Science.gov

Sample records for agri-food quality ii

  1. Hyperspectral imaging for diagnosis and quality control in agri-food and industrial sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Allende, P. Beatriz; Conde, Olga M.; Mirapeix, Jesus; Cobo, Adolfo; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.

    2010-04-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been utilized in various fields of science, industry and medicine, since each substance is discernible from all others by its spectral properties. However, optical spectroscopy traditionally generates information on the bulk properties of the whole sample, and mainly in the agri-food industry some product properties result from the heterogeneity in its composition. This monitoring is considerably more challenging and can be successfully achieved by the so-called hyperspectral imaging technology, which allows the simultaneous determination of the optical spectrum and the spatial location of an object in a surface. In addition, it is a nonintrusive and non-contact technique which gives rise to a great potential for industrial applications and it does not require any particular preparation of the samples, which is a primary concern in food monitoring. This work illustrates an overview of approaches based on this technology to address different problems in agri-food and industrial sectors. The hyperspectral system was originally designed and tested for raw material on-line discrimination, which is a key factor in the input stages of many industrial sectors. The combination of the acquisition of the spectral information across transversal lines while materials are being transported on a conveyor belt, and appropriate image analyses have been successfully validated in the tobacco industry. Lastly, the use of imaging spectroscopy applied to online welding quality monitoring is discussed and compared with traditional spectroscopic approaches in this regard.

  2. Applications of Computer Vision for Assessing Quality of Agri-food Products: A Review of Recent Research Advances.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Da-Wen; Qu, Jia-Huan; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin; Gao, Wen-Hong; Zeng, Xin-An

    2016-01-01

    With consumer concerns increasing over food quality and safety, the food industry has begun to pay much more attention to the development of rapid and reliable food-evaluation systems over the years. As a result, there is a great need for manufacturers and retailers to operate effective real-time assessments for food quality and safety during food production and processing. Computer vision, comprising a nondestructive assessment approach, has the aptitude to estimate the characteristics of food products with its advantages of fast speed, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation. Specifically, computer vision systems are feasible for classifying food products into specific grades, detecting defects, and estimating properties such as color, shape, size, surface defects, and contamination. Therefore, in order to track the latest research developments of this technology in the agri-food industry, this review aims to present the fundamentals and instrumentation of computer vision systems with details of applications in quality assessment of agri-food products from 2007 to 2013 and also discuss its future trends in combination with spectroscopy. PMID:24689735

  3. Twenty five years of reference material activity at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

    PubMed

    Ihnat, M

    2001-06-01

    In the mid 1970s, the available RMs, notably Bowen's Kale and Orchard Leaves and Bovine liver from National Bureau of Standards (NBS), although of great benefit, were overwhelmingly insufficiently representative, in respect of matrix and elemental composition, of the wide range of natural products submitted for analysis and in worldwide commerce. To provide additional coverage, an RM development project was initiated with input from cooperating analysts leading to an Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cooperative venture and development of a total of 12 different agricultural/food RMs. With a total of 303 concentration values for 34 elements and a wide range of matrix components such as ash, silica, protein, fat, carbohydrate and fiber, these RMs significantly augment the world repertoire of biological control materials. A final material under consideration is a highly reliable, discrete, synthetic RM for quality control and calibration. This paper summarizes the research and developmental activities undertaken during the past quarter of a century related to RM development at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and includes a short historical background, conceptual considerations, preparation, physical characterization, homogeneity estimation, chemical characterization, calculation of recommended reference values and associated uncertainties, methodology development and application, and performance of inorganic analytical methods in a multielement, multilaboratory, collaborative characterization campaign. PMID:11451252

  4. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  5. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  6. Curriculum Development for the Achievement of Multiple Goals in the Agri-Food Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonehouse, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    The agri-food industry is concerned with maximizing global food output while preventing environmental damage. Agricultural education focuses on multidisciplinary, holistic, and integrative approaches that enhance student capabilities to address this complex issue. (SK)

  7. RFID Application Strategy in Agri-Food Supply Chain Based on Safety and Benefit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Peichong

    Agri-food supply chain management (SCM), a management method to optimize internal costs and productivities, has evolved as an application of e-business technologies. These days, RFID has been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of agri-food supply chain. Then the disadvantages of RFID are discussed. After that, we study the application strategies of RFID based on benefit and safety degree.

  8. Bio-transformation of agri-food wastes by newly isolated Neurospora crassa and Lactobacillus plantarum for egg production.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Li, J; Deng, Z

    2016-03-01

    Using bio-transferred feedstuff was a cost-effective approach to improve egg quality and production; particularly, the nutritive diet came from agri-food wastes. In this study, optimization of fermentation conditions and co-cultivation of Neurospora crassa with Lactobacillus plantarum was performed in a simple bioreactor. The optimized fermentation of beer lees substrates through N. crassa led to the hydrolysis rates of crude fiber increasing to 43.27%. Compared to that of using N. crassa alone, the combination of N. crassa and L. plantarum enhanced the content of amino acids (13,120 to 18,032 mg/100 g) on oil-tea seed cake substrates particularly. When hens were fed 10% fermented oil-tea seedcake substrate, the ratio of feed to egg decreased from 3.1 to 2.6, egg production ratio increased from 65.71 to 80.10%, and color of vitelline (Roche) increased from 8.20 to 10.20. Fifteen kinds of carotenoids were identified by HPLC in fermented oil-tea seed cake substrates. The results of this study highlighted that the mixed-fermentation by N. crassa and L. plantarum may be an effective way to convert agri-food wastes into high-valued biomass products, which could have a positive effect on hens and their eggs. PMID:26740129

  9. Blurring the Boundaries between Vocational Education, Business and Research in the Agri-Food Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.; Lans, Thomas; Kupper, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence and significance of new knowledge configurations within the Dutch agri-food context. Knowledge configurations can be characterised as arrangements between VET and (often regional) partners in business and research aimed at improving knowledge transfer, circulation or co-creation. Based on a literature review…

  10. Building Alternative Agri-Food Networks: Certification, Embeddedness and Agri-Environmental Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Vaughan; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of certification in alternative agri-food networks (AAFNs), which are "in the process" of building markets for their produce outside conventional supply chains. Drawing upon recent writing on "embeddedness", we argue that certification provides an important focus for exploring the relationship and tensions between…

  11. Work-Related Lifelong Learning for Entrepreneurs in the Agri-Food Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lans, Thomas; Wesselink, Renate; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Mulder, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study on work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector. Accordingly, learning needs, learning preferences, learning motivation and conditions in the context of lifelong learning were identified. The results indicate that technology, IT and entrepreneurial competencies will become of increasing…

  12. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts

  13. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: What Do Elementary Students Understand about the Agri-Food System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural literacy of K-12 students is a national priority for both scientific and agricultural education professional organizations. Development of curricula to address this priority has not been informed by research on what K-12 students understand about the agri-food system. While students' knowledge of food and fiber system facts have been…

  14. Veterinary Public Health Approach to Managing Pathogenic Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the Agri-Food Chain.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Geraldine; McCabe, Evonne

    2014-10-01

    Verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) comprises many diverse serogroups, but seven serogroups, O157, O26, O103, O145, O111, O21, and O45, have been most commonly linked to severe human infections, though illness has also been reported from a range of other VTEC serogroups. This poses challenges in assessing the risk to humans from the diverse range of VTEC strains that may be recovered from animals, the environment, or food. For routine assessment of risk posed by VTEC recovered from the agri-food chain, the concept of seropathotype can be used to rank the human risk potential from a particular VTEC serogroup on the basis of both serotype (top seven serogroups) and the presence of particular virulence genes (vt in combination with eae, or aaiC plus aggR). But for other VTEC serogroups or virulence gene combinations, it is not currently possible to fully assess the risk posed. VTEC is shed in animal feces and can persist in the farm environment for extended periods ranging from several weeks to many months, posing an ongoing reservoir of contamination for grazing animals, water courses, and fresh produce and for people using farmland for recreational purposes. Appropriate handling and treatment of stored animal waste (slurries and manures) will reduce risk from VTEC in the farm environment. Foods of animal origin such as milk and dairy products and meat may be contaminated with VTEC during production and processing, and the pathogen may survive or grow during processing operations, highlighting the need for well-designed and validated Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point management systems. This article focuses on a veterinary public health approach to managing VTEC, highlighting the various routes in the agri-food chain for transmission of human pathogenic VTEC and general approaches to managing the risk. PMID:26104349

  15. Elementary student and prospective teachers' agri-food system literacy: Understandings of agricultural and science education's goals for learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, Cary Jay

    1999-09-01

    Although rhetoric abounds in the agricultural education literature regarding the public's dearth of agri-food system literacy, problems arise when establishing educational interventions to help ameliorate illiteracy. Researchers do not fully know what individuals understand about the complex agri-food system. Hence, educational programs and curricula may focus on areas where students already possess well developed and scientifically accurate schemata, while ignoring other areas where incompatible or naive understandings persist. Democratic decisions about complex societal and environmental issues, such as trade-offs of our industrial agri-food system, require individuals to possess understandings of complex interrelationships. This exploratory qualitative study determines what two groups---elementary students and prospective elementary school teachers---understand about selected concepts foundational to agri-food system literacy. To ground the study in current national education curricular standards, a synthesis of both agricultural and science education benchmarks was developed. This helped structure interviews with the study's informants: nine elementary students and nine prospective elementary teachers. Analysis of discourse was based upon a conceptual change methodology. Findings showed that informant background and non-school experiences were linked to agri-food system literacy, while formal, in-school learning was not. For elementary students, high socio-economic status, gardening and not living in urban areas were correlates with literacy; the prospective teacher group exhibited similar trends. Informants understood that food came from farms where plants and animals were raised. For the majority, however, farms were described as large gardens. Additionally, informants lacked a clear understanding of the roles soil and fertilizers play in crop production. Further, few spoke of weeds as competitors with crops for growth requirements. Informants understood that

  16. Elementary and Middle School Teacher Ideas about the Agri-Food System and Their Evaluation of Agri-System Stakeholders' Suggestions for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary J.; Johnson, Thomas; Heinze, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Results of focus groups with 90 Michigan second- through eighth-grade teachers showed that they viewed the agri-food system from a nutrition and health perspective; nutrition education predominated. Production agriculture had little impact on the curriculum. They wanted a centralized resource for supplemental curriculum materials and support in…

  17. The life cycle of rice: LCA of alternative agri-food chain management systems in Vercelli (Italy).

    PubMed

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko

    2009-03-01

    The Vercelli rice district in northern Italy plays a key role in the agri-food industry in a country which accounts for more than 50% of the EU rice production and exports roughly 70%. However, although wealth and jobs are created, the sector is said to be responsible for environmental impacts that are increasingly being perceived as topical. As a complex and comprehensive environmental evaluation is necessary to understand and manage the environmental impact of the agri-food chain, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been applied to the rice production system: from the paddy field to the supermarket. The LCA has pointed out the magnitude of impact per kg of delivered white milled rice: a CO2eq emission of 2.9 kg, a primary energy consumption of 17.8 MJ and the use of 4.9 m3 of water for irrigation purposes. Improvement scenarios have been analysed considering alternative rice farming and food processing methods, such as organic and upland farming, as well as parboiling. The research has shown that organic and upland farming have the potential to decrease the impact per unit of cultivated area. However, due to the lower grain yields, the environmental benefits per kg of the final products are greatly reduced in the case of upland rice production and almost cancelled for organic rice. LCA has proved to be an effective tool for understanding the eco-profile of Italian rice and should be used for transparent and credible communication between suppliers and their customers. PMID:19046619

  18. Water flows in the Spanish economy: agri-food sectors, trade and households diets in an input-output framework.

    PubMed

    Cazcarro, Ignacio; Duarte, Rosa; Sánchez-Chóliz, Julio

    2012-06-19

    Seeking to advance our knowledge of water flows and footprints and the factors underlying them, we apply, on the basis of an extended 2004 Social Accounting Matrix for Spain, an open Leontief model in which households and foreign trade are the exogenous accounts. The model shows the water embodied in products bought by consumers (which we identify with the Water Footprint) and in trade (identified with virtual water trade). Activities with relevant water inflows and outflows such as the agrarian sector, textiles, and the agri-food industry are examined in detail using breakdowns of the relevant accounts. The data reflect only physical consumption, differentiating between green and blue water. The results reveal that Spain is a net importer of water. Flows are then related to key trading partners to show the large quantities involved. The focus on embodied (or virtual) water by activity is helpful to distinguish indirect from direct consumption as embodied water can be more than 300 times direct consumption in some food industry activities. Finally, a sensitivity analysis applied to changes in diets shows the possibility of reducing water uses by modifying households' behavior to encourage healthier eating. PMID:22612260

  19. Direct and indirect economic impacts of drought in the agri-food sector in the Ebro River basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2013-10-01

    The economic evaluation of drought impacts is essential in order to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation strategies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of a drought event on the agricultural sector and measure how they are transmitted from primary production to industrial output and related employment. We fit econometric models to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water storage. The direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity are measured through a direct attribution model. Indirect impacts on agricultural employment and the agri-food industry are evaluated through a nested indirect attribution model. The transmission of water scarcity effects from agricultural production to macroeconomic variables is measured through chained elasticities. The models allow for differentiating the impacts deriving from water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show that the importance of drought impacts are less relevant at the macroeconomic level, but are more significant for those activities directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. From a management perspective, implications of these findings are important to develop effective mitigation strategies to reduce drought risk exposure.

  20. Progress in Working Towards a More Sustainable Agri-Food Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human health and environmental issues related to food, feed, and bio-based systems, range widely from greenhouse gas emissions and energy use to land use, water availability, soil quality, water quality and quantity, biodi-versity losses, and chemical exposure. Threats that s...

  1. A guide for developing plain-language and contextual summaries of systematic reviews in agri-food public health.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Kerr, Ashley; Waddell, Lisa; Pham, Mai T; Greig, Judy; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2014-12-01

    The application of systematic reviews is increasing in the agri-food public health sector to investigate the efficacy of policy-relevant interventions. In order to enhance the uptake and utility of these reviews for decision-making, there is a need to develop summary formats that are written in plain language and incorporate supporting contextual information. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a guideline for summarizing systematic reviews in one- and three-page formats, and (2) to apply the guideline on two published systematic reviews that investigated the efficacy of vaccination and targeted feed and water additives to reduce Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Both summary formats highlight the key systematic review results and implications in plain language. Three-page summaries also incorporated four categories of contextual information (cost, availability, practicality, and other stakeholder considerations) to complement the systematic review findings. We collected contextual information through structured rapid reviews of the peer-reviewed and gray literature and by conducting interviews with 12 topic specialists. The overall utility of the literature searches and interviews depended on the specific intervention topic and contextual category. In general, interviews with topic specialists were the most useful and efficient method of gathering contextual information. Preliminary evaluation with five end-users indicated positive feedback on the summary formats. We estimate that one-page summaries could be developed by trained science-to-policy professionals in 3-5 days, while three-page summaries would require additional resources and time (e.g., 2-4 weeks). Therefore, one-page summaries are more suited for routine development, while three-page summaries could be developed for a more limited number of high-priority reviews. The summary guideline offers a structured and transparent approach to support the utilization of systematic reviews

  2. A Decision Support System Coupling Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic Graphical Approaches for the Agri-Food Industry: Prediction of Grape Berry Maturity

    PubMed Central

    Brousset, Jean Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Hervé; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1) capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2) predict the sugar (resp. the acidity) concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg). FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system. PMID:26230334

  3. A Decision Support System Coupling Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic Graphical Approaches for the Agri-Food Industry: Prediction of Grape Berry Maturity.

    PubMed

    Perrot, Nathalie; Baudrit, Cédric; Brousset, Jean Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Hervé; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1) capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2) predict the sugar (resp. the acidity) concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg). FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system. PMID:26230334

  4. Lutein in selected Canadian crops and agri-food processing by-products and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond

    2006-04-21

    This study mainly focused on lutein content in several selected crops grown in southern Ontario, Canada. Marigold flower, a good rotation crop for the control of nematodes in tobacco fields was found to contain 0.77% lutein (after saponification, on dry basis). A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method using a two-phase solvent system consisting of hexane-ethanol-water (6:4.5:1.5, v/v/v) was developed for the purification of lutein from the saponification mixture of marigold flower extract. The purity of lutein prepared using this HSCCC method was 97%. Free lutein was found to be the predominant form in three squash varieties, and it was mostly found in the peel rather than the commonly consumed flesh. Sweet Mamma, Buttercup and Pepper squash varieties contained 25.4, 18.4 and 30.1mg/100g fresh weigh (FW) of lutein in the peels, respectively. These concentrations were significantly higher than that in spinach and kale (3.7 and 12.3 mg/100 g FW). beta-Carotene was found most in the peel of Sweet Mamma squash at 13.6 mg/100g FW, whereas it was below 2mg/100g FW in all other samples. Cooking increased extractable free lutein by 22-65% in squash peels. Lutein in Yukon Gold potato was at ca. 0.4 mg/100 g FW. Certain Yukon Gold was also found to contain violaxanthin (0.35 mg/100 g FW). Structures of lutein, beta-carotene and violaxanthin were identified by LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS in positive ion mode, and by comparing the retention time and UV-vis spectral data with standards. Results from this study suggest the selected crops and agri-food industrial processing by-products of these can be a good source of free lutein. PMID:16242702

  5. Indoor air quality: The legal landscape II

    SciTech Connect

    Neet, J.O. Jr.; Smith, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Today`s office environment is as different from its predecessor as an automobile is from a horse and buggy. A 1950s office typically contained tile floors, painted walls, plaster ceilings, carbon paper, and plentiful fresh air circulating through windows that were usually open when weather permitted. In the 1990s, the decor has shifted to carpeted floors, synthetic wall coverings, ceiling tile and multiple copiers. Sophisticated building materials and motorized office products can emit unwelcome constituents into the indoor air, yet ventilation is limited by windows that do not open. One result of these changes has been an unprecedented and ever-increasing concern about indoor air quality (IAQ). Some studies rank indoor air pollution as today`s number one environmental health risk. Increased media attention to the topic has increased public awareness, which has increased litigation and regulatory activity in the area. This paper explores the legal landscape of IAQ in the US, ranging from legislative to regulatory activity on both the federal and state levels, and from civil litigation to actions brought before administrative boards. Along the way, the paper defines and discusses such IAQ problems as building-related illness (BRI) and sick building syndrome (SBS), examining the magnitude of the problems and their possible causes. Finally, the paper provides suggestions to those potentially liable for alleged injuries from indoor air pollution, including architects, builders, contractors, building product manufacturers, building owners and managers, building sellers, employers, and engineering and environmental consultants. This paper is an update of a paper presented at the Air and Waste Management Association`s Annual Meeting in 1992.

  6. Determinants of Lighting Quality II: Research and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veitch, Jennifer A.; Newsham, Guy R.

    The quality of indoor lighting can influence task performance, social interaction and communication, health and safety, visual comfort, student behavior, and aesthetic judgments. These by-products of lighting are examined in this literature review in an effort to define the conditions that are associated with good lighting quality. Lighting…

  7. Quality of Life. Volume II: Application to Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L., Ed.; Siperstein, Gary N., Ed.

    This volume summarizes current policies and programmatic practices that are influencing the quality of life of persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part 1, "Service Delivery Application," contains: "Using Person-Centered Planning To Address Personal Quality of Life" (John Butterworth and others); "The Aftermath of…

  8. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  9. Do SE(II) electrons really degrade SEM image quality?

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Gary H; Carter, Andrew D; Joy, David C

    2013-01-01

    Generally, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, it is desirable that a high-resolution image be composed mainly of those secondary electrons (SEs) generated by the primary electron beam, denoted SE(I) . However, in conventional SEM imaging, other, often unwanted, signal components consisting of backscattered electrons (BSEs), and their associated SEs, denoted SE(II) , are present; these signal components contribute a random background signal that degrades contrast, and therefore signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. Ideally, the highest resolution SEM image would consist only of the SE(I) component. In SEMs that use conventional pinhole lenses and their associated Everhart-Thornley detectors, the image is composed of several components, including SE(I) , SE(II) , and some BSE, depending on the geometry of the detector. Modern snorkel lens systems eliminate the BSEs, but not the SE(II) s. We present a microfabricated diaphragm for minimizing the unwanted SE(II) signal components. We present evidence of improved imaging using a microlithographically generated pattern of Au, about 500 nm thick, that blocks most of the undesired signal components, leaving an image composed mostly of SE(I) s. We refer to this structure as a "spatial backscatter diaphragm." PMID:22589040

  10. "Chilled" pork--Part II. Consumer perception of sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Riendeau, L; Laberge, C; Fortin, J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare consumer perception of the sensory quality of grilled Canadian pork destined for Japanese and domestic markets, with particular reference to export selection criteria imposed by Japanese importers and transportation conditions. Consumers from Quebec, Canada tasted local and export quality pork subjected to "chilled" (aged 43 days at -1.7 °C) or conventional ageing (5 days at 3.1 °C). Consumers' scores (out of 10) were higher (P<0.05) in the "chilled" than conventionally aged pork for tenderness (6.8 vs 5.7), juiciness (6.6 vs 6.0), taste liking (6.4 vs 5.9) and overall acceptability (6.7 vs 6.1). When informed that the conventionally aged, domestic quality pork was destined for the domestic market, consumer scores increased significantly (P<0.05). No effect of information was observed on the perception of the 'chilled' export quality meat, perhaps a consequence of the high sensory quality observed prior to labelling. PMID:22647653

  11. Studies in Environment--Volume II: Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornback, Kenneth E.; And Others

    This report investigates the concept of the Quality of Life (QOL) and presents a developmental methodology for constructing a measurement scheme to assess the QOL. A brief synopsis is given of the research that has been done in this area to date including various guidelines and rationale used in attempting to develop a meaningful social indicator…

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with MPS II.

