstructured grid finite volume Arctic Ocean model (AO-FVCOM): An application for tidal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changsheng; Gao, Guoping; Qi, Jianhua; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Beardsley, Robert C.; Kowalik, Zygmunt; Lin, Huichan; Cowles, Geoffrey

    2009-08-01

    A spherical coordinate version of the unstructured grid 3-D FVCOM (finite volume coastal ocean model) has been applied to the Arctic Ocean to simulate tides with a horizontal resolution ranging from 1 km in the near-coastal areas to 15 km in the deep ocean. By accurately resolving the irregular coastlines and bathymetry in the Arctic Ocean coastal regions, this model reproduces the diurnal (K1 and O1) and semidiurnal (M2 and S2) tidal wave dynamics and captures the complex tidal structure along the coast, particularly in the narrow straits of the Canadian Archipelago. The simulated tidal parameters (harmonic constituents of sea surface elevation and currents) agree well with the available observational data. High-resolution meshes over the continental shelf and slope capture the detailed spatial structure of topographic trapped shelf waves, which are quite energetic along the Greenland, Siberia, and Spitsbergen continental slope and shelf break areas. Water stratification influences the vertical distribution of tidal currents but not the water transport and thus tidal elevation. The comparison with previous finite difference models suggests that horizontal resolution and geometric fitting are two prerequisites to simulate realistically the tidal energy flux in the Arctic Ocean, particularly in the Canadian Archipelago.

  4. Magellan AO System z‧, Y S , and L‧ Observations of the Very Wide 650 AU HD 106906 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Close, Laird M.; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Philip M.; Puglisi, Alfio; Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco

    2016-05-01

    We analyze archival data from Bailey and co-workers from the Magellan adaptive optics system and present the first 0.9 μm detection (z‧ = 20.3 ± 0.4 mag; Δz‧ = 13.0 ± 0.4 mag) of the 11 M Jup circumbinary planet HD 106906AB b, as well as 1 and 3.8 μm detections of the debris disk around the binary. The disk has an east–west asymmetry in length and surface brightness, especially at 3.8 μm where the disk appears to be one-sided. The spectral energy distribution of b, when scaled to the K S -band photometry, is consistent with 1800 K atmospheric models without significant dust reddening, unlike some young, very red, low-mass companions such as CT Cha B and 1RXS 1609 B. Therefore, the suggested circumplanetary disk of Kalas and co-workers might not contain much material, or might be closer to face-on. Finally, we suggest that the widest (a ≳ 100 AU) low mass ratio (M p/M ⋆ ≡ q ≲ 0.01) companions may have formed inside protoplanetary disks but were later scattered by binary/planet interactions. Such a scattering event may have occurred for HD 106906AB b with its central binary star, but definitive proof at this time is elusive. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  5. Couples Work in Cultural Context: Te Ao Māori and Poststucturalist Practices Informing Counselor Training in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Connor, Helene; Gremillion, Helen; Meima, Yolanda

    2016-06-01

    This article outlines key themes that appear in the teaching of poststructuralist ideas and practices for couples counseling within the Postgraduate Diploma in Counseling Program at Unitec Institute of Technology in Auckland, New Zealand, and it explores the congruence of this pedagogical approach with Māori (indigenous) understandings of relationality, collaboration, and partnership. The diploma program's curriculum includes narrative therapy and relational language-making. Themes explored in this article include: understanding (heterosexual) couple relationships as contextualized entities, deconstructing dominant discourses of coupledom, and the positioning of counselors/teachers as nonexpert. Taking each theme in turn, the authors, one of them Māori and two Pākehā (European), articulate points of alignment with Māori cultural concepts and practices. PMID:26950763

  6. Assessment of Visual Status of the Aeta, a Hunter-Gatherer Population of the Philippines (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Allingham, R. Rand

    2008-01-01

    Purpose A screening study was performed to assess levels of visual impairment and blindness among a representative sample of older members of the Aeta, an indigenous hunter-gatherer population living on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Methods Unrelated older Aeta couples were randomly invited to participate in a visual screening study. All consented individuals had ocular history, medical history, complete ophthalmic examination, height, weight, and blood pressure taken. Results A total of 225 individuals were screened from 4 villages. Visual acuity, both uncorrected and pinhole corrected, was significantly worse among older vs younger age-groups for women, men, and when combined (P < .001). Visual impairment was present in 48% of uncorrected and 43% of pinhole corrected eyes in the oldest age-group. Six percent of the screened population was bilaterally blind. The major causes of blindness were readily treatable. The most common etiologies as a proportion of blind eyes were cataract (66%), refractive error (20%), and trauma (7%). No cases of primary open-angle, primary angle-closure, or exfoliation glaucoma were observed in this population. Discussion Visual impairment and blindness were common in the Aeta population. Primary forms of glaucoma, a major cause of blindness found in most population-based studies, were not observed. The absence of primary glaucoma in this population may reflect random sampling error. However, based on similar findings in the Australian Aborigine, this raises the possibility that these two similar populations may share genetic and/or environmental factors that are protective for glaucoma.. PMID:19277240

  7. Effect of space exposure of some epoxy matrix composites on their thermal expansion and mechanical properties (AO 138-8)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jabs, Heinrich

    1991-01-01

    The experiment objectives are: to detect a variation of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composite samples; to detect an evolution of mechanical properties; to compare the behavior of two epoxy resins. The CTE is measured by interferometric method in a vacuum chamber. The following mechanical tests are achieved on the samples: interlaminar shear strength; flexural strength; flatwise tensile strength. The results are reported.

