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Sample records for agricultural drainage water

  1. Managing agricultural drainage ditches for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are essential for the removal of surface and ground water to allow for crop production in poorly drained agricultural landscapes. Ditches also mediate the flow of pollutants from agroecosystems to downstream water bodies. This paper provides an overview of the science, ...

  2. Denitrification of agricultural drainage line water via immobilized denitrification sludge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint source nitrogen is recognized as a significant water pollutant worldwide. One of the major contributors is agricultural drainage line water. One potential method of reducing this nitrogen discharge to water bodies is the use of immobilized denitrifying sludge (IDS). Our objectives were to 1...

  3. Water quality issues associated with agricultural drainage in semiarid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, Marc A.

    High incidences of mortality, birth defects, and reproductive failure in waterfowl using Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif., have occurred because of the bioaccumulation of selenium from irrigation drainage. These circumstances have prompted concern about the quality of agriculture drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish and wildlife, and beneficial uses of water. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California (Berkeley, Calif.) organized a 1-day session at the 1986 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., to provide an interdisciplinary forum for hydrologists, geochemists, and aquatic chemists to discuss the processes controlling the distribution, mobilization, transport, and fate of trace elements in source rocks, soils, water, and biota in semiarid regions in which irrigated agriculture occurs. The focus of t h e session was the presentation of research results on the source, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in agricultural drainage.

  4. Managing Delmarva Agricultural Drainage Ditches for Water Quality Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are essential for draining storm and subsurface water from farmland on the Delmarva Peninsula. Ditches are unique ecosystems, having the features of both streams and wetlands. Ditches often provide the only wetland and aquatic habitats on farmland. Ditches carry, store,...

  5. Denitrification of agricultural drainage line water via immobilized denitrification sludge.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Patrick G; Matheny, Terry A; Ro, Kyoung S; Stone, Kenneth C; Vanotti, Matias B

    2008-07-15

    Nonpoint source nitrogen is recognized as a significant water pollutant worldwide. One of the major contributors is agricultural drainage line water. A potential method of reducing this nitrogen discharge to water bodies is the use of immobilized denitrifying sludge (IDS). Our objectives were to (1) produce an effective IDS, (2) determine the IDS reaction kinetics in laboratory column bioreactors, and (3) test a field bioreactor for nitrogen removal from agricultural drainage line water. We developed a mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) denitrifying sludge using inoculant from an overland flow treatment system. It had a specific denitrification rate of 11.4 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) MLSS h(-1). We used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to immobilize this sludge and form IDS pellets. When placed in a 3.8-L column bioreactor, the IDS had a maximum removal rate (K(MAX)) of 3.64 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) pellet d(-1). In a field test with drainage water containing 7.8 mg NO(3)-N L(-1), 50% nitrogen removal was obtained with a 1 hr hydraulic retention time. Expressed as a 1 m(3) cubically-shaped bioreactor, the nitrogen removal rate would be 94 g NO(3)-N m(-2)d(-1), which is dramatically higher than treatment wetlands or passive carbonaceous bioreactors. IDS bioreactors offer potential for reducing nitrogen discharge from agricultural drainage lines. More research is needed to develop the bioreactors for agricultural use and to devise effective strategies for their implementation with other emerging technologies for improved water quality on both watershed and basin scales. PMID:18569323

  6. Agricultural drainage water management: Potential impact and implementation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (and the Lake Erie Basin) area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Dra...

  7. Transformation Of Arsenic In Agricultural Drainage Water Disposed Into An Evaporation Basin In California, USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaporation basins have been widely used for the disposal of agricultural drainage in areas requiring subsurface drainage in the San Joaquin Valley of California, a high agricultural production area in USA. The irrigation drainage water contains elevated concentrations of trace elements, including S...

  8. Agricultural Drainage Water Management in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Drainage practices alter the ...

  9. FGD gypsum filters remove soluble phosphorus from agricultural drainage waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of chicken litter applications has led to phosphorus (P) levels up to ten times the agronomic optimum in soils of the Delmarva Peninsula. This legacy P is a major source of P entering drainage ditches that eventually empty into the Chesapeake Bay. A Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum ditc...

  10. Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost...

  11. On-site denitrification beds could reduce indirect greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural drainage waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate (NO3-) laden agricultural drainage waters are non-point sources of indirect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which represent a significant fraction of total N2O emissions in the USA. On-site denitrification beds filled with woodchips were used to reduce NO3- under carbon rich anaerobic conditi...

  12. Removal of selenium from contaminated agricultural drainage water by nanofiltration membranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Ambats, G.; Presser, T.S.; Davis, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Seleniferous agricultural drainage wastewater has become a new major source of pollution in the world. In the USA, large areas of farmland in 17 western states, generate contaminated salinized drainage with Se concentrations much higher than 5 ??g/l, the US Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criterion for the protection of aquatic life; Se values locally reach 4200 ??g/l in western San Joaquin Valley, California. Wetland habitats receiving this drainage have generally shown Se toxicosis in aquatic birds causing high rates of embryonic deformity and mortality, or have indicated potential ecological damage. Results of our laboratory flow experiments indicate that nanofiltration, the latest membrane separation technology, can selectively remove > 95% of Se and other multivalent anions from > 90% of highly contaminated water from the San Joaquin Valley, California. Such membranes yield greater water output and require lower pressures and less pretreatment, and therefore, are more cost effective than traditional reverse osmosis membranes. Nanofiltration membranes offer a potential breakthrough for the management of Se contaminated wastes not only from agricultural drainage, but from other sources also.

  13. Reuse/disposal of agricultural drainage water with high levels of salinity and toxic trace elements in central California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage waters in the western San Joaquin Valley of Central California contain high levels of salts, boron (B) and selenium (Se). Discharge of the drainage water directly into the Kesterson Reservoir in 1980's was hazardous to plants and wildlife. To investigate the plausibility of usi...

  14. Laboratory evaluation of zero valent iron and sulfur modified iron filter materials for agricultural drainage water treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On site filter treatment systems have the potential to remove nutrients and pesticides from agricultural subsurface drainage waters. The effectiveness and efficiency of this type of drainage water treatment will depend on the actual filter materials utilized. Two promising filter materials that coul...

  15. Agricultural pesticides in six drainage basins used for public water supply in New Jersey, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Buxton, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A reconnaissance study of six drainage basins in New Jersey was conducted to evaluate the presence of pesticides from agricultural runoff in surface water. In the first phase of the study, surface-water public-supply drainage basins throughout New Jersey that could be affected by pesticide applications were identified by use of a Geographic Information System. Six basins--Lower Mine Hill Reservoir, South Branch of the Raritan River, Main Branch of the Raritan River, Millstone River, Manasquan River, and Matchaponix Brook--were selected as those most likely to be affected by pesticides on the basis of calculated pesticide-application rates and percentage of agricultural land. The second phase of the project was a short-term water-quality reconnaissance of the six drainage basins to determine whether pesticides were present in the surface waters. Twenty-eight surface-water samples (22 water-quality samples, 3 sequentially collected samples, and 3 trip blanks), and 6 samples from water-treatment facilities were collected. Excluding trip blanks, samples from water-treatment facilities, and sequentially collected samples, the pesticides detected in the samples and the percentage of samples in which they were detected, were as follows: atrazine and metolachlor, 86 percent; alachlor, 55 percent; simazine, 45 percent; diazinon, 27 percent; cyanazine and carbaryl, 23 percent; linuron and isophenfos, 9 percent; and chlorpyrifos, 5 percent.Diazinon, detected in one stormflow sample collected from Matchaponix Brook on August 6, 1990, was the only compound to exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended Lifetime Health Advisory Limit. Correlation between ranked metolachlor concentrations and ranked flow rates was high, and 25 percent of the variance in metolachlor concentrations can be attributed to variations in flow rate. Pesticide residues were detected in samples of pretreated and treated water from water-treatment facilities. Concentrations of all

  16. Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2007-12-01

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost filter materials have the potential to remove nutrient and pesticide contaminants from agricultural drainage waters before these waters are released from the farm site. Batch tests were conducted to find filter materials potentially capable of removing nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticide (atrazine) contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. For each batch test, stock solution (40 g) and filter material (5 g) were combined in 50 mL Teflon centrifuge tubes and mixed with a rotator for 24 hours. The stock solution contained 50 mg/L nitrate-N, 0.25 mg/L phosphate-P, 0.4 mg/L atrazine, 570 mg/L calcium sulfate, and 140 mg/L potassium chloride. Calcium sulfate and potassium chloride were added so that the stock solution would contain anions and cations normally found in agricultural drainage waters. There were six replicate batch tests for each filter material. At the completion of each test, solution was removed from the centrifuge tube and analyzed for nitrate-N, phosphate-P, and atrazine. A total of 38 filter materials were tested, which were divided into five classes; high carbon content substances, high iron content substances, high aluminum content substances, surfactant modified clay/zeolite, and coal combustion products. Batch test results generally indicate, that with regard to the five classes of filter materials; high carbon content substances adsorbed atrazine very effectively; high iron content substances worked especially well removing almost all of the phosphate present; high aluminum content substances lowered phosphate levels; surfactant modified clay/zeolite substantially reduced both nitrate and atrazine; and coal combustion products

  17. Agricultural Drainage Water Management: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies for Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (and the Lake Erie Basin) area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Dra...

  18. Relative Contributions of Habitat and Water Quality to the Integrity of Fish Communities in Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of agricultural drainage ditches focuses on removing water from agricultural fields and ignores the potential impacts of these hydrological and geomorphological modifications on the water quality and aquatic biota. There is a need to identify methods of incorporating environmental conside...

  19. Simulation-based optimization framework for reuse of agricultural drainage water in irrigation.

    PubMed

    Allam, A; Tawfik, A; Yoshimura, C; Fleifle, A

    2016-05-01

    A simulation-based optimization framework for agricultural drainage water (ADW) reuse has been developed through the integration of a water quality model (QUAL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm. This framework was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, in summer and winter 2012. First, the water quantity and quality of the drain was simulated using the QUAL2Kw model. Second, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation were performed to assess QUAL2Kw's performance and to identify the most critical variables for determination of water quality, respectively. Finally, a genetic algorithm was applied to maximize the total reuse quantity from seven reuse locations with the condition not to violate the standards for using mixed water in irrigation. The water quality simulations showed that organic matter concentrations are critical management variables in the Gharbia drain. The uncertainty analysis showed the reliability of QUAL2Kw to simulate water quality and quantity along the drain. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis showed that the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorous are highly sensitive to point source flow and quality. Additionally, the optimization results revealed that the reuse quantities of ADW can reach 36.3% and 40.4% of the available ADW in the drain during summer and winter, respectively. These quantities meet 30.8% and 29.1% of the drainage basin requirements for fresh irrigation water in the respective seasons. PMID:26921569

  20. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  1. Selenium stable isotope ratios in California agricultural drainage water management systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbel, M.J.; Johnson, T.M.; Tanji, K.K.; Gao, S.; Bullen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Selenium stable isotope ratios are known to shift in predictable ways during various microbial, chemical, and biological processes, and can be used to better understand Se cycling in contaminated environments. In this study we used Se stable isotopes to discern the mechanisms controlling the transformation of oxidized, aqueous forms of Se to reduced, insoluble forms in sediments of Se-affected environments. We measured 80Se/76Se in surface waters, shallow ground waters, evaporites, digested plants and sediments, and sequential extracts from several sites where agricultural drainage water is processed in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Selenium isotope analyses of samples obtained from the Tulare Lake Drainage District flow-through wetland reveal small isotopic contrasts (mean difference 0.7%o) between surface water and reduced Se species in the underlying sediments. Selenium in aquatic macrophytes was very similar isotopically to the NaOH and Na2SO3 sediment extracts designed to recover soluble organic Se and Se(O), respectively. For the integrated on-farm drainage management sites, evaporite salts were slightly (approximately 0.6%o) enriched in the heavier isotope relative to the inferred parent waters, whereas surface soils were slightly (approximately 1.4%o) depleted. Bacterial or chemical reduction of Se(VI) or Se(IV) may be occurring at these sites, but the small isotopic contrasts suggest that other, less isotopically fractionating mechanisms are responsible for accumulation of reduced forms in the sediments. These findings provide evidence that Se assimilation by plants and algae followed by deposition and mineralization is the dominant transformation pathway responsible for accumulation of reduced forms of Se in the wetland sediments.

  2. Five year water and nitrogen balance for a constructed surface flow wetland treating agricultural drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Borin, Maurizio; Tocchetto, Davide

    2007-07-15

    The performance of a constructed surface flow wetland in reducing diffuse N pollution coming from croplands is being investigated in an ongoing experiment, begun in 1998 in NE Italy. The 0.32 ha wetland is vegetated with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. and Typha latifolia (L.). It receives drainage water from 6 ha of land managed for an experiment on drainage systems, where maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and soybean are cultivated. During the period 1998-2002, the wetland received from 4698 to 8412 mm of water per year (on average, about 9 times the environmental rainfall); its water regimen was discontinuous and flooding occurred on a variable number of days per year (from 13 to 126). Nitric nitrogen was the most important form of element load. Its concentration in the inflow water over time was rather discontinuous, with median values ranging from 0.2 (in 2001) to 4.5 (in 2000) mg L(-1). Inflow nitric N concentrations were occasionally in the 5-15 mg L(-1) range. Concentrations reduced passing through the wetland, with a more evident effect in the last year. Over 5 years, the wetland received slightly more than 2000 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen, 87% in nitric form mostly from farmland drainage. The remaining 13% of N was applied as organic slurry directly onto the wetland, with 5 distributions during 1998 to assess wetland performance in treating occasional organic loads. Field drainage loads had a discontinuous time pattern and occurred mostly during autumn-winter, with the exception of the 2001-2002 season which was a very dry. The wetland discharged 206 kg ha(-1) of N, over the 5-year period, with an apparent removal efficiency of about 90%. The disappearance was mostly due to plant uptake (1110 kg ha(-1)) and soil accumulation (570 kg ha(-1)), with the contribution of denitrification being estimated at around 7%. PMID:17270250

  3. Capture and characterization of particulate phosphorus from farm drainage waters in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T.; Daroub, S.

    2012-12-01

    The buildup of highly labile, organic, phosphorus (P)-enriched sediments in farms canals within the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) has been associated with the production of floating aquatic vegetation. During drainage events, these sediments are susceptible to transport and contribute to the overall P load. In order to evaluate the total P load exiting the farm canals, a settling tank experiment was conducted to capture the sediments during drainage events from eight farms. Drainage water was channelized through two 200L polypropylene collection tanks which allowed sediments to settle at the bottom based on its particle size. Water was carefully siphoned out of the tanks and the sediments collected for analyses. A five step P-fractionation process was used to distinguish organic (o) and inorganic (i) forms of P: KCl extractable P, NaOH extractable P, HCl extractable P, and residual P. The KCl-Pi fraction represents the labile Pi that is water soluble and exchangeable (loosely adsorbed); NaOH extractable P represents Fe- and Al- bound inorganic P (NaOH-Pi) and organic P associated with humic and fulvic acids (NaOH-Po). The HCl-Pi fraction includes Ca- and Mg- bound P, while Residue-P represents recalcitrant organic P compounds and P bound to minerals. The sediments were also used to conduct a P-flux study under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Our goal is to provide growers with vital information and insight into P loading that will help them in their efforts to reduce off-farm P loads in the EAA.

  4. Laboratory Feasibility Evaluation of a New Modified Iron Product for Use as a Filter Material to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    The removal of excess soil water with a subsurface drainage pipe system is a common agricultural practice employed to improve crop yields, especially in the Midwest U.S. However, fertilizer nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticides applied on farm fields will frequently leach downwards through the soil profile to be intercepted by the buried drainage pipes and then discharged with drainage water into neighboring streams and lakes, oftentimes producing adverse environmental impacts on local, regional, and national scales. On-site drainage water filter treatment systems can potentially be employed to prevent the release of agricultural nutrients/pesticides into adjacent waterways. A recently developed modified iron product may have promise as a filter material used within this type of drainage water treatment system. Therefore, a laboratory study was initiated to directly evaluate the feasibility of employing this new modified iron product as a filter material to treat drainage waters. Laboratory research included saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, contaminant (nutrient/pesticide) removal batch tests, and saturated solute transport column experiments. The saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests indicate that the unaltered modified iron product by itself has a high enough hydraulic conductivity (> 1.0 x 10-3 cm/s) to normally allow sufficient water flow rates that are needed to make this material hydraulically practical for use in drainage water filter treatment systems. Modified iron hydraulic conductivity can be improved substantially (> 1 x 10-2 cm/s) by using only the portion of this material that is retained on a 100 mesh sieve (particle size > 0.15 mm). Batch test results carried out with spiked drainage water and either unaltered or 100 mesh sieved modified iron showed nitrate reductions of greater than 30% and 100% removal of the pesticide, atrazine. Saturated solute transport columns tests with spiked drainage water

  5. Quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water in irrigated agricultural lands in a Mediterranean coastal region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Odemiş, Berkant; Bozkurt, Sefer; Ağca, Necat; Yalçin, Mehmet

    2006-04-01

    Spatial and seasonal differences in water quality of drainage water and unconfined shallow groundwater were related to irrigation in Samandağ, a Mediterranean coastal region. Eighteen wells, seven drainage points and Orontes River were monitored bimonthly for one year for analyses of electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), cations (Na, K, Ca + Mg) and anions (CO(3), HCO(3), Cl and SO(4)). Agricultural irrigation using saline groundwater decreased water quality of Orontes River during the irrigation season (May to September) more than during the non-irrigation season (October to April). Seasonal fluctuations in water quality of shallow groundwater were greater during the irrigation season than the non-irrigation season in the study area. Excessive use of groundwater resulted in a decline in the water table levels in the irrigation season. Water table level rose up to the soil surface in areas where there was a lack of drainage or poor drainage, due to the impact of precipitation in the winter. SAR and pH values of drainage water increased in the irrigation season, while the other properties of drainage water decreased. Irrigation water quality of Orontes River was classified as C(3)S(1) in both seasons. Irrigation water quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water varied from C(2)S(1) to C(4)S(2) in one year. Drainage and well waters were found to be different on yearly basis in terms of Na, SAR (p<0.01) and Ca + Mg concentrations (p<0.001). Ca + Mg concentrations for both sources were different for all sampling dates (p<0.001). PMID:16614781

  6. Agricultural drainage practices in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, T. D.

    1986-02-01

    Agricultural drainage practices are reviewed under two main headings: arterial drainage of river catch-ments by developing main channels, and field drainage of smaller parcels of land using pipes and open trenches. The use of cost/benefit analysis on the arterial drainage program is considered and the inherent errors are discussed. Conservation of the environment is described as it applies to land-scaping, fisheries, and wildlife, and the drainage authorities are shown to have an enlightened attitude to proper preservation of the world around us.

  7. Reclaiming agricultural drainage water with nanofiltration membranes: Imperial Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Schroeder, R.A.; Setmire, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted pilot-scale field experiments using nanofiltration membranes to lower the salinity and remove Se, As and other toxic contaminants from saline agricultural wastewater in the Imperial Valley, California, USA. Farmlands in the desert climate (rainfall - 7.4 cm/a) of Imperial Valley cover -200,000 ha that are irrigated with water (-1.7 km3 annually) imported from the Colorado River. The salinity (-850 mg/L) and concentration of Se (-2.5 ??g/L) in the Colorado River water are high and evapotranpiration further concentrates salts in irrigation drainage water, reaching salinities of 3,000-15,000 mg/L TDS and a median Se value of -30 ??g/L. Experiments were conducted with two commercially available nanofiltration membranes, using drainage water of varying composition, and with or without the addition of organic precipitation inhibitors. Results show that these membranes selectively remove more than 95% of Se, SO4, Mo, U and DOC, and -30% of As from this wastewater. Low percentages of Cl, NO3 and HCO3, with enough cations to maintain electrical neutrality also were removed. The product water treated by these membranes comprised more than 90% of the wastewater tested. Results indicate that the treated product water from the Alamo River likely will have less than 0.2 ??g/L Se, salinity of 300-500 mg/L TDS and other chemical concentrations that meet the water quality criteria for irrigation and potable use. Because acceptability is a major issue for providing treated wastewater to urban centers, it may be prudent to use the reclaimed water for irrigation and creation of lower salinity wetlands near the Salton Sea; an equivalent volume of Colorado River water can then be diverted for the use of increasing populations of San Diego and other urban centers in southern California. Nanofiltration membranes yield greater reclaimed-water output and require lower pressure and less pretreatment, and therefore are generally more cost effective than traditional reverse

  8. Laboratory feasibility evaluation of a new modified iron product for use as a filter material to treat agricultural drainage waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The removal of excess soil water with a subsurface drainage pipe system is a common agricultural practice employed to improve crop yields, especially in the Midwest U.S. However, fertilizer nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticides applied on farm fields will frequently leach downwards throug...

  9. Determination of commonly used polar herbicides in agricultural drainage waters in Australia by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh T K; Hyne, Ross V; Doble, Philip

    2007-03-01

    The present study describes the application of different extraction techniques for the preconcentration of ten commonly found acidic and non-acidic polar herbicides (2,4-D, atrazine, bensulfuron-methyl, clomazone, dicamba, diuron, MCPA, metolachlor, simazine and triclopyr) in the aqueous environment. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with dichloromethane, solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis HLB cartridges or SBD-XC Empore disks were compared for extraction efficiency of these herbicides in different matrices, especially water samples from contaminated agricultural drainage water containing high concentrations of particulate matter. Herbicides were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet detector. SPE using SDB-XC Empore disks was applied to determine target herbicides in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (NSW, Australia) during a two-week survey from October 2005 to November 2005. The daily aqueous concentrations of herbicides from 24-h composite samples detected at two sites increased after run-off from a storm event and were in the range of: 0.1-17.8 microg l(-1), < 0.1-0.9 microg l(-1) and 0.2-17.8 microg l(-1) at site 1; < 0.1-3.5 microg l(-1), < 0.1-0.2 microg l(-1) and < 0.2-3.2 microg l(-1) at site 2 for simazine, atrazine and diuron, respectively. PMID:17184816

  10. Assessing Nutrient Transport Following Dredging of Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are vital for many agricultural landscapes in the U.S. Previous research has indicated that dredging agricultural drainage ditches may degrade water quality. In this study, we monitored nutrient transport in two drainage ditches for six years (2003-2008), during which t...

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of Sulfur Modified Iron for Use as a Filter Material to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    Where subsurface drainage practices are employed, fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields and municipal locations are commonly intercepted by the buried drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes producing adverse environmental impacts on these surface water bodies. On-site water filter treatment systems can be employed to prevent the release of agricultural nutrients/pesticides into adjacent waterways. Sulfur modified iron is a relatively unknown industrial product that may have promise for use as a filter material to remove contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. Sulfur modified iron (SMI) is a high surface area iron powder (zero valent iron) that has been altered via chemical reaction with pure sulfur to produce a sulfur/iron surface coating on the iron particles. A laboratory investigation was conducted with contaminant removal batch tests, saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, and saturated solute transport column experiments to evaluate the feasibility for using SMI to treat subsurface drainage waters. Contaminant removal batch tests showed that three SMI samples were much more effective removing nitrate (> 94% nitrate removed) than three zero valent iron samples (< 10% nitrate removed). Batch test results additionally showed that SMI removed greater that 94% of dissolved phosphate, but was not particularly effective removing the pesticide, atrazine (< 37% atrazine removed). Hydraulic conductivity tests indicated that all three SMI samples that were evaluated had sufficient hydraulic conductivity, much greater than the 1 x 10-3 cm/s standard used for stormwater sand filters. The saturated solute transport tests confirmed that SMI can be effective removing nitrate and phosphate from drainage waters. Analysis of column effluent also showed that the large majority of nitrate removed by SMI was converted to ammonium. Consequently, these laboratory findings support the use of SMI in

  12. Dielectric spectroscopic studies on the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture drainage.

    PubMed

    Mahani, Ragab; Atia, Fatma; Al Neklawy, Mohammed M; Fahem, Amin

    2016-06-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to changes in concentrations of pollutants (heavy metals and metal oxides) uptake by the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture wastewater drainage. The measurements were carried out on the dried root and shoot plant parts before and after subjecting to different microwave heating powers for different times. Dielectric properties of the untreated root were investigated at temperature range (30-90°C). X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) results showed that the concentration of metals and metals oxides are higher in plant root than in plant shoot. Accordingly, the obtained dielectric properties were found to depend on the applied electric field frequency, magnitude of heating power as well as concentrations of pollutants. Analysis of experimental data represented by the imaginary part of the dielectric modulus M″ (ω) revealed to the presence of three different relaxation processes. The lower frequency relaxation process was associated to charge carriers conduction whereas those appeared at higher frequencies were associated to different types of interfacial polarization. The plant ability for removing heavy metals and metal oxides from the aquatic environments would be enhanced upon subjecting to microwave heating power with 400 W for 30 min. PMID:26985876

  13. Dielectric spectroscopic studies on the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahani, Ragab; Atia, Fatma; Al Neklawy, Mohammed M.; Fahem, Amin

    2016-06-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to changes in concentrations of pollutants (heavy metals and metal oxides) uptake by the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture wastewater drainage. The measurements were carried out on the dried root and shoot plant parts before and after subjecting to different microwave heating powers for different times. Dielectric properties of the untreated root were investigated at temperature range (30-90 °C). X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) results showed that the concentration of metals and metals oxides are higher in plant root than in plant shoot. Accordingly, the obtained dielectric properties were found to depend on the applied electric field frequency, magnitude of heating power as well as concentrations of pollutants. Analysis of experimental data represented by the imaginary part of the dielectric modulus M″ (ω) revealed to the presence of three different relaxation processes. The lower frequency relaxation process was associated to charge carriers conduction whereas those appeared at higher frequencies were associated to different types of interfacial polarization. The plant ability for removing heavy metals and metal oxides from the aquatic environments would be enhanced upon subjecting to microwave heating power with 400 W for 30 min.

  14. Location of Agricultural Drainage Pipes and Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

  15. Location of agricultural drainage pipes and assessment of agricultural drainage pipe conditions using ground penetrating radar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

  16. Integrated on-farm drainage management for drainage water disposal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Providing environmentally safe methods for drainage water disposal is a significant challenge for irrigated agriculture. Subsurface drainage water contains salt and nutrients that may have significant deleterious effects on surface water quality. A system was developed for the reuse of saline drai...

  17. Preliminary results from agricultural drainage water management CIG projects on Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field demonstrations were monitored to compare the crop yields, drainage discharge, and nutrient loadings to streams from managed and unmanaged subsurface drainage systems. Paired drainage systems within the same field, under similar soil, area, cropping, and management conditions, were identified. ...

  18. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

    2014-05-01

    Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological

  19. WATER DRAINAGE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Case

    2000-05-30

    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M&O, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case.

  20. Nutrient content at the sediment-water interface of tile-fed agricultural drainage ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive network of tile drains present in the Midwest USA accelerate losses of nutrients to receiving ditches, rivers and eventually to the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient inputs from agricultural watersheds and their role in affecting water quality have received increased attention recently; however, be...

  1. Effect of Dredging an Agricultural Drainage Ditch on Water Column Herbicide Concentration, as Predicted by Fluvarium Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In artificially drained agricultural areas, dredging of drainage ditches is often necessary to ensure drainage of fields adequate to permit field operations. Fluvarium experiments were performed in order to evaluate the potential of the bed material changes associated with ditch dredging to impact ...

  2. Evaluation of management options for disposal of salt and trace element laden agricultural drainage water from the Fallon Indian Reservation, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu; Benson, S.

    1991-03-01

    This is the final report describing work performed on the Fallon Indian Reservation by the Earth Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during FY90. These investigations were initiated at the request of the United States Bureau of Reclamation in response to recent concerns regarding disposal of agriculture drainage water from the Reservation. The Reservation is transected by numerous irrigation and drainage canals, including the TJ Drain. Recent investigations by the US Fish and Wildlife Service have demonstrated that water in the TJ Drain is toxic to several aquatic indicator organisms, including bluegills, fathead minnows and daphnids. This information, coupled with recent die-offs of fish and birds, has lead to concern about continued discharge of TJ Drain water into local surface waters. In late 1990, plans for closing the TJ Drain and providing for alternative drainage were initiated. We aim to provide information for assessing options fro disposal of agricultural drainage water from the Reservation. In particular, our studies focuses on irrigation and drainage of lands currently serviced by the TJ Drain. Options for continued irrigation and drainage of the Reservation fall broadly into two categories: options that provide an alternative to drain water disposal into the SWMA; and options that include continuing the current practice of drain water disposal into the SWMA. Other options include elements of both of these alternatives. Additional discussion of specific options will follow a brief summary of the technical work supporting our assessment of drainage related issues at the Reservation. 67 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Using flue gas desulfurization gypsum to remove dissolved phosphorus from agricultural drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Ray B; Buda, Anthony R; Kleinman, Peter J A; Church, Clinton D; Saporito, Louis S; Folmar, Gordon J; Bose, Salil; Allen, Arthur L

    2012-01-01

    High levels of accumulated phosphorus (P) in soils of the Delmarva Peninsula are a major source of dissolved P entering drainage ditches that empty into the Chesapeake Bay. The objective of this study was to design, construct, and monitor a within-ditch filter to remove dissolved P, thereby protecting receiving waters against P losses from upstream areas. In April 2007, 110 Mg of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a low-cost coal combustion product, was used as the reactive ingredient in a ditch filter. The ditch filter was monitored from 2007 to 2010, during which time 29 storm-induced flow events were characterized. For storm-induced flow, the event mean concentration efficiency for total dissolved P (TDP) removal for water passing through the gypsum bed was 73 ± 27% confidence interval (α = 0.05). The removal efficiency for storm-induced flow by the summation of load method was 65 ± 27% confidence interval (α = 0.05). Although chemically effective, the maximum observed hydraulic conductivity of FGD gypsum was 4 L s(-1), but it decreased over time to <1 L s(-1). When bypass flow and base flow were taken into consideration, the ditch filter removed approximately 22% of the TDP load over the 3.6-yr monitoring period. Due to maintenance and clean-out requirements, we conclude that ditch filtration using FGD gypsum is not practical at a farm scale. However, we propose an alternate design consisting of FGD gypsum-filled trenches parallel to the ditch to intercept and treat groundwater before it enters the ditch. PMID:22565248

  4. Laboratory Testing of Foundry Sands as Bulking Agents for Porous Media Filters Used to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Foundry sands are industrial byproducts that may have potential application as bulking agents that when mixed with small amounts of more chemically reactive materials (i.e. sulfur modified iron, fly ash, etc.) can be used to produce porous media filters capable of removing contaminants from agricultural drainage waters. Foundry sand bulking agents are attractive primarily as a low cost means to maintain the hydraulic efficiency of a filter. Secondarily, the foundry sands themselves may have some capacity for removal of agricultural nutrients and pesticides from water. Consequently, a laboratory study was initiated to quantify hydraulic efficiency and agricultural contaminant removal abilities of six foundry sands. Of the six foundry sands tested, all were obtained in central Ohio, three from iron casting foundries, two from steel casting foundries, and one from an aluminum casting foundry. Hydraulic efficiencies of the foundry sands were assessed by measuring hydraulic conductivity with twice replicated falling-head permeability tests. Batch tests were employed to evaluate foundry sand potential to treat water containing nitrate and phosphate nutrients, along with the pesticide, atrazine. Five of the six foundry sand samples had measured hydraulic conductivity values from 7.6 x 10-3 cm/s to 3.8 x 10-2 cm/s, which is in the range of hydraulic conductivity values found for clean sand. The one foundry sand that was an exception had much lower measured hydraulic conductivity values of 2.75 x 10-5 cm/s and 5.76 x 10-5 cm/s. For the batch tests conducted, none of the nitrate was removed by any of the six foundry sands; however, conversely, almost all of the phosphate was removed by each foundry sand. Batch test atrazine removal results were much more varied. Compared with baseline batch tests, one foundry sand removed two thirds of the atrazine, one foundry sand removed about one half of the atrazine, three foundry sands removed about a third of the atrazine, and one

  5. Using flue gas desulfurization gypsum to remove dissolved phosphorus from agricultural drainage waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After several decades of applying chicken litter to meet crop demands for nitrogen, high levels of legacy phosphorus (P) in soils of the Delmarva Peninsula are a major source of dissolved P entering drainage ditches that empty to the Chesapeake Bay. The objective of this study was to design, constru...

  6. Removing soluble phosphorus from agricultural drainage waters using FGD gypsum filters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of applying chicken litter to meet nitrogen demand has led to accumulation of phosphorus (P) in soils of the Delmarva Peninsula. This legacy P that now approaches levels up to ten times the agronomic optimum is a major source of P entering drainage ditches that eventually empty into the Ches...

  7. Using FGD gypsum to remove soluble phosphorus from agricultural drainage waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After several decades of applying chicken litter to meet crop demands for nitrogen, high levels of legacy phosphorus (P) in soils of the Delmarva Peninsula are a major source of soluble P entering drainage ditches that empty to the Chesapeake Bay. In April, 2007, Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsu...

  8. Agricultural Drainage Management Systems Task Force (ADMSTF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Drainage Management Systems (ADMS) Task Force was initiated during a Charter meeting in the fall of 2002 by dedicated professional employees of Federal, State, and Local Government Agencies and Universities. The Agricultural Drainage Management (ADM) Coalition was established in 200...

  9. Analysis of the potential impacts on surface water quality resulting from the proposed use of the San Luis Drain to transport agricultural drainage through the northern Grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1992-05-01

    An Environmental Assessment and initial Study for the interim use of a portion of the San Luis Drain for conveyance water through the Grassland Water District and adjacent Grassland areas was conducted. The project proposes the use of 18 miles of the San Luis Drain for the conveyance of agricultural drainage water for a period of five years and the elimination of agricultural drainage discharges from 76 miles of existing channels in and adjacent to the Grassland Water District. A report was prepared to (a) quantify the potential project effects on surface water quality within Salt and Mud Sloughs and the San Joaquin River using currently available data, and (b) to improve the understanding of existing water supply and drainage operations within the Grassland area. After submission of the original report it was brought to the attention of one of the coauthors that the database on selenium and boron concentrations in drainage water did not include the water quality data collected by the Regional Water Quality Control Board (CRWQCB). In addition, the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) requested further examination of Grasslands hydrology to estimate the quantity of supplemental water that would be needed to restore the San Joaquin River to the same TDS and trace element concentrations prior to implementation of the project. This report addresses these issues.

  10. Nutrient removal of agricultural drainage water using algal turf scrubbers and solar power

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay poses significant challenges because of increasing population pressure, conversion of farmland to urban/suburban development, and the expense of infrastructure needed to achieve significant and sustained nutrient reductions from agricultural and urban sources. One ...

  11. Nutrient mitigation efficiency in agricultural drainage ditches: An influence of landscape properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage systems are integral parts of the agricultural landscapes and have the ability to intercept nutrient loading from runoff to surface water. This study investigated nutrient removal efficiency within replicated experimental conventional and controlled (with weirs) agricultural drainage ditche...

  12. MITIGATION CAPACITIES OF AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE DITCHES FOR FERTILIZER CONTAMINATION FROM NO-TILL COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are important routes of preferential flow in agricultural systems providing a rapid, more direct path for nutrient (N and P) laden drainage waters to reach downstream environments. Drainage ditches are forgotten links between agricultural farms and receiving waters, th...

  13. A simulation-based suitability index of the quality and quantity of agricultural drainage water for reuse in irrigation.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ayman; Fleifle, Amr; Tawfik, Ahmed; Yoshimura, Chihiro; El-Saadi, Aiman

    2015-12-01

    The suitability of agricultural drainage water (ADW) for reuse in irrigation was indexed based on a simulation of quality and quantity. The ADW reuse index (DWRI) has two components; the first one indicates the suitability of water quality (QLT) for reuse in irrigation based on the mixing ratio of ADW to canal irrigation water without violating the standards of using mixed water in irrigation, while the second indicates the available water quantity (QNT) based on the ratio of the available ADW to the required reuse discharge to meet the irrigation requirements alongside the drain. The QLT and QNT values ranged from 0 to ≥3 and from 0 to ≥0.40, respectively. Correspondingly, five classes from excellent to poor and from high scarcity to no scarcity were proposed to classify the QLT and QNT values, respectively. This approach was then applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, combined with QUAL2Kw simulations in the summer and winter of 2012. The QLT values along the drain ranged from 1.11 to 2.91 and 0.68 to 1.73 for summer and winter, respectively. Correspondingly, the QLT classes ranged from good to very good and from fair to good, respectively. In regard to QNT, values ranged from 0.10 to 0.62 and from 0.10 to 0.88 for summer and winter, respectively. Correspondingly, the QNT classes ranged from medium scarcity to no scarcity for both seasons. The demonstration of DWRI in the Gharbia drain suggests that the proposed index presents a simple tool for spatially evaluating the suitability of ADW for reuse in irrigation. PMID:26196072

  14. Agricultural pesticide applications and observed concentrations in surface waters from four drainage basins in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, R.J.; Ebbert, J.C.; Roberts, L.M.; Ryker, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the use and occurrence of agricultural pesticides were investigated in four drainage basins--two dominated by irrigated agriculture and two by dryland agriculture--in the Central Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington. For this study, 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites were selected for analysis from a list of nearly 400 compounds commonly used in the United States. Pesticide-use data included estimates of the total quantity of herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides applied to croplands in each of the four drainage basins and reported times of application for selected pesticides. Pesticide-occurrence data included concentrations of pesticides in samples collected at one surface-water site at or near the outflow of each of the four drainage basins, where surface waters were sampled one to five times a month from March 1993 through May 1994. Of the 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites targeted for analysis, a total of 45 different compounds were detected in samples from the four sites, ranging in concentration from at or near the limit of detection (as low as 0.001 microgram per liter) to a maximum of 8.1 micrograms per liter. None of the concentrations of pesticides exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water standards, but concentrations of five pesticides exceeded the USEPA freshwater-chronic criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Forty-one different pesticides or pesticide metabolites were detected in surface waters sampled at the two sites representing irrigated agriculture drainage basins. The herbicides atrazine, DCPA, and EPTC were detected most frequently at the two sampling sites. Not all pesticides that were applied were detected, however. For example, disulfoton, phorate, and methyl parathion accounted for 15 percent of the insecticides applied in the two irrigated drainage basins, yet none of these pesticides were detected in

  15. Rapid field assessment of RO desalination of brackish agricultural drainage water.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John; Rahardianto, Anditya; Gu, Han; Uchymiak, Michal; Bartman, Alex; Hedrick, Marcos; Lara, David; Cooper, Jim; Faria, Jose; Christofides, Panagiotis D; Cohen, Yoram

    2013-05-15

    Rapid field evaluation of RO feed filtration requirements, selection of effective antiscalant type and dose, and estimation of suitable scale-free RO recovery level were demonstrated using a novel approach based on direct observation of mineral scaling and flux decline measurements, utilizing an automated Membrane Monitor (MeMo). The MeMo, operated in a stand-alone single-pass desalting mode, enabled rapid assessment of the adequacy of feed filtration by enabling direct observation of particulate deposition on the membrane surface. The diagnostic field study with RO feed water of high mineral scaling propensity revealed (via direct MeMo observation) that suspended particulates (even for feed water of turbidity <1 NTU) could serve as seeds for promoting surface crystal nucleation. With feed filtration optimized, a suitable maximum RO water recovery, with complete mineral scale suppression facilitated by an effective antiscalant dose, can be systematically and directly identified (via MeMo) in the field for a given feed water quality. Scale-free operating conditions, determined via standalone MeMo rapid diagnostic tests, were shown to be applicable to spiral-would RO system as validated via both flux decline measurements and ex-situ RO plant membrane scale monitoring. It was shown that the present approach is suitable for rapid field assessment of RO operability and it is particularly advantageous when evaluating water sources of composition that may vary both temporally and across the regions of interest. PMID:23538039

  16. Nutrient Transport in Dredged Reaches of Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are a vital component of many of the more productive agricultural landscapes in the United States. These systems often require intensive management to ensure adequate removal of water from the system, but little is known about how ditch management affects nutrient losse...

  17. Nutrient Attenuation Under Natural Conditions in Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches are common practice in agricultural landscapes with poorly drained soils. Even though high concentrations of nutrients and other agricultural chemicals have been reportedly associated with agricultural drainage ditches, processes affecting nutrient transport in these ditches are not...

  18. Influence of Physical Habitat and Agricultural Contaminants on Fishes within Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are used within agricultural watersheds for the removal of excess water from agricultural fields. These headwater streams have been constructed or modified so they possess an enlarged trapezoidal cross-section, straightened channels, and riparian zones lacking woody veg...

  19. Regulation of agricultural drainage to San Joaquin River

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, G.E.; Watkins, D.A. )

    1989-02-01

    A technical committee reported on: (1) proposed water quality objectives for the San Joaquin River Basin; (2) proposed effluent limitations for agricultural drainage discharges in the basin to achieve these objectives; and (3) a proposal to regulate these discharges. The costs and economic impact of achieving various alternative water quality objectives were also evaluated. The information gathered by the technical committee will be used by the Regional Board along with other information in their review of the San Joaquin River Basin Water Quality Control Plan and their actions to regulate agricultural drainage in the San Joaquin Valley. The results of the Technical Committee's efforts as reported in Regulation of Agricultural Drainage to the San Joaquin River, August 1987. Based on the available information, the improvement in water quality resulting from implementation of the interim selenium objective and long-term objectives for salts, molybdenum and boron is necessary to provide reasonable protection to beneficial uses. The costs needed to implement these objectives seem reasonable. However, data on the: (1) concentrations of selenium that protect aquatic ecosystems in the basin; (2) concentrations of selenium that protect human consumers of fish and wildlife; and (3) drainage flows and quality produced in and upgradient of the drainage study area need to be developed and reviewed before a long-term selenium water quality objective is implemented. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers and land improvement contractors, especially in the Midwest U.S., need methods to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but also to determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. Previous investigations have already demonstrated the feasibility o...

  1. Effects of water-control structures on hydrologic and water-quality characteristics in selected agricultural drainage canals in eastern North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Treece, M.W., Jr.; Jaynes, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    large increase of specific conductance in the tidal creek. Flashboard risers had no significant effect on concentrations of dissolved oxygen, suspended sediment, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, or phosphorus. Maximum concentrations of ammonia nitrogen were smaller at both test sites after riser installation. In addition, concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen exceeding 1.0 milligram per liter rarely occurred at the flashboard-riser test sites following installation of the risers. Median loadings of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen decreased at one riser test site following flashboard-riser installation. Tide gates and flashboard risers were associated with reductions in concentrations and export of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen; however, these changes should be interpreted cautiously because reductions were not observed consistently at every site. The hydrology and baseline water-quality characteristics of the two study areas differ, making comparisons of the effectiveness of the two types of water-control structures difficult to interpret. The effects of water-control structures on the hydrology of the drainage canals are more meaningful than the changes in water quality. Tide gates and flashboard risers altered the hydrologic characteristics of the drainage canals and created an environment favorable for nutrient loss or transformation. Both structures retained agricultural drainage upstream, which increased potential storage for infiltration and reduced the potential for surface runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport, and higher peak outflow rates.

  2. Agricultural drainage pipe detection using ground penetrating radar: Effects of antenna orientation relative to drainage pipe directional trend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locating buried agricultural drainage pipes is a difficult problem confronting farmers and land improvement contractors, especially in the Midwest U.S., where the removal of excess soil water using subsurface drainage systems is a common farm practice. Enhancing the efficiency of soil water removal ...

  3. Use of Unchannelized Agricultural Streams as a Guiding Image for Restoring Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches or channelized headwater streams are a common landscape feature in the Midwestern United States. These streams have been channelized and maintained for removal of excess water from agricultural fields without regard for the aquatic biota. The use of pristine forested wa...

  4. Indirect emissions and isotopologue signatures of N2O from agricultural drainage water of a Pleistocene lowland catchment in North-Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymann, D.; Well, R.; Kahle, P.; Tiemeyer, B.; Flessa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Artificial drainage of low- and wetlands is a common practice in many agricultural regions to facilitate crop production. Agricultural drainage water was shown to be supersaturated with nitrous oxide (N2O), a major greenhouse gas thought to contribute to global warming and to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. Therefore, drainage of agricultural land has potential for indirect N2O emissions which are a highly uncertain component of the global N2O budget. This case study focuses on these emissions and further tries to unravel the source processes of N2O as well as the impact of its hydrological controls by applying an isotopologue approach. The research area was an intensively tile drained agricultural catchment embedded in the Pleistocene lowland of the federal state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (North-Eastern Germany). Water sampling was conducted during the consecutive hydrological winter periods 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 by sampling a collector drain outlet and an adjacent drainage ditch. Besides concentrations of dissolved N2O and NO3- we determined the isotopologue signatures of N2O by measuring δ15Nbulk and δ18O as well as the 15N 'site preference', which characterizes the intramolecular distribution of the N isotopes within the asymmetric N2O molecule and is a promising tool to distinguish between the main source processes of N2O, nitrification and denitrification. The investigated hydrological winter periods varied considerably concerning the weather and hydrological conditions. During the comparatively wet winter period 2007/2008, indirect N2O emissions accounted for 0.17 kg N2O-N ha-1 a-1 and were thus higher than during the colder and comparatively dry 2008/2009 period, where we found 0.12 kg N2O-N ha-1 a-1. The emission factors for both sampling periods were 0.23 % and 0.17 % of the N input, respectively, and therefore in good agreement with the current IPCC default value of 0.25 %. The isotopologue signatures of N2O reflected the different hydrological

  5. Effect of tile effluent on nutrient concentration and retention efficiency in agricultural drainage ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage is a common water management practice in many agricultural landscapes in the Midwestern United States. Drainage ditches regularly receive water from agricultural fields through these tile drains. This field-scale study was conducted to determine the impact of tile discharge on ambient ...

  6. Fractionation and analysis of veterinary antibiotics and their related degradation products in agricultural soils and drainage waters following swine manure amendment.

    PubMed

    Solliec, Morgan; Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Coté, Caroline; Généreux, Mylène; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    The fate of antimicrobial active compound residues in the environment, and especially antibiotics used in swine husbandry are of particular interest for their potential toxicity and contribution to antibiotic resistance. The presence of relatively high concentrations of bioactive compounds has been reported in agricultural areas but few information is available on their degradation products. Veterinary antibiotics reach terrestrial environments through many routes, including application of swine manure to soils. The objectives of this project were first, to develop an analytical method able to quantify and identify veterinary antibiotics and their degradation products in manure, soil and water samples; and second, to study the distribution of these target compounds in soils and drainage waters. A brief evaluation of their potential toxicity in the environment was also made. In order to achieve these objectives, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for its ability to quantify contaminants with sensitivity and selectivity, and its capacity to identify degradation products. Samples of manure, soil and water came from a long-term experimental site where swine manure containing veterinary antibiotics has been applied for many years. In this study, tetracycline antibiotics were found at several hundred μg L(-1) in the swine manure slurry used for fertilization, several hundred of ng L(-1) in drainage waters and several ng g(-1) in soils, while degradation products were sometimes found at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. PMID:26605832

  7. Laboratory evaluation of sulfur modified iron for use as a filter material to treat agricultural drainage waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Where subsurface drainage practices are employed, fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields and municipal locations are commonly intercepted by the buried drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes producing adverse environmental impacts on these sur...

  8. Drainage Water Filtration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage discharge from managed turf is known to carry elevated concentrations of agronomic fertilizers and chemicals. One approach being considered to reduce the transport is end-of-tile-filters. Laboratory and field studies have been initiated to address the efficacy of this approach. Result...

  9. Minimizing contamination hazards to waterbirds using agricultural drainage evaporation ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, David F.; Smith, Lynda A.; Drezner, Deborah S.; Shoemaker, J. David

    1991-11-01

    In much of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, inadequate drainage of applied irrigation water and accumulating salts in the soil have necessitated the installation of subsurface tile drainage systems to preserve crop productivity. At present, these subsurface drainage waters are disposed of by means of evaporation ponds or discharges into the San Joaquin River. Unfortunately, most of these agricultural drainage waters contain high concentrations of salts and naturally occurring trace elements, such as selenium, and recent evidence indicates that substantial numbers of waterbirds are exposed to contamination by selenium in the evaporation ponds. In order to avoid, minimize, or mitigate the adverse impacts on wildlife using the ponds, alternative pond management methods must be identified and evaluated for implementation. A number of methods have the potential to be cost-effective in significantly reducing the contamination hazard to birds using agricultural evaporation ponds. Twenty general methods were evaluated in this study, and four methods are recommended for implementation: remove levee vegetation, remove windbreaks, deepen the ponds, and haze birds. A number of other methods are recommended for further consideration because they appear to have good prospects for reducing the contamination hazard: steepen interior levee slopes, apply herbicides and insecticides, place netting on pond shorelines, and provide freshwater habitat adjacent to evaporation ponds. It may be necessary to use a combination of methods to effectively control selenium contamination of aquatic birds because it is unlikely that a single affordable pond management method will be able to entirely eliminate the contamination hazard.

  10. FISH-HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS IN DRAINAGE DITCHES WITHIN A PREDOMINANTLY AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED IN CENTRAL OHIO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are a common landscape feature in Ohio, and constitute 25% of stream habitat in Ohio. Management of drainage ditches focuses on removing excess water from agricultural fields without considering the influence of these actions on the biota living within ditches. Informat...