    PubMed

    Needham, Mary; Packman, Wendy; Quinn, Natasha; Rappoport, Maxwell; Aoki, Christa; Bostrom, Alan; Cordova, Matthew; Macias, Sandra; Morgan, Cynthia; Packman, Seymour

    2015-08-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a chronic and progressive X-linked lysosomal disease that mainly affects males. The National MPS Society (2013) reports that MPS II affects 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 150,000 males worldwide. Two distinct forms of the disease are based on age of onset and clinical course: attenuated and severe. MPS II affects many organ systems including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Clinical manifestations can include progressive hearing loss, mental impairment, and enlarged liver and spleen. This study focuses on the health-related quality of life of individuals (HRQOL) with MPS II as measured by the parent and self-report versions of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™). Both parents of patients with MPS II as well as patients themselves reported lower scores on all domains of the PedsQL™ (physical, emotional, social and school functioning) indicating that children with MPS II have an overall lower HRQOL when compared to a healthy sample. When compared with patients with other chronic illnesses (cancer, MSUD, galactosemia,), the MPS II sample had significantly lower scores on a number of PedsQL™ scales, suggesting an overall lower HRQOL. No significant relationships were found using scores from parent or self report PedsQL™ measures and length of time on ERT. PMID:25395377

  13. Objective assessment of sonographic: quality II acquisition information spectrum.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia Q; Abbey, Craig K; Insana, Michael F

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes a task-based, information-theoretic approach to the assessment of image quality in diagnostic sonography. We expand the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric J, which quantifies the diagnostic information contained within recorded radio-frequency echo signals, into a spatial-frequency integral comprised of two spectral components: one describes patient features for low-contrast diagnostic tasks and the other describes instrumentation properties. The latter quantity is the acquisition information spectrum (AIS), which measures the density of object information that an imaging system is able to transfer to the echo data at each spatial frequency. AIS is derived based on unique properties of acoustic scattering in tissues that generate object contrast. Predictions made by the J integral expression were validated through Monte Carlo studies using echo-signal data from simulated lesions. Our analysis predicts the diagnostic performance of any sonographic system at specific diagnostic tasks based on engineering properties of the instrument that constitute image quality. PMID:23221818

  14. Guidelines in cardiac clinical practice: evaluation of their methodological quality using the AGREE II instrument

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Patel, Vanash; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Kirresh, Ali; Darzi, Ara; Chambers, John C; Malik, Iqbal; Kooner, Jaspal S; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    Although clinical guidelines have an influential role in healthcare practice, their development process and the evidence they cite has been subject to criticism. This study evaluates the quality of guidelines in cardiac clinical practice by examining how they adhere to validated methodological standards in guideline development. A structured review of cardiac clinical practice guidelines published in seven cardiovascular journals between January 2001 and May 2011 was performed. The AGREE II assessment tool was used by two researchers to evaluate guideline quality. A total of 101 guidelines were identified. Assessment of guidelines using AGREE II found methodological quality to be highly variable (median score, 58.70%; range, 45.34–76.40%). ‘Scope and purpose’ (median score, 86.1%) and ‘clarity of development’ (median score, 83.3 %) were the two domains within AGREE II that received the highest scores. Applicability (median score, 20.80%; range, 4.20–54.20%) and editorial independence (median score, 33.30%; range, 0–62.50%) had the lowest scores. There is considerable variability in the quality of cardiac clinical practice guidelines and this has not improved over the last 10 years. Incorporating validated guideline assessment tools, such as AGREE II, may improve the quality of guidelines. PMID:23759888

  15. Evaluation of the Quality of Guidelines for Myasthenia Gravis with the AGREE II Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenchang; Guo, Jia; Su, Gang; Li, Jiong; Wu, Hua; Xie, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are systematically developed statements to assist practitioners in making decisions about appropriate healthcare in specific clinical circumstances. The methodological quality of CPGs for myasthenia gravis (MG) are unclear. Objective To critically evaluate the methodological quality of CPGs for MG using AGREE II instrument. Method A systematical search strategy on PubMed, EMBASE, DynaMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) was performed on September 20th 2013. All guidelines related to MG were evaluated with AGREE II. The software used for analysis was SPSS 17.0. Results A total of 15 CPGs for MG met the inclusion criteria (12 CPGs in English, 3 CPGs in Chinese). The overall agreement among reviews was moderate or high (ICC >0.70). The mean scores (mean ± SD) for al six domains were presented as follows: scope and purpose (60.93% ±16.62%), stakeholder involvement (40.93% ±20.04%), rigor of development (37.22% ±30.46%), clarity of presentation (64.26% ±16.36%), applicability (28.19% ±20.56%) and editorial independence (27.78% ±28.28%). Compared with non-evidence-based CPGs, evidence-based CPGs had statistically significant higher quality scores for all AGREE II domains (P<0.05). All domain scores appear slightly higher for CPGs published after AGREE II instrument development and validation (P>0.05). The quality scores of CPGs developed by NGC/AAN were higher than the quality scores of CPGs developed by other organizations for all domains. The difference was statistically significant for all domains with the exception of clarity of presentation (P = 0.07). Conclusions The qualities of CPGs on MG were generally acceptable with several flaws. The AGREE II instrument should be adopted by guideline developers, particularly in China. PMID:25402504

  16. Use of the Sperm Quality Analyzer (SQA II-C) for the assessment of dog sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Rijsselaere, Tom; Van Soom, A; Maes, D; de Kruif, A

    2002-06-01

    In the present study, an automated system for sperm analysis, the Sperm Quality Analyzer (SQA II-C), was tested as a potential tool for the assessment of dog sperm quality. In the first experiment the device displayed a good repeatability of measurements for semen of medium and high quality, as evidenced by a low coefficient of variance (CV; 0.08), whereas a high CV (0.46) was obtained for one dog with semen of inferior quality. In the second experiment, seven different sperm concentrations (25-300 x 106/ml), obtained by dilutions in Hepes-TALP medium were stored for 48 h at room temperature. A concentration dependent increase in sperm motility index (SMI) was shown, reaching a plateau at 150 x 106 spermatozoa/ml. For all sperm concentrations, the SMI value decreased significantly after 24 h, indicating the importance of sperm motility for SMI values. For sperm concentrations lower than 150x106/ml, highly significant correlations [r=0.80;p<0.05] were established between SMI values on one hand and sperm concentration, and semen parameters expressing the overall semen sample quality on the other hand (experiment 3) while non-significant or low correlations were found between SMI values and other individual sperm parameters. In experiment 4, significantly high correlations (r=0.97) were found between mean SMI values and post-thaw motility and progressive motility assessed subjectively. In conclusion, our study indicates that both motility and concentration largely influence SMI values and that the SQA II-C saturates at 150 x 106 fresh spermatozoa/ml. In our opinion, the SQA II-C may be a useful and objective device to assess the post-thaw motility of dog sperm. PMID:12071890

  17. Section II--Quality from the Perspective of Stakeholders: Quality in Early Childhood Programs? Underlying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin-Hee; Walsh, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Quality is a value-laden and context-bound concept. Drawing on cultural psychology, this study examines the nature of cultural values underlying definitions of quality in American early childhood programs. From semi-structured interviews with 15 teachers and 15 administrators in center-based early childhood programs, three themes emerged: (a)…

  18. Curricular Innovations: Findings from a Title II Teacher Quality Enhancement Grant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suters, Leslie A.; Kershaw, Cheryl; Kronick, Bob; Melear, Claudia T.

    Urban Impact is a Title II Teacher Quality Enhancement Act partnership grant supporting the development of new strategies and structures to strengthen the preparation and development of beginning teachers in urban settings in Tennessee. This study evaluated the success of Urban Impact in restructuring university coursework and university/school…

  19. Income Verification Pilot Project (Phase II): Results of Quality Assurance Evaluation, 1982-83 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented in this report are selected findings of the Income Verification Pilot Project (IVPP), an investigation examining misreporting of applicant income and family size on applications for government-sponsored school meal benefits. As reported here, Phase II of the project provided for a comprehensive assessment of specific quality assurance…

  20. Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Quality Control Study: Methodological Report, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macro Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    The Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Quality Control Study, Volume II focuses on study procedures used for the analytical report recorded in Volume I of the study. Copies of all data collection forms are included along with file layouts, field procedures and other general information letters. It is intended to provide a description of the…

  1. Studying the Effect of Light Quality on the Size of the Photosystem II Light Harvesting Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhoz, Romualdo; Quiles, Maria J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article the effect of light quality on the size of the photosystem II (PSII) light harvesting complex (LHCII) is studied by measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence emitted by leaf sections of oat ("Avena sativa," var. Prevision) plants previously treated with either white light or with light filtered through blue, green, red or farred…

  2. Validation of the Korean version Moorehead-Ardelt quality of life questionnaire II

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon Ji; Song, Hyun Jin; Oh, Sung-Hee; Kwon, Jin Won; Moon, Kon-Hak; Park, Joong-Min; Lee, Sang Kuon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the weight loss effects with higher sensitivity, disease specific quality of life (QoL) instruments were important. The Moorehead-Ardelt quality of life questionnaire II (MA-II) is widely used, because it was simple and validated the several languages. The aims of present study was performed the translation of MA-II Korean version and the validation compared with EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D), obesity-related problems scale (OP-scale), and impact of weight quality of life-lite (IWQoL-Lite). Methods The study design was a multicenter, cross-sectional survey and this study was included the postoperative patients. The validation procedure is translation-back translation procedure, pilot study, and field study. The instruments of measuring QoL included the MA-II, EQ-5D, OP-scale, and IWQoL-lite. The reliability was checked through internal consistency using Cronbach alpha coefficients. The construct validity was assessed the Spearman rank correlation between 6 domains of MA-II and EQ-5D, OP-scale, and 5 domains of IWQoL-Lite. Results The Cronbach alpha of MA-II was 0.763, so the internal consistency was confirmed. The total score of MA-II was significantly correlated with all other instruments; EQ-5D, OP-scale, and IWQoL-Lite. IWQoL-lite (ρ = 0.623, P < 0.001) was showed the strongest correlation compared with MA-II, followed by OP-scale (ρ = 0.588, P < 0.001) and EQ-5D (ρ = 0.378, P < 0.01). Conclusion The Korean version MA-II was valid instrument of measuring the obesity-specific QoL. Through the present study, the MA-II was confirmed to have good reliability and validity and it was also answered simple for investigating. Thus, MA-II could be estimated sensitive and exact QoL in obesity patients. PMID:25368853

  3. Quality and Safety in Health Care, Part II: Three Early Reports on Quality.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2015-09-01

    The 1990 Institute of Medicine report Medicare: A Strategy for Quality Assurance offered a definition of quality in health care and recommendations on how to achieve it. The forces for change would include different activities by the federal government, informed consumers, professionalism, and private initiatives. Eight years later, the National Roundtable report Statement on Quality of Care indicated that there were major problems of underuse, overuse, and misuse of health care services. In the same year, the President's Advisory Commission report Quality First: Better Health Care for All Americans discussed major problems with health care and proposed many initiatives to correct them, and also recommended a Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for the patients. PMID:26244402

  4. Quality assurance plan for the High Level Controller for the CBMS Block II

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.W.; Robbins, I.F.; Stewart, K.A.; Terry, C.L.; Whitaker, R.A.; Wolf, D.A.; Zager, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This document establishes the software Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) for the High Level Controller for the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II (HLC/CBMS-II) project activities under the Computing, Robotics, and Education (CRE) Directorate management. It defines the requirements and assigns responsibilities for ensuring, with a high degree of confidence, that project objectives will be achieved as planned. The CBMS Program was awarded to ORNL by the US Army Chemical and Biological Defense command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, to design the next version (Block II) mass spectrometer for the detection and identification of chemical and biological warfare agents, to fabricate four engineering prototypes, and to construct eight preproduction units. Section 1 of this document provides an introduction to the HLC/CBMS-II project QAP. Sections 2 and 3 describe the specific aspects of quality assurance as applicable to the project. Section 4 reviews the project approach to risk management. The Risk Management Matrix given in Appendix A is a tool to assess, prioritize, and prevent problems before they occur; therefore, the matrix will be reviewed and revised on a periodic basis. Appendix B shows the quality assurance criteria of the DOE Order 5700.6C and their applicability to this project.

  5. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  6. Clinical guidelines in pediatric headache: evaluation of quality using the AGREE II instrument

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool is a validated questionnaire used to assess the methodological quality of clinical guidelines (CGs). We used the AGREE II tool to assess the development process, the methodological quality, and the quality of reporting of available pediatric CGs for the management of headache in children. We also studied the variability in responses related to the characteristics of eleven Italian neuropediatric centers, showing similarities and differences in the main recommendations reported in CGs. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted from January 2002 to June 2013 on Mediline, the Cochrane database, the National Guideline Clearinghouse website and the NHS evidence search tool, using the following terms: headache, cephalalgia, guidelines and children (MESH or text words). Six CGs providing information on the diagnosis and management of headache and specific recommendations for children were selected. Eleven neuropediatric centers assessed the overall quality and the appropriateness of all available CGs using of the AGREE II instrument. Results Six CGs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified and assessed by 11 reviewers. Our study showed that the NICE CGs was “strongly recommended” while the French and Danish CGs were mainly “not recommended”. The comparison between the overall quality score of the French CGs and the NICE CGs was statistically significant (6.54 ± 0.69 vs 4.18 ± 1.08; p =0.001). The correlation analysis between quality domain score and guideline publication date showed a statistically significant association only for the “editorial independence” domain (r = 0.842 p = 0.035). The intra-class coefficients showed that the 11 reviewers had the highest agreement for the Lewis CGs (r = 0.857), and the lowest one for the NICE CGs (r = 0.656). Statistical analyses showed that professionals from outpatient services

  7. A longitudinal study of emotional adjustment, quality of life and adaptive function in attenuated MPS II

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Elsa G.; Rudser, Kyle; Ahmed, Alia; Steiner, Robert D.; Delaney, Kathleen A.; Yund, Brianna; King, Kelly; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Eisengart, Julie; Whitley, Chester B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The behavioral, adaptive and quality of life characteristics of attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) have not been well studied. Understanding changes over time in the attenuated phenotype may assist in helping achieve better outcomes in long-term function. This longitudinal study investigates these outcomes in relation to age, somatic disease burden, and IQ. Specifically, somatic disease burden is a major challenge for these patients, even with treatment with enzyme replacement therapy. Methods 15 patients, 10 between ages 6 and < 12 and 5 between ages ≥ 12 and 18, were selected who had at least 2 yearly visits. The occurrence of physical signs, the Physical Symptom Score, and IQ in these two groups was studied as well as the longitudinal association of age with standardized measures of quality of life, adaptive function, and behavioral symptoms as rated by parents and the child's self-report. Slopes by age across and within patients were calculated for these measures. Results All but one child had hearing loss, most had joint contractures and short stature. Somatic disease burden increased with age. IQ, although normal for most, also improved with age in those under 12 years of age. Physical quality of life decreased while psychosocial quality of life increased with age. Although other adaptive skills were in the broad average range, daily living skills were low at baseline relative to normative data and decreased over time. Behavior ratings indicated improvement in attention and hyperactivity over time. No patient had severe psychopathology, but older children reported an increasing sense of inadequacy and low self-esteem on self-report, presumably due to increasing awareness of differences from peers over time. Conclusions Attenuated MPS II patients have increasing somatic disease burden and poor physical quality of life as they develop as well as decreasing self-esteem and sense of adequacy. Psychosocial quality of life, adaptive

  8. Monitoring water quality parameters for Case II waters in Cyprus using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoutsa, Christiana; Retalis, Adrianos; Toulios, Leonidas; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    Remote sensing technology has been widely used for monitoring water quality parameters such as suspended solids (turbidity), Secchi Disk, chlorophyll, and phosphorus. Suspended matter plays an important role in water quality management of several inland- (such as lakes and reservoirs) and coastal-water bodies and can be used to estimate the Trophic State Index of different water bodies. However synoptic information on water quality parameters at a systematic basis is difficult to be obtained from routine in situ monitoring programs since suspended matter, phosphorus, and chlorophyll are spatially inhomogeneous parameters. To meet this need, an integrated use of Landsat satellite images, in situ data and water quality models can be used. Several algorithms were developed at a previous stage using water quality data collected during the in situ sampling campaigns taken place in 2010 and 2011 over Asprokremmos Reservoir (Paphos District) for the assessment of turbidity, Secchi Disk, and Trophic State Index fluctuations using spectroradiometric data. Remotely sensed data were atmospherically corrected and water quality models for the estimation of both the turbidity- and Secchi Disk- concentrations were further calibrated using in situ data for the case of Asprokremmos Reservoir and several coastal over Cyprus coastline (Limassol and Paphos District Areas). This methodology can be used as a supporting monitoring tool for water management authorities "gaining" additional information regarding the spatial and temporal alterations of the turbidity- and Secchi Disk- concentrations and the Trophic State Index values over several Case II water bodies.

  9. Translation, adaptation and validation of a Portuguese version of the Moorehead-Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II.

    PubMed

    Maciel, João; Infante, Paulo; Ribeiro, Susana; Ferreira, André; Silva, Artur C; Caravana, Jorge; Carvalho, Manuel G

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide. An assessment of the impact of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) requires specific instruments. The Moorehead-Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II (MA-II) is a widely used instrument to assess HRQoL in morbidly obese patients. The objective of this study was to translate and validate a Portuguese version of the MA-II.The study included forward and backward translations of the original MA-II. The reliability of the Portuguese MA-II was estimated using the internal consistency and test-retest methods. For validation purposes, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the Portuguese MA-II and the Portuguese versions of two other questionnaires, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite).One hundred and fifty morbidly obese patients were randomly assigned to test the reliability and validity of the Portuguese MA-II. Good internal consistency was demonstrated by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.80, and a very good agreement in terms of test-retest reliability was recorded, with an overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.88. The total sums of MA-II scores and each item of MA-II were significantly correlated with all domains of SF-36 and IWQOL-Lite. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the MA-II total score and BMI. Moreover, age, gender and surgical status were independent predictors of MA-II total score.A reliable and valid Portuguese version of the MA-II was produced, thus enabling the routine use of MA-II in the morbidly obese Portuguese population. PMID:24817428

  10. Recommendations for Cycle II of National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Mallard, Gail E.; Armbruster, Jeffrey T.; Broshears, Robert E.; Evenson, Eric J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Prince, Keith R.

    1999-01-01

    The Planning Team for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program defines a successful NAWQA Program as one that makes a balanced contribution to study-unit issues, national issues, and to the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Using this criterion, NAWQA has been a success. The program has provided important new knowledge and understanding of scientific processes, and insights into the occurrence and distribution of contaminants that have been key to local and national policy decisions. Most of the basic design characteristics of NAWQA's first decade (1991-2000), hereafter called cycle I) remain appropriate as the program enters its second decade (cycle II) in 2001. In cycle II, the program has the opportunity to build on its successful base and to evolve to take advantage of the knowledge generated in cycle I. In addition to this expected evolution, NAWQA must also make some changes to compensate for the fact that program funding has not kept pace with inflation. An important theme for the second cycle of NAWQA will be the integration of knowledge across scales and across disciplines. The question that drove the NAWQA design in the first cycle was "How is water quality related to land use?" Cycle II will build upon what was learned in cycle I and use land-use and water-quality gradients to identify and understand potential sources of various constituents and the processes affecting transport and fate of those constituents and their effects on receptors. The understanding we gain from applying this approach will be relevant to the interests of policymakers, regulatory agencies, and resource managers.

  11. A Comparison of Type II Diabetic Patients With Healthy People: Coping Strategies, Hardiness, and Occupational Life Quality

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Safdar; Jaafari, Asghar; Ghamari, Mohammad; Esfandiary, Maryam; Salehi Mazandarani, Foroozan; Daneshvar, Sahar; Ajami, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the epidemiologic transition and a rise in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases different coping strategies have been studied and developed. These strategies may help the affected people to conduct a normal life style. Objectives This research was conducted in Qazvin, Iran to determine the relationship between coping strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in Type II diabetic patients and healthy people. Patients and Methods Questionnaires such as Valton’s on “occupational life quality,” Billings and Moos’ examination of “Coping strategies,” and Kobasa’s investigation of “hardiness” were applied to collect the data needed for the present study. In this regard, 80 people were randomly selected from employees of offices in Qazvin, Iran. Results The results of this research indicated that there is a significant relationship between problem-focused strategies, emotion-focused strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people (P ≤ 0.05). These results also indicated that hardiness does not predict occupational life quality of people suffering from Type II diabetes. Conclusions The results of the present study give some evidence that allows us to conclude that hardiness and coping strategies affect occupational life quality for both people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people. Therefore, it is proposed that people strengthen their hardiness and coping strategies, in order to improve their occupational life quality. PMID:27162758

  12. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Tarasson, L.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in the MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014) and analyses the performance of the multi-model ensemble. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) and PAN+PAN precursors) over eight vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performance of the system is assessed daily, weekly and every 3 months (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the ensemble median to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10. The statistical indicators for ozone in summer 2014 show that the ensemble median gives on average the best performances compared to the seven models. There is very little degradation of the scores with the forecast day but there is a marked diurnal cycle, similarly to the individual models, that can be related partly to the prescribed diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions in the models

  13. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014). This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs and PAN + PAN precursors) over 8 vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performances of the system are assessed daily, weekly and 3 monthly (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the median ensemble to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The time period of this case study is also used to illustrate that the median ensemble generally outperforms each of the individual models and that it is still robust even if two of the seven models are missing. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10 and show an overall improvement over time. The change of the skills of the ensemble over the past two summers for ozone and the past two winters for PM10 are discussed in the paper. While the evolution of the ozone scores is not significant, there are improvements of PM10 over the past two winters

  14. The Impact of Myeloperoxidase and Activated Macrophages on Metaphase II Mouse Oocyte Quality.

    PubMed

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N; Thakur, Mili; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Drewlo, Sascha; Saed, Ghassan M; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme-containing enzyme present in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is produced in high levels during inflammation, and associated with poor reproductive outcomes. MPO is known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) utilizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-). Here we investigate the effect of activated immune cells and MPO on oocyte quality. Mouse metaphase II oocytes were divided into the following groups: 1) Incubation with a catalytic amount of MPO (40 nM) for different incubation periods in the presence of 100 mM Cl- with and without H2O2 and with and without melatonin (100 μM), at 37°C (n = 648/648 total number of oocytes in each group for oocytes with and without cumulus cells); 2) Co-cultured with activated mouse peritoneal macrophage and neutrophils cells (1.0 x 106 cells/ml) in the absence and presence of melatonin (200 μM), an MPO inhibitor/ROS scavenger, for different incubation periods in HTF media, at 37°C (n = 200/200); 3) Untreated oocytes incubated for 4 hrs as controls (n = 73/64). Oocytes were then fixed, stained and scored based on the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. All treatments were found to negatively affect oocyte quality in a time dependent fashion as compared to controls. In all cases the presence of cumulus cells offered no protection; however significant protection was offered by melatonin. Similar results were obtained with oocytes treated with neutrophils. This work provides a direct link between MPO and decreased oocyte quality. Therefore, strategies to decrease MPO mediated inflammation may influence reproductive outcomes. PMID:26982351

  15. The Impact of Myeloperoxidase and Activated Macrophages on Metaphase II Mouse Oocyte Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N.; Thakur, Mili; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Drewlo, Sascha; Saed, Ghassan M.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme-containing enzyme present in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is produced in high levels during inflammation, and associated with poor reproductive outcomes. MPO is known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) utilizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-). Here we investigate the effect of activated immune cells and MPO on oocyte quality. Mouse metaphase II oocytes were divided into the following groups: 1) Incubation with a catalytic amount of MPO (40 nM) for different incubation periods in the presence of 100 mM Cl- with and without H2O2 and with and without melatonin (100 μM), at 37°C (n = 648/648 total number of oocytes in each group for oocytes with and without cumulus cells); 2) Co-cultured with activated mouse peritoneal macrophage and neutrophils cells (1.0 x 106 cells/ml) in the absence and presence of melatonin (200 μM), an MPO inhibitor/ROS scavenger, for different incubation periods in HTF media, at 37°C (n = 200/200); 3) Untreated oocytes incubated for 4 hrs as controls (n = 73/64). Oocytes were then fixed, stained and scored based on the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. All treatments were found to negatively affect oocyte quality in a time dependent fashion as compared to controls. In all cases the presence of cumulus cells offered no protection; however significant protection was offered by melatonin. Similar results were obtained with oocytes treated with neutrophils. This work provides a direct link between MPO and decreased oocyte quality. Therefore, strategies to decrease MPO mediated inflammation may influence reproductive outcomes. PMID:26982351

  16. Ground-water quality and data on wells and springs in Pennsylvania: Volume II, Susquehanna and Potomac River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koester, Harry E.; Miller, Denise R.

    1980-01-01

    Volume II of the Ground-Water Quality and Data on Wells and Springs in Pennsylvania presents ground-water quality and physical data on about 1,400 wells and springs in the Susquehanna and Potomac River basins in Pennsylvania. Locations are shown on site-location maps derived from the hydrologic unit map. Codes showing the geologic age and aquifer are provided. (USGS)

  17. [Estimation of the patients quality of life after gastric banding according to Moorehead-Ardelt II system].

    PubMed

    Tyvonchuk, O S; Lavryk, A S; Tereshkevych, I S

    2007-07-01

    The quality of life estimation according to Moorehead-Ardelt II system was conducted. The sweet-eater syndrome determination was elaborated and introducted in 45 patients, suffering morbid obesity, to whom gastric banding was performed. The investigation was conducted to unify the results and specify indications for some bariatric operations performance. PMID:18020289

  18. Water-quality data-collection activities in Colorado and Ohio; Phase II, Evaluation of 1984 field and laboratory quality-assurance practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.; Chaney, T.M.; Myers, Donna; Norris, J.M.; Hren, Janet

    1987-01-01

    Serious questions have been raised by Congress about the usefulness of water quality data for addressing issues of regional and national scope and, especially, for characterizing the current quality of the Nation 's streams and groundwater. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a pilot study in Colorado and Ohio to: (1) determine the characteristics of current (1984) water quality data collection activities of Federal, regional, State, and local agencies, and academic institutions; and (2) determine how well the data from these activities, collected for various purposes and using different procedures, can be used to improve the ability to answer major broad scope questions, such as: what are (or were) natural or near-natural water quality conditions; what are existing water quality conditions; and, how water quality has changed and how the changes relate to human activities. Colorado and Ohio were chosen for the pilot study largely because they represent regions with different types of water quality concerns and programs. The study has been divided into three phases, the objectives of which are: Phase I - Inventory water quality data collection programs, including costs, and identify those programs that met a set of broad criteria for producing data that are potentially appropriate for water quality assessments of regional and national scope. Phase II - Evaluate the quality assurance of field and laboratory procedures used in producing the data from programs that met the broad criteria of Phase I. Phase III - Compile the qualifying data and evaluate the adequacy of this data base for addressing selected water quality questions of regional and national scope. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Quality improvement for neonatal nurses, part II: using a PDSA quality improvement cycle approach to implement an oral feeding progression guideline for premature infants.