  8. [The Juniper Gardens Parent Cooperative Nursery.] Final Progress Report for OEO CAP Grant CG-8474 A/O.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juniper Gardens Children's Project, Kansas City, MO.

    Thirty children and their mothers from a poverty area of Kansas City enrolled in a Head Start parent cooperative nursery school. The mothers actively participated in a parent-training program consisting of tutorial training in which a series of lessons designed to teach preacademic concepts and skills to the children was presented to the mothers.…

  9. Genotypic Identification of Fusarium Species from Ocular Sources: Comparison to Morphologic Classification and Antifungal Sensitivity Testing (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Eduardo C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Ocular infections caused by fungal organisms can cause significant ocular morbidity, particularly when diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Rapid and accurate identification of Fusarium species at the subgenus level using current diagnostic standards is timely and insensitive. The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) in detecting and differentiating Fusarium species from isolates of ocular infections, and to assess the correlation between the genotypic and morphologic classification. Methods Fifty-eight isolates from 52 patients diagnosed with Fusarium ocular infections were retrieved from storage at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute’s ocular microbiology laboratory. Morphologic classification was determined at both a general and a reference microbiology laboratory. DNA was extracted and purified, and the ITS region was amplified and sequenced. Following DNA sequences, alignment and phylogenetic analysis were done. Susceptibility to antifungal drugs was measured according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference method. Results Sequence analysis demonstrated 15 unique sequences among the 58 isolates. The grouping showed that the 58 isolates were distributed among 4 main species complexes. At the species level, morphologic classification correlated with genotypic classification in 25% and 97% of the isolates in a general microbiology and a reference mycology laboratory, respectively. Conclusions The sequence variation within the ITS provides a sufficient quantitative basis for the development of a molecular diagnostic approach to the Fusarium pathogens isolated from ocular infections. Morphology based on microscopic and macroscopic observations yields inconsistent results, particularly at nonreference laboratories, emphasizing the need for a more reproducible test with less user-dependent variability. Fusarium solani tends to be more resistant to certain antifungals (azoles). PMID:19277239

  10. Modeling the uranian rings at 2.2 μm: Comparison with Keck AO data from July 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, David E.; de Pater, Imke; Stam, Daphne

    2010-08-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model of the uranian rings, and compare this model to images of the system obtained with the Keck adaptive optics system in July 2004, at a wavelength of 2.2 μm (from de Pater et al. (de Pater, I., Gibbard, S.G., Hammel, H.B. [2006a]. Icarus 180, 186-200)). We confirm the presence of the ζ ring, but show that this ring must extend inwards much further than previously thought, although with an optical depth much lower than that in the main ζ ring component. We further confirm dust rings between rings α-4 and β- α, as well as near the λ ring. In addition, we show that a broad sheet of faint material ( τ0 ˜ 10 -3) must be present through most of the ring region, from the α ring through the λ ring.

  11. Characterization of Shiga toxin subtypes and virulence genes in porcine Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Fratamico, Pina M.; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Patel, Isha; Bagi, Lori K.; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Boccia, Federica; Anastasio, Aniello; Pepe, Tiziana

    2016-04-21

    Similar to ruminants, swine have been shown to be a reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and pork products have been linked with outbreaks associated with STEC O157 and O111:H-. STEC strains, isolated in a previous study from fecal samples of late-finisher pigs, belonged to a total of 56 serotypes, including O15:H27, O91:H14, and other serogroups previously associated with human illness. The isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a high-throughput real-time PCR system to determine the Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype and virulence-associated and putative virulence-associated genes they carried. Select STEC strains were further analyzed using amore » Minimal Signature E. coli Array Strip. As expected, stx2e (81%) was the most common Stx variant, followed by stx1a (14%), stx2d (3%), and stx1c (1%). The STEC serogroups that carried stx2d were O15:H27, O159:H16 and O159:H-. Similar to stx2a and stx2c, the stx2d variant is associated with development of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and reports on the presence of this variant in STEC strains isolated from swine are lacking. Moreover, the genes encoding heat stable toxin (estIa) and enteroaggregative E. coli heat stable enterotoxin-1 (astA) were commonly found in 50 and 44% of isolates, respectively. The hemolysin genes, hlyA and ehxA, were both detected in 7% of the swine STEC strains. Although the eae gene was not found, other genes involved in host cell adhesion, including lpfAO113 and paa were detected in more than 50% of swine STEC strains, and a number of strains also carried iha, lpfAO26, lpfAO157, fedA, orfA, and orfB. Furthermore, the present work provides new insights on the distribution of virulence factors among swine STEC strains and shows that swine may carry Stx1a-, Stx2e-, or Stx2d-producing E. coli with virulence gene profiles associated with human infections.« less

  12. ASTER: A Brazilian Mission to an Asteroid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, O. C.; Macau, E. E. N.; de Campos Velho, H.; Carruba, V.

    2012-05-01

    The first Brazilian mission to an asteroid is being planned. The target is the asteroid 2001 SN263, which has a NEA orbit of class AMOR. The mission is scheduled to be launched in 2015, reaching the asteroid in 2019.