  11. Nitrate loading and isotopic signatures in subsurface agricultural drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, E L; Kellman, L M

    2011-01-01

    Artificially draining soils using subsurface tiles is a common practice on many agricultural fields. High levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) are often released from these systems; therefore, knowledge on the sources and processes controlling NO-N in drainage systems is needed. A dual isotope study (δN and δO) was used to investigate three subsurface drainage systems (shallow, conventional, and controlled) in Onslow, Nova Scotia, Canada. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify which drainage system more effectively reduced the NO-N loading, (ii) to examine differences in isotopic signatures under identical nutrient and cropping regimes for a fixed soil type, and (iii) to identify the utility of different drainage systems in controlling nutrient flows. Nitrate concentrations measured ranged from 0.92 to 11.8, from 2.3 to 17.3, and from 2.1 to 19.8 mg L for the shallow, conventional, and controlled drains, respectively. Total NO-N loading from shallow and controlled drains were 20 and 5.6 kg ha, respectively, lower than conventional (39.1 kg ha). The isotopic composition of NO-N for all drainage types appeared to be a mixture of two organic sources (manure and soil organic matter) via the process of nitrification. There was no evidence that denitrification played a significant role in removing NO-N during transport. Overall, shallow drainage reduced NO-N loading but offered no water conservation benefits. Combining the benefits of decreased NO-N loading from shallow systems with water control capability may offer the best solution to reducing nutrient loadings into water systems, achieving optimal crop yield, and decreasing drainage installation costs. PMID:21712595

  12. Use of Water Fluxmeters to Measure Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Andy L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Anandacoomaraswamy, A.

    2004-03-24

    Water supplies throughout the world are rapidly diminishing in quantity and quality. Efforts over the next decade must focus on methods which use water more efficiently for agriculture, industry, and recreational purposes, and at the same time reduce the potential for groundwater pollution. To assist in this effort, we have developed an improved method to simultaneously measure drainage quantity and quality using a water fluxmeter. Our water fluxmeter is a wick-lysimeter fitted with a small tipping-spoon and a solution-collection system. The only moving part is the tipping spoon. We have tested our fluxmeters under a range of conditions, from non-vegetated desert settings in Washington State USA, to irrigated tea plantations in Sri Lanka. Conditions of over-irrigation have been documented with our fluxmeters. When 4200 mm of water was applied to sandy soil via drip irrigation, at the Washington State site, over 3100 mm of drainage occurred. In contrast, at the same site, in the absence of both irrigation and vegetation, drainage was found to range from 0 mm/yr for a 1-m-deep silt loam soil to more than 100 mm/yr for a coarse-gravel surface. Solute transport, related to nitrate leaching can also be analyzed using water fluxmeters. Water fluxmeters have provided a reliable and inexpensive method to assess both quantity and quality of drainage waters over a wide range of environmental conditions.

  13. Seasonal Patterns of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Losses in Agricultural Drainage Ditches in Northern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches convey nutrient laden waters from agricultural landscapes to receiving waters. Surface drainage ditches are landscape features that have been overlooked for non-point source pollution mitigation of receiving waters. The objective of this study was to determine the nitrogen and phosp...

  14. A Characterization of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Agricultural Drainage Ditches of the Northeast Arkansas Delta, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches have large differences in hydroperiod and provide additional water residence time to mitigate farm runoff before it reaches receiving water bodies. These ditch wetland habitats harbor a characteristic benthic macroinvertebrate fauna reflective of the assimilative capac...

  15. ON-FARM DISPOSAL OF SALINE DRAINAGE WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water from irrigated agriculture is a significant world-wide problem. Researchers in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California developed an integrated on farm drainage water management system (IFDM) that can be used to solve this problem in an environmentally sound metho...

  16. Stream Invertebrate Communities, Water Quality, and Land-Use Patterns in an Agricultural Drainage Basin of Northeastern Nebraska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiles, Matt R.; Brock, Brent L.; Franzen, Annette C.; Dinsmore, Steven C., II

    2000-11-01

    We used invertebrate bioassessment, habitat analysis, geographic information system analysis of land use, and water chemistry monitoring to evaluate tributaries of a degraded northeast Nebraska, USA, reservoir. Bimonthly invertebrate collections and monthly water chemistry samples were collected for two years on six stream reaches to identify sources contributing to reservoir degradation and test suitability of standard rapid bioassessment methods in this region. A composite biotic index composed of seven commonly used metrics was effective for distinguishing between differentially impacted sites and responded to a variety of disturbances. Individual metrics varied greatly in precision and ability to discriminate between relatively impacted and unimpacted stream reaches. A modified Hilsenhoff index showed the highest precision (reference site CV = 0.08) but was least effective at discriminating among sites. Percent dominance and the EPT (number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa) metrics were most effective at discriminating between sites and exhibited intermediate precision. A trend of higher biotic integrity during summer was evident, indicating seasonal corrections should differ from other regions. Poor correlations were evident between water chemistry variables and bioassessment results. However, land-use factors, particularly within 18-m riparian zones, were correlated with bioassessment scores. For example, there was a strong negative correlation between percentage of rangeland in 18-m riparian zones and percentage of dominance in streams (r 2 = 0.90, P < 0.01). Results demonstrate that standard rapid bioassessment methods, with some modifications, are effective for use in this agricultural region of the Great Plains and that riparian land use may be the best predictor of stream biotic integrity.

  17. Continuous Passive Sampling of Solutes from Agricultural Subsurface Drainage Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblad Vendelboe, Anders; de Jonge, Hubert; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Wollesen de Jonge, Lis

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural subsurface tube drain systems play an important role in water and solute transport. One study, focusing on lowland agricultural catchments, showed that subsurface tube drainage contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90% of the annual NO3 load from agricultural fields to the receiving water bodies. Knowledge of e.g. nutrient loads and drainage volumes, based on measurements and modelling, are important for adequate water quality management. Despite the importance of tube drain transport of solutes, monitoring data are scarce. This scarcity is a result of the existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant load from tube drains being expensive and labor-extensive. The study presented here aimed at developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor solute loads from tube drains. The method is based on the newly developed Flowcap, which can be attached to existing tube drain outlets and can measure total flow, contaminant load and flow-averaged concentrations of solutes in the drainage. The Flowcap builds on the existing Sorbicell principle, a passive sampling system that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various compounds. The Sorbicell consists of two compartments permeable to water. One compartment contains an adsorbent and one contains a tracer. When water passes through the Sorbicell the compound of interest is absorbed while a tracer is released. Using the tracer loss to calculate the volume of water that has passed the Sorbicell it is possible to calculate the average concentration of the compound. When mounting Sorbicells in the Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drainage is sampled from the main stream. To accommodate the wide range of drainage flow rates two Flowcaps with different capacities were tested in the laboratory: one with a capacity of 25 L min-1 (Q25) and one with a capacity of 256 L min-1 (Q256). In addition, Sorbicells with two different hydraulic

  18. Redox Chemistry and Transformation of Arsenic and Selenium in Agricultural Drainage Disposal Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaporation ponds are being used for disposal of agricultural drainage waters in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California since there is no option for disposal outside of the valley. The drainage water contains elevated levels of salts and trace elements including arsenic (As) and selenium (Se). T...

  19. ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE DITCHES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are headwater streams that have been modified or constructed for agricultural drainage, and are often used in conjunction with tile drains. These modified streams are a common landscape feature in Ohio, and constitute 25% of stream habitat within the state. Management o...

  20. Ecology and management of agricultural drainage ditches: a literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are headwater streams that have been modified or constructed for agricultural drainage, and are often used in conjunction with tile drains. These modified streams are a common landscape feature in Ohio, and constitute 25% of stream habitat within the state. Management o...

  1. Adaptation Options for Land Drainage Systems Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Environment: A Czech Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulhavý, Zbyněk; Fučík, Petr

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, issues of agricultural drainage systems are introduced and discussed from the views of their former, current and future roles and functioning in the Czech Republic (CR). A methodologically disparate survey was done on thirty-nine model localities in CR with different intensity and state of land drainage systems, aimed at description of commonly occurred problems and possible adaptations of agricultural drainage as perceived by farmers, land owners, landscape managers or by protective water management. The survey was focused on technical state of drainage, fragmentation of land ownership within drained areas as well as on possible conflicts between agricultural and environmental interests in a landscape. Achieved results confirmed that there is obviously an increasing need to reassess some functions of prevailingly single-purpose agricultural drainage systems. Drainage intensity and detected unfavourable technical state of drainage systems as well as the risks connected with the anticipated climate change from the view of possible water scarcity claims for a complex solution. An array of adaptation options for agricultural drainage systems is presented, aiming at enhancement of water retention time and improvement of water quality. It encompasses additional flow-controlling measures on tiles or ditches, or facilities for making selected parts of a drainage system inoperable in order to retain or slow down the drainage runoff, to establish water accumulation zones and to enhance water self-cleaning processes. However, it was revealed that the question of landowner parcels fragmentation on drained land in CR would dramatically complicate design and realization of these measures. Presented solutions and findings are propounded with a respect to contemporary and future state policies and international strategies for sustainable agriculture, water management and environment.

  2. Phosphorus transport in agricultural subsurface drainage: a review.

    PubMed

    King, Kevin W; Williams, Mark R; Macrae, Merrin L; Fausey, Norman R; Frankenberger, Jane; Smith, Douglas R; Kleinman, Peter J A; Brown, Larry C

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields and watersheds has been an important water quality issue for decades because of the critical role P plays in eutrophication. Historically, most research has focused on P losses by surface runoff and erosion because subsurface P losses were often deemed to be negligible. Perceptions of subsurface P transport, however, have evolved, and considerable work has been conducted to better understand the magnitude and importance of subsurface P transport and to identify practices and treatments that decrease subsurface P loads to surface waters. The objectives of this paper were (i) to critically review research on P transport in subsurface drainage, (ii) to determine factors that control P losses, and (iii) to identify gaps in the current scientific understanding of the role of subsurface drainage in P transport. Factors that affect subsurface P transport are discussed within the framework of intensively drained agricultural settings. These factors include soil characteristics (e.g., preferential flow, P sorption capacity, and redox conditions), drainage design (e.g., tile spacing, tile depth, and the installation of surface inlets), prevailing conditions and management (e.g., soil-test P levels, tillage, cropping system, and the source, rate, placement, and timing of P application), and hydrologic and climatic variables (e.g., baseflow, event flow, and seasonal differences). Structural, treatment, and management approaches to mitigate subsurface P transport-such as practices that disconnect flow pathways between surface soils and tile drains, drainage water management, in-stream or end-of-tile treatments, and ditch design and management-are also discussed. The review concludes by identifying gaps in the current understanding of P transport in subsurface drains and suggesting areas where future research is needed. PMID:26023966

  3. Impact of dredging on dissolved phosphorus transport in agricultural drainage ditches of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches can be a key conduit of phosphorus (P) between agricultural soils of the Atlantic coastal plain and local surface waters, including the Chesapeake Bay. This study sought to quantify the effect of a common ditch management practice, sediment dredging, on fate of P in drainage ditches...

  4. Condensed research overview of agricultural drainage pipe detection and assessment using ground penetrating radar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural subsurface drainage practices are employed in many places throughout the world to remove excess water from soil, thereby improving crop production. In order to improve and evaluate the efficiency of these subsurface drainage systems, non-destructive methods are needed to not only locate...

  5. Ditch Drainage Management for Water Quality Improvement: Ditch Drainage Treatment Structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural productivity is often dependent on drainage ditches to remove excessive water from fields. Although such ditches can act to transport nutrients and other contaminants directly to surface waters, they also represent a potential interaction point in which runoff from non-point areas are ...

  6. Hydrologic Impact Of Subsurface Drainage Of Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, B. S.; Johannsen, C. J.; Bowling, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Although subsurface drainage has benefited agricultural productions in many regions of the U.S., there are also concerns about the potential impacts of these systems on watershed hydrology and water quality. This study was focused on tile lines identification and hydrologic response of subsurface drainage systems for the Agronomy Center for Research and Education (ACRE), West Lafayette, Indiana and the Southeastern Purdue Agriculture Center (SEPAC) in southeastern, Indiana. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate a remote sensing methodology for automatic detection of tile lines from aerial photographs and to evaluate the Distributed Hydrology Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to analyze the hydrologic response of tile drained fields. A step-wise approach was developed to first use different image enhancement techniques to increase the visual distinction of tile lines from other details in the image. A new classification model was developed to identify locations of subsurface tiles using a decision tree classifier which compares the multiple data sets such as enhanced image data, land use class, soil drainage class, hydrologic group and surface slope. Accuracy assessment of the predicted tile map was done by comparing the locations of tile drains with existing historic maps and ground-truth data. The overall performance of decision tree classifier model coupled with other pre- and post- classification methods shows that this model can be a very effective tool in identifying tile lines from aerial photographs over large areas of land. Once the tile map was created, the DHSVM was applied to ACRE and SEPAC respectively to see the hydrological impact of the subsurface drainage network. Observed data for 3-years (1998-2000) at ACRE and for 6-years (1993-1998) at SEPAC were used to calibrate and validate the model. The model was simulated for three scenarios: 1) baseline scenario (no tiles), 2) with known tile lines and 3) with tile lines created through

  7. Assessment of In-Stream Phosphorus Dynamics in Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intensive row crop agricultural systems in the Midwestern United States can enrich surface waters with nutrients. This project was conducted to evaluate the in-stream processing of P in agricultural ditches. Phosphorus injection studies were conducted at seven sites along three drainage ditches ...

  8. Agricultural Drainage Ditches Mitigate N and P Loads as a Function of Hydrological Variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities play a substantial role in non-point pollution of receiving waters. Several efforts to remediate pollution sources include constructed wetlands, buffer strips and best management practices. However, agricultural drainage ditches are primary intercept wetlands that have not be...

  9. Impacts of drainage water management on subsurface drain flow, nitrate concentration, and nitrate loads in Indiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drainage water management is a conservation practice that has the potential to reduce drainage outflow and nitrate (NO3) loss from agricultural fields while maintaining or improving crop yields. The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of drainage water management on dra...

  10. SIMULATING LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF DRAINAGE WATER MANAGEMENT ACROSS THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under conventional drainage (CVD), excess soil water in agricultural fields is allowed to drain freely through artificial subsurface drainage lines. In contrast, drainage water management (DWM) utilizes a control structure at the end of the lines to regulate drain flow by varying the depth of the d...

  11. Determining potential for microbial atrazine degradation in agricultural drainage ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Passage of agricultural runoff through vegetated drainage ditches has been shown to reduce the amount of pesticides, such as atrazine, exiting agricultural watersheds. Previous studies found that microbial communities in soil from fields treated with atrazine display enhanced rates of atrazine degr...

  12. Drainage Water Management for the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is an essential water management practice on many highly productive fields in the Midwest. However, nitrate carried in drainage water can lead to local water quality problems and contribute to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, so strategies are needed to reduce the nitrate load...

  13. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities within agricultural drainage ditches and streams of the Upper Big Walnut Creek watershed, Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches are headwater streams that have been modified or constructed for agricultural drainage. These modified streams are a common landscape feature in Ohio, and constitute 25% of stream habitat within the state. Management of ditches focuses on removing excess water from agricultural fiel...

  14. INNOVATIVE USES OF VEGETATED DRAINAGE DITCHES FOR REDUCING AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing concerns over agricultural contributions to water quality degradation have resulted in increased emphasis on discovering new, innovative best management practices (BMPs) to decrease effects of storm water runoff containing potential agricultural pollutants. Vegetated agricultural ditches pla...

  15. Illinois drainage water management demonstration project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary

  16. Chemical Status Of Selenium In Evaporation Basins For Disposal Of Agricultural Drainage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaporation basins (or ponds) are the most commonly used facilities to dispose selenium (Se)-laden agricultural drainage in the closed hydrologic basin portion of the San Joaquin Valley in California. However, there is a continuous concern on potential risk of Se in evaporation basin waters to water...

  17. Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution, and abundnance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek watershed, Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) require very good water quality, mature streams with riffle habitat, and high dissolved oxygen content. As such, they prove to be good indicators of ecological health in agricultural headwater streams. We conducted static renewal aquatic bioassays using water fro...

  18. Evaluating Ditch Drainage Control Structure for Mitigating Export of Nitrogen from Agricultural Fields in the Choptank River Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Choptank River watershed has an extensive network of agricultural drainage ditches that are significant pathways of nitrogen export from production fields and negatively impact water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. The use of controlled drainage structures on ditches to regulate water flow has b...

  19. Laboratory evaluation of porous iron composite for drainage water treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The removal of excess soil water with a subsurface drainage pipe system is a common agricultural practice employed to improve crop yields, especially in the Midwest U.S. However, fertilizer nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticides applied on farm fields will frequently leach downwards throug...

  20. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for drainage water phosphate treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphate released with agricultural subsurface drainage water can cause environmental degradation of downstream water bodies. On-site filter treatment with iron-based filter materials could potentially remove phosphate from drainage waters before these waters are discharged into local streams. Th...

  1. Vertical distribution of phosphorus in agricultural drainage ditch soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pedological processes such as gleization and organic matter accumulation may affect the vertical distribution of P within agricultural drainage ditch soils. The objective of this study was to assess the vertical distribution of P as a function of horizonation in ditch soils at the University of Mary...

  2. Internal hydraulics of an agricultural drainage denitrification bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification bioreactors to reduce the amount of nitrate-nitrogen in agricultural drainage are now being deployed across the U.S. Midwest. However, there are still many unknowns regarding internal hydraulic-driven processes in these "black box" engineered treatment systems. To improve this unders...

  3. Estimation of agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using land cover maps and county pesticide data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Wolock, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate agricultural pesticide use in the drainage basins of streams that are studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Drainage basin pesticide use estimates were computed by intersecting digital maps of drainage basin boundaries with an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Data 1992 combined with estimates of 1992 agricultural pesticide use in each United States county. This report presents the methods used to quantify agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using a GIS and includes the estimates of atrazine use applied to row crops, small-grain crops, and fallow lands in 150 watersheds in the conterminous United States. Basin atrazine use estimates are presented to compare and analyze the results that were derived from 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution land cover and county pesticide use data, and drainage basin boundaries at various grid cell resolutions. Comparisons of the basin atrazine use estimates derived from watershed boundaries, county pesticide use, and land cover data sets at different resolutions, indicated that overall differences were minor. The largest potential for differences in basin pesticide use estimates between those derived from the 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 exists wherever there are abrupt agricultural land cover changes along the basin divide. Despite the limitations of the drainage basin pesticide use data described in this report, the basin estimates provide consistent and comparable indicators of agricultural pesticide application in surface-water drainage basins studied in the NAWQA Program.

  4. Vegetation Changes and Partitioning of Selenium in 4-Year-Old Constructed Wetlands Treating Agricultural Drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The knowledge of vegetation management and the partitioning of selenium (Se) in treatment wetlands is essential for long-term effective operation of constructed wetlands treating Se-laden agricultural tile-drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Vegetation changes in six vegetated wetl...

  5. Evidence for the use of low-grade weirs in drainage ditches to improve nutrient reductions from agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential function of drainage ditches is to remove water from the agricultural landscape to avoid crop senescence through flooding and soil saturation. Commonly used slotted board risers provide drainage management strategies over the dormant season; however, by introducing innovative, low-gra...

  6. Separation of drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff episodes using the stable isotope method and drainage water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajíček, Antonín; Kvítek, Tomáš; Pomije, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Stabile isotopes of 2H 18O and drainage water temperature were used as natural tracers for separation rainfall-runoff event hydrograph on several tile drained catchments located in Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Small agricultural catchments with drainage systems built in slopes are typical for foothill areas in the Czech and Moravian highland. Often without permanent surface runoff, the drainage systems represent an important portion of runoff and nitrogen leaching out of the catchment. The knowledge of the drainage runoff formation and the origin of its components are prerequisites for formulation of measures leading to improvement of the drainage water quality and reduction of nutrient leaching from the drained catchments. The results have proved presence of event water in the drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff events. The proportion of event water observed in the drainage runoff varied between 15 - 60 % in the summer events and 0 - 50 % in winter events, while the sudden water temperature change was between 0,1 - 4,2 °C (2 - 35 %). The comparison of isotope separation of the drainage runoff and monitoring the drainage water temperature have demonstrated that in all cases of event water detected in the runoff, a rapid change in the drainage water temperature was observed as well. The portion of event water in the runoff grows with the growing change in water temperature. Using component mixing model, it was demonstrated that water temperature can be successfully used at least as a qualitative and with some degree of inaccuracy as a quantitative tracer as well. The drawback of the non-conservative character of this tracer is compensated by both its economic and technical accessibility. The separation results also resemble results of separations at small streams. Together with a similarly high speed of the discharge reaction to beginning of precipitation, it is obvious that the mechanism of surface runoff formation and drainage runoff formation

  7. Alfalfa production using saline drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year study investigated the use of saline (< 6 dS/m) drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant alfalfa in the presence of shallow saline groundwater. The irrigation treatments included; irrigating twice between cuttings with non-saline water, 2) irrigating with moderately saline water...

  8. Controlled drainage and wetlands to reduce agricultural pollution: a lysimetric study.

    PubMed

    Borin, M; Bonaiti, G; Giardini, L

    2001-01-01

    Controlled drainage and wetlands could be very effective practices to control nitrogen pollution in the low-lying agricultural plains of northeast Italy, but they are not as popular as in other countries. An experiment on lysimeters was therefore carried out in 1996-1998, with the double aim of obtaining local information to encourage the implementation of these practices and to gain more knowledge on the effects involved. Controlled drainage + subirrigation and wetlands were all considered as natural systems where alternative water table management could ameliorate water quality, and were compared with a typical water management scheme for crops in the open field. Eight treatments were considered: free drainage on maize (Zea mays L.) and sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), two treatments of controlled drainage on the same crops, and five wetland treatments using common reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.], common cattail (Typha latifolia L.), and tufted sedge (Carex elata All.), with different water table or flooding levels. Lysimeters received about 130 g m 2 of N with fertilization and irrigation water, with small differences among treatments. The effects of treatments were more evident for NO3-N concentrations than for the other chemical parameters (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, pH, and electrical conductivity), with significantly different medians among free drainage (33 mg L(-1)), controlled drainage (1.6 and 2.6 mg L(-1)), and wetlands (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)). Referring to free drainage, NO3-N losses were reduced by 46 to 63% in controlled drainage and 95% in the average of wetlands. Wetlands also reduced losses of total dissolved solids from 253 g m(-2) (average of crop treatments) to 175 g m(-2) (average of wetlands). PMID:11476512

  9. Detecting Subsurface Agricultural Tile Drainage using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhathoki, M.; Gokkaya, K.; Tank, J. L.; Christopher, S. F.; Hanrahan, B.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface tile drainage is a common practice in many of the row crop dominated agricultural lands in the Upper Midwest, which increases yield by making the soil more productive. It is reported that nearly half of all cropland in Indiana benefits from some sort of artificial drainage. However, subsurface tile has a significant negative impact on surface water quality by providing a fast means of transport for nutrients from fertilizers. Therefore, generating spatial data of tile drainage in the field is important and useful for agricultural landscape and hydrological studies. Subsurface tile drains in Indiana's croplands are not widely mapped. In this study, we will delineate subsurface tile drainage in agricultural land in Shatto Ditch watershed, located in Kosciusko County, Indiana. We will use geo-spatial methodology, which was purposed by earlier researchers to detect tile drainage. We will use aerial color-infrared and satellite imagery along with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. In order to map tile lines with possible accuracy, we will use GIS-based analysis in combination with remotely sensed data. This research will be comprised of three stages: 1) masking out the potential drainage area using a decision tree rule based on land cover information, soil drainage category, surface slope, and satellite image differencing technique, 2) delineate tile lines using image processing techniques, and 3) check the accuracy of mapped tile lines with ground control points. To our knowledge, this study will be the first to check the accuracy of mapping with ground truth data. Based on the accuracy of results, we will extend the methodology to greater spatial scales. The results are expected to contribute to better characterizing and controlling water pollution sources in Indiana, which is a major environmental problem.

  10. Nutrient Mitigation Efficiency in Agricultural Drainage Ditches: An Influence of Landscape Management.

    PubMed

    Iseyemi, Oluwayinka O; Farris, Jerry L; Moore, Matthew T; Choi, Seo-Eun

    2016-06-01

    Drainage systems are integral parts of agricultural landscapes and have the ability to intercept nutrient loading from runoff to surface water. This study investigated nutrient removal efficiency within replicated experimental agricultural drainage ditches during a simulated summer runoff event. Study objectives were to examine the influence of routine mowing of vegetated ditches on nutrient mitigation and to assess spatial transformation of nutrients along ditch length. Both mowed and unmowed ditch treatments decreased NO3 (-)-N by 79 % and 94 % and PO4 (3-) by 95 % and 98 %, respectively, with no significant difference in reduction capacities between the two treatments. This suggests occasional ditch mowing as a management practice would not undermine nutrient mitigation capacity of vegetated drainage ditches. PMID:27022936

  11. AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE PIPE DETECTION USING GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the efficiency of soil water removal on farmland that already contains a functioning subsurface drainage system often requires reducing the average spacing distance between drain lines. This is typically accomplished by installing new drain lines between the older ones. However, before th...

  12. Mine Drainage and Oil Sand Water.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinchao; Wolfe, F Andrew; Li, Yanjun

    2015-10-01

    Mine drainage from the mining of mineral resources (coal, metals, oil sand, or industrial minerals) remains as a persistent environmental problem. This review summarizes the scientific literature published in 2014 on the technical issues related to mine drainage or mine water in active and abandoned coal/hard rock mining sites or waste spoil piles. Also included in this review is the water from oil sand operations. This review is divided into the four sections: 1) mine drainage characterization, 2) prediction and environmental impact, 3) treatment technologies, 4) oil sand water. Many papers presented in this review address more than one aspect and different sections should not be regarded as being mutuallyexclusive or all-inclusive. PMID:26420092

  13. Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage: the need for regulation.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A D

    1993-04-01

    Subsurface drainage resulting from irrigated agriculture is a toxic threat to fish and wildlife resources throughout the western United States. Studies by the U.S. Department of the Interior show that migratory waterfowl have been poisoned by drainwater contaminants on at least six national wildlife refuges. Allowing this poisoning to continue is a violation of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act under U.S. Federal law. Critical wetlands and waterfowl populations are threatened in both the Pacific and Central flyways. The public is also at risk and health warnings have been issued in some locations. Subsurface irrigation drainage is a complex effluent containing toxic concentrations of trace elements, salts, and nitrogenous compounds. Some of the contaminants are classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants and they can be present in concentrations that exceed EPA's criteria for toxic waste. The on-farm drainage systems used to collect and transport this wastewater provide point-source identification as well as a mechanism for toxics control through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit process. A four-step approach is presented for dealing with irrigation drainage in an environmentally sound manner. This regulatory strategy is very similar to those commonly used for industrial discharges and includes site evaluation, contaminant reduction through NPDES, and compliance monitoring. The EPA must recognize subsurface irrigation drainage as a specific class of pollution subject to regulation under the NPDES process. Active involvement by EPA is necessary to ensure that adequate controls on this wastewater are implemented. PMID:8484025

  14. Use of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches to decrease pesticide transport from tomato and alfalfa fields in California, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation and storm water runoff from agricultural fields has the potential to cause impairment to downstream aquatic receiving systems. Over the last several years, scientists have discovered the benefit of using edge-of-field practices, such as vegetated agricultural drainage ditches, in the mit...

  15. VEGETATION AND ALGAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THREE CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS RECEIVING AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF AND SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE, 1998 TO 2001

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) aim to reduce non-point source pollution from agricultural fields while maintaining crop yield and creating wetland wildlife habitat. The WRSIS system directs drainage water from agricultural fields to flow into a passively revegetated constructed wetl...

  16. A dynamic model of soil salinity and drainage generation in irrigated agriculture: A framework for policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinar, Ariel; Aillery, Marcel P.; Moore, Michael R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of irrigated agriculture that accounts for drainage generation and salinity accumulation. Critical model relationships involving crop production, soil salinity, and irrigation drainage are based on newly estimated functions derived from lysimeter field tests. The model allocates land and water inputs over time based on an intertemporal profit maximization objective function and soil salinity accumulation process. The model is applied to conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, where environmental degradation from irrigation drainage has become a policy issue. Findings indicate that in the absence of regulation, drainage volumes increase over time before reaching a steady state as increased quantities of water are allocated to leaching soil salts. The model is used to evaluate alternative drainage abatement scenarios involving drainage quotas and taxes, water supply quotas and taxes, and irrigation technology subsidies. In our example, direct drainage policies are more cost-effective in reducing drainage than policies operating indirectly through surface water use, although differences in cost efficiency are relatively small. In some cases, efforts to control drainage may result in increased soil salinity accumulation, with implications for long-term cropland productivity. While policy adjustments may alter the direction and duration of convergence to a steady state, findings suggest that a dynamic model specification may not be necessary due to rapid convergence to a comon steady state under selected scenarios.

  17. Dynamics of nitrate and chloride during storm events in agricultural catchments with different subsurface drainage intensity (Indiana, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Casey D.; Bataille, Clement; Liu, Zhongfang; Ale, Srinivasulu; VanDeVelde, Justin; Roswell, Charles R.; Bowling, Laura C.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryDrainage tiles buried beneath many naturally poorly drained agricultural fields in the Midwestern U.S. are believed to "short circuit" pools of NO3--laden soil water and shallow groundwater directly into streams that eventually discharge to the Mississippi River. Although much is known about the mechanisms controlling this regionally pervasive practice of artificial drainage at the field-plot scale, an integrative assessment of the effect of drainage density (i.e., the number of tile drains per unit area) on the transport of nutrients and solutes in streams at the catchment scale is lacking. In this study, we quantified the flux and hydrological pathways of agricultural NO3- and road-salt Cl- from catchments lying within the Wabash River Basin, a major source of NO3- to the Mississippi River. The paired catchments differ primarily in drainage density (70% vs. 31%, by catchment area), with essentially all other agricultural management, land use, and soil drainage characteristics remaining equal. Our study revealed two significant hydrological responses to increased drainage density: (1) more near-surface storm event water (dilute in both NO3- and Cl) was transported early in the storm and (2) higher transport of Cl--laden pre-event soil water relative to shallow groundwater elevated in NO3- occurred later in the storm. These patterns are consistent with a proposed conceptual model in which increased drainage density results in (1) greater transport of soil water to streams and (2) a delayed rise in the water table. With respect to nutrient management implications, these results indicate that increased drainage density impacts subsurface pools of Cl- and NO3- differently, a finding that we propose is linked to soil/ground water dynamics in artificially drained agricultural catchments.

  18. Subsurface drainage volume reduction with drainage water management: Case studies in Ohio, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the main contributors to poor water quality in the Mississippi River and aeral increase in the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is intensive drainage of the cropland within the watershed. Controlled drainage has been demonstrated as an approach to curb totla drainage outflow and nutrient di...

  19. Influence of subsurface drainage on quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter export from agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalzell, Brent J.; King, Jennifer Y.; Mulla, David J.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Sands, Gary R.

    2011-06-01

    Despite its importance for aquatic ecosystem function and watershed carbon budgets, little is known about how land use influences dissolved organic matter (DOM) export. We investigated the influence of subsurface soil drainage, widespread in the Midwestern United States, on DOM export from agricultural fields designed to drain water at either 13 mm d-1 (conventional) or 51 mm d-1 (intense). Intense drainage exported 55% (±22%) more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) per year than conventional drainage due to both increased concentration and water yield. DOC export from plots was strongly dependent on precipitation and showed considerable interannual variability. Mean DOC concentrations in drainage water were low (1.62 and 1.87 mg L-1 for conventional and intense treatments), and fluorescence index (FI) measurements showed that it had a microbial source with little evidence of terrestrially derived material, suggesting that flow through deeper, organic-poor soil horizons is important in regulating DOC export from these plots. We compared DOM in subsurface drains with downstream ditch and stream sites. Increases in DOC concentration and molecular weight accompanied by decreasing FI values at downstream sites showed that streams gain a large amount of terrestrially derived DOM during base flow transport through agricultural landscapes, probably from riparian zones. These results show that DOM compositional characteristics change with catchment area and that the relevant observation scale for DOM dynamics is likely to vary among watersheds. This study also demonstrates that land management practices can directly affect DOC via changes to water flow paths. These results are critical for improving model estimates of DOM export from agricultural landscapes as well as predicting how DOC export will respond to changing land use and climate.

  20. Considerations for assessments of wadable drainage systems in the agriculturally dominated deltas of Arkansas and Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Stephens, W W; Moore, M T; Farris, J L; Bouldin, J L; Cooper, C M

    2008-10-01

    The watershed approach, currently used to assess regional streams in the United States, emphasizes least-disturbed reference conditions. Consideration of extensive wadable drainage systems found in Arkansas and Mississippi deltas challenges concepts of disturbance within a landscape of historic agricultural land use. Seventeen wadable drainage ditch sites in Arkansas and Mississippi deltas were characterized using water quality parameters and rapid bioassessment protocols. In all, 19 fish and 105 macroinvertebrate taxa were identified. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by coleopteran, dipteran, and hemipteran taxa at most drainage sites. Predominance of mobile, early colonists in ditches limits applicability of some metrics for assessment of stream integrity beyond prevalent conditions of ephemeral water quantity and habitat maintenance. This study provides evidence of considerable variability of physical characteristics, water quality, and fish and invertebrate metrics in wadable drainage systems. It indicates a disparity in usefulness of the watershed approach, emphasizing least-disturbed reference conditions, in assessing ecological integrity for a region with ditches as dominant landscape features. PMID:18305980

  1. A GPR agricultural drainage pipe detection case study: Effects of antenna orientation relative to drainage pipe directional trend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locating buried drainage pipes is a difficult task confronting farmers and land improvement contractors, especially in the Midwest U.S., where the removal of excess soil water using subsurface drainage systems is a common farm practice. Enhancing the efficiency of soil water removal on land containi...

  2. Effect of subsurface drainage on streamflow in an agricultural headwater watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial drainage, also known as subsurface or tile drainage is paramount to sustaining crop production agriculture in the poorly-drained, humid regions of the world. Hydrologic assessments of individual plots and fields with tile drainage are becoming common; however, a major void exists in our u...

  3. Arsenic Speciation and Accumulation In Evapoconcentrating Waters Of Agricultural Evaporation Basins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To sustain agricultural productivity, evaporation basins (or ponds) have been widely used for the disposal of agricultural drainage in areas requiring subsurface drainage in the San Joaquin Valley of California, USA. The drainage water contains elevated concentration of trace elements including sele...

  4. Equations for drainage component of the field water balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of the drainage component of the field water balance are needed to achieve improved management of drainage in irrigated crop production systems and obtain improved estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) from soil water measurements. Estimating drainage for numerous soil and field co...

  5. Phosphorus dynamics within agricultural drainage ditches in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive phosphorus loading from fertilizers in agriculture results in enriched runoff and downstream freshwater and saltwater aquatic system eutrophication. This study evaluated phosphorus dynamics in agricultural drainage ditches across eight sites within the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LM...

  6. Achieving Long-Term Protection of Water Quality of Grand Lake St. Marys Through Implementation of Conservation Practices and Control of Phosphorus Input from Agricultural Drainage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM), a 13,000 acre lake in northwestern Ohio, is experiencing toxic levels of algal blooms resulting primarily from phosphorus input from agricultural runoff. The algal blooms are so severe that the Ohio Department of Natural Resources advised against any...

  7. Biotransformation and accumulation of selenium inside organisms in an engineered aquatic ecosystem designed for bioremediation of Se from agriculture drainage water and brine shrimp production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive selenium (Se) in soils and waters present in the westside of central California was determined to be responsible for ecotoxicities observed in water fowl frequenting large bodies of water, i.e., evaporation ponds. In order to monitor the fate and potentially design an aquatic Se remediatio...

  8. Transport of tylosin and tylosin-resistance genes in subsurface drainage water from manured fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal agriculture appears to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, but few studies have quantified gene transport in agricultural fields. The transport of tylosin, tylosin-resistance genes (erm B, F, A) and tylosin-resistant Enterococcus were measured in tile drainage water from ...

  9. Filtering Phosphorus and Heavy Metals from Ditch Drainage Water Using Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High phosphorus (P) concentrations in drainage from agricultural lands that flows to the Chesapeake Bay contribute to impairment of water quality. Byproducts that effectively sorb P have been applied to soils and animal manure to reduce dissolved P losses in runoff from agricultural soils. Such mate...

  10. Phosphorus transport in agricultural subsurface drainage: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields and watersheds has been an important water quality issue for decades because of the critical role P plays in eutrophication. Historically, most research focused on P losses by surface runoff and erosion because subsurface P losses were often deemed to be ...

  11. Short-term sustainability of drainage water reuse: Spatio-temporal impacts on soil chemical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greater urban demand for finite water resources, increased frequency of drought resulting from erratic weather, and increased pressure to reduce drainage water volumes have intensified the scrutiny of water used for irrigated agriculture in arid zones throughout the world. A study was initiated in ...

  12. Algal-bacterial treatment facility removes selenium from drainage water

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Lundquist, Tryg J.; Green, F. Bailey; Zarate, Max A.; Oswald, William J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2000-01-25

    A demonstration algal-bacterial selenium removal (ABSR) facility has been treating agricultural drainage water in the Panoche Drainage District on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley since 1997. The project goals are to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ABSR technology for selenium removal, to investigate potential wildlife exposure to selenium at full-scale facilities, and to develop an operational plant configuration that will minimize the life-cycle cost for each pound of selenium removed. The facility consists of a series of ponds designed to promote native microorganisms that remove nitrate and selenium. Previous treatment research efforts sought to reduce selenium concentrations to less than 5 mu g/L, but the ABSR Facility demonstration focuses on providing affordable reduction of the selenium load that is discharged to the San Joaquin River. During 1997 and 1998, the best-performing ABSR plant configuration reduced nitrate by more than 95 percent and reduced total soluble selenium mass by 80 percent. Ongoing investigations focus on optimizing operational parameters and determining operational costs and scale-up engineering requirements. The preliminary total cost estimate for a 10-acre-foot per day ABSR facility is less than $200 per acre-foot of treated drainage water.

  13. Simulating the Effects of Drainage and Agriculture on Hydrology and Sediment in the Minnesota River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, C. W.; Pradhan, N. R.; Skahill, B. E.; Banitt, A. M.; Eggers, G.; Pickett, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Midwest region of the United States, slopes are relatively flat, soils tend to have low permeability, and local water tables are high. In order to make the region suitable for agriculture, farmers have installed extensive networks of ditches to drain off excess surface water and subsurface tiles to lower the water table and remove excess soil water in the root zone that can stress common row crops, such as corn and soybeans. The combination of tiles, ditches, and intensive agricultural land practices radically alters the landscape and hydrology. Within the watershed, tiles have outlets to both the ditch/stream network as well as overland locations, where the tile discharge appears to initiate gullies and exacerbate overland erosion. As part of the Minnesota River Basin Integrated Study we are explicitly simulating the tile and drainage systems in the watershed at multiple scales using the physics-based watershed model GSSHA (Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis). The tile drainage system is simulated as a network of pipes that collect water from the local water table. Within the watershed, testing of the methods on smaller basins shows the ability of the model to simulate tile flow, however, application at the larger scale is hampered by the computational burden of simulating the flow in the complex tile drain networks that drain the agricultural fields. Modeling indicates the subsurface drains account for approximately 40% of the stream flow in the Seven Mile Creek sub-basin account in the late spring and early summer when the tile is flowing. Preliminary results indicate that agricultural tile drains increase overland erosion in the Seven Mile Creek watershed.

  14. Effects of land use and geohydrology on the quality of shallow ground water in two agricultural areas in the western Lake Michigan drainages, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, David A.

    1997-01-01

     Estimated recharge dates showed that historic patterns of atrazine plus deethyl atrazine concentrations in ground water mimic historic patterns of atrazine use on corn. Concentrations in ground water that recharged prior to the early 1960s, when atrazine started to become widely used on corn in Wisconsin, were very low or not detectable. As atrazine use on corn steadily increased from the late 1960s to the late 1970s and early 1980s, detectable concentrations of atrazine plus deethyl atrazine in ground water became more common. The recharge dates of some of the highest measured concentrations of atrazine plus ethyl atrazine in ground water from both study areas correspond to the period of highest atrazine use on corn within the State.

  15. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-08-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is required to sustain most modern crop production, but it poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is essential for introducing water management actions on-field or off-field and producing an optimal differentiated N-regulation in future. This study strives to provide such knowledge by evaluating on 11 years of nitrate-N concentration measurements in drainage from three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha) representing approximately 71 % of the surface sediments in Denmark dominated by clay. The fields differ in their inherent hydrogeological field settings (e.g. soil-type, geology, climate, drainage and groundwater table) and the agricultural management of the fields (e.g. crop type, type of N fertilisers and agricultural practices). The evaluation revealed three types of clayey till fields characterised by: (i) low net precipitation, high concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term low intensity drainage at air temperatures often below 5 °C; (ii) medium net precipitation, medium concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term medium-intensity drainage at air temperatures often above 5 °C; and (iii) high net precipitation, low concentration of nitrate-N and long-term high intensity drainage at air temperatures above 5 °C. For each type, on-field water management actions, such as the selection of crop types and introduction of catch crops, appeared relevant, whereas off-field actions only seemed relevant for the latter two field types given the temperature-dependent reduction potential of nitrate off-field. This initial well-documented field-scale knowledge from fields

  16. Use of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches to decrease pesticide transport from tomato and alfalfa fields in California: runoff toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to investigate the potential of vegetated drainage ditches for mitigating the impact of agricultural irrigation runoff on downstream aquatic ecosystems. Water column toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was measured for ...

  17. In situ bacterial selenate reduction in the agricultural drainage systems of western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Steinberg, N.A.; Presser, T.S.; Miller, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    Dissimilatory in situ selenate reduction to elemental selenium in sediments from irrigated agricultural drainage regions of western Nevada was measured at ambient Se oxyanion concentrations. Selenate reduction was rapid, with turnover rate constants ranging from 0.04 to 1.8 h-1 at total Se concentrations in pore water of 13 to 455 nM. Estimates of removal rates of selenium oxyanions were 14, 38, and 155 ??mol m-2 day-1 for South Lead Lake, Massie Slough, and Hunter Drain, respectively.

  18. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  19. Water Drainage from Unsaturated Soils in a Centrifuge Permeameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornelas, G.; McCartney, J.; Zhang, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study involves an analysis of water drainage from an initially saturated silt layer in a centrifuge permeameter to evaluate the hydraulic properties of the soil layer in unsaturated conditions up to the point where the water phase becomes discontinuous. These properties include the soil water retention curve (SWRC) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). The hydraulic properties of unsaturated silt are used in soil-atmosphere interaction models that take into account the role of infiltration and evaporation of water from soils due to atmospheric interaction. These models are often applied in slope stability analyses, landfill cover design, aquifer recharge analyses, and agricultural engineering. The hydraulic properties are also relevant to recent research concerning geothermal heating and cooling, as they can be used to assess the insulating effects of soil around underground heat exchangers. This study employs a high-speed geotechnical centrifuge to increase the self-weight of a compacted silt specimen atop a filter plate. Under a centrifuge acceleration of N times earth's gravity, the concept of geometric similitude indicates that the water flow process in a small-scale soil layer will be similar to those in a soil layer in the field that is N times thicker. The centrifuge acceleration also results in an increase in the hydraulic gradient across the silt specimen, which causes water to flow out of the pores following Darcy's law. The drainage test was performed until the rate of liquid water flow out of the soil layer slowed to a negligible level, which corresponds to the transition point at which further water flow can only occur due to water vapor diffusion following Fick's law. The data from the drainage test in the centrifuge were used to determine the SWRC and HCF at different depths in the silt specimen, which compared well with similar properties defined using other laboratory tests. The transition point at which liquid water flow stopped (and

  20. VEGETATION DEVELOPMENT OF THREE CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS RECEIVING AGRICULTURAL RUN-OFF AND SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Case studies of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation development in three constructed wetlands receiving agricultural drainage were conducted. Surveys were completed on three Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation System (WRSIS) constructed wetlands located in Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert counties in north...

  1. Assessment of drainage water quality in pre- and post-irrigation seasons for supplemental irrigation use.

    PubMed

    Alexakis, Dimitris; Gotsis, Dimitris; Giakoumakis, Spyros

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on hydrochemistry is very important to assess the quality of water for effective management of water resources or drainage water reuse. On this basis, an assessment of water quality was conducted in the Agoulinitsa district in Peloponnese (western Greece). Both drainage and irrigation channel water samples have been collected, treated, and subjected to chemical analysis. A characterization has been carried out using the Piper-trilinear diagram. Assessment of the water samples from the point of view of sodium adsorption ratio, Na(+)%, and residual sodium carbonate indicated that 60.0% and 83.3% of the drainage water samples during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples, are chemically suitable for irrigation use. Moreover, assessment of the water samples by comparing quality parameters with the Food and Agriculture Organization guidelines indicated that 20.0% and 44.4% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples could cause slight to moderate problems to the plants. On the other hand, 80.0% and 55.6% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, could cause immediate development of severe problems to the plants growth. PMID:21915601

  2. Effectiveness of oat and rye cover crops in reducing nitrate losses in drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant portion of the NO3 from agricultural fields that contaminates surface waters in the Midwest Corn Belt is transported to streams or rivers by subsurface drainage systems or “tiles”. Previous research has shown that N fertilizer management alone is not sufficient for reducing NO3 concent...

  3. Using RZWQM-DSSAT to Stimulate Drainage Water Management Across the United States Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the surface water bodies of the Mississippi River basin have resulted from the widespread practice of subsurface drainage in agricultural systems throughout the region. Also, hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico has been linked directly to the transport of ni...

  4. Storm water management: Potential for lower cost & more benefits if farmers & municipalities cooperate on tile drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common approach to protect communities from the ravages of stream flooding is to construct storm water retention basins upstream from the property to be protected. Retention basins are an expensive solution and often take valuable agricultural land out of production. Improved drainage of agricultu...

  5. Investigation of denitrifying microbe communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a potential best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. This study examined microbe community abundance and diversity involved in den...

  6. Runoff and drainage losses of atrazine, metribuzin, and metolachlor in three water management systems.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, J D; Tan, C S; Drury, C F; Welacky, T W; Ng, H Y F; Reynolds, W D

    2002-01-01

    Rainfall can transport herbicides from agricultural land to surface waters, where they become an environmental concern. Tile drainage can benefit crop production by removing excess soil water but tile drainage may also aggravate herbicide and nutrient movement into surface waters. Water management of tile drains after planting may reduce tile drainage and thereby reduce herbicide losses to surface water. To test this hypothesis we calculated the loss of three herbicides from a field with three water management systems: free drainage (D), controlled drainage (CD), and controlled drainage with subsurface irrigation (CDS). The effect of water management systems on the dissipation of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), metribuzin [4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazine-5(4H)-one), and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] in soil was also monitored. Less herbicide was lost by surface runoff from the D and CD treatments than from CDS. The CDS treatment increased surface runoff, which transported more herbicide than that from D or CD treatments. In one year, the time for metribuzin residue to dissipate to half its initial value was shorter for CDS (33 d) than for D (43 d) and CD (46 d). The half-life of atrazine and metolachlor were not affected by water management. Controlled drainage with subsurface irrigation may increase herbicide loss through increased surface runoff when excessive rain is received soon after herbicide application. However, increasing soil water content in CDS may decrease herbicide persistence, resulting in less residual herbicide available for aqueous transport. PMID:11841063

  7. Decreasing nitrate-N loads to coastal ecosystems with innovative drainage management strategies in agricultural landscapes: An experimental approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled drainage in agricultural ditches contributes to a drainage management strategy with potential environmental and production benefits. Innovative drainage strategies including spatially orientated low-grade weirs show promise to significantly improve nutrient (e.g. nitrate-N) reductions by...

  8. Coupled modelling of the effect of overpressure on water discharge in a tile drainage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henine, H.; Nédélec, Y.; Ribstein, P.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of subsurface drainage on agricultural catchment outflow has been debated for quite some time. Concerning downstream peak flow, it is a complex task to predict the impact of agricultural drainage because different flow media are involved: the soil, pipe drainage networks and open channel networks. In France, drain pipes are designed to operate under a free-surface flow condition. Nevertheless, during intense rainfall events, some pipe sections may flow under pressurised conditions, so that a complex interaction between pipe networks and groundwater flows appears in the vicinity of these sections. In this paper, an integrated modelling strategy is considered in order to analyse these flow interactions. A 1D Saint-Venant network model is combined with a 2D Boussinesq shallow groundwater flow model by means of special internal boundary conditions which take into account the flow interactions. This study follows field experiments conducted in a small subsurface drained catchment, where drainage discharge and pressure heads were monitored in a buried pipe collector and water table profiles were monitored in the field. The simulation results of the coupled model are in good agreement with experimental observations. Moreover, it satisfactorily simulates the behaviour of the drainage system during the pressurisation stages. The model is also applied to a scenario addressing the effect of pressurisation, as compared to non-pressurisation, at the outlet. The coupled model reveals the relation existing between pipe pressurisation and hydrograph timing. Pipe pressurisation results in temporary storage of discharging water, which is released later when pressurisation stops.

  9. RESPONSE OF SKINNER LAKE (INDIANA) TO AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    During 1976-1981, various land management practices were initiated on the agricultural watershed of Skinner Lake in Noble County, Indiana. Land treatment practices implemented on the watershed were chosen from the data and experience gained from the nonpoint source pollution stud...