    PubMed

    Marcellus, Lenora; Harrison, Adele; Mackinnon, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The development of clinical practice guidelines involving multiple health care providers presents a challenge in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Implementation and evaluation of the guideline is as important as the development of the guideline itself. We explored the use of a quality improvement approach in the implementation of a feeding framework. A Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) quality improvement cycle model was used to implement and evaluate a stepwise oral infant feeding guideline with emphasis on parent and care provider satisfaction. Three PDSA cycles were conducted, with each cycle resulting in modifications to use of the framework and development of knowledge translation and parent education techniques and tools. A PDSA cycle approach can be used effectively in guideline implementation and evaluation involving multidisciplinary health care professionals. This is Part II of a two-part series. Part I introduced the concept of quality improvement and tools for advancing practice changes. PMID:22763248

  20. 78 FR 79340 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Stage II Vapor Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... the BPA maintenance plan (78 FR 7672) for 2014 and 2021. For each of the future years 2014, 2017 and... worse. The EPA approved these rules on April 15, 1994 (59 FR 17940). The four areas where Stage II is... Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver, published on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41731). Each year,...

  1. Quality of life theory II. Quality of life as the realization of life potential: a biological theory of human being.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav; Andersen, Niels Jørgen

    2003-10-13

    This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL) used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life) questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life), which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research. Whereas traditional medical science has often been inspired by mechanical models in its attempts to understand human beings, this theory takes an explicitly biological starting point. The purpose is to take a close view of life as a unique entity, which mechanical models are unable to do. This means that things considered to be beyond the individual's purely biological nature, notably the quality of life, meaning in life, and aspirations in life, are included under this wider, biological treatise. Our interpretation of the nature of all living matter is intended as an alternative to medical mechanism, which dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. New ideas such as the notions of the human being as nestled in an evolutionary and ecological context, the spontaneous tendency of self-organizing systems for realization and concord, and the central role of consciousness in interpreting, planning, and expressing human reality are unavoidable today in attempts to scientifically understand all living matter, including human life. PMID:14570994

  2. BUZZARDS BAY EMBAYMENTS, BAYWATCHERS II: NUTRIENT RELATED WATER QUALITY 1992-1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1992, the Buzzards Bay Citizens' Water Quality Monitoring Program, known as "Baywatchers", has been monitoring and evaluating bay water quality and particularly the impacts of nitrogen loading. More than 300 dedicated citizen volunteers have contributed to the effort, sampl...

  3. Evaluation of indoor air quality using the decibel concept. Part II-ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Jokl, M V

    1997-03-01

    Weber-Fechner's law concerning the perception of sound by man with time expressed as a logarithmic function can also be used for the odour constituent used in the evaluation of indoor air quality in buildings. A new unit dB (odour) based on the concentration of Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) is proposed as it is currently the basis for determining the air change rate. On the Psycho-Physical Scale according to Yaglou, the weakest odour that can be detected by the human smell sensors is equal to one and corresponds to the lower limit of percentage dissatisfaction (PD) of 5.8% and a threshold concentration (TVOC) of 50 micrograms/m3-0 dB (odour). The upper limit is determined by the initial value of toxicity TVOC -25,000 micrograms/m3-135 dB (odour). Optimal values corresponding to PD = 20% (according to EUR 14449 EN) and admissible values corresponding to PD = 30% (see Part I of this paper) are proposed, therefore the same values used to evaluate noise can be used to evaluate air quality and additionally the contribution of individual constituents (at present acoustic and odour) to the overall quality of the environment can be ascertained. PMID:9150998

  4. Review of the Constellation Level II Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Documents during Participation in the Constellation Level II SR&QA Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Gentz, Steven J.; Beil, Robert J.; Minute, Stephen A.; Currie, Nancy J.; Scott, Steven S.; Thomas, Walter B., III; Smiles, Michael D.; Schafer, Charles F.; Null, Cynthia H.; Bay, P. Michael

    2009-01-01

    At the request of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Constellation Program (CxP) Safety, Reliability; and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Director, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) participated in the Cx SR&QA Requirements forum. The Requirements Forum was held June 24-26; 2008, at GRC's Plum Brook Facility. The forums purpose was to gather all stakeholders into a focused meeting to help complete the process of refining the CxP to refine its Level II SR&QA requirements or defining project-specific requirements tailoring. Element prime contractors had raised specific questions about the wording and intent of many requirements in areas they felt were driving costs without adding commensurate value. NESC was asked to provide an independent and thorough review of requirements that contractors believed were driving Program costs, by active participation in the forum. This document contains information from the forum.

  5. Forage management impacts II: Soil quality and nitrogen export in runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between indicators of soil quality, water quality and nutrient source needs to be further addressed at the field-scale. Large uncertainties still exist in the magnitude of N losses from forage systems fertilized with animal manures. Quantitative, on-farm evaluations of N losses lin...

  6. 76 FR 41731 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... nonattainment areas after EPA promulgated ORVR standards on April 6, 1994, 59 FR 16262, codified at 40 CFR parts... promulgated ORVR standards on April 6, 1994, 59 FR 16262. \\8\\ Unlike Stage II, which is a requirement only in... Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), this action is a ``significant regulatory...

  7. Agricultural hydrology and water quality II: Introduction to the featured collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural hydrology and water quality is a multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding the interrelationship between modern agriculture and water resources. This paper summarizes a featured collection of 10 manuscripts emanating from the 2013 American Water Resources Association Specialty Co...

  8. Digitization and metric conversion for image quality test targets: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, William C.

    2003-12-01

    A common need of the INCITS W1.1 Macro Uniformity, Color Rendition and Micro Uniformity ad hoc efforts is to digitize image quality test targets and derive parameters that correlate with image quality assessments. The digitized data should be in a colorimetric color space such as CIELAB and the process of digitizing will introduce no spatial artifacts that reduce the accuracy of image quality parameters. Input digitizers come in many forms including inexpensive scanners used in the home, a range of sophisticated scanners used for graphic arts and scanners used for scientific and industrial measurements (e.g., microdensitometers). Some of these are capable of digitizing hard copy output for image quality objective metrices, and this report focuses on assessment of high quality flatbed scanners for that role. Digitization using flatbed scanners is attractive because they are relatively inexpensive, easy to use, and most are available with document feeders permitting analysis of a stack of documents with little user interaction. Other authors have addressed using scanners for image quality measurements. This paper focuses (1) on color transformations from RGB to CIELAB and (2) sampling issues and demonstrates that flatbed scanners can have a high level of accuracy for generating accurate, stable images in the CIELAB metric. Previous discussion and experimental results focusing on color conversions had been presented at PICS 2003. This paper reviews the past discussion with some refinement based on recent experiments and extends the analysis into color accuracy verification and sampling issues.

  9. Structural basis for two-step glucose trimming by glucosidase II involved in ER glycoprotein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Tadashi; Toshimori, Takayasu; Yan, Gengwei; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a sophisticated protein quality control system for the efficient folding of newly synthesized proteins. In this system, a variety of N-linked oligosaccharides displayed on proteins serve as signals recognized by series of intracellular lectins. Glucosidase II catalyzes two-step hydrolysis at α1,3-linked glucose–glucose and glucose–mannose residues of high-mannose-type glycans to generate a quality control protein tag that is transiently expressed on glycoproteins and recognized by ER chaperones. Here we determined the crystal structures of the catalytic α subunit of glucosidase II (GIIα) complexed with two different glucosyl ligands containing the scissile bonds of first- and second-step reactions. Our structural data revealed that the nonreducing terminal disaccharide moieties of the two kinds of substrates can be accommodated in a gourd-shaped bilocular pocket, thereby providing a structural basis for substrate-binding specificity in the two-step deglucosylation catalyzed by this enzyme. PMID:26847925

  10. Structural basis for two-step glucose trimming by glucosidase II involved in ER glycoprotein quality control.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tadashi; Toshimori, Takayasu; Yan, Gengwei; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a sophisticated protein quality control system for the efficient folding of newly synthesized proteins. In this system, a variety of N-linked oligosaccharides displayed on proteins serve as signals recognized by series of intracellular lectins. Glucosidase II catalyzes two-step hydrolysis at α1,3-linked glucose-glucose and glucose-mannose residues of high-mannose-type glycans to generate a quality control protein tag that is transiently expressed on glycoproteins and recognized by ER chaperones. Here we determined the crystal structures of the catalytic α subunit of glucosidase II (GIIα) complexed with two different glucosyl ligands containing the scissile bonds of first- and second-step reactions. Our structural data revealed that the nonreducing terminal disaccharide moieties of the two kinds of substrates can be accommodated in a gourd-shaped bilocular pocket, thereby providing a structural basis for substrate-binding specificity in the two-step deglucosylation catalyzed by this enzyme. PMID:26847925

  11. Phase II simulation evaluation of the flying qualities of two tilt-wing flap control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1992-01-01

    A simulation study was initiated to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional (programmed) flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study, reported in this paper, introduced an alternate method for pilot control of the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap, and two geared flap configurations. The results showed little difference among the three flap control configurations except during a longitudinal reposition task where the programmed flap configuration was the best. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization greatly enhanced the aircraft handling qualities. This paper describes the tilt-wing aircraft and the flap control concepts, and presents the results of the second simulation experiment.

  12. A simulator investigation of parameters affecting helicopter handling qualities in air combat (HAC II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to conduct a pilot simulation study investigating the handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air-to-air combat. Results indicate that a well-damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude-type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be of advantage.

  13. Performance of apple cultivars in the 1999 NE-183 regional project planting: II. Fruit quality characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit quality performance of 23 apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivars and/or numbered selections on Malling 9 (M.9) rootstock was evaluated over four growing seasons at 12 locations across North America as part of the NE-183 Regional Project, "Multid sciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Culti...

  14. Prospective optimization of CT under tube current modulation: II. image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Wilson, Josh; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsam

    2014-03-01

    Despite the significant clinical benefits of computed tomography (CT) in providing diagnostic information for a broad range of diseases, concerns have been raised regarding the potential cancer risk induced by CT radiation exposure. In that regard, optimizing CT protocols and minimizing radiation dose have become the core problem for the CT community. To develop strategies to optimize radiation dose, it is crucial to effectively characterize CT image quality. Such image quality estimates need to be prospective to ensure that optimization can be performed before the scan is initiated. The purpose of this study was to establish a phantombased methodology to predict quantum noise in CT images as a first step in our image quality prediction. Quantum noise was measured using a variable-sized phantom under clinical protocols. The mathematical relationship between noise and water-equivalent-diameter (Dw) was further established. The prediction was achieved by ascribing a noise value to a patient according to the patient's water-equivalent-diameter. The prediction accuracy was evaluated in anthropomorphic phantoms across a broad range of sizes, anatomy, and reconstruction algorithms. The differences between the measured and predicted noise were within 10% for anthropomorphic phantoms across all sizes and anatomy. This study proposed a practically applicable technique to predict noise in CT images. With a prospective estimation of image quality level, the scanning parameters can then by adjusted to ensure optimized imaging performance.

  15. ED Proposed Regulations to Title II of HEA: Comments from the Data Quality Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2015

    2015-01-01

    States are uniquely positioned to provide feedback to teacher preparation programs (TPPs) on the effectiveness of the teachers they train, and to provide information about the quality of TPPs to the public. States have been building the significant data capacity to reliably and securely link teachers with their students' achievement and growth…

  16. Eastern Texas Air Quality Forecasting System to Support TexAQS-II and 8-hour Ozone Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    The main objective of the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS-II) for 2005 and 2006 is to understand emissions and processes associated with the formation and transport of ozone and regional haze in Texas. The target research area is the more populated eastern half of the state, roughly from Interstate 35 eastward. Accurate meteorological and photochemical modeling efforts are essential to support this study and further enhance modeling efforts for establishing the State Implementation Plan (SIP) by Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). An air quality forecasting (AQF) system for Eastern Texas has been developed to provide these data and to further facilitate retrospective simulations to allow for model improvement and increased understanding of ozone episodes and emissions. We perform two-day air quality forecasting simulations with the 12-km Eastern Texas regional domain, and the 4-km Houston-Galveston area (HGA) domain utilizing a 48-CPU Beowulf Linux computer system. The dynamic boundary conditions are provided by the 36-km resolution conterminous US (CONUS) domain CMAQ simulations. Initial meteorological conditions are provided by the daily ETA forecast results. The results of individual runs are stored and made available to researchers and state and local officials via internet to study the patterns of air quality and its relationship to weather conditions and emissions. The data during the pre- and post-processing stages are in tens of gigabytes and must be managed efficiently during both the actual real-time and the subsequent computation periods. The nature of these forecasts and the time at which the initial data is available necessitates that models be executed within tight deadlines. A set of complex operational scripts is used to allow automatic operation of the data download, sequencing processors, performing graphical analysis, building database archives, and presenting on the web.

  17. Analytical data from phases I and II of the Willamette River basin water quality study, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Howard E.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Rinella, Frank A.; Gasser, Timothy M.; Pogue, Ted R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The data were collected at 50 sites, representing runoff from agricultural, forested, and urbanized subbasins. In Phase I, water samples were collected during high and low flows in 1992 and 1993 to represent a wide range of hydrologic conditions. Bed-sediment samples were collected during low flows in 1993. In Phase II, water samples were collected in the spring of 1994 after the first high-flow event following the application of agricultural fertilizers and pesticides and in the fall during the first high-flow events following the conclusion of the agricultural season.

  18. Promoting the Use of Life Cycle Assessment for a Sus-tainable Agri-Food Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of studies that address the holistic human health and environmental impacts related to food, feed, and bio-based fuel roduction has steadily increased in recent years. Studies on agricultural systems have identified environmental issues ranging from greenhouse gas emis...

  19. The potato in Ireland's evolving agrarian landscape and agri-food system.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Alice

    2010-01-01

    The scale, structure and impacts of food systems in Ireland have changed dramatically over the last several hundred years, predominantly since the mechanisation and intensification of farming began in the late nineteenth century. The transformation of the potato production system, which for the preceding century had dominated the Irish diet, was particularly dramatic. The time from the introduction of the potato c. 1600 to its catastrophic decline in the mid-1800s, represented a period of Irish agriculture distinctly at odds with what came before and after, involving as it did complete dependence on a single crop system. Despite devastating crop losses suffered in the nineteenth century and particularly associated with the Great Famine, the potato remained agriculturally significant in Ireland. From the late 1800s onwards the system underwent a transition towards the highly mechanised, specialised, intensive and market-oriented agri-industrial food systems of today. This new high input-high output system was accompanied by an expansion in environmental impacts extending from local to global scales. This article addresses that transition in the role and impacts of the potato in Ireland, from its introduction to the present day. PMID:21197797

  20. [Production cycles and risk agents in the agri-food sector].

    PubMed

    L'abbate, N; Lorusso, A; Lasalvia, M

    2010-01-01

    Italian Food Processing Section includes primary sector (agriculture, fishing and farming), secondary industry and service sector (trade, transport and marketing). The whole process is structured in a sequence of production structures, which constitute a die. The most important food processing dies are fruit and vegetable, cereals, wine, oil, bovine, swine and avian breeding, fishing, milk and cheese. Every die presents very different production cycles, jobs and working professionals. Considering the heterogeneity of food processing dies, all occupational risk factors, such as chemical, biological, physical, ergonomic, psychosocial and injuries risks, are very frequent in such working activities. In a pilot study carried out in the province of Foggia (Apulia, Southern Italy) we showed that the major perceived risk factors where dust and physical overload in the cereal-pasta processing die, and noise and awkward postures in olive-oil die. However, perceived risk factors are biased by low risk perception due to poor information about health occupational hazards, this representing an important health safety problem. For this reason, the activity of preventive authorities at various levels is highly recommended. PMID:21442781

  1. Ozone and sulfur dioxide effects on tall fescue. II. Alteration of quality constituents. [Festuca arundinacea

    SciTech Connect

    Flagler, R.B.; Youngner, V.B.

    1985-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine whether ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) might alter forage quality parameters of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Alta). Plants were exposed weekly to four O/sub 3/ treatments, 0, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 ..mu..L L/sup -1/; with or without 0.10 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ SO/sub 2/, 6 h d/sup -1/ for 12 weeks. Ozone had a much greater impact on forage quality than did SO/sub 2/. Ozone increased protein content on a g kg/sup -1/ basis and decreased protein on a weight per plant basis. Ozone reduced crude fat, crude fiber, and total nonstructural carbohydrate contents of the forage. Crude ash content increased due to O/sub 3/ exposure. On a weight per plant basis, O/sub 3/ decreased the forage concentration of Ca, Mg, and P. Ozone increased Ca concentration of herbage. Sulfur dioxide increased ash content of the forage. Phosphorus concentration and weight per plant of Mg and P were all reduced by SO/sub 2/ Significant pollutant interactions occurred for crude fiber, crude ash, total Mg, and total P contents of forage. While treatments resulted in some apparent increases in forage quality, these were at the expense of yield. The most adverse effects on forage quality were an increase in ash content which resulted from an interaction of SO/sub 2/ with O/sub 3/, and a reduction in soluble carbohydrate content of shoots due to O/sub 3/.

  2. Asthma in the vicinity of power stations: II. Outdoor air quality and symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.L.; Bridgman, H.A.; Wlodarczyk, J.; Abramson, R.; Adler, J.A.; Hensley, M.J. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess longitudinally the effect of living in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations on children with asthma, 99 schoolchildren with a history of wheezing in the previous 12 months were studied for 1 year, using daily diaries and measurements of air quality. The children had been identified in a cross-sectional survey of two coastal areas: Lake Munmorah (LM), within 5 km of two power stations, and Nelson Bay (NB), free from major industry. Daily air quality (sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), respiratory symptoms, and treatment for asthma were recorded throughout the year. Measurements of SO2 and NOx at LM were well within recommended guidelines although they were several times higher than at NB: maximum daily levels in SO2 (micrograms/m3) were 26 at LM, 11 at NB (standard, 365); yearly average SO2 was 2 at LM, 0.3 at NB (standard, 60); yearly average NOx (micrograms/m3) was 2 at LM, 0.4 at NB (standard, 94). Marked weekly fluctuations occurred in the prevalence of cough, wheezing, and breathlessness, without any substantial differences between LM and NB. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was low (10% for wheezing, 20% for any symptom). Whether the daily SO2 and NOx levels affected the occurrence of respiratory symptoms was investigated in children at LM using a logistic regression (Korn and Whittemore technique). For these children as a group, air quality measurements were not associated with the occurrence of symptoms.

  3. Quality control for digital mammography: Part II recommendations from the ACRIN DMIST trial

    SciTech Connect

    Yaffe, Martin J.; Bloomquist, Aili K.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.

    2006-03-15

    The Digital Mammography Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST), conducted under the auspices of the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN), is a clinical trial designed to compare the accuracy of digital versus screen-film mammography in a screening population [E. Pisano et al., ACRIN 6652--Digital vs. Screen-Film Mammography, ACRIN (2001)]. Part I of this work described the Quality Control program developed to ensure consistency and optimal operation of the digital equipment. For many of the tests, there were no failures during the 24 months imaging was performed in DMIST. When systems failed, they generally did so suddenly rather than through gradual deterioration of performance. In this part, the utility and effectiveness of those tests are considered. This suggests that after verification of proper operation, routine extensive testing would be of minimal value. A recommended set of tests is presented including additional and improved tests, which we believe meet the intent and spirit of the Mammography Quality Standards Act regulations to ensure that full-field digital mammography systems are functioning correctly, and consistently producing mammograms of excellent image quality.

  4. Indoor air quality impacts of residential hvac systems phase II.B report: IAQ control retrofit simulations and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Emmerich, S.J.; Persily, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) performed a preliminary study of the potential for using central forced-air heating and cooling system modifications to control indoor air quality (IAQ) in residential buildings. The objective of this effort was to provide insight into the use of state-of-the-art IAQ models to evaluate such modifications, the potential of these modifications to mitigate residential IAQ problems, the pollutant sources they are most likely to impact, and their potential limitations. This study was not intended to determine definitively whether the IAQ control options studied are reliable and cost-effective. The report summarizes the results on Phase II.B of this project, which consisted of three main efforts: computer simulations of contaminant levels with IAQ control retrofits, evaluation of the effectiveness of the IAQ control retrofits, and development of recommendations for future research.

  5. Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…

  6. Sensitivity analysis of TOPSIS method in water quality assessment II: sensitivity to the index input data.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyue; Wu, Jianhua; Qian, Hui; Chen, Jie

    2013-03-01

    This is the second part of the study on sensitivity analysis of the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method in water quality assessment. In the present study, the sensitivity of the TOPSIS method to the index input data was investigated. The sensitivity was first theoretically analyzed under two major assumptions. One assumption was that one index or more of the samples were perturbed with the same ratio while other indices kept unchanged. The other one was that all indices of a given sample were changed simultaneously with the same ratio, while the indices of other samples were unchanged. Furthermore, a case study under assumption 2 was also carried out in this paper. When the same indices of different water samples are changed simultaneously with the same variation ratio, the final water quality assessment results will not be influenced at all. When the input data of all indices of a given sample are perturbed with the same variation ratio, the assessment values of all samples will be influenced theoretically. However, the case study shows that only the perturbed sample is sensitive to the variation, and a simple linear equation representing the relation between the closeness coefficient (CC) values of the perturbed sample and variation ratios can be derived under the assumption 2. This linear equation can be used for determining the sample orders under various variation ratios. PMID:22832843

  7. Quality of outcome reporting in phase II studies in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, Laura Jayne; Davies, Geraint Rhys

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major killer amongst the infectious diseases. Current treatment involves a four-drug regimen for at least 6 months. New drugs and regimens are required to shorten treatment duration, reduce toxicity and combat drug resistance, but the optimal methodology to define the critical path for novel regimens is not well defined. We undertook a systematic review to summarise outcomes reported in Phase II trials of patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB to assess the need for a core outcome set. A systematic search of databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACs) was conducted on 1 May 2015 to retrieve relevant peer-reviewed articles. Reference lists of included studies were also searched. This systematic review considered all reported outcomes. Risk of bias was considered via sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, reasons for exclusions, and selective reporting. Of 55 included studies, 20 were Phase IIB studies based on culture conversion, 32 were Phase IIA studies based on quantitative bacteriology, and three considered alternative outcomes. Large variation in reported outcomes and trial characteristics was observed across the included studies. Bacteriological results were as often expressed in terms of positivity as negativity, with varying definitions of culture conversion. Variation in reporting was particularly marked for Phase IIA studies, where multiple time intervals were typically selected for analysis and sometimes resulted in differing interpretations of the efficacy of drugs or regimens. Within both Phase IIA and IIB studies, there was variation in the time points at which the study participants were sampled, as well as in the bacteriological media and methods used. For successful future meta-analysis of early-phase studies, the findings of this review suggest that development of a core outcome set would be desirable. This would enable trial results to be more easily compared and combined, potentially leading to

  8. Southern california offshore air quality model validation study. Volume II: synthesis of findings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zannetti, P.; Wilbur, D.M.; Baxter, R.A.

    1981-11-01

    This volume describes the significant results of a BLM-funded study conducted jointly by AeroVironment Inc. and the Naval Postgraduate School to validate and/or modify screening models commonly used to predict onshore air quality impacts from outer continental shelf (OCS) emission sources. The study involved both field experiments and computer modeling analysis to give a better understanding of dispersion over water and at the land/sea interface. Two field experiments were performed releasing SF tracer gas from a research vessel offshore the Ventura-Oxnard, California coastal area in September, 1980 and January, 1981. Modifications are discussed for standard Gaussian models to predict peak plume concentration values, the horizontal and vertical shape of the plume, and peak ground-level impacts from OCS emission sources.