  13. Radiometry of near-earth asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.; Hanner, M. S.; Matson, D. L.; Tedesco, E. F.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared photometry is reported for 22 Aten, Apollo, and Amor asteroids. Thermal models are used to derive the corresponding radiometric albedos and diameters. Several of these asteroids appear to have surfaces of relatively high thermal inertia due to the exposure of bare rock or a coarse regolith. The Apollo asteroid 3103, 1982 BB, is recognized as class E. The Jupiter-crossing Amor asteroid 3552, 1983 SA, is confirmed as class D, but low albedos remain rare for near-earth asteroids.

  14. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  15. The ESA SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the Valencia Anchor Station Area in the Framework of the SMOS Cal/Val AO Project no. 3252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA defined and designed the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign Plan with the purpose of repeating the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming that all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim was to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations to be able to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real Commissioning Phase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April 2008, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 was chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over the control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft. The payload for the campaign consisted of the following instruments: (i) L-band radiometer EMIRAD (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) HUT-2D L-band imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish Institute of Maritime Research, FIMR). Together with the ground soil moisture measurements, other ground and meteorological measurements from the Valencia Anchor Station area, kindly provided by other institutions, are currently been used to simulate passive microwave brightness temperature to have satellite "match ups" for validation purposes and to test the retrieval algorithms. The spatialization of the ground measurements up to a SMOS pixel is carried out by using a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model (SURFEX, SURFace EXternalisée) from Météo France. Output data, particularly soil moisture, will then be used to simulate the L-band surface emission through the use of the L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere) model. For that purpose, the microwave model uses specific ground information regarding the soil and vegetation properties provided by the validation teams. The aggregation of the brightness temperatures at the SMOS pixel scale is then carried out in an operational way taking into account the SMOS viewing configuration and antenna properties. This paper presents an overview of the ESA SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the Valencia Anchor Station area making more emphasis on the development of the ground activities which are significant for the performance of the different validation components and giving an outline of the methodology to be used for the whole SMOS Reference Pixel.

  16. High S/N Keck and Gemini AO imaging of Uranus during 2012-2014: New cloud patterns, increasing activity, and improved wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; de Pater, I.; Fry, P. M.; Hammel, H. B.; Marcus, P.

    2015-09-01

    We imaged Uranus in the near infrared from 2012 into 2014, using the Keck/NIRC2 camera and Gemini/NIRI camera, both with adaptive optics. We obtained exceptional signal to noise ratios by averaging 8-16 individual exposures in a planet-fixed coordinate system. These noise-reduced images revealed many low-contrast discrete features and large scale cloud patterns not seen before, including scalloped waveforms just south of the equator, and an associated transverse ribbon wave near 6°S. In all three years numerous small (600-700 km wide) and mainly bright discrete features were seen within the north polar region (north of about 55°N). Two small dark spots with bright companions were seen at middle latitudes. Over 850 wind measurements were made, the vast majority of which were in the northern hemisphere. Winds at high latitudes were measured with great precision, revealing an extended region of solid body rotation between 62°N and at least 83°N, at a rate of 4.08 ± 0.015°/h westward relative to the planet's interior (radio) rotation of 20.88°/h westward. Near-equatorial speeds measured with high accuracy give different results for waves and small discrete features, with eastward drift rates of 0.4°/h and 0.1°/h respectively. The region of polar solid body rotation is a close match to the region of small-scale polar cloud features, suggesting a dynamical relationship. The winds from prior years and those from 2012-2014 are consistent with a mainly symmetric wind profile up to middle latitudes, with a small asymmetric component of ∼0.09°/h peaking near ±30°, and about 60% greater amplitude if only prior years are included, suggesting a declining mid-latitude asymmetry. While winds at high southern latitudes (50-90°S) are unconstrained by groundbased observations, a recent reanalysis of 1986 Voyager 2 observations by Karkoschka (Karkoschka [2015]. Icarus 250, 294-307) has revealed an extremely large north-south asymmetry in this region, which might be seasonal. Greatly increased activity was seen in 2014, including the brightest ever feature seen in K‧ images (de Pater et al. [2015]. Icarus 252, 121-128), as well as other significant features, some of which had long lives. Over the 2012-2014 period we identified six persistent discrete features. Three were tracked for more than 2 years, two more for more than 1 year, and one for at least 5 months and continuing. Several drifted in latitude towards the equator, and others appeared to exhibit latitudinal oscillations with long periods. We found two pairs of long-lived features that survived multiple passages within their own diameters of each other. Zonally averaged cloud patterns were found to persist over 2012-2014. When averaged over longitude, there is a brightness variation with latitude from 55°N to the pole that is similar to effective methane mixing ratio variations with latitude derived from 2012 STIS observations (Sromovsky et al. [2014]. Icarus 238, 137-155).