  10. Long-term monitoring of nitrate-N transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is necessary to sustain most modern crop production, but poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is imperative if there is to be differentiated N-regulation in future. This study describes nitrate-N leaching to drainage based on coherent monitoring of nitrate-N concentrations, the climate, the groundwater table and crop-specific parameters obtained over eleven years (2001-2011) at three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha). The monitoring results showed significant field differences in nitrate-N transport to drainage. Not only were these caused by periods of bare soil after short-season crops and N-fixing crops (pea), which have been shown to generate high nitrate-N concentrations in drainage, but by the hydrogeological field conditions that were shown to be the controlling factor of nitrate-N transport to drainage. The fields had the following characteristics: (A) the lowest mass transport (13 kg N ha-1) and fertiliser input had short-term and low-intensity drainage with the highest nitrate-N concentrations detected, representing 40% of net precipitation (226 mm) combined with low air temperatures, (B) the medium mass transport (14 kg N ha-1) had medium-term and medium-intensity drainage, representing 42% of net precipitation (471 mm) combined with periods of both low and higher air temperatures, (C) the highest mass transport (19 kg N ha-1) had long-term drainage, representing 68% of net precipitation (617 mm), but had the highest potential for in-situ soil denitrification and post-treatment (e.g. constructed wetlands) due to long periods with both high water

  11. Contrasting nutrient mitigation and denitrification potential of agricultural drainage environments with different emergent aquatic macrophytes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remediation of excess nitrogen (N) in agricultural runoff can be enhanced by establishing wetland vegetation but the role of denitrification in N removal is not well understood in drainage ditches. We quantified differences in N retention during experimental runoff events followed by stagnant period...

  12. Fishes in drainage ditches: what does it mean for the management of agricultural watersheds?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on how conservation practices influence the biota within agricultural drainage ditches is limited. We are evaluating fish-habitat relationships within ditches in Indiana and Ohio to gain an understanding of the potential impacts of conservation practices. Our results suggest that practic...

  13. Drainage water quality and end-member identification in La Violada irrigation district (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidoro, D.; Quílez, D.; Aragüés, R.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThe identification of the different components in a water course is required to individualize and assess the actual contribution of irrigated agriculture to the pollution of the water course. This paper aimed at identifying and assessing the composition of the end-members in La Violada irrigation district (VID) and establishing a statistical procedure to reduce the sampling effort needed to establish drainage water quality. The quality of irrigation water, groundwater, and irrigated-land drainage water in VID was monitored during three hydrologic years to identify the components of flow in La Violada Gully, the natural exit course of VID. A network of sampling points in the secondary ditches and main drains of VID allowed identifying and separating those collecting irrigated-land drainage waters from those conveying high proportions of irrigation waters. Three end-member flows were identified in La Violada Gully during the irrigation season: (a) irrigation water arising from tail-waters, leakages and spills from the irrigation canals, very low in salts; (b) groundwater originating from the non-irrigated upper reaches of La Violada Gully watershed, high in Cl - and Na +; and (c) VID drainage water, high in SO42- and Ca 2+. The overall VID drainage water quality was accurately assessed through a simplified sampling scheme of only four sampling points that produced low errors of 0.1 dS/m for EC and 0.1 mmol c/L for Cl -. The separation of La Violada Gully flow in these three components is essential for estimating the actual contribution of irrigation in VID to the salt and nitrogen loads in La Violada Gully.

  14. Effectiveness of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches in mitigating insecticide loadings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have shown that runoff and spray-drift are important sources of nonpoint-source insecticide pollution of surface waters. Owing to this, public concern over the presence of insecticides in surface and ground water has resulted in intensive scientific efforts to find economical, yet environmen...

  15. The feasibility of applying immature yard-waste compost to remove nitrate from agricultural drainage effluents: A preliminary assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.; Krapac, I.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate is a major agricultural pollutant found in drainage waters. Immature yard-waste compost was selected as a filter media to study its feasibility for removing nitrate from drainage water. Different operation parameters were tested to examine the denitrification efficiency, including the amounts of compost packed in columns, the flow rate, and the compost storage periods. The experimental results suggested that hydraulic retention time was the major factor to determine the extent of nitrate removal, although the amount of compost packed could also contribute to the nitrate removal efficiency. The effluent nitrate concentration increased as the flow rate decreased, and the compost column reduced nitrate concentrations from 20 mg/L to less than 5 mg/L within 1.5 h. The solution pH increased at the onset of experiment because of denitrification, but stabilized at a pH of about 7.8, suggesting that the compost had a buffering capacity to maintain a suitable pH for denitrification. Storing compost under air-dried conditions may diminish the extent nitrate removed initially, but the effects were not apparent after longer applications. It appeared that immature yard-waste compost may be a suitable material to remove nitrate from tile drainage water because of its relatively large organic carbon content, high microbial activity, and buffering capacity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of particulates on phosphorus loading exported from farm drainage during a storm event in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of particulates on P loading captured during a single storm event. The Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida comprises 280,000 hectares of organic soil farmland artificially drained by ditches, canals and pumps. Phosphorus (P)-enriched suspended particulates in canals are susceptible to transport and can contribute significantly to the overall P loads in drainage water. A settling tank experiment was conducted to capture particulates during tropical storm Isaac in 2012 from three farms approximately 2.4 to 3.6 km2 in size. Farm canal discharge water was collected in a series of two 200 liter settling tanks over a seven-day drainage period, during tropical storm Isaac. Water from the settling tanks was siphoned through Imhoff settling cones, where the particulates were allowed to settle and collected for P-fractionation analyses, and compared to intact sediment cores collected from the bottom of the canals. The discharged particulates contained higher organic matter content (OM), total P, and labile P fractions compared to the canal bottom sediments. Based on the equilibrium P concentrations, surface sediments behave as a source of P to the water column. A seven-day continuous drainage event exported 4.7 to 11.1 metric tons of suspended solids per farm, corresponding to 32 to 63 kg of particulate P being lost to downstream ecosystems. Drainage associated to a single seven-day storm event exported up to 61% of the total annual farm P load. It is evident from this study that short-term, high-intensity storm events can skew annual P loads due to the export of significantly higher particulate matter from farm canals. Exported particulates rich in P can provide a supplemental source of nutrients if captured and replenished back into the farmlands, as a sustainable farming practice.

  17. Phosphorus in drainage waters of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain region has had a long history of experimental and applied efforts to exclude phosphorus (P) from drainage waters. Early research focusing upon the chemical controls of soil and sediment P has given way to field studies aimed at refining our understanding of hydrologic path...

  18. Integrated irrigation and drainage water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from several research projects conducted in the 1990's are summarized in this manuscript. The first projects are irrigation studies that evaluated the impact of pre-plant irrigation water on crop water use and deep percolation losses. The results showed significant losses with pre-plant ir...

  19. High frequency monitoring of water fluxes and nutrient loads to assess the effects of controlled drainage on water storage and nutrient transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozemeijer, J. C.; Visser, A.; Borren, W.; Winegram, M.; van der Velde, Y.; Klein, J.; Broers, H. P.

    2015-06-01

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes from upstream agriculture threaten aquatic ecosystems in surface waters and estuaries, especially in areas characterized by high agricultural N and P inputs and densely drained catchments like the Netherlands. Controlled drainage has been recognized as an effective option to optimize soil moisture conditions for agriculture and to reduce unnecessary losses of fresh water and nutrients. We designed a small scale (1 ha) field experiment to investigate the hydrological and chemical changes after introducing controlled drainage. Precipitation rates and the response of water tables and drain fluxes were measured in the periods before the introduction of controlled drainage (2007-2008) and after (2009-2011). For the N and P concentration measurements, we combined auto-analysers for continuous records with passive samplers for time-average concentrations at individual drain outlets. Our experimental setup yielded continuous time series for all relevant hydrological and chemical parameters, which enabled us to quantify changes in the field water and solute balance after introducing controlled drainage. We concluded that controlled drainage reduced the drain discharge and increased the groundwater storage in the field. The introduction of controlled drainage did not have clear positive effects on nutrient losses to surface water.

  20. Seasonal Patterns in Microbial Community Composition in Denitrifying Bioreactors Treating Subsurface Agricultural Drainage.

    PubMed

    Porter, Matthew D; Andrus, J Malia; Bartolerio, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Luis F; Zhang, Yuanhui; Zilles, Julie L; Kent, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors, consisting of water flow control structures and a woodchip-filled trench, are a promising approach for removing nitrate from agricultural subsurface or tile drainage systems. To better understand the seasonal dynamics and the ecological drivers of the microbial communities responsible for denitrification in these bioreactors, we employed microbial community "fingerprinting" techniques in a time-series examination of three denitrifying bioreactors over 2 years, looking at bacteria, fungi, and the denitrifier functional group responsible for the final step of complete denitrification. Our analysis revealed that microbial community composition responds to depth and seasonal variation in moisture content and inundation of the bioreactor media, as well as temperature. Using a geostatistical analysis approach, we observed recurring temporal patterns in bacterial and denitrifying bacterial community composition in these bioreactors, consistent with annual cycling. The fungal communities were more stable, having longer temporal autocorrelations, and did not show significant annual cycling. These results suggest a recurring seasonal cycle in the denitrifying bioreactor microbial community, likely due to seasonal variation in moisture content. PMID:25910602

  1. Subsidence Rates of Drained Agricultural Peatlands in New Zealand and the Relationship with Time since Drainage.

    PubMed

    Pronger, Jack; Schipper, Louis A; Hill, Reece B; Campbell, David I; McLeod, Malcolm

    2014-07-01

    The drainage and conversion of peatlands to productive agro-ecosystems leads to ongoing surface subsidence because of densification (shrinkage and consolidation) and oxidation of the peat substrate. Knowing the ra0te of this surface subsidence is important for future land-use planning, carbon accounting, and economic analysis of drainage and pumping costs. We measured subsidence rates over the past decade at 119 sites across three large, agriculturally managed peatlands in the Waikato region, New Zealand. The average contemporary (2000s-2012) subsidence rate for Waikato peatlands was 19 ± 2 mm yr (± SE) and was significantly less ( = 0.01) than the historic rate of 26 ± 1 mm yr between the 1920s and 2000s. A reduction in the rate of subsidence through time was attributed to the transition from rapid initial consolidation and shrinkage to slower, long-term, ongoing oxidation. These subsidence rates agree well with a literature synthesis of temperate zone subsidence rates reported for similar lengths of time since drainage. A strong nonlinear relationship was found between temperate zone subsidence rates and time since initial peatland drainage: Subsidence (mm yr) = 226 × (years since drained) ( = 0.88). This relationship suggests that time since drainage exerts strong control over the rate of peatland subsidence and that ongoing peatland subsidence rates can be predicted to gradually decline with time in the absence of major land disturbance. PMID:25603091

  2. Sediment delivery from agricultural land to rivers via subsurface drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, A. S.; Foster, I. D. L.; Lees, J. A.; Hodgkinson, R. A.

    2005-10-01

    Diffuse sources of sediment and sediment-associated nutrients are of increasing environmental concern because of their impacts on receiving water courses. The aim of the research reported here was to monitor the outflow from four field (land) drains at two farms in the English Midlands in order to estimate the quantity of sediment delivered to the local rivers and the most likely sources and processes involved. A multiparameter sediment unmixing model was employed, using environmental magnetic, geochemical and radionuclide tracers in order to determine the most likely origin of sediments transported through the drains. Results demonstrated that there was a generally linear relationship between drainflow sediment loss and drainflow volume and that the majority (>70%) of the sediment exported from the drains was derived from topsoil. Macropore flow through heavily cracked soils is supported by the data to be the most likely means of sediment delivery to the drains. In one catchment, drains contributed over 50% of the annual sediment budget. Spatial and temporal variations in the sources of sediment reaching one drain outlet were investigated in detail. A link between soil moisture deficit (SMD) and the frequency of high-intensity rainfall events was used to explain the appearance and persistence of a new sediment source in this drain after October 1998. It is concluded that field drains have the potential to be significant conduits of sediment and agrochemicals in a wide variety of environments in the UK. It is also suggested that this potential may increase if projected climate change leads to more intense rainfall events and increases in SMD across a greater area of the UK.

  3. Nitrate and phosphate removal from agricultural subsurface drainage using laboratory woodchip bioreactors and recycled steel byproduct filters.

    PubMed

    Hua, Guanghui; Salo, Morgan W; Schmit, Christopher G; Hay, Christopher H

    2016-10-01

    Woodchip bioreactors have been increasingly used as an edge-of-field treatment technology to reduce the nitrate loadings to surface waters from agricultural subsurface drainage. Recent studies have shown that subsurface drainage can also contribute substantially to the loss of phosphate from agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to investigate nitrate and phosphate removal in subsurface drainage using laboratory woodchip bioreactors and recycled steel byproduct filters. The woodchip bioreactor demonstrated average nitrate removal efficiencies of 53.5-100% and removal rates of 10.1-21.6 g N/m(3)/d for an influent concentration of 20 mg N/L and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6-24 h. When the influent nitrate concentration increased to 50 mg N/L, the bioreactor nitrate removal efficiency and rate averaged 75% and 18.9 g N/m(3)/d at an HRT of 24 h. Nitrate removal by the woodchips followed zero-order kinetics with rate constants of 1.42-1.80 mg N/L/h when nitrate was non-limiting. The steel byproduct filter effectively removed phosphate in the bioreactor effluent and the total phosphate adsorption capacity was 3.70 mg P/g under continuous flow conditions. Nitrite accumulation occurred in the woodchip bioreactor and the effluent nitrite concentrations increased with decreasing HRTs and increasing influent nitrate concentrations. The steel byproduct filter efficiently reduced the level of nitrite in the bioreactor effluent. Overall, the results of this study suggest that woodchip denitrification followed by steel byproduct filtration is an effective treatment technology for nitrate and phosphate removal in subsurface drainage. PMID:27344249

  4. 75 FR 16719 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and... Agricultural Water Enhancement Program (AWEP) by amending section 1240I of the Food ] Security Act of 1985. The... technical assistance to agricultural producers to implement agricultural water enhancement activities...

  5. Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.

    2009-01-01

    Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  6. Laboratory Batch Test Evaluation of Five Filter Materials for Removal of Nutrients and Pesticides From Drainage Waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes producing adverse environmental impacts on these surface water bodies. Various filte...

  7. Assessment of water resources in some drainage basins, northwestern coast, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mohamed; Abd, El Sayed El; Baraka, Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of this research paper is to monitor the current situation of water resources in some of the drainage basins in the northwestern coast of Egypt and reach to a plan for the development of these resources. The selected basins were chosen for the present study according to their special conditions, where they have a shortage of water for human and agriculture proposes. However, the area of study has a population growth and agricultural activities, which require necessary development of groundwater. The study area has two aquifers: Pleistocene, and Middle Miocene aquifers. The recharge to these aquifers comes either from the direct infiltration of the rainfall, and/or from the surface runoff. The groundwater in the area of study is evaluated for drinking, domestic, livestock and agricultural purposes. The present study reaches out for some recommendations to develop the surface and groundwater in the study area.

  8. Agriculture, irrigation, and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California: Unified perspective on hydrogeology, geochemistry and management

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Quinn, N.W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a broad understanding of water-related issues of agriculture and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. To this end, an attempt is made to review available literature on land and water resources of the San Joaquin Valley and to generate a process-oriented framework within which the various physical-, chemical-, biological- and economic components of the system and their interactions are placed in mutual perspective.

  9. Prairie stream water quality in sub-basins characterized by differing degrees of wetland drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, N. N.; Westbrook, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The prairie pothole region is dotted with millions of pothole wetlands. These wetlands provide important habitat for numerous wildlife species. Potholes are small, shallow marshes that typically lack surface water connections and have been shown to trap nutrients, ions, and bacteria from catchment runoff. Approximately 70% of the potholes located in the Canadian prairies have been drained since 1900 to increase agricultural production; recently there have been renewed efforts to drain potholes. Wetland drainage has been shown to increase stream discharge and is perceived to impact downstream water quality as previously isolated wetlands become connected to streams via drainage ditches. Our objective was to determine the extent to which stream water quality was influenced by wetland drainage. We compared time series of water quality for four sub-basins of Smith Creek watershed, southeastern Saskatchewan. The stream drains into the Assiniboine River and then Lake Winnipeg where excessive N and P loadings are causing eutrophication. Wetland distribution in the sub-basins was historically similar, but recently the sub-basins have been subject to differing degrees of drainage (extreme, high, moderately-high, and low). Stream water sampling and discharge measurement occurred daily during peak flow (spring runoff) and weekly during low flows in 2009 at the outlet of each sub-basin. Export coefficients for nutrients, DOC, salts and bacteria were compared among sub-basins. The sub-basin characterized by extreme drainage (81% wetland reduction) had the largest nutrient and DOC export coefficients while the low drainage sub-basin (23% wetland reduction) had the lowest. Concentrations of TP and ortho-P were greater in the moderately-high and high drainage sub-basins than in the low drainage sub-basin during the snowmelt period. TP concentrations exceeded the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority Lake Stewardship Program objective of 0.1 mg/L. N concentrations were greatest in the

  10. Physical and Chemical Properties of Bench Sediments in Self-Formed Agricultural Drainage Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, M.; Witter, J.; Islam, K. R.; Mouser, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Two-stage ditches are a novel approach to managing agricultural drainage and are designed with floodplain benches set within the banks of a standard, trapezoidal channel. The floodplain bench serves to attenuate pollutant loads in surface waters through (1) capture of sediments, (2) nutrient assimilation by vegetation, and (3) transformation of C and residual N and P by indigenous microorganisms. Two-stage channels have been constructed in the tri-state region of Ohio-Michigan-Indiana over the last decade with initial results indicating C and P sequestration and enhanced N removal via denitrification. However, the sustainability and the net ecosystem services provided by these designs are relatively unknown beyond this timeframe. To better characterize the properties of two-stage ditches aged more than a decade, we examined the physical and chemical properties of sediments in unplanned, self-formed floodplain benches across 5 distinct Midwest ecoregions. Established benches were selected from 3 locations within each ecoregion and sampled along depth and bench-positional gradients from geo-referenced sites. The sediment-bound C, N, and P concentrations were quantified along with soil texture and channel geomorphology. Nutrient concentrations did not differ across bench position (upstream, downstream, near bank, or near channel); however, significant differences were observed between ecoregions. Steeper slopes and higher benches were associated with higher sand content than surrounding soils and promoted greater storage of C and N. Gradual slopes, on the other hand, were associated with higher clay and silt content. Across these specific ecoregions, P storage declined with increasing depth. However, this was unexplained by the particle size distribution at these depths. Further research is therefore needed to investigate whether P is released from waterlogged sediments or there is biological redistribution of this nutrient across the column depth.

  11. Implementation of Drainage Water Management in Open Ditch Drainage Systems of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased riverine nutrients linked to agricultural activities in the Mississippi River Basin have contributed to degraded surface waters within the basin as well as to the hypoxic zone along the Louisiana Gulf coast. In the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV), these nutrients are transported from agr...

  12. Field-scale monitoring of the long-term impact and sustainability of drainage water reuse using ECa-directed soil sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a water resource rather than a disposal problem. Drainage water from tile-drained, irrigated agricultural land is degraded water that is often in large supply, but the long-term impact and sustainability of it...

  13. Field-scale monitoring of the long-term impact and sustainability of drainage water reuse on the west side of California’s San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a potential water resource rather than as a disposal problem. Drainage water from tile-drained, irrigated agricultural land is degraded water that is often in large supply, but the long-term impact and sustain...

  14. Impact of intensified irrigated agriculture and climate change on nitrogen loading in the Amu Darya drainage basin, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2013-04-01

    Pollutant loading and water losses by evapotranspiration are two main problems of intensified irrigated agricultural in arid and semi-arid regions. Climatic changes can further increase water losses and alter transport pathways for contaminants and nutrients. Identification of dominant processes that control nitrogen (N) loading in the highly managed Amu Darya Drainage Basin (ADRB), the largest sub-basin in the Aral Sea Drainage Basin (ASDB), is considered by looking at a 40-years (1960-2000) data record of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). Furthermore, hydrologic distributed modelling was used to investigate how N transport pathways and travel times have changed with past irrigation expansion, and is likely to change further in response to projected future hydro-climatic trends. River discharge has decreased drastically during the considered 40-years period in ADRB. Future climate and land-use projections show that downstream regions even are at risk of total surface water depletion within a future 30-years period. Decreasing riverine DIN concentration was observed near the Aral Sea outlet despite increasing N fertilizer application throughout the 40-years period. The reduction in concentrations could not be explained by increased N crop uptake, improved fertilization application or improved irrigation efficiency. Instead, this must primarily be due to a considerable increase in reuse in irrigation which extends the flow-path lengths and enhances N retention. A relationship between increased recirculation ratio (defined as the basin-scale return flow divided by the outflow) and decreased Cout/Cin ratio was developed, and shown to be valid for a relatively wide uncertainty range. An observed six-fold decrease in DIN load was primarily, but not exclusively, due to the drastic river flow reduction. Consequently, N accumulation in the soil-groundwater system has accelerated since the N fertilization has been maintained high throughout the period of considerable

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gachango, F. G.; Pedersen, S. M.; Kjaergaard, C.

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  16. Relationships Among Macroinvertebrate Community Variables and Water Quality Parameters in Modified Agricultural Receiving Streams in the Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many headwater streams in the midwestern United States have been highly modified to receive agricultural drainage. Effective implementation of conservation practices to reduce nutrient and pesticide loadings requires information about the influence of water quality on biotic communities. We evaluate...

  17. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  18. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated at 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N are retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  19. Agricultural drainage ditches mitigate phosphorus loads as a function of hydrological variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus loading from non-point sources such as agricultural landscapes contributes to downstream aquatic ecosystem degradation. Specifically within the Mississippi watershed, enriched runoff contributions have far reaching consequences for coastal water eutrophication and Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. ...

  20. Benthic invertebrates of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin, Western Lake Michigan Drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Lenz, B.N.; Scudder, B.C.

    1996-01-01

    Information gathered from these benchmark streams can be used as a regional reference for comparison with other streams in agricultural areas, based on communities of aquatic biota, habitat, and water quality.

  1. High-frequency monitoring of water fluxes and nutrient loads to assess the effects of controlled drainage on water storage and nutrient transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozemeijer, J. C.; Visser, A.; Borren, W.; Winegram, M.; van der Velde, Y.; Klein, J.; Broers, H. P.

    2016-01-01

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes from upstream agriculture threaten aquatic ecosystems in surface waters and estuaries, especially in areas characterized by high agricultural N and P inputs and densely drained catchments like the Netherlands. Controlled drainage has been recognized as an effective option to optimize soil moisture conditions for agriculture and to reduce unnecessary losses of fresh water and nutrients. This is achieved by introducing control structures with adjustable overflow levels into subsurface tube drain systems. A small-scale (1 ha) field experiment was designed to investigate the hydrological and chemical changes after introducing controlled drainage. Precipitation rates and the response of water tables and drain fluxes were measured in the periods before the introduction of controlled drainage (2007-2008) and after (2009-2011). For the N and P concentration measurements, auto-analyzers for continuous records were combined with passive samplers for time-averaged concentrations at individual drain outlets. The experimental setup enabled the quantification of changes in the water and solute balance after introducing controlled drainage. The results showed that introducing controlled drainage reduced the drain discharge and increased the groundwater storage in the field. To achieve this, the overflow levels have to be elevated in early spring, before the drain discharge stops due to dryer conditions and falling groundwater levels. The groundwater storage in the field would have been larger if the water levels in the adjacent ditch were controlled as well by an adjustable weir. The N concentrations and loads increased, which was largely related to elevated concentrations in one of the three monitored tube drains. The P loads via the tube drains reduced due to the reduction in discharge after introducing controlled drainage. However, this may be counteracted by the higher groundwater levels and the larger contribution of N- and P

  2. High-frequency monitoring of water fluxes and nutrient loads to assess the effects of controlled drainage on water storage and nutrient transport

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rozemeijer, J. C.; Visser, A.; Borren, W.; Winegram, M.; van der Velde, Y.; Klein, J.; Broers, H. P.

    2016-01-19

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes from upstream agriculture threaten aquatic ecosystems in surface waters and estuaries, especially in areas characterized by high agricultural N and P inputs and densely drained catchments like the Netherlands. Controlled drainage has been recognized as an effective option to optimize soil moisture conditions for agriculture and to reduce unnecessary losses of fresh water and nutrients. This is achieved by introducing control structures with adjustable overflow levels into subsurface tube drain systems. A small-scale (1 ha) field experiment was designed to investigate the hydrological and chemical changes after introducing controlled drainage. Precipitation rates andmore » the response of water tables and drain fluxes were measured in the periods before the introduction of controlled drainage (2007–2008) and after (2009–2011). For the N and P concentration measurements, auto-analyzers for continuous records were combined with passive samplers for time-averaged concentrations at individual drain outlets. The experimental setup enabled the quantification of changes in the water and solute balance after introducing controlled drainage. The results showed that introducing controlled drainage reduced the drain discharge and increased the groundwater storage in the field. To achieve this, the overflow levels have to be elevated in early spring, before the drain discharge stops due to dryer conditions and falling groundwater levels. The groundwater storage in the field would have been larger if the water levels in the adjacent ditch were controlled as well by an adjustable weir. The N concentrations and loads increased, which was largely related to elevated concentrations in one of the three monitored tube drains. The P loads via the tube drains reduced due to the reduction in discharge after introducing controlled drainage. Furthermore, this may be counteracted by the higher groundwater levels and the larger contribution

  3. Phosphorus and water budgets in an agricultural basin.

    PubMed

    Faridmarandi, Sayena; Naja, Ghinwa M

    2014-01-01

    Water and phosphorus (P) budgets of a large agricultural basin located in South Florida (Everglades Agricultural Area, EAA) were computed from 2005 to 2012. The annual surface outflow P loading from the EAA averaged 157.2 mtons originating from Lake Okeechobee (16.4 mtons, 10.4%), farms (131.0 mtons, 83.4%), and surrounding basins (9.8 mtons, 6.2%) after attenuation. Farms, urban areas, and the adjacent C-139 basin contributed 186.1, 15.6, and 3.8 mtons/yr P to the canals, respectively. The average annual soil P retention was estimated at 412.5 mtons. Water and P budgets showed seasonal variations with high correlation between rainfall and P load in drainage and surface outflows. Moreover, results indicated that the canals acted as a P sink storing 64.8 mtons/yr. To assess the P loading impact of farm drainage on the canals and on the outflow, dimensionless impact factors were developed. Sixty-two farms were identified with a high and a medium impact factor I1 level contributing 44.5% of the total drainage P load to the canals, while their collective area represented less than 23% of the EAA area (172 farms). Optimizing the best management practice (BMP) strategies on these farms could minimize the environmental impacts on the downstream sensitive wetlands areas. PMID:24955757

  4. Characterising and classifying agricultural drainage channels for sediment and phosphorus management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, Mairead; Jordan, Phil; Mellander, Per-Erik; Quinn, Mary Kelly; Daly, Karen; Sims, James Tom; Melland, Alice

    2016-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, surface ditches and streams can significantly influence the attenuation and transfer of sediment and phosphorus (P) from upstream sources to receiving water-bodies. The sediment attenuation and/or transfer capacity of these features depends on channel physical characteristics. This is similar for P, in addition to the sediment physico-chemical characteristics. Therefore, a greater understanding of (i) channel physical characteristics and (ii) the associated sediment physico-chemical characteristics could be used to develop channel-specific management strategies for the reduction of downstream sediment and P transfers. Using a detailed field survey of surface channel networks in a well-drained arable and a poorly-drained grassland catchment (both c.10km2), this study (i) characterised all ditches and streams in both catchments, (ii) investigated the physico-chemical characteristics of sediments in a subset of ditches, (iii) classified all channels into four classes of fine sediment retention and/or transfer likelihood based on a comparison of physical characteristics (slope and drainage area) with observations of fine sediment accumulation and (iv) considered P management strategies that are suited to each class. Mehlich3-Al/P and Mehlich3-Ca/P contents of ditch sediments in the well (non-calcareous) and poorly (calcareous) drained catchments, respectively, indicated potential for soluble P retention (above thresholds of 11.7 and 74, respectively). In general, ditches with low slopes had the greatest potential to retain fine sediment and associated particulate P. As sediments in these catchments are likely to primarily adsorb, rather than release soluble P, these flat ditches are also likely to reduce soluble P loading downstream. Ditches with moderate-high slopes had the greatest potential to mobilise fine sediment and associated P during event flows. Ditch dimensions were not closely related to their indicative flow volumes and were

  5. Drainage estimation to aquifer and water use irrigation efficiency in semi-arid zone for a long period of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Molinero-Huguet, J.; Candela, L.

    2009-04-01

    Water requirements for different crop types according to soil type and climate conditions play not only an important role in agricultural efficiency production, though also for water resources management and control of pollutants in drainage water. The key issue to attain these objectives is the irrigation efficiency. Application of computer codes for irrigation simulation constitutes a fast and inexpensive approach to study optimal agricultural management practices. To simulate daily water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer the VisualBALAN V. 2.0 code was applied to an experimental area under irrigation characterized by its aridity. The test was carried out in three experimental plots for annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke), and fruit trees (citrus) under common agricultural practices in open air for October 1999-September 2008. Drip irrigation was applied to crops production due to the scarcity of water resources and the need for water conservation. Water level change was monitored in the top unconfined aquifer for each experimental plot. Results of water balance modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated water level values. For the study period, mean drainage obtained values were 343 mm, 261 mm and 205 mm for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus respectively. Assessment of water use efficiency was based on the IE indicator proposed by the ASCE Task Committee. For the modelled period, water use efficiency was estimated as 73, 71 and 78 % of the applied dose (irrigation + precipitation) for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus, respectively.

  6. Three years of crop yields using drainage water management at eight sites in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (NRCS-Practice Code 554) is an important water management practice for dealing with nitrate-loading across the Midwest US. A multi-year study is being conducted in Ohio to evaluate the effects of drainage water management on crop yield and water quality. We have installed w...

  7. Potential Water Quality Impact of Drainage Water Management in the Midwest Cornbelt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (DWM) is being investigated as a possible management option for reducing nitrate leaching to surface waters from the artificially drained Midwest cornbelt. This work builds on earlier modeling studies where a calibrated Root Zone Water Quality Model was used to predict the...

  8. Drainage water phosphorus losses in the great lakes basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The great lakes are one of the most important fresh water resources on the planet. While forestry is a primary land use throughout much of the great lakes basin, there are portions of the basin, such as much of the land that drains directly to Lake Erie, that are primarily agricultural. The primary ...

  9. Monitoring Surface Drainage and Water Quality from Closed Depressions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), in conjunction with many other interested stakeholders, are taking part in the Source Water Protection Initiative (SWPI) and the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) within the St Joseph River Watershed in northeastern Indiana. SWPI and CEAP ar...

  10. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  11. Water flux and drainage from soil measured with automated passive capillary wick samplers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various soil water samplers are used to monitor measure and estimate drainage water, fluxes and solute transport in the soil vadose zone. Passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) have shown potential to provide better measurements and estimates of soil water drainage and fluxes than other lysimeters.Twelv...

  12. Changes in yield and nitrate losses from using drainage water management in Central Iowa, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (DWM) is a potentially valuable management practice for reducing nitrate losses to surface waters in areas of artificial drainage. But the practice is essentially untested in Midwest US conditions and its water quality and crop yield benefits unknown. This paper reports res...

  13. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices.

  14. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices. PMID:26993817

  15. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  16. The results of the electrochemical clearning of drainage waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabannik, Vasilina; Saeva, Olga

    2010-05-01

    There is a problem of industrial drains clearing in various branches, but especially sharply in a metal manufacture that is caused by great volumes of the wastewater containing high residual concentration of heavy metals. It is necessary to pay attention to solids in wastes. In a long-term interaction with oxygen of air and natural deposits the acid drainage is often formed and takes out a number of elements with different classes of toxicity to superficial and underground waters. Therefore search of an extraction possibilities for toxic components for a eliminate of their further migration is the big deal. Belov Zink Plant located in the Kemerovo region. During sixty years the factory stably made up to 10 000 tons of zinc annually and in passing up to 30 000 tons H2SO4 processing a blende concentrate. Now the factory has stopped the activity, however, in territory have remained uncontrolledly stored about one million tons of the wastes, presented by slags and ashes. Visually clinker represent coarse-grained sands of the typical slag containing 0.7-15% Zn, 0.3-8.5% Cu, 0.03-0.7% Pb and 2-400 g/t Cd. Besides in tailings the sub-standard sulfuric acid [Bortnikova, etc., 2006] are merged. Acid (рН=3.5) and highsaline waters of a drainage stream with significant concentration sulfate-ion (up to 20 g/l), copper (up to 6 g/l) and zinc (up to 4 g/l), that allows to consider as macrocomponents. A wide number of microcells in drains exceeds maximum concentration limit (MPC) of chemical substances in objects of drinking and community use. The basic chemical forms of present metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pb, Cu) are aquo-ions and sulphatic complexes. Earlier in our laboratory searching of a way of a toxic components concentration downturn in drains of Belov plant - sorptive clearing by natural clays [Gaskova, Kabannik, 2009] and sedimentation of toxic elements on carbonate barrier [Yurkevich, etc., 2008] were done, however the desirable result by virtue of that this

  17. Organic matter removal from saline agricultural drainage wastewater using a moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Ateia, Mohamed; Nasr, Mahmoud; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Fujii, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of salinity on the removal of organics and ammonium from agricultural drainage wastewater (ADW) using moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Under the typical salinity level of ADW (total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration up to 2.5 g·L(-1)), microorganisms were acclimated for 40 days on plastic carriers and a stable slime layer of attached biofilm was formed. Next, six batch mode MBBRs were set up and run under different salinity conditions (0.2-20 g-TDS·L(-1)). The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) in 6 hours decreased from 98 and 68% to 64 and 21% with increasing salt concentrations from 2.5 to 20 g-TDS·L(-1), respectively. In addition, at decreasing salt levels of 0.2 g-TDS·L(-1), both COD removal and nitrification were slightly lowered. Kinetic analysis indicated that the first-order reaction rate constant (k1) and specific substrate utilization rate (U) with respect to the COD removal remained relatively constant (10.9-11.0 d(-1) and 13.1-16.1 g-COD-removed.g-biomass(-1)·d(-1), respectively) at the salinity range of 2.5-5.0 g-TDS·L(-1). In this study, the treated wastewater met the standard criteria of organic concentration for reuse in agricultural purposes, and the system performance remained relatively constant at the salinity range of typical ADW. PMID:26465302

  18. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  19. Low-grade weirs in agricultural drainage ditches: An experimental approach to decreasing nitrate-N

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural runoff carries high nutrient loads to receiving waters contributing to eutrophication. Managed wetlands can be used in integrated management efforts to intercept nutrients before they enter downstream aquatic systems, but detailed information regarding sorption and desorption of P by we...

  20. A classification of drainage and macropore flow in an agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heppell, C. M.; Worrall, F.; Burt, T. P.; Williams, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses a variety of multivariate statistical techniques in order to improve current understanding of the antecedent and rainfall controls on drainage characteristics for an agricultural underdrained clay site. Using the dataset obtained from a two-year hillslope study at Wytham (Oxfordshire, UK) a number of patterns in the nature and style of drainage events were explored. First, using principal components analysis, a distinction was drawn between drainflow controlled by antecedent conditions and drainflow controlled by rainfall characteristics. Dimensional analysis then distinguished between two further types of drainflow event: antecedent limited events (ALE) and non-antecedent limited events (NALE). These were drainflow events requiring a minimum antecedent hydraulic head to occur (ALE) and events that occurred in response to rainfall irrespective of the antecedent conditions, because the rainfall was either of high enough intensity or duration to prompt a response in drainflow (NALE). 2. The dataset also made possible a preliminary investigation into the controls on and types of macropore flow at the site. Principal components analysis identified that rainfall characteristics were more important than antecedent conditions in generating high proportions of macropore flow in drainflow. Of the rainfall characteristics studied, rainfall amount and intensity were the dominant controls on the amount of macropore flow, with duration as a secondary control. Two styles of macropore flow were identified: intensity-driven and duration-driven. Intensity-driven events are characterized by rainfall of high intensity and short duration. During such events the amount of macropore flow is proportional to the rainfall intensity and the interaction between macropore and matrix flow is kinetically limited. The second style of macropore flow is characterized by long-duration events. For these events the amount of macropore flow approaches a maximum value whatever the

  1. Contaminant Loading in Drainage and Fresh Water Used for Wetland Management at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge

    PubMed

    Kilbride; Paveglio; Altstatt; Henry; Janik

    1998-08-01

    Throughout the western United States, studies have identified various detrimental effects of contaminants to aquatic biota from the use of agricultural drainage water for management of arid wetlands. However, little is known about the relative contributions of contaminant loading from pollutants dissolved in water compared with those carried by drifting material (e.g., detritus) associated with drainage water. Consequently, we determined loading rates for contaminants dissolved in water and those incorporated by drifting material for drainage (Diagonal Drain) as well as fresh (S-Line Canal) water used for wetland management at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Nevada during the early, middle, and late periods of the irrigation season (June through mid-November) in 1993. We found loading rates for trace elements throughout the irrigation season were almost entirely (> 98%) associated with contaminants dissolved in the water rather than incorporated by drift. Although drift contributed little to the total loading for trace elements to SNWR wetlands, contaminant concentrations were much greater in drift compared with those dissolved in water. Loading rates for dissolved As, B, Hg, and total dissolved solids (TDS) differed among periods for the Diagonal Drain. Along the Diagonal Drain, loading rates for dissolved As, B, Hg, Mo, unionized ammonia (NH3-N), TDS, and Zn differed among its three sampling sites. B was the only trace element with differences in loading rates for drift among periods from the Diagonal Drain. In contrast, loading rates for As, B, Cr, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn in drift differed among periods for the S-Line Canal. Along Diagonal Drain, loading rates in drift for B (middle and late periods), Cr, Cu, and Zn differed among sites. Hg (x- >/= 12.0 ng/L) and NH3-N (x- >/= 0.985 mg/L) dissolved in water as well as B (x- >/= 97.4 µg/g DW) and Hg (x- >/= 0.461 µg/g DW) in drift from the Diagonal Drain and S-Line Canal exceeded screening levels (SLs

  2. Watershed scale nitrogen and phosphorus partitioning between surface and subsurface drainage waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface drainage is a necessity for crop production agriculture in humid climates with poorly drained soils. The Midwestern United States is the most productive agricultural area in the world. In excess of 20.6 million ha (37%) of the tillable acres in the Midwest are managed with subsurface tile...

  3. Use of control drainage in ditch management on the Delmarva Peninsula for improved water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay region is partly linked to agricultural activities. In the Choptank River basin, one way of nutrient transport from agricultural fields is through extensive drainage open ditches. Studies have shown that annually an average of 6% of nitrate applied to agricu...

  4. Agricultural Water Use under Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Ringler, C.; Rosegrant, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Irrigation is by far the single largest user of water in the world and is projected to remain so in the foreseeable future. Globally, irrigated agricultural land comprises less than twenty percent of total cropland but produces about forty percent of the world's food. Increasing world population will require more food and this will lead to more irrigation in many areas. As demands increase and water becomes an increasingly scarce resource, agriculture's competition for water with other economic sectors will be intensified. This water picture is expected to become even more complex as climate change will impose substantial impacts on water availability and demand, in particular for agriculture. To better understand future water demand and supply under global change, including changes in demographic, economic and technological dimensions, the water simulation module of IMPACT, a global water and food projection model developed at the International Food Policy Research Institute, is used to analyze future water demand and supply in agricultural and several non-agricultural sectors using downscaled GCM scenarios, based on water availability simulation done with a recently developed semi-distributed global hydrological model. Risk analysis is conducted to identify countries and regions where future water supply reliability for irrigation is low, and food security may be threatened in the presence of climate change. Gridded shadow values of irrigation water are derived for global cropland based on an optimization framework, and they are used to illustrate potential irrigation development by incorporating gridded water availability and existing global map of irrigation areas.

  5. Electrocoagulation treatment of peat bog drainage water containing humic substances.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, V; Kuokkanen, T; Rämö, J; Lassi, U

    2015-08-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of 100 mg/L synthetic wastewater (SWW) containing humic acids was optimized (achieving 90% CODMn and 80% DOC removal efficiencies), after which real peat bog drainage waters (PBDWs) from three northern Finnish peat bogs were also treated. High pollutant removal efficiencies were achieved: Ptot, TS, and color could be removed completely, while Ntot, CODMn, and DOC/TOC removal efficiencies were in the range of 33-41%, 75-90%, and 62-75%, respectively. Al and Fe performed similarly as the anode material. Large scale experiments (1 m(3)) using cold (T = 10-11 °C) PBDWs were also conducted successfully, with optimal treatment times of 60-120 min (applying current densities of 60-75 A/m(2)). Residual values of Al and Fe (complete removal) were lower than their initial values in the EC-treated PBDWs. Electricity consumption and operational costs in optimum conditions were found to be low and similar for all the waters studied: 0.94 kWh/m(3) and 0.15 €/m(3) for SWW and 0.35-0.70 kWh/m(3) and 0.06-0.12 €/m(3) for the PBDWs (large-scale). Thus, e.g. solar cells could be considered as a power source for this EC application. In conclusion, EC treatment of PBDW containing humic substances was shown to be feasible. PMID:25973580

  6. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    PubMed

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects. PMID:27007730

  7. America's water: Agricultural water demands and the response of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, M.; Parthasarathy, V.; Etienne, E.; Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural, industrial, and urban water use in the conterminous United States (CONUS) is highly dependent on groundwater that is largely drawn from nonsurficial wells (>30 m). We use a Demand-Sensitive Drought Index to examine the impacts of agricultural water needs, driven by low precipitation, high agricultural water demand, or a combination of both, on the temporal variability of depth to groundwater across the CONUS. We characterize the relationship between changes in groundwater levels, agricultural water deficits relative to precipitation during the growing season, and winter precipitation. We find that declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and around the Mississippi River Valley are driven by groundwater withdrawals used to supplement agricultural water demands. Reductions in agricultural water demands for crops do not, however, lead to immediate recovery of groundwater levels due to the demand for groundwater in other sectors in regions such as Utah, Maryland, and Texas.

  8. Relations between retired agricultural land, water quality, and aquatic-community health, Minnesota River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; McLees, James M.; Niemela, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of agricultural land retirement on water quality and aquatic-community health was investigated in the Minnesota River Basin. Eighty-two sites, with drainage areas ranging from 4.3 to 2200 km2, were examined for nutrient concentrations, measures of aquatic-community health (e.g., fish index of biotic integrity [IBI] scores), and environmental factors (e.g., drainage area and amount of agricultural land retirement). The relation of proximity of agricultural land retirement to the stream was determined by calculating the land retirement percent in various riparian zones. Spearman's rho results indicated that IBI score was not correlated to the percentage of agricultural land retirement at the basin scale (p = 0.070); however, IBI score was correlated to retired land percentage in the 50- to 400-m riparian zones surrounding the streams (p < 0.05), indicating that riparian agricultural land retirement may have more influence on aquatic-community health than does agricultural land retirement in upland areas. Multivariate analysis of covariance and analysis of covariance models indicated that other environmental factors (such as drainage area and lacustrine and palustrine features) commonly were correlated to aquatic-community health measures, as were in-stream factors (standard deviation of water depth and substrate type). These results indicate that although agricultural land retirement is significantly related to fish communities as measured by the IBI scores, a combination of basin, riparian, and in-stream factors act together to influence IBI scores.

  9. Edge-of-field research to quantify the impacts of agricultural practices on water quality in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage is needed to sustain agricultural production to meet the demands of a growing global population, but it also transports nutrients from fields to surface water bodies. The State of Ohio is facing the tremendous challenge of maintaining agricultural production while protecting the environment...

  10. Performance Evaluation of Automated Passive Capillary Sampler for Estimating Water Drainage in the Vadose Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) are widely used to monitor, measure and sample drainage water under saturated and unsaturated soil conditions in the vadose zone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and accuracy of automated passive capillary sampler for estimating drainage...

  11. Selenium biotransformations into proteinaceous forms by foodweb organisms of selenium-laden drainage waters in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Selenium contamination represents one of the few clear cases where environmental pollution has led to devastation of wildlife populations, most notably in agricultural drainage evaporation and power plant coal-fly ash receiving ponds. Complex biogeochemistry, in particular extensive biotransformations and foodchain transfer, governs Se ecotoxicology and toxicology, for which the mechanism(s) are still elusive. However, total waterborne Se concentration has been widely used as a criterion for regulating and mitigating Se risk in aquatic ecosystems, which does not account for Se biogeochemistry and its site-dependence. There is a need for more reliable indicator(s) that encompass Se ecotoxicity and/or toxicity. Selenomethionine warrants special attention since it simulates Se toxicosis of wildlife in laboratory feeding studies. While low in free selenomethionine, microphytes isolated from Se-laden agricultural evaporation ponds were abundant in proteinaceous selenomethionine. This prompted a more extensive survey of Se speciation in foodchain organisms including microphytes, macroinvertebrates, fish, and bird embryos residing mainly in the agricultural drainage systems of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Total Se in biomass, water-soluble fractions, and protein-rich fractions were measured along with GC-MS analysis of proteinaceous selenomethionine. In all foodchain organisms, water-soluble Se constituted the major fraction of total biomass Se, while proteinaceous Se was a substantial, if not dominant, fraction of the water-soluble Se. In turn, proteinaceous selenomethionine comprised an important fraction of proteinaceous Se. In terms of total biomass Se, an average 1400-fold of Se biomagnification from water to microphytes was observed while subsequent transfer from microphytes to macroinvertebrates exhibited an average of only 1.9-fold. The latter transfer was more consistent and greater in extent for proteinaceous Se and proteinaceous selenomethionine, which

  12. An analytical model for predicting water table dynamics during drainage and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, F. J.; Rassam, D. W.

    2002-06-01

    Water table dynamics in tile-drained fields have been thoroughly investigated by numerous researchers. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of incorporating the effects of evaporation into the design of such drainage systems. In tropical areas, evaporation plays a particularly crucial role in lowering the water table in finely textured soils. In this paper, water table dynamics are investigated for the case of coupled drainage and evaporation. A simple analytical model that determines the relative contribution of the drainage component to the draw down of the water table is proposed. The model's estimates compare reasonably well to field data, as well as those derived from numerical simulations conducted for various evaporation rates and soil types. When presented in a non-dimensional form, the model's results can provide a quick estimate of the relative contribution of drainage to lowering the water table, which is highly relevant to the hydrology of acid sulphate soils.

  13. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  14. Influence of instream habitat and water chemistry on amphibians within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for draining agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States, Canada, and Europe. Channelized agricultural he...

  15. Comparative analysis of the outflow water quality of two sustainable linear drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Valeri, V C; Castro-Fresno, D; Sañudo-Fontaneda, L A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, J

    2014-01-01

    Three different drainage systems were built in a roadside car park located on the outskirts of Oviedo (Spain): two sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS), a swale and a filter drain; and one conventional drainage system, a concrete ditch, which is representative of the most frequently used roadside drainage system in Spain. The concentrations of pollutants were analyzed in the outflow of all three systems in order to compare their capacity to improve water quality. Physicochemical water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and total petroleum hydrocarbons were monitored and analyzed for 25 months. Results are presented in detail showing significantly smaller amounts of outflow pollutants in SUDS than in conventional drainage systems, especially in the filter drain which provided the best performance. PMID:25353938

  16. Movement of pesticides and nutrients into tile drainage water. Final report, 22 September 1985-22 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Van Scoyoc, G.E.; Kladivko, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Concern about contamination of surface and ground water by agricultural chemicals has increased in the last five years. The objectives of this study were to determine field-scale pesticide and nutrient losses to tile drains over a 3-year period on a low-organic-matter, poorly structured silt loam soil under typical agricultural management practices. A tile-drainage spacing study was instrumented to measure water outflow rates and to continuously collect tile outflow samples on a flow-proportional basis. Two replicates of 3 tile spacings (5, 10, and 20 m) were included in the study. Water samples were analyzed for all applied pesticides (atrazine, cyanazine, alachlor, carbofuran, terbufos, and chlorpyrifos) as well as major nutrients (N,P,K) and sediment.

  17. Balancing Energy-Water-Agriculture Tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V.; Hightower, M.

    2011-12-01

    In 2005 thermoelectric power production accounted for withdrawals of 201 billion gallons per day (BGD) representing 49% of total withdrawals, making it the largest user of water in the U.S. In terms of freshwater withdrawals thermoelectric power production is the second largest user at 140 BGD just slightly behind freshwater withdrawals for irrigation (USGS 2005). In contrast thermoelectric water consumption is projected at 3.7 BGD or about 3% of total U.S. consumption (NETL 2008). Thermoelectric water consumption is roughly equivalent to that of all other industrial demands and represents one of the fastest growing sectors since 1980. In fact thermoelectric consumption is projected to increase by 42 to 63% between 2005 and 2030 (NETL 2008). Agricultural water consumption has remained relatively constant at roughly 84 BGD or about 84% of total water consumption. While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. Often such expansion targets water rights transfers from irrigated agriculture. To explore evolving tradeoffs an integrated energy-water-agriculture decision support system has been developed. The tool considers alternative expansion scenarios for the future power plant fleet and the related demand for water. The availability of fresh and non-fresh water supplies, subject to local institutional controls is then explored. This paper addresses integrated energy-water-agriculture planning in the western U.S. and Canada involving an open and participatory process comprising decision-makers, regulators, utility and water managers.