  9. TU-B-19A-01: Image Registration II: TG132-Quality Assurance for Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K; Mutic, S

    2014-06-15

    AAPM Task Group 132 was charged with a review of the current approaches and solutions for image registration in radiotherapy and to provide recommendations for quality assurance and quality control of these clinical processes. As the results of image registration are always used as the input of another process for planning or delivery, it is important for the user to understand and document the uncertainty associate with the algorithm in general and the Result of a specific registration. The recommendations of this task group, which at the time of abstract submission are currently being reviewed by the AAPM, include the following components. The user should understand the basic image registration techniques and methods of visualizing image fusion. The disclosure of basic components of the image registration by commercial vendors is critical in this respect. The physicists should perform end-to-end tests of imaging, registration, and planning/treatment systems if image registration is performed on a stand-alone system. A comprehensive commissioning process should be performed and documented by the physicist prior to clinical use of the system. As documentation is important to the safe implementation of this process, a request and report system should be integrated into the clinical workflow. Finally, a patient specific QA practice should be established for efficient evaluation of image registration results. The implementation of these recommendations will be described and illustrated during this educational session. Learning Objectives: Highlight the importance of understanding the image registration techniques used in their clinic. Describe the end-to-end tests needed for stand-alone registration systems. Illustrate a comprehensive commissioning program using both phantom data and clinical images. Describe a request and report system to ensure communication and documentation. Demonstrate an clinically-efficient patient QA practice for efficient evaluation of image

  10. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  11. Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part II: Impacts and policy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Stettler, Marc E. J.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-03-01

    The potential adverse human health impacts of emissions from UK airports have become a significant issue of public concern. We produce an inventory of UK airport emissions - including emissions from aircraft landing and takeoff operations, aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs) and ground support equipment (GSE) - with quantified uncertainty. Emissions due to more than 95% of UK passenger enplanements are accounted for. We apply a multi-scale air quality modelling approach to assess the air quality impacts of UK airports. Using a concentration-response function we estimate that 110 (90% CI: 72-160) early deaths occur in the UK each year (based on 2005 data) due to UK airport emissions. We estimate that up to 65% of the health impacts of UK airports could be mitigated by desulphurising jet fuel, electrifying GSE, avoiding use of APUs and use of single engine taxiing. Two plans for the expansion of UK airport capacity are examined - expansion of London Heathrow and new hub airport in the Thames Estuary. Even if capacity is constrained, we find that the health impacts of UK airports still increases by 170% in 2030 due to an increasing and aging population, increasing emissions, and a changing atmosphere. We estimate that if Heathrow were to be expanded as per previous UK Government plans, UK-wide health impacts in 2030 would increase by 4% relative to the 2030 constrained case, but this increase could become a 48% reduction if emissions mitigation measures were employed. We calculate that 24% of UK-wide aviation-attributable early deaths could be avoided in 2030 if Heathrow were replaced by a new airport in Thames Estuary because the location is downwind of London, where this reduction occurs notwithstanding the increase in aircraft emissions. A Thames hub airport would (isolated from knock-on effects at other airports) cause 60-70% fewer early deaths than an expanded Heathrow, or 55-63% fewer early deaths than an unexpanded Heathrow. Finally, replacing Heathrow by a

  12. Heterogeneity in pineapple fruit quality results from plant heterogeneity at flower induction

    PubMed Central

    Fassinou Hotegni, V. Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J. M.; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity in fruit quality constitutes a major constraint in agri-food chains. In this paper the sources of the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field were studied in four experiments in commercial pineapple fields. The aims were to determine (a) whether differences in pineapple fruit quality among individual fruits are associated with differences in vigor of the individual plants within the crop at the time of artificial flower induction; and (b) whether the side shoots produced by the plant during the generative phase account for the fruit quality heterogeneity. Two pineapple cultivars were considered: cv. Sugarloaf and cv. Smooth Cayenne. Plant vigor at the time of artificial flower induction was measured by three variates: the number of functional leaves, the D-leaf length and their cross product. Fruit quality attributes measured at harvest time included external attributes (weight and height of fruit, infructescence and crown) and internal quality attributes [total soluble solids (TSS), pH, translucent flesh]. Results showed that the heterogeneity in fruit weight was a consequence of the heterogeneity in vigor of the plants at the moment of flower induction; that effect was mainly on the infructescence weight and less or not on the crown weight. The associations between plant vigor variates at flower induction and the internal quality attributes of the fruit were poor and/or not consistent across experiments. The weight of the slips (side shoots) explained part of the heterogeneity in fruit weight, infructescence weight and fruit height in cv. Sugarloaf. Possibilities for reducing the variation in fruit quality by precise cultural practices are discussed. PMID:25538714

  13. Heterogeneity in pineapple fruit quality results from plant heterogeneity at flower induction.

    PubMed

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity in fruit quality constitutes a major constraint in agri-food chains. In this paper the sources of the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field were studied in four experiments in commercial pineapple fields. The aims were to determine (a) whether differences in pineapple fruit quality among individual fruits are associated with differences in vigor of the individual plants within the crop at the time of artificial flower induction; and (b) whether the side shoots produced by the plant during the generative phase account for the fruit quality heterogeneity. Two pineapple cultivars were considered: cv. Sugarloaf and cv. Smooth Cayenne. Plant vigor at the time of artificial flower induction was measured by three variates: the number of functional leaves, the D-leaf length and their cross product. Fruit quality attributes measured at harvest time included external attributes (weight and height of fruit, infructescence and crown) and internal quality attributes [total soluble solids (TSS), pH, translucent flesh]. Results showed that the heterogeneity in fruit weight was a consequence of the heterogeneity in vigor of the plants at the moment of flower induction; that effect was mainly on the infructescence weight and less or not on the crown weight. The associations between plant vigor variates at flower induction and the internal quality attributes of the fruit were poor and/or not consistent across experiments. The weight of the slips (side shoots) explained part of the heterogeneity in fruit weight, infructescence weight and fruit height in cv. Sugarloaf. Possibilities for reducing the variation in fruit quality by precise cultural practices are discussed. PMID:25538714

  14. Quality-by-Design II: Application of Quantitative Risk Analysis to the Formulation of Ciprofloxacin Tablets.

    PubMed

    Claycamp, H Gregg; Kona, Ravikanth; Fahmy, Raafat; Hoag, Stephen W

    2016-04-01

    Qualitative risk assessment methods are often used as the first step to determining design space boundaries; however, quantitative assessments of risk with respect to the design space, i.e., calculating the probability of failure for a given severity, are needed to fully characterize design space boundaries. Quantitative risk assessment methods in design and operational spaces are a significant aid to evaluating proposed design space boundaries. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a relatively simple strategy for design space definition using a simplified Bayesian Monte Carlo simulation. This paper builds on a previous paper that used failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) qualitative risk assessment and Plackett-Burman design of experiments to identity the critical quality attributes. The results show that the sequential use of qualitative and quantitative risk assessments can focus the design of experiments on a reduced set of critical material and process parameters that determine a robust design space under conditions of limited laboratory experimentation. This approach provides a strategy by which the degree of risk associated with each known parameter can be calculated and allocates resources in a manner that manages risk to an acceptable level. PMID:26202064

  15. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties II: Paste, dough and muffin making properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Katyal, Mehak; Bhinder, Seerat; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-15

    The relationship between protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, quality characteristics and muffin making properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Flours from varieties with higher grain weight showed lower proportion of fine particles. Lactic acid solvent retention capacity (LASRC), sedimentation value (SV) and dough stability (DS) correlated with the proportion of 0-55 μm size particles. Paste peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity showed positive correlation with polymeric protein and negatively with monomeric protein, α-amylase activity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity (NaSRC). Gluten strength indicators such as DS, dough development time (DDT), LASRC and gluten index (GI) were positively related to polymeric protein and negatively to monomeric protein. Both G' and G″ were correlated significantly with GI, LASRC, DS and DDT. The varieties that possesses high MW glutenin subunits combinations of 91 kDa + 84 kDa + 78 kDa + 74 kDa showed lower G' and G″. Muffin volume was positively correlated with gluten content and LASRC. PMID:26616955

  16. Boiler briquette coal versus raw coal: Part II--Energy, greenhouse gas, and air quality implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Ge, S; Bai, Z

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to conduct an integrated analysis of the energy, greenhouse gas, and air quality impacts of a new type of boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) in contrast to those of the raw coal from which the BB-coal was formulated (R-coal). The analysis is based on the source emissions data and other relevant data collected in the present study and employs approaches including the construction of carbon, energy, and sulfur balances. The results show that replacing R-coal with BB-coal as the fuel for boilers such as the one tested would have multiple benefits, including a 37% increase in boiler thermal efficiency, a 25% reduction in fuel demand, a 26% reduction in CO2 emission, a 17% reduction in CO emission, a 63% reduction in SO2 emission, a 97% reduction in fly ash and fly ash carbon emission, a 22% reduction in PM2.5 mass emission, and a 30% reduction in total emission of five toxic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) metals contained in PM10. These benefits can be achieved with no changes in boiler hardware and with a relatively small amount of tradeoffs: a 30% increase in PM10 mass emission and a 9-16% increase in fuel cost. PMID:11321910

  17. Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, James T. III; Samei, Ehsan; Ranger, Nicole T.; Chen Ying

    2006-05-15

    Second in a two-part series comparing measurement techniques for the assessment of basic image quality metrics in digital radiography, in this paper we focus on the measurement of the image noise power spectrum (NPS). Three methods were considered: (1) a method published by Dobbins et al. [Med. Phys. 22, 1581-1593 (1995)] (2) a method published by Samei et al. [Med. Phys. 30, 608-622 (2003)], and (3) a new method sanctioned by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1, 2003), developed as part of an international standard for the measurement of detective quantum efficiency. In addition to an overall comparison of the estimated NPS between the three techniques, the following factors were also evaluated for their effect on the measured NPS: horizontal versus vertical directional dependence, the use of beam-limiting apertures, beam spectrum, and computational methods of NPS analysis, including the region-of-interest (ROI) size and the method of ROI normalization. Of these factors, none was found to demonstrate a substantial impact on the amplitude of the NPS estimates ({<=}3.1% relative difference in NPS averaged over frequency, for each factor considered separately). Overall, the three methods agreed to within 1.6%{+-}0.8% when averaged over frequencies >0.15 mm{sup -1}.

  18. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars. Part II: Data Quality Control and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen L.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2014-03-01

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the HS-RHI SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  19. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part II. Data Quality Control and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2013-10-04

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the Hemispherical Sky – Range Height Indicator SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  20. The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC)-II study of common practices for the development and validation of microarray-based predictive models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second phase of the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC-II) project evaluated common practices for developing and validating microarray-based models aimed at predicting toxicological and clinical endpoints. Thirty-six teams developed classifiers for 13 endpoints - some easy, som...

  1. Perioperative management of patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: a quality improvement audit.

    PubMed

    Vijay, A; Grover, A; Coulson, T G; Myles, P S

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients continuing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers on the day of surgery are more likely to have significant intraoperative hypotension, higher rates of postoperative acute kidney injury, and lower incidences of postoperative atrial fibrillation. However, many of these studies were prone to bias and confounding, and questions remain over the validity of these outcomes. This observational, before-and-after quality improvement audit aimed to assess the effect of withholding these medications on the morning of surgery. We recruited 323 participants, with 83 (26%) having their preoperative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) withheld on the day of surgery. There were only very small Spearman rank-order correlations between time since last dose of these medications (rho -0.12, P=0.057) and intraoperative and recovery room intravenous fluid administration (rho -0.11, P=0.042). There was no statistically significant difference between the continued or withheld groups in vasopressor (metaraminol use 3.5 [1.5-8.3] mg versus 3.5 [1.5-8.5] mg, P=0.67) or intravenous fluid administration (1000 ml [800-1500] ml versus 1000 [800-1500] ml, P=0.096), nor rates of postoperative acute kidney injury (13% vs 18%, P=0.25) or atrial fibrillation (15% versus 18%, P=0.71). This audit found no significant differences in measured outcomes between the continued or withheld ACEi/ARB groups. This finding should be interpreted with caution due to the possibility of confounding and an insufficient sample size. However, as the finding is in contrast to many previous studies, future prospective randomised clinical trials are required to answer this important question. PMID:27246933

  2. Preparation of a quality of life (QOL) questionnaire for patients with type II diabetes and prospects for its clinical application.

    PubMed

    Oobe, Masayo; Tanaka, Misuzu; Fuchigami, Miki; Sakata, Toshiie

    2007-10-01

    Modification of the lifestyle centering on dietary therapy has been proven to be effective for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which is increasing progressively. However, lifetime treatment for diabetes inevitably puts economic as well as physical and mental burdens on the patients, and many patients drop out by discontinuing or neglecting treatment, promoting exacerbation of the condition. In this study, an original "Quality of life (QOL) questionnaire for patients with type II diabetes" using a visual analogue scale was tentatively prepared. To evaluate the reliability and validity of this questionnaire, 126 patients (64 males and 62 females) being treated as outpatients or inpatients at 8 university or public hospitals in Fukuoka Prefecture were selected at random, and valid answers from 73 patients were analyzed. From the 46 questions, those in which no significant correlation was observed or which were not answered by many patients were excluded. Since the value of sampling adequacy was 0.673 according to the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure, the sampling adequacy is considered to have been average. When factor analysis by varimax rotation was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science, 4 factors consisting of 18 question items were extracted. Eventually, these 4 factors of 18 questions were adopted for the QOL questionnaire for patients with type II diabetes. The alpha values of the 4 factors were high at 0.867, 0.795, 0.706, and 0.756. These results confirmed the internal consistency of the questionnaire and sufficient reliability of this analytical method. PMID:18046991

  3. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  4. Cross-Validation of the Taiwan Version of the Moorehead–Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II with WHOQOL and SF-36

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Yang; Huang, Chih-Kun; Chang, Yu-Yin; Tai, Chi-Ming; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a major worldwide public health issue. There is a need for tools to measure patient-reported outcomes. The Moorehead–Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II (MA II) contains six items. The objective of this study was to translate the MA II into Chinese and validate it in patients with morbid obesity. Methods The MA II was translated into Chinese and back-translated into English by two language specialists to create the Taiwan version, which was validated by correlations with two other generic questionnaires of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF Taiwan version. The convergent validity was accomplished by a series of Spearman rank correlations. Reliability of the MA II Taiwan version was determined by internal consistency obtained by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test–retest reliability obtained by intraclass correlation coefficient. Results One hundred subjects with morbid obesity were enrolled to test the MA II Taiwan version convergent validity and internal consistency. Test–retest studies (2 weeks apart) were applied to 30 morbidly obese patients. Satisfactory internal consistency was demonstrated by a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.79. Good test–retest reliability was shown by intraclass correlations ranging from 0.73 to 0.91. The total sum of MA II scores was significantly correlated with all four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF and two major components of SF-36 (all correlations, p < 0.01; range, 0.44–0.64). All six MA II items showed significant correlations with each other (r = 0.34–0.69, p < 0.01), and the total sum of MA II scores was negatively correlated with body mass index (r = −0.31, p < 0.01), indicating a one-dimensional questionnaire of HRQOL. Conclusions The MA II Taiwan version is an obesity-specific questionnaire for QOL evaluation with satisfactory

  5. Sleep Quality Changes during Overwintering at the German Antarctic Stations Neumayer II and III: The Gender Factor

    PubMed Central

    Steinach, Mathias; Kohlberg, Eberhard; Maggioni, Martina Anna; Mendt, Stefan; Opatz, Oliver; Stahn, Alexander; Gunga, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Antarctic residence holds many challenges to human physiology, like increased psycho-social tension and altered circadian rhythm, known to influence sleep. We assessed changes in sleep patterns during 13 months of overwintering at the German Stations Neumayer II and III from 2008 to 2014, with focus on gender, as many previous investigations were inconclusive regarding gender-based differences or had only included men. Materials & Methods Time in bed, sleep time, sleep efficiency, number of arousals, sleep latency, sleep onset, sleep offset, and physical activity level were determined twice per month during seven overwintering campaigns of n = 54 participants (37 male, 17 female) using actimetry. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression and analysis of covariance for change over time with the covariates gender, inhabited station, overwintering season and influence of physical activity and local sunshine radiation. Results We found overall longer times in bed (p = 0.004) and sleep time (p = 0.014) for women. The covariate gender had a significant influence on time in bed (p<0.001), sleep time (p<0.001), number of arousals (p = 0.04), sleep latency (p = 0.04), and sleep onset (p<0.001). Women separately (p = 0.02), but not men (p = 0.165), showed a linear increase in number of arousals. Physical activity decreased over overwintering time for men (p = 0.003), but not for women (p = 0.174). The decline in local sunshine radiation led to a 48 minutes longer time in bed (p<0.001), 3.8% lower sleep efficiency (p<0.001), a delay of 32 minutes in sleep onset (p<0.001), a delay of 54 minutes in sleep offset (p<0.001), and 11% less daily energy expenditure (p<0.001), for all participants in reaction to the Antarctic winter’s darkness-phase. Conclusions Overwinterings at the Stations Neumayer II and III are associated with significant changes in sleep patterns, with dependences from overwintering time and local sunshine radiation. Gender appears to be an

  6. Assessment of the quality and content of national and international guidelines on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy using the AGREE II instrument

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Madison, Anita; Barton, Andrew; Gillispie, Veronica; Bazzano, Lydia A L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High-quality evidence-based clinical practice guidelines can guide diagnosis and treatment to optimise outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality and content of national and international guidelines on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Data Sources: The MEDLINE database, the National Guideline Clearinghouse and several international databases were searched for appropriate guidelines from the past 10 years. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods: Six guidelines met inclusion and exclusion criteria and were evaluated using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument. Results A total of 695 records were identified and screened by two authors. Disorder definitions, classifications, preventive measures and treatment recommendations were evaluated and compared among guidelines. AGREE II results varied widely across domains and categories. Only two guidelines received consistently high ratings across domains and few demonstrated a high level of methodological rigour. Recommendations regarding classification and treatment were similar across guidelines, while assessment of preventive measures varied widely. Conclusions Clinical practice guidelines for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy vary significantly in quality and with respect to assessment of preventive measures. PMID:26781503

  7. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement II (1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Columbus, OH.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality control field can locate instructional materials to meet very general or highly specific…

  8. Comparison of disability and quality of life measures in patients with long-term psychotic disorders and patients with multiple sclerosis: an application of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II and WHO Quality of Life-BREF.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Prem; Herrman, Helen; Kennedy, Genevieve

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the applications of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II) and WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) in the assessment of patients with psychotic disorders and multiple sclerosis, and to assess the feasibility and usefulness of such universal measures in the psychiatric as well as physical rehabilitation setting. Twenty patients with psychotic disorders from St Vincent's Mental Health Service and 20 patients from the Medical Rehabilitation Ward of St Vincent's Hospital were assessed. The WHODAS II and WHOQOL-BREF were administered to each patient to obtain their perception of the impact of their disability and their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The WHODAS II and WHOQOL-BREF interviews were meaningful as they highlighted aspects of patients' disabilities as well as issues that led to impairment in HRQoL. The WHODAS II and WHOQOL-BREF total scores were higher overall for patients with multiple sclerosis, reflecting, in particular, the physical impact of this condition. Patients with psychotic disorders generally did not report difficulty in self-care. Both patients with multiple sclerosis and patients with psychotic disorders reported similar levels of difficulty in the domain of participation in society. Universal measures of disability and HRQoL are feasible for use in patients with long-term physical and psychiatric illnesses. Similarities in the disability profiles of patients in the two groups reflect the consequences of the long-term conditions under investigation. Both groups of patients reported similar levels of social disability, confirming that barriers to participation in society affect all patients with disabling conditions. PMID:18467928

  9. Inter-comparison between HERMESv2.0 and TNO-MACC-II emission data using the CALIOPE air quality system (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Marc; Pay, María Teresa; Martínez, Francesc; Soret, Albert; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Baldasano, José M.

    2014-12-01

    This work examines and compares the performance of two emission datasets on modelling air quality concentrations for Spain: (i) the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System (HERMESv2.0) and (ii) the TNO-MACC-II emission inventory. For this purpose, the air quality system CALIOPE-AQFS (WRF-ARW/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b) was run over Spain for February and June 2009 using the two emission datasets (4 km × 4 km and 1 h). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), Ozone (O3) and particular matter (PM10) modelled concentrations were compared with measurements at different type of air quality stations (i.e. rural background, urban, suburban industrial). A preliminary emission comparison showed significant discrepancies between the two datasets, highlighting an overestimation of industrial emissions in urban areas when using TNO-MACC-II. However, simulations showed similar performances of both emission datasets in terms of air quality. Modelled NO2 concentrations were similar between both datasets at the background stations, although TNO-MACC-II presented lower underestimations due to differences in industrial, other mobile sources and residential emissions. At Madrid urban stations NO2 was significantly underestimated in both cases despite the fact that HERMESv2.0 estimates traffic emissions using a more local information and detailed methodology. This NO2 underestimation problem was not found in Barcelona due to the influence of international shipping emissions located in the coastline. An inadequate characterization of some TNO-MACC-II's point sources led to high SO2 biases at industrial stations, especially in northwest Spain where large facilities are grouped. In general, surface O3 was overestimated regardless of the emission dataset used, depicting the problematic of CMAQ on overestimating low ozone at night. On the other hand, modelled PM10 concentrations were less underestimated in urban areas when applying HERMESv2.0 due to the inclusion of road dust

  10. State and Local Implementation of the "No Child Left Behind Act." Volume II--Teacher Quality under "NCLB": Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Beatrice F.; Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson; Klekotka, Amy; Ludwig, Meredith; Taylor, James; Walters, Kirk; Wayne, Andrew; Yoon, Kwang-Suk

    2007-01-01

    This report presents findings about teacher quality from two longitudinal studies, the National Longitudinal Study of "No Child Left Behind" (NLS-"NCLB"), and the Study of State Implementation of Accountability and Teacher Quality Under "No Child Left Behind" (SSI-"NCLB"). The research teams for these two studies have collaborated to provide an…

  11. Using Quality of Life Measures in a Phase I Clinical Trial of Noni in Patients with Advanced Cancer to Select a Phase II Dose

    PubMed Central

    Issell, Brian F.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, A. Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a Phase I study of noni in patients with advanced cancer. Quality of life measures were examined as an alternate way to select a Phase II dose of this popular dietary supplement. Patients and Methods Starting at two capsules twice daily (2 grams), the dose suggested for marketed products, dose levels were escalated by 2 grams daily in cohorts of at least five patients until a maximum tolerated dose was found. Patients completed QLQ-C30 Quality of Life, and the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), questionnaires at baseline and at four week intervals. Scopoletin was measured in blood and urine collected at baseline and at approximately four week intervals. Results Fifty-one patients were enrolled at seven dose levels. Seven capsules four times daily (14 grams) was the maximum tolerated dose. No dose limiting toxicity was found but four of eight patients at this level withdrew from the study due to the challenges of ingesting so many capsules. There was a dose response for self reported physical functioning and the control of pain and fatigue. Patients taking four capsules four times daily experienced less fatigue than patients taking lower or higher doses. A relationship between noni dose and blood and urinary scopoletin concentrations was found. Conclusion Measuring quality of life to determine a dose for subsequent Phase II testing is feasible. A noni dose of four capsules four times daily (8 grams) is recommended for Phase II testing where controlling fatigue and maintaining physical function is the efficacy of interest. Scopoletin is a measurable noni ingredient for pharmacokinetic studies in patients with cancer. PMID:22435516

  12. The effect of implant placement in patients with either Kennedy class II and III on oral health-related quality of life: a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    van Eekeren, P J A; Aartman, I H A; Tahmaseb, A; Wismeijer, D

    2016-04-01

    There is little evidence of the effect of implants restored with fixed partial dentures on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in partially edentulous Kennedy class II and III patients. The aim of this study was to determine the change in OHRQoL in Kennedy classification II and III patients treated with a two-implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Kennedy class II and III patients received dental implants and an FDP. Oral health-related quality of life was measured by administration of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14NL) questionnaire at intake (T1), 2 weeks after surgery (T2) and after 1 year of loading (T3). The mean OHIP score at T1 was 6·5 ± 1·2, 2·4 ± 1·0 at T2, and 0·9 ± 0·3 at T3. There was a statistically significant difference between T1 and T2 (P = 0·002) and T1 and T3 (P < 0·001) but not between T2 and T3 (P = 0·407). The OHIP score in Kennedy II patients decreased from 4·8 ± 3·2 at T1 to 1·5 ± 2·0 at T2 and 1·1 ± 1·8 at T3, and that in Kennedy III patients decreased from 8·9 ± 9·6 at T1 to 3·6 ± 8·9 at T2 and 0·8 ± 2·2 at T3. There were no statistically significant differences in the reductions in Kennedy II and III patients. Oral health-related quality of life changed positively in patients treated with implants and an FDP in both groups. There was no change in OHRQoL between the times of implant placement and FDP placement. PMID:26599422

  13. Substituting SAT II: Subject Tests for SAT I: Reasoning Tests: Impact on Admitted Class Composition and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    2003-01-01

    Simulated the effects of making admission decisions using SAT II subject scores in place of SAT I reasoning scores. Found that success rates, in terms of first-year grade point averages, were virtually identical for students selected by the different models. The percentage of African American, Asian American, and White students selected varied…

  14. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELS USING ADVANCED METHODS WITH SPECIALIZED OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED AMBIENT SPECIES -PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...