  17. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 3. Volunteer Surveys of Nursing Homes. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Roberta C.; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, examines the Nursing Home Information Project (NHIP), which developed a methodology whereby a local organization with access to volunteers could produce a consumer guide to nursing homes in its community. (Three…

  18. New Extinction and Mass Estimates of the Low-mass Companion 1RXS 1609 B with the Magellan AO System: Evidence of an Inclined Dust Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Barman, Travis S.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Follette, Katherine B.; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa

    2015-07-01

    We used the Magellan adaptive optics system to image the 11 Myr substellar companion 1RXS 1609 B at the bluest wavelengths to date (z‧ and Ys). Comparison with synthetic spectra yields a higher temperature than previous studies of {T}{eff}=2000+/- 100 {{K}} and significant dust extinction of {A}V={4.5}-0.7+0.5 mag. Mass estimates based on the DUSTY tracks gives 0.012-0.015 {M}⊙ , making the companion likely a low-mass brown dwarf surrounded by a dusty disk. Our study suggests that 1RXS 1609 B is one of the ˜25% of Upper Scorpius low-mass members harboring disks, and it may have formed like a star and not a planet out at ˜320 AU. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  19. Commissioning results of MMT-POL: the 1-5um imaging polarimeter leveraged from the AO secondary of the 6.5m MMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packham, C.; Jones, T. J.; Warner, C.; Krejny, M.; Shenoy, D.; Vonderharr, T.; Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; DeWahl, K.

    2012-09-01

    MMT-POL is an adaptive optics optimized imaging polarimeter designed for use at the 6.5m MMT. By taking full advantage of the adaptive optics secondary mirror of the MMT, this polarimeter offers diffraction-limited polarimetry with very low instrumental polarization and minimal thermal background. MMT-POL permits observations as diverse as protoplanetary discs, comets, red giant winds, (super)novae and ejecta, galaxies, and AGN. We report on the initial on-sky commissioning results of the instrument including a description of the instrument.

  20. The Visual Difficulties of Selected Artists and Limitations of Ophthalmological Care During The 19th and Early 20th Centuries (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Ravin, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Methods Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Results Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Conclusions Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist’s ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist’s ability to depict fine details. Ophthalmological care was limited during the lifetimes of the artists under consideration, by comparison to 21st century standards. When medical or surgical therapy was ineffective, the most important thing a physician could offer these artists was consolation against anxiety and depression. PMID:19277248

  1. Les apports de l'experimentation assistee par ordinateur (ExAO) en pedagogie par projet en Sciences de la nature au collegial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Alice

    The goals of this research were to conceptualize and to produce a test synthesis model for the Sciences program, where the student had to demonstrate his or her competency using the approach Considering New Situations from Acquired Knowledge. The test took the form of a student-structured project utilizing the experimental process: the student's scientific investigation was supported and facilitated by computer-assisted experimentation (CAEx). The model of action was elaborated in developmental research within the school setting, tested in biology, and continued in an interdisciplinary context. Our study focused on the advantages and the constraints of this new learning environment, which modify laboratories using traditional instrumentation. The final research was not to evaluate a type of test synthesis, but to propose and to improve this model of test synthesis based on experimental process and supported by CAEx. In order to implement the competency approach within an integration activity, we chose a cooperative learning environment contained within the pedagogical project. This didactic environment was inspired by socio-constructivism which involves students in open scientific problem-solving. Computer-assisted experimentation turned out to be a valuable tool for this environment, facilitating the implementation of the scientific process by increased induction. Resistance to confronted and uncircumvented reality changes students' perception of scientific knowledge. They learn to integrate the building of this knowledge, and then to realize the extent of their learning and their training. Students' opinions, which were gathered from questionnaires, reveal that they favorably perceive this type of environment in interaction with their peers and the experimentation. While this new knowledge contributes to CAEx within the pedagogical project, the products of this research included a teaching guide for the test synthesis, a booklet featuring the projects carried out by the students with CAEx, and the proposals to renew the didactic approach in the laboratory.

  2. Hard X-ray pulse profile and period evolution of AO535 + 26 and GX 1 + 4 as observed by the Franco-Soviet Signe satellite experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refloch, A.; Chambon, G.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Rakhmaninov, Ch. Iu.

    1986-11-01

    The source GX 1 + 4 and an outburst from the recurrent X-ray transient A0535+26 were observed in 1977 December by collimated detectors aboard the Prognoz 6 satellite (Signe 2MP experiment) in the energy range 28-308 keV and aboard the Signe 3 satellite between 27 and 108 keV. The temporal evolution of the pulsation period of these sources (107.22 s and 103.89 s respectively), the variations of the pulsed and total fluxes, and the light curves are given. A temporary disk model for A0535+26 is proposed.

  3. Digital version of the CrAO archive of spectral observations of the Sun, carried out with the KG-2 coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fursiak, Yu. A.

    2012-11-01

    With the development of computer technology a topical problem to digitize the astronomical data stored on various media, for their preservation and accessibility for further faster and more accurate processing has arisen. Creation of a digital archive of observational data obtained with the KG-2 coronagraph and stored on photographic films has been started at the Department of the Solar Physics of the Scientific Research Institute ``Crimean Astrophysical Observatory''. We obtained satisfactory results in comparing a part of the spectrum digitized with EPSON Expression 10000XL scanner and with the MF-2 type scanning microphotometer which was used before. This allows the scanner to be used in the future to create the archive. We also developed a special software, which speeds up the processing of scanned data, and tried to minimize and eliminate potential errors.

  4. MagAO Imaging of Long-period Objects (MILO). I. A Benchmark M Dwarf Companion Exciting a Massive Planet around the Sun-like Star HD 7449

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Arriagada, Pamela; Faherty, Jackie; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Kaib, Nathan; Butler, R. Paul; Shectman, Stephen; Weinberger, Alycia; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Hinz, Philip M.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Ian; Teske, Johanna; Díaz, Matías; Minniti, Dante; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Adams, Fred C.; Boss, Alan P.