  18. Water and solute balances as a basis for sustainable irrigation agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2015-04-01

    The growing development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for the sustainable production of the food required by the increasing World's population. Such development is limited by the increasing scarcity and low quality of the available water resources and by the competitive use of the water for other purposes. There are also increasing problems of contamination of surface and ground waters to be used for other purposes by the drainage effluents of irrigated lands. Irrigation and drainage may cause drastic changes in the regime and balance of water and solutes (salts, sodium, contaminants) in the soil profile, resulting in problems of water supply to crops and problems of salinization, sodification and contamination of soils and ground waters. This is affected by climate, crops, soils, ground water depth, irrigation and groundwater composition, and by irrigation and drainage management. In order to predict and prevent such problems for a sustainable irrigated agriculture and increased efficiency in water use, under each particular set of conditions, there have to be considered both the hydrological, physical and chemical processes determining such water and solute balances in the soil profile. In this contribution there are proposed the new versions of two modeling approaches (SOMORE and SALSODIMAR) to predict those balances and to guide irrigation water use and management, integrating the different factors involved in such processes. Examples of their application under Mediterranean and tropical climate conditions are also presented.

  19. Shallow Aquifer Connectivity and Early Season Water Supply of Seasonal Wetlands and Drainages Leading to Regional Drainage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarten, N. F.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Valley, California are recognized being seasonally supplied by early season direct surface water runoff and later season snow melt runoff from their tributaries. In addition, early season water supply to these rivers is derived from precipitation (PPT) that has infiltrated into soils underlain by a near surface aquitard, typically at less than 2 m depth. These shallow perched groundwater systems contribute a potentially substantial amount of water from more than 500,000 hectares of landforms associated with geomorphic terraces underlain by these aquitards. Early season water input to seasonal and perennial drainages is regulated by the hydraulic conductivity of the (clay-) loamy soils and by surface and aquitard slope of the local catchments associated with these old alluvial landforms. Research on these landforms and shallow aquifers has identified a complex PPT and evapotranspiration (ET) sensitive system that includes shallow depressions that seasonally produce water table derived wetlands (“vernal pools”). These wetlands have been recognized for a very high level of plant and invertebrate species diversity including endangered species. In addition, these seasonal wetlands provide migratory feeding areas of birds. Our work on these seasonal perched systems shows that as much as 80 percent of the soil column above the aquitard is saturated, during average to high rainfall years, for up to 90 to 120 days. Where the water table of this perched system intercepts the land surface, vernal pools develop. The perched groundwater drains into seasonal surface drainages that ultimately supply the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. At the end of the rainy season, both the vernal pools and the perched aquifer rapidly and synchronously disappear. Once the soil is unsaturated, water flow is vertically upward due to ET. Variably saturated modeling of this system was conducted using HYDRUS 2D/3D. Climate inputs were from

  20. Selection of salt and boron tolerant selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata genotypes and characterization of Se phytoremediation from agricultural drainage sediments.

    PubMed

    Freeman, John L; Bañuelos, Gary S

    2011-11-15

    Genetic variation in salt (Na(2)SO(4), NaCl) and boron (B) tolerance among four ecotypes of the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Pursh) Britton was utilized to select tolerant genotypes capable of phytoremediating Se from salt, B, and Se-laden agricultural drainage sediment. The few individual salt/B tolerant genotypes were successfully selected from among a large population of highly salt/B sensitive seedlings. The distribution, hyperaccumulation, and volatilization of Se were then examined in selected plants capable of tolerating the high salt/B laden drainage sediment. Salt/B tolerant genotypes from each of the four ecotypes had mean Se concentrations ranging from 2510 ± 410 to 1740 ± 620 in leaves and 3180 ± 460 to 2500 ± 1060 in seeds (μg Se g(-1) DW ± SD), while average daily Se volatilization rates ranged from 722 ± 375 to 1182 ± 575 (μg Se m(-2) d(-1) ± SD). After two growing seasons (∼18 months), we estimated that hyperaccumulation and volatilization of Se by tolerant S. pinnata genotypes and their associated microbes can remove approximately 30% of the total soil Se in 0-30 cm sediment. The salt/B tolerant S. pinnata genotypes selected and characterized herein represent promising new tools for the successful phytoremediation of Se from salt/B and Se-laden agricultural drainage sediments. PMID:21988205

  1. Field test results for nitrogen removal by the constructed wetland component of an agricultural water recycling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water recycling systems that can provide economic and environmental benefits. A constructed wetland is a main component of WRSIS, and an important function of this constructed wetland is drainage water treatment of nitrog...

  2. Selenium and nitrate removal from agricultural drainage using the AIWPS(R) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Green, F.B.; Lundquist, T.J.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Zarate, M.A.; Zubieta, I.X.; Oswald, W.J.

    2003-01-02

    Monthly Maximum Discharge Limits (MMDL) have been established for selenium in irrigation drainage by the State of California and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency following observations of avian teratogenesis at the Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley of California. As a result of these and other adverse effects, farmers and drainage districts on the western side of the San Joaquin Valley must reduce selenium concentrations in irrigation, drainage discharged to the San Joaquin River. Drainage treatment will be required in the near future to meet existing MMDL and future Total Maximum Discharge Limits (TMDL) for the San Joaquin River. A 0.4-hectare Algal Bacterial Selenium Removal (ABSR) Facility was designed and constructed at the Panoche Drainage District in 1995 and 1996 using the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems (R) or AIWPS (R) Technology. Each of two physically identical systems combined a Reduction Pond (RP) with a shallow, peripheral algal High Rate Pond (HRP). A Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) unit and a slow sand filter were used to remove particulate selenium from the effluent of each system. The two systems were operated under different modes of operation and the bacterial substrate varied in each system. The rates of nitrate and selenium removal were compared. Microalgae were harvested using DAF and used as a carbon-rich substrate for nitrate- and selenate-reducing bacteria. Mass removals of total soluble selenium of 77 percent or greater were achieved over a three-year period. Nitrate and selenate were removed by assimilatory and dissimilatory bacterial reduction, and nitrate was also removed by algal assimilation. The final removal of particulate selenium is the focus of ongoing investigations. The removal of particulate selenium is expected to increase the overall removal of selenium to greater than 90 percent and would allow farmers and drainage districts to discharge irrigation drainage in compliance with regulatory

  3. Metals in agricultural produce associated with acid-mine drainage in Mount Morgan (Queensland, Australia).

    PubMed

    Vicente-Beckett, Victoria A; McCauley, Gaylene J Taylor; Duivenvoorden, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) into the Dee River from the historic gold and copper mine in Mount Morgan, Queensland (Australia) has been of concern to farmers in the area since 1925. This study sought to determine the levels of AMD-related metals and sulfur in agricultural produce grown near the mine-impacted Dee River, compare these with similar produce grown in reference fields (which had no known AMD influence), and assess any potential health risk using relevant Australian or US guidelines. Analyses of lucerne (Medicago sativa; also known as alfalfa) from five Dee fields showed the following average concentrations (mg/kg dry basis): Cd < 1, Cu 11, Fe 106, Mn 52, Pb < 5, Zn 25 and S 3934; similar levels were found in lucerne hay (used as cattle feed) from two Dee fields. All lucerne and lucerne hay data were generally comparable with levels found in the lucerne reference fields, suggesting no AMD influence; the levels were within the US National Research Council (US NRC) guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake. Pasture grass (also cattle feed) from two fields in the Dee River floodplains gave mean concentrations (mg/kg dry) of Cd 0.14, Cu 12, Fe 313, Mn 111, Pb 1.4, Zn 86 and S 2450. All metal levels from the Dee and from reference sites were below the US NRC guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake; however, the average Cd, Cu and Fe levels in Dee samples were significantly greater than the corresponding levels in the pasture grass reference sites, suggesting AMD influence in the Dee samples. The average levels in the edible portions of mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata) from Dee sites (mg/kg wet weight) were Cd 0.011, Cu 0.59, Fe 2.2, Mn 0.56, Pb 0.18, S 91 and Zn 0.96. Cd and Zn were less than or close to, average Fe and Mn levels were at most twice, Cd 1.8 or 6.5 times, and Pb 8.5 or 72 times the maximum levels in raw oranges reported in the US total diet study (TDS) or the Australian TDS, respectively. Average Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and

  4. Saline Drainage and Waste Water Use and its Effects on Forages and Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shallow saline water tables in the western San Joaquin Valley result from regional water management and irrigation. Since 1999, saline-sodic drainage and other waste waters (range: ECiw: 2-10 dS m-1) have been used to irrigate Bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon) grazed rotationally by cattle at a 30 ...

  5. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Poulikakos, L D; Sedighi Gilani, M; Derome, D; Jerjen, I; Vontobel, P

    2013-07-01

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands. PMID:23500651

  6. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    PubMed

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. PMID:26024280

  7. Network for Monitoring Agricultural Water Quantity and Water Quality in Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reba, M. L.; Daniels, M.; Chen, Y.; Sharpley, A.; Teague, T. G.; Bouldin, J.

    2012-12-01

    A network of agricultural monitoring sites was established in 2010 in Arkansas. The state of Arkansas produces the most rice of any state in the US, the 3rd most cotton and the 3rd most broilers. By 2050, agriculture will be asked to produce food, feed, and fiber for the increasing world population. Arkansas agriculture is challenged with reduced water availability from groundwater decline and the associated increase in pumping costs. Excess nutrients, associated in part to agriculture, influence the hypoxic condition in the Gulf of Mexico. All sites in the network are located at the edge-of-field in an effort to relate management to water quantity and water quality. The objective of the network is to collect scientifically sound data at field scales under typical and innovative management for the region. Innovative management for the network includes, but is not limited to, variable rate fertilizer, cover crops, buffer strips, irrigation water management, irrigation planning, pumping plant monitoring and seasonal shallow water storage. Data collection at the sites includes quantifying water inputs and losses, and water quality. Measured water quality parameters include sediment and dissolved nitrate, nitrite and orthophosphate. The measurements at the edge-of-field will be incorporated into the monitoring of field ditches and larger drainage systems to result in a 3-tiered monitoring effort. Partners in the creation of this network include USDA-ARS, Arkansas State University, University of Arkansas, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USDA-NRCS and agricultural producers representing the major commodities of the state of Arkansas. The network is described in detail with preliminary results presented.

  8. Virtual water exported from Californian agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Johansson, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    In an increasingly teleconnected world, international trade drives the exchange of virtual land and water as crops produced in one region are consumed in another. In theory, this can be an optimal use of scarce resources if crops are grown where they can most efficiently be produced. Several recent analyses examine the export of land and water from food production in developing countries where these resources may be more abundant. Here we focus on a developed region and examine the virtual export of land and water from California, the leading agricultural state in the US and the leading global producer of a wide range of fruit, nut, and other specialty crops. As the region faces a serious, ongoing drought, water use is being questioned, and water policy governance re-examined, particularly in the agricultural sector which uses over three-quarters of water appropriations in the state. We look at the blue water embodied in the most widely grown crops in California and use network analysis to examine the trading patterns for flows of virtual land and water. We identify the main crops and export partners representing the majority of water exports. Considered in the context of tradeoffs for land and water resources, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for food production systems to play a sustainable role in meeting human needs while protecting the life-support systems of the planet.

  9. Effect of Water Mine Drainage on Estimation of Surface Runoff in Hilly Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Liu, P.; Gao, Z.; Han, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Large amounts of groundwater are discharged during underground mining operations, which result in the drawdown of groundwater, known as aquifer dewatering in mining areas. As a result, groundwater runoff condition is inevitably changed. In addition, the surface runoff situation may be influenced indirectly, even decreased its amount owing to the hydraulic connection between surface water and groundwater. Moreover, the deceased surface runoff may lead to significantly effect on the surrounding agriculture irrigation, safe drinking and ecological environment, especially in the hilly area with poor developed and minimal storage capacity aquifer. Using the numerical simulation method, the above mentioned problems are given detailed analysis in the case study of a mine lied in the middle of china. According to the mine development and utilization scheme, the mine water yield calculated using the module MODFLOW is nearly 83.0×104m3/a during the twenty-four years of mining. The area having obvious groundwater level drawdown caused by the mine drainage is about 5.75 km2. Besides, the annual surface runoff is decreased by 20.4%, generally resulted in the river depletion from January to March.

  10. DRINKING WATER FROM AGRICULTURALLY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...

  11. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servais, P.; Billen, G.; Goncalves, A.; Garcia-Armisen, T.

    2007-09-01

    The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise) of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC), the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC concentrations in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the european water framework directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms or organic matter and

  12. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servais, P.; Billen, G.; Goncalves, A.; Garcia-Armisen, T.

    2007-05-01

    The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise) of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC), the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC abundance in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms or organic matter and

  13. Contaminant Transport to Shallow Drainage Water in Pothole Topography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient and herbicide losses from row crop agriculture represent potential environmental and human health hazards. In order to determine where nutrient and herbicide mitigation strategies can be targeted for optimum performance, levels of nutrients and herbicides were measured in an agricultural dr...

  14. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  15. Soil Water and Shallow Groundwater Relations in an Agricultural Hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logsdon, S. D.; Schilling, K. E.

    2007-12-01

    Shallow water tables contribute to soil water variations under rolling topography, and soil properties contribute to shallow water table fluctutations. Preferential flow through large soil pores can cause a rise in the water table with little increase in soil water except near the soil surface. Lateral groundwater flow can cause a large rise in water table at toeslope and depressional landscape positions. As plants transpire, water can move up into the root zone from the water table and wet soil below the root zone. Roots can utilize water in the capillary fringe. The purpose of this study was to interface automated measurements of soil water content and water table depth for determining the importance of drainage and upward movement. In 2006 soil water and water table depth were monitored at three positions: shoulder, backslope, and toeslope. Neutron access tubes were manually monitored to 2.3 m depth, and automated soil moisture was measured using CS616 probes installed at 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 m depth. Water table depths were monitored manually and automated, but the automated measurements failed during the season at two sites. In 2007, similar measurements were made at one toeslope position, but the CS616 probes were installed at nine depths and better quality automated well depth equipment was used. The 2006 data revealed little landscape position effect on daytime soil water loss on a wetter date; however, on a dry day just before a rain, daytime water loss was greatest for the toeslope positon and least for the shoulder position. After a period of intense rain, a rapid and significant water table rise occurred at the toeslope position but little water table rise occurred at the other landscape positions. The rapid toeslope water table rise was likely caused by lateral groundwater flow whereas minor water table rise at the other positions was likely due to preferential flow since the soil had not wet up below 0.6 m. Use of automated equipment has improved

  16. Acceleration of Selenium Volatilization in Seleniferous Agricultural Drainage Sediments Amended With Methionine and Casein.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoremediation is a potential tool for the management of excessive Se in drainage sediment residing in the San Luis Drain in central California via plant extraction or biological volatilization of Se. This two-year field study in 2004/2005 examined the ability of organic amendments-methionine and ...

  17. Long-Term Monitoring of Waterborne Pathogens and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Paired Agricultural Watersheds under Controlled and Conventional Tile Drainage Management

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A.; Gannon, Victor; Gottschall, Natalie; Jokinen, Cassandra C.; Jones, Tineke H.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Marti, Romain; Sunohara, Mark D.; Topp, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Surface waters from paired agricultural watersheds under controlled tile drainage (CTD) and uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) were monitored over 7 years in order to determine if there was an effect of CTD (imposed during the growing season) on occurrences and loadings of bacterial and viral pathogens, coliphages, and microbial source tracking markers. There were significantly lower occurrences of human, ruminant, and livestock (ruminant plus pig) Bacteroidales markers in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD watershed. As for pathogens, there were significantly lower occurrences of Salmonella spp. and Arcobacter spp. in the CTD watershed. There were no instances where there were significantly higher quantitative loadings of any microbial target in the CTD watershed, except for F-specific DNA (F-DNA) and F-RNA coliphages, perhaps as a result of fecal inputs from a hobby farm independent of the drainage practice treatments. There was lower loading of the ruminant marker in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD system, and results were significant at the level P = 0.06. The odds of Salmonella spp. occurring increased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent, yet for Arcobacter spp., the odds of this pathogen occurring significantly decreased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent (but increased when a wildlife marker was present relative to when the wildlife marker was absent). Interestingly, the odds of norovirus GII (associated with human and swine) occurring in water increased significantly when a ruminant marker was present relative to when a ruminant marker was absent. Overall, this study suggests that fecal pollution from tile-drained fields to stream could be reduced by CTD utilization. PMID:24727274

  18. Use of O and S Isotopes to Define Sources of Water and Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnest, D.

    2001-12-01

    Coal mining in Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and other states has resulted in acid mine drainage problems in rivers throughout the region. The underground workings at the Kempton Mine have been abandoned since the 1950's, and the water filling these mines is discharged at a rate of 6,000,000 gallons per day into the headwaters of the Potomac River. This water has an average pH of 3.0 and an average dissolved load of 1 g/L. Evaluation of the mitigation options requires identification of water and acidity sources. We are using isotopic compositions of mine drainage waters to define hydrologic sources, flow paths, and acid sources. Water samples were taken monthly of mine water and other local sources. Oxygen isotope analyses are conducted on these samples. Seasonal variations in δ ^{18}O composition of mine drainage would suggest significant rapid meteoric input. Little or no variation in \\delta18O composition would suggest that mine drainage is derived primarily from groundwater sources or that the residence time in the mine is long. Sulfate precipitated as barite from these samples is analyzed for δ ^{34}S and \\delta18O. There is significantly more sulfate in the mine drainage waters than there is iron. The isotopic signature is used to determine whether the sulfur source is pyritic or organic. Sulfate δ 18O data are used to distinguish between sub-aerial and sub-aqueous oxidation of sulfur.

  19. Passive capillary sampler for measuring soil water drainage and flux in the vadose zone: Design, performance and enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various soil water samplers are used to monitor, measure and estimate drainage water, fluxes and solute transport in the soil vadose zone. Passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) have shown potential to provide better measurements and estimates of soil water drainage and fluxes than other lysimeters and ...

  20. Issues of sustainable irrigated agriculture in the San Joaquin Valley of California in a changing regulatory environment concerning water quality and protection of wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Delamore, M.L.

    1994-06-01

    Since the discovery of selenium toxicosis in the Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, California, public perception of irrigated agriculture as a benign competitor for California`s developed water supply has been changed irrevocably. Subsurface return flows from irrigated agriculture were implicated as the source of selenium which led to incidents of reproductive failure in waterfowl and threatened survival of other fish and wildlife species. Stringent water quality objectives were promulgated to protect rivers, tributaries, sloughs and other water bodies receiving agricultural discharges from selenium contamination. Achieving these objectives was left to the agricultural water districts, federal and state agencies responsible for drainage and water quality enforcement in the San Joaquin Basin. This paper describes some of the strategies to improve management of water resources and water quality in response to these new environmental objectives. Similar environmental objectives will likely be adopted by other developed and developing countries with large regions of arid zone agriculture and susceptible wildlife resources. A series of simulation models have been developed over the past four years to evaluate regional drainage management strategies such as: irrigation source control; drainage recycling; selective retirement of agricultural land; regional shallow ground water pumping; coordination of agricultural drainage, wetland and reservoir releases; and short-term ponding of drainage water. A new generation of Geographic Information Service-based software is under development to bridge the gap between planning and program implementation. Use of the decision support system will allow water districts and regulators to continuously monitor drainage discharges to the San Joaquin River in real-time and to assess impacts of management strategies that have been implemented to take advantage of the River`s assimilative capacity for trace elements and salts.

  1. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed. PMID:10842788

  2. Conservation implications of amphibian habitat relationships within channelized agricultural headwater streams in the midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for removing water from agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States. Channelized agricultural headwater s...

  3. Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials.

    PubMed

    Travar, Igor; Andreas, Lale; Kumpiene, Jurate; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (SCM), fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) sewage sludge, compost and its changes over time. Column tests, physical simulation models and a full scale field test were conducted. While the laboratory tests showed a clear trend for all studied constituents towards reduced concentrations over time, the concentrations in the field fluctuated considerably. The primary contaminants in the drainage water were Cl(-), N, dissolved organic matter and Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn with initial concentrations one to three orders of magnitude above the discharge values to the local recipient. Using a sludge/FA mixture in the protection layer resulted in less contaminated drainage water compared to a sludge/BA mixture. If the leaching conditions in the landfill cover change from reduced to oxidized, the release of trace elements from ashes is expected to last about one decade longer while the release of N and organic matter from the sludge can be shortened with about two-three decades. The observed concentration levels and their expected development over time require drainage water treatment for at least three to four decades before the water can be discharged directly to the recipient. PMID:25305684

  4. Agricultural Virtual Water Flows in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Dang, Q.; Lin, X.

    2014-12-01

    Global virtual water trade is an important research topic that has yielded several interesting insights. In this paper, we present a comprehensive assessment of virtual water flows within the USA, a country with global importance as a major agricultural producer and trade power. This is the first study of domestic virtual water flows based upon intra-national food flow data and it provides insight into how the properties of virtual water flows vary across scales. We find that both the value and volume of food flows within the USA are roughly equivalent to half that of international flows. However, USA food flows are more water intensive than international food trade, due to the higher fraction of water-intensive meat trade within the USA. The USA virtual water flow network is more social, homogeneous, and equitable than the global virtual water trade network, although it is still not perfectly equitable. Importantly, a core group of U.S. States is central to the network structure, indicating that both domestic and international trade may be vulnerable to disruptive climate or economic shocks in these U.S. States.

  5. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative... agreements with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water... Agricultural Water Enhancement Program Legislative Authority The Agricultural Water Enhancement Program...

  6. Hydrological variability and agricultural drainage ditch nutrient mitigation capacity: Inorganic nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers on agricultural landscapes has the potential to generate environmental degradation concerns at fine to coarse scales across the catchment and landscape. Inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia) are typically associated with subsurface f...

  7. Field-scale monitoring of the long-term impact and sustainability of drainage water reuse on the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Dennis L

    2012-05-01

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a water resource rather than a disposal problem. Drainage water from tile-drained, irrigated agricultural land is degraded water that is often in large supply, but the long-term impact and sustainability of its reuse on soil is unknown. Similarly, nothing is known of the ramifications of terminating drainage water reuse. The objective of this study is (i) to monitor the long-term impact on soil chemical properties and thereby the sustainability of drainage water reuse on a marginally productive, saline-sodic, 32.4 ha field located on the west side of California's productive San Joaquin Valley and (ii) to assess spatially what happens to soil when drainage water reuse is terminated. The monitoring and assessment were based on spatial chemical data for soil collected during 10 years of irrigation with drainage water followed by 2 years of no applied irrigation water (only rainfall). Geo-referenced measurements of apparent soil electrical conductivity (EC(a)) were used to direct the soil sampling design to characterize spatial variability of impacted soil properties. Chemical analyses of soil samples were used (i) to characterize the spatial variability of salinity, Na, B, and Mo, which were previously identified as critical to the yield and quality of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (l.) Pers.) grown for livestock consumption and (ii) to monitor their change during the 12 year study. Soil samples were taken at 0.3 m increments to a depth of 1.2 m at each of 40 sample sites on five occasions: August 1999, April 2002, November 2004, August 2009, and May 2011. Drainage water varying in salinity (1.8-16.3 dS m(-1)), SAR (5.2-52.4), Mo (80-400 μg L(-1)), and B (0.4-15.1 mg L(-1)) was applied from July 2000 to June 2009. Results indicate that salts, Na, Mo, and B were leached from the root zone causing a significant improvement in soil quality from 1999 to 2009. Salinity and SAR

  8. Patterns and controls of nitrous oxide emissions from waters draining a subtropical agricultural valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, John; Matson, Pamela

    2003-09-01

    Although nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from agricultural runoff is thought to constitute a globally important source of this greenhouse gas, N2O flux from polluted aquatic systems is poorly understood and scarcely reported, especially in low-latitude (0°-30°) regions where rapid agricultural intensification is occurring. We measured N2O emissions, dissolved N2O concentrations, and factors likely to control rates of N2O production in drainage canals receiving agricultural and mixed agricultural/urban inputs from the intensively farmed Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. Average per-area N2O flux in both purely agricultural and mixed urban/agricultural drainage systems (16.5 ng N2O-N cm-2 hr-1) was high compared to other fresh water fluxes, and extreme values ranged up to 244.6 ng N2O-N cm-2 hr-1. These extremely high N2O fluxes occurred during green algae blooms, when organic carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen concentrations were high, and only in canals receiving pig-farm and urban inputs, suggesting an important link between land-use and N2O emissions. N2O concentrations and fluxes correlated significantly with water column concentrations of nitrate, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, and chlorophyll a, and a multiple linear regression model including ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon was the best predictor of [N2O] (r2 = 52%). Despite high per-area N2O fluxes, our estimate of regional N2O emission from surface drainage (20,869 kg N2O-N yr-1; 0.046% of N-fertilizer inputs) was low compared to values predicted by algorithms used in global budgets.

  9. Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use.

    PubMed

    Fereres, Elias; Soriano, María Auxiliadora

    2007-01-01

    At present and more so in the future, irrigated agriculture will take place under water scarcity. Insufficient water supply for irrigation will be the norm rather than the exception, and irrigation management will shift from emphasizing production per unit area towards maximizing the production per unit of water consumed, the water productivity. To cope with scarce supplies, deficit irrigation, defined as the application of water below full crop-water requirements (evapotranspiration), is an important tool to achieve the goal of reducing irrigation water use. While deficit irrigation is widely practised over millions of hectares for a number of reasons - from inadequate network design to excessive irrigation expansion relative to catchment supplies - it has not received sufficient attention in research. Its use in reducing water consumption for biomass production, and for irrigation of annual and perennial crops is reviewed here. There is potential for improving water productivity in many field crops and there is sufficient information for defining the best deficit irrigation strategy for many situations. One conclusion is that the level of irrigation supply under deficit irrigation should be relatively high in most cases, one that permits achieving 60-100% of full evapotranspiration. Several cases on the successful use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in fruit trees and vines are reviewed, showing that RDI not only increases water productivity, but also farmers' profits. Research linking the physiological basis of these responses to the design of RDI strategies is likely to have a significant impact in increasing its adoption in water-limited areas. PMID:17088360

  10. Occurrence, distribution, and transport of pesticides in agricultural irrigation-return flow from four drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project, Washington, 2002-04, and comparison with historical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Frans, Lonna M.; Huffman, Raegan L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from sites in four irrigation return-flow drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project from July 2002 through October 2004. Ten samples were collected throughout the irrigation season (generally April through October) and two samples were collected during the non-irrigation season. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and a suite of 107 pesticides and pesticide metabolites (pesticide transformation products) and to document the occurrence, distribution, and pesticides transport and pesticide metabolites. The four drainage basins vary in size from 19 to 710 square miles. Percentage of agricultural cropland ranges from about 35 percent in Crab Creek drainage basin to a maximum of 75 percent in Lind Coulee drainage basin. More than 95 percent of cropland in Red Rock Coulee, Crab Creek, and Sand Hollow drainage basins is irrigated, whereas only 30 percent of cropland in Lind Coulee is irrigated. Forty-two pesticides and five metabolites were detected in samples from the four irrigation return-flow drainage basins. The most compounds detected were in samples from Sand Hollow with 37, followed by Lind Coulee with 33, Red Rock Coulee with 30, and Crab Creek with 28. Herbicides were the most frequently detected pesticides, followed by insecticides, metabolites, and fungicides. Atrazine, bentazon, diuron, and 2,4-D were the most frequently detected herbicides and chlorpyrifos and azinphos-methyl were the most frequently detected insecticides. A statistical comparison of pesticide concentrations in surface-water samples collected in the mid-1990s at Crab Creek and Sand Hollow with those collected in this study showed a statistically significant increase in concentrations for diuron and a statistically significant decrease for ethoprophos and atrazine in Crab Creek. Statistically significant increases were in concentrations of bromacil, diuron, and

  11. Transport of Salmonella spp. and indicator bacteria to drainage tile waters under cornfields receiving poultry manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface water, however, the transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from manure application fields and the correlation of these indicators to pathogens in this setting is poorly understood. Salmonella spp. is prevalent in poul...

  12. Drainmod-simulated performance of drainage water management across the U.S. Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (DWM) is currently being proposed as a BMP for reducing nutrient export from drained cropland in the U.S. Midwest to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. The effectiveness of the practice in the Midwest has not been well documented. We conducted a simulation study ...

  13. Impact of Fertigation versus Slow Release Fertilizer Formulations on Nitrate Enrichment of Nursery Drainage Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate-nitrogen losses in surface drainage and runoff water from ornamental plant production areas can be significant. In nitrogen-limited watersheds discharge of nitrogen (N) from production areas can have significant, negative impacts on non-target aquatic systems. This study monitored nitrate-N...

  14. Automated Passive Capillary Lysimeters for Estimating Water Drainage in the Vadose Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we demonstrated and evaluated the performance and accuracy of an automated PCAP lysimeters that we designed for in-situ continuous measuring and estimating of drainage water below the rootzone of a sugarbeet-potato-barley rotation under two irrigation frequencies. Twelve automated PC...

  15. Efficacy of passive capillary samplers for estimating soil water drainage in the vadose zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy and accuracy of PCAP samplers were evaluated for continuous estimating of soil water drainage and fluxes below the rootzone of a sugarbeet-potato-barley rotation under two irrigation frequencies. Twelve automated PCAPs with outside sampling surface dimensions of 91 cm length x 31 cm wid...

  16. ASSESSING MINE DRAINAGE WATER QUALITY FROM THE COLOR AND SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE OF CHEMICAL PRECIPITATES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The pH and dissolved sulfate concentrations of mine impacted waters were estimated on the basis of the spectral reflectance of resident sediments composed mostly of chemical precipitates. Mine drainage sediments were collected from sites in the Anthracite Region of eastern Pe...

  17. Use of Industrial Byproducts and Natural Minerals to Filter Nutrients and Pesticides in Golf Green Drainage Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage is an essential water management feature of managed turfgrass systems. Drainage water carries soluble nutrients and pesticides to streams. Identifying materials and testing the efficacy of those materials as filtering agents is one proposed solution to mitigate offsite transport. We co...

  18. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  19. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Qadir, M; Oster, J D

    2004-05-01

    Irrigation has long played a key role in feeding the expanding world population and is expected to play a still greater role in the future. As supplies of good-quality irrigation water are expected to decrease in several regions due to increased municipal-industrial-agricultural competition, available freshwater supplies need to be used more efficiently. In addition, reliance on the use and reuse of saline and/or sodic drainage waters, generated by irrigated agriculture, seems inevitable for irrigation. The same applies to salt-affected soils, which occupy more than 20% of the irrigated lands, and warrant attention for efficient, inexpensive and environmentally acceptable management. Technologically and from a management perspective, a couple of strategies have shown the potential to improve crop production under irrigated agriculture while minimizing the adverse environmental impacts. The first strategy, vegetative bioremediation--a plant-assisted reclamation approach--relies on growing appropriate plant species that can tolerate ambient soil salinity and sodicity levels during reclamation of salt-affected soils. A variety of plant species of agricultural significance have been found to be effective in sustainable reclamation of calcareous and moderately sodic and saline-sodic soils. The second strategy fosters dedicating soils to crop production systems where saline and/or sodic waters predominate and their disposal options are limited. Production systems based on salt-tolerant plant species using drainage waters may be sustainable with the potential of transforming such waters from an environmental burden into an economic asset. Such a strategy would encourage the disposal of drainage waters within the irrigated regions where they are generated rather than exporting these waters to other regions via discharge into main irrigation canals, local streams, or rivers. Being economically and environmentally sustainable, these strategies could be the key to future

  20. Subglacial water drainage, storage, and piracy beneath the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Hubbard, A. L.; Doyle, S. H.; As, D.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; Fitzpatrick, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Meltwater drainage across the surface of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is well constrained by measurements and modeling, yet despite its critical role, knowledge of its transit through the subglacial environment remains limited. Here we present a subglacial hydrological analysis of a land-terminating sector of the GrIS at unprecedented resolution that predicts the routing of surface-derived meltwater once it has entered the basal drainage system. Our analysis indicates the probable existence of small subglacial lakes that remain undetectable by methods using surface elevation change or radar techniques. Furthermore, the analysis suggests transient behavior with rapid switching of subglacial drainage between competing catchments driven by seasonal changes in the basal water pressure. Our findings provide a cautionary note that should be considered in studies that attempt to relate and infer future response from surface temperature, melt, and runoff from point measurements and/or modeling with measurements of proglacial discharge and ice dynamics.

  1. Water and Heat Balance Model for Predicting Drainage Below the Plant Root Zone

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1989-11-01

    UNSAT-H Version 2.0 is a one-dimensional model that simulates the dynamic processes of infiltration, drainage, redistribution, surface evaporation, and the uptake of water from soil by plants. The model was developed for assessing the water dynamics of arid sites used or proposed for near-surface waste disposal. In particular, the model is used for simulating the water balance of cover systems over buried waste and for estimating the recharge rate (i.e., the drainage rate beneath themore » plant root zone when a sizable vadose zone is present). The mathematical base of the model are Richards'' equation for water flow, Ficks'' law for vapor diffusion, and Fouriers law for heat flow. The simulated profile can be homogeneous or layered. The boundary conditions can be controlled as either constant (potential or temperature) or flux conditions to reflect actual conditions at a given site.« less

  2. A method for estimating pore water drainage from marsh soils using rainfall and well records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Leonard Robert; Gaines, Emily F.

    2008-08-01

    Rainfall events during low tide exposure cause the water table in marshes to rise. If one has long time series of both rain events and water levels in wells along transects from creek bank to marsh interior, one can correlate well response with rain amount. In cases examined so far the well response is found to be a linear function of rain amount. As it is reasonable to assume that the amount of tidal infiltration required to restore the water table to the elevation of the marsh surface is equal to the amount of rain that would be required to do so, one can estimate the annual drainage of pore water from a well site by dividing the mean drawdown of the water table at low tide by the slope of the response versus rain regression and then multiplying the result by the number of tidal drawdowns in a year. Integration of such results along the transect then gives an estimate of the total annual drainage. An example of the use of this method is given for two well transects in a Typha and a Spartina marsh at the Plum Island Estuary Long Term Ecological Research (PIE-LTER) site in Massachusetts, USA. Both transects yielded pore water drainage rates of about 160 m 3 year -1 per meter of channel length. Although the annual volume of pore water drainage is small compared to the annual volume of the tidal prism, its impact on nutrient budgets in the estuary could be large because of the high concentrations of nutrients in marsh pore waters. We also discuss the possible effects of the capillary fringe, air entrapment and tidal forcing during rain events on these results.

  3. Health risks from large-scale water pollution: Current trends and implications for improving drinking water quality in the lower Amu Darya drainage basin, Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2010-05-01

    Safe drinking water is a primary prerequisite to human health, well being and development. Yet, there are roughly one billion people around the world that lack access to safe drinking water supply. Health risk assessments are effective for evaluating the suitability of using various water sources as drinking water supply. Additionally, knowledge of pollutant transport processes on relatively large scales is needed to identify effective management strategies for improving water resources of poor quality. The lower Amu Darya drainage basin close to the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan suffers from physical water scarcity and poor water quality. This is mainly due to the intensive agriculture production in the region, which requires extensive freshwater withdrawals and use of fertilizers and pesticides. In addition, recurrent droughts in the region affect the surface water availability. On average 20% of the population in rural areas in Uzbekistan lack access to improved drinking water sources, and the situation is even more severe in the lower Amu Darya basin. In this study, we consider health risks related to water-borne contaminants by dividing measured substance concentrations with health-risk based guideline values from the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, we analyse novel results of water quality measurements performed in 2007 and 2008 in the Mejdurechye Reservoir (located in the downstream part of the Amu Darya river basin). We furthermore identify large-scale trends by comparing the Mejdurechye results to reported water quality results from a considerable stretch of the Amu Darya river basin, including drainage water, river water and groundwater. The results show that concentrations of cadmium and nitrite exceed the WHO health-risk based guideline values in Mejdurechye Reservoir. Furthermore, concentrations of the since long ago banned and highly toxic pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) were detected in

  4. Isotopic composition of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway water just prior to final drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Helie, J.; McKay, J.; Lalonde, A.

    2006-12-01

    Controversies persist with respect to the impact of the final drainage of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway on the thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic, some 8.4 ka ago. The lack of response of planktic foraminifer isotope records, off Hudson Strait (i.e., at the outlet of the drainage channel) constitutes one of the most puzzling elements in this debate. However, data on the isotopic composition of drainage waters are needed to estimate the response of the 18-O-salinity relationship in NW Atlantic surface waters. In the literature, a large array of isotopic compositions have been suggested, notably for modeling experiment purposes. Scattered information about the isotopic composition of Lake Agassiz water does exist. It includes isotopic measurements of pore waters of lacustrine sediments [1], analyses of oxygen isotopes in cellulose from algal or plant remains [2], and stable isotope compositions of concretions from varves [3]. Whereas, relatively low oxygen isotope values (apx. -25 per mil vs. VSMOW) are inferred for Lake Agassiz waters during cold pulses of the deglaciation, most data suggest much higher values during the final stages of Lake Agassiz-Ojiway, just prior to its drainage. Calcareous concretions from Lake Ojibway varves (not necessarily contemporaneous to the lacustrine stage) yielded oxygen isotope compositions of about -10 per mil (vs. VPDB), suggesting values as high as -14 per mil (vs. VSMOW) for pore waters (assuming a 0-4 degrees C temperature range). Similar high values (as high as -8 per mil vs. VSMOW [1]) were also estimated from pore water analyses of contemporaneous Lake Agassiz sediments. Here, we used a core raised from Eastern Hudson Bay, off Great Whale River, to further document isotopic compositions of the lake waters prior to their drainage into the North Atlantic. The 7.40 m long core has an apx. 1.3 m-thick lacustrine layer at its base, including the drainage sub- layer. It is overlain by Tyrrell Sea clays. Scarce valves of Candona

  5. Effects of recharge from drainage wells on quality of water in the Floridan Aquifer in the Orlando area, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiner, G.R.; German, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    Approximately 400 drainage wells in the Orlando area inject, by gravity, large quantities of stormwater runoff that may or may not be suitable for most purposes without treatment into the same freshwater zones of the Floridan aquifer tapped for public supply. The wells are used mostly to control lake levels and dispose of urban storm runoff. Recharge from drainage wells compensates for heavy withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer and helps maintain aquifer pressures that retard upward saltwater encroachment. Sixty-five supply wells and 21 drainage wells within a 16-mile radius of Orlando were sampled from September 1977 to June 1979. Most constituent concentrations were slightly higher in water from drainage wells than in water from supply wells. The most notable differences were in bacteria colony count and total nitrogen concentrations. With the exception of bacteria, water from drainage wells would generally meet the maximum contaminant levels established by the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. (USGS)

  6. (226) RA AND (228) RA ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE PONDS AND WETLAND PONDS IN THE KANKAKEE WATERSHED, IL-IN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background radioactivity is elevated in many agricultural drainage ponds and also constructed wetland ponds in the Kankakee watershed. During 1995-1999, gross-a and -B activities were measured up to 455 and 1650 mBq L-1, respectively. 226Ra and 228Ra averaged 139 and 192 mBq L-01...

  7. Mine drainage and rock type influences on eastern Ohio stream water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helsel, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    Stream water during fair weather (base flow) is largely ground water discharge, which has been in contact with minerals of the underlying aquifer. Base flow water quality should therefore reflect aquifer mineralogy as well as upstream land use. Three upstream mining categories (unmined lands, abandoned coal mines, and reclaimed coal mines) differed in pH, specific conductance, sulfate, iron, aluminum, and alkalinity for 122 streams in eastern Ohio. Aquifer rock type influenced pH, specific conductance, sulfate, iron, and alkalinity. Reclamation returned many components of acid mine drainage to near unmined levels, although sulfate and specific conductance were not improved. Acid mine drainage problems were less severe in watersheds underlain by the calcareous Monongahela Formation. These results should apply to other Appalachian coal regions having similar rock units. Refs.

  8. Using a hybrid model to predict solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff with controlled drainage water.

    PubMed

    Tong, Juxiu; Hu, Bill X; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhu, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The mixing layer theory is not suitable for predicting solute transfer from initially saturated soil to surface runoff water under controlled drainage conditions. By coupling the mixing layer theory model with the numerical model Hydrus-1D, a hybrid solute transfer model has been proposed to predict soil solute transfer from an initially saturated soil into surface water, under controlled drainage water conditions. The model can also consider the increasing ponding water conditions on soil surface before surface runoff. The data of solute concentration in surface runoff and drainage water from a sand experiment is used as the reference experiment. The parameters for the water flow and solute transfer model and mixing layer depth under controlled drainage water condition are identified. Based on these identified parameters, the model is applied to another initially saturated sand experiment with constant and time-increasing mixing layer depth after surface runoff, under the controlled drainage water condition with lower drainage height at the bottom. The simulation results agree well with the observed data. Study results suggest that the hybrid model can accurately simulate the solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff under controlled drainage water condition. And it has been found that the prediction with increasing mixing layer depth is better than that with the constant one in the experiment with lower drainage condition. Since lower drainage condition and deeper ponded water depth result in later runoff start time, more solute sources in the mixing layer are needed for the surface water, and larger change rate results in the increasing mixing layer depth. PMID:26983916

  9. Appraisal of ground water in the vicinity of the Leadville drainage tunnel, Lake County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, John T.; Taylor, O. James

    1979-01-01

    Ground water in the Leadville mining district occurs in granite, quartzite, limestone, sandstone, porphyry dikes, and unconsolidated material. These rocks form a single aquifer system because the formations are hydraulically connected through contact, mine workings, faulting, and fracturing. The aquifer is recharged by precipitation and water moves toward California Gulch and probably toward Evans Gulch, in the drainage basin of the Arkansas River. The Leadville drainage tunnel was constructed from 1943 to 1945 and later extended during 1950 to 1952, in order to drain the mine workings. Discharge from the tunnel lowered water levels 30 to 96 feet in mine shafts from 1944 to 1951. Installation of an impervious plug in the tunnel has been proposed in order to reduce the discharge of water containing objectionable concentrations of trace metals into the East Fork Arkansas River. The proposed plug would reduce the discharge from the tunnel, cause water levels east of the town of Leadville to rise, flood some mine workings, and increase ground-water discharge to California Gulch. However, the proposed plug is not expected to cause water levels in Leadville to rise substantially, but more current and detailed data are needed to verify this. Discharge from the Leadville drainage tunnel is probably a mixture of water in equilibrium with carbonate aquifer materials from the mineralized zone, water acidified by the localized oxidation of pyrite from the mineralized zone, and water nearly saturated with calcite from the glacial mantle. Based on limited data, water from the carbonate mineral deposits has a pH of about 7.0 and concentrations of manganese of about 1,800 micrograms per liter and zinc concentrations of about 13,000 micrograms per liter. (USGS)

  10. Dynamics of nitrate and chloride during storm events in agricultural catchments with different subsurface drainage intensity (Indiana, USA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grids of perforated pipe buried beneath many poorly drained agricultural fields in the Midwestern U.S. are believed to “short circuit” pools of nitrate-laden soil water and shallow groundwater directly into streams that eventually discharge to the Mississippi River. Although much is known about the ...

  11. Effects of drainage on water, sediment and biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engberg, Richard A.; Sylvester, Marc A.; Feltz, Herman R.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior started a program in 1985 to identify effects of irrigation-induced trace constituents in water, bottom sediment and biota. The program was developed in response to concerns that contamination similar to that found in 1983 at Kesterson Reservoir in California might exist elsewhere. Studies are complete or underway for 26 sites in 15 western States. Selenium is the trace constituent most often found at elevated concentrations in all media. Maximum selenium concentrations in fish from 9 of 20 areas exceeded the threshold concentration for adverse reproductive effects. Maximum selenium concentrations in bird livers from 11 areas exceeded the level at which embryonic deformities are likely; deformed birds were observed in 5 areas. Trace constituent problems may be anticipated if geologic sources such as marine shales occur in an irrigation project area. The potential for problems is increased if closed basins or sinks are present.

  12. Integrating Phytoextraction and Biofortification: Fungal Accumulation of Selenium in Plant Materials from Phytoremediation of Agricultural Drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytomanagement of Se-polluted soil and water is one strategy that may be environmentally sustainable and cost-effective for soils and waters enriched with natural-occurring Se. Several plant species, including Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii), and other salt/S...

  13. Nitrogen fate in drainage ditches of the Coastal Plain after dredging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches are a key conduit of nitrogen (N) from agricultural fields to surface water. The effect of ditch dredging, a common practice to improve drainage, on the fate of N in ditch effluent is not well understood. This study evaluated the effect of dredging on N transport in drainage ditches...

  14. Environmental assessment of drainage water impacts on water quality and eutrophication level of Lake Idku, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ali, Elham M; Khairy, Hanan M

    2016-09-01

    Lake Idku, northern Egypt, receives large quantities of drainage water from four main discharging drains. Ecological and biological status of Lake Idku has been monitored during (autumn 2012 to summer 2013) to examine the lake water quality and eutrophication level in response to the quality as well as the source of the discharging water. Discrete water samples were collected from the lake body and the drains. Chemical analyses revealed an excessive nutrient load goes into the lake. A range of 1.4-10.6 mg nitrites/L was determined for drain waters, however a sudden increase was observed in lake and drain water samples of up to 84 and 74.5 mg/L, respectively. Reactive silicate ranged between 2.9 and 4.8 mg/L; while inorganic phosphate fluctuated between 0.2 and 0.43 mg/L. Transparency varied from 45 cm to 134 cm with better light conditions at drain sites. Biological results indicated a hyper-eutrophic status for the lake with a range of chlorophyll-a varied from a minimum of 39.9 μg/L (at Idku Drains) and a maximum of 104.2 μg/L (at El-Khairy drain). Phytoplankton community structure revealed higher abundance at lake sites compared with the drains. Maximum phytoplankton density was detected during summer with the dominance of Bacilariophyceae (e.g. Cyclotella meneghiniana, Cyclotella comate, Melosira varians) followed by Chlorophycean taxon (e.g. Scenedesmus dimorphus, S. bijuga and Crucigenia tetrapedia). Five indices were applied to evaluate the water quality of the lake. Diversity Index (DI) indicated slight to light pollution along all sites; while Sapropic Index (SI) indicated slight pollution with acceptable oxygen conditions and an availability of sensitive species. Palmer Index (PI) gave a strong evidence of high organic pollution at some sites in the lake, while Generic Diatom Index (GDI) revealed that levels of pollution varied from average to strong. Trophic Index (TI), suggest that there are an obvious signs of eutrophication in the lake. PMID

  15. Climate change mitigation for agriculture: water quality benefits and costs.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Robert; Elliott, Sandy; Hudson, Neale; Parkyn, Stephanie; Quinn, John

    2008-01-01

    impair wetland function to intercept and remove nitrate from drainage water, or even add to the overall N loading to waterways. DCD is water soluble and degrades rapidly in warm soil conditions. The recommended application rate of 10 kg DCD/ha corresponds to 6 kg N/ha and may be exceeded in warm climates. Of the N2O produced by agricultural systems, approximately 30% is emitted from indirect sources, which are waterways draining agriculture. It is important therefore to focus strategies for managing N inputs to agricultural systems generally to reduce inputs to wetlands and streams where these might be reduced to N2O. Waste management options include utilizing the CH4 resource produced in farm waste treatment ponds as a source of energy, with conversion to CO2 via combustion achieving a 21-fold reduction in GHG emissions. Both of these have co-benefits for waterways as a result of reduced loadings. A conceptual model derived showing the linkages between key land management practices for greenhouse gas mitigation and key waterway values and ecosystem attributes is derived to aid resource managers making decisions affecting waterways and atmospheric GHG emissions. PMID:19092184

  16. Effects of macro-pores on water flow in coastal subsurface drainage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Yu, Xiayang; Lu, Chunhui; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Leaching through subsurface drainage systems has been widely adopted to ameliorate saline soils. The application of this method to remove salt from reclaimed lands in the coastal zone, however, may be impacted by macro-pores such as crab burrows, which are commonly distributed in the soils. We developed a three-dimensional model to investigate water flow in subsurface drainage systems affected by macro-pores distributed deterministically and randomly through Monte Carlo simulations. The results showed that, for subsurface drainage systems under the condition of continuous surface ponding, macro-pores increased the hydraulic head in the deep soil, which in turn reduced the hydraulic gradient between the surface and deep soil. As a consequence, water infiltration across the soil surface was inhibited. Since salt transport in the soil is dominated by advection, the flow simulation results indicated that macro-pores decreased the efficiency of salt leaching by one order of magnitude, in terms of both the elapsed time and the amount of water required to remove salt over the designed soil leaching depth (0.6 m). The reduction of the leaching efficiency was even greater in drainage systems with a layered soil stratigraphy. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that with an increased penetration depth or density of macro-pores, the leaching efficiency decreased further. The revealed impact of macro-pores on water flow represents a significant shortcoming of the salt leaching technique when applied to coastal saline soils. Future designs of soil amelioration schemes in the coastal zone should consider and aim to minimize the bypassing effect caused by macro-pores.