  15. Ensemble and Bias-Correction Techniques for Air-Quality Model Forecasts of Surface O3 and PM2.5 during the TEXAQS-II Experiment of 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several air quality forecasting ensembles were created from seven models, running in real-time during the 2006 Texas Air Quality (TEXAQS-II) experiment. These multi-model ensembles incorporated a diverse set of meteorological models, chemical mechanisms, and emission inventories...

  16. Impact of piglet birth weight, birth order, and litter size on subsequent growth performance, carcass quality, muscle composition, and eating quality of pork.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, A D; Aalhus, J L; Williams, N H; Patience, J F

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among birth weight, birth order, or litter size on growth performance, carcass quality, and eating quality of the ultimate pork product. Data were collected from 98 pig litters and, with the addition of recording birth weight and birth order, farrowing and piglet management were according to normal barn practices. In the nursery and during growout, the pigs received the normal feeding program for the barn and, with the addition of individual tattooing, were marketed as per standard procedure. From 24 litters, selected because they had at least 12 pigs born alive and represented a range of birth weights, 4 piglets were chosen (for a total of 96 piglets) and sent to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Lacombe Research Centre (Lacombe, Alberta, Canada) when they reached 120 kg for extensive meat quality and sensory analysis. Individual BW was measured at birth, on the day of weaning, 5 wk after weaning, at nursery exit, at first pull, and at the time of marketing. Litter sizes were divided into 3 categories: small (3 to 10 piglets), medium (11 to 13 piglets), and large (14 to 19 piglets). There were 4 birth-weight quartiles: 0.80 to 1.20, 1.25 to 1.45, 1.50 to 1.70, and 1.75 to 2.50 kg. Increased litter size resulted in reduced mean birth weight (P < 0.05), but had no effect on within litter variability or carcass quality (P > 0.05) when slaughtered at the same endpoint. Lighter birth-weight pigs had reduced BW at weaning, 5 and 7 wk postweaning, and at first pull and had increased days to market (P < 0.05). Birth weight had limited effects on carcass quality, weight of primal cuts, objective quality, and overall palatability of the meat at the same slaughter weight (P > 0.05). In conclusion, increased litter size resulted in decreased mean birth weight but no change in days to market. Lighter birth-weight pigs took longer to reach market. Despite some differences in histological properties, birth weight

  17. ADVANCED EMISSIONS SPECIATION METHODOLOGIES FOR THE AUTO/OIL AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM - II. ALDEHYDES, KETONES, AND ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical methods for determining individual aldehyde, ketone, and alcohol emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and variable-fueled vehicles are described. These methods were used in the Auto/Oil Air quality Improvement Research Program to provide emission data for comparison of...

  18. QUANTITY-QUALITY SIMULATION (QQS) A DETAILED CONTINUOUS PLANNING MODEL FOR URBAN RUNOFF CONTROL. VOLUME II. USERS'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    To calculate urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow pollution and means for its control, a comprehensive mathematical model is presented. The model (Quantity-Quality Simulation) operates in a continuous mode and accounts for the unsteady runoff and overflow behavior of tota...

  19. A Quality Improvement Customer Service Process and CSS [Customer Service System]. Burlington County College Employee Development Series, Volumes I & II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlington County Coll., Pemberton, NJ.

    Prepared for use by staff in development workshops at Burlington County College (BCC), in New Jersey, this handbook offers college-wide guidelines for improving the quality of service provided to internal and external customers, and reviews key elements of BCC's Customer Service System (CSS), a computerized method of recording and following-up on…

  20. Studies in Ambulatory Care Quality Assessment in the Indian Health Service. Volume II: Appraisal of System Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutting, Paul A.; And Others

    Six Indian Health Service (IHS) units, chosen in a non-random manner, were evaluated via a quality assessment methodology currently under development by the IHS Office of Research and Development. A set of seven health problems (tracers) was selected to represent major health problems, and clinical algorithms (process maps) were constructed for…

  1. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis. PMID:24601668

  2. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of two mental health outcome measures: World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II and Lehman's Quality Of Life Interview.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Ligia M; Canino, Glorisa; Negrón, Gisela; Shrout, Patrick E; Matías-Carrelo, Leida E; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Hoppe, Sue

    2005-09-01

    This study presents data on the cultural adaptation to Latino populations of two outcome measures that respond to the need for developing comprehensive instruments for outcome assessments in minority populations. We examined the psychometric properties of outcome measures designed to assess impairment in functioning, and quality of life. Impairment in functioning was measured with the Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DASII) developed by the World Health Organization (1997) and quality of life was measured with A. F. Lehman's (A. F. Lehman, 1983; A. F. Lehman, 1988) shortened Quality of Life Interview (QOLI). Spanish speaking consumers (N = 198) from Fresno (CA), San Antonio (TX) and San Juan (PR) participated in this study. They were recruited from both mental health outpatient clinics and primary care rural clinics. The WHO-DASII showed good to excellent internal consistency in all sites (alpha = .72 to .97) except for one subscale (Self-Care alpha = .47). Test-retest reliability estimates were mostly moderate to substantial (.57 to .83), again with one exception, the Self-Care subscale (.46). For the QOLI internal consistency ranged from .34 to .98 and test-retest reliability ranged from .40 to .86 across all sites. An initial validation strategy using both known-groups and concurrent validity produced promising evidence of the construct validity of both measures. The Spanish versions of the WHO-DASII and the QOLI lend support to the translation and adaptation process to which these instruments were subjected. PMID:16194000

  3. Mycotoxins that affect the North American agri-food sector: state of the art and directions for the future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarises workshop discussions at the 5th international MYCORED meeting in Ottawa, Canada (June 2012) with over 200 participants representing academics, government and industry scientists, government officials and farming organisations (present in roughly equal proportions) from 27 count...

  4. PTR-MS in Italy: A Multipurpose Sensor with Applications in Environmental, Agri-Food and Health Science

    PubMed Central

    Cappellin, Luca; Loreto, Francesco; Aprea, Eugenio; Romano, Andrea; del Pulgar, José Sánchez; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) has evolved in the last decade as a fast and high sensitivity sensor for the real-time monitoring of volatile compounds. Its applications range from environmental sciences to medical sciences, from food technology to bioprocess monitoring. Italian scientists and institutions participated from the very beginning in fundamental and applied research aiming at exploiting the potentialities of this technique and providing relevant methodological advances and new fundamental indications. In this review we describe this activity on the basis of the available literature. The Italian scientific community has been active mostly in food science and technology, plant physiology and environmental studies and also pioneered the applications of the recently released PTR-ToF-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry) in food science and in plant physiology. In the very last years new results related to bioprocess monitoring and health science have been published as well. PTR-MS data analysis, particularly in the case of the ToF based version, and the application of advanced chemometrics and data mining are also aspects characterising the activity of the Italian community. PMID:24021966

  5. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: Understanding for Democratic Participation in Renewing the Agri-Food System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture poses ecological problems and opportunities, which defy simple democratic reform without an educated citizenry. Developing an educated citizenry can be accomplished by further developing agricultural literacy in elementary education. While benchmarks for agricultural literacy have been produced, relatively little attention has…

  6. New products from the agri-food industry: the return of n-3 fatty acids into the food supply.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1999-01-01

    The meat from animals and fish in the wild, chicken eggs produced under complete natural conditions, and wild plants contain higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids compared to domesticated or cultivated ones. The composition of meats, fish, and eggs is dependent on animal feed. Fish-meal, flax, and n-3 from algae in animal feeds increase the n-3 fatty acid content of egg yolks and lead to the availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs in the marketplace. Research is ongoing for the production of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products from poultry, beef, lamb, pork, milk, bakery products, etc. In the case of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs, the egg under complete natural conditions (Greek or Ampelistra egg) can serve as a guide for proper composition. Otherwise, the amount of n-3 fatty acids is determined by the organoleptic properties of the products. It is essential in the process of returning the n-3 fatty acids into the food supply that the balance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the diet that existed during evolution is maintained. Clinical investigations confirm the importance of n-3 fatty acids for normal function during growth and development and in the modulation of chronic diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products should lead to improvements in the food supply. Pregnant and lactating women and infants should benefit since their diet is deficient in n-3 fatty acids, especially for the vegetarians among them. Studies with n-3-enriched eggs lower cholesterol levels, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure. Since cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and autoimmune, allergic, and neurological disorders appear to respond to n-3 fatty acid supplementation, a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids consistent with the diet during human evolution should decrease or delay their manifestation. PMID:10419184

  7. EU-Level Competence Development Projects in Agri-Food-Environment: The Involvement of Sectoral Social Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The European Commission and social partner organisations at EU level encourage the lifelong development of qualifications and competence. This is reflected in many policy reports and reviews. This paper seeks to show the involvement of social partner organisations at the level of EU-funded competence development projects.…

  8. Controlled atmosphere stunning of broiler chickens. II. Effects on behaviour, physiology and meat quality in a commercial processing plant.

    PubMed

    McKeegan, D E F; Abeyesinghe, S M; McLeman, M A; Lowe, J C; Demmers, T G M; White, R P; Kranen, R W; van Bemmel, H; Lankhaar, J A C; Wathes, C M

    2007-08-01

    1. The effects of controlled atmosphere stunning on behavioural and physiological responses, and carcase and meat quality of broiler chickens were studied experimentally in a full scale processing plant. 2. The gas mixtures tested were a single phase hypercapnic anoxic mixture of 60% Ar and 30% CO(2) in air with <2% O(2), and a biphasic hypercapnic hyperoxygenation mixture, comprising an anaesthetic phase, 40% CO(2), 30% O(2), 30% N(2), followed by an euthanasia phase, 80% CO(2), 5% O(2), 15% N(2). 3. Birds stunned with Ar + CO(2) were more often observed to flap their wings earlier, jump, paddle their legs, twitch and lie dorsally (rather than ventrally) than those stunned with CO(2) + O(2). These behaviours indicate a more agitated response with more severe convulsions during hypercapnic anoxia, thereby introducing greater potential for injury. 4. Heart rate during the first 100 s of gas stunning was similar for both gases, after which it remained constant at approximately 230 beats/min for CO(2) + O(2) birds whereas it declined gently for Ar + CO(2) birds. 5. In terms of carcase and meat quality, there appeared to be clear advantages to the processor in using CO(2) + O(2) rather than Ar + CO(2) to stun broiler chickens, for example, a much smaller number of fractured wings (1.6 vs. 6.8%) with fewer haemorrhages of the fillet. 6. This study supports the conclusions of both laboratory and pilot scale experiments that controlled atmosphere stunning of broiler chickens based upon a biphasic hypercapnic hyperoxygenation approach has advantages, in terms of welfare and carcase and meat quality, over a single phase hypercapnic anoxic approach employing 60% Ar and 30% CO(2) in air with <2% O(2). PMID:17701496

  9. Methodological Quality Appraisal of 27 Korean Guidelines Using a Scoring Guide Based on the AGREE II Instrument and a Web-based Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sung-Goo; Kim, Dong-Ik; Shin, Ein-Soon; Jang, Ji-Eun; Yeon, Ji-Yun; Lee, Yoon-Seong

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the methodological quality of CPGs using the Korean AGREE II scoring guide and a web-based appraisal system and was conducted by qualified appraisers. A total of 27 Korean CPGs were assessed under 6 domains and 23 items on the AGREE II instrument using the Korean scoring guide. The domain scores of the 27 guidelines were as following: the mean domain score was 82.7% (median 84.7%, ranging from 55.6% to 97.2%) for domain 1 (scope and purpose); 53.4% (median 56.9%, ranging from 11.1% to 95.8%) for domain 2 (stakeholder involvement); 63.0% (median 71.4%, ranging from 13.5% to 90.6%) for domain 3 (rigor of development); 88.9% (median 91.7%, ranging from 58.3% to 100.0%) for domain 4 (clarity of presentation); 30.1% (median 27.1%, ranging from 3.1% to 67.7%) for domain 5 (applicability); and 50.2% (median 58.3%, ranging from 0.0% to 93.8%) for domain 6 (editorial independence). Three domains including scope and purpose, rigor of development, and clarity of presentation were rated at more than 60% of the scaled domain score. Three domains including stakeholder involvement, applicability, and editorial independence were rated at less than 60% of the scaled domain score. Finally, of the 27 guidelines, 18 (66.7%) were rated at more than 60% of the scaled domain score for rigor of development and were categorized as high-quality guidelines. PMID:27134487

  10. Methodological Quality Appraisal of 27 Korean Guidelines Using a Scoring Guide Based on the AGREE II Instrument and a Web-based Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the methodological quality of CPGs using the Korean AGREE II scoring guide and a web-based appraisal system and was conducted by qualified appraisers. A total of 27 Korean CPGs were assessed under 6 domains and 23 items on the AGREE II instrument using the Korean scoring guide. The domain scores of the 27 guidelines were as following: the mean domain score was 82.7% (median 84.7%, ranging from 55.6% to 97.2%) for domain 1 (scope and purpose); 53.4% (median 56.9%, ranging from 11.1% to 95.8%) for domain 2 (stakeholder involvement); 63.0% (median 71.4%, ranging from 13.5% to 90.6%) for domain 3 (rigor of development); 88.9% (median 91.7%, ranging from 58.3% to 100.0%) for domain 4 (clarity of presentation); 30.1% (median 27.1%, ranging from 3.1% to 67.7%) for domain 5 (applicability); and 50.2% (median 58.3%, ranging from 0.0% to 93.8%) for domain 6 (editorial independence). Three domains including scope and purpose, rigor of development, and clarity of presentation were rated at more than 60% of the scaled domain score. Three domains including stakeholder involvement, applicability, and editorial independence were rated at less than 60% of the scaled domain score. Finally, of the 27 guidelines, 18 (66.7%) were rated at more than 60% of the scaled domain score for rigor of development and were categorized as high-quality guidelines. PMID:27134487

  11. An Observational and modeling strategy to investigate the impact of remote sources on local air quality: A Houston, Texas case study from the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS II)

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, W. W.; Pierce, R.; Sparling, L. C.; Osterman, G.; McCann, K.; Fischer, M. L.; Rappengluck, B.; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Kittaka, C.; Evans, K.; Biraud, S.; Lefer, Barry; Andrews, A.; Oltmans, S.

    2010-01-05

    Quantifying the impacts of remote sources on individual air quality exceedances remains a significant challenge for air quality forecasting. One goal of the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS II) was to assess the impact of distant sources on air quality in east Texas. From 23-30 August 2006, retrievals of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from NASA’s Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) reveal the transport of CO from fires in the United States Pacific Northwest to Houston, Texas. This transport occurred behind a cold front and contributed to the worst ozone exceedance period of the summer in the Houston area. We present supporting satellite observations from the NASA A-Train constellation of the vertical distribution of smoke aerosols and CO. Ground-based in situ CO measurements in Oklahoma and Texas track the CO plume as it moves south and indicate mixing of the aloft plume to the surface by turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer and convection during the day. Ground-based aerosol speciation and lidar observations do not find appreciable smoke aerosol transport for this case. However, MODIS aerosol optical depths and model simulations indicate some smoke aerosols were transported from the Pacific Northwest through Texas to the Gulf of Mexico. Chemical transport and forward trajectory models confirm the three major observations: (1) the AIRS envisioned CO transport, (2) the satellite determined smoke plume height, and (3) the timing of the observed surface CO increases. Further, the forward trajectory simulations find two of the largest Pacific Northwest fires likely had the most significant impact.

  12. The effect of in-stream activities on the Njoro River, Kenya. Part II: Microbial water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yillia, Paul T.; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Mathooko, Jude M.

    The influence of periodic in-stream activities of people and livestock on the microbial water quality of the Njoro River in Kenya was monitored at two disturbed pools (Turkana Flats and Njoro Bridge) at the middle reaches. A total of 96 sets of samples were obtained from the two pools in six weeks during dry weather (January-April) in 2006. On each sampling day, two trips were made before and during in-stream activities and on each trip, two sets of samples were collected upstream and downstream of activities. This schedule was repeated four times each for Wednesday, Saturday and Sunday. Samples were processed for heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC), total coliform (TC), presumptive Escherichia coli and presumptive Enterococci. Additional samples were analysed for total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, BOD 5 and ammonium-N. The microbial water quality deteriorated significant ( p < 0.05) downstream during activities at both pools. A similar trend was observed with the chemical indicators (TSS, turbidity, BOD 5 and ammonium-N). The two groups of indicators demonstrated high capacity for site segregation based on pollution levels. Pollution levels for specific days were not significantly different ( p > 0.05). This was incompatible with the variability of in-stream activities with specific days. The pooled data was explained largely by three significant principal components - recent pollution (PC1), metabolic activity (PC2) and residual pollution (PC3). It was concluded that the empirical site parity/disparity in the levels of microbial and non-microbial indicators reflected the diurnal periodicity of in-stream activities and the concomitant pollution they caused. However, microbial source tracking studies are required to distinguish faecal sources. In the meantime, measures should be undertaken to regulate in-stream activities along the stream and minimize the movement of livestock in the catchment.

  13. Variations in growth of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks: II. Early growth as an index of parental quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Zingo, J.M.; Gough, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    We measured growth of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks at a colony in Connecticut in 10 successive years. Data on body mass during the first three to four days of life were fitted to a quadratic regression model, yielding three parameters of early growth for each of 1,551 chicks: mass at hatching (Mo), linear growth (a) and quadratic growth (b). First chicks in each brood (A-chicks) exceeded second chicks (B-chicks) in each of the three growth parameters; A-chicks from broods of two grew faster than single chicks during the first three days. Mo depended on egg mass, hatch order, hatch date, and year. The linear coefficient (a) depended on hatch date, hatch order, and year, but not on egg mass or Mo. The quadratic coefficient (b) depended on a, hatch date, Mo, and hatch order. Subsequent growth and survival of chicks were predicted well by these parameters of early growth, with b contributing more to these predictions than Mo or a. After controlling for effects of early growth, none of the other variables measured (hatch date, egg mass, parental age, hatch interval between chicks, mass difference between chicks, female-female pairing, or trapping) contributed significantly to explaining later growth and survival. Year effects were substantial in only two of the 10 years of study. Individual pairs were consistent in performance (as indexed by chick growth) in successive years. These results suggest that growth and survival of Roseate Tern chicks are determined primarily by parental quality; much of the information about parental quality is expressed by the time the eggs are laid, and most of it is expressed by the time the chicks are three days old.

  14. The quality of life for cancer children (QOLCC) for Taiwanese children with cancer (part II): feasibility, cross-informants variance and clinical validity.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Hung, Li-Chen; Chao, Kuo-Yu

    2004-03-01

    The quality of life in childhood cancer (QOLCC) is a research instrument that has been developed to assess the quality of life for children and adolescents who suffer from cancer in Taiwan. The current paper is the second of a two-part series of research reports. Part I is reported in this journal (Yeh et al., 2003). Part II describes the range of measurement, concordance of cross-informants reports, and clinical validity of Taiwanese pediatric cancer children (7-12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years) and their parents/caregivers. Due to the cognitive ability of children and adolescents, data were analyzed for children and adolescent separately. The validity of cross-referenced information between parent and child forms was subsequently examined using Pearson product correlation. The feasibility (percentage of missing values per item) and range of measurement [percentage of minimum (floor effect) and maximum (ceiling effect) possible scores] was calculated for the five QOLCC and the total scale score. The findings of medium to high correlation of the patient/parent responses strongly imply that relevant information might be obtainable through parents when children are unable or unwilling to complete the assessment instrument. Feasibility for the QOLCC was very good. PMID:15022152

  15. Quality, efficacy and safety of complementary medicines: fashions, facts and the future. Part II: Efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    This is the second of two papers which review issues concerning complementary medicines. The first reviewed the extent of use of complementary medicines, and issues related to the regulation and pharmaceutical quality of these products; the second considers evidence for the efficacy of several well-known complementary medicines, and discusses complementary-medicines pharmacovigilance. The term complementary medicines describes a range of pharmaceutical-type preparations, including herbal medicines, homoeopathic remedies, essential oils and dietary supplements, which mainly sit outside conventional medicine. The use of complementary medicines is a popular healthcare approach in the UK, and there are signs that the use of such products is continuing to increase. Patients and the public use complementary medicines for health maintenance, for the treatment or prevention of minor ailments, and also for serious, chronic illnesses. There is a growing body of evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews to support the efficacy of certain herbal extracts and dietary supplements in particular conditions. However, many other preparations remain untested. Strictly speaking, evidence of efficacy (and safety) for herbal medicines should be considered to be extract specific. Pharmacovigilance for complementary medicines is in its infancy. Data are lacking in several areas relevant to safety. Standard pharmacovigilance tools have additional limitations when applied to investigating safety concerns with complementary medicines. PMID:12680880

  16. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. II. Quantity and quality of light required

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    The quantity and quality of light required for light-stimulated cell expansion in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been determined. Seedlings were grown in dim red light (RL; 4 micromoles photons m-2 s-1) until cell division in the primary leaves was completed, then excised discs were incubated in 10 mM sucrose plus 10 mM KCl in a variety of light treatments. The growth response of discs exposed to continuous white light (WL) for 16 h was saturated at 100 micromoles m-2 s-1, and did not show reciprocity. Extensive, but not continuous, illumination was needed for maximal growth. The wavelength dependence of disc expansion was determined from fluence-response curves obtained from 380 to 730 nm provided by the Okazaki Large Spectrograph. Blue (BL; 460 nm) and red light (RL; 660 nm) were most effective in promoting leaf cell growth, both in photosynthetically active and inhibited leaf discs. Far-red light (FR; 730 nm) reduced the effectiveness of RL, but not BL, indicating that phytochrome and a separate blue-light receptor mediate expansion of leaf cells.

  17. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  18. A Multi-Model Assessment for the 2006 and 2010 Simulations under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 over North America: Part II. Evaluation of Column Variable Predictions Using Satellite Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative phase 2 (AQMEII2) project, this part II paper performs a multi-model assessment of major column abundances of gases, radiation, aerosol, and cloud variables for 2006 and 2010 simulations with three on...

  19. Impact of individualized yoga therapy on perceived quality of life performance on cognitive tasks and depression among Type II diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Satish, Latha; Lakshmi, V Subbu

    2016-01-01

    Context: An individualized approach of providing yoga support can address many of the disease-related concerns indicated in the management of diabetes, specifically the impact on other life activities and long-term functional wellbeing. Aim: To analyze the role of regular yoga practice as a self-management approach to achieve glycemic control and psychological wellbeing in Type II diabetic patients. Methods: Ninety-one subjects of both sexes responded to the announcement and consented to participate in the study. This was a single group, before and after yoga evaluation without control comparison. The fasting and postprandial blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c), cognitive tasks, depression, cognitive failure, and diabetic-related quality of life (QOL) were measured as pretest. The subjects underwent one-to-one individualized yoga therapy sessions, which included 12 supervised sessions spread over a 3-month period. The posttest data were analyzed using paired t-test and Wilcoxon paired rank test. Results: Showed significant reduction in fasting blood sugar. QOL of the diabetic patients had improved significantly. There was a significant reduction in the frequency (mean difference of 7.58, P > 0.01) of depressive symptoms and intensity of depression (mean difference 1.66, P > 0.05). Concentration and attention span improved significantly and mean discrepancy score reduced (mean difference 3.42, P > 0.01). There were no marked changes in the postprandial blood sugar and HBA1c. Conclusion: Yoga practice enhances the subjective wellbeing, QOL, improves mood and concentration, and facilitates achievement of adequate glycemic control among Type II diabetic patients. PMID:27512320

  20. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  1. BORE II

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migratemore » upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.« less

  2. Quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--Part II. Quality control: comparison of two charting methods to monitor assay performance.