    2016-02-01

    We present high-contrast Magellan adaptive optics images of HD 7449, a Sun-like star with one planet and a long-term radial velocity (RV) trend. We unambiguously detect the source of the long-term trend from 0.6-2.15 μm at a separation of ˜0.″54. We use the object’s colors and spectral energy distribution to show that it is most likely an M4-M5 dwarf (mass ˜0.1-0.2 {M}⊙ ) at the same distance as the primary and is therefore likely bound. We also present new RVs measured with the Magellan/MIKE and Planet Finder Spectrograph spectrometers and compile these with archival data from CORALIE and HARPS. We use a new Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure to constrain both the mass (\\gt 0.17 {M}⊙ at 99% confidence) and semimajor axis (˜18 AU) of the M dwarf companion (HD 7449B). We also refine the parameters of the known massive planet (HD 7449Ab), finding that its minimum mass is {1.09}-0.19+0.52 MJ, its semimajor axis is {2.33}-0.02+0.01 AU, and its eccentricity is {0.8}-0.06+0.08. We use N-body simulations to constrain the eccentricity of HD 7449B to ≲0.5. The M dwarf may be inducing Kozai oscillations on the planet, explaining its high eccentricity. If this is the case and its orbit was initially circular, the mass of the planet would need to be ≲1.5 MJ. This demonstrates that strong constraints on known planets can be made using direct observations of otherwise undetectable long-period companions. This paper includes data obtained at the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  5. Treatment of AO Type C Fractures of the Distal Part of the Humerus through the Bryan-Morrey Triceps-Sparing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Valencia, J. A.; Muñoz-Mahamud, E.; Ballesteros, J. R.; Prat, S.

    2013-01-01

    Several alternative approaches have been described to avoid the complications related to the olecranon osteotomy used to treat distal articular humerus fractures. The published experience with the triceps-sparing approach is scant. In this prospective study, a total of 12 patients with an articular humeral fracture were treated using this approach. At a mean followup of 1,7 years, the average range of motion was 112.8° (range from 85° to 135°); the elbow flexion averaged 125.5° (range from 112° to 135°) and the deficit of elbow extension 14.6° (range from 0° to 30°). All the elbows were stable. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) averaged 93.3 (range from 80 to 100). In the present series no failure of the triceps reattachment to the olecranon was found, and all the patients recalled returning to their previous daily life activities without impairment with a satisfactory MEPS. As a conclusion, the triceps-sparing approach can be considered for treating distal articular humerus fractures. We consider that three clinical settings can be more favorable to use this approach: those cases in which a total elbow prosthesis might be needed, cases of ipsilateral diaphyseal fracture, or presence of previous hardware in the olecranon. PMID:24967108

  6. An Updated Typology of Causative Constructions: Form-Function Mappings in Hupa (California Athabaskan), Chungli Ao (Tibeto-Burman) and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escamilla, Ramon Matthew, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Taking up analytical issues raised primarily in Dixon (2000) and Dixon & Aikhenvald (2000), this dissertation combines descriptive work with a medium-sized (50-language) typological study. Chapter 1 situates the dissertation against a concise survey of typological-functional work on causative constructions from the last few decades, and…

  7. The Minnesota Grading System Using Fundus Autofluorescence of Eye Bank Eyes: A Correlation To Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Timothy W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To establish a grading system of eye bank eyes using fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and identify a methodology that correlates FAF to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with clinical correlation to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Methods Two hundred sixty-two eye bank eyes were evaluated using a standardized analysis of FAF. Measurements were taken with the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). First, high-resolution, digital, stereoscopic, color images were obtained and graded according to AREDS criteria. With the neurosensory retina removed, mean FAF values were obtained from cSLO images using software analysis that excludes areas of atrophy and other artifact, generating an FAF value from a grading template. Age and AMD grade were compared to FAF values. An internal fluorescence reference standard was tested. Results Standardization of the cSLO machine demonstrated that reliable data could be acquired after a 1-hour warm-up. Images obtained prior to 1 hour had falsely elevated levels of FAF. In this initial analysis, there was no statistical correlation of age to mean FAF. There was a statistically significant decrease in FAF from AREDS grade 1, 2 to 3, 4 (P < .0001). An internal fluorescent standard may serve as a quantitative reference. Conclusions The Minnesota Grading System (MGS) of FAF (MGS-FAF) establishes a standardized methodology for grading eye bank tissue to quantify FAF compounds in the retinal pigment epithelium and correlate these findings to the AREDS. Future studies could then correlate specific FAF to the aging process, histopathology AMD phenotypes, and other maculopathies, as well as to analyze the biochemistry of autofluorescent fluorophores. PMID:19277247

  8. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 6. The Home Equity Conversion Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Kristina; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, describes the different types of uses of findings of the Home Equity Conversion Project (HECP), which developed ways of converting home equity into usable income. The first chapter describes the project and overviews…

  9. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 2. Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS). Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, discusses reasons for the wide utilization of the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) research. (The OARS methodology assesses the levels of functioning of individual elderly persons. The resulting…

  10. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  11. Cyclic Crack Growth Testing of an A.O. Smith Multilayer Pressure Vessel with Modal Acoustic Emission Monitoring and Data Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziola, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Digital Wave Corp. (DWC) was retained by Jacobs ATOM at NASA Ames Research Center to perform cyclic pressure crack growth sensitivity testing on a multilayer pressure vessel instrumented with DWC's Modal Acoustic Emission (MAE) system, with captured wave analysis to be performed using DWCs WaveExplorerTM software, which has been used at Ames since 2001. The objectives were to document the ability to detect and characterize a known growing crack in such a vessel using only MAE, to establish the sensitivity of the equipment vs. crack size and / or relevance in a realistic field environment, and to obtain fracture toughness materials properties in follow up testing to enable accurate crack growth analysis. This report contains the results of the testing.