  17. Water retention and drainage in different brands of microcrystalline cellulose: effect of measuring conditions.

    PubMed

    Nikolakakis, Ioannis; Tsarvouli, Konstantina; Malamataris, Stavros

    2006-07-01

    Interaction between water and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) measured as retention and cumulative drainage of water (WR% and CDW%) is investigated for unmilled and micronized standard (Avicel and Emcocel) and silicified (Prosolv) MCC brands. A centrifuge method was applied with increasing duration and different porosity and thickness of cylindrical powder beds (specimens), in order to establish optimal determination conditions and quantify alterations in interaction between water and different MCC brands. Also, changes of specimen thickness due to presence of water (swelling) were followed. It was found that the effect of specimen porosity and thickness on water drainage (CDW%) appears to be opposite to that on water retention (WR%), while two patterns of WR% and CDW% change with specimen porosity and thickness can be distinguished depending on the centrifugation time. Also, WR% and CDW% are affected by the MCC brand and the micronization. Unmilled silicified MCC brand (Prosolv) shows significantly lower retention and higher drainage of water compared to standard unmilled brands (Avicel and Emcocel), while differences between the unmilled standard Avicel and Emcocel brands are not easily distinguished. Micronization, in general, increases greatly the WR% and decreases CDW% for all the tested MCC brands, and enhances their differences even between Avicel and Emcocel. Swelling of specimen due to presence of water was observed, which was significantly reduced with the micronization, the specimen porosity, and centrifugation as well, but showed slight variation between the different MCC brands. Values of specimen porosity between 60% and 70%, thickness/diameter ratio between 0.75 and 1.0, and centrifugation time between 5 and 20 min provide optimal measuring settings for comparison of MCC brands. PMID:16527466

  18. Assessment of Vegetated Agricultural Drainage Ditches for Irrigation Runoff Mitigation in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread contamination of California water bodies by the organophosphate insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos is well documented. While their usage has decreased over the last few years, a concomitant increase in pyrethroid usage (e.g permethrin) (replacement insecticides) has occurred. Vegetate...

  19. CONTAMINANT RESULTS FROM AGRICULTURE AND DRAINAGE CHANGES ON A FLOOD CONTROL RESERVOIR IN MISSISSIPPI, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyses were conducted in water and sediment for 8 metals and 46 pesticides/contaminants at 25 stream/river locations within the Yalobusha River watershed and at 9 locations within Grenada Lake reservoir in north Mississippi. Most pesticides were detected seasonally at low concentrations in contri...

  20. EVALUATION OF A METHOD USING COLLOIDAL GAS APHRONS TO REMEDIATE METALS-CONTAMINATED MINE DRAINAGE WATERS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Williams Grimes

    2002-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in which three selected metals-contaminated mine drainage water samples were treated by chemical precipitation followed by flotation using colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) to concentrate the precipitates. Drainage water samples used in the experiments were collected from an abandoned turn-of-the-century copper mine in south-central Wyoming, an inactive gold mine in Colorado's historic Clear Creek mining district, and a relatively modern gold mine near Rapid City, South Dakota. The copper mine drainage sample was nearly neutral (pH 6.5) while the two gold mine samples were quite acidic (pH {approx}2.5). Metals concentrations ranged from a few mg/L for the copper mine drainage to several thousand mg/L for the sample from South Dakota. CGAs are emulsions of micrometer-sized soap bubbles generated in a surfactant solution. In flotation processes the CGA microbubbles provide a huge interfacial surface area and cause minimal turbulence as they rise through the liquid. CGA flotation can provide an inexpensive alternative to dissolved air flotation (DAF). The CGA bubbles are similar in size to the bubbles typical of DAF. However, CGAs are generated at ambient pressure, eliminating the need for compressors and thus reducing energy, capital, and maintenance costs associated with DAF systems. The experiments involved precipitation of dissolved metals as either hydroxides or sulfides followed by flotation. The CGAs were prepared using a number of different surfactants. Chemical precipitation followed by CGA flotation reduced contaminant metals concentrations by more than 90% for the copper mine drainage and the Colorado gold mine drainage. Contaminant metals were concentrated into a filterable sludge, representing less than 10% of the original volume. CGA flotation of the highly contaminated drainage sample from South Dakota was ineffective. All of the various surfactants used in this study generated a large sludge volume and none provided a significant

  1. RECYCLING OF RUNOFF AND DRAINAGE WATER IN THE MIDWEST U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An innovative agricultural water management system has been developed and is being tested for reduction of nonpoint source pollution of surface water streams. The system includes a constructed wetland and a water storage reservoir linked to subsurface pipes used at different times to drain or irriga...

  2. Contaminant exposure of willets feeding in agricultural drainages of the lower Rio Grande valley of south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) were collected in June and August 1986 at the outlets of two agricultural drainages into the Lower Laguna Madre of South Texas and at two other Texas coastal sites. Mean liver concentration of arsenic was higher in August than June. Over 20% of the livers had arsenic concentrations elevated above a suggested background level of 5.0 ppm dry weight (DW), but concentrations (maximum 15 ppm) were below those associated with acute toxicity. Selenium concentration in livers varied from 2.3 to 8.3 ppm DW for all locations and represented background levels. Mercury concentrations in livers for all locations (means = 2.0 to 3.4, maximum 17 ppm DW) were below those associated with avian mortality and similar to levels found in other estuarine/marine birds. DDE in carcasses was higher in adults (mean = 1.0 ppm wet weight) than juveniles (0.2 ppm), and higher in August (1.0 ppm) than June (0.5 ppm); however, DDE concentrations were generally at background levels. Based on brain cholinesterase activity, willets were not recently exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

  3. Contaminant exposure of willets feeding in agricultural drainages of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Mitchell, C A

    1991-02-01

    Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) were collected in June and August 1986 at the outlets of two agricultural drainages into the Lower Laguna Madre of South Texas and at two other Texas coastal sites. Mean liver concentration of arsenic was higher in August than June. Over 20% of the livers had arsenic concentrations elevated above a suggested background level of 5.0 ppm dry weight (DW), but concentrations (maximum 15 ppm) were below those associated with acute toxicity. Selenium concentration in livers varied from 2.3 to 8.3 ppm DW for all locations and represented background levels. Mercury concentrations in livers for all locations (means = 2.0 to 3.4, maximum 17 ppm DW) were below those associated with avian mortality and similar to levels found in other estuarine/marine birds. DDE in carcasses was higher in adults (mean = 1.0 ppm wet weight) than juveniles (0.2 ppm), and higher in August (1.0 ppm) than June (0.5 ppm); however, DDE concentrations were generally at background levels. Based on brain cholinesterase activity, willets were not recently exposed to organophosphate pesticides. PMID:24241892

  4. A three-step test of phosphate sorption efficiency of potential agricultural drainage filter materials.

    PubMed

    Lyngsie, G; Borggaard, O K; Hansen, H C B

    2014-03-15

    Phosphorus (P) eutrophication of lakes and streams, coming from drained farmlands, is a serious problem in areas with intensive agriculture. Installation of P sorbing filters at drain outlets may be a solution. Efficient sorbents to be used for such filters must possess high P bonding affinity to retain ortho-phosphate (Pi) at low concentrations. In addition high P sorption capacity, fast bonding and low desorption is necessary. In this study five potential filter materials (Filtralite-P(®), limestone, calcinated diatomaceous earth, shell-sand and iron-oxide based CFH) in four particle size intervals were investigated under field relevant P concentrations (0-161 μM) and retentions times of 0-24 min. Of the five materials examined, the results from P sorption and desorption studies clearly demonstrate that the iron based CFH is superior as a filter material compared to calcium based materials when tested against criteria for sorption affinity, capacity and stability. The finest CFH and Filtralite-P(®) fractions (0.05-0.5 mm) were best with P retention of ≥90% of Pi from an initial concentration of 161 μM corresponding to 14.5 mmol/kg sorbed within 24 min. They were further capable to retain ≥90% of Pi from an initially 16 μM solution within 1½ min. However, only the finest CFH fraction was also able to retain ≥90% of Pi sorbed from the 16 μM solution against 4 times desorption sequences with 6 mM KNO3. Among the materials investigated, the finest CFH fraction is therefore the only suitable filter material, when very fast and strong bonding of high Pi concentrations is needed, e.g. in drains under P rich soils during extreme weather conditions. PMID:24275107

  5. 7 CFR 1924.108 - Grading and drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grading and drainage. 1924.108 Section 1924.108... REGULATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and Performing Site Development Work § 1924.108 Grading and... affect the structure and show proposed solutions. Grading will promote drainage of surface water...

  6. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  7. Mercury in peat and its drainage waters in eastern North Carolina. Project completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.W.; DiGiulio, R.T.; Ryan, E.A.

    1984-09-01

    Mercury concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophometry in samples of peat and peatland drainage waters in both the western Pamlico-Albemarle Peninsula and Croatan National Forest of eastern North Carolina. Mercury concentrations were also measured in sediments, waters, and the benthic clam, Rangia cuneata, in the Pungo River which receives drainage from the former area. Total Hg concentrations measured ranged from 40 to 193 ng/g (dry weight) in peat, less than 2 to 20 ng/g dry weight in sediments, 25 to 32 ng/g wet weight in clams and less than 2 to 23 ng/l in water. These concentrations are all at the low end of the range of Hg concentrations in uncontaminated aquatic environments which indicates the absence of any identifiable Hg pollution under current conditions. The water concentrations, in particular, were all less than the current North Carolina water quality standard of 50 ng/L. Mercury in peat, sediments and water was largely associated with and strongly bound to organic matter which would restrict its biological availability to aquatic organisms.

  8. Land use policy and agricultural water management of the previous half of century in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valipour, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines land use policy and agricultural water management in Africa from 1962 to 2011. For this purpose, data were gathered from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Bank Group. Using the FAO database, ten indices were selected: permanent crops to cultivated area (%), rural population to total population (%), total economically active population in agriculture to total economically active population (%), human development index, national rainfall index (mm/year), value added to gross domestic product by agriculture (%), irrigation water requirement (mm/year), percentage of total cultivated area drained (%), difference between national rainfall index and irrigation water requirement (mm/year), area equipped for irrigation to cultivated area or land use policy index (%). These indices were analyzed for all 53 countries in the study area and the land use policy index was estimated by two different formulas. The results show that value of relative error is <20 %. In addition, an average index was calculated using various methods to assess countries' conditions for agricultural water management. Ability of irrigation and drainage systems was studied using other eight indices with more limited information. These indices are surface irrigation (%), sprinkler irrigation (%), localized irrigation (%), spate irrigation (%), agricultural water withdrawal (10 km3/year), conservation agriculture area as percentage of cultivated area (%), percentage of area equipped for irrigation salinized (%), and area waterlogged by irrigation (%). Finally, tendency of farmers to use irrigation systems for cultivated crops has been presented. The results show that Africa needs governments' policy to encourage farmers to use irrigation systems and raise cropping intensity for irrigated area.

  9. Evaluation of nitrate removal in buffer zone supply by water from agricultural drained catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesneau, Corinne; Tournebize, Julien; Chaumont, Cedric; Guenne, Angeline

    2010-05-01

    The European Directive 2000/60/CE states objectives of a good ecological and chemical status from water body until 2015. The Cemagref project focuses on the constructed wetlands (CW) which can be used as buffer zones to lower the impact of agricultural practices on hydrosystems and decrease or even stop the transfer of contaminants via the surface waters. The experiments are carried out on a drained area where the runoff is limited and waters from the soil profile are concentrated at the drain pipes outlet. The constructed wetland studied is located at Aulnoy (77) at 70 km north-east of Paris, within the Orgeval catchment (France). Our aim is to assess the efficiency of constructed wetlands on the removal of agricultural nitrates. We are also interested in the hydrological balance of CW and agricultural catchment. The buffer zone is connected to a drained agricultural catchment of 35 hectares. The crops in the agricultural plots mainly consist in cereals (corn, maize), vegetables (horse bean, pea), sugar beet and rape. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied following normal agricultural practices. The site is monitored since 2005 for discharge and nitrate concentration in order to infer water and nitrate budgets. The buffer zone includes a pond (860m2) and a reservoir (3305 m2). The storage volume is estimated to 8000m3 which corresponds to about 10% of drainage runoff. Our study reveals potential nitrate removal because a decrease of nitrate average contents has been documented between inlet and outlet CW over a measurement period of 4 years. Average values of 57 mg/l, 40 mg/l and 27 mg/l are respectively measured at the main drain, in the pond mean and in the reservoir; that is a reduction close to 50% of nitrate fluxes. The semi-potential denitrification experiments confirm the denitrification capacity of buffer zone sediments. This constructed wetland allows the treatment of waters from agricultural drainage and provides results in line with the expectations of "good

  10. Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part C, Summary of irrigation-drainage effects on water quality, bottom sediment, and biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Ray J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the detailed scientific study of Stillwater Wildlife Management Area and other nearby wetlands in west-central Nevada during 1987-90. The work was funded by the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior with the overall objectives of determining (1) the extent, magnitude, and effects of selected water-quality constituents associated with irrigation drainage on fish, wildlife, and human health, and (2) the sources and exposure pathways that cause contamination where adverse effects are documented. Much of the information in this report was summarized from two previously published interpretive reports that were completed to fulfill study objectives. Where applicable, data for the study area from other published sources also were utilized. The results of these studies indicate that the aquatic biota in natural wetlands of the Carson Desert are adversely affected by hydrological and geochemical sources and processes in the Newlands Irrigation Project area. Reactions between water and naturally occurring minerals in the shallow alluvial aquifer increase concentrations of potentially toxic constituents in ground water that eventually enters the wetlands. Once in the wetlands, these constituents are furhter concentrated by evaporation and transpiration. Water from some agricultural drains that enter Stillwater WMA was acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. The drains in the agricultural areas, which eventually discharge to the wetlands, were also implicated as sites of uptake of selenium and mercury by aquatic organisms.

  11. Grey water on three agricultural catchments in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazkova, Sarka D.; Kulasova, Alena

    2014-05-01

    The COST project EU EURO-AGRIWAT focuses apart from other problems on the assessment of water footprint (WF). WF is defined as the quantity of water used to produce some goods or a service. In particular, the WF of an agricultural product is the volume of water used during the crop growing period. It has three components: the green water which is rain or soil moisture transpired by a crop, the blue water which is the amount of irrigation water transpired and the grey water which is the volume of water required to dilute pollutants and to restore the quality standards of the water body. We have been observing three different agricultural catchments. The first of them is Smrzovka Brook, located in the protected nature area in the south part of the Jizerske Mountains. An ecological farming has been carried out there. The second agricultural catchment area is the Kralovsky Creek, which lies in the foothills of the Krkonose Mountains and is a part of an agricultural cooperative. The last agricultural catchment is the Klejnarka stream, located on the outskirts of the fertile Elbe lowlands near Caslav. Catchments Kralovsky Brook and Klejnarka carry out usual agricultural activities. On all three catchments, however, recreational cottages or houses not connected to the sewerage system and/or with inefficient septic tanks occur. The contribution shows our approach to trying to quantify the real grey water from agriculture, i.e. the grey water caused by nutrients not utilised by the crops.

  12. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface water in the Heart River drainage basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maderak, Marion L.

    1966-01-01

    The Heart River drainage basin of .southwestern North Dakota comprises an area of 3,365 square miles and lies within the Missouri Plateau of the Great Plains province. Streamflow of the Heart River and its tributaries during 1949-58 was directly proportional to .the drainage area. After the construction of Heart Butte Dam in 1949 and Dickinson Dam in 1950, the mean annual streamflow near Mandan was decreased an estimated 10 percent by irrigation, evaporation from the two reservoirs, and municipal use. Processes that contribute sediment to the Heart River are mass wasting, advancement of valley heads, and sheet, lateral stream, and gully erosion. In general, glacial deposits, terraces, and bars of Quaternary age are sources of sand and larger sediment, and the rocks of Tertiary age are sources of clay, silt. and sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharges near Mandan were estimated to be 1,300,000 tons for 1945-49 and 710,000 tons for 1970-58. The percentage composition of ions in water of the Heart River, based on average concentrations in equivalents per million for selected ranges of streamflow, changes with flow and from station to station. During extremely low flows the water contains a large percentage of sodium and about equal percentages of bicarbonate and .sulfate, and during extremely high flows the water contains a large percentage of calcium plus magnesium and bicarbonate. The concentrations, in parts per million, of most of the ions vary inversely with flow. The water in the reservoirs--Edward Arthur Patterson Lake and Lake Tschida--during normal or above-normal runoff is of suitable quality for public use. Generally, because of medium or high salinity hazards, the successful long-term use of Heart River water for irrigation will depend on a moderate amount of leaching, ,adequate drainage, ,and the growing of crops that have moderate or good salt tolerance.

  13. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  14. Occurrence of macrophyte monocultures in drainage ditches relates to phosphorus in both sediment and water.

    PubMed

    van Zuidam, Jeroen P; Peeters, Edwin Thm

    2013-01-01

    Monocultures of functional equivalent species often negatively affect nutrient cycling and overall biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems. The importance of water and sediment nutrients for the occurrence of monocultures was analysed using field data from drainage ditches. Ranges of nutrients were identified that best explained the occurrence of monocultures of Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John (Waterweed type), monocultures of duckweed (Duckweed type) and the occurrence of a diverse submerged vegetation (Mixed type). Results indicated these three vegetation types occurred at distinctive ranges of phosphorus in water and sediment. Sediment phosphorus distinguished monocultures from the Mixed type, with the two monocultures occurring at two to four times higher concentrations. The Waterweed type occurred at higher sediment phosphorus levels than the mixed type, showed a higher degree of dominance and lower number of red list species. Phosphorus concentrations in water were four to six times higher in the Duckweed type compared to the Waterweed and Mixed type. The three vegetation types had comparable total biomass which was unexpected. This comparability was likely caused by duckweed only growing at the water surface at the highest nutrient levels and the limited space in drainage ditches for increased submerged biomass development at high nutrient availability. Possible measures to limit the occurrence of monocultures, and thereby increasing the ecological quality, are discussed with focus on lowering phosphorus concentrations in both water and sediment and on removal of plant species that develop into monocultures. PMID:24255858

  15. PLANT SENESCENCE: A MECHANISM FOR NUTRIENT RELEASE IN TEMPERATE AGRICULTURAL WETLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture drainage ditches are primary intercept wetlands in amelioration of nutrient pollution from agricultural fields. Drainage ditches, as integral components of the agricultural landscape, remove surface run-off and act as major conduits of nutrients from agricultural lands to receiving water...

  16. Continual Evaluation of Ditch Sediment and Phosphorus Dynamics in tile fed Drainage Ditches in the St. Joseph Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistent phosphorus (P) amendments to agricultural land continue to be the leading cause of eutrophication and surface water degradation. Therefore, understanding P transport and interaction with agricultural drainage ditch sediments is vital for the development of effective predictive models and ...

  17. SOIL-SOILN simulations of water drainage and nitrate nitrogen transport from soil core lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Jabro, J D; Stout, W L; Fales, S L; Fox, R H

    2001-01-01

    Water resources protection from nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) contamination is an important public concern and a major national environmental issue. The abilities of the SOIL-SOILN model to simulate water drainage and nitrate N fluxes from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) were evaluated using data from a 3-yr field experiment. The soil is classified as a Hagerstown silt loam soil (fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf). Nitrate losses below the 1-m depth from N-fertilized grazed orchardgrass were measured with intact soil core lysimeters. Five N-fertilizer treatments consisted of a control, urine application in the spring, urine application in the summer, urine application in the fall, and feces application in the summer. The SOIL-SOILN models were evaluated using water drainage and nitrate flux data for 1993-1994, 1994-1995, and 1995-1996. The N rate constants from a similar experiment with inorganic fertilizer and manure treatments under corn (Zea mays L.) were used to evaluate the SOILN model under orchardgrass sod. Results indicated that the SOIL model accurately simulated water drainage for all three years. The SOILN model adequately predicted nitrate losses for three urine treatments in each year and a control treatment in 1994-1995. However, it failed to produce accurate simulations for two control treatments in 1993-1994 and 1995-1996, and feces treatments in all three years. The inaccuracy in the simulation results for the control and feces treatments seems to be related to an inadequate modeling of N transformation processes. In general, the results demonstrate the potential of the SOILN model to predict NO3-N fluxes under pasture conditions using N transformation rate constants determined through the calibration process from corn fields on similar soils. PMID:11285920

  18. Use of industrial byproducts to filter phosphorus and pesticides in golf green drainage water.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sheela G; King, Kevin W; Moore, James F; Levison, Phil; McDonald, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Golf courses are vulnerable to phosphate (PO) and pesticide loss by infiltration of the sandy, porous grass rooting media used and through subsurface tile drainage. In this study, an effort was made to remove PO, chlorothalonil, mefenoxam, and propiconazole in a golf green's drainage water with a filter blend comprised of industrial byproducts, including granulated blast furnace slag, cement kiln dust, silica sand, coconut shell-activated carbon, and zeolite. To test this filter media, two 6-h storm events were simulated by repeat irrigation of the golf green after PO and pesticide application. Drainage flows ranged from 0.0034 to 0.6433 L s throughout the course of the simulations. A significant decrease in the chlorothalonil load for the experimental run (with filter media) was observed compared with the control (without filter media) ( < 0.05). In general, percent reductions in chlorothalonil were very high (>80%) near peak flows. In contrast, filter media was not effective in removing PO, mefenoxam, or propiconazole ( > 0.05). Instead, it appears that the filter blend added PO to the effluent above flow rates of 0.037 L s. Overall, flow rate, the amount of filter media used, and contaminant properties may have influenced the filter media's ability to remove contaminants. More research is needed to determine the optimal blend and configuration for the filter media to remove significant amounts of all contaminants investigated. PMID:21712597

  19. Suspended sediment export in five intensive agricultural river catchments with contrasting land use and soil drainage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Fenton, Owen; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment loss from land can have a negative impact on the chemical and ecological quality of freshwater resources. In catchments dominated by agriculture, prediction of soil erosion risk is complex due to the interaction of physical characteristics such as topography, soil erodibility, hydrological connectivity and climate. Robust measurement approaches facilitate the assessment of sediment loss magnitudes in relation to a range of agricultural settings. These approaches improve our understanding of critical sediment transfer periods and inform development of evidence-based and cost-effective management strategies. The aim of this study was to i) assess the efficacy of out-of-channel (ex-situ) suspended sediment measurement approaches, ii) to quantify the variability of sediment exported from five river catchments with varying hydrology and agricultural land uses over multiple years and iii) to investigate trends in relation to physical and land use characteristics when sediment data were compared between catchments. Sediment data were collected in five intensive agricultural river catchments in Ireland (3-11 km2) which featured contrasting land uses (predominantly intensive grassland or arable) and soil drainage classes (well, moderate and poor). High-resolution suspended sediment concentration data (SSC - using a calibrated turbidity proxy) were collected ex-situ and combined with in-stream discharge data measured at each catchment outlet to estimate suspended sediment yield (SSY - t km-2 yr-1). In two catchments additional in-stream turbidity monitoring equipment replicated ex-situ measurements including site specific calibration of individual in-stream and ex-situ turbidity probes. Depth-integrated samples were collected to assess the accuracy of both approaches. Method comparison results showed that true SSC values (from depth-integrated sampling) were predominantly within the 95% confidence interval of ex-situ predicted SSC consequently

  20. Spatial Variation of Soil Phosphorus Within a Drainage Ditch Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches serve as P transport pathways from fields to surface waters. Little is known about the spatial variation of P at the soil-water interface within ditch networks. We quantified the spatial variation of surficial (0–5 cm) soil P within vegetated agricultural ditches on a f...

  1. Impacts on water quality and biota from natural acid rock drainage in Colorado's Lake Creek watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, D.A.; Sares, Matthew A.; Policky, Greg A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Church, Stanley E.

    2006-01-01

    Colorado's Lake Creek watershed hosts natural acid rock drainage that significantly impacts surface water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. The source of the ARD is a group of iron-rich springs that emerge from intensely hydrothermally altered, unexploited, low-grade porphyry copper mineralization in the Grizzly Peak Caldera. Source water chemistry includes pH of 2.5 and dissolved metal concentrations of up to 277 mg/L aluminum, 498 mg/L iron, and 10 mg/L copper. From the hydrothermally altered area downstream for 27 kilometers to Twin Lakes Reservoir, metal concentrations in streambed sediment are elevated and the watershed experiences locally severe adverse impacts to aquatic life due to the acidic, metal-laden water. The water and sediment quality of Twin Lakes Reservoir is sufficiently improved that the reservoir supports a trout fishery, and remnants of upstream ARD are negligible.

  2. Filtering dissolved phosphorus from drainage waters using synthetic gypsum: water quality impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following decades of chicken litter applications to soils of the Delmarva Peninsula, legacy phosphorus (P) is a major source of soluble P entering drainage ditches that eventually empty into the Chesapeake Bay. In April, 2007, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, also called synthetic gypsum, was ...

  3. Effects of coal mine drainage on the water quality of small receiving streams in Washington, 1975-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Packard, F.A.; Skinner, E.L.; Fuste, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Drainage from abandoned coal mines in western and central Washington has minimal environmental impact. Water quality characteristics that have the most significant environmental impact are suspended sediment and turbidity. Water quality data from 51 abandoned coal mines representing 11 major coal bearing areas indicate that less than 1% of the mine drainage has a pH of 4.5 or less. Fifty percent of the drainage is alkaline and has pH 7.0 and greater, and about 95% of the drainage has pH 6.0 and greater. Less than 2% is acidified to a pH of 5.6, a point where water and free (atmospheric) carbon dioxide are in equilibrium. The area where pH 5.6 or less is most likely to occur is in the Centralia/Chehalis mine district. No significant difference in diversity of benthic organisms was found between stations above and below the mine drainage. However, within the 50-ft downstream reach ostracods were more abundant than above the mine drainage and mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies were less abundant than at the control site. Correlations to water quality measurements show that these faunal changes are closely associated with iron and sulfate concentrations. (USGS)

  4. Effect of Agricultural Practices on Hydrology and Water Chemistry in a Small Irrigated Catchment, Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    The role of irrigation and artificial drainage in the hydrologic cycle and the transport of solutes in a small agricultural catchment in central Washington's Yakima Valley were explored using hydrologic, chemical, isotopic, age-dating, and mineralogical data from several environmental compartments, including stream water, ground water, overland flow, and streambed pore water. A conceptual understanding of catchment hydrology and solute transport was developed and an inverse end-member mixing analysis was used to further explore the effects of agriculture in this small catchment. The median concentrations of major solutes and nitrates were similar for the single field site and for the catchment outflow site, indicating that the net effects of transport processes for these constituents were similar at both scales. However, concentrations of nutrients were different at the two sites, suggesting that field-scale variations in agricultural practices as well as nearstream and instream biochemical processes are important components of agricultural chemical transformation and transport in this catchment. This work indicates that irrigation coupled with artificial drainage networks may exacerbate the ecological effects of agricultural runoff by increasing direct connectivity between fields and streams and minimizing potentially mitigating effects (denitrification and dilution, for example) of longer subsurface pathways.

  5. Efficiency and detrimental side effects of denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate reduction in drainage water.

    PubMed

    Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Hein, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the efficiency of denitrifying bioreactors for the nitrate (NO3-N) removal in drainage waters at different flow rates and after desiccation. In addition, we investigated detrimental side effects in terms of the release of nitrite (NO2-N), ammonium (NH4-N), phosphate (PO4-P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), and dinitrogen oxide (N2O). The NO3-N removal efficiency decreased with increasing NO3-N concentrations, increasing flow rates, and after desiccation. Bioreactors with purely organic fillings showed higher NO3-N removal rates (42.6-55.7 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)) than those with organic and inorganic fillings (6.5-21.4 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)). The release of NO2-N and DOC was considerable and resulted in concentrations of up to 800 μg NO2-N L(-1)and 25 mg DOC L(-1) in the effluent water. N2O concentrations increased by 4.0 to 15.3 μg N2O-N L(-1) between the influent and the effluent, while CH4 production rates were low. Our study confirms the high potential of denitrifying bioreactors to mitigate NO3-N pollution in drainage waters, but highlights also the potential risks for the environment. PMID:25943519

  6. Tile Drainage Management Influences on Surface-Water and Groundwater Quality following Liquid Manure Application.

    PubMed

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Ed; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Zoski, Erin; Lapen, David R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for controlled tile drainage (CD) to reduce bacteria and nutrient loading to surface water and groundwater from fall-season liquid manure application (LMA) on four macroporous clay loam plots, of which two had CD and two had free-draining (FD) tiles. Rhodamine WT (RWT) was mixed into the manure and monitored in the tile water and groundwater following LMA. Tile water and groundwater quality were influenced by drainage management. Following LMA on the FD plots, RWT, nutrients, and bacteria moved rapidly via tiles to surface water; at the CD plots, tiles did not flow until the first post-LMA rainfall, so the immediate risk of LMA-induced contamination of surface water was abated. During the 36-d monitoring period, flow-weighted average specific conductance, redox potential, and turbidity, as well as total Kjeldahl N (TKN), total P (TP), NH-N, reactive P, and RWT concentrations, were higher in the CD tile effluent; however, because of lower tile discharge from the CD plots, there was no significant ( ≤ 0.05) difference in surface water nutrient and RWT loading between the CD and FD plots when all tiles were flowing. The TKN, TP, and RWT concentrations in groundwater also tended to be higher at the CD plots. Bacteria behaved differently than nutrients and RWT, with no significant difference in total coliform, , fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus, and concentrations between the CD and FD tile effluent; however, for all but , hourly loading was higher from the FD plots. Results indicate that CD has potential for mitigating bacteria movement to surface water. PMID:23673956

  7. Sorption of selected pesticides on soils, sediment and straw from a constructed agricultural drainage ditch or pond.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Romain; Dousset, Sylvie; Billet, David; Benoit, Marc

    2014-04-01

    Buffer zones such as ponds and ditches are used to reduce field-scale losses of pesticides from subsurface drainage waters to surface waters. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of these buffer zones, in particular constructed wetlands, focusing specifically on sorption processes. We modelled the sorption processes of three herbicides [2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-MCPA), isoproturon and napropamide] and three fungicides (boscalid, prochloraz and tebuconazole) on four substrates (two soils, sediment and straw) commonly found in a pond and ditch in Lorraine (France). A wide range of Freundlich coefficient (K fads) values was obtained, from 0.74 to 442.63 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1), and the corresponding K foc values ranged from 56 to 3,725 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1). Based on potential retention, the substrates may be classified as straw > sediments > soils. These results show the importance of organic carbon content and nature in the process of sorption. Similarly, the studied pesticides could be classified according to their adsorption capacity as follows: prochloraz > tebuconazole-boscalid > napropamide > MCPA-isoproturon. This classification is strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, especially solubility and K oc. Straw exhibited the largest quantity of non-desorbable pesticide residues, from 12.1 to 224.2 mg/L for all pesticides. The presence of plants could increase soil-sediment sorption capacity. Thus, establishment and maintenance of plants and straw filters should be promoted to optimise sorption processes and the efficiency of ponds and ditches in reducing surface water pollution. PMID:23784054

  8. Water withdrawals for irrigation, municipal, mining, thermoelectric-power, and drainage uses in Arizona outside of active management areas, 1991-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tadayon, Saeid

    2005-01-01

    Economic development in Arizona is largely influenced by access to adequate water supplies owing to the State's predominantly semiarid to arid climate. Water demand is met by pumping ground water from aquifers or by con-veying surface water through a system of reservoirs and canals. Water-withdrawal data provide important information on how water demand affects the State's water resources. Information on water withdrawals also can help planners and managers assess the effectiveness of water-management policies, regulations, and conservation activities. This report includes water-withdrawal data for irrigation, municipal, mining, thermoelectric-power, and drainage uses for 1991-2000, and describes the methods used to collect, compile, and estimate the data. Data are reported for the Arizona Department of Water Resources ground-water basins outside of Active Management Areas. Because of the climate, ground water and surface water are used to irrigate nearly all agricultural fields in Arizona. Irrigation accounted for the largest use of water in the study area during 1991-2000. The amount of water withdrawn for irrigation varies greatly from year to year for some of the basins, primarily because of differences in the consumptive water requirement for different crops and because of changes in irrigated acreage. The population of Arizona increased about 35 percent from 1991 to 2000-from about 3.79 million in 1991 to about 5.13 million in 2000. Correspondingly, water withdrawal for municipal use increased steadily in most of the basins during 1991-2000. Ground-water withdrawals for mining did not show any consistent trends during 1991-2000. Increases and decreases in withdrawals for mining were most likely due to variations in mineral production. Mineral prices and competition from mining in other States and foreign countries probably result in annual increases or decreases in mineral production in Arizona. Between 1991 and 2000, ground-water withdrawals for

  9. The influence of acidic mine and spoil drainage on water quality in the mid-Wales area.

    PubMed

    Fuge, R; Laidlaw, I M; Perkins, W T; Rogers, K P

    1991-06-01

    The many abandoned base metal mines of the mid-Wales ore field are sources of extensive pollution. Some of the mineralised veins contain large amounts of pyrite and marcasite and oxidative weathering of these produces sulphuric acid resulting in very acidic mine drainage waters. In addition, the spoil tips associated with these mines can contain abundant iron sulphides. Drainage waters from these sources have pH values as low as 2.6 and are heavily contaminated with metals such as Al, Zn, Cd and Ni.Two of the main rivers of the area, the Rheidol and Ystwyth, intercept heavily contaminated acidic drainage which has a marked effect on water quality. The Rheidol contains over 100 μg L(-1) Zn for 16 km downstream of the acid water influx. This level is over three times the recommended EEC limit for Zn in salmonoid waters of low hardness. PMID:24202839

  10. Multi-objective models of waste load allocation toward a sustainable reuse of drainage water in irrigation.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ayman; Tawfik, Ahmed; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Fleifle, Amr

    2016-06-01

    The present study proposes a waste load allocation (WLA) framework for a sustainable quality management of agricultural drainage water (ADW). Two multi-objective models, namely, abatement-performance and abatement-equity-performance, were developed through the integration of a water quality model (QAUL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm, by considering (1) the total waste load abatement, and (2) the inequity among waste dischargers. For successfully accomplishing modeling tasks, we developed a comprehensive overall performance measure (E wla ) reflecting possible violations of Egyptian standards for ADW reuse in irrigation. This methodology was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, during both summer and winter seasons of 2012. Abatement-performance modeling results for a target of E wla = 100 % corresponded to the abatement ratio of the dischargers ranging from 20.7 to 75.6 % and 29.5 to 78.5 % in summer and in winter, respectively, alongside highly shifting inequity values. Abatement-equity-performance modeling results for a target of E wla = 90 % unraveled the necessity of increasing treatment efforts in three out of five dischargers during summer, and four out of five in winter. The trade-off curves obtained from WLA models proved their reliability in selecting appropriate WLA procedures as a function of budget constraints, principles of social equity, and desired overall performance level. Hence, the proposed framework of methodologies is of great importance to decision makers working toward a sustainable reuse of the ADW in irrigation. PMID:26951225

  11. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  12. Optimization of integrated water quality management for agricultural efficiency and environmental conservation.

    PubMed

    Fleifle, Amr; Saavedra, Oliver; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Elzeir, Mohamed; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of water resources in Egypt has necessitated the use of various types of lower quality water. Agricultural drainage water is considered a strategic reserve for meeting increasing freshwater demands. In this study, a novel model series was applied to a drainage basin in the Nile Delta to optimize integrated water quality management for agriculture and the aquatic environment. The proposed model series includes a waste load allocation model, an export coefficient model, a stream water quality model, and a genetic algorithm. This model series offers an optimized solution for determining the required removal levels of total suspended solids (TSS), the chemical oxygen demand (COD) at point and non-point pollution sources, and the source flows that require treatment to meet a given water quality target. The model series was applied during the summer and winter to the El-Qalaa basin in the western delta of the Nile River. Increased pollutant removal and treated fractions at point and non-point sources reduced violations of the TSS standards from 732.6 to 238.9 mg/L in summer and from 543.1 to 380.9 mg/L in winter. Likewise, violations of the COD standards decreased from 112.4 mg/L to 0 (no violations) in summer and from 91.7 mg/L to no violations in winter. Thus, this model is recommended as a decision support tool for determining a desirable waste load allocation solution from a trade-off curve considering costs and the degree of compliance with water quality standards. PMID:24671393

  13. Water quality and agricultural practices: the case study of southern Massaciuccoli reclaimed land (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Cannavò, Silvia; Guidi, Massimo; Risaliti, Rosalba; Rossetto, Rudy; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    sampling points were monitored monthly during 2008-2009. The main water physical and chemical parameters, including nutrients, as well as the principal soil types within the sub-catchment were analysed. First results point out: the reclaimed land presents a dense drainage network hydraulically interconnected with the shallow aquifer; surface waters present a high chemical heterogeneity: three main hydrochemical facies were identified and compared with nutrients contents and soil chemistry; artificially induced recharge to the reclaimed land aquifer occurs by means of lake water infiltration. This forces the pumping stations to remove an additional amount of water in order to allow land cultivation; the water salinity in the drainage network may increase during summer period. This could be related both to irrigation using lake water and a further contribution due to evapotranspiration processes; agricultural land use changed during the last 15 years, and shifted to less intensive farming practices. Fertilization levels dropped from 200 and 150 to 100 and 50 kg/ha N and P2O5 respectively, and the irrigated area decreased from 50% to 40% of the total utilised agricultural area; in the low land peaty area, the higher content of sulphate and phosphate in the drainage water supports the hypothesis that peat degradation could be a relevant source of nutrients. As a result, the impact of fertilizer use on the water quality is limited, while land management (e.g. water use and land reclamation) constitutes the key issue. Therefore, local stakeholders participation, farmers above all, should be supported in future management and planning actions in order to adapt socio-economic needs with the peculiar biophysical conditions.

  14. Geochemistry of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River Drainage (China): distribution, sources, and water quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhaoyu; Wu, Tairan

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River drainage basin, which is the drinking water source area of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (China), affect large numbers of people and should therefore be carefully monitored. To investigate the distribution, sources, and quality of river water, this study integrating catchment geology and multivariate statistical techniques was carried out in the Dan River drainage from 99 river water samples collected in 2013. The distribution of trace metal concentrations in the Dan River drainage was similar to that in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, indicating that the reservoir was significantly affected by the Dan River drainage. Moreover, our results suggested that As, Sb, Cd, Mn, and Ni were the major pollutants. We revealed extremely high concentrations of As and Sb in the Laoguan River, Cd in the Qingyou River, Mn, Ni, and Cd in the Yinhua River, As and Sb in the Laojun River, and Sb in the Dan River. According to the water quality index, water in the Dan River drainage was suitable for drinking; however, an exposure risk assessment model suggests that As and Sb in the Laojun and Laoguan rivers could pose a high risk to humans in terms of adverse health and potential non-carcinogenic effects. PMID:26782327

  15. Effects of storm runoff on water quality in the Mill Creek drainage basin, Willingboro, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schornick, James C., Jr.; Fishel, David K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of storm runoff on the quality of water in streams receiving drainage from the 23.7-square-kilometer Mill Creek basin in Willingboro, NJ., was studied from October 1975 to September 1976. Stream discharge and 86 water-quality constituents were measured during base flow and storm runoff. Only 38 constitutents were detected in significant amounts under any streamflow condition. Constituent loads and concentrations in the runoff from the nonresidential part of the study area in the upstream part of the drainage basin affected stream quality more than runoff from the residential area. The nonresidential area contributed more of the nutrient load (nitrate, ammonia, organic nitrogen, and phosphorus), the common inorganics (sodium , potassium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate), sediment, and organic carbon. The residential area contributed more calcium, nitrite, lead, iron, biochemical oxygen demand, and the pesticides, 2,4-D and silvex. With the exception of suspended iron, fecal coliform bacteria, suspended lead, and suspended phosphorus, all measured constituents met the recommended criteria set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, even during storms. (USGS)

  16. Water balance: case study of a constructed wetland as part of the bio-ecological drainage system (BIOECODS).

    PubMed

    Ayub, Khairul Rahmah; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Abdullah, Rozi; Ramli, Rosmaliza

    2010-01-01

    The Bio-ecological Drainage System, or BIOECODS, is an urban drainage system located at the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It consists of a constructed wetland as a part of the urban drainage system to carry storm water in a closed system. In this closed system, the constructed wetland was designed particularly for further treatment of storm water. For the purpose of studying the water balance of the constructed wetland, data collection was carried out for two years (2007 and 2009). The results show that the constructed wetland has a consistent volume of water storage compared to the outflow for both years with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.99 in 2007 and 0.86 in 2009. PMID:20962410

  17. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  18. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  19. Modeling water outflow from tile-drained agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanovski, Vladimir; Trajanov, Aneta; Leprince, Florence; Džeroski, Sašo; Debeljak, Marko

    2015-02-01

    The estimation of the pollution risk of surface and ground water with plant protection products applied on fields depends highly on the reliable prediction of the water outflows over (surface runoff) and through (discharge through sub-surface drainage systems) the soil. In previous studies, water movement through the soil has been simulated mainly using physically-based models. The most frequently used models for predicting soil water movement are MACRO, HYDRUS-1D/2D and Root Zone Water Quality Model. However, these models are difficult to apply to a small portion of land due to the information required about the soil and climate, which are difficult to obtain for each plot separately. In this paper, we focus on improving the performance and applicability of water outflow modeling by using a modeling approach based on machine learning techniques. It allows us to overcome the major drawbacks of physically-based models e.g., the complexity and difficulty of obtaining the information necessary for the calibration and the validation, by learning models from data collected from experimental fields that are representative for a wider area (region). We evaluate the proposed approach on data obtained from the La Jaillière experimental site, located in Western France. This experimental site represents one of the ten scenarios contained in the MACRO system. Our study focuses on two types of water outflows: discharge through sub-surface drainage systems and surface runoff. The results show that the proposed modeling approach successfully extracts knowledge from the collected data, avoiding the need to provide the information for calibration and validation of physically-based models. In addition, we compare the overall performance of the learned models with the performance of existing models MACRO and RZWQM. The comparison shows overall improvement in the prediction of discharge through sub-surface drainage systems, and partial improvement in the prediction of the surface

  20. Automated reconstruction of drainage basins and water discharge to the sea through glacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Over glacial cycles, ice masses and their geophysical impacts on surface topography dramatically changed drainage patterns and river discharges. These changes impacted meltwater discharge to the ocean, geomorphology, and climate. As the river systems'the threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea'were stretched, severed, and rearranged during deglaciation, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and proglacial lake dynamics. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges. I automate these calculations within GRASS GIS to take advantage of rapid solution techniques for drainage networks in an open-source and compute-cluster-ready environment. I combine modern topography and bathymetry with ice sheet reconstructions from the last glacial cycle and a global glacial isostatic adjustment model to build digital elevation models of the past Earth surface. I then sum ice sheet mass balance with computed precipitation and evapotranspiration from a paleoclimate general circulation model to produce grids of water input. I combine these topographic and hydrologic inputs to compute past river networks and discharges through time. These paleodrainage reconstructions connect ice sheets, sea level, and climate models to fluvial systems, which in turn generate measurable terrace and sedimentary records as they carry physical, compositional, and isotopic signatures of ice sheet melt and landscape change through their channels and to the sea. Therefore, this work provides a self-consistent paleogeographic framework within which models and geologic records may be quantitatively compared to build new insights into past glacial systems.

  1. Army Industrial, Landscaping, and Agricultural Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Loper, Susan A.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-09-18

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a task for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army to quantify the Army’s ILA water use and to help improve the data quality and installation water reporting in the Army Energy and Water Reporting System.

  2. Review of 15 years of research on ecotoxicology and remediation of land contaminated by agricultural drainage sediment rich in selenium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin

    2004-03-01

    The consequences of elevated Se accumulation at the Kesterson Reservoir National Wildlife Refuge in the Central Valley of California created adverse effects on wildlife and led to extensive research on the behavior of Se in both the wetland and upland ecosystems. Selenium concentrations in water entering the Kesterson Reservoir averaged 300 microg L(-1). In pond waters 20-30% of the Se was selenate, while only 2% was selenite in the drainage water entering the reservoir. Submerged rooted aquatic plants fed on by water birds were found to contain 18-390 mg Se kg(-1) dry weight. Mosquitofish collected from the San Luis Drain contained 332 mg Se kg(-1), and those collected from the ponds ranged from 339 to 380 mg kg(-1). Livers of water birds had Se concentrations ranging from 19.9 to 127 mg kg(-1). The high concentrations of Se accumulation in the food chain of the wetland strongly suggest that Se bioaccumulation was the cause of death and deformity of embryos of the waterfowl nesting at the wetland habitat. In June 1986, the Kesterson Reservoir was closed to drain-water inputs, and the wetland was transformed to an upland grassland. New remedial plans were proposed. These new plans involved soil, water, and vegetation management to dissipate Se by bioaccumulation and volatilization through soil microorganisms and plants. The investigations of the potential transfer of Se from farm land into the crop and vegetables in the Central Valley indicated that plant tissue Se concentrations generally fall in a nonseleniferous category, except that the highest Se concentration of cotton was at a threshold where toxicity in animals could occur at a relatively low frequency. At the Kesterson upland grassland habitat, average total Se concentrations ranged from 500 to 8000 microg kg(-1) and water-extractable Se ranged from 10 to 700 microg kg(-1) in the top 15 cm of soil and varied greatly, by a factor greater than 100, among soil samples. Uptake of Se by the plants was

  3. Runoff water quality from manured riparian grasslands with contrasting soil drainage and simulated grazing pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, management of grazed riparian areas is of critical importance in terms of agricultural sustainability and environmental quality. However, the potential impacts of riparian grazing management on water quality are not well documented, particularly in the southeastern USA. The objective of ...

  4. Effectiveness of oat and rye cover crops in reducing nitrate losses in drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the NO3 in the riverine surface waters of the upper Mississippi River basin originates from artificially drained agricultural land used for corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production. Cover crops grown between maturity and planting of these crops are one approach to r...

  5. Cold air drainage and modeled nocturnal leaf water potential in complex forested terrain.

    PubMed

    Hubbart, Jason A; Kavanagh, Kathleen L; Pangle, Robert; Link, Tim; Schotzko, Alisa

    2007-04-01

    Spatial variation in microclimate caused by air temperature inversions plays an important role in determining the timing and rate of many physical and biophysical processes. Such phenomena are of particular interest in mountainous regions where complex physiographic terrain can greatly complicate these processes. Recent work has demonstrated that, in some plants, stomata do not close completely at night, resulting in nocturnal transpiration. The following work was undertaken to develop a better understanding of nocturnal cold air drainage and its subsequent impact on the reliability of predawn leaf water potential (Psi(pd)) as a surrogate for soil water potential (Psi(s)). Eight temperature data loggers were installed on a transect spanning a vertical distance of 155 m along a north facing slope in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in northern Idaho during July and August 2004. Results indicated strong nocturnal temperature inversions occurring from the low- to upper-mid-slope, typically spanning the lower 88 m of the vertical distance. Based on mean temperatures for both months, inversions resulted in lapse rates of 29.0, 27.0 and 25.0 degrees C km(-1) at 0000, 0400 and 2000 h, respectively. At this scale (i.e., < 1 km), the observed lapse rates resulted in highly variable nighttime vapor pressure deficits (D) over the length of the slope, with variable impacts on modeled disequilibrium between soil and leaf water potential. As a result of cold air drainage, modeled Psi(pd) became consistently more negative (up to -0.3 MPa) at higher elevations during the night based on mean temperatures. Nocturnal inversions on the lower- and mid-slopes resulted in leaf water potentials that were at least 30 and 50% more negative over the lower 88 m of the inversion layer, based on mean and maximum temperatures, respectively. However, on a cloudy night, with low D, the maximum decrease in Psi(pd) was -0.04 MPa. Our results indicate that, given persistent cold air

  6. Integrated hydraulic modelling of water supply and urban drainage networks for assessment of decentralized options.

    PubMed

    Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change, water scarcity, land use change, population growth and also population shrinking can only be predicted with uncertainties. Especially for assets with a long planning horizon this is a critical part for planning and design. One solution is to make centralized organized water infrastructure with a long-planning horizon resilient and adaptive. For existing centralized infrastructure such a transition would be to increasingly implement decentralized measures. But such a transition can cause severe impacts on existing centralized infrastructure. Low flow conditions in urban drainage systems can cause sediment deposition, and for water supply systems water age problems may occur. This work focuses on city-scale analysis for assessing the impact of such measures. For that a coupled model for integrated city-scale analysis is applied and further developed. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for sensitivity analysis is enhanced and also implemented in that model. The developed approach is applied to assess the water infrastructure of an alpine case study. With the obtained results it is demonstrated how the planning process is enhanced by indicating where and where not to implement decentralized measures in an existing water infrastructure. PMID:25500471

  7. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y). PMID:22073728

  8. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  9. Electricity generation from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaoan Cheng; Brian A. Dempsey; Bruce E. Logan

    2007-12-15

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) is difficult and costly to treat. We investigated a new approach to AMD treatment using fuel cell technologies to generate electricity while removing iron from the water. Utilizing a recently developed microbial fuel cell architecture, we developed an acid-mine drainage fuel cell (AMD-FC) capable of abiotic electricity generation. The AMD-FC operated in fed-batch mode generated a maximum power density of 290 mW/m{sup 2} at a Coulombic efficiency greater than 97%. Ferrous iron was completely removed through oxidation to insoluble Fe(III), forming a precipitate in the bottom of the anode chamber and on the anode electrode. Several factors were examined to determine their effect on operation, including pH, ferrous iron concentration, and solution chemistry. Optimum conditions were a pH of 6.3 and a ferrous iron concentration above about 0.0036 M. These results suggest that fuel cell technologies can be used not only for treating AMD through removal of metals from solution, but also for producing useful products such as electricity and recoverable metals. Advances being made in wastewater fuel cells will enable more efficient power generation and systems suitable for scale-up. 35 refs., 8 figs.