    PubMed

    Goris, N; De Clercq, K

    2005-12-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are increasingly required to meet stringent quality standards, and validated assays are needed to achieve formal accreditation. Validation of test methods is often considered to be finalised when the assay parameters and characteristics have been established. However, like any process, diagnostic assays are subject to random variation resulting in shifts in the mean test values. Continuous monitoring of assays using control charts will alert the interpreter of changes in performance. For this purpose, several charting methods have been developed and implemented. This paper compares the Shewhart and the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts with respect to the day to day monitoring of internal quality control samples for the foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both chart types are equally sensitive to shifts, but the EWMA method seems to provide the best balance between false rejection and false acceptance. PMID:16642771

  3. DO-BOD modeling of River Yamuna for national capital territory, India using STREAM II, a 2D water quality model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Singh, Ram Karan

    2009-12-01

    The study illustrates the utility of STREAM II as a modeling package to determine the pollution load due to organic matter in the River Yamuna during its course through the National Capital Territory that is Delhi, India. The study was done for a period from 1995-2005. Model simulates the dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand parameters in a two-dimensional fashion by performing the numerical solution to a set of differential equations representing aquatic life with the help of Crank-Nicholson finite difference method. The model was simulated and calibrated through the field water-quality primary data and the secondary data which were taken from Central Pollution Control Board. The main reasons for the high river pollution is increasing population of Delhi and other states, leading to generation of huge amounts of domestic sewage into the river Yamuna. The model gave a good agreement between calibrated and observed data, thus, actualizing the validity of the model. However, discrepancies noticed during model calibrations were attributed to the assumptions adopted in the model formulation and to lack of field data. PMID:19020982

  4. Modeling air quality during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CPRAQS) using the UCD/CIT Source Oriented Air Quality Model - Part II. Regional source apportionment of primary airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qi; Lu, Jin; Kaduwela, Ajith; Kleeman, Michael

    A comprehensive air quality modeling project was carried out to simulate regional source contributions to primary airborne particle concentrations in California's central Valley. A 3-week stagnation episode lasting from December 15, 2000 to January 7, 2001, was chosen for study using the air quality and meteorological data collected during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS). The UCD/CIT source oriented air quality model was applied to this episode using both the source-oriented external mixture configuration and an internal mixture with artificial tracers so that source contribution information could be retrieved in less time. The majority of the predicted and measured primary airborne particulate matter mass was composed of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Previous work has shown that base case EC and OC predictions made by the UCD/CIT model are in good agreement with observations. Model results from the current study show that the highest EC and OC concentrations occur in urban areas and along transportation corridors where primary emissions are largest. Lower concentrations of primary EC and OC are predicted at rural locations in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Source contributions predicted by the UCD/CIT air quality model were compared to receptor-oriented source apportionment results produced by the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model at Fresno and Angiola. The relative contributions from major sources predicted by the UCD/CIT model agree with the CMB model results, building confidence in the accuracy of the UCD/CIT model predictions at locations where the CMB results are not available. Wood smoke was identified as the major regional source of primary OC in airborne particles in the winter SJV episode, accounting for approximately 50% of the total PM 2.5. Diesel engines were also found to be a significant contributor to primary PM 2.5 OC and the largest contributor to the predicted PM 2.5 EC averaged over a typical day

  5. Health-related quality of life in survivors of stage I-II breast cancer: randomized trial of post-operative conventional radiotherapy and hypofractionated tomotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment is a key component of clinical oncology trials. However, few breast cancer trials comparing adjuvant conventional radiotherapy (CR) and hypofractionated tomotherapy (TT) have investigated HRQOL. We compared HRQOL in stage I-II breast cancer patients who were randomized to receive either CR or TT. Tomotherapy uses an integrated computed tomography scanner to improve treatment accuracy, aiming to reduce the adverse effects of radiotherapy. Methods A total of 121 stage I–II breast cancer patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy (MA) were randomly assigned to receive either CR or TT. CR patients received 25 × 2 Gy over 5 weeks, and BCS patients also received a sequential boost of 8 × 2 Gy over 2 weeks. TT patients received 15 × 2.8 Gy over 3 weeks, and BCS patients also received a simultaneous integrated boost of 15 × 0.6 Gy over 3 weeks. Patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BR23 questionnaires. The mean score (± standard error) was calculated at baseline, the end of radiotherapy, and at 3 months and 1, 2, and 3 years post-radiotherapy. Data were analyzed by the 'intention-to-treat' principle. Results On the last day of radiotherapy, patients in both treatment arms had decreased global health status and functioning scores; increased fatigue (clinically meaningful in both treatment arms), nausea and vomiting, and constipation; decreased arm symptoms; clinically meaningful increased breast symptoms in CR patients and systemic side effects in TT patients; and slightly decreased body image and future perspective. At 3 months post-radiotherapy, TT patients had a clinically significant increase in role- and social-functioning scores and a clinically significant decrease in fatigue. The post-radiotherapy physical-, cognitive- and emotional-functioning scores improved faster in TT patients than CR patients. TT patients also had a better long-term recovery

  6. Quality, quality, quality!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, Charles A., II

    1994-03-01

    The manufacturing base is being revitalized by new manufacturing directions such as the new agile manufacturing and environmentally-conscious manufacturing. These processes hold promise for bringing high-impact technologies to quick commercial fruition, and more than ever before they incorporate quality principles in their development and operation. Because of their pivotal role in all of these aspects, the R&D institutions must maintain a firm grasp on solid quality fundamentals and new developments in the field.

  7. Sequential FOLFIRI.3 + Gemcitabine Improves Health-Related Quality of Life Deterioration-Free Survival of Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Randomized Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anota, Amélie; Mouillet, Guillaume; Trouilloud, Isabelle; Dupont-Gossart, Anne-Claire; Artru, Pascal; Lecomte, Thierry; Zaanan, Aziz; Gauthier, Mélanie; Fein, Francine; Dubreuil, Olivier; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Taieb, Julien; Bonnetain, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Background A randomized multicenter phase II trial was conducted to assess the sequential treatment strategy using FOLFIRI.3 and gemcitabine alternately (Arm 2) compared to gemcitabine alone (Arm 1) in patients with metastatic non pre-treated pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 6 months. It concludes that the sequential treatment strategy appears to be feasible and effective with a PFS rate of 43.5% in Arm 2 at 6 months (26.1% in Arm 1). This paper reports the results of the longitudinal analysis of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as a secondary endpoint of this study. Methods HRQoL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 at baseline and every two months until the end of the study or death. HRQoL deterioration-free survival (QFS) was defined as the time from randomization to a first significant deterioration as compared to the baseline score with no further significant improvement, or death. A propensity score was estimated comparing characteristics of partial and complete responders. Analyses were repeated with inverse probability weighting method using the propensity score. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify independent factors influencing QFS. Results 98 patients were included between 2007 and 2011. Adjusting on the propensity score, patients of Arm 2 presented a longer QFS of Global Health Status (Hazard Ratio: 0.52 [0.31-0.85]), emotional functioning (0.35 [0.21–0.59]) and pain (0.50 [0.31 – 0.81]) than those of Arm 1. Conclusion Patients of Arm 2 presented a better HRQoL with a longer QFS than those of Arm 1. Moreover, the propensity score method allows to take into account the missing data depending on patients’ characteristics. Trial registration information Eudract N° 2006-005703-34. (Name of the Trial: FIRGEM). PMID:26010884

  8. Limiting Radiotherapy to the Contralateral Retropharyngeal and High Level II Lymph Nodes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma is Safe and Improves Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Christopher R.; Gay, Hiram A.; Haughey, Bruce H.; Nussenbaum, Brian; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wildes, Tanya M.; DeWees, Todd A.; Lewis, James S.; Thorstad, Wade L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiation treatment volumes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are controversial. Here we report the outcomes, failures, and quality of life (QOL) of patients treated using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that eliminated treatment of contralateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RPLN) in the clinically uninvolved neck. Methods A prospective institutional database identified patients with primary oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and unknown primary HNSCC treated using IMRT. There were three temporal groups (G1-3). G1 received comprehensive neck IMRT with parotid sparing, G2 eliminated the contralateral high level II (HLII) lymph nodes, and G3 further eliminated the contralateral RPLN in the clinically uninvolved neck. Patterns of failure and survival analyses were completed and QOL data measured by the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) was compared in a subset of patients from G1 and G3. Results There were 748 patients identified. Of the 488 patients treated in G2 or G3, 406 had a clinically uninvolved contralateral neck. There were no failures in the spared RPLNs (95% CI; 0-1.3%) or high contralateral neck (95% CI; 0-0.7%). QOL data was compared between 44 patients in G1 and 51 patients in G3. QOL improved both globally and in all domains assessed for G3 in which reduced radiotherapy volumes were used (p < 0.007). Conclusions For patients with locally advanced HNSCC, eliminating coverage to the contralateral HLII and contralateral RPLN in the clinically uninvolved side of the neck is associated with minimal risk of failure in these regions and significantly improved patient-reported QOL. PMID:25143048

  9. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  10. Substituting SAT® II: Subject Tests for SAT I: Reasoning Test: Impact on Admitted Class Composition and Quality. Research Report No. 2001-3. ETS RR-01-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    2001-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 10 colleges at which most students had taken both SAT I: Reasoning Test and SAT II: Subject Tests, the authors simulated the effects of making selection decisions using SAT II scores in place of SAT I scores. Specifically, they treated the students in each college as forming the applicant pool for a more select college,…

  11. Quality Control of Photosystem II: The Mechanisms for Avoidance and Tolerance of Light and Heat Stresses are Closely Linked to Membrane Fluidity of the Thylakoids

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yasusi

    2016-01-01

    When oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are exposed to excessive light and/or heat, Photosystem II is damaged and electron transport is blocked. In these events, reactive oxygen species, endogenous radicals and lipid peroxidation products generated by photochemical reaction and/or heat cause the damage. Regarding light stress, plants first dissipate excessive light energy captured by light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes as heat to avoid the hazards, but once light stress is unavoidable, they tolerate the stress by concentrating damage in a particular protein in photosystem II, i.e., the reaction-center binding D1 protein of Photosystem II. The damaged D1 is removed by specific proteases and replaced with a new copy produced through de novo synthesis (reversible photoinhibition). When light intensity becomes extremely high, irreversible aggregation of D1 occurs and thereby D1 turnover is prevented. Once the aggregated products accumulate in Photosystem II complexes, removal of them by proteases is difficult, and irreversible inhibition of Photosystem II takes place (irreversible photoinhibition). Important is that various aspects of both the reversible and irreversible photoinhibition are highly dependent on the membrane fluidity of the thylakoids. Heat stress-induced inactivation of photosystem II is an irreversible process, which may be also affected by the fluidity of the thylakoid membranes. Here I describe why the membrane fluidity is a key to regulate the avoidance and tolerance of Photosystem II on environmental stresses. PMID:27532009

  12. Quality Control of Photosystem II: The Mechanisms for Avoidance and Tolerance of Light and Heat Stresses are Closely Linked to Membrane Fluidity of the Thylakoids.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yasusi

    2016-01-01

    When oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are exposed to excessive light and/or heat, Photosystem II is damaged and electron transport is blocked. In these events, reactive oxygen species, endogenous radicals and lipid peroxidation products generated by photochemical reaction and/or heat cause the damage. Regarding light stress, plants first dissipate excessive light energy captured by light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes as heat to avoid the hazards, but once light stress is unavoidable, they tolerate the stress by concentrating damage in a particular protein in photosystem II, i.e., the reaction-center binding D1 protein of Photosystem II. The damaged D1 is removed by specific proteases and replaced with a new copy produced through de novo synthesis (reversible photoinhibition). When light intensity becomes extremely high, irreversible aggregation of D1 occurs and thereby D1 turnover is prevented. Once the aggregated products accumulate in Photosystem II complexes, removal of them by proteases is difficult, and irreversible inhibition of Photosystem II takes place (irreversible photoinhibition). Important is that various aspects of both the reversible and irreversible photoinhibition are highly dependent on the membrane fluidity of the thylakoids. Heat stress-induced inactivation of photosystem II is an irreversible process, which may be also affected by the fluidity of the thylakoid membranes. Here I describe why the membrane fluidity is a key to regulate the avoidance and tolerance of Photosystem II on environmental stresses. PMID:27532009

  13. The validity and responsiveness of three quality of life measures in the assessment of psoriasis patients: results of a phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Shikiar, Richard; Willian, Mary Kaye; Okun, Martin M; Thompson, Christine S; Revicki, Dennis A

    2006-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcome (PROs) measures are being used more frequently in investigational studies of treatments for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and the EuroQOL 5D (EQ-5D) and to assess their validity, responsiveness, and estimates of minimum important differences. Methods A Phase II, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical trial assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of two doses of subcutaneously administered adalimumab vs. placebo for 12 weeks in the treatment of 147 patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. This study provided the opportunity to evaluate the validity and responsiveness to change in clinical status of PROs instruments. Patients completed the DLQI, SF-36, and EQ-5D questionnaires at baseline and at 12 weeks. Blinded investigators assessed the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores and the Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) scores of enrolled patients. The responsiveness of the measures to changes in the clinical endpoints from baseline to Week 12 was assessed. Estimates of minimum important differences (MID) were derived. All analyses were performed with blinded data; findings and conclusions were not biased based on treatment condition. Results The dermatology-specific DLQI was highly correlated to clinical endpoints at baseline and at Week 12, and was the most responsive PRO to changes in endpoints. Compared with the SF-36, the EQ-5D index score and VAS scores were generally more highly correlated with clinical endpoints, but displayed about the same degree of responsiveness. The most responsive SF-36 scales were the Bodily Pain and Social Functioning scales. Estimates of the MID for the DLQI ranged from 2.3–5.7 and for the SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) score ranged from 2.5–3.9. Conclusion This study provides

  14. Improvements in agricultural sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This editorial provides insight on investigations regarding advancements in agri-food quality and testing of eco-friendly organic farming methodologies. The discussion elaborates on the advantages of recent farming techniques and their impact on improved crop yield, crop quality, and minimization of...

  15. Randomized Control Trial: Evaluating Aluminum-Based Antiperspirant Use, Axilla Skin Toxicity, and Reported Quality of Life in Women Receiving External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Stage 0, I, and II Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Linda C.; Gies, Donna; Thompson, Emmanuel; Thomas, Bejoy

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Standard skin care instructions regarding the use of antiperspirants during radiotherapy to the breast varies across North America. Women have articulated that when instructed to not use antiperspirant, the potential for body odor is distressing. Historical practices and individual opinions have often guided practice in this field. The present study had 2 purposes. To evaluate whether the use of aluminum-based antiperspirant while receiving external beam radiotherapy for stage 0, I, or II breast cancer will increase axilla skin toxicity and to evaluate whether the use of antiperspirant during external beam radiotherapy improves quality of life. Methods: A total of 198 participants were randomized to either the experimental group (antiperspirant) or control group (standard care-wash only). The skin reactions in both groups were measured weekly and 2 weeks after treatment using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 3, toxicity grading criteria. Both groups completed the Functional Assessment for Chronic Illness Therapy's questionnaire for the breast population quality of life assessment tool, with additional questions evaluating the effect of underarm antiperspirant use on quality of life before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment during the study. Results: The skin reaction data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation. No statistically significant difference was seen in the skin reaction between the 2 groups over time. The quality of life data also revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups over time. Conclusions: Data analysis indicates that using antiperspirant routinely during external beam radiotherapy for Stage 0, I, or II breast cancer does not affect the intensity of the skin reaction or the self-reported quality of life. This evidence supports that in this particular population, there is no purpose to restrict these women from using

  16. Evaluation of operational online-coupled regional air quality models over Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII phase 2. Part II: Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) brought together seventeen modeling groups from Europe and North America, running eight operational online-coupled air quality models over Europe and North America on common emissions and bound...

  17. Quality in School Environments: A Multiple Case Study of the Diagnosis, Design and Management of Environmental Quality in Five Elementary Schools in the Baltimore City Public Schools from an Action Research Perspective. Volumes I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackney, Jeffery A.

    Environmental factors are being increasingly recognized as playing a role in school effectiveness and educational outcomes. Volume 1 examines what is known concerning the diagnosis, design, and management of environmental quality in schools, and the perceived relationship between environmental quality and educational outcomes, as revealed in an…

  18. Assessment of beef production from Brahman x Thai native and Charolais x Thai native crossbred bulls slaughtered at different weights. II: meat quality.

    PubMed

    Waritthitham, A; Lambertz, C; Langholz, H-J; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to assess meat quality of Brahman x Thai native (BRA) and Charolais x Thai native (CHA) crossbred bulls. In total 34 BRA and 34 CHA under practical farm conditions were randomly assigned for slaughter at 500, 550 and 600 kg live weight, respectively. Longissimus dorsi muscle was taken for meat quality and sensory evaluations. CHA meat had higher intramuscular fat, exhibited higher marbling scores and relatively better colour than BRA meat. Although muscle fiber area was similar for both genotypes, shear force values were higher for CHA meat. Water holding capacity was better for CHA meat shown by lower 7-day ageing, thawing and grilling losses. However, the sensory evaluation ratings were similar for both genotypes. Increasing slaughter weight from 500 kg up to 600 kg had no significant effect on meat quality. In conclusion, meat quality of CHA was superior to BRA. PMID:20374885

  19. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  20. Identification and proportion of the enantiomers of the antihypertensive drug chlortalidone in its Form II by high quality single-crystal X-ray diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leandro M; Santos, Olimpia M M; Mendes, Paula Freire; Rosa, Iara Maria Landre; da Silva, Cameron Capeletti; Bonfilio, Rudy; de Araujo, Magali B; Boralli, Vanessa B; Doriguetto, Antônio C; Martins, Felipe T

    2016-01-25

    Chlortalidone (CTD) is a diuretic drug largely used as part of antihypertensive therapies. It is marketed as an equimolar mixture of its enantiomers in the racemic crystal phase named Form I, despite of the higher aqueous solubility of another crystal form. The latter, named Form II, was thought to contain both enantiomers as a racemic conglomerate, i.e., in the form of a mixture of crystals, half of which consists solely of the (R)-enantiomer, the other half the (S)-enantiomer. The occurrence of both enantiomers in individual crystals of CTD Form II was demonstrated in this study. Spontaneous resolution does really occur upon crystallization, as presumed previously even without physical evidence of the (S)-enantiomer. Both (R) and (S)-enantiomers were successfully identified as two domains of a twinned by inversion single crystal of CTD Form II. A reliable Flack parameter of 0.14(4) allowed to determine the proportion of the enantiomers in the crystal, which is formed with 86% of the (R)-enantiomer and 14% of the (S)-enantiomer. PMID:26528899

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of high-quality type-II CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots with dark red emission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    A hydrothermal method was used to synthesize type-II CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots (QDs) using the thilglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe QDs as cores, which show a number of advantages. Because of the spatial separation of carriers the low excited states of CdTe/CdSe QDs, they exhibit many novel properties that are fundamentally different from the type-I QDs. On the other hand, our experiment results show that the wave function of the hole of the exciton in the CdTe core extends well into the CdSe shell. The results also reveal that a thick shell can confine the electrons inside the particles and thereby improve the PL efficiency and prolong the lifetime of the core/shell QDs. We use the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectrum measurements on growing particles in detail. We found that the fluorescence of the CdTe/CdSe QDs was strongly dependent on the thick of the shell and size of the core as well as the unique type-II heterostructure, which make the type-II core/shell QDs more suitable in photovoltaic or photoconduction applications. PMID:25936008

  2. The Social Practice of Sustainable Agriculture under Audit Discipline: Initial Insights from the ARGOS Project in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Hugh; Rosin, Christopher; Hunt, Lesley; Fairweather, John

    2012-01-01

    One of the most interesting recent developments in global agri-food systems has been the rapid emergence and elaboration of market audit systems claiming environmental qualities or sustainability. In New Zealand, as a strongly export-oriented, high-value food producer, these environmental market audit systems have emerged as an important pathway…

  3. RIVER BASIN VALIDATION OF THE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SCREENING NONDESIGNATED 208 AREAS. VOLUME II: CHESAPEAKE-SANDUSKY NONDESIGNATED 208 SCREENING METHODOLOGY DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In earlier work under the sponsorship of EPA, a screening methodology was produced by Tetra Tech, Inc., for assessing water quality problems in areas not covered under Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, and loading functions were developed ...

  4. Making A Difference: What Communities Can Do To Prevent Mental Handicap and Promote Lives of Quality. Volume II: The Well-Being of Babies and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappel, Bruce; McWhorter, Alan

    The second of five volumes on the means by which Canadian communities can reduce the incidence of mental retardation, minimize existing impairment, and improve the quality of life of the mentally retarded, this booklet focuses on needed action to assure the health of babies, young children, and families. After an introduction, sections deal with…

  5. Quality assessment of strippable coals in New Mexico, Year I, Phase II, Fruitland and Cleary coals in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, G.H.; Campbell, F.W.; Beaumont, E.C.; Cohen, A.D.; Kuellmer, F.J.; Kottlowski, F.E.

    1986-05-01

    Drill sites spaced about 2 miles apart along the down-dip edge of strippable coal yielded 350 coal-core samples from 49 Fruitland Formation and 16 Cleary-Menefee locations in the San Juan Basin. Extensive chemical analyses and representative petrographic descriptions characterize the sampled coals and indicate their commercial qualities. 9 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Navigating Special Education in Charter Schools Part II: The Authorizers' Role in Ensuring Quality Special Education Programs. Authorizing Matters. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhim, Lauren Morando

    2007-01-01

    What ought authorizers do to ensure that the charter schools they approve provide a quality education to students with disabilities who enroll in their school? That is the question many authorizers wrestle with as they strive to strike a balance between fulfilling their responsibilities under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)…

  7. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: II. Air quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management on air quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health using a second generation of Environmentally Superior Technology. The second generation system combines solid-liquid sep...

  8. High Performing Colleges. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award as a Framework for Improving Higher Education. Volume I: Theory and Concepts [and] Volume II: Case and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Daniel, Ed.; And Others

    This publication provides research-based discussion in 20 chapters of possible extension of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award to honor high performing colleges. Chapters are organized into two volumes, the first exploring a broad range of issues from a scholarly point of view and the second emphasizing the practical application of a…

  9. Washington Center for the Improvement of the Quality of Undergraduate Education. Final Report to the Ford Foundation, 1986-88. Volume II: Washington Center Activities, 1985-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education.

    This compilation of materials represents the major activities of the Washington Center for the Improvement of the Quality of Undergraduate Education between 1985 and 1988. The volume includes: (1) a proposal to the Ford Foundation for funding to promote collaborative projects between two- and four-year colleges related to faculty development,…

  10. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here. PMID:16419921

  11. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: II. Carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Larzul, C; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Manse, H; Tircazes, A; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Gidenne, T; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact on carcass and meat quality of the genetic selections. This comparison was performed using 2 different feeding strategies corresponding to the selection design. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded for the 3 lines (ConsoResidual, ADGrestrict, and an unselected control [generation 0 {G0}]) in the 2 feeding systems (ad libitum and restricted) for 163 animals. Concerning the line effect, the BW at 63 d old was higher for the ADGrestrict line compared with the G0 and ConsoResidual lines ( < 0.0001). There was no line effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The rabbits did not exhibit a different carcass yield but showed different carcass traits. Indeed, the ConsoResidual rabbits had a higher hind leg yield ( < 0.0001) but no difference in the meat-to-bone ratio of the hind leg. On the contrary, the ADGrestrict line had a higher proportion of forelegs plus thoracic cage ( = 0.03). We also found lower perirenal ( < 0.0001) and scapular fat yields ( < 0.0001) in ConsoResidual rabbits. The ADGrestrict line had an intermediate perirenal fat yield compared with the other 2 lines. The G0 line always exhibited higher fat yields. Concerning meat quality, the ConsoResidual rabbits showed a lower ultimate pH ( < 0.0001) and higher water loss (drip and cooking loss; < 0.002) compared with the G0 and ADGrestrict rabbits. The feeding level had a strong effect on the gastrointestinal tract ( = 0.0004) and the carcass yield ( = 0.001). The latter was decreased in restricted rabbits. The effects of feeding strategy on meat quality were detrimental in the case of restricted feeding. Even if the ultimate pH was slightly higher in restricted rabbits ( = 0.0002), the carcass

  12. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  13. Causes of toxicity to Hyalella azteca in a stormwater management facility receiving highway runoff and snowmelt. Part II: salts, nutrients, and water quality.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, A J; Rochfort, Q; Brown, L R; Marsalek, J

    2012-01-01

    The Terraview-Willowfield Stormwater Management Facility (TWSMF) features a tandem of stormwater management ponds, which receive inputs of multiple contaminants from highway and residential runoff. Previous research determined that benthic communities in the ponds were impacted by poor habitat quality, due to elevated sediment concentrations of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS), and salinity in the overlying water, but did not address seasonal changes, including those caused by the influx of contaminants with the snowmelt. In order to address this issue, water and sediment samples were collected from the TWSMF during the fall and spring, and four-week sediment toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca. The effects of metals and PAHs are discussed in a companion paper; the effects of road salt, nutrients, and water quality are discussed here. After exposure to fall samples, survival of Hyalella was reduced (64-74% of controls) at three out of four sites, but growth was not negatively affected. After exposure to spring samples, survival was 0-75% of controls at the two sites furthest downstream, and growth was significantly lower in four out of five sites when comparing Hyalella exposed to site water overlying site sediment versus control water overlying site sediment. Toxicity appeared to be related to chloride concentrations: little or no toxicity occurred in fall samples (200 mg Cl(-)/L), and significant effects on survival and growth occurred in spring samples above 1550 mg Cl(-)/L and 380 mg Cl(-)/L, respectively. Sodium chloride toxicity tests showed similar results: four-week LC50s and EC25s (growth) were 1200 and 420 mg Cl(-)/L, respectively. Although water quality and nutrients were associated with effects observed in the TWSMF, chloride from road salt was the primary cause of toxicity in this study. Chloride persists during much of the year at concentrations representing a significant threat to benthic communities in the TWSMF

  14. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston Metropolitan area: Part II. Air quality simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Kim, Soontae; Byun, Daewon W.