  12. Design and Performance of Raman Fiber Amplifier Based 589-nm Guide Star Lasers for ESO VLT and Their Suitability for Future ELT AO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, V.; Protopopov, V.; Clements, W.; Kaenders, W. G.; Friedenauer, A.; Ernstberger, B.; Hackenberg, W.; Lewis, St. A.; Bonaccini Calia, D.

    2011-09-01

    Large telescopes equipped with adaptive optics require 20-25W CW 589-nm light sources with emission linewidths of ˜5MHz. Towards this goal, ESO has been working for a number of years on the development of laser sources based on high-power narrow-band 1178-nm Raman fiber amplifiers (RFA) with subsequent frequency doubling to 589nm, demonstrating field tested lasers and powers beyond 50W CW. We present the design and performance of the guide star lasers being developed by industrial partners Toptica and MPBC, under contract from ESO, for deployment at the ESO VLT. The laser is designed and robustly engineered specifically for deployment on telescope facilities. The laser design is based on ESO's patented narrow-band RFA. The linearly-polarized, fiber-coupled emission of a Toptica CW diode laser, emitting 20mW at 1178nm, serves as master oscillator signal with stabilized emission frequency and controllable spectral linewidth up to a few MHz. The narrow-band seed signal is amplified in a polarization-maintaining (PM) Raman fiber amplifier developed by MPBC. The amplifier is pumped by a high-power 1120-nm PM fiber laser. With efficient suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering, an unprecedented 40W of narrow-band RFA output has been obtained. The RFA output is then mode-matched into a resonant cavity doubler with a free spectral range exactly matching the sodium D2a to D2b separation. This allows simultaneous generation of an additional frequency component (D2b line) in the output beam to re-pump the electronic population of sodium atoms, thereby increasing the return flux. We have demonstrated doubling efficiencies >80%, resulting in CW output powers at 589nm easily exceeding the design goal of 20W. Fiber lasers provide excellent output beam quality and are turn-key, maintenance-free, reliable, ruggedized devices whose compactness allows installation directly on the launch telescope structure. They are therefore well suited for LGS applications, also considering the challenging environment of astronomical observatories.

  13. A case study on the feasibility and performance of an UWB-AoA real time location system for resources management of civil construction projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Esmond; Xia, Linyuan; Retscher, Guenther; Tian, Hui

    2010-06-01

    The application of integrated satellite and modern wireless positioning technologies for ubiquitous real-time resources management in large scale civil engineering projects can greatly optimize the time and cost in the construction process, and is now the trend for modern construction project management. As the outdoor conditions of most civil construction sites are open to sky, satellite positioning with the popularly used Global Positioning System (GPS) has been proved to be very efficient and effective. However, the condition in indoor and underground construction site is very complicated due to the fact that different construction activities would be carried out in different congested areas, involving heavy construction plant, equipment, professionals and technical personnel. Nowadays different emerging technologies such as Wi-Fi and ZigBee can be adopted for position and tracking in indoor environments. Nevertheless, under the very complicated construction site conditions these technologies may fail due to movement of human resources and construction plant, variation of metrological conditions, and serious multipath effects of signals. It is considered that Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology is more suitable for indoor construction site environments. In this paper, a case study on the attempt of integrating GPS with Ubisense Real-time Location System (RTLS) for resources management in an underground railway construction site is discussed. Laboratory and field tests have shown that the RTLS can provide better resources management capability in terms of positioning accuracy and stability than Wi-Fi and ZigBee technologies under complicated construction environments. The test results show that the system can normally achieve better than 15 cm accuracy, and better than 1 m under adverse geometrical site condition. However, the high instrumental set up cost and the requirement for high quality data transmission cable for high precision time synchronization between sensors may deter wide application of similar system for resources management in construction sites.

  14. Symmetry Between the Right and Left Eyes of the Normal Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measured with Optical Coherence Tomography (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Budenz, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine the limits of the normal amount of interocular symmetry in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements obtained with third-generation time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT3). Methods Both eyes of normal volunteers were scanned using the peripapillary standard and fast RNFL algorithms of OCT3. Results A total of 108 volunteers were included in the analysis. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of age of the volunteers was 46.0 ± 15.0 years (range 20–82). Forty-two participants (39%) were male and 66 (61%) were female. Mean RNFL thickness correlated extremely well, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.89 for both algorithms (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–0.93). The mean RNFL thickness of the right eye measured 1.3 μm thicker than the left on the standard scan (SD 4.7, 95% CI 0.4–2.2, P = .004) and 1.2 μm on the fast scan (SD 5.2, 95% CI 0.1–2.2, P = .026). The 95% tolerance limits on the difference between the mean RNFL thicknesses of right minus left eye was −10.8 and +8.9 μm with the standard scan algorithm and −10.6 and +11.7 μm with the fast scan algorithm. Conclusions Mean RNFL thickness between the 2 eyes of normal individuals should not differ by more than approximately 9 to 12 μm, depending on which scanning algorithm of OCT3 is used and which eye measures thicker. Differences beyond this level suggest statistically abnormal asymmetry, which may represent early glaucomatous optic neuropathy. PMID:19277241