  10. A GEO Global Agricultural Water Productivity Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thenkabail, P. S.; Pozzi, W.; Miller, N. L.; Fekete, B.; Sheffield, J.; Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture is the main consumer of freshwater, and improved precision and accuracy of the terrestrial water cycle requires a more reliable way of monitoring agricultural water use and agricultural water productivity. Wisser et al 2008 reported that agricultural water consumption over the satellite-determined crop acreage (from AVHRR, SPOT VGT), particularly for India and China (Thenkabail et al 2006) was 30% higher than the commonly used Food and Agricultural Organization country-reported agricultural crop census data. We propose further quantification and clarification of this error through the following methodology: 1) greater accuracy in measuring actual area and precise spatial distribution of irrigated and rainfed cropland areas, along with identification of crop types and cropping intensities; 2) satellite monitoring of actual evapotranspiration (water use) by croplands; 3) reconciling agricultural plot information and evapotranspiration against calculated stores of water and water budgets, as derived from a Global Hydrologic Model Multi-Model Ensemble; and (d) modeling and pin-pointing areas of low and high water productivity (WP) to optimize agricultural water use and thus save large quanta of water. We propose producing global irrigated and rainfed areas at finer scales using Landsat 30 m imagery in fusion with MODIS 250 m imagery using the spectral matching technique (Thenkabail et al 2009). Crop water use (water transpired by the crop) and crop water productivity maps can be prepared for terrestrial areas, by using the surface energy balance model, in which evapotranspiration fraction is provided from Landsat ETM+ and\\or MODIS thermal data, combined with locally derived meteorological data such as wind speed, humidity, incoming radiation, and other surface values to derive turbulent diffusion and finally computing reference evapotranspiration (e.g., Penman-Montieth approach), so that sensible heat flux may be deducted from net radiation to derive

  11. Transient drainage summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  12. [Research progress on water footprint in agricultural products].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Liu, Xiu-wei; Zhang, Xi-ying

    2015-10-01

    Water is one of the important resources in human activities. Scientifically and rationally evaluating the effects of human activities on water resources is important for sustainable water resource management. The innovative concepts of water footprint (WF) distinguished the human water consumption into green water, blue water and grey water which extended the evaluation methods in sustainable utilization of water resources. Concepts of WF based on virtual water (VW) and based on life cycle assessment (LCA) both combined water quality and water quantity are now the focuses in agricultural water management researches. Theory of WF based on VW includes the calculation of green, blue and grey WF as well as the evaluation of the sustainability of water environment. Theory of WF based on LCA reflects the overall impact of consumptive and degradative water use on the environment. The purpose of this article was to elaborate the research progresses in theoretical calculation methods and environmental sustainability assessment of the two water footprint theories and then to analyze the differentiation of these two methodologies in describing the consumptive water use in agriculture and its effects on environment. Finally, some future research aspects on water footprint were provided. PMID:26995933

  13. Effects of peatland drainage on water quality: a case study of the shallow blanket bogs of Exmoor, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Peatlands are widely represented in the South West of England (i.e. Exmoor, Dartmoor and Bodmin moors), but their existence is currently under threat due to both climate change and the impact of historical human activities. Peat cutting and intensive drainage for agricultural reclamation in the 19th and 20th century, have modified the hydrological behaviour of these shallow peats and dried out the upper layers, causing oxidation, erosion and vegetation change. Such anthropogenic impacts directly affect the storage of carbon, but also the provision of other ecosystem services, such as the supply of drinking water, and the support of specific and rare habitats. Blocking drainage ditches to restore the hydrological behaviour of peatlands has mostly been undertaken in the North of England, but to date, little is still known about the consequences of such management approaches on the overall Carbon stocks. The need to monitor restoration of peatlands in the South West of England arises due to the specific characteristics of the peat - it is often shallower than more northerly peat and dominated by Purple Moor Grass. In addition, and in part because of the shallowness of the resource, the peat has been damaged differently, often with very dense networks of hand-cut ditches which behave as highly efficient drainage networks. Most importantly, their location at the southernmost margin of the UK peatlands' geographical extent makes them extremely vulnerable to climate change, and so it is hypothesised that monitoring of these peatlands may provide an 'early warning system' for climatic impacts that affect more northerly sites in years to come. This study focuses upon the current impact of peatland degradation on water quality on Exmoor. Our experimental approach employs detailed, high resolution monitoring of selected ditches that are representative of damaged conditions on Exmoor, from small- (30 x 30cm ditches) through medium- (50x50cm), large- (1-2m ditches) and finally

  14. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following surface spreading and injection of dewatered municipal biosolids to an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M; Topp, E; Metcalfe, C D; Li, H; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Curnoe, W; Payne, M; Beck, A; Kleywegt, S; Lapen, D R

    2009-07-01

    Land application of municipal biosolids can be a source of environmental contamination by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). This study examined PPCP concentrations/temporally discrete mass loads in agricultural tile drainage systems where two applications of biosolids had previously taken place. The field plots received liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) in the fall of 2005 at an application rate of approximately 93,500 L ha (-1), and a second land application was conducted using dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) applied at a rate of approximately 8Mg dw ha (-1) in the summer of 2006 [corrected].The DMB land application treatments consisted of direct injection (DI) of the DMB beneath the soil surface at a nominal depth of approximately 0.11 m, and surface spreading (SS) plus subsequent tillage incorporation of DMB in the topsoil (approximately 0.10 m depth). The PPCPs examined included eight pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, naproxen, carbamazepine, atenolol, sulfamethoxazole), the nicotine metabolite cotinine, and two antibacterial personal care products triclosan and triclocarban. Residues of naproxen, cotinine, atenolol and triclosan originating from the fall 2005 LMB application were detected in tile water nearly nine months after application (triclocarban was not measured in 2005). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in PPCP mass loads among the two DMB land application treatments (i.e., SS vs. DI); although, average PPCP mass loads late in the study season (>100 days after application) were consistently higher for the DI treatment relative to the SS treatment. While the concentration of triclosan (approximately 14,000 ng g(-1) dw) in DMB was about twice that of triclocarban (approximately 8000 ng g(-1) dw), the average tile water concentrations for triclosan were much higher (43+/-5 ng L(-1)) than they were for triclocarban (0.73+/-0.14 ng L(-1)). Triclosan concentrations (maximum observed in 2006

  15. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume I. Mine water and mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  16. Agricultural Water Conservation via Conservation Tillage and Thermal Infrared

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Georgia water conservation is an issue that involves all citizens. Within the agricultural row crop community, water is a very important part of producing a harvestable and profitable product. Although irrigation is used only as a supplement to natural rainfall, it can greatly affect crop yield...

  17. Thermal Infrared Imagery for Better Water Conservation in Agricultural Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water conservation is an issue that involves all citizens in Georgia. Within the agricultural row crop community, water is a very important part of producing a harvestable and profitable product. Although irrigation is used only as a supplement to natural rainfall, it can greatly affect crop yield...

  18. A site-specific agricultural water requirement and footprint estimator (SPARE:WATER 1.0) for irrigation agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Al-Rumaikhani, Y. A.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2013-01-01

    The water footprint accounting method addresses the quantification of water consumption in agriculture, whereby three types of water to grow crops are considered, namely green water (consumed rainfall), blue water (irrigation from surface or groundwater) and grey water (water needed to dilute pollutants). Most of current water footprint assessments focus on global to continental scale. We therefore developed the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER that allows to quantify green, blue and grey water footprints on regional scale. SPARE:WATER is programmed in VB.NET, with geographic information system functionality implemented by the MapWinGIS library. Water requirement and water footprints are assessed on a grid-basis and can then be aggregated for spatial entities such as political boundaries, catchments or irrigation districts. We assume in-efficient irrigation methods rather than optimal conditions to account for irrigation methods with efficiencies other than 100%. Furthermore, grey water can be defined as the water to leach out salt from the rooting zone in order to maintain soil quality, an important management task in irrigation agriculture. Apart from a thorough representation of the modelling concept we provide a proof of concept where we assess the agricultural water footprint of Saudi Arabia. The entire water footprint is 17.0 km3 yr-1 for 2008 with a blue water dominance of 86%. Using SPARE:WATER we are able to delineate regional hot spots as well as crop types with large water footprints, e.g. sesame or dates. Results differ from previous studies of national-scale resolution, underlining the need for regional water footprint assessments.

  19. Crop yield evaluation under controlled drainage in Ohio, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (NRCS Practice Code 554) is an important agricultural water management practice for reducing nitrate loading to surface water across the Midwest US. There may also be a positive crop yield benefit which could add incentive for adoption of the practice. Results from a three ...

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT PROCESS FOR SOURCE WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Ann

    2015-12-31

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  1. Integrating agricultural policies and water policies under water supply and climate uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MejíAs, Patricia; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Flichman, Guillermo

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the interactions of water and agricultural policies is crucial for achieving an efficient management of water resources. In the EU, agricultural and environmental policies are seeking to converge progressively toward mutually compatible objectives and, in this context, the recently reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the EU Water Framework Directive constitute the policy framework in which irrigated agriculture and hence water use will evolve. In fact, one of the measures of the European Water Directive is to establish a water pricing policy for improving water use and attaining a more efficient water allocation. The aim of this research is to investigate the irrigators' responses to these changing policy developments in a self-managed irrigation district in southern Spain. A stochastic programming model has been developed to estimate farmers' response to the application of water pricing policies in different agricultural policy scenarios when water availability is subject to varying climate conditions and water storage capacity in the district's reservoir. Results show that irrigators are price-responsive, but a similar water-pricing policy in different agricultural policy options could have distinct effects on water use, farmers' income, and collected revenue by the water authority. Water availability is a critical factor, and pricing policies are less effective for reducing water consumption in drought years. Thus there is a need to integrate the objectives of water policies within the objectives of the CAP programs to avoid distortion effects and to seek synergy between these two policies.

  2. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1985-07-01

    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  3. Agricultural water demand, water quality and crop suitability in Souk-Alkhamis Al-Khums, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abunnour, Mohamed Ali; Hashim, Noorazuan Bin Md.; Jaafar, Mokhtar Bin

    2016-06-01

    Water scarcity, unequal population distribution and agricultural activities increased in the coastal plains, and the probability of seawater intrusion with ground water. According to this, the quantitative and qualitative deterioration of underground water quality has become a potential for the occurrence, in addition to the decline in agricultural production in the study area. This paper aims to discover the use of ground water for irrigation in agriculture and their suitability and compatibility for agricultural. On the other hand, the quality is determines by the cultivated crops. 16 random samples of regular groundwater are collected and analyzed chemically. Questionnaires are also distributed randomly on regular basis to farmers.

  4. Isotopic composition of water from a mine drainage site in Creede County in south central Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R. L.; Williams, M. W.; Krupicka, A.; Wireman, M.; Graves, J.

    2011-12-01

    Creede County in South Central Colorado was an active area of silver mining beginning in the early 1890s. To relieve flooding in some of the mines, the Nelson Tunnel was built in the late 1890s. This tunnel still exists and acid mine drainage from the tunnel eventually flows into the Willow Creek Watershed which eventually flows into the Upper Rio Grande. The water coming out of the tunnel is high in toxic metals and the area has become part of an EPA Superfund site in an effort to find a suitable method to remediate the metal problems. Among the approaches used in the program is the use of isotopes of water and carbon to identify sources and estimate ages of the water in the drainage. Samples were collected for analysis of isotopic ratios and tritium concentrations at a series of sites within the tunnel complex from 2008-2010. In 2009 samples were also collected for analysis of isotopes in groundwater and surface water. In 2010 sampling was expanded to include four precipitation and one snow sample. Tritium concentrations in precipitation and snowfall in 2010 ranged from 3-6 tritium units with the lowest concentration found in the snow sample. The 18O isotopic ratios in precipitation for this site ranged from an average of -8.9 o/oo in summer to about -19 o/oo in winter. The six groundwater samples collected in 2009 had an average 18O isotopic concentration of -15 o/oo and tritium concentrations ranging from 7.4-9.3 TU. These results suggest that the groundwater sampled is composed largely of a mixture of summer and winter precipitation with the latter source being dominant. The tritium concentrations in groundwater exceed recent precipitation concentrations, suggesting the presence of water from the bomb-tritium transient and an age of a decade or more for the groundwater. Eight sites in the tunnel were sampled I from 2008-2010, although not all sites were sampled every year. The sampling sites included waters seeping into the tunnel as well as the outlet water

  5. Paper versus plastic, water versus carbon and sustainable agriculture in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, L. C.

    2011-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that food and energy security are inextricably linked to climate and climate change, resulting in the so-called climate, energy, food nexus, with the water cycle at its hub. The ability to provide sufficient and consistent energy and food for this generation, while not depleting soil, climate and water resources for future generations involves interconnected feedbacks along the paths of this wheel. In the US corn belt, for example, agricultural water management in the form of subsurface drainage lowers the regional water table to enhance crop production, while at the same time providing a conduit for the more efficient export of nitrate-nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico and increasing rates of decomposition and subsidence in organic-rich soils. The use of control structures to regulate drainage water has the potential to reduce nitrate and carbon dioxide losses, while at the same time increasing the emissions of other greenhouse gases. Increased biofuels production offers the potential to increase domestic energy security, but at the cost of increased water demand and threats to food security. Just as budding US consumer environmentalists of the last decade struggled with the question of paper versus plastic for bagging their groceries, today's informed consumers are being asked to tacitly choose between water and carbon. The local foods movement encourages consumption of locally-produced foods as a means of reducing carbon emissions associated with food transportation, among other perceived benefits. At the same time, the concept of virtual water trade recognizes that importing the water embedded in production in the form of food can balance a local water deficit. Taking into account the virtual water of food production and carbon emissions of food transportation, the spatial arrangement of the current US crop portfolio minimizes neither water nor carbon footprints. Changes in crop distribution result in trade-offs between the per capita

  6. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  7. Revisiting the applications of drainage capillary pressure curves in water-wet hydrocarbon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemes, István

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of the paper is to introduce a new approach at studying and modelling the relationship of initial water saturation profile and capillarity in water-wet hydrocarbon reservoirs, and describe the available measurement methods and possible applications. As a side track it aims to highlight a set of derivable parameters of mercury capillary curves using the Thomeer-method. Since the widely used mercury capillary pressure curves themselves can lead to over-, or underestimations regarding in-place and technical volumes and misinterpreted reservoir behaviour, the need for a proper capillary curve is reasonable. Combining the results of mercury and centrifuge capillary curves could yield a capillary curve preserving the strengths of both methods, while overcoming their weaknesses. Mercury injection capillary curves were normalized by using the irreducible water saturations derived from centrifuge capillary pressure measurements of the same core plug, and this new, combined capillary curve was applied for engineering calculations in order to make comparisons with other approaches. The most significant benefit of this approach is, that all of the measured data needed for a valid drainage capillary pressure curve represents the very same sample piece.

  8. Trace element partitioning in coal mine drainage and impacted waters, Harrison County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Smilley, M.J.; Vesper, D.J.; Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    Lamberts Run is a tributary of the West Fork River and is impacted by drainage from abandoned coal mines within its watershed. In this study, we examined the distribution of iron, manganese and trace elements in discharge downstream of one abandoned mine portal and after its entry into Lamberts Run. Construction of a wetland and passive treatment system is slated to begin along this discharge in summer 2006. Dissolved iron and manganese, which were present in the mine discharge at concentrations of 7 and 6 mg/L, respectively, demonstrated sequential precipitation over the approximately 200-m distance between the mine portal and creek. Significant loss of manganese from the water and net accumulation in the sediments was not observed until 100 m downstream of the portal. Trace elements Ba, Co, Cr, Ni and Zn were detected in water, sediment and black coatings on stream cobbles in Lamberts Run. The trace elements are progressively enriched, relative to iron and manganese, respectively through those media. The coatings contained over 55,000 mg/kg manganese and high concentrations of the trace elements. Selenium was at or below the detection limit in water and sediments but substantially enriched in the black coatings (72 mg/kg). Diffusive equilibration in thin film (DET) and redox gel probes were used to measure sediment porewater concentrations at high resolution in the near-surface sediments.

  9. Performance evaluation and accuracy of passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) for estimating real-time drainage water fluxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful monitoring of pollutant transport through the soil profile requires accurate, reliable, and appropriate instrumentation to measure amount of drainage water or flux within the vadose layer. We evaluated the performance and accuracy of automated passive capillary wick samplers (PCAPs) for ...

  10. Water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia) from Baishih River drainage in Northern Taiwan, with description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Pešić, Vladimir; Yam, Rita S.W.; Chan, Benny K. K.; Chatterjee, Tapas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Baishih River drainage of north Taiwan, are presented. Twelve species are recorded, of which ten are new for Taiwan; two of them, Torrenticola projectura and Hygrobates taiwanicus are described as new for science. PMID:22773915

  11. Antibiotic resistance and community analysis of surface and subsurface drainage waters in the South Fork Iowa River watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Midwest is a center for swine production leading to application of swine manure onto lands that have artificial subsurface drainage. Previous reports have indicated elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface water and groundwater around confined animal feeding operations w...

  12. Impact of acid mine drainages on surficial waters of an abandoned mining site.

    PubMed

    García-Lorenzo, M L; Marimón, J; Navarro-Hervás, M C; Pérez-Sirvent, C; Martínez-Sánchez, M J; Molina-Ruiz, José

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of sulphide minerals produces a great variety of efflorescences of soluble sulphate salts. These minerals play an important role for environmental pollution, since they can be either a sink or a source for acidity and trace elements. This paper aims to characterise surface waters affected by mining activities in the Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union (SE, Spain). Water samples were analysed for trace metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, As and Fe), major ions (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-), CO3 (2-), SO4 (2-)) concentrations and were submitted to an "evaporation-precipitation" experiment that consisted in identifying the salts resulting from the evaporation of the water aliquots sampled onsite. Mineralogy of the salts was studied using X-ray diffraction and compared with the results of calculations using VISUAL MINTEQ. The study area is heavily polluted as a result of historical mining and processing activities that has produced large amount of wastes characterised by a high trace elements content, acidic pH and containing minerals resulting from the supergene alteration of the raw materials. The mineralogical study of the efflorescences obtained from waters shows that magnesium, zinc, iron and aluminium sulphates predominate in the acid mine drainage precipitates. Minerals of the hexahydrite group have been quantified together with minerals of the rozenite group, alunogen and other phases such as coquimbite and copiapite. Calcium sulphates correspond exclusively to gypsum. In a semiarid climate, such as that of the study area, these minerals contribute to understand the response of the system to episodic rainfall events. MINTEQ model could be used for the analysis of waters affected by mining activities but simulation of evaporation gives more realistic results considering that MINTEQ does not consider soluble hydrated salts. PMID:26347422

  13. Climate, water and agriculture in the Tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    The broad view is established with a functional definition of the tropics to include the area lying within the region of the easterly trade winds and its extension to extratropical regions that are affected by tropical phenomena such as the southwest Indian monsoon and hurricanes. In the first five chapters Jackson discusses atmospheric water largely in physical terms-its origin and transport with relation to general circulation patterns and precipitation characteristics such as frequency, duration, and intensity, which are as important as total rainfall in the consideration of runoff, biological productivity, and land utilization. In the remainder of the book water-soil-plant relationships are discussed generally and specifically for selected crops and regions. Popular emotional appears currently decry the destruction of tropical wet forests. Jackson makes it clear that tropical lands exhibit a rich variation in climates and that problems of exploitation rooted in cultures, economics, politics, and population growth cannot be solved by the simple introduction of temperate zone science and technology. This volume is a hybrid between an intermediate level textbook and a review article for the knowledgeable investigator, planner, or administrator, and the values to be found in it will vary with the background and interests of the reader. A reference list of more than 800 titles, perhaps half of them dated in the present decade, is a major asset, especially when coupled with extensive author and subject indexes.

  14. Policy and Ethics In Agricultural and Ecological Water Uses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelgren, Bo

    Agricultural water use accounts for about 70 percent of abstracted waters reaching 92 percent of the collective uses of all water resources when rain water is included. Agriculture is the traditional first sector and linked to a wide range of social, economic and cultural issues at local and global level that reach beyond the production of cheap food and industrial fibres. With the dominance in agricultural water uses and linkages with land use and soil conservation the sector is critical to the protection of global and local environmental values especially in sensitive dryland systems. Ethical principles related to development and nature conservation have traditionally been focused on sustainability imperatives building on precaution and preventive action or on indisputable natural systems values, but are by necessity turning more and more towards solidarity-based risk management approaches. Policy and management have in general failed to consider social dimensions with solidarity, consistency and realism for societal acceptance and practical application. As a consequence agriculture and water related land degradation is resulting in accelerated losses in land productivity and biodiversity in dryland and in humid eco- systems. Increasingly faced with the deer social consequences in the form of large man-made hydrological disasters and with pragmatic requirements driven by drastic increases in the related social cost the preferences are moving to short-term risk management approaches with civil protection objectives. Water scarcity assessment combined with crisis diagnoses and overriding statements on demographic growth, poverty and natural resources scarcity and deteriorating food security in developing countries have become common in the last decades. Such studies are increasingly questioned for purpose, ethical integrity and methodology and lack of consideration of interdependencies between society, economy and environment and of society's capacity to adapt to

  15. Potential of the Conservation Reserve Program to control agricultural surface water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lant, Christopher L.

    1991-07-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), initiated by the Conservation Title of the Food Security Act of 1985, is the primary federal program to control nonpointsource pollution in agricultural watersheds of the United States. However, the program is designed primarily to reduce soil erosion rather than to retire croplands in a manner optimal for controlling runoff of sediment and associated pollutants. This study estimates potential enrollment of streamside and floodplain croplands in this ten-year retirement program in order to gauge the potential of the CRP as a water-quality improvement policy. A contingent choice survey design was employed in Fayette County, Illinois, to demonstrate that there is substantial potential for retirement of streamside and floodplain croplands in the CRP. Enrollments in each program climb from less than 6% to over 83% of eligible croplands as the annual rental rate is increased from 20 to 200/acre. Potential retirement of streamside and floodplain croplands declines, however, if tree planting, drainage removal, or a 20-year contract are required. The potential of a CRP-based water-quality program to improve water quality and aquatic ecosystems in agricultural watersheds is thus substantial but constrained by the economic trade-offs that farmers make between crop production and conservation incentives in determining the use of their riparian lands.

  16. Characterization of water reservoirs affected by acid mine drainage: geochemical, mineralogical, and biological (diatoms) properties of the water.

    PubMed

    Valente, T; Rivera, M J; Almeida, S F P; Delgado, C; Gomes, P; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L; Santisteban, M

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, and biological data obtained in water reservoirs located in one of the most paradigmatic mining regions, suffering from acid mine drainage (AMD) problems: the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Four water reservoirs located in the Spanish sector of the IBP, storing water for different purposes, were selected to achieve an environmental classification based on the effects of AMD: two mining dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas), a reservoir for industrial use (Sancho), and one with water used for human supply (Andévalo). The results indicated that the four reservoirs are subject to the effect of metallic loads from polluted rivers, although with different levels: Águas Ácidas > Gossan > Sancho ≥ Andévalo. In accordance, epipsammic diatom communities have differences in the respective composition and dominant taxa. The dominant diatoms in each reservoir indicated acid water: Pinnularia acidophila and Pinnularia aljustrelica were found in the most acidic dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas, with pH <3), Pinnularia subcapitata in Sancho (pH 2.48-5.82), and Eunotia exigua in Andévalo (pH 2.34-6.15). PMID:26032451

  17. Acid mine drainage. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the control and treatment of acid mine drainage. Techniques discussed for treating wastes containing heavy metals include precipitation, cementation, ion exchange, charge membrane, ultrafiltration, ozonation, solvent extraction, and electrodialysis. The environmental impacts of acid mine drainage on rivers, streams, and lakes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Acid mine drainage. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the control and treatment of acid mine drainage. Techniques discussed for treating wastes containing heavy metals include precipitation, cementation, ion exchange, charge membrane, ultrafiltration, ozonation, solvent extraction, and electrodialysis. The environmental impacts of acid mine drainage on rivers, streams, and lakes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Acid mine drainage. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the control and treatment of acid mine drainage. Techniques discussed for treating wastes containing heavy metals include precipitation, cementation, ion exchange, charge membrane, ultrafiltration, ozonation, solvent extraction, and electrodialysis. The environmental impacts of acid mine drainage on rivers, streams, and lakes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Watershed SWAT Evaluation of Control Drainage Structure in Ditch management for Improved Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Eastern Shore region of Maryland, extensive land areas used for crop production require drainage systems either as tile drains or open ditches. Increased nutrient loading of the Chesapeake Bay is being partly linked to the prevalence of ditch drainage in the region. Studies have shown that an...

  1. AN INNOVATIVE SYSTEM FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural chemicals (both inorganic and organic) in drainage discharge from watersheds have raised concerns about the quality of surface water resources. For example, hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico has been related to the nutrients discharging from agricultural watersheds...

  2. Agricultural water consumption decreasing nutrient burden at Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yindong; Wang, Xuejun; Zhen, Gengchong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Wei; He, Wei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we discussed the impacts of human water consumption to the nutrient burden in a river estuary, and used Huanghe River as a case study. The agricultural water consumption from the Huanghe River has significantly decreased the natural water flows, and the amount of water consumption could be almost twice as high as the water entering into the estuary. According to our calculation, agricultural water usage decreased TN outflows by 6.5 × 104 Mg/year and TP outflows by 2.0 × 103 Mg/year. These account for 74% and 77% of the total output loads. It has been widely reported that the majority of the rivers in northern China were severely polluted by nutrients. Its implication on the budget of nutrient in the estuary ecosystem is not well characterized. Our study showed that the discharge of nutrients in the coast waters from polluted rivers was over concerned. Nutrients in the polluted rivers were transported back to the terrestrial systems when water was drawn for human water consumption. The magnitudes of changes in riverine nutrient discharges even exceed the water-sediment regulation trails in the Huanghe River. It has non-negligible impact on estimating the nutrient burden in costal water ecosystem.

  3. Effects of acid mine drainage on water, sediment and associated benthic macroinvertebrate communities

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, L.G.; Cherry, D.S.; Dobbs, M.G.; Cairns, J. Jr.; Zipper, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The toxic constituents of abandoned mined land (AML) discharges (acidic pH, heavy metals, total suspended solids) are extremely toxic to aquatic life . Studies were undertaken to ascertain environmental impacts to the upper Powell River, Lee and Wise Counties, Va. These impacts included disruptions in physical water quality, sediment quality, altered benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, and toxicity of the water column and sediments from short-term impairment bioassays, and the potential to bioaccumulate selected metals (Al, Fe, Mn, P, Zn, Cu, Mg, S, Ni, Cd) by periphyton and resident bivalves. Water chemistry and macroinvertebrate assemblages were collected at upstream control, just below acid mine drainage and other downstream sites. Selected trace metal concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, P, Zn, Cu, Mg, S, Ni, Cd) were determined for water, sediment and resident bivalves using ICP-AES. Acidic pH ranged from 2.15--3.3 at three AML-influenced seeps and varied from 6.4--8.0 at reference stations. At one AML-influenced creek, acidic pH conditions worsened from summer to fall and eradicated aquatic life throughout a 1.5 km stretch of that creek as it flowed into another creek. An additional dilution of 3.4 km in the second creek was needed to nearly neutralize the acidic pH problem. Conductivity (umhos/cm) ranged from 32--278 at reference sites and from 245--4,180 at AML-impact sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate abundance and taxon richness were essentially eliminated in the seeps or reached numbers of 1 -3 taxa totaling < 10 organisms relative to reference areas where richness values were 12--17 and comprised 300--977 organisms. Concentrations of Fe, Al, Mg and Cu and Zn were highest in the environmentally stressed stations of low pH and high conductivity relative to the reference stations. Iron was, by far, the element in highest concentration followed by Al and Mg.

  4. RECYCLING OF RUNOFF AND SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE WATER IN THE MIDWEST U.S. (WETLAND RESERVOIR SUBIRRIGATION SYSTEMS -WRSIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An innovative agricultural water management system has been developed and is now being tested to determine efficacy for reduction of nonpoint source pollution of surface water streams. Widespread utilization of this system could substantially reduce many of the Midwest's agriculturally related envi...

  5. The role of recharge zones, discharge zones, springs and tile drainage systems in peneplains of Central European highlands with regard to water quality generation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolezal, F.; Kvitek, T.

    2003-04-01

    Large areas of ploughed lands in old peneplains of Central Europe (such as the Bohemo-Moravian Highland) are located on flat tops of hills. Their soils, mostly Cambisols on weathered acid crystalline rocks (e.g., granite and gneiss) are permeable and shallow or medium-deep. These are the zones of groundwater recharge and it is through them that the local water-bearing formations (weathered rocks, colluvia and quaternary sediments in valleys) receive their portions of nitrate and other pollutants. The groundwater exfiltrates on the lower parts of slopes and in narrow valleys, creating dispersed springs and waterlogged areas. The latter were traditionally used, if at all, as forests or meadows. Since about 1960, many of the former meadows in foothill zones of Czech highlands have been drained by subsurface tile drainage systems and turned into arable lands. Field measurements in several small experimental catchments in this area proved that the water which is being discharged into the main stream either by small surface tributaries collecting water from subsurface drainage systems or by the subsurface drainage systems themselves reveals high concentrations of nitrate. Strong intraseasonal variation of water quality and the results of runoff separation suggest that the overall turnover of groundwater is fast. It is hypothesised that the redox status of the formerly waterlogged sites has been shifted toward the oxidation side due to drainage and tillage, rendering the removal of nitrogen from groundwater by denitrification less efficient. Hence, it is mainly the combination of diffuse pollution by nitrate in the recharge zones and the lack of opportunity for denitrification in the transitional and discharge zones which makes the stream water polluted. The ploughed lands in the recharge zones represent an established basis for local agriculture and cannot be set aside. Many of them have however been declared as vulnerable zones in terms of the nitrate pollution risk

  6. Current- and past-use pesticide prevalence in drainage ditches in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide use is ubiquitous in agriculture and often results in applied pesticides entering adjacent aquatic systems. This study seasonally analyzed a suite of 17 current and past-use pesticides in both drainage waters and sediments to evaluate the prevalence of pesticides in drainage di...

  7. Tile drainage simulation in SWAT2012: Parameterization and evaluation in an Indiana watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the poorly drained soils of the Midwestern United States, subsurface drainage is an important flow pathway in the agricultural landscape; it therefore needs to be included in modeling studies. The new tile drainage simulation method in the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), based on the Hooghoudt...

  8. Rye Cover Crop and Gamagrass Strip Effects on NO3 Concentration and Load in Tile Drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant portion of the nitrate(NO3) from agricultural fields that contaminates surface waters in the Midwest Corn Belt is transported to streams or rivers by subsurface drainage systems or tiles. We compared two cropping system modifications for NO3 concentration and load in subsurface drainag...

  9. Modeling global distribution of agricultural insecticides in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Alessio; Kattwinkel, Mira; Rasmussen, Jes J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Fornaroli, Riccardo; Liess, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. PMID:25555206

  10. Managing agricultural phosphorus for water quality protection: principles for progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eutrophication of aquatic systems due to diffuse pollution of agricultural phosphorus (P) is a local, even regional, water quality problem that can be found world-wide. Sustainable management of P requires prudent tempering of agronomic practices, recognizing that additional steps are often requ...

  11. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  12. Multifunctional systems approaches to water management for agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of anthropogenic chemicals on water quality, wildlife, and human health has received increasing attention in recent years. One potential source of anthropogenic compounds is land-based recycling programs which apply municipal wastes (biosolids) to large tracts of agricultural land in lie...

  13. Relationship between streaming potential and water saturation during drainage and imbibition in sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Vinogradov, J.; Jackson, M.

    2013-12-01

    The rock pore space in many subsurface settings is saturated with water and one or more immiscible fluid phases; examples include NAPLs in contaminated aquifers, supercritical CO2 during sequestration in deep saline aquifers, the vadose zone and hydrocarbon reservoirs. To interpret spontaneous potential measurements for groundwater flow and hydraulic properties in these settings requires an understanding of the saturation dependence of the streaming potential. Vinogradov and Jackson [2011] reported measurements of the streaming potential during drainage and, for the first time, imbibition in two different sandstone plugs saturated with water and undecane. However, they reported effective values of the streaming potential coupling coefficient (C) at partial saturation (Sw), because Sw in the plugs was not uniform. The aim of this study is to determine the true value of C as a function of Sw in both samples. We use a three-step approach in which hydraulic and electrical parameters are determined using numerical simulation and Nelder-Mead simplex unconstrained optimisation or active-set constrained optimisation. In the first step, we determine the relative permeability and capillary pressure, assuming these are simple exponential functions of Sw (Corey-type) and using an objective function which is a weighted average of the measured (i) pressure drop across the plug, (ii) total fluid flow rate and (iii) water flow rate. In the second, we determine the saturation dependence of the electrical conductivity, assuming Archie's Law and using the measured conductivity of the plug as the objective function. In the final step, we determine the saturation dependence of the streaming potential, using the measured streaming potential across the plug as the objective function. We obtain a good match between simulated and measured values of C, and find that it (i) exhibits hysteresis, (ii) can vary non-monotonically with saturation, (iii) is non-zero when undecane flows at the

  14. Element determination in natural biofilms of mine drainage water by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mages, Margarete; von Tümpling, Wolf; van der Veen, Andrea; Baborowski, Martina

    2006-11-01

    Human impacts like mining activities lead to higher element concentration in surface waters. For different pollution levels, the consequences for aquatic organisms are not yet investigated in detail. Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to determine the influence of mining affected surface waters on biofilms. Elements like heavy metals can be absorbed on cell walls and on polymeric substances or enter the cytoplasm of the cells. Thus, they are important for the optimization of industrial biotechnological processes and the environmental biotechnology. Beyond this, biofilms can also play an important role in wastewater treatment processes and serve as bioindicators in the aquatic environment. The presented total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic investigation was performed to compare the element accumulation behavior of biofilms grown on natural or on artificial materials of drainage water affected by former copper mining activities. A high salt and heavy metal pollution is characteristic for the drainage water. For an assessment of these results, samples from stream Schlenze upstream the confluence with the drainage water, a small tributary of the Saale River in central Germany, were analyzed, too.

  15. Conjunctive use of water resources for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    2014-11-01

    The continuous increase in global population and simultaneous decrease in good quality water resources emphasizes the need of using surface water and groundwater resources conjunctively for irrigation. The conjunctive use allows the utilization of poor quality water, which cannot be used as such for the crop production due to its harmful effect on soil and crop health. This paper presents an overview on issues and methods of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater resources for sustainable irrigated agriculture. The background of the conjunctive water use and its applications for the management of poor quality water and management of rising watertable are presented. The management of conjunctive water use through the computer-based models is also covered in this review. The advantages and disadvantages of the approach have been described. Conclusions are provided based on this review which could be useful for all the stakeholders.

  16. Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture in Arid Areas: Lessons Learned in the San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conventional wisdom is that drainage is required to sustain irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. However, disposal of saline drainage water is a problem throughout the world that is challenging the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The presence of elements besides salt in the drainage w...

  17. Water-table-dependent hydrological changes following peatland forestry drainage and restoration: Analysis of restoration success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menberu, Meseret Walle; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Marttila, Hannu; Irannezhad, Masoud; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Penttinen, Jouni; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    A before-after-control approach was used to analyze the impact of peatland restoration on hydrology, based on high temporal resolution water-table (WT) data from 43 boreal peatlands representative of a south-boreal to north-boreal climate gradient. During the study, 24 forestry drained sites were restored and 19 pristine peatlands used as control sites. Different approaches were developed and used to analyze WT changes (mean WT position, WT fluctuation, WT hydrograph, recession, and storage characteristics). Restoration increased WT in most cases but particularly in spruce mires, followed by pine mires and fens. Before restoration, the WT fluctuation (WTF) was large, indicating peat temporary storage gain (SG). After restoration, the WT hydrograph recession limb slopes and SG coefficients (Rc) declined significantly. Drainage or restoration did not significantly affect mean diurnal WT fluctuations, used here as a proxy for evapotranspiration. Overall, the changes in WT characteristics following restoration indicated creation of favorable hydrological conditions for recovery of functional peatland ecosystems in previously degraded peatland sites. This was supported by calculation of bryophyte species abundance thresholds for WT. These results can be used to optimize restoration efforts in different peatland systems and as a qualitative conceptual basis for future restoration operations.

  18. Nutrient Transport in Tile-Fed Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches receive water and associated contaminants from agricultural fields via surface runoff or sub-surface tile drains. Little consideration has been given to the processes affecting nutrient transport once in surface water. The objective of this research was to evaluate the nutrient fa...

  19. Simulating root water uptake from a shallow saline groundwater resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water is a significant problem for irrigated agriculture. One proposal to deal with this problem is sequential biological concentration (SBC), which is the process of recycling drainage water on increasingly more salt tolerant crops until the volume of drainage water has ...

  20. Agricultural hydrology and water quality II: Introduction to the featured collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural hydrology and water quality is a multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding the interrelationship between modern agriculture and water resources. This paper summarizes a featured collection of 10 manuscripts emanating from the 2013 American Water Resources Association Specialty Co...

  1. APPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM MODELS IN ASSESSING AND MANAGING CONTAMINATION OF THE SOIL-WATER-ATMOSPHERE CONTINUUM IN AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last three decades, there has been a growing public concern about the adverse effects of modern agriculture on environmental quality and soil-water resources. In the mid-1980's, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) identified the need for models of whole agricultural systems that wi...

  2. Application of Agricultural System Models in Assessing and Managing Contamination of Soil-Water-Atmosphere Continuum in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last three decades, there has been a growing public concern about the adverse effects of modern agriculture on environmental quality and soil-water resources. In the mid-1980s, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) identified the need for models of whole agricultural systems th...

  3. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomas; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Ealo Cuello, Joao; Fariñas, Maria Dolores; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Collazos Burbano, David Alejandro; Peguero-Pina, Jose Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70%) corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS) in the frequency range 0.1–1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400–900 kHz and 200–400 kHz, respectively), These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained. PMID:27428968

  4. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomas; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Ealo Cuello, Joao; Fariñas, Maria Dolores; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Collazos Burbano, David Alejandro; Peguero-Pina, Jose Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70%) corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS) in the frequency range 0.1-1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400-900 kHz and 200-400 kHz, respectively), These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained. PMID:27428968

  5. Assessing the utility of mixed organic materials for removal of metals in mine drainage impacted waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H.; Neculita, C.; Lee, G.; Jeong, J.; Cho, D.; Chang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The use of natural organic materials in bioreactors is one of the most sustainable technologies for treatment of metals in mine-impacted waters. Several natural organic substrates including mushroom compost, cow manure, sawdust, wood chips, and cut rice straw were characterized and used in combination for treating mine drainage with acidic (pH 3) and moderate pH (pH 6). Bench-scale batch experiments were performed for 35-day period to evaluate the performance of organic substrates in removing dissolved metals. Overall results indicated that mixtures of different substrates showed satisfactory performances in removing metals (Al > Fe > Mn) (up to 100%), generating alkalinity, and reducing sulfate at both pH conditions. The mixture of sawdust and cow manure was found as the most effective whereas the mixture containing 40% cut rice straw gave limited efficiency, suggesting organic carbon released from this substrate is not readily available for biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. The mushroom compost based bioreactors released significant amount of sulfate, which may raise a concern upon the start-up of field-scale bioreactors. Collectively, the substrate mixtures had comparable performances to the mushroom compost, the most commonly used material in field bioreactors, in terms of metal removal, pH neutralization, and sulfate reduction, except for the reactors containing rice straw. Especially, the mixture of sawdust and cow manure was the most efficient substrate for treatment of mine-impacted waters. The correlation between the extent of sulfate reduction and dissolved organic carbon/SO42- ratio was weak and this indicates the type of DOC plays more important role in sulfate reduction than the absolute concentration and that the ratio is not sensitive enough to properly describe the relative effectiveness of substrate mixtures.

  6. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  7. Water and Nutrient Balances in a Large Tile-Drained Agricultural Catchment: A Distributed Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongyi; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Tian, Fuqiang; Liu, Dengfeng

    2010-11-16

    This paper presents the development and implementation of a distributed model of coupled water nutrient processes, based on the representative elementary watershed (REW) approach, to the Upper Sangamon River Basin, a large, tile-drained agricultural basin located in central Illinois, mid-west of USA. Comparison of model predictions with the observed hydrological and biogeochemical data, as well as regional estimates from literature studies, shows that the model is capable of capturing the dynamics of water, sediment and nutrient cycles reasonably well. The model is then used as a tool to gain insights into the physical and chemical processes underlying the inter- and intra-annual variability of water and nutrient balances. Model predictions show that about 80% of annual runoff is contributed by tile drainage, while the remainder comes from surface runoff (mainly saturation excess flow) and subsurface runoff. It is also found that, at the annual scale nitrogen storage in the soil is depleted during wet years, and is supplemented during dry years. This carryover of nitrogen storage from dry year to wet year is mainly caused by the lateral loading of nitrate. Phosphorus storage, on the other hand, is not affected much by wet/dry conditions simply because the leaching of it is very minor compared to the other mechanisms taking phosphorous out of the basin, such as crop harvest. The analysis then turned to the movement of nitrate with runoff. Model results suggested that nitrate loading from hillslope into the channel is preferentially carried by tile drainage. Once in the stream it is then subject to in-stream denitrification, the significant spatio-temporal variability of which can be related to the variation of the hydrologic and hydraulic conditions across the river network.

  8. Water and sediment budgets for the stormwater-drainage channel at the Navy Ships Parts Control Center near Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, water year 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, L.A.; Durlin, R.R.; Bender, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Navy Ships Parts Control Center near Mechanicsburg, Pa., occupies an area of 824 acres, of which 358 are covered by impervious surfaces. Most of the impervious area is drained by stormwater systems that discharge to an open channel that extends about 7,900 feet from its headwaters to its confluence with Trindle Spring Run. The channel drains an area of 992 acres, of which 435 are covered by impervious surfaces. The entire area of the Center including the stormwater-drainage channel is situated in karst terrain. Parts of the drainage channel contain large sinkholes and most of the storm runoff that enters the channel drains to the sinkholes. From 1992 to 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Department of the Navy, conducted a detailed study of water and sediment flows in the stormwater-drainage channel. The purpose of this study was to quantify the discharge of stormwater and suspended sediment to the ground-water system, by way of sinkholes, and to Trindle Spring Run. From October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993, the data-collection period for the study, discharge and suspended-sediment concentrations were measured at three sites along the drainage channel. During the period, water inflow to the channel totaled 679 acre-feet and outflow to Trindle Spring Run totaled 131 acre-feet. Water loss to sinkholes in the drainage channel totaled 548 acre-feet or 81 percent of inflow. Total sediment inflow to the drainage channel was 97 tons, outflow to Trindle Spring Run was 22 tons, sediment loss to sinkholes was 63 tons, and the residual 12 tons of sediment was deposited in the channel. The effect of filling the sinkholes on flooding was estimated through use of a step-backwater model. The model was used to simulate undampened water-surface elevations that would result from the maximum instantaneous discharge recorded during October 1992-September 1993. The model is constrained by uncertainty in the values of the channel-roughness parameter

  9. Significance of urban and agricultural land use for biocide and pesticide dynamics in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Wittmer, I K; Bader, H-P; Scheidegger, R; Singer, H; Lück, A; Hanke, I; Carlsson, C; Stamm, C

    2010-05-01

    Biocides and pesticides are designed to control the occurrence of unwanted organisms. From their point of application, these substances can be mobilized and transported to surface waters posing a threat to the aquatic environment. Historically, agricultural pesticides have received substantially more attention than biocidal compounds from urban use, despite being used in similar quantities. This study aims at improving our understanding of the influence of mixed urban and agricultural land use on the overall concentration dynamics of biocides and pesticides during rain events throughout the year. A comprehensive field study was conducted in a catchment within the Swiss plateau (25 km(2)). Four surface water sampling sites represented varying combinations of urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, the urban drainage system was studied by sampling the only wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the catchment, a combined sewer overflow (CSO), and a storm sewer (SS). High temporal resolution sampling was carried out during rain events from March to November 2007. The results, based on more than 600 samples analyzed for 23 substances, revealed distinct and complex concentration patterns for different compounds and sources. Five types of concentration patterns can be distinguished: a) compounds that showed elevated background concentrations throughout the year (e.g. diazinon >50 ng L(-1)), indicating a constant household source; b) compounds that showed elevated concentrations driven by rain events throughout the year (e.g. diuron 100-300 ng L(-1)), indicating a constant urban outdoor source such as facades; c) compounds with seasonal peak concentrations driven by rain events from urban and agricultural areas (e.g. mecoprop 1600 ng L(-1) and atrazine 2500 ng L(-1) respectively); d) compounds that showed unpredictably sharp peaks (e.g. atrazine 10,000 ng L(-1), diazinon 2500 ng L(-1)), which were most probably due to improper handling or even disposal of products; and

  10. The Impact of Microbial Communities on Water Quality in an Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, G. R.; Rademacher, L. K.; Faul, K. L.; Brunell, M.; Burmeister, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from the former Leona Heights Sulfur mine in Oakland, CA, contributes toxic levels of Cu, Cd, and Zn and elevated levels of Fe2+ and SO42- to downstream reaches of Lion Creek via Leona Creek. To investigate the extent of AMD and its relationship to microbial community structure, water samples were collected from three tributaries (two natural, and one with AMD) as well as the inlet and outlet of Lake Aliso (a reservoir downstream of the confluence of the three tributaries) beginning in July 2009. Lake Aliso was dammed in the late 1800s but since the early 1990s it has been full during the dry season and drained during the wet season, thus dramatically altering the geochemical conditions on a seasonal basis. Natural waters from Lion Creek and Horseshoe Creek tributaries dilute the water from Leona Creek, thus reducing concentrations of major ions and metals below toxic levels before water discharges into Lake Aliso. Precipitation events lead to episodes of increased mobilization of Cu and Cd in Leona Creek and produce toxic levels of these metals below the confluence with Lion Creek. Tributary mixing calculations suggest that even though Leona Creek contributes the smallest volume of water of the three tributaries, it is the main source of metals entering Lake Aliso. The input of the metal-rich AMD from Leona Creek changes the redox conditions of Lion Creek. In addition, Lake Aliso has a significant impact on water quality in the Lion Creek watershed. Observations of temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen in lake depth profiles indicate that Lake Aliso is stratified during the dry season when the lake is full. Based on concentration differences between the inlet and outlet of the lake, Na, Mg, SO42-, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni are removed from the water while K, As, Pb and Fe are mobilized when Lake Aliso is full. Geochemical modeling using PhreeqcI suggests the deposition of minerals containing the metals that are being removed

  11. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  12. Treatment of steam-assisted gravity drainage water using low coagulant dose and Fenton oxidation.

    PubMed

    Al-As'ad, Ahmad; Husein, Maen M

    2014-08-01

    The use of coagulation and Fenton oxidation was studied for total organic carbon (TOC) and silica removal from steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) water at 800C and two different concentrations replicating the stream feeding the warm lime softening unit having 675 mg/L TOC and 350 mg/L silica and the blowdown of the once through steam generator having 3700mg/L TOC and 2585 mg/L silica. Coagulation was carried out by the addition of FeCl3, Al(NO3)3 or Ca(NO3)2. The results showed that Fe(III) salt outperformed Al(III) and Ca(II) salts. A two-stage addition of 2.5 g FeCl3 per g TOC intermediated by a filtration unit resulted in approximately 72% TOC removal and more than 80% silica removal while maintaining low solid waste. Comparing results pertaining to coagulant concentration and final pH, it can be easily concluded that silica removal is governed by the resultant pH, whereas TOC removal was accomplished through surface neutralization and localized enmeshment coagulation. Fenton oxidation is proposed to further treat the filtrate obtained from the second stage Fe(III) coagulation. An additional 10% TOC removal could be achieved; at seven times lower H202 dose in the presence of Fe2+ or Fe0 reagent. Moreover, the advanced Fenton process resulted in high silica removal as a result of adsorption onto Fe(OH)3 precipitate, which formed at the equilibrium pH of the system. PMID:24956753

  13. Agricultural practices and irrigation water demand in Uttar Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Brozovic, N.; Mijic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in farming practices within Uttar Pradesh, particularly advances in irrigation technology, have led to a significant drop in water tables across the region. While the acquisition of monitoring data in India is a challenge, current water use practices point towards water overdraught. This is exacerbated by government and state policies and practices, including the subsidising of electricity, seeds and fertilizer, and an agreement to buy all crops grown, promoting the over use of water resources. Taking India's predicted population growth, increases in industrialisation and climate change into account, both farmland and the water resources it depends upon will be subject to increased pressures in the future. This research is centred around irrigation demands on water resources within Uttar Pradesh, and in particular, quantifying those demands both spatially and temporally. Two aspects of this will be presented; the quantification of irrigation water applied and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices. Calculating the volumes of applied irrigation water in the absence of observed data presents a major challenge and is achieved here through the use of crop models. Regional crop yields provided by statistical yearbooks are replicated by the crop models AquaCrop and InfoCrop, and by doing so the amount of irrigation water needed to produce the published yields is quantified. In addition, proxy information, for example electrical consumption for agricultural use, is used to verify the likely volumes of water abstracted from tubewells. Statistical analyses of borehole distribution and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices, particularly farmer decision making, collected during a field trip are also presented. The evolution of agricultural practices, technological advancement and water use for irrigation is reconstructed through the use of multiple regression and principle component analysis

  14. Evaluation of the negative impacts of exposure to agricultural ditch water in fishes using streamside bioassays and field biomarkers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use in regions of the Midwest is dominated by crop agriculture that depends on ditch drainage systems for maximum productivity. Many drainage networks comprise headwater streams that have been degraded by alteration of habitat and by introduction of agrichemicals. Understanding the relative i...