    In the companion paper, we showed that MM5 simulation using a satellite-derived high resolution Texas Forest Service (TFS) land use and land cover (LULC) data set (M2), compared to the MM5 results with the default USGS-LULC (M1), improved representation of the complicated features of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the Houston ship channel (HSC) area, where large industrial emission sources are concentrated. In the present paper, the study is extended to investigate these effects on air quality simulations. Two emission inputs, namely E1 and E2, are prepared with the M1 and M2 meteorology data, respectively, to reflect the differences in the point source plume rise estimates while keeping the biogenic and mobile emissions the same. Air quality simulations were performed with CMAQ using the M1E1 and M2E2 inputs. The simulation results demonstrate the importance of utilizing high resolution LULC data. In the default LULC data, the HSC area was classified as grass land cover, and MM5 predicted confined mixing, resulting in over-prediction of ozone (O 3) precursors, such as NO x (NO plus NO 2), and highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC) species, including ethylene and propylene, over the HSC area. In the TFS data, the area was classified as the impervious "urban" land use and MM5 predicted enhanced mixing of the precursor species, leading to better agreements with measurements. The high resolution LULC also resolves the location of water body near the HSC more accurately, predicting shallower PBL heights than the default LULC during daytime. With favorable wind conditions, the O 3 precursors were transported from the HSC emission source towards the area, trapping the pollutants in a confined shallow mixing layer that occasionally led to a rapid photochemical production of O 3. The above comparison includes the changes in both meteorological and plume-rise emissions inputs. We performed two additional CMAQ simulations using the same

  15. Influence of High Nitrogen Flux on Crystal Quality of Plasma-Assisted MBE Grown GaN Layers Using Raman Spectroscopy: Part-II

    SciTech Connect

    Asghar, M.; Hussain, I.; Islah u din; Saleemi, F.

    2007-05-09

    We have investigated lattice properties of plasma assisted MBE grown hexagonal GaN layers at varying nitrogen and gallium fluxes using Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature Raman spectra of Ga-rich layers and stoichiometric GaN are similar showing excitation modes at 434 cm-1, 567 cm-1 and 729 cm-1 identified as residual laser line, E{sub 2}{sup H} and A1(LO) mode, respectively. Similarity of Ga-rich and stoichiometric GaN layers is interpreted as the indication of comparable crystal quality of both GaN layers. In contrast, Raman scattering associated with N-rich GaN samples mere exhibit a broad band of excitations in the range of 250-650cm-1 leaving out A1(LO) mode. This typical observation along with intensity distribution of the peaks, is correlated with rough surface, bad crystal quality and high concentration of defects. Based on atomic displacement scheme, the broad band is identified as Ga- vacancies.

  16. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  17. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), a renewed multipurpose crop for a more sustainable agri-food system: nutritional advantages and constraints.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Goufo, Piebiep; Barros, Ana; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Trindade, Henrique; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira, Luis; Rodrigues, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The growing awareness of the relevance of food composition for human health has increased the interest of the inclusion of high proportions of fruits and vegetables in diets. To reach the objective of more balanced diets, an increased consumption of legumes, which constitutes a sustainable source of essential nutrients, particularly low-cost protein, is of special relevance. However, the consumption of legumes also entails some constraints that need to be addressed to avoid a deleterious impact on consumers' wellbeing and health. The value of legumes as a source of nutrients depends on a plethora of factors, including genetic characteristics, agro-climatic conditions, and postharvest management that modulate the dietary effect of edible seeds and vegetative material. Thus, more comprehensive information regarding composition, especially their nutritional and anti-nutritional compounds, digestibility, and alternative processing procedures is essential. These were the challenges to write this review, which focusses on the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, an emerging crop all over the world intended to provide a rational support for the development of valuable foods and feeds of increased commercial value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26804459

  18. Multiplex Dipstick Technologies for Rapid and Simultaneous Screening of Analytes of Importance in Agri-Food-Nutrition and Health Care: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Singh, Manoj; Rajendran, Subin R C K; Kumar, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Dipstick test kits are being widely used for the rapid screening of a range of antigens or toxins in food, agriculture, and health care. They provide specific results on-site within 10 min with suitable accuracy and are, therefore, cost-effective. Multiplex dipsticks also provide the opportunity for simultaneous detection of multiple antigens in the target sample without using expensive instrumentation, minimizing the cost of analysis as well as the duration of assay. Because of these benefits, dipstick kits are widely being used in the simultaneous detection of several antigens/toxins in large number of samples and in high-throughput manner. This review focuses on the current status of developed multiplex strips and its working principles and future direction of the technology in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and health care sectors. PMID:26965994

  19. Structure of the Lectin Mannose 6-Phosphate Receptor Homology (MRH) Domain of Glucosidase II, an Enzyme That Regulates Glycoprotein Folding Quality Control in the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Linda J.; Orsi, Ramiro; Alculumbre, Solana G.; Peterson, Francis C.; Stigliano, Ivan D.; Parodi, Armando J.; D'Alessio, Cecilia; Dahms, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report for the first time the three-dimensional structure of a mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain present in a protein with enzymatic activity, glucosidase II (GII). GII is involved in glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. GII removes the two innermost glucose residues from the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 transferred to nascent proteins and the glucose added by UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase. GII is composed of a catalytic GIIα subunit and a regulatory GIIβ subunit. GIIβ participates in the endoplasmic reticulum localization of GIIα and mediates in vivo enhancement of N-glycan trimming by GII through its C-terminal MRH domain. We determined the structure of a functional GIIβ MRH domain by NMR spectroscopy. It adopts a β-barrel fold similar to that of other MRH domains, but its binding pocket is the most shallow known to date as it accommodates a single mannose residue. In addition, we identified a conserved residue outside the binding pocket (Trp-409) present in GIIβ but not in other MRHs that influences GII glucose trimming activity. PMID:23609449

  20. Oxycline formation induced by Fe(II) oxidation in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage modeled using a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality model - CE-QUAL-W2.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ester; Galván, Laura; Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Soria-Píriz, Sara; Arbat-Bofill, Marina; Nardi, Albert; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-08-15

    The Sancho reservoir is an acid mine drainage (AMD)-contaminated reservoir located in the Huelva province (SW Spain) with a pH close to 3.5. The water is only used for a refrigeration system of a paper mill. The Sancho reservoir is holomictic with one mixing period per year in the winter. During this mixing period, oxygenated water reaches the sediment, while under stratified conditions (the rest of the year) hypoxic conditions develop at the hypolimnion. A CE-QUAL-W2 model was calibrated for the Sancho Reservoir to predict the thermocline and oxycline formation, as well as the salinity, ammonium, nitrate, phosphorous, algal, chlorophyll-a, and iron concentrations. The version 3.7 of the model does not allow simulating the oxidation of Fe(II) in the water column, which limits the oxygen consumption of the organic matter oxidation. However, to evaluate the impact of Fe(II) oxidation on the oxycline formation, Fe(II) has been introduced into the model based on its relationship with labile dissolved organic matter (LDOM). The results show that Fe oxidation is the main factor responsible for the oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion of the Sancho Reservoir. The limiting factors for green algal growth have also been studied. The model predicted that ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate were not limiting factors for green algal growth. Light appeared to be one of the limiting factors for algal growth, while chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen concentrations could not be fully described. We hypothesize that dissolved CO2 is one of the limiting nutrients due to losses by the high acidity of the water column. The sensitivity tests carried out support this hypothesis. Two different remediation scenarios have been tested with the calibrated model: 1) an AMD passive treatment plant installed at the river, which removes completely Fe, and 2) different depth water extractions. If no Fe was introduced into the reservoir, water quality would significantly improve in only two years

  1. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: II. Carcass composition, retail product, and quality.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    A computer simulation model was used to characterize the response in carcass composition, retail product, and quality of steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, and finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG. The backgrounding systems were a high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, a medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, a low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d and 0 d backgrounding. For specific genotype x production system combinations, results showed that carcasses of compensating steers may be either leaner, not different in fatness, or fatter than carcasses of steers put on a finishing diet directly after weaning. Systems in which steers gained a greater proportion of the final slaughter weight over long durations of growth restriction resulted in leaner carcasses. There were 12 common production systems in which 13 of the genotypes produced a carcass with a maximum of 28% fat or with a marbling score of 11 or greater. These results suggest sire breeds used to produce these steers can be used over a wide range of nutritional and management environments, and that a mixed group of steers can be fed and managed similarly from weaning to slaughter to produce a carcass with a specified composition, retail product, or quality. PMID:7608000

  2. Guanxin II (II) for the management of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Qin, Feng; Huang, Xi

    2009-12-01

    This article presents an integrated overview of Guanxin II (II) regarding its quality control, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, clinical studies, adverse events, dosage and administration, and its pharmacoeconomic assessment. It has been demonstrated that Guanxin II has beneficial effects on coronary heart disease (CHD). The underlying mechanism was proved to be its anti-ischemic, anti-apoptotic, antioxidative, antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effects, and so on. Tanshinol, hydroxysafflor yellow A and ferulic acid might be responsible for the cardioprotective effect of Guanxin II. In terms of acquisition cost, Guanxin II is cheaper than other drugs currently available for CHD. Guanxin II is safe, cheap, and effective in the management of CHD. However, the mechanism of its cardioprotective effects has not been completely understood because of limitations in the research methodologies of Chinese medicine. Further work should be carried out with single components such as tanshinol, hydroxysafflor yellow A and ferulic acid, using modern biochemical and molecular methods. PMID:20082256

  3. Assessment of function and quality of life in a phase II multi-institutional clinical trial of fractionated simultaneous in-field boost radiotherapy for patients with 1-3 metastases.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Glenn; Yartsev, Slav; Roberge, David; MacRae, Robert; Roa, Wilson; Panet-Raymond, Valerie; Masucci, Laura; Yaremko, Brian; D'Souza, David; Palma, David; Sexton, Tracy; Yu, Edward; Pantarotto, Jason R; Ahmad, Belal; Fisher, Barbara; Dar, A Rashid; Lambert, Carole; Pond, Gregory; Stitt, Larry; Tay, Keng Yeow; Rodrigues, George

    2016-07-01

    We examined functional outcomes and quality of life of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with integrated fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy boost (FSRT) for brain metastases treatment. Eighty seven people with 1-3 brain metastases (54/87 lung primary, 42/87 single brain metastases) were enrolled on this Phase II trial of WBRT (30 Gy/10) + simultaneous FSRT, (60 Gy/10). Median overall follow-up and survival was 5.4 months, 6 month actuarial intra-lesional control was 78 %; only 1 patient exhibited grade 4 toxicity (worsened seizures); most treatment related toxicity was grade 1 or 2; 2/87 patients demonstrated asymptomatic radiation necrosis on follow-up imaging. Mean (Min-Max) baseline KPS, Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and FACT-BR quality of life were 83 (70-100), 28 (21-30) and 143 (98-153). Lower baseline MMSE (but not KPS or FACT-Br) was associated with worse survival after adjusting for age, number of metastases, primary and extra-cranial disease status. Crude rates of deterioration (>10 points decrease from baseline for KPS and FACT-Br, MMSE fall to <27) ranged from 26 to 38 % for KPS, 32-59 % for FACT-Br and 0-16 % for MMSE depending on the time-point assessed with higher rates generally noted at earlier time points (≤6 months post-treatment). Using a linear mixed models analysis, significant declines from baseline were noted for KPS and FACT-Br (largest effects at 6 weeks to 3 months) with no significant change in MMSE. The effects on function and quality of life of this integrated treatment of WBRT + simultaneous FSRT were similar to other published series combining WBRT + radiosurgery. PMID:27084705

  4. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The Juno II launch vehicle, shown here, was a modified Jupiter Intermediate-Range Ballistic missionile, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Between December 1958 and April 1961, the Juno II launched space probes Pioneer III and IV, as well as Explorer satellites VII, VIII and XI.

  5. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat. PMID:26292792

  6. Influence of avenue-trees on air quality at the urban neighborhood scale. Part II: traffic pollutant concentrations at pedestrian level.

    PubMed

    Gromke, Christof; Blocken, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Flow and dispersion of traffic-emitted pollutants were studied in a generic urban neighborhood for various avenue-tree layouts by employing 3D steady RANS simulations with the realizable k-ε turbulence model. In comparison to the tree-free situation quantitative and qualitative changes with flow reversal in the wind field were observed. Low to moderate increases (<13.2%) in the neighborhood-averaged pollutant concentration were found at pedestrian level. An approximately 1% increase in the neighborhood-averaged concentration was obtained with each percent of the street canyon volumes being occupied by vegetation for occupation fractions between 4 and 14%. The overall pattern of concentration changes relative to the tree-free situation was similar for all avenue-tree layouts. However, pronounced locally restricted decreases or increases in concentration (-87 to +1378%) occurred. The results indicate the necessity to account for existing or planned avenue-trees in neighborhood scaled is dispersion studies. Their consideration is prerequisite for reliable urban air quality assessment. PMID:25463712

  7. Quality defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls sold through livestock auction markets in the Western United States: II. Relative effects on selling price.

    PubMed

    Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R

    2011-05-01

    Relative effects of Beef Quality Assurance (BQA)-related defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls on selling price at auction was evaluated during 2008. The presence and severity of 23 BQA-related traits were determined during sales in Idaho, California, and Utah. Overall, 18,949 unique lots consisting of 23,479 animals were assessed during 125 dairy sales and 79 beef sales. Mean sale price ± SD (per 45.5 kg) for market beef cows, beef bulls, dairy cows, and dairy bulls was $45.15 ± 9.42, $56.30 ± 9.21, $42.23 ± 12.26, and $55.10 ± 9.07, respectively. When combined, all recorded traits explained 36% of the variation in selling price in beef cows, 35% in beef bulls, 61% in dairy cows, and 56% in dairy bulls. Premiums and discounts were determined in comparison with a "par" or "base" animal. Compared with a base BCS 5 beef cow (on a 9-point beef scale), BCS 1 to 4 cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas premiums (P < 0.05) were estimated for BCS 6 to 8. Compared with a base BCS 3.0 dairy cow (on a 5-point dairy scale), more body condition resulted in a premium (P ≤ 0.001), whereas a less-than-desirable BCS of 2.0 or 2.5 was discounted (P < 0.0001). Emaciated or near-emaciated cows (beef BCS 1 or 2; dairy BCS 1.0 or 1.5) were discounted (P < 0.0001). Compared with base cows weighing 545 to 635 kg, lighter BW beef cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas heavier beef cows received (P < 0.05) a premium. Compared with a base dairy cow weighing 636 to 727 kg, lighter BW cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas heavier cows (727 to 909 kg) received a premium (P < 0.01). Beef and dairy cows with any evidence of lameness were discounted (P < 0.0001). Presence of ocular neoplasia in the precancerous stage discounted (P = 0.05) beef cows and discounted (P < 0.01) dairy cows, whereas at the cancerous stage, it discounted (P < 0.0001) all cows. Hide color influenced (P < 0.0001) selling price in beef cattle but had no effect (P = 0.17) in dairy cows. Animals

  8. Biomonitoring of air quality in the Cologne Conurbation using pine needles as a passive sampler—Part II: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehndorff, E.; Schwark, L.

    Emissions from fossil fuel combustion pose a serious thread to public health and impose the need for an improved monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), a major class of persistent organic pollutants. For this purpose, utilization of evergreen conifers offers significant biomonitoring potential. In part I of this series we inspected the load of combustion derived magnetic particles in pine needles from 43 locations of the Cologne Conurbation, Germany; we here report the corresponding PAH concentrations and distribution patterns. Concentrations (dry weight) of summed 3-6-ring PAH range between 51 and 410 ng g -1 with a median of 123.8 ng g -1; thus being in agreement with other urban studies. Phenanthrene was the dominating PAH with median concentrations of 47 ng g -1 followed by fluoranthene and pyrene at 22 and 13 ng g -1, respectively. The major proportion of PAH was attributed to traffic sources, with minor contribution from power plant, domestic heating, industrial, and vegetation burn emissions. Significant differences between major and minor roads were not observed indicating a thorough mixing of PAH-loaded air masses in the Cologne Conurbation. Needles in inner city parks gave much higher PAH concentrations than those in suburban green areas. Although distribution patterns of PAH were variable a PAH source reconciliation based on isomer compositions is difficult, due to thorough mixing of air masses and associated loss of source specificity. Ambient air monitoring in urban areas based on persistent organic pollutant load of vegetation is a feasible and cost effective way of controlling environmental quality.

  9. Using a profiling process to insure program quality: Volume II - support materials. Final progress report, May 15, 1991--November 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kaser, J.S.; Roody, D.S.; Raizen, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    Between 1990 and 1995 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Center for Improving Science Education (National Center) developed a system for ongoing evaluation of K-12 educational programs in the DOE-supported national energy Laboratories. As part of the formative evaluation component of this collaborative endeavor, field staff in the Laboratories began creating profiles of their programs. However, many individuals within DOE Headquarters were not familiar with this profiling process and were unprepared to use the valuable information that the profiles generated. This manual was produced to orient Headquarters staff to profiling. It focuses on how Headquarters staff can use the profiling process to help their funded programs establish and/or maintain high quality. Its purpose, then, is not to train Headquarters staff to become proficient in profiling, but to show them how to draw on the Laboratories` use of profiling to bring about program improvement. Profiling is the process of systematically examining and describing a program`s elements against a set of components that define Effective Practice. The instrument used to capture the data for analysis is called a template, and most of this manual focuses on the templates and how to read and interpret them. However, since it is important to understand these data in context, the authors also describe what should accompany each template in a complete profiling packet and offer guidelines for reviewing complete packets and providing feedback to program managers. This document consists of Support Materials for the manual: exercise answer keys; templates; guidelines for reviewing templates; a complete profiling packet; guidelines for the trainer.

  10. Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination and water-quality characteristics of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri; phase II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Jerri V.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    August 6 to12, 2000. A 24-hour sample collection effort was conducted the weekend of July 15 and 16, 2000, to investigate the effect that large numbers of swimmers, canoeists, and tubers had on fecal coliform densities in the Jacks Fork. Five or six samples were collected at six sites between Saturday morning and the following Sunday afternoon. No fecal coliform density at any of the sites sampled exceeded the whole-body-contact recreation standard. Because bacteria survive longer in stream-bed sediments than in water, a source of bacteria in the water column could be from resuspension of accumulated bacteria from streambed sediments. Water and streambed-sediment samples were collected at three sites on August 3, 2000, 1 week before a trail ride and again at three sites on 2 Assessment of Possible Sources of Microbiological Contamination of the Jacks Fork, Missouri?Phase II August 8, 2000, during a trail ride. Results indicate that fecal coliform bacteria densities increased substantially in the streambed sediment and the water column during the trail ride.Sixty-five Escherichia coli isolates obtained from water samples collected at 9 sites and 23 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from stream-bed-sediment samples collected at 5 sites were submitted for ribotyping analysis. Samples were collected in 2000 during a variety of nonrecreational and recreational season river uses, including trail rides, canoeing, tubing, and swimming. Of the 65 isolates from water samples, 40 percent were identified as originating from sewage, 29 percent from horse, 11 percent from cow, and 20 percent from an unknown source. Of the 23 isolates from streambed-sediment samples, 39 percent were identified as originating from sewage, 35 percent from horse, 13 percent from cow, and 13 percent from unknown sources.Analysis of physical property (dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature) and nutrient (dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorus) data

  11. Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr area. Part II: Development and evaluation of an urban growth scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ridder, Koen; Lefebre, Filip; Adriaensen, Stefan; Arnold, Ute; Beckroege, Wolfgang; Bronner, Christine; Damsgaard, Ole; Dostal, Ivo; Dufek, Jiri; Hirsch, Jacky; IntPanis, Luc; Kotek, Zdenek; Ramadier, Thierry; Thierry, Annette; Vermoote, Stijn; Wania, Annett; Weber, Christiane

    The impact of uncontrolled urban growth ('sprawl') on air pollution and associated population exposure is investigated. This is done for the Ruhr area in Germany, by means of a coupled modelling system dealing with land use changes, traffic, meteorology, and atmospheric dispersion and chemistry. In a companion paper [De Ridder, K., Lefebre F., Adriaensen S., Arnold U., Beckroege W., Bronner C., Damsgaard O., Dostal I., Dufek J., Hirsch J., Int Panis L., Kotek Z., Ramadier T., Thierry A., Vermoote S., Wania A., Weber C., 2008. Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr area. Part I: reproducing the base state.], a description was given of the coupling of these models and of the validation of simulation results. In the present paper, a land use change scenario was implemented to mimic urban sprawl, relocating 12% of the urban population in the study domain to the green periphery. The resulting updated land use, population and employment density patterns were then used as input for traffic simulations, yielding an increase of total traffic volume by almost 17%. As a consequence, the domain-average simulated pollutant concentrations of ozone and particulate matter increased, though by a smaller amount, of approximately 4%. In a final step, population exposure to air pollution was calculated, both for the base case and the scenario simulations. A very slight domain-average exposure increase was found, of the order of a half percent. A compensating mechanism was identified, explaining this small figure. However, when stratifying the population into groups of individuals that were relocated to the urban periphery and those that were not, much larger exposure changes following urban sprawl emerged. Indeed, it was found that the relatively small proportion of relocated individuals benefited of a decrease of exposure to particulate matter by almost 13%, mainly because of their moving out of the most polluted areas; and

  12. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2010-09-01

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  13. Preschool Racial Attitude Measure II (PRAM II): Technical Report #1: 1970-71 Standardization Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John E.

    This report provides detailed technical information concerning the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure II (PRAM II) a method for assessing the attitudes of pre-literate children toward light- and dark-skinned individuals. Several major changes were involved in the PRAM II revision: (1) the length was doubled, (2) the general artistic quality of the…

  14. Productivity, cost and quality control (Part II).

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    It can be shown that with a relatively straight forward computerized program it is possible to achieve virtually any "cut" of data desired for management purposes. This system provides for establishment of self-comparative standards. This system allows for some of the following factors to be identified. An employee who is having trouble with a particular category of equipment, whether in maintenance of service. This then would indicate that this technician would need training. (2) Excessive equipment repair which may demonstrate inappropriate usage or age of the equipment incurring costs generally above, for example, ten percent which has for two decades been the benchmark for annualized service cost maximums per unit. PMID:10284818

  15. Welding II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding II, a performance-based course offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to introduce students to out-of-position shielded arc welding with emphasis on proper heats, electrode selection, and alternating/direct currents. After introductory…

  16. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  17. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Wernher von Braun and his team were responsible for the Jupiter-C hardware. The family of launch vehicles developed by the team also came to include the Juno II, which was used to launch the Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959. Pioneer IV passed within 37,000 miles of the Moon before going into solar orbit.

  18. AGEX II: Technical quarterly, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.

    1995-03-01

    The AGEX II Technical Quarterly publishes short technical contributions on above ground experiments that use pulsed power and laser drivers. The Quarterly is intended to provide rapid exposure of timely technical ideas and results as well as a means for documenting AGEX II progress and scientific quality for the AGEX II community. Suitable topics include experimental results, diagnostic apparatus, theoretical design, and scaling, among others.