  15. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 1. Transportation Services for the Elderly. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, describes the different types of uses of materials produced by a research project on improvement of transportation services for the elderly. (The materials are a state-of-the-art report, planning handbook, and…

  16. The static response function in Kohn-Sham theory: An appropriate basis for its matrix representation in case of finite AO basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmar, Christian Neese, Frank

    2014-10-07

    The role of the static Kohn-Sham (KS) response function describing the response of the electron density to a change of the local KS potential is discussed in both the theory of the optimized effective potential (OEP) and the so-called inverse Kohn-Sham problem involving the task to find the local KS potential for a given electron density. In a general discussion of the integral equation to be solved in both cases, it is argued that a unique solution of this equation can be found even in case of finite atomic orbital basis sets. It is shown how a matrix representation of the response function can be obtained if the exchange-correlation potential is expanded in terms of a Schmidt-orthogonalized basis comprising orbitals products of occupied and virtual orbitals. The viability of this approach in both OEP theory and the inverse KS problem is illustrated by numerical examples.

  17. Análise de Associação por Todo o Genoma para Identificar Locos Relacionados ao Lucro Líquido, à Vida Produtiva e ao Escore de Células Somáticas na raça Jersey1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome scan was conducted in the US Jersey population to identify QTL affecting net merit, productive life, and somatic cell score. Data used at this study were DHI records from the national database of the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, USDA (Beltsville, MD). DNA was acquired for 2,380 a...

  18. Cratering of the terrestrial planets by Apollo objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    An asteroidal collision model and Monte Carlo program used for studies of the terrestrial meteorite flux, the steady-state number of Apollo-Amor objects, and the orbital distribution of both meteorites and Apollo-Amor objects is used to calculate absolute and relative cratering rates on the terrestrial planets. It is found that the 'best' estimates of the predicted asteroidal cratering rate are three times lower than estimates of the observed terrestrial cratering rate. If this is due to errors in the asteroidal production rate of Apollo-Amor objects, the predicted present-day cratering rate per unit area on Mars is four times that on earth, whereas that on Mercury is twice that on earth.

  19. The diameter and albedo of 1943 Anteros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.; Tedesco, E. F.; Tholen, D. J.; Tokunaga, A.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Kowal, C.

    1981-01-01

    The results of broadband visual and infrared photometry of the Apollo-Amor asteroid 1943 Anteros during its 1980 apparition are reported. By means of a radiometric model, a diameter of 2.3 + or - 0.2 km and a visual geometric albedo of 0.13 + or - 0.03 is calculated. The albedo and reflectance spectrum of Anteros imply that it is a type S asteroid. Thus, Anteros may have a silicate surface similar to other Apollo-Amor asteroids as well as some stony-iron meteorites.

  20. Education in Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Hanan A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I distinguish between two sorts of ideologies, moral (or ethical) ideologies that embrace the conceptual condition of human agency: free will, moral intelligence, and fallibility; and amoral (or non-ethical) ideologies that do not. Initiation into the former, which are suited to open societies, is best accomplished through education,…

  1. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the Nature of Science and Perceptions of the Classroom Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Dunlop, Catherine S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated prospective elementary teachers' understandings of the nature of science and explored associations with their guided-inquiry science learning environment. Over 500 female students completed the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Survey (NSKS), although only four scales were analyzed-Creative, Testable, Amoral, and Unified. The…

  2. Branding Isn't a Dirty Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbuch, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    According to Weisbuch, many professors often view marketing and advertising as means to employ persuasion, not toward the good, but amorally, toward a commercial end that may be socially beneficial or harmful. Those in academe exist in a competitive environment, and while they are painfully aware of certain excesses and compromises that the…

  3. "Making It Do" at the Movie Theatres: Communicating Sustainability in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasch, Oliver; Conaway, Roger N.

    2011-01-01

    Cinepolis, an international movie theatre chain based in Mexico City that believes that people go to the movies in order to learn about better eyesight, has successfully demonstrated the business practice of corporate social responsibility to the public through its visual health campaign known as "Del Amor Nace la Vista" (Love Gives Birth to…

  4. Captive Women in Paradise 1796-1826: The "Kapu" on Prostitution in Hawaiian Historical Legal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arista, Noelani

    2011-01-01

    This article begins the arduous work of undermining the firmly entrenched image of the wanton "wahine", starting with stories about Hawaiian women resisting the amorous advances of foreign ship captains who assumed that women should be made available to them if they offered material or monetary remuneration. What emerges is a picture of how women…

  5. Using Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Strategy: Development of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Hispanic Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican origin.…

  6. Ethical and Philosophical Foundations of Democratic Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartoonian, Michael

    This paper argues that the amorality evident among U.S. citizens may be the result of individuals and society's inability to understand the relationship between the public and private life of the citizen and the role and function of ethics in that relationship. The argument has three premises. First, U.S. citizens have developed a sort of cultural…