  15. Water quality of runoff to the Clarksville Memorial Hospital drainage well and of Mobley Spring, Clarksville, Tennessee, February and March, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    A drainage well and a spring in Clarksville, Tennessee, have been instrumented to collect storm related data in order to define the types and concentrations of water quality characteristics in stormwater runoff and in the receiving groundwater basin. Water quality samples of storm runoff at the drainage well at Clarksville Memorial Hospital and of nearby Mobley Spring were collected during four storms and during normal flow conditions during February and March 1988. Samples were analyzed for major inorganic water quality constituents, selected trace metals, and organics. Several samples from the drainage well and the spring had trace-metals concentrations that exceeded maximum contaminant levels for State drinking-water standards. Organic compounds including phenols, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and other base-neutral extractable organic substance are present in samples from both the drainage well and spring. (USGS)

  16. Spatial dynamics of water management in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, Daya; Knapp, Keith C.

    2009-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture provides 40% of worldwide food supplies but uses large amounts of scarce freshwater and contributes to environmental degradation. At the very core of this problem lie decisions made by irrigators subject to biophysical relations. This research develops a microeconomic model of irrigation management taking into account the dynamics of plant growth over the season, spatial variability in infiltration of applied irrigation water, and fundamental principles from subsurface hydrology. The analysis shows that spatial variability in water infiltration common to traditional irrigation systems increases both applied irrigation water and deep percolation flows by very substantial amounts compared to uniform infiltration. The analysis demonstrates that efficient irrigation management can significantly reduce both applied water and deep percolation at relatively low costs, at least up to a certain level. A long-run analysis of optimal irrigation systems including capital costs indicates that traditional furrow systems are economically efficient over a wide range of water prices and deep percolation costs. Overall, the results indicate that optimal irrigation management can achieve significant resource conservation and pollution control with low loss in agricultural net benefits and without land retirement, investment in capital-intensive systems, or crop switching.

  17. Hydrological Modeling of Storm Water Drainage System due to Frequent and Intense Precipitation of Dhaka city using Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall induced flooding during rainy season is a regular phenomenon in Dhaka City. Almost every year a significant part of the city suffers badly with drainage congestion. There are some highly dense areas with lower ground elevation which submerge under water even with an intense precipitation of few hours. The higher areas also suffer with the drainage problem due to inadequate maintenance of the system and encroachment or illegal filling up of the drainage canals and lakes. Most part of the city suffered from long term urban flooding during historical extreme rainfall events in September 2004, 2007 and July 2009. The situation is likely to worsen in the future due to Climate Change, which may lead to more frequent and intense precipitation. To assess the major and minor drainage systems and elements of the urban basins using the hydrodynamic modelling and, through this, identifying the flooding events and areas, taking into account the current situation and future flood or drainage scenarios. Stormwater modeling has a major role in preventing issues such as flash floods and urban water-quality problems. Stormwater models of a lowered spatial resolution would thus appear valuable if only their ability to provide realistic results could be proved. The present scenario of urban morphology of Dhaka city and existing drainage system is complex for hydrological and hydrodynamic modeling. Furthermore limitations of background data and uncertain future urban scenarios may confine the potential outputs of a model. Although several studies were carried out including modeling for drainage master planning, a detail model for whole DAP (Detaile Area Plan) of Dhaka city area is not available. The model developed under this study is covering the existing drainage system in the study area as well as natural flows in the fringe area. A good number of models are available for hydrological and hydraulic analysis of urban areas. These are MIKE 11, MOUSE, HEC-RAS, HEC HMS and EPA

  18. Land use change in the last century in the Veneto floodplain: effects on network drainage density, water storage, and related consequences on flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Sofia, Giulia; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Tarolli, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    In a high-density populated country such as Italy, the anthropic pressure plays a fundamental role in the alteration and the modification of the landscape. Among the most evident anthropic alterations, the most important are the urbanization processes that have been occurring since the end of the second world war. Agricultural activities, housing and other land uses have shifted due to the progressive spreading of urban areas. These modifications affect the hydrologic regimes, but municipalities often are not aware of the real impact of land cover changes on such processes and, consequently, an increase of the elements at risk of flooding is generally registered. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of land cover changes in the Veneto region (north-east Italy), from 1954 to 2006, on the minor drainage network system and on its capacity to attenuate the direct runoff. The major flood event occurred between October and November 2010. The study is a typical agrarian landscape and it has been chosen considering its involvement inthe major flood of 2010 and considering also the availability of high-resolution topographic data (LiDAR-derived DTMs) and historical aerial photographs. Aerial photographs dated back to 1954 and 1981, in particular, have been used either to classify the land cover in five categories according to the first level of the CORINE land cover classification and to identify the minor drainage network. A semi-automatic approach based on the high-resolution DTM (Cazorzi et al., 2012), was also considered to identify the minor drainage network and estimate its water storage capacity. The results underline how land cover variation over the last 50 years has strongly increased the propension of the soil to produce direct runoff (increase of the Curve Number value) and it has also reduced the extent of the minor network system. As a consequence, the capacity of the agrarian minor network to attenuate and laminate a flood event is

  19. Agricultural virtual water flows within the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Qian; Lin, Xiaowen; Konar, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Trade plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, which is projected to be strained by population growth, economic development, and climate change. For this reason, there has been a surge of interest in the water resources embodied in international trade, referred to as "global virtual water trade." In this paper, we present a comprehensive assessment of virtual water flows within the United States (U.S.), a country with global importance as a major agricultural producer and trade power. This is the first study of domestic virtual water flows based upon intranational food transfer empirical data and it provides insight into how the properties of virtual water transfers vary across scales. We find that the volume of virtual water flows within the U.S. is equivalent to 51% of international flows, which is slightly higher than the U.S. food value and mass shares, due to the fact that water-intensive meat commodities comprise a much larger fraction of food transfers within the U.S.. The U.S. virtual water flow network is more social, homogeneous, and equitable than the global virtual water trade network, although it is still not perfectly equitable. Importantly, a core group of U.S. States is central to the network structure, indicating that both domestic and international trade may be vulnerable to disruptive climate or economic shocks in these U.S. States.

  20. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  1. Evaluation of the surface-water sampling design in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages in relation to environmental factors affecting water quality at base flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.

    1998-01-01

    The variability in water quality throughout the WMIC Study Unit during base-flow conditions could be described very well by subdividing the area into Relatively Homogeneous Units and sampling a few streams with drainage basins completely within these homogeneous units. This subdivision and sampling scheme enabled the differences in water quality to be directly related to the differences in the environmental characteristics that exist throughout the Study Unit.

  2. Micro-scale elemental partition in tissues of the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. exposed to highway drainage water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes Godinho, R.; Raimundo, J.; Vale, C.; Anes, B.; Brito, P.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2013-07-01

    In the scope of a monitoring program to assess the environmental impact of automobile traffic over one main bridge in Lisbon, both water and duckweed (Lemna minor L.) were sampled from the road drainage tanks and analyzed for chemical elements. Plants uptake Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn metals from rain water draining the bridge road. Nuclear microprobe elemental maps of cryosections of L. minor tissues showed that incorporated elements were internalized in fronds of the plant. This approach at micrometer level allows a better knowledge of the elemental tissue partitioning in this biomonitor organism.

  3. Influence of teleconnection on water quality in agricultural river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Influences such as weather, flow controls and lag time play an important role in the processes influencing the water quality of agricultural catchments. In particular weather signals need to be clearly considered when interpreting the effectiveness of current measures for reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural sources to water bodies. In north-western Europe weather patterns and trends are influenced by large-scale systems such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the position of the Gulf Stream, the latter expressed as the Gulf Stream North Wall index (GSNW index). Here we present five years of monthly data of nitrate-N concentration in stream water and groundwater (aggregated from sub-hourly monitoring in the stream outlet and monthly sampling in multilevel monitoring wells) from four agricultural catchments (ca. 10 km2) together with monitored weather parameters, long-term weather data and the GSNW index. The catchments are situated in Ireland on the Atlantic seaboard and are susceptible to sudden and seasonal shifts in oceanic climate patterns. Rain anomalies and soil moisture deficit dynamics were similar to the dynamics of the GSNW index. There were monitored changes in nitrate-N concentration in both groundwater and surface water with no apparent connection to agricultural management; instead such changes also appeared to follow the GSNW index. For example, in catchments with poorly drained soils and a 'flashy hydrology' there were seasonal dynamics in nitrate-N concentration that correlated with the seasonal dynamics of the GSNW index. In a groundwater driven catchment there was a consistent increase in nitrate-N concentration over the monitored period which may be the result of increasingly more recharge in summer and autumn (as indicated by more flux in the GSNW index). The results highlight that the position of the Gulf Stream may influence the nitrate-N concentration in groundwater and stream water and there is a risk

  4. Assessment of agricultural return flows under changing climate and crop water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water rights, policy and emergent water markets in the semi-arid regions of the western USA, and worldwide, call for improved estimates of agricultural water budgets. Agricultural water is seen as a major potential water supply with high commodity value as municipalities seek water security under g...

  5. Characterization of water pollution in drainage networks using continuous monitoring data in the Citadel area of Hue City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Y; Teraguchi, T; Lieu, P K; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    In the Citadel area of Hue City, drainage systems that include canals and ponds are considerable sources of fecal contaminants to inundated water during the rainy season because canals and ponds receive untreated wastewater. It is important to investigate the characteristics of hydraulics and water pollution in canals and ponds. At the canals and ponds, water sampling was conducted during dry and wet weather periods in order to evaluate fecal contamination and to investigate changes in water pollution caused by runoff inflow. Inundated water was also collected from streets during heavy rainfall. At the canals and ponds, concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliform exceeded the Vietnamese regulation values for surface water in 23 and 24 out of 27 samples (85 and 89%), respectively. The water samples were categorized based on the characteristics of water pollution using cluster analysis. In the rainy season, continuous monitoring was conducted at the canals and ponds using water depth and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to investigate the dynamic relationship between water level and water pollution. It is suggested that in the canals, high EC meant water stagnation and low EC signified river water inflow. Therefore, EC might be a good indicator of water flow change in canals. PMID:25116489

  6. Assessment of the soil water content temporal variations in an agricultural area of Galicia (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Paz-González, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The direct and continuous assessment of the temporal variation on soil water content is of paramount importance for agricultural practices and, in particular, for the management of water resources. Soil water content is affected by many factors such as topography, particle size, clay and organic matter contents, and tillage systems. There are several techniques to measure or estimate soil water content. Among them, Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) stands out. It is based on measuring the dielectrical constant of the soil environment. This technique allows to describe water dynamics in time and space, to determine the main patterns of soil moisture, the water uptake by roots, the evapotranspiration and the drainage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the daily variation of soil water content in the root-influenced zone in plots devoted to maize and grassland as a function of the soil water volumetric content. The studied site is located in an experimental field of the Centre for Agricultural Research (CIAM) in Mabegondo located in the province of A Coruña, Spain (43°14'N, 8°15'W; 91 masl). The study was carried out from June 2008 to September 2009 in a field devoted to maize (Zea mays, L.) and another field devoted to grassland. The soil of these sites is silt-clay textured. Long-term mean annual temperature and rainfall figures are 13.3 °C and 1288 mm, respectively. During the study period, maize crop was subjected to conventional agricultural practices. A weekly evaluation of the phenological stage of the crop was performed. An EnviroSCAN FDR equipment, comprising six capacitance sensors, was installed in the studied sites following the manufacturer's recommendations, thus assuring a proper contact between the probe and the soil. Soil water content in the root-influenced zone (40 cm depth in grassland and 60 cm depth in maize were considered) was hourly monitored in 20 cm ranges (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm) using FDR. Evaluations were

  7. Use of industrial byproducts to filter PO43- and pesticides in golf green drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golf courses are vulnerable to phosphate (PO43-) and pesticide loss by infiltration because of the sandy, porous grass rooting media used and presence of subsurface tile drainage. In this study, a blend of industrial byproducts, including granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), cement kiln dust (CKD),...

  8. Optional water development strategies for the Yellow River Basin: Balancing agricultural and ecological water demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ximing; Rosegrant, Mark W.

    2004-08-01

    The Yellow River Basin is of the utmost importance for China in terms of food production, natural resources management, and socioeconomic development. Water withdrawals for agriculture, industry, and households in the past decade have seriously depleted environmental and ecological water requirements in the basin. This study presents a modeling scenario analysis of some water development strategies to harmonize water withdrawal demand and ecological water demand in the Yellow River Basin through water savings and interbasin water transfers. A global water and food analysis model including the Yellow River Basin as one of the modeling units is applied for the analysis. The model demonstrates that there is little hope of resolving the conflict between agriculture water demand and ecological water demand in the basin if the current water use practices continue. Trade-offs exist between irrigation water use and ecological water use, and these trade-offs will become more intense in future years with population growth, urbanization, and industrial development as well as growing food demand. Scenario analysis in this study concludes that increasing basin water use efficiency to 0.67 first and then supplementary water availability by interbasin water transfer through the South-North Water Transfer Project may provide a solution to water management of the Yellow River Basin in the next 25 years.

  9. Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters at the global scale.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Compared with nutrient levels and habitat degradation, the importance of agricultural pesticides in surface water may have been underestimated due to a lack of comprehensive quantitative analysis. Increasing pesticide contamination results in decreasing regional aquatic biodiversity, i.e., macroinvertebrate family richness is reduced by ∼30% at pesticide concentrations equaling the legally accepted regulatory threshold levels (RTLs). This study provides a comprehensive metaanalysis of 838 peer-reviewed studies (>2,500 sites in 73 countries) that evaluates, for the first time to our knowledge on a global scale, the exposure of surface waters to particularly toxic agricultural insecticides. We tested whether measured insecticide concentrations (MICs; i.e., quantified insecticide concentrations) exceed their RTLs and how risks depend on insecticide development over time and stringency of environmental regulation. Our analysis reveals that MICs occur rarely (i.e., an estimated 97.4% of analyses conducted found no MICs) and there is a complete lack of scientific monitoring data for ∼90% of global cropland. Most importantly, of the 11,300 MICs, 52.4% (5,915 cases; 68.5% of the sites) exceeded the RTL for either surface water (RTLSW) or sediments. Thus, the biological integrity of global water resources is at a substantial risk. RTLSW exceedances depend on the catchment size, sampling regime, and sampling date; are significantly higher for newer-generation insecticides (i.e., pyrethroids); and are high even in countries with stringent environmental regulations. These results suggest the need for worldwide improvements to current pesticide regulations and agricultural pesticide application practices and for intensified research efforts on the presence and effects of pesticides under real-world conditions. PMID:25870271

  10. Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters at the global scale

    PubMed Central

    Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Compared with nutrient levels and habitat degradation, the importance of agricultural pesticides in surface water may have been underestimated due to a lack of comprehensive quantitative analysis. Increasing pesticide contamination results in decreasing regional aquatic biodiversity, i.e., macroinvertebrate family richness is reduced by ∼30% at pesticide concentrations equaling the legally accepted regulatory threshold levels (RTLs). This study provides a comprehensive metaanalysis of 838 peer-reviewed studies (>2,500 sites in 73 countries) that evaluates, for the first time to our knowledge on a global scale, the exposure of surface waters to particularly toxic agricultural insecticides. We tested whether measured insecticide concentrations (MICs; i.e., quantified insecticide concentrations) exceed their RTLs and how risks depend on insecticide development over time and stringency of environmental regulation. Our analysis reveals that MICs occur rarely (i.e., an estimated 97.4% of analyses conducted found no MICs) and there is a complete lack of scientific monitoring data for ∼90% of global cropland. Most importantly, of the 11,300 MICs, 52.4% (5,915 cases; 68.5% of the sites) exceeded the RTL for either surface water (RTLSW) or sediments. Thus, the biological integrity of global water resources is at a substantial risk. RTLSW exceedances depend on the catchment size, sampling regime, and sampling date; are significantly higher for newer-generation insecticides (i.e., pyrethroids); and are high even in countries with stringent environmental regulations. These results suggest the need for worldwide improvements to current pesticide regulations and agricultural pesticide application practices and for intensified research efforts on the presence and effects of pesticides under real-world conditions. PMID:25870271

  11. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island,Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamflow-gaging stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2002 (October 1, 2001 to September 30, 2002). Water-quality samples were also collected at 35 of 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2002 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2002. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 12.6 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2002. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.14 to 8.1 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 534,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 851,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2002; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 2,900 to 40,200 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 4,200 to 68,200 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 16.8 milligrams per

  12. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2003 (October 1, 2002, to September 30, 2003). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2003 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2003. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 31 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2003. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.44 to 20 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2003; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 10,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 21.3 milligrams per liter

  13. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2004 (October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2004 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2004. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 27 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2004. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,700,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2004; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 12,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 17,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.8 milligrams per liter

  14. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island’s largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2005 (October 1, 2004, to September 30, 2005). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2005 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2005. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 30 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2005. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,300,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,000,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2005; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 13,000 to 77,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 19,000 to 130,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 25.3 milligrams per

  15. Effect of ditch dredging on the fate of nutrients in deep drainage ditches of the Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dredging of drainage ditches in artificially drained systems is necessary to ensure that agricultural fields are drained adequately. This study compared the potential impacts of dredging on water quality. Using a fluvarium (stream simulator), bed material collected from drainage ditches prior to d...

  16. TECHNICAL CONCEPTS RELATED TO CONSERVATION OF IRRIGATION AND RAIN WATER IN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty percent of freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. are for irrigated agriculture, which contributed 55$ billion to the economy in 2002. Increasing diversions of water for urban, environmental, and other uses will likely decrease water available to agriculture. Agricultural water conservation is tou...

  17. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani

    2015-05-01

    The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  18. Nutrient export in tile drainage: Comparing manure injection to fertigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage of agricultural land is implicated as a major source of nutrients to the Mississippi River. To protect water quality, land application of manure should maximize crop nutrient use and minimize nutrient loss. Weather constraints and regulations restrict the period during which...

  19. Modelling key water storages and fluxes in the Arctic drainage basin to explain observed trends in river flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, David; Isberg, Kristina; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    The pace of change in the arctic system during recent decades has captured the world's attention. Observations and model simulations both indicate that the arctic experiences an amplified response to climate forcing relative to that at lower latitudes. At the core of these changes is the arctic hydrologic system, which includes ice, gaseous vapor in the atmosphere, liquid water in soils and fluvial networks on land, and the freshwater content of the ocean. 11% of world's river-runoff flows to the Arctic Ocean and there is evidence of changes in the delicate fresh-water balance. River monitoring show increase in annual discharge from the largest rivers and spring snow-cover is reduced at a higher rate than estimated by climate projections. However, about 30% of the Arctic Ocean drainage basin is still ungauged, and thus, the total influence of interacting processes across the drainage basin still remains unknown. The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model was recently set-up for the entire drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean (excluding Greenland), simulating daily discharge rates for the period 1961-2010. The model domain cover 23 million km2 and is divided into 30 700 subbasins in the model set-up. The aim is to increase the understanding of climate impact on fine-scale hydrology in the entire drainage basin, with the aim to improve predictions of river discharge into the ocean in present and future climate. Special attention is given to key processes, which dominate the discharge pattern and/or are sensitive to climate change. Process descriptions and observed trends from several data sources are co-evaluated by using global earth observations and in-situ datasets for the region. The presentation will show spatial patterns of water load contribution to the sea for various seasons, tends terrestrial water cycle fluxes and storage (especially precipitation, evapotranspiration, snow, ice and lakes). We focus on separating changes in weather and

  20. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB), Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance and water temperature. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2010 (October 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010). Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 monitoring stations by the USGS during WY 2010 as part of a long sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Waterquality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2010. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 39 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2010. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.7 to 27 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,500,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,500,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2010; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 11,000 to 66,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 18,000 to 110,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the PWSB, the median of the median chloride

  1. Water Quality and Supply Issues of Irrigated Agricultural Regions - Lessons from the San Joaquin Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suen, C. J.; Wang, D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley of California covers 4 million hectares of farmland and produces $25 billion of agricultural products annually, but its average annual rainfall ranges from only 130 mm in the south to 330 mm in the north and nearly all occur in the winter. On the east side of the valley, irrigation water is mostly derived from the Sierra snow melt. On the west side, water is imported from the northern part of the state through the Sacramento Delta and a network of canals and aqueducts. Ground water is also used for both east and west sides of the valley to supplement surface water sources, especially during droughts. After years of intense irrigation, a number of water supply and water quality issues have emerged. They include groundwater overdraft, land subsidence, water contamination by agricultural drainage laden with selenium, salinity buildup in soil and water, nutrients contamination from fertilizers and livestock production, competition for water with megalopolis and environmental use and restoration. All these problems are intensified by the effect of climate change that has already taken place and other geological hazards, such as earthquakes that can bring the water supply system to a complete halt. In addition to scientific and technical considerations, solutions for these complex issues necessarily involve management planning, public policy and actions. Currently, they include furloughing marginally productive lands, groundwater recharge and banking, water reuse and recycle, salinity and nutrient management, integrated regional water management planning, and public education and outreach. New laws have been enacted to better monitor groundwater elevations, and new bond measures to improve storage, infrastructures, and reliability, have been placed on the public ballot. The presentation will discuss these complex water issues.

  2. Development and application of a regression equation for estimating the occurrence of atrazine in shallow ground water beneath agricultural areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Wolock, David M.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2006-01-01

    Results from 52 ground-water studies throughout the United States were used to examine relations between the occurrence of atrazine in shallow ground water in agricultural settings and explanatory variables that describe the natural setting, agricultural-management practices, and the type and amount of development in each area. The explanatory variables that were found to be correlated with atrazine occurrence were soil-infiltration rates, presence of artificial drainage (tile drains or trenches), available water-holding capacity of soils, soil permeability, amount of study area using ground water for irrigation source (as percentage of total area), amount of agricultural land (as percentage of total area), and intensity of atrazine use. Ordinary least-squares regression equations that used one or more of these explanatory variables describe as much as 58 percent of the variation in atrazine-detection frequencies. Application of a multivariate equation to unmonitored agricultural areas across the conterminous United States illustrates that atrazine use alone is insufficient for estimating the occurrence of atrazine in shallow ground water. Instead, areas in which soil characteristics and agricultural-management practices favor the movement of water from land surface to the water table and that also have intensive atrazine use are the most vulnerable to atrazine contamination.

  3. Interaction of acid mine drainage with waters and sediments of West Squaw Creek in the West Shasta Mining District, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filipek, L.H.; Kirk, Nordstrom D.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Acid mine drainage has acidified large volumes of water and added high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals to West Squaw Creek, a California stream draining igneous rocks of low acid-neutralizing capacity. During mixing of the acid sulfate stream waters in the South Fork of West Squaw Creek with an almost equal volume of dilute uncontaminated water, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Al remained in solution rather than precipitating or adsorbing on solid phases. Changes in the concentration of these generally conservative metals could be used to determine relative flow volumes of acid tributaries and the main stream. An amorphous orange precipitate (probably ferric hydroxides or a mixture of ferric hydroxides and jarosite) was ubiquitous in the acid stream beds and was intimately associated with algae at the most acid sites. Relative sorption of cations decreased with decreasing water pH. However, arsenic was almost completely scavenged from solution within a short distance from the sulfide sources.

  4. LOWER PAYETTE RIVER, IDAHO AGRICULTURE IRRIGATION WATER RETURN STUDY AND GROUND WATER EVALUATION, 1992-1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the final 17 miles of the Payette River (17050112) and 32,000 acres of irrigated cropland referred to as the Lower Payette State Agricultural Water Quality Project. An in-depth surface and ground water monitoring effort was initiated in June 1992 and completed...

  5. Water Resources and Agricultural Water Use in the North China Plain: Current Status and Management Options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious water deficits with deteriorating environmental quality are threatening agricultural sustainability in the North China Plain (NCP). This paper addresses spatial and temporal availability of water resources in the NCP, and identifies the effects of soil management, irrigation and crop genetic...

  6. Temporal stability of soil water content and soil water flux patterns across agricultural fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When an agricultural field is repeatedly surveyed for soil water content, sites often can be spotted where soil is consistently wetter or consistently dryer than average across the study area. Temporal stability presents significant interest for upscaling observed soil water content, improving soil ...

  7. Water Quality Benefits of Constructed Wetlands Integrated Within Agricultural Water Recycling Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands have been integrated within innovative agricultural water recycling systems, and these systems are now being evaluated at three demonstration sites located in the northwest Ohio portion of the Maumee River Basin (Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert Counties). The water recycling syst...

  8. 3-D modeling of water balance and soil erosion in a clayey subsurface drained agricultural field in boreal climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, M.; Warsta, L.; Koivusalo, H. J.; Paasonen-Kivekäs, M.; Nurminen, J.; Myllys, M.; Alakukku, L.; Äijö, H.; Puustinen, M.

    2012-12-01

    Fluxes of nutrients and other substances from cultivated fields cause eutrophication and deterioration of water quality in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. In order to develop effective strategies to control the environmental impacts of crop cultivation, it is crucial to identify the main transport pathways and the effects of different water management methods on the loads. Reduction of sediment loads is essential since sediment particles typically carry nutrients (especially sorbed phosphorus) and other potentially harmful substances, e.g. pesticides, from the fields to the adjacent surface waters. The novel part of this study was the investigation of suspended sediment transport in soil macropores to the subsurface drains and to the deep groundwater. We applied a 3-D distributed dual-permeability model (FLUSH) using a dataset collected from a subsurface drained, clayey agricultural field (15 ha) to holistically assess water balance, soil erosion and sediment transport from the field to an adjacent stream. The data set included five years of hydrological and water quality measurements from four intensively monitored field sections with different soil properties, topography, drainage systems (drain spacing and drain depth), drain installation methods (trenchless and trench drainage) and drain envelope materials (gravel and fiber). The 3-D model allowed us to quantify how soil erosion and sediment transport differed between the field sections within the field area. The simulations were conducted during snow- and frost-free periods. The simulation results include closure of water balance of the cultivated field, distribution of soil erosion and sediment transport within the field area and the effects of different subsurface drainage systems on sediment loads. The 3-D dual-permeability subsurface flow model was able to reproduce the measured drainflows and sediment fluxes in the clayey field and according to the simulations over 90% of drainflow waters were conveyed to

  9. GlobWat - a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogeveen, J.; Faurès, J.-M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; van de Giesen, N.

    2015-09-01

    GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to assess water use in irrigated agriculture, the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high-resolution data sets that are consistent at global level and calibrated against values for internal renewable water resources, as published in AQUASTAT, the FAO's global information system on water and agriculture. Validation of the model is done against mean annual river basin outflows. The water balance is calculated in two steps: first a "vertical" water balance is calculated that includes evaporation from in situ rainfall ("green" water) and incremental evaporation from irrigated crops. In a second stage, a "horizontal" water balance is calculated to determine discharges from river (sub-)basins, taking into account incremental evaporation from irrigation, open water and wetlands ("blue" water). The paper describes the methodology, input and output data, calibration and validation of the model. The model results are finally compared with other global water balance models to assess levels of accuracy and validity.

  10. Constructed wetlands as a component of the agricultural landscape: Mitigation of herbicides in simulated runoff from upland drainage areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands are a recommended practice for buffering pollutant source areas and receiving waters. A wetland consisting of a sediment trap and two treatment cells was constructed in a Mississippi Delta lake watershed. A 3-h simulated runoff event was initiated (2003) to evaluate fate and tr...

  11. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Columbia River Basin Agriculture through Integrated Crop Systems, Hydrologic, and Water Management Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Stockle, C.; Nelson, R.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Malek, K.; Kruger, C.; Yoder, J.; Marsh, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest covers parts of US and Canada with a total drainage area of about 670,000 square kilometers. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of Columbia River water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area in the CRB. Agriculture is an important component of the economy in the region, with an annual value over $5 billion in Washington State alone. The availability of surface water for irrigation in the basin is expected to be negatively impacted by climate change. Previous climate change studies in the CRB region suggest a likelihood of increasing temperatures and a shift in precipitation patterns, with precipitation higher in the winter and lower in the summer. Warming further exacerbates summer water availability in many CRB tributaries as they shift from snowmelt-dominant towards rain-dominant hydrologic regimes. The goal of this research is to study the impacts of climate change on CRB water availability and agricultural production in the expectation that curtailment will occur more frequently in an altered climate. Towards this goal it is essential that we understand the interactions between crop-growth dynamics, climate dynamics, the hydrologic cycle, water management, and agricultural economy. To study these interactions at the regional scale, we use the newly developed crop-hydrology model VIC-CropSyst, which integrates a crop growth model CropSyst with the hydrologic model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC). Simulation of future climate by VIC-CropSyst captures the socio-economic aspects of this system through economic analysis of the impacts of climate change on crop patterns. This integrated framework (submitted as a separate paper) is linked to a reservoir operations simulations model, Colsim. ColSim is modified to explicitly account for agricultural withdrawals. Washington State water

  12. Water chemistry and ecotoxicity of an acid mine drainage-affected stream in subtropical China during a major flood event.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Wu, Y; Lu, W; Chen, A; Liu, Y

    2007-04-01

    Field and laboratory work was carried out to investigate the chemistry and ecotoxicity of stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a tributary catchment of the Pearl River in subtropical China during a major flood that corresponded to a return period of 100 years. The results indicate that stream water was affected by acid mine drainage from the Dabaoshan mine at least to a distance of 25 km downstream of the mine water discharge point. It appears that H(+) generated from sulfide oxidation in the waste rock dumps was readily available for exporting. The amount of H(+) being discharged into the receiving stream depended on the volume of out-flowing waters. However, there was a lag time for the discharges of the metals. This may be attributed to the slower release of metals, relative to H(+), because it might take more time for the dissolution of heavy metal-bearing compounds, particularly the sparsely soluble jarosites. Fe, Zn and Al were the major metals of potential toxicity contained in the AMD-affected stream water, followed by Mn, Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Ni. The concentrations of these metals in the water decreased rapidly down the stream. This corresponds with an increase in the concentrations of reactive heavy metal fractions in benthic mud down the stream, reflecting the precipitation of heavy metal compounds with increasing pH and their subsequent deposition in the streambed. Toxicity tests show that the AMD-affected stream water at 3.5 km downstream of the discharge point was highly toxic to the test organism. At 25 km downstream of the discharge point where stream water pH was as high as 5.75, marked toxic responses of the test organism were still observed. PMID:16979817

  13. Water resource management for sustainable agriculture in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rajan; Kaushal, Mohinder; Kaur, Samanpreet; Farmaha, Bhupinder

    2009-01-01

    The state of Punjab comprising 1.5% area of the country has been contributing 40-50% rice and 60-65% wheat to the central pool since last three decades. During last 35 years The area under foodgrains has increased from 39,200 sq km ha to 63,400 sq km and the production of rice and wheat has increased from 0.18 to 0.32 kg/m2 and 0.22 to 0.43 kg/m2 respectively. This change in cropping pattern has increased irrigation water requirement tremendously and the irrigated area has increased from 71 to 95% in the state. Also the number of tube wells has increased from 0.192 to 1.165 million in the last 35 years. The excessive indiscriminate exploitation of ground water has created a declining water table situation in the state. The problem is most critical in central Punjab. The average rate of decline over the last few years has been 55 cm per year. The worst affected districts are Moga, Sangrur, Nawanshahar, Ludhiana and Jalandhar. This has resulted in extra power consumption, affects the socio-economic conditions of the small farmers, destroy the ecological balance and adversely affect the sustainable agricultural production and economy of the state. Therefore, in this paper attempt has been made to analyse the problem of declining water table, possible factors responsible for this and suggest suitable strategies for arresting declining water table for sustainable agriculture in Punjab. The strategies include shift of cropping pattern, delay in paddy transplantation, precision irrigation and rainwater harvesting for artificial groundwater recharge. PMID:19934512

  14. The Urban Food-Water Nexus: Modeling Water Footprints of Urban Agriculture using CityCrop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooke, T. R.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Coops, N. C.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urban agriculture provides a potential contribution towards more sustainable food production and mitigating some of the human impacts that accompany volatility in regional and global food supply. When considering the capacity of urban landscapes to produce food products, the impact of urban water demand required for food production in cities is often neglected. Urban agricultural studies also tend to be undertaken at broad spatial scales, overlooking the heterogeneity of urban form that exerts an extreme influence on the urban energy balance. As a result, urban planning and management practitioners require, but often do not have, spatially explicit and detailed information to support informed urban agricultural policy, especially as it relates to potential conflicts with sustainability goals targeting water-use. In this research we introduce a new model, CityCrop, a hybrid evapotranspiration-plant growth model that incorporates detailed digital representations of the urban surface and biophysical impacts of the built environment and urban trees to account for the daily variations in net surface radiation. The model enables very fine-scale (sub-meter) estimates of water footprints of potential urban agricultural production. Results of the model are demonstrated for an area in the City of Vancouver, Canada and compared to aspatial model estimates, demonstrating the unique considerations and sensitivities for current and future water footprints of urban agriculture and the implications for urban water planning and policy.

  15. Cornell University remote sensing program. [application to waste disposal site selection, study of drainage patterns, and water quality management.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.; Mcnair, A. J.; Philipson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing technology were applied in the following areas: (1) evaluation of proposed fly ash disposal sites; (2) development of priorities for drainage improvements; (3) state park analysis for rehabilitation and development; (4) watershed study for water quality planning; and (5) assistance project-landfill site selection. Results are briefly summarized. Other projects conducted include: (1) assessment of vineyard-related problems; (2) LANDSAT analysis for pheasant range management; (3) photo-historic evaluation of Revolutionary War sites; and (4) thermal analysis of building insulation. The objectives, expected benefits and actions, and status of these projects are described.

  16. DRAINAGE MATERIALS AND THEIR EVOLUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An historical account of the development and innovation of drainage materials in the World is given. For more than 100 years prior to 1970, clay and concrete tile were the most common for agricultural drainage. Smooth-wall plastic pipe was used to a limited extent in the late 1950's for subdrain con...

  17. The role of recharge zones, discharge zones, springs and tile drainage systems in peneplains of Central European highlands with regard to water quality generation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doležal, František; Kvítek, Tomáš

    as the likely second main polluter. The differences in water quality between a drainage outlet and a forest spring indicate the importance of a proper nitrogen management in the recharge zones. It is also concluded that the tile drainage and tillage of formerly waterlogged sites, mainly located in transient zones, reduce the opportunity for denitrification of both baseflow and interflow. The ploughed lands in the recharge zones represent an established basis for local agriculture and cannot be easily set aside. Many such lands have been declared as vulnerable to nitrate pollution in order to protect waters against impacts of risky agricultural practices. It is proposed that some waterlogged and drained sites in the transient and discharge zones are set aside rather than the flat ploughed lands on the hill tops. To increase the denitrification, tile drainage runoff from the transient and the discharge zones should be retarded.

  18. Surface runoff and tile drainage transport of phosphorus in the Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Midwestern US offers some of the most productive agricultural soils in the world. Given the cool humid climate, much of the region would not be able to support agriculture without drainage, as the high water table would potentially damage crops and not allow machinery to be in the fields at crit...

  19. Improvements in agricultural water decision support using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Population driven water scarcity, aggravated by climate-driven evaporative demand in dry regions of the world, has the potential of transforming ecological and social systems to the point of armed conflict. Water shortages will be most severe in agricultural areas, as the priority shifts to urban and industrial use. In order to design, evaluate, and monitor appropriate mitigation strategies, predictive models must be developed that quantify exposure to water shortage. Remote sensing data has been used for more than three decades now to parametrize these models, because field measurements are costly and difficult in remote regions of the world. In the past decade, decision-makers for the first time can make accurate and near real-time evaluations of field conditions with the advent of hyper- spatial and spectral and coarse resolution continuous remote sensing data. Here, we summarize two projects representing diverse applications of remote sensing to improve agricultural water decision support. The first project employs MODIS (coarse resolution continuous data) to drive an evapotranspiration index, which is combined with the Standardized Precipitation Index driven by meteorological satellite data to improve famine early warning in Africa. The combined index is evaluated using district-level crop yield data from Kenya and Malawi and national-level crop yield data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The second project utilizes hyper- spatial (GeoEye 1, Quickbird, IKONOS, and RapidEye) and spectral (Hyperion/ALI), as well as multi-spectral (Landsat ETM+, SPOT, and MODIS) data to develop biomass estimates for key crops (alfalfa, corn, cotton, and rice) in the Central Valley of California. Crop biomass is an important indicator of crop water productivity. The remote sensing data is combined using various data fusion techniques and evaluated with field data collected in the summer of 2012. We conclude with a brief discussion on implementation of

  20. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the lower-Colorado River valley, Arizona, California, and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radtke, D.B.; Kepner, W.G.; Effertz, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Lower Colorado River Valley Irrigation Drainage Project area included the Colorado River and its environs from Davis Dam to just above Imperial Dam. Water, bottom sediment, and biota were sampled at selected locations within the study area and analyzed for selected inorganic and synthetic organic constituents that are likely to be present at toxic concentrations. With the exceptions of selenium and DDE, this study found sampling locations to be relatively free of large concentrations of toxic constituents that could be a threat to humans, fish, and wildlife. Selenium was the only inorganic constituent to exceed any existing standard, criterion, or guideline for protection of fish and wildlife resources. Concentrations of DDE in double-crested cormorants, however, exceeded the criterion of 1.0 microgram per gram established by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering for DDT and its metabolites for protection of wildlife. Dissolved-selenium concentrations in water from the lower Colorado River appear to be derived from sources above Davis Dam. At this time, therefore , agricultural practices in the lower Colorado River valley do not appear to exacerbate selenium concentrations. This fact, however, does not mean that the aquatic organisms and their predators are not in jeopardy. Continued selenium loading to the lower Colorado environment could severely affect important components of the ecosystem. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Water chemistry responses to hydraulic manipulation of an agricultural wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, S.; Stanley, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    Small impoundments are often crucial factors for the movement of sediment, organic matter, water-borne nutrients, and toxic materials through river networks. By recent accounting, at least 2.6 million small artificial water bodies exist in the US alone. A large proportion of those structures occur in regions with high intensity of agriculture, such as in the Midwestern grain belt. While small impoundments are aging structures which appear to serve few purposes, some hold ecological and biogeochemical value as artificial wetlands. We documented instantaneous net fluxes of solute (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and soluble reactive phosphorus) through an artificial flow-through wetland in agricultural southern Wisconsin over 6 years which spanned removal of a small dam. Phased dewatering and dam removal ultimately converted the artificial wetland to a canal-like state (increase in mean water velocity from 0.08 to 0.22 m s-1). Mean net flux for chloride across the system averaged nearly 0 g d-1, indicating conservative transport and successful characterization of hydrology. In contrast, net fluxes for other solute forms were altered following loss of the wetland: a persistent net sulfate sink (5-10% of inputs retained), suggestive of sulfate-reducing bacteria, was reduced; seasonal (summer) net sinks for nitrate and ammonium, suggestive of uptake by algae and denitrifying bacteria, were reduced; temporal variability for the net flux of soluble reactive phosphorus was reduced. Overall, loss of the artificial wetland caused by dam removal shifted seasonal and annual net fluxes of biologically available solute toward export. Nutrient retention by artificial wetlands could be important for elemental budgets in regions which have high nutrient loading to surface and ground water.

  2. Characterisation of areas under irrigated agriculture: mapping and water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Arancibia, Jorge; McVicar, Tim R.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Li, Lingtao T.

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of remote sensing and classification methods has enabled effective mapping, monitoring and management of irrigated agriculture. A random forest classification was implemented using learning samples inferred from Landsat TM/ETM data and monthly time-series of remotely-sensed observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The covariates included in the method characterised: (i) the vegetation phenology via the recurrent and persistent fractions of photosynthetically active radiation (fPARrecandfPARper, respectively); (ii) vegetation water use via estimates of actual evapotranspiration (AET), rainfall (P) and the difference between AET and P . Maps of irrigated areas under different climates and cropping conditions were produced for the whole Murray-Darling Basin (Australia) for the years 2004 to 2010 with 0.96 observed agreement in terms of the Kappa Index (were a value of 1 indicates perfect agreement). An independent comparison of yearly irrigated area estimates and corresponding water use showed a linear relationship with good agreement (R2 >0.7) against available yearly metered water withdrawals and estimates of agricultural yields. A sequential covariate optimisation suggested that the most important predictors included the emergence-senescence period (as determined by the fPARrec and corresponding rates of change) and the AET surplus over P during this period. The latter can be important when determining more opportunistic irrigation practices due to unreliable water supply in areas with otherwise high annual rainfall. The procedure can be implemented to map irrigated areas at the global scale: the MODIS time-series used in the classification methodology are available globally since February 2000 and so are the Landsat archives which can be used to infer learning samples and irrigation practices elsewhere.

  3. Movement of agricultural chemicals between surface water and ground water, lower Cedar River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, Paul J.; Caldwell, J.P.; Schulmeyer, P.M.; Harvey, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Bank storage is probably an important source of agricultural chemicals discharged from the alluvial aquifer but becomes depleted with time after surface runoff. Herbicides discharged from the alluvial aquifer during periods of extended base flow entered the alluvial aquifer with ground-water recharge at some distance from the river. The movement of nitrate between surface water and ground water is minor, when compared to the herbicides, even though nitrite was detected in the Cedar River during runoff.

  4. A new emission-based approach for regulation of N losses from agricultural areas to surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenstand Poulsen, Jane; Kronvang, Brian; Bering Ovesen, Niels; Piil, Kristoffer; Kolind Hvid, Søren

    2015-04-01

    Demands for a reduction and hence regulation of nitrogen (N) emissions to streams, lakes and coastal areas are a central part of many river basin management plans under the EU Water Framework Directive. Therefore, large focus has been placed on exploring different mitigation options that can assist in reducing the N emission from agricultural areas. However, the spatial variability in landscape, geology and hydrology entails significant differences in the vulnerability of catchments to intense agricultural activities. Hence, if rigid regulations of N emissions are applied without considering this variability, it will not necessarily lead to an optimum balance between applied fertilisers, yields and loss of excess N to the surrounding surface waters. Therefore, the overall purpose of this pilot study is to develop a concept for regulation of nutrient emissions to surface waters based on a comprehensive stream monitoring design in order to measure the temporal and spatial transport of N at sub-catchment scale. The purpose of such a monitoring design is twofold: i) quantification of the actual N emissions from a given agricultural sub-catchment or even individual farms; ii) quantification at sub-catchment scale of nitrate retention that may ultimately lead to a more precise regulation of N emissions from agricultural areas to surface waters. In order to investigate down to which scale it is feasible to quantify N emissions to surface waters and to develop the best monitoring concept, three catchments subdivided into several sub-catchments in Denmark will be studied during the period 2014-2017. The catchments represent different landscapes and geological settings as well as three different hydrological regimes. In the three catchments, hydrometric stations have been established at the outlet of the drainage networks where continuous measurements are made of water stage. In addition daily water samples and weekly grab samples of water are taken and weekly discharge

  5. Muddy Water and American Agriculture: How to Best Control Sedimentation From Agricultural Land?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Stephen B.; Lee, John Gary; Beasley, David B.

    1985-08-01

    The role of agricultural sediment in water quality is well documented. While numerous policies have been advocated and initiated, it still appears to be a significant problem. The present analysis concentrates on the outcome of several policy alternatives in terms of sediment delivery and project costs. These results are obtained by combining social science investigation of probable farmer behavior under a variety of scenarios with a hydrologic simulation model which predicts the sediment delivery with different land uses. This integration of social science behavioral research with the hydrologic response simulation model provides a framework to assess the environmental effectiveness of alternative policies aimed at reducing sedimentation. While the results presented here are preliminary, this approach seems to offer great promise as a tool for federal, state and local conservation agencies in their efforts to efficiently and effectively use their limited resources to reduce soil loss.

  6. MiniSipper: a new in situ water sampler for high-resolution, long-duration acid mine drainage monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Thomas P; Todd, Andrew S

    2012-11-15

    Abandoned hard-rock mines can be a significant source of acid mine drainage (AMD) and toxic metal pollution to watersheds. In Colorado, USA, abandoned mines are often located in remote, high elevation areas that are snowbound for 7-8 months of the year. The difficulty in accessing these remote sites, especially during winter, creates challenging water sampling problems and major hydrologic and toxic metal loading events are often under sampled. Currently available automated water samplers are not well suited for sampling remote snowbound areas so the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new water sampler, the MiniSipper, to provide long-duration, high-resolution water sampling in remote areas. The MiniSipper is a small, portable sampler that uses gas bubbles to separate up to 250 five milliliter acidified samples in a long tubing coil. The MiniSipper operates for over 8 months unattended in water under snow/ice, reduces field work costs, and greatly increases sampling resolution, especially during inaccessible times. MiniSippers were deployed in support of an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) project evaluating acid mine drainage inputs from the Pennsylvania Mine to the Snake River watershed in Summit County, CO, USA. MiniSipper metal results agree within 10% of EPA-USGS hand collected grab sample results. Our high-resolution results reveal very strong correlations (R(2)>0.9) between potentially toxic metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) and specific conductivity at the Pennsylvania Mine site. The large number of samples collected by the MiniSipper over the entire water year provides a detailed look at the effects of major hydrologic events such as snowmelt runoff and rainstorms on metal loading from the Pennsylvania Mine. MiniSipper results will help guide EPA sampling strategy and remediation efforts in the Snake River watershed. PMID:23103760

  7. MiniSipper: A new in situ water sampler for high-resolution, long-duration acid mine drainage monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapin, Thomas P.; Todd, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    Abandoned hard-rock mines can be a significant source of acid mine drainage (AMD) and toxic metal pollution to watersheds. In Colorado, USA, abandoned mines are often located in remote, high elevation areas that are snowbound for 7–8 months of the year. The difficulty in accessing these remote sites, especially during winter, creates challenging water sampling problems and major hydrologic and toxic metal loading events are often under sampled. Currently available automated water samplers are not well suited for sampling remote snowbound areas so the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new water sampler, the MiniSipper, to provide long-duration, high-resolution water sampling in remote areas. The MiniSipper is a small, portable sampler that uses gas bubbles to separate up to 250 five milliliter acidified samples in a long tubing coil. The MiniSipper operates for over 8 months unattended in water under snow/ice, reduces field work costs, and greatly increases sampling resolution, especially during inaccessible times. MiniSippers were deployed in support of an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) project evaluating acid mine drainage inputs from the Pennsylvania Mine to the Snake River watershed in Summit County, CO, USA. MiniSipper metal results agree within 10% of EPA-USGS hand collected grab sample results. Our high-resolution results reveal very strong correlations (R2 > 0.9) between potentially toxic metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) and specific conductivity at the Pennsylvania Mine site. The large number of samples collected by the MiniSipper over the entire water year provides a detailed look at the effects of major hydrologic events such as snowmelt runoff and rainstorms on metal loading from the Pennsylvania Mine. MiniSipper results will help guide EPA sampling strategy and remediation efforts in the Snake River watershed.

  8. Surface-water quality at fixed sites in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages, Wisconsin and Michigan, and the effects of natural and human factors, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, K.D.; Sullivan, D.J.; Stewart, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Streamwater samples were collected from April 1993 through July 1995 at 11 fixed sites in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages Study Unit of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Water samples were collected monthly at all Fixed Sites, and an additional two to four samples were collected each year during periods of high flow. Streamflow was monitored continuously at the Fixed Sites for the duration of the study period. This report describes field techniques used to collect the water samples, and the analytical methods used for laboratory analyses, statistical analyses of the data, and an attempt to determine the effect of natural and anthropogenic factors on concentrations of nutrients and selected major ions and suspended solids. Locations of eight of the Fixed Sites were selected to represent areas with unique combinations of land use/land cover, surficial deposits, and bedrock geology and are referred to as 'indicator sites.' The remaining three sites were located near the mouths of major rivers and are referred to as 'integrator sites.' The integrator sites represent a large part of the total flow from the Study Unit to Green Bay and western Lake Michigan, and drain various combinations of land use, bedrock, and surficial deposits. These data indicate that land use and surficial deposits may be the primary factors affecting nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations in this Study Unit. Median concentrations of nitrate at the forested sites were less than the National Median Concentration (NMC), and those at urban fixed sites were similar to the NMC. Median nitrate concentrations at the Tomorrow River, North Branch Milwaukee River, and Duck Creek agricultural indicator sites were twice the NMC, but median concentrations at the remaining agricultural indicator sites were similar to the NMC. Nitrate concentrations at one agricultural indicator site exceeded the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant

  9. Conversion of coal mine drainage ochre to water treatment reagent: Production, characterisation and application for P and Zn removal.