  19. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  20. A multi-model assessment for the 2006 and 2010 simulations under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 over North America: Part II. Evaluation of column variable predictions using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Yahya, Khairunnisa; Zhang, Yang; Hogrefe, Christian; Pouliot, George; Knote, Christoph; Hodzic, Alma; San Jose, Roberto; Perez, Juan L.; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Baro, Rocio; Makar, Paul; Bennartz, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative Phase 2 (AQMEII2) project, this part II paper performs a multi-model assessment of major column abundances of gases, radiation, aerosol, and cloud variables for 2006 and 2010 simulations with three online-coupled air quality models over the North America using available satellite data. It also provides the first comparative assessment of the capabilities of the current generation of online-coupled models in simulating column variables. Despite the use of different model configurations and meteorological initial and boundary conditions, most simulations show comparable model performance for many variables. The evaluation results show an excellent agreement between all simulations and satellite-derived radiation variables including downward surface solar radiation, longwave radiation, and top-of-atmospheric outgoing longwave radiation, as well as precipitable water vapor with domain-average normalized mean biases (NMBs) of typically less than 5% and correlation coefficient (R) typically more than 0.9. Most simulations perform well for column-integrated abundance of CO with domain-average NMBs of -9.4% to -2.2% in 2006 and -12.1% to 4.6% in 2010 and from reasonably well to fair for column NO2, HCHO, and SO2, with domain-average NMBs of -37.7% to 2.1%, -27.3% to 59.2%, and 16.1% to 114.2% in 2006, respectively, and, 12.9% to 102.1%, -25.0% to 87.6%, -65.2% to 7.4% in 2010, respectively. R values are high for CO and NO2 typically between 0.85 and 0.9 (i.e., R2 of 0.7-0.8). Tropospheric ozone residuals are overpredicted by all simulations due to overestimates of ozone profiles from boundary conditions. Model performance for cloud-related variables is mixed and generally worse compared to gases and radiation variables. Cloud fraction (CF) is well reproduced by most simulations. Other aerosol/cloud related variables such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), cloud optical thickness, cloud liquid

  1. Simultaneous determination of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in citrus essential oils by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis.

    PubMed

    La Pera, Lara; Saitta, Marcello; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Dugo, Giacomo

    2003-02-26

    Citrus essential oils are widely used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries, so the determination of heavy metals content is of great importance to guarantee their quality. The present work deals with the quantification of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in different varieties of citrus essential oils, using derivative potentiometric stripping analysis. Two different metals extraction procedures, involving concentrated hydrochloric acid treatment and acid-alcoholic dissolution, are tested on lemon, mandarin, sweet orange, and bergamot essential oils, and they give very similar results. Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) recovery tests spanned from 95 to 100.50%, providing evidence that metals quantification remained unaffected by the cleanup steps of the two procedures. The repeatability of the hydrochloric acid extraction method, applied on different varieties of essential oils, is >95.00% for Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II), whereas the repeatability of the acid-alcoholic dissolution method is >93.00% for Cu and Cd only in lemon oil. Detection limits obtained for the four analytes, using both procedures, ranged from 0.10 to 0.98 ng g(-)(1) in lemon, mandarin, sweet orange, and bergamot essential oils. PMID:12590445

  2. Cohort profile: The Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars; Böckenhoff, Anke; Demuth, Ilja; Düzel, Sandra; Eckardt, Rahel; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Pawelec, Graham; Siedler, Thomas; Wagner, Gert G; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    Similar to other industrialized countries, Germany's population is ageing. Whereas some people enjoy good physical and cognitive health into old age, others suffer from a multitude of age-related disorders and impairments which reduce life expectancy and affect quality of life. To identify and characterize the factors associated with 'healthy' vs. 'unhealthy' ageing, we have launched the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project that ascertains a large number of ageing-related variables from a wide range of different functional domains. Phenotypic assessments include factors related to geriatrics and internal medicine, immunology, genetics, psychology, sociology and economics. Baseline recruitment of the BASE-II cohort was recently completed and has led to the sampling of 1600 older adults (age range 60-80 years), as well as 600 younger adults (20-35 years) serving as the basic population for in-depth analyses. BASE-II data are linked to the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), a long-running panel survey representative of the German population, to estimate sample selectivity. A major goal of BASE-II is to facilitate collaboration with other research groups by freely sharing relevant phenotypic and genotypic data with qualified outside investigators. PMID:23505255

  3. Synthesis and surface chemistry of high quality wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals using tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as a new tin source.

    PubMed

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Gryszel, Maciej; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Malinowska, Karolina; Zukowska, Grazyna Z; Agnese, Fabio; Pron, Adam; Reiss, Peter

    2015-08-21

    A novel synthesis method for the preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals is presented using a liquid precursor of tin, namely tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, which yields small and nearly monodisperse NCs either in the kesterite or in the wurtzite phase depending on the sulfur source (elemental sulfur in oleylamine vs. dodecanethiol). PMID:26176023

  4. Status of the CDF II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S. Rolli

    2002-08-14

    The status of the CDF II experiment is described. Since operations start-up for run II data taking in March 2001, the CDF detector has been commissioned using about 20 pb{sup -1} of data provided by the Tevatron (utilized about 4-8). Most detector components are ready for physics quality data. The goal is to present the first physics results by summer-fall 2002.

  5. Current status and early results of the ILAS-II onboard the ADEOS-II Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Sugita, Takafumi; Yokota, Tatsuya; Sasano, Yasuhiro

    2004-02-01

    The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) was successfully launched on 14 December, 2002 from National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)"s Tanegashima Space Center. ILAS-II is a solar-occupation atmospheric sensor which will measure vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, ClONO2, aerosol extinction coefficients, etc. with four grating spectrometers. After the checkout period of the ILAS-II which is scheduled in January-February, 2003, ILAS-II will make routine measurements from early April. An initial checkout (ICO) operation was done on 20-23 January, 2003. Data taken during the ICO period suggest that ILAS-II was functioning normally as designed. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for each channel showed good quality of the ILAS-II data except for Ch.3. Preliminary comparison of ILAS-II O3 profiles with ozonesondes showed good agreements. A validation campaign is scheduled to be taken place in Kiruna, Sweden in 2003, when several balloon-borne measurements are planned.

  6. Quality Programming in H.P.E.R. Volume II. Selected Papers Presented at the Convention of the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (British Columbia, Canada, June 10-13, 1981). Physical Education Series Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, John J., Ed.; Turkington, H. David, Ed.

    This volume contains 27 edited papers, and abstracts of 14 papers, presented during the 1981 convention of the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. Subjects discussed are listed in 10 categories: (1) working together for quality programs; (2) challenges facing the physical education teacher; (3) skill development and…

  7. Quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, B.M.; Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the quality assurance and quality control practices of Hanford Site environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. Samples are analyzed according to documented standard analytical procedures. This section discusses specific measures taken to ensure quality in project management, sample collection, and analytical results.

  8. Achieving Finite Element Mesh Quality via Optimization of the Jacobian Matrix Norm and Associated Quantities, Part II - A Framework for Volume Mesh Optimization and the Condition Number of the Jacobian Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Knupp, P.M.

    1999-03-26

    Three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral and hexahedral finite element mesh optimization is studied from a theoretical perspective and by computer experiments to determine what objective functions are most effective in attaining valid, high quality meshes. The approach uses matrices and matrix norms to extend the work in Part I to build suitable 3D objective functions. Because certain matrix norm identities which hold for 2 x 2 matrices do not hold for 3 x 3 matrices. significant differences arise between surface and volume mesh optimization objective functions. It is shown, for example, that the equivalence in two-dimensions of the Smoothness and Condition Number of the Jacobian matrix objective functions does not extend to three dimensions and further. that the equivalence of the Oddy and Condition Number of the Metric Tensor objective functions in two-dimensions also fails to extend to three-dimensions. Matrix norm identities are used to systematically construct dimensionally homogeneous groups of objective functions. The concept of an ideal minimizing matrix is introduced for both hexahedral and tetrahedral elements. Non-dimensional objective functions having barriers are emphasized as the most logical choice for mesh optimization. The performance of a number of objective functions in improving mesh quality was assessed on a suite of realistic test problems, focusing particularly on all-hexahedral ''whisker-weaved'' meshes. Performance is investigated on both structured and unstructured meshes and on both hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Although several objective functions are competitive, the condition number objective function is particularly attractive. The objective functions are closely related to mesh quality measures. To illustrate, it is shown that the condition number metric can be viewed as a new tetrahedral element quality measure.

  9. Reduced fertility in high-yielding dairy cows: are the oocyte and embryo in danger? Part II. Mechanisms linking nutrition and reduced oocyte and embryo quality in high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leroy, J L M R; Van Soom, A; Opsomer, G; Goovaerts, I G F; Bols, P E J

    2008-10-01

    Dairy cow fertility has been declining during since the mid-80s and this has given rise to numerous scientific studies in which important parts of the pathogenesis are elucidated. Reduced oocyte and embryo quality are acknowledged as major factors in the widely described low conception rates and in the high prevalence of early embryonic mortality. Apart from the importance of the negative energy balance (NEB) and the associated endocrine and metabolic consequences, there is a growing attention towards the effect of the milk yield promoting diets which are rich in energy and protein. Starch-rich diets can improve the energy status and thus the ovarian activity in the early postpartum period but the oocyte and embryo quality can suffer from such insulinogenic diets. Supplementation of dietary fat has a similar dual effect with a beneficial stimulation of the ovarian steroid production while the oocyte and the embryo display an altered energy metabolism and excessive lipid accumulation. High-protein diets can elevate the ammonia and urea concentrations in the blood, leading to changed intrafollicular, oviductal and uterine environments. Oocytes and embryos are highly sensitive to such changes in their microenvironment, possibly leading to a disturbed maturation, fertilization or early cleavage. Several nutrition-linked mechanisms, through which oocyte and/or embryo quality can be affected in modern dairy cows, well after the period of NEB, are proposed and comprehensively reviewed in the present report. PMID:18384498

  10. Juno II (AM-14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Juno II (AM-14) on the launch pad just prior to launch, March 3, 1959. The payload of AM-14 was Pioneer IV, America's first successful lunar mission. The Juno II was a modification of Jupiter ballistic missile

  11. Cu(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of three different clay liner materials.

    PubMed

    Musso, T B; Parolo, M E; Pettinari, G; Francisca, F M

    2014-12-15

    Sorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on three natural clays meeting the international requirements for use as liners was evaluated by means of batch tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the retention capacities of the clays for metal cations commonly present in urban solid waste leachates. The pH and ionic strength conditions were set at values frequently found in real leachates. The changes observed in the XRD patterns and FTIR spectra upon adsorption can be considered an evidence of clay-metal electrostatic interaction. The Langmuir model was found to best describe the sorption processes, offering maximum sorption capacities from 8.16 to 56.89 mg/g for Cu(II) and from 49.59 to 103.83 mg/g for Zn(II). All samples remove more Zn(II) than Cu(II), which may be related to the different geometry of the hydrated Cu(II) cation. The total amount of metal sorption was strongly influenced by the total specific surface area, the presence of carbonates and the smectite content of the clays. In addition to their known quality as physical barriers, the adsorbed amounts obtained indicate the suitability of the tested clays to contribute to the retardation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) transport through clay liners. PMID:25156265

  12. Wide-gap II-VI heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunshor, R. L.; Kolodziejski, L. A.; Kobayashi, M.; Otsuka, N.; Nurmikko, A. V.

    1990-04-01

    Recent advances in the growth of II-VI/II-VI and II-VI/III-V heterostructures based on the widegap II-VI semiconductors CdTe and ZnTe are discussed. The potentially important pseudomorphic epilayer/epilayer heterojunction consisting of ZnTe on AlSb has been grown by MBE and characterized. Both microstructural and optical evaluation indicate a high degree of structural quality and the potential for future development of novel light-emitting device structures. Metastable zincblende MnTe, for which TEM and X-ray evaluation reveal the presence of only zincblende phases, has been grown by MBE. Single quantum well structures using zincblende MnTe for the barrier layers have been fabricated and found to show strong carrier confinement, further confirming the predicted zincblende MnTe bandgap at 3.2 eV.

  13. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Imaging Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub Wesley; Bryden, Geoff; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Chen, Pin; Trauger, John

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed coronagraph on a balloon-borne platform, for the purpose of observing debris disks around nearby stars. Zodiac II will have a 1.2-m diameter telescope mounted in a balloon-borne gondola capable of arcsecond quality pointing, and with the capability to make long-duration (several week) flights. Zodiac II will have a coronagraph able to make images of debris disks, meaning that its scattered light speckles will be at or below an average contrast level of about 10(exp -7) in three narrow (7 percent) bands centered on the V band, and one broad (20%) one at I band. We will discuss the potential science to be done with Zodiac II.

  14. TRUPACT-II, a regulatory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, P.C.; Spooner, O.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Transuranic Package Transporter II (TRUPACT-II) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified Type B packaging for the shipment of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) material by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The NRC approved the TRUPACT-II design as meeting the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71) and issued Certificate of Compliance (CofC) Number 9218 to the DOE. There are currently 15 certified TRUPACT-IIs. Additional TRUPACT-IIs will be required to make more than 15,000 shipments of CH-TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The TRUPACT-II may also be used for the DOE inter-site and intra-site shipments of CH-TRU waste. The Land Withdrawal Act (Public Law 102-579), enacted by the US Congress, October 30, 1992, and an agreement between the DOE and the State of New Mexico, signed August 4, 1987, both stipulate that only NRC approved packaging may be used for shipments of TRU waste to the WIPP. Early in the TRUPACT-II development phase it was decided that the transportation system (tractor, trailer, and TRUPACT-II) should be highway legal on all routes without the need for oversize and/or overweight permits. In large measure, public acceptance of the DOE`s efforts to safely transport CH-TRU waste depends on the public`s perception that the TRUPACT-II is in compliance with all applicable regulations, standards, and quality assurance requirements. This paper addresses some of the numerous regulations applicable to Type B packaging, and it describes how the TRUPACT-II complies with these regulations.

  15. Sharply notch cylindrical tension specimen for screening plane-strain fracture toughness. I - Influence of fundamental testing variables on notch strength. II Applications in aluminum alloy quality assurance of fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. H.; Bubsey, R. T.; Brown, W. F., Jr.; Bucci, R. J.; Collis, S. F.; Kohm, R. F.; Kaufman, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of studies which have been conducted to establish an improved technology base for a use of the sharply notched cylindrical specimen in quality assurance tests of aluminum alloy products. The results are presented of an investigation of fundamental variables associated with specimen preparation and testing, taking into account the influence of the notch root radius, the eccentricity of loading, the specimen diameter, and the notch depth on the sharp notch strength. Attention is given to the statistical procedures which are necessary to establish correlations between the sharp notch strength and the plane-strain fracture toughness for high-strength aluminum alloys.

  16. Afterschool Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles; Akiva, Tom; McGovern, Gina; Peck, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses efforts to define and improve the quality of afterschool services, highlighting areas of agreement and identifying leading-edge issues. We conclude that the afterschool field is especially well positioned to deliver high-quality services and demonstrate effectiveness at scale because a strong foundation has been built for…

  17. Quality Assurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains five sections that cover the following topics: (1) importance of reliability; (2) meaning of quality assurance; (3) historical development of quality assurance; (4) statistical…

  18. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results. PMID:11949687

  19. CDF - Run II Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred Paulini

    2003-03-17

    After a five year upgrade period, the CDF detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is back in operation taking high quality data with all subsystems functional. We report on the status of the CDF experiment in Run II and discuss the start-up of the Tevatron accelerator. First physics results from CDF are presented. We also discuss the prospects for B physics in RunII, in particular the measurements of B{sub S}{sup 0} flavour oscillations and CP violation in B decays.

  20. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  1. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  2. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  3. Quality Guidelines

    MedlinePlus

    ... reviewed/quality-filtered. The primary purpose of the Web page is educational and not to sell a ... in the directories. Availability and maintenance of the Web page The Web site is available consistently and ...

  4. Water quality.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

  5. Patent quality.

    PubMed

    Sklan, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Against a backdrop of a rising generics market and increasing patent expiries, the 'quality' of patents has become an ever more significant topic of debate. Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst has brought together a group of leading attorneys and IP specialists to disentangle the issue of patent quality, including its definition and importance to the field of pharmaceutical and medical science, and what steps could be taken to improve understanding of this important yet fluid concept. Interviews conducted by Alexandra Sklan, Commissioning Editor. PMID:24354975

  6. Bis(thiosemicarbazonato) chelates of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Singh, R.

    1985-01-01

    Bis chelates of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) with the enolic form of diethyl ketone and methyl n-propyl thiosemicarbazones were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moments, i.r. and electronic and electron spin resonance spectral studies. All the complexes were found to have the composition ML 2 [where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(ii) and Pt(II) and L = thiosemicarbazones of diethyl ketone and methyl n-propyl ketone]. Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes are paramagnetic and may have polymeric six-coordinate octahedral and square planar geometries, respectively. The Ni(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes are diamagnetic and may have square planar geometries. Pyridine adducts (ML 2·2Py) of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were also prepared and characterized.

  7. An explorative study to assess the association between health-related quality of life and the recommended phase II dose in a phase I trial: idarubicin-loaded beads for chemoembolisation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Anota, Amélie; Boulin, Mathieu; Dabakuyo-Yonli, Sandrine; Hillon, Patrick; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Minello, Anne; Jouve, Jean-Louis; Paoletti, Xavier; Bedenne, Laurent; Guiu, Boris; Bonnetain, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the recommended phase 2 dose in a phase I clinical trial according to the Time to HRQoL deterioration approach (TTD). Setting This is a phase I dose-escalation trial of transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) with idarubicin-loaded beads performed in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients had to complete the EORTC QLQ-C30 HRQoL questionnaire at baseline and at days 15, 30 and 60 after TACE. Participants Patients aged ≥18 years with HCC unsuitable for curative treatments were evaluated for the study (N=21). Primary and secondary outcome measurements The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of idarubicin loaded after a single TACE session. MTD was defined as the dose level closest to that causing dose-limiting toxicity in 20% of patients. HRQoL was the secondary end point. Results Between March 2010 and March 2011, 9, 6 and 6 patients were included at idarubicin dose levels of 5, 10 and 15 mg, respectively. Calculated MTD of idarubicin was 10 mg. At the 10 mg idarubicin dose, patients presented a longer TTD than at 5 mg, for global health status (HR=0.91 (95% CI 0.18 to 4.72)), physical functioning (HR=0.38 (0.04 to 3.22)), fatigue (HR=0.67 (0.18 to 2.56)) and pain (HR=0.47 (0.05 to 4.24)). Conclusions These HRQoL results were consistent with the estimated MTD, with a median TTD for global health status of 41 days (21 to NA) at 5 mg, 23 days (20 to NA) at 10 mg and 25 days (17 to NA) at 15 mg. These results show the importance of studying HRQoL in phase I trials. Trial registration number NCT01040559; Post-results. PMID:27342239

  8. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  9. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  10. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  11. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    SciTech Connect

    Fedurin, M.; Jing, Y.; Stratakis, D.; Swinson, C.

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  12. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same ...

  13. Juno II Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    The modified Jupiter C (sometimes called Juno I), used to launch Explorer I, had minimum payload lifting capabilities. Explorer I weighed slightly less than 31 pounds. Juno II was part of America's effort to increase payload lifting capabilities. Among other achievements, the vehicle successfully launched a Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959, and an Explorer VII satellite on October 13, 1959. Responsibility for Juno II passed from the Army to the Marshall Space Flight Center when the Center was activated on July 1, 1960. On November 3, 1960, a Juno II sent Explorer VIII into a 1,000-mile deep orbit within the ionosphere.

  14. Environmental Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Data from the Third Annual Report of the United States Council of Environmental Quality are used in an editorial advocating the use of some of the money committed to cleaning air and water to create a more adequate knowledge base for action. (AL)

  15. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air...: Region II. 481.169Helena Intrastate Air Quality Control Region: Region IV. 481.170Miles City...

  16. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air...: Region II. 481.169Helena Intrastate Air Quality Control Region: Region IV. 481.170Miles City...

  17. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air...: Region II. 481.169Helena Intrastate Air Quality Control Region: Region IV. 481.170Miles City...

  18. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air...: Region II. 481.169Helena Intrastate Air Quality Control Region: Region IV. 481.170Miles City...

  19. Network II Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  20. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). Factor II is also known as prothrombin. ... blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or ...

  1. Quality Leadership and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Badrick, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Different quality control rules detect different analytical errors with varying levels of efficiency depending on the type of error present, its prevalence and the number of observations. The efficiency of a rule can be gauged by inspection of a power function graph. Control rules are only part of a process and not an end in itself; just as important are the trouble-shooting systems employed when a failure occurs. 'Average of patient normals' may develop as a usual adjunct to conventional quality control serum based programmes. Acceptable error can be based on various criteria; biological variation is probably the most sensible. Once determined, acceptable error can be used as limits in quality control rule systems. A key aspect of an organisation is leadership, which links the various components of the quality system. Leadership is difficult to characterise but its key aspects include trust, setting an example, developing staff and critically setting the vision for the organisation. Organisations also have internal characteristics such as the degree of formalisation, centralisation, and complexity. Medical organisations can have internal tensions because of the dichotomy between the bureaucratic and the shadow medical structures. PMID:18568046

  2. Quality Programs Through Quality Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bernard; Chandler, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    This article concentrates on instruction as the central aspect of teaching with a view toward influencing the quality of physical education instruction. The use of career ladders to motivate teachers is critiqued. The career lattice, offering lateral movement as well as horizontal, is proposed as a way to motivate teachers. (MT)

  3. Joint Planet Hunting with ASTEP and BEST II T.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruth, T.; Czismadia, S.; Eigmueller, P.; Erikson, A.; Rauer, H.; Titz-Weider, R.; Abe, L.; Agabi, K.; Crouzet, N.; Goncalves, I.; Guillot, T.; Mekarnia, D.; Rivet, J.

    2012-09-01

    During the first season of the antarctic telescope ASTEP400 in the southern winter 2010, two target fields have been monitored in a joint observational campaign by BEST II (Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope II) and ASTEP (Antarctic Search for Transiting ExoPlanets). We present the results of the data reduction and transit search, and compare the photometric quality of both sites. We summarize the lessons learned towards an optimization of future network observations including an Antarctic site.

  4. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  5. Environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The potential use of space systems to help determine the current state of air, water, and land environments was examined; the effects of man's activities on these parameters were also examined. Data are limited to pollutants introduced into the major environmental media, environmental changes manifested by such pollutants, and the effectiveness of abatement and control methods. Data also cover land quality as related to land use and public health.

  6. Quality patents.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K

    1994-01-01

    Watermark Patent and Trademark Attorneys has recently been accepted by the Council of National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia as operating a Quality Management System that complies with the requirements of AS3901/ISO9001 for the creation and servicing of Australian and overseas patents, trademarks and designs and provision of related advice. It is believed that Watermark is the first firm of Patent Attorneys in the world to achieve this. PMID:7765675

  7. Quality factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The quality factor, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in rads (or grays), to dose equivalent, expressed in rems (or seiverts). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality factor is related to both the linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE's obtained from biological experiments depend in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism, and the experimental conditions. Judgement is involved, therefore, in the choice of the quality factor. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were raised first in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to possible future increases between a factor of three and ten in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a factor of two in Q for neutrons. Both the ICRP and NRCP are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a factor of two. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality factor are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. 33 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  9. Atomic-Scale Characterization of II-VI Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David J.

    2013-11-01

    Alloys of II-VI compound semiconductors with suitable band gap selection potentially provide broad coverage of wavelengths for photodetector applications. Achievement of high-quality epitaxial growth is, however, essential for successful development of integrated photonic and optoelectronic devices. Atomic-scale characterization of structural defects in II-VI heterostructures using electron microscopy plays an invaluable role in accomplishing this goal. This paper reviews some recent high-resolution studies of II-VI compound semiconductors with zincblende crystal structure, as grown epitaxially on commonly used substrates. Exploratory studies using aberration-corrected electron microscopes are also briefly considered.

  10. [Measurement of CO diffusion capacity (II): Standardization and quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Posadas, A; Villa Asensi, J R; de Mir Messa, I; Sardón Prado, O; Larramona, H

    2015-08-01

    The diffusion capacity is the technique that measures the ability of the respiratory system for gas exchange, thus allowing a diagnosis of the malfunction of the alveolar-capillary unit. The most important parameter to assess is the CO diffusion capacity (DLCO). New methods are currently being used to measure the diffusion using nitric oxide (NO). There are other methods for measuring diffusion, although in this article the single breath technique is mainly referred to, as it is the most widely used and best standardized. Its complexity, its reference equations, differences in equipment, inter-patient variability and conditions in which the DLCO is performed, lead to a wide inter-laboratory variability, although its standardization makes this a more reliable and reproductive method. The practical aspects of the technique are analyzed, by specifying the recommendations to carry out a suitable procedure, the calibration routine, calculations and adjustments. Clinical applications are also discussed. An increase in the transfer of CO occurs in diseases in which there is an increased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries, such as in the polycythemia and pulmonary hemorrhage. There is a decrease in DLCO in patients with alveolar volume reduction or diffusion defects, either by altered alveolar-capillary membrane (interstitial diseases) or decreased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries (pulmonary embolism or primary pulmonary hypertension). Other causes of decreased or increased DLCO are also highlighted. PMID:25488028