  7. Surveillance, Big Data Analytics and the Death of Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Howard Doughty examines how today's technological devices alter and increasingly substitute for one's body/mind, sociality and (a)morality. He claims that today, under the crushing weightlessness of virtuality, citizens are less confident, more willing to retreat into the idiocy of private life. He goes on to address the…

  8. Changing Social Imaginaries, Multiplicities and "One Sole World": Reading Scandinavian Environmental and Sustainability Education Research Papers with Badiou and Taylor at Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2010-01-01

    Badiou's ontological work draws attention to multiplicities--the oneness of ontology, which he explains can only become ontologically differentiated into events or sites through political, artistic or amorous practices that philosophies can think and invent from. He also draws attention to the fusion of events and sites, and he explains that…

  9. Does Experience in College Mathematics Courses Affect Elementary Arithmetic Performance in College Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate students at Cameron University (N = 158) were given the D'Amore Test of Elementary Arithmetic to test whether or not experience in college mathematics courses might be associated with a relative increase in arithmetic performance compared to those students who had not taken college mathematics courses. We found that only…

  10. Hannah Arendt and the Banality of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Stephen J.

    1981-01-01

    Considers Arendt's argument that Eichmann was an example of how Nazi totalitarianism changed modern concepts of evil. Concludes that an amoral bureaucracy, whose goals transcended personal judgment, involvement, or responsibility, is part of the social environment which still constitutes a threat today. (AM)

  11. Only Disconnect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    It is no secret that educators are teaching a generation that is more stressed out, debt-ridden, depressed, anxious, impulsive, scholastically amoral, self-entitled, bored, and apathetic than perhaps any other since Aristotle sauntered through the Lyceum. But what "really" worries the author is students' preoccupation with social media. Their need…

  12. Integrating Ethics in Community Colleges' Accounting Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Clifton

    1990-01-01

    Argues that two-year college business programs need to provide moral guidance and leadership to students to help stem the proliferation of fraudulent and questionable financial reporting practices. Reviews amoral and moral unity theories of business ethics. Discusses barriers to ethical instruction in business curricula, and ways to overcome them.…

  13. Leading Change: Overcoming the Ideology of Comfort and the Tyranny of Custom. First Edition. The Jossey-Bass Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, James

    This book argues that situational leadership is a guise for amoral leadership. Successful leadership is ultimately rooted in high moral purpose and the consistent display of respect for followers. The book addresses three related questions: (1) What are the causes of resistance to change? (2) How can leaders effectively and morally overcome that…

  14. The unusual lightcurve of 1990 TR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisniewski, Wieslaw Z.

    1992-01-01

    Amor asteroid 1990 TR was monitored during three nights shortly after discovery. Obtained lightcurves did not reveal a repeatable curve with two maxima and two minima. However, some features suggest periodicity, and a synodic rotational period P = 6.25 hours was determined. Individual and composite lightcurves are presented. The colors are best represented by the class S.

  15. Radar meteor orbital structure of Southern Hemisphere cometary dust streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggaley, W. Jack; Taylor, Andrew D.

    1992-01-01

    The Christchurch, New Zealand meteor orbit radar (AMOR) with its high precision and sensitivity, permits studies of the orbital fine structure of cometary streams. PC generated graphics are presented of data on some Southern Hemisphere Streams. Such data can be related to the formation phase and subsequent dynamical processes of dust streams.

  16. Lightcurve Analsyis of 774 Armor and 3161 Beadell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, Julian; Han, Xianming L.; Gipson, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Photometric studies of the asteroids 774 Armor and 3161 Beadell and were carried out by observers from Australia and USA. The data were combined and the following periods were obtained: 774 Amor, 25.107 ± 0.005 h; 3161 Beadell, 36.253 ± 0.004 h.

  17. Meteor Showers of the Earth-crossing Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulat, Babadzhanov; Gulchekhra, Kokhirova

    2015-03-01

    The results of search for meteor showers associated with the asteroids crossing the Earthfs orbit and moving on comet-like orbits are given. It was shown that among 2872 asteroids discovered till 1.01.2005 and belonging to the Apollo and Amor groups, 130 asteroids have associated meteor showers and, therefore, are the extinct cometary nuclei.

  18. Did Earth-approaching asteroids 3551, 3908, or 4055 produce meteorites?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Bo A. S.; Williams, I. P.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital integrations show that Amor asteroid 3908 could have ejected one out of four plausible groups of meteorite producing fireballs during a collision in the asteroid belt. It was suggested by others that such a collision may also have split asteroids 3551 and 3908. A member of this group of fireballs is listed as one of the better possibilities for recovery.

  19. Communications, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, Communities: Dimension '98. Selected Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the Foreign Language Association of Georgia (Savannah, Georgia, February 26-28, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, David, Ed.; Heusinkveld, Paula, Ed.

    These eight papers address the five goals of the national standards for foreign language learning: communication, cultures, connections, comparisons, and communities. They include the following: (1) "From Rhetoric to Reality: Applying AATSP Standards to the Spanish Classroom" (Maria J. Amores and Frank W. Medley, Jr.); (2) "Standards for Teaching…

  20. The Moral Capacity Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2011-01-01

    Effective counseling practice continues to be inevitably linked to underlying theories of behavioral causality. In this article, the authors present the Moral Capacity Profile of an individual from the perspective of the Amoral, Moral, Quasi-Moral/Quasi-Immoral, and Immoral Model of Behavior, a model that uniquely expands counseling's theoretical…