    PubMed

    Sapsford, Devin; Santonastaso, Marco; Thorn, Peter; Kershaw, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Coal mine drainage ochre is a ferruginous precipitate that forms from mine water in impacted watercourses and during treatment. With thousands of tonnes per annum of such ochre arising from mine water treatment in the UK alone, management of these wastes is a substantive issue. This paper demonstrates that the ochre from both active and passive treatment of coal mine drainage can be transformed into an effective water treatment reagent by simple acid dissolution and that the reagent can be used for the removal of dissolved phosphorous from municipal wastewater and zinc from non-coal mine waters. Ochre is readily soluble in H2SO4 and HCl. Ochre is more soluble in HCl with solubilities of up to 100 g/L in 20% (w/w) HCl and 68 g/L in 10% (w/w) H2SO4. For four of the eight tested ochres solubility decreased in higher concentrations of H2SO4. Ochre compositional data demonstrate that the coal mine ochres tested are relatively free from problematic levels of elements seen by other authors from acid mine drainage-derived ochre. Comparison to British Standards for use of iron-based coagulants in drinking water treatment was used as an indicator of the acceptability of use of the ochre-derived reagents in terms of potentially problematic elements. The ochre-derived reagents were found to meet the 'Grade 3' specification, except for arsenic. Thus, for application in municipal wastewater and mine water treatment additional processing may not be required. There was little observed compositional difference between solutions prepared using H2SO4 or HCl. Ochre-derived reagents showed applicability for the removal of P and Zn with removals of up to 99% and 97% respectively measured for final pH 7-8, likely due to sorption/coprecipitation. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that applying a Fe dose in the form of liquid reagent leads to a better Fe:P and Fe:Zn removal ratio compared to ochre-based sorption media tested in the literature. PMID:26081304

  10. Climate change, water rights, and water supply: The case of irrigated agriculture in Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenchao; Lowe, Scott E.; Adams, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a hedonic analysis to estimate the response of agricultural land use to water supply information under the Prior Appropriation Doctrine by using Idaho as a case study. Our analysis includes long-term climate (weather) trends and water supply conditions as well as seasonal water supply forecasts. A farm-level panel data set, which accounts for the priority effects of water rights and controls for diversified crop mixes and rotation practices, is used. Our results indicate that farmers respond to the long-term surface and ground water conditions as well as to the seasonal water supply variations. Climate change-induced variations in climate and water supply conditions could lead to substantial damages to irrigated agriculture. We project substantial losses (up to 32%) of the average crop revenue for major agricultural areas under future climate scenarios in Idaho. Finally, farmers demonstrate significantly varied responses given their water rights priorities, which imply that the distributional impact of climate change is sensitive to institutions such as the Prior Appropriation Doctrine.

  11. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of supercritical CO2-water drainage displacement in porous media: CO2 saturation and displacement mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Hirotatsu; Tsuji, Takeshi; Liang, Yunfeng; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    CO2 geosequestration in deep aquifers requires the displacement of water (wetting phase) from the porous media by supercritical CO2 (nonwetting phase). However, the interfacial instabilities, such as viscous and capillary fingerings, develop during the drainage displacement. Moreover, the burstlike Haines jump often occurs under conditions of low capillary number. To study these interfacial instabilities, we performed lattice Boltzmann simulations of CO2-water drainage displacement in a 3D synthetic granular rock model at a fixed viscosity ratio and at various capillary numbers. The capillary numbers are varied by changing injection pressure, which induces changes in flow velocity. It was observed that the viscous fingering was dominant at high injection pressures, whereas the crossover of viscous and capillary fingerings was observed, accompanied by Haines jumps, at low injection pressures. The Haines jumps flowing forward caused a significant drop of CO2 saturation, whereas Haines jumps flowing backward caused an increase of CO2 saturation (per injection depth). We demonstrated that the pore-scale Haines jumps remarkably influenced the flow path and therefore equilibrium CO2 saturation in crossover domain, which is in turn related to the storage efficiency in the field-scale geosequestration. The results can improve our understandings of the storage efficiency by the effects of pore-scale displacement phenomena. PMID:25427299

  12. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and represents also the sector characterised by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Moreover, water availability is nowadays a limiting factor for agricultural production, and is expected to decrease over the next century due to climate change impacts. To effectively face a changing climate, agricultural systems have therefore to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crops, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques). Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation because changes in water supply management strategies, as a response to climate change, might impact on farmers' decisions as well. Despite the strong connections between water demand and supply, being the former dependent on agricultural practices, which are affected by the water available that depends on the water supply strategies designed according to a forecasted demand, an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Most of the recent studies has indeed considered the two problems separately, either analysing the impact of climate change on farmers' decisions for a given water supply scenario or optimising water supply for different water demand scenarios. In this work, we explicitly connect the two systems (demand and supply) by activating an information loop between farmers and water managers, to integrate the two problems and study the co-evolution and co-adaptation of water demand and water supply systems under climate change. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). In particular, given an expectation of water availability, the farmers are able to solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers

  13. Effectiveness of highway drainage systems in preventing salt contamination of ground water, Route 25 from Wareham to the Cape Code Canal, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollock, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    A study to determine the relative effectiveness of specially designed highway drainage features in preventing salt contamination of ground water was designed to compare four different drainage designs along a new highway in Massachusetts. At the control site, no attempt will be made to prevent salt from entering the ground. At the other three sites, different combinations of drains and impermeable berms have been designed to prevent salt contamination of ground water. To evaluate the effectiveness of the drainage designs, a salt balance will be prepared at each site over 5 years of highway use. The amount of salt applied to the highway will be compared to the amounts in the ground water or diverted to the drainage systems. Salt loads in ground water will be determined from sodium and chloride concentrations in water from about 80 wells and from aquifer porosity estimated from geophysical logs and lithologic samples. Salt loads in the drainage systems will be estimated from flow and specific conductance with the use of stage-to-discharge and conductance-to-concentrations rating curves. (USGS)

  14. Overview of advances in water management in agricultural production:Sensor based irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technological advances in irrigated agriculture are crucial to meeting the challenge of increasing demand for agricultural products given limited quality and quantity of water resources for irrigation, impacts of climate variability, and the need to reduce environmental impacts. Multidisciplinary ap...

  15. Estimates of sustainable agricultural water use in northern China based on the equilibrium of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yali, Y.; Yu, C.

    2015-12-01

    The northern plain is the important food production region in China. However, due to the lack of surface water resources, it needs overmuch exploitation of groundwater to maintain water use in agriculture, which leads to serious environmental problems. Based on the assumption that the reserves of groundwater matches the statistics and keeps on stable, the author explores the reasonable agricultural water and its spatial distribution based on the principle of sustainable utilization of water resources. According to the priorities of water resources allocation (domestic water and ecological water>industrial water>agricultural water), it is proposed to reduce agricultural water use to balance the groundwater reserves on condition that the total water supply is constant. Method: Firstly, we calculate annual average of northern groundwater reserves changes from 2004 to 2010, which is regarded as the reduction of agricultural water; Then, we estimate the food production changes using variables of typical crop water requirements and unit yields assuming that the efficiency of water use keeps the same during the entire study period; Finally, we evaluate the usage of sustainable agricultural water. The results reveal that there is a significant reduction of groundwater reserves in Haihe river basin and Xinjiang oasis regions; And the annual loss of the corn and wheat production is about 1.86 billion kg and 700 million kg respectively due to the reduction of agricultural water; What's more, in order to ensure China's food security and sustainable agricultural water use, in addition to great efforts to develop water-saving agriculture, an important adjustment in the distribution of food production is in need. This study provided a basis to the availability of agricultural water and a new perspective was put forth for an estimation of agricultural water.

  16. Modelling Approach to Assess Future Agricultural Water Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spano, D.; Mancosu, N.; Orang, M.; Sarreshteh, S.; Snyder, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The combination of long-term climate changes (e.g., warmer average temperatures) and extremes events (e.g., droughts) can have decisive impacts on water demand, with further implications on the ecosystems. In countries already affected by water scarcity, water management problems are becoming increasingly serious. The sustainable management of available water resources at the global, regional, and site-specific level is necessary. In agriculture, the first step is to compute how much water is needed by crops in regards to climate conditions. Modelling approach can be a way to compute crop water requirement (CWR). In this study, the improved version of the SIMETAW model was used. The model is a user friendly soil water balance model, developed by the University of California, Davis, the California Department of Water Resource, and the University of Sassari. The SIMETAW# model assesses CWR and generates hypothetical irrigation scheduling for a wide range of irrigated crops experiencing full, deficit, or no irrigation. The model computes the evapotranspiration of the applied water (ETaw), which is the sum of the net amount of irrigation water needed to match losses due to the crop evapotranspiration (ETc). ETaw is determined by first computing reference evapotranspiration (ETo) using the daily standardized Reference Evapotranspiration equation. ETaw is computed as ETaw = CETc - CEr, where CETc and CE are the cumulative total crop ET and effective rainfall values, respectively. Crop evapotranspiration is estimated as ETc = ETo x Kc, where Kc is the corrected midseason tabular crop coefficient, adjusted for climate conditions. The net irrigation amounts are determined from a daily soil water balance, using an integrated approach that considers soil and crop management information, and the daily ETc estimates. Using input information on irrigation system distribution uniformity and runoff, when appropriate, the model estimates the applied water to the low quarter of the

  17. Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dileanis, P.D.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Bennett, Jewel

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irrigation drainage on the water quality and wildlife of the Klamath Basin in California and Oregon was evaluated during 1990-92 as part of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The study focused on land serviced by the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, which supplies irrigation water to agricultural land in the Klamath Basin and the Lost River Basin. The Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are in the study area. These refuges provide critical resting and breeding habitat for waterfowl on the Pacific flyway and are dependent on irrigation drainwater from upstream agriculture for most of their water supply. Water-quality characteristics throughout the study area were typical of highly eutrophic systems during the summer months of 1991 and 1992. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations and pH tended to fluctuate each day in response to diurnal patterns of photosynthesis, and frequently exceeded criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally at or above threshold levels characteristic of eutrophic lakes and streams. At most sites the bulk of dissolved nitrogen was organically bound. Elevated ammonia concentrations were common in the study area, especially down- stream of drain inputs. High pH of water increased the toxicity of ammonia, and concentrations exceeded criteria at sites upstream and downstream of irrigated land. Concentrations of ammonia in samples from small drains on the Tule Lake refuge leaseland were higher than those measured in the larger, integrating drains at primary monitoring sites. The mean ammonia concentration in leaseland drains [1.21 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] was significantly higher than the mean concentration in canals delivering water to the leaseland fields (0.065 mg/L) and higher than concentrations reported to be lethal to Daphnia magna (median lethal

  18. GlobWat - a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogeveen, J.; Faurès, J.-M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; van de Giesen, N.

    2015-01-01

    GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture; the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high resolution datasets that are consistent at global level and calibrated against values for Internal Renewable Water Resources, as published in AQUASTAT, FAO's global information system on water and agriculture. Validation of the model is done against mean annual river basin outflows. The water balance is calculated in two steps: first a "vertical" water balance is calculated that includes evaporation from in situ rainfall ("green" water) and incremental evaporation from irrigated crops. In a second stage, a "horizontal" water balance is calculated to determine discharges from river (sub-)basins, taking into account incremental evaporation from irrigation, open water and wetlands ("blue" water). The paper describes methodology, input and output data, calibration and validation of the model. The model results are finally compared with other global water balance models.

  19. The central role of agricultural water-use productivity in sustainable water management (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    As global and regional populations continue to rise for the next several decades, the need to grow more food will worsen old -- and produce new -- challenges for water resources. Expansion of irrigated agriculture is slowing due to constraints on land and water, and as a result, some have argued that future new food demands will only be met through improvements in agricultural productivity on existing irrigated and rainfed cropland, reductions in field losses and food waste, and social changes such as dietary preferences. This talk will address the central role that improvements in water-use productivity can play in the food/water/population nexus. In particular, the ability to grow more food with less water will have a great influence on whether future food demands will be met successfully. Such improvements can come about through changes in technology, regulatory systems, economic incentives and disincentives, and education of water users. Example of potential savings from three different strategies to improve agricultural water productivity in California. (From Pacific Institute).

  20. Transport and persistence of tylosin-resistant enterococci, genes, and tylosin in soil and drainage water from fields receiving Swine manure.

    PubMed

    Garder, Jason L; Moorman, Thomas B; Soupir, Michelle L

    2014-07-01

    Land application of manure from tylosin-treated swine introduces tylosin, tylosin-resistant enterococci, and erythromycin resistant rRNA methylase () genes, which confer resistance to tylosin. This study documents the persistence and transport of tylosin-resistant enterococci, genes, and tylosin in tile-drained chisel plow and no-till agricultural fields treated with liquid swine manure in alternating years. Between 70 and 100% of the enterococci in manure were resistant to tylosin and B concentrations exceeded 10 copies g manure, while the mean F concentrations exceeded 10 copies g manure (T was not detected). The mean concentration of tylosin was 73 ng g manure. Soil collected from the manure injection band closely following application contained >10 copies g soil of both B and F in 2010 and >10 copies g soil after the 2011 application compared to 3 × 10 to 3 × 10 copies g soil in the no-manure control plots. Gene abundances declined over the subsequent 2-yr period to levels similar to those in the no-manure controls. Concentrations of enterococci in tile water were low, while tylosin-resistant enterococci were rarely detected. In approximately 75% of tile water samples, B was detected, and F was detected in 30% of tile water samples, but levels of these genes were not elevated due to manure application, and no difference was found between tillage practices. These results show that tylosin usage increased the short-term occurrence of tylosin-resistant enterococci, genes, and tylosin in soils but had minimal effect on tile drainage water quality in years of average to below average precipitation. PMID:25603096

  1. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  2. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  3. TOTAL SALT, SPECIFIC ION, AND FERTILIZER ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS AND BALANCES IN THE IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE WATERS OF THE TWIN FALLS TRACT IN SOUTHERN IDAHO, 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate, and total salt concentrations were measured in irrigation and drainage waters on the Twin Falls Canal Company irrigation tract in southern Idaho (17040212). This information was combined with a water balance to estimate input-output balances for ...

  4. Interactive effects of salinity and N on pepper yield, water use efficiency and root zone and drainage salinity: Experimental data and UNSATCHEM predictions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of optimal and suboptimal N fertilizer levels in saline conditions on pepper plant and to predict the yield, soil water and drainage water EC and ETa using UNSATCHEM. The salinity effect on pepper plant biomass was statistically significant. Increasing...

  5. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  6. Comparison of simulated water, nitrate, and bromide transport using a Hooghoudt-based and a dynamic drainage model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollerup, Mikkel; Abrahamsen, Per; Petersen, Carsten T.; Hansen, Søren

    2014-02-01

    For large-scale hydrological modeling, the accuracy of the models used is a trade-off with the computational requirements. The models that perform well on the daily/meter scale may not perform well when applied at the yearly/kilometer scale. We compare two models of water flow and nitrate and bromide transport in a tile drained soil. The first model is based on a 2-D grid with an explicit drain node, here called the Dynamic Drainage Model (DDM). The second and less computationally expensive model is based on an 1-D vertical discretization where the horizontal flow is included as a sink term based on the Hooghoudt theory, here called the Hooghoudt Drainage Model (HDM). Both are based on Finite Volume Method solutions to Richard's equation and to the advection-dispersion equation (ADE), and embedded within the Daisy agroecological model, which includes the nitrogen cycle. The two models are run with 10 years of weather data and three different lower-boundary conditions. Losses of water, nitrogen, and bromide to both drain pipes and deep percolation/leaching are compared between the models, at daily and yearly time scales. In no case do we find the discrepancy large enough to warrant a rejection of the use of the faster HDM instead of DDM. For the daily time scale, we find in general a higher Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient for water (0.98-1.00) than for nitrate (0.97-1.00), and the lowest for bromide (0.95-1.00). The results are explained with a low concentration gradient along the water flow pathway toward the drain.

  7. Drainage-return, surface-water withdrawal, and land-use data for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, with emphasis on Twitchell Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, William E.; Cherry, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    Partial data on drainage returns and surface-water withdrawals are presented for areas of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, for March 1994 through February 1996. These areas cover most of the delta. Data are also presented for all drainage returns and some surface-water withdrawals for Twitchell Island, which is in the western part of the delta. Changes in land use between 1968 and 1991 are also presented for the delta. Measurements of monthly drainage returns and surface-water withdrawals were made using flowmeters installed in siphons and drain pipes on Twitchell Island. Estimates of monthly returns throughout the delta were made using electric power-consumption data with pump-efficiency-test data. For Twitchell Island, monthly measured drainage returns for the 1995 calendar year totaled about 11,200 acre-feet, whereas drainage returns estimated from power-consumption data totaled 5 percent less at about 10,600 acre-feet. Monthly surface-water withdrawals onto Twitchell Island through 12 of the 21 siphons totaled about 2,400 acre-feet for 1995. For most of the delta, the monthly estimated drainage returns for 1995 totaled about 430,000 acre-feet. The area consisting of Bouldin, Brannan, Staten, Tyler, and Venice Islands had the largest estimated drainage returns for calendar year 1995. Between 1968 and 1991, native vegetation in the delta decreased by 25 percent (about 40,000 acres), and grain and hay crops increased by 340 percent (about 71,000 acres). For Twitchell Island, native vegetation decreased about 77 percent (about 850 acres), while field crop acreage increased by about 44 percent (about 780 acres).

  8. A statewide network for monitoring agricultural water quality and water quantity in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arkansas produces the most rice, 3rd most cotton and 2nd most broilers of any state in the US. By 2050, agriculture will be asked to produce twice as much food, feed, and fiber for the projected world population, while challenged with reduced water availability from groundwater decline and increase...

  9. Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, P.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Granato, G.E.; Stone, V.J.; Smith, K.P.; Provencher, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Four test sites along a 7-mile section of Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts, each representing a specific highway-drainage system, were instrumented to determine the effectiveness of the drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt. One of the systems discharges highway runoff onsite through local drainpipes. The other systems use trunkline drainpipes through which runoff from highway surfaces, shoulders, and median strips is diverted and discharged into either a local stream or a coastal waterway. Route 25 was completed and opened to traffic in the summer of 1987. Road salt was first applied to the highway in the winter of 1987-88. The study area is on a thick outwash plain composed primarily of sand and gravel. Water-table depths range from 15 to 60 feet below land surface at the four test sites. Ground-water flow is in a general southerly direction, approximately perpendicular to the highway. Streamflow in the study area is controlled primarily by ground-water discharge. Background concentrations of dissolved chloride, sodium, and calcium-the primary constituents of road salt-are similar in ground water and surface water and range from 5 to 20, 5 to 10, and 1 to 5 milligrams per liter, respectively. Data-collection programs were developed for monitoring the application of road salt to the highway, the quantity of road-salt water entering the ground water, diverted through the highway-drainage systems, and entering a local stream. The Massachusetts Highway Department monitored road salt applied to the highway and reported these data to the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and operated the ground-water, highway- drainage, and surface-water data-collection programs. A road-salt budget will be calculated for each test site so that the effectiveness of the different highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt can be determined.

  10. Ionic composition and nitrate in drainage water from fields fertilized with different nitrogen sources, middle swamp watershed, North Carolina, August 2000-August 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted from August 2000 to August 2001 to characterize the influence of fertilizer use from different nitrogen sources on the quality of drainage water from 11 subsurface tile drains and 7 surface field ditches in a North Carolina Coastal Plain watershed. Agricultural fields receiving commercial fertilizer (conventional sites), swine lagoon effluent (spray sites), and wastewater-treatment plant sludge (sludge site) in the Middle Swamp watershed were investigated. The ionic composition of drainage water in tile drains and ditches varied depending on fertilizer source type. The dominant ions identified in water samples from tile drains and ditches include calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, with tile drains generally having lower pH, low or no bicarbonates, and higher nitrate and chloride concentrations. Based on fertilizer source type, median nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were significantly higher at spray sites (32.0 milligrams per liter for tiles and 8.2 milligrams per liter for ditches) relative to conventional sites (6.8 milligrams per liter for tiles and 2.7 milligrams per liter for ditches). The median instantaneous nitrate-nitrogen yields also were significantly higher at spray sites (420 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for tile drains and 15.6 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for ditches) relative to conventional sites (25 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for tile drains and 8.1 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for ditches). The tile drain site where sludge is applied had a median nitrate-nitrogen concentration of 10.5 milligrams per liter and a median instantaneous nitrate-nitrogen yield of 93 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day, which were intermediate to those of the conventional and spray tile drain sites. Results from this study indicate that nitrogen loadings and subsequent edge-of-field nitrate-nitrogen yields through tile drains and ditches were significantly higher at sites receiving

  11. A water-resources data-network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 3, Northern Salinas River drainage basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, W.E.; Schluter, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report evaluates existing data collection networks and possible additional data collection to monitor quantity and quality of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in the northern Salinas River drainage basin, California. Of the 34 precipitation stations identified, 20 were active and are concentrated in the northwestern part of the study area. No precipitation quality networks were identified, but possible data collection efforts include monitoring for acid rain and pesticides. Six of ten stream-gaging stations are active. Two surface water quality sites are sampled for suspended sediment, specific conductance, and chloride; one U.S. Geological Survey NASOAN site and one site operated by California Department of Water Resources make up the four active sampling locations; reactivation of 45 inactive surface water quality sites might help to achieve objectives described in the report. Three local networks measure water levels in 318 wells monthly, during peak irrigation, and at the end of the irrigation season. Water quality conditions are monitored in 379 wells; samples are collected in summer to monitor saltwater intrusion near Castroville and are also collected annually throughout the study area for analysis of chloride, specific conductance, and nitrate. An ideal baseline network would be an evenly spaced grid of index wells with a density of one per section. When baseline conditions are established, representative wells within the network could be monitored periodically according to specific data needs. (USGS)

  12. Sustainable Water and Agricultural Land Use in the Guanting Watershed under Limited Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wechsung, F.; Möhring, J.; Otto, I. M.; Wang, X.; Guanting Project Team

    2012-04-01

    The Yongding River System is an important water source for the northeastern Chinese provinces Shanxi, Hebei, Beijing, and Tianjin. The Guanting Reservoir within this river system is one of the major water sources for Beijing, which is about 70 km away. Original planning assumed a discharge of 44 m3/s for the reservoir, but the current mean discharge rate is only about 5 m3/s; there is often hardly any discharge at all. Water scarcity is a major threat for the socio-economic development of the area. The situation is additionally aggravated by climate change impacts. Typical upstream-downstream conflicts with respect to water quantity and quality requests are mixed up with conflicts between different sectors, mainly mining, industry, and agriculture. These conflicts can be observed on different administrative levels, for example between the provinces, down to households. The German-Chinese research project "Sustainable water and agricultural land use in the Guanting Watershed under limited water resources" investigates problems and solutions related to water scarcity in the Guanting Catchment. The aim of the project is to create a vulnerability study in order to assess options for (and finally achieve) sustainable water and land use management in the Guanting region. This includes a comprehensive characterization of the current state by gap analysis and identification of pressures and impacts. The presentation gives an overview of recent project results regarding regionalization of global change scenarios and specification for water supply, evaluation of surface water quantity balances (supply-demand), evaluation of the surface water quality balances (emissions-impact thresholds), and exploration of integrative measurement planning. The first results show that climate in the area is becoming warmer and drier which leads to even more dramatically shrinking water resources. Water supply is expected to be reduced between one and two thirds. Water demand might be

  13. An integrated stochastic approach to the assessment of agricultural water demand and adaptation to water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Butler, A. P.; McIntyre, N.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing water demands from growing populations coupled with changing water availability, for example due to climate change, are likely to increase water scarcity. Agriculture will be exposed to risk due to the importance of reliable water supplies as an input to crop production. To assess the efficiency of agricultural adaptation options requires a sound understanding of the relationship between crop growth and water application. However, most water resource planning models quantify agricultural water demand using highly simplified, temporally lumped estimated crop-water production functions (CWPFs). Such CWPFs fail to capture the biophysical complexities in crop-water relations and mischaracterise farmers ability to respond to water scarcity. Application of these models in policy analyses will be ineffective and may lead to unsustainable water policies. Crop simulation models provide an alternative means of defining the complex nature of the CWPF. Here we develop a daily water-limited crop model for this purpose. The model is based on the approach used in the FAO's AquaCrop model, balancing biophysical and computational complexities. We further develop the model by incorporating improved simulation routines to calculate the distribution of water through the soil profile. Consequently we obtain a more realistic representation of the soil water balance with concurrent improvements in the prediction of water-limited yield. We introduce a methodology to utilise this model for the generation of stochastic crop-water production functions (SCWPFs). This is achieved by running the model iteratively with both time series of climatic data and variable quantities of irrigation water, employing a realistic rule-based approach to farm irrigation scheduling. This methodology improves the representation of potential crop yields, capturing both the variable effects of water deficits on crop yield and the stochastic nature of the CWPF due to climatic variability. Application to

  14. Using Hydrus-1D to Predict Solute Conservative Tracer Transfer from Initially Saturated Soil into the Surface Runoff Water underwith Controlled Drainage Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, J.; Yang, J.; Hu, B.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a mixing layer theory is coupled with the Hydrus-1D to predict solute transfer from an initially saturated soil into surface runoff water under a controlled drainage condition with low infiltration rate, and various ponding waterwith the increasing depths of the ponding water on the soil surface before the surface runoff. A sand experiment is used as the reference experiment to identify the parameters for the water flow model and solute transfer model with increasing mixing layer depth after the surface runoff water. Based on these identified parameters andan increasing depth of the mixing layer, the model well predicts the experimental results, and much better than the a simulation results by thewith a constant mixing layer depth under the controlled drainage without drainage theory. The model is also applied to another initially saturated sand experiment under the controlled drainage water condition, and the simulation resultsdata agree well with the observed data. These results suggest that the model can efficiently simulate the solute transfer from the initially saturated soil into the surface runoff water. It is found from this study that with the increase of the surface runoff time or/and the decrease of the mixing layer, the solute loss in the mixing layer before the surface runoff will increase, the solute source in the mixing layer for the surface runoff water will decrease after the surface runoff and the increase rate of the mixing layer depth will increase. Simple sketch of the model Hydraulic parameters in the reference sand experiment

  15. Quantify Effects of Integrated Land Management on Water Quality in Agricultural Landscape in South Fork Watershed, Iowa River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, M.; Wu, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable biofuel feedstock production — environmental sustainability and economic sustainability — may be achieved by using a multi-faceted approach. This study focuses on quantifying the water sustainability of an integrated landscaping strategy, by which current land use and land management, cropping system, agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and economics play equal roles. The strategy was applied to the South Fork watershed, IA, including the tributaries of Tipton and Beaver Creeks, which expand to 800-km2 drainage areas. The watershed is an agricultural dominant area covered with row-crops production. On the basis of profitability, switchgrass was chosen as a replacement for row crops in low-productivity land. Areas for harvesting agricultural residue were selected on the basis of soil conservation principals. Double cropping with a cover crop was established to further reduce soil loss. Vegetation buffer strips were in place at fields and in riparian areas for water quality control, resource conservation, and eco service improvement. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to evaluate source reduction under various management schemes and land use changes. SWAT modeling incorporated 10-yr meteorological information, soil data, land slope classification, land use, four-year crop-rotation cycle, and management operations. Tile drain and pothole parameters were modeled to assess the fate and transport of nutrients. The influence of landscape management and cropping systems on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, erosion process, and hydrological performance at the sub-watershed scale was analyzed and key factors identified. Results suggest strongly that incorporating agricultural BMPs and conservation strategies into integrated landscape management for certain energy crops in row-crop production regions can be economical and environmentally sustainable.

  16. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands, Yolo Bypass, California: Spatial and seasonal variations in water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, Charles N.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Stricker, Craig A.; Stephenson, Mark; Taylor, Howard E.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial variability of water quality, including mercury species, was evaluated in agricultural and managed, non-agricultural wetlands in the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, an area managed for multiple beneficial uses including bird habitat and rice farming. The study was conducted during an 11-month period (June 2007 to April 2008) that included a summer growing season and flooded conditions during winter. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in surface water varied over a wide range (0.1 to 37 ng L−1 unfiltered; 0.04 to 7.3 ng L−1 filtered). Maximum MeHg values are among the highest ever recorded in wetlands. Highest MeHg concentrations in unfiltered surface water were observed in drainage from wild rice fields during harvest (September 2007), and in white rice fields with decomposing rice straw during regional flooding (February 2008). The ratio of MeHg to total mercury (MeHg/THg) increased about 20-fold in both unfiltered and filtered water during the growing season (June to August 2007) in the white and wild rice fields, and about 5-fold in fallow fields (July to August 2007), while there was little to no change in MeHg/THg in the permanent wetland. Sulfate-bearing fertilizer had no effect on Hg(II) methylation, as sulfate-reducing bacteria were not sulfate limited in these agricultural wetlands. Concentrations of MeHg in filtered and unfiltered water correlated with filtered Fe, filtered Mn, DOC, and two indicators of sulfate reduction: the SO4 2 −/Cl− ratio, and δ34S in aqueous sulfate. These relationships suggest that microbial reduction of SO4 2−, Fe(III), and possibly Mn(IV) may contribute to net Hg(II)-methylation in this setting.

  17. Climate Change and Water Quality in the Rocky Mountains: challenges of too much summer for addressing acid rock drainage (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Crouch, C. M.; Rue, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    A major water quality concern in the Rocky Mountains is acid rock drainage, which causes acidic conditions and high metal concentrations. The 30-year water quality record for the Snake River watershed in Colorado, USA, shows that for the summer low-flow period zinc concentrations have increased four- to six-fold concurrently with a two- to three week advancement in spring snowmelt. We found that the main source of acidity, zinc and other metals, including rare earth elements to the upper Snake River was a tributary draining an alpine area rich in disseminated pyrite. By conducting a tracer experiment in this tributary, we demonstrated that more than half of the trace metal and acidity loading entered in an upper steep, rocky reach where the tributary is fed by an alpine spring. Another increase in flow and metal loading occurred where the tributary flows through a gently-sloped wetland area containing a bog iron deposit. Analysis of the tracer experiment indicated a significant increase in hyporheic exchange along this wetland reach, where decreases in pH of the water exchanging in the hyporheic zone may be mobilizing metals that had been sequestered in the wetland through sorption to iron oxides. One possible scenario is that decreasing pH in the upper reach has reached a threshold, resulting in mobilization of metals from the hyporheic zone of the wetland. This study illustrates how changes in hydrologic regime may cause changes in biogeochemical processes that exacerbate the danger to aquatic ecosystems associated with acid rock drainage.

  18. Measuring and modeling the effects of drainage water management on soil greenhouse gas fluxes from corn and soybean fields.

    PubMed

    Nangia, V; Sunohara, M D; Topp, E; Gregorich, E G; Drury, C F; Gottschall, N; Lapen, D R

    2013-11-15

    Controlled tile drainage can boost crop yields and improve water quality, but it also has the potential to increase GHG emissions. This study compared in-situ chamber-based measures of soil CH4, N2O, and CO2 fluxes for silt loam soil under corn and soybean cropping with conventional tile drainage (UTD) and controlled tile drainage (CTD). A semi-empirical model (NEMIS-NOE) was also used to predict soil N2O fluxes from soils using observed soil data. Observed N2O and CH4 fluxes between UTD and CTD fields during the farming season were not significantly different at 0.05 level. Soils were primarily a sink for CH4 but in some cases a source (sources were associated exclusively with CTD). The average N2O fluxes measured ranged between 0.003 and 0.028 kg N ha(-1) day(-1). There were some significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) CO2 fluxes associated with CTD relative to UTD during some years of study. Correlation analyses indicated that the shallower the water table, the greater the CO2 fluxes. Higher corn plant C for CTD tended to offset estimated higher CTD CO2 C losses via soil respiration by ∼100-300 kg C ha(-1). There were good fits between observed and predicted (NEMIS-NOE) N2O fluxes for corn (R(2) = 0.70) and soybean (R(2) = 0.53). Predicted N2O fluxes were higher for CTD for approximately 70% of the paired-field study periods suggesting that soil physical factors, such as water-filled pore space, imposed by CTD have potentially strong impacts on net N fluxes. Model predictions of daily cumulative N2O fluxes for the agronomically-active study period for corn-CTD and corn-UTD, as a percentage of total N fertilizer applied, were 3.1% and 2.6%, respectively. For predicted N2O fluxes on basis of yield units, indices were 0.0005 and 0.0004 (kg N kg(-1) crop grain yield) for CTD and UTD corn fields, respectively, and 0.0011 and 0.0005 for CTD and UTD soybean fields, respectively. PMID:23910796

  19. Water quality trends and changing agricultural practices in a midwest U.S. watershed, 1994-2006.

    PubMed

    Renwick, William H; Vanni, Michael J; Zhang, Qianyi; Patton, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Sediment and nutrient concentrations in surface water in agricultural regions are strongly influenced by agricultural activities. In the Corn Belt, recent changes in farm management practices are likely to affect water quality, yet there are few data on these linkages at the landscape scale. We report on trends in concentrations of N as ammonium (NH(4)) and nitrate (NO(3)), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS) in three Corn Belt streams with drainage areas of 12 to 129 km(2) for 1994 through 2006. During this period, there has been an increase in conservation tillage, a decline in fertilizer use, and consolidation of animal feeding operations in our study watersheds and throughout the Corn Belt. We use an autoregressive moving average model to include the effects of discharge and season on concentrations, LOWESS plots, and analyses of changes in the relation between discharge and concentration. We found significant declines in mean monthly concentrations of NH(4) at all three streams over the 13-yr period, declines in SRP and SS in two of the three streams, and a decline in NO(3) in one stream. When trend coefficients are converted to percent per year and weighted by drainage, area changes in concentration are -8.5% for NH(4), -5.9% for SRP, -6.8% for SS, and -0.8% for NO(3). Trends in total N and P are strongly tied to trends in NO(3), SRP, and SS and indicate that total P is declining, whereas total N is not. PMID:18689748

  20. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management. PMID:27241204

  1. Emission standards versus immission standards for assessing the impact of urban drainage on ephemeral receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    In the past, emission standard indicators have been adopted by environmental regulation authorities in order to preserve the quality of a receiving water body. Such indicators are based on the frequency or magnitude of a polluted discharge that may be continuous or intermittent. In order to properly maintain the quality of receiving waters, the Water Framework Directive, following the basic ideas of British Urban Pollution Manual, has been established. The Directive has overtaken the emission-standard concept, substituting it with the stream-standard concept that fixes discharge limits for each polluting substance depending on the self-depurative characteristics of receiving waters. Stream-standard assessment requires the deployment of measurement campaigns that can be very expensive; furthermore, the measurement campaigns are usually not able to provide a link between the receiving water quality and the polluting sources. Therefore, it would be very useful to find a correlation between the quality status of the natural waters and the emission-based indicators. Thus, this study is aimed to finding a possible connection between the receiving water quality indicators drawn by environmental regulation authorities and emission-based indicators while considering both continuous (i.e. from the wastewater treatment plants) and intermittent pollution discharges (mainly from combined sewer overflows). Such research has been carried out by means of long-term analysis adopting a holistic modelling approach. The different parts of the integrated urban drainage system were modelled by a parsimonious integrated model. The analysis was applied to an ephemeral river bounding Bologna (Italy). The study concluded that the correlation between receiving water quality and polluting emissions cannot be generally stated. Nevertheless, specific analyses on polluting emissions were pointed out in the study highlighting cause-effect link between polluting sources and receiving water quality

  2. Water-quality and sediment-chemistry data of drain water and evaporation ponds from Tulare Lake Drainage District, Kings County, California, March 1985 to March 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, R.

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and major ion concentrations were measured in water samples collected monthly between March 1985 and March 1986 at the MD-1 pumping station at the Tulare Lake Drainage District evaporation ponds, Kings County, California. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides several times during the year. Salinity, as measured by specific conductance, ranged from 11,500 to 37,600 microsiemens/centimeter; total recoverable boron ranged from 4,000 to 16,000 micrg/L; and total recoverable molybdenum ranged from 630 to 2,600 microg/L. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium were 97 and 2 microg/L. Atrazine, prometone, propazine, and simazine were the only pesticides detected in water samples collected at the MD-1 pumping station. Major ions, trace elements, and selected pesticides also were analyzed in water and bottom-sediment samples from five of the southern evaporation ponds at Tulare Lake Drainage District. The water samples increased in specific conductance and concentrations of total arsenic, total recoverable boron and total recoverable molybdenum going from pond 1 to pond 10, respectively. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium in the bottom sediments were 4.0 and 0.9 microg/g, respectively. 6 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  4. A review of monitoring approaches and outcomes of surface water quality mitigation measures in meso-scale agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Murphy, Paul; Mellander, Per-Erik; Shortle, Ger

    2013-04-01

    Critical for an informative feedback loop from scientific monitoring of biophysical change, to making and implementing suitable policy to effect the desired change, are both accurate measurement of biophysical change, and measurement or modelling of the causes of change. For example the European Environment Agency uses the DPSIR framework to assess change in the state (S) of natural resources due to changes in specific drivers (D) and pressures (P) that can have an impact (I) and are the focus of policy responses (R). This paper provides a review of meso-catchment scale studies worldwide that have measured the impacts of agricultural land management practice on surface water quality. Approaches for measuring water quality impacts of agricultural mitigation practices in meso-catchments (1-100 km2) ranged from measuring water quality over a time series, such as before and after a land management change, or over a spatial series such as in paired catchments with and without agricultural practice change (or over a gradient of practices or catchment types), and by cause and effect studies that measure sources, pathways and impacts of practices. Agricultural mitigation measures had no measurable effect, or positive, or negative effects on water quality over periods of 3 to 20 years. In most catchments where beneficial effects of mitigation measures were successfully measured, combinations of measures that address nutrient or pollutant sources, pathways, delivery and impact have been implemented. Successful farm measures included substantial reductions in the intensity of the farming systems, improved engineering and crop management to reduce runoff and drainage transport of nutrients and sediment, as well as high rates of implementation of measures across the catchments. In many cases, the potential to measure improvement in one or more water quality indicators was limited by the impact of a few management or weather events. Reasons that water quality did not improve in

  5. Differences in Aquatic Communities Between Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of an agricultural water recycling system known as the wetland reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to s...

  6. Food vs. water: the magnitude and range of global tradeoffs in agricultural production and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Flörke, M.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Water is integral to agricultural production, and agriculture is by far the largest human use of water, so food security and water sustainability are inexorably linked. When water goes to food production, however, the benefits and costs are not uniformly distributed across the globe. We quantify the magnitude and global range of the multidimensional tradeoffs among food production, water consumption, and water quality impairment. To evaluate the productivity of water consumption in agriculture, we quantified the magnitude and global range of crop water productivity, the amount of food produced per unit of water consumed, for 16 major food crops (Brauman et al., 2013). We now expand on this, contextualizing the impact of high or low water productivity with information about water availability. Using outputs from the WaterGAP3 model (Flörke et al., 2013, Verzano et al. 2012), we map the burden of agricultural water consumption on total water availability. To incorporate impacts of agriculture on water quality, we include areas of excess nutrient application (Mueller et al., 2012). The integrated information about yield, water consumption, water availability, and nutrient application shows that benefits and impacts to water quantity and quality are not evenly distributed. Analogous to previous investigations of 'yield gaps,' which identified areas where biophysical conditions are sufficient for achieving yields higher than those that are attained (Licker et al., 2010), we show that in many places, for the given impacts to water, food production could be increased.

  7. Water quality monitoring of an agricultural watershed lake: the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beasley Lake is an oxbow lake located in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Plain (the Delta), a region of intensive agricultural activity. Due to intensive row-crop agricultural practices, the 915 ha watershed was sediment impaired when monitoring began in 1995 and was a candidate to assess the effect...

  8. Drainage water management for reducing nitrate losses from tile drained fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nitrate in surface waters increases the costs of water treatment for domestic use and each summer drives the formation of a hypoxic or low oxygen zone in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Much of the nitrate in surface waters comes from artificially drained row crop land in the Midwest. There a...

  9. Oxygen-18 dynamics in precipitation and streamflow in a semi-arid agricultural watershed, Eastern Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding flow pathways and mechanisms that generate streamflow is important to understanding agrochemical contamination in surface waters in agricultural watersheds. Two environmental tracers, oxygen-18 and electrical conductivity (EC), were monitored in tile drainage (draining 12 ha) and stre...

  10. Agricultural NPS control of phosphorus in the New York State, Lake Ontario Basin. Volume 2. Fertilizer trials on organic soils in the Lake Ontario Drainage Basin. Final report, 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Klausner, S.; Duxbury, J.; Goyette, E.

    1991-02-01

    There are approximately 2.3 million hectares of cropland in New York. Cultivated organic soils comprise about 12,000 hectares or 0.5% of the total cropped land. The organic soils are used exclusively for intensive vegetable production with onions being the primary crop. About 50% of these soils are located within the Lake Ontario drainage basin. A comprehensive field study was conducted to evaluate the yield response of onions across a broad range of N, P, and K fertilizer inputs and to correlate the level of response with soil testing parameters. A primary objective was to develop an estimate of P loss in drainage water to the Lake Ontario drainage basin and how this loss is influenced by P fertilizer management.

  11. Factors affecting leaching in agricultural areas and an assessment of agricultural chemicals in the ground water of Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.A.; Robbins, F.V.; Barnes, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    As assessment of hydrologic factors and agricultural practices that may affect the leaching of agricultural chemicals to groundwater was conducted to evaluate the extent and severity of chemical contamination of groundwater resources in Kansas. The climate of a particular area determines the length of the growing season and the availability of water, at the surface and in the ground, for the growth of plants. Climate, together with surficial geology, soil, and principal aquifers, determines the types of crops to be planted,types of tillage, conservation and irrigation practices, and affects the quantity and method of application of agricultural chemicals. Examination of groundwater nitrate-nitrogen data collected from 766 wells throughout Kansas during 1976-81 indicated that 13 of 14 geohydrologic regions had wells producing samples that exceeded the 10-mg/L drinking water standard determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. One or more herbicides were detected in water samples from 11 of 56 wells during 1985-86 located in areas susceptible to agricultural leaching. Atrazine was the most common herbicide that was detected; it was detected in water at 9 of 11 wells. Cyanazine was detected in water at three wells; metolachlor at two wells; and metribuzin, alachlor, simazine, and propazine were detected at one well each. (USGS)

  12. Increasing Efficiency of Water Use in Agriculture through Management of Soil Water Repellency to Optimize Soil and Water Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Demie; Kostka, Stan; McMillan, Mica; Gadd, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Water's ability to infiltrate and disperse in soils, and soil's ability to receive, transport, retain, filter and release water are important factors in the efficient use of water in agriculture. Deteriorating soil conditions, including development of soil water repellency, negatively impact hydrological processes and, consequently, the efficiency of rainfall and irrigation. Soil water repellency is increasingly being identified in diverse soils and cropping systems. Recently research has been conducted on the use of novel soil surfactants (co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside and block copolymer surfactants) to avoid or overcome soil water repellency and enhance water distribution in soils. Results indicate that this is an effective and affordable approach to maintaining or restoring soil and water productivity in irrigated cropping systems. Results from studies conducted in Australia and the United States to determine how this technology modifies soil hydrological behavior and crop yields will be presented. A range of soils and various crops, including potatoes, corn, apples and grapes, were included. Several rates were compared to controls for effect on soil moisture levels, soil water distribution, and crop yield. An economic analysis was also conducted in some trials. Treatments improved rootzone water status, significantly increased crop yield and quality, and in some cases allowed significant reductions in water requirements. Where assessed, a positive economic return was generated. This technology holds promise as a strategy for increasing efficiency of water use in agriculture.

  13. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  14. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  15. Role of Pb mining in Contamination of Groundwater and Surface water, Case study: Bastam drainage basin, Northeastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarian, Abdolreza

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater will normally look clear and clean because the ground naturally filters out particulate matter. But, natural and human-induced chemicals can be found in groundwater. As groundwater flows through the ground, metals such as Lead and Cd are dissolved and may later be found in high concentrations in the water. Because water is "Universal Solvent" it can contain lots of dissolved chemicals. And since groundwater moves through rocks and subsurface soil, it has a lot of opportunity to dissolve substances as it moves. For that reason, groundwater will often have more dissolved substances than surface water will. Bastam watershed with ca 1250 km2 area and ca 600 km stream networks, contains around 100 spring, ca 300 irrigation wells, and ca 100 Qanat ( one of a series of well-like vertical shafts, connected by gently sloping tunnels). This watershed is one of the largest drainage basins in northeastern Iran and also it provides drinking water for 3 town and several villages. An abandoned Pb mine located at northwest of this watershed. To determine contamination of these metals in groundwater and surface water, 8 water samples around this mine, from wells, springs and streams were collected and analyzed for heavy metal (Pb, Cd, and Zn) by AAs method. Pb, Cd, and Zn concentration in these samples are range of 0.11 to 0.18 mg/L, 0.010 to 0.021 mg/L, and 0.0079 to 0.0485 mg/L respectively. Comparison between these results and regulation guidelines of WHO, and United State EPA, reveal high level concentration of Pb and Cd in groundwater and surface water in this water resources. Based on regulation guidelines of WHO maximum contaminant level (MCL) for lead, and Cadmium are 0.015 mg/L, and 0.005 mg/L respectively. As a result, these water resource are affected by high level contaminate of Pb (ca 10 fold of WHO regulation guideline) and Cd (ca 3 fold of WHO regulation guidelines) maybe derived from Galena and other Pb rock minerals from this mining area. To reduce

  16. Water-quality and sediment-chemistry data of drain water and evaporation ponds from Tulare Lake Drainage District, Kings County, California March 1985 to March 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and major ion concentrations were measured in water samples collected monthly between March 1985 and March 1986 at the MD-1 pumping station at the Tulare Lake Drainage District evaporation ponds, Kings County, California. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides several times during the year. Salinity, as measured by specific conductance, ranged from 11,500 to 37,600 microsiemens/centimeter; total recoverable boron ranged from 4,000 to 16,000 micrg/L; and total recoverable molybdenum ranged from 630 to 2,600 microg/L. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium were 97 and 2 microg/L. Atrazine, prometone, propazine, and simazine were the only pesticides detected in water samples collected at the MD-1 pumping station. Major ions, trace elements, and selected pesticides also were analyzed in water and bottom-sediment samples from five of the southern evaporation ponds at Tulare Lake Drainage District. Water enters the ponds from the MD-1 pumping station at pond 1 and flows through the system terminating at pond 10. The water samples increased in specific conductance (21,700 to 90,200 microsiemens/centimeter) and concentrations of total arsenic (110 to 420 microg/L), total recoverable boron (12,000 to 80,000 microg/L) and total recoverable molybdenum (1,200 to 5,500 microg/L) going from pond 1 to pond 10, respectively. Pesticides were not detected in water from any of the ponds sampled. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium in the bottom sediments were 4.0 and 0.9 microg/g, respectively. The only pesticides detected in bottom sediment samples from the evaporation ponds were DDD and DDE, with maximum concentration of 0.8 microg/kilogram. (Author 's abstract)

  17. Living on the Edge of Stagnant Water: An Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Construction-Phase Drainage Congestion Along Dhaka City Flood Control Embankment, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasid, Harun; Mallsk, Azim U.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental impacts of the construction-phase drainage congestion along the Dhaka City Flood Control Embankment were assessed by a pilot questionnaire survey (in 1991) among the target population adjacent to the embankment. The results of the survey indicated that, despite significant alleviation of river flooding, the majority of the respondents experienced a new type of flood problem in the form of stagnant water inside the embankment, immediately following its construction. Not only had this stagnant water flooded and damaged their property, it had exposed them to a number of other environmental problems, such as accumulation of municipal sewage, foul odors, mosquitoes, and growth of water hyacinth. The study found that the respondents’ assessments of these environmental problems differed significantly according to the magnitude of the impact of stagnant water upon two subgroups within the target population. A postsurvey follow-up in 1994 indicated that this problem of drainage congestion had largely been alleviated by completing the construction of a number of drainage regulators. The study concludes by stressing the importance of synchronizing the construction of drainage structures with that of the embankment systems and by underlining policy implications for flood-vulnerable land use adjacent to embankments.

  18. Heterotrophic microflora of highly alkaline (pH > 13) brown mud disposal site drainage water near Ziar nad Hronom (Banska Bystrica region, Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Stramova, Zuzana; Remenar, Matej; Javorsky, Peter; Pristas, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Brown mud is a waste by-product of alumina production by Bayer process. Due to extensive sodium hydroxide use in the process, brown mud disposal site near Ziar nad Hronom (Banska Bystrica region, Slovakia) and drainage water are ones of the greatest environmental burdens in Slovakia. Drainage water from this landfills has pH value higher than 13, and it contains many heavy metals and elevated salt content. In our experiments, relatively numerous bacterial population was detected in the drainage water with frequency of about 80 cfu/ml using cultivation approach. The alkalitolerant heterotrophic isolates were identified by combination of MALDI-TOF and 16S rDNA analysis. Drainage water population was dominated by Actinobacteria (Microbacterium spp. and Micrococcus spp.) followed by low G + C-content gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus spp.). Two isolates belonged to gram-negative bacteria only, identified as Brevundimonas spp. Phylogenetic and biochemical analyses indicate that nearly half of the bacteria isolated are probably representatives of a new species. Brown mud disposal site is proposed as a source of new bacterial taxa possibly used in bioremediation processes. PMID:26077319

  19. 7 CFR 1924.108 - Grading and drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... affect the structure and show proposed solutions. Grading will promote drainage of surface water away from buildings and foundations, minimize earth settlement and erosion, and assure that drainage...

  20. 7 CFR 1924.108 - Grading and drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... affect the structure and show proposed solutions. Grading will promote drainage of surface water away from buildings and foundations, minimize earth settlement and erosion, and assure that drainage...