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1

Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE term `animal husbandry' is gradually becoming more employed by both administrators and scientists concerned with the live stock industry. That it is differently employed by different speakers is the apology for what follows.

A. D. Buchanan Smith

1930-01-01

2

[Problems in development of agriculture-animal husbandry ecotone and its countermeasures].  

PubMed

Problems in development of Duolun, a typical agriculture-animal husbandry ecotone, and its countermeasures were discussed in this paper. Economic structure was not rational in Duolun, and it should develop industry and commerce, limit the scope of agriculture and animal husbandry, and actively increase efficiency of agriculture and animal husbandry. The structure of land use was not rational, and the main countermeasures were to increase area of forestland and grassland, and decrease cultivated area. On resources use, the main countermeasures were to exploit water resource rationally and bring into play resource superiority of mutually benefits on agriculture and animal husbandry. The ecological environment construction was the foundation of the national economy for sustainable development in agriculture-animal husbandry ecotone. PMID:15146632

Baoyin, Taogetao; Bai, Yongfei

2004-02-01

3

Perceptions of drudgery in agricultural and animal husbandry operations: a gender analysis from Haryana State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the involvement and drudgery profile of rural women and men in agricultural and animal husbandry activities in India. The activities assigned to men were those which were considered to demand greater physical power, skill and performance. The activities assigned to women were considered to demand less physical power, lower skill and more time. They were also monotonous

Sonika Thakur; Shashi Kanta Varma; Patricia A. Goldey

2001-01-01

4

Early Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prehistoric man-animal relationships can be studied from both a zoological and an archaeological viewpoint. Despite the considerable degree of overlap between the approaches the interests of the two disciplines are substantially different. It is important that archaeology should develop hypotheses concerned primarily with human behaviour. Animal husbandry can be viewed as a group of close relationships between man and animals,

M. R. Jarman

1976-01-01

5

[Strategies and approaches of ecological and economical construction in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of north China].  

PubMed

After a century's exploitation on agriculture, the agroecosystem in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of North China has gone on a close and consumptive state, and the soil resources has suffered from desertization, alkalization and degradation. The deterioration of soil resources and eco-environment has threatened the ecological security of the regions in Beijing, Tianjin and North China. The strategies of promoting the ecological and economical development in the ecotone should include building up an opening production structure of agriculture and animal husbandry to input artificial energy from the social system, and organizing a cooperative production on agriculture and animal husbandry by exchanging products between the close regions to gain their profits. Based on the various objectives of the local farmers and the nation in the ecological rehabilitation, and the adverse succession of the ecosystem and economics, some technological approaches for making a breakthrough of economic and ecological construction were put forward, e.g., building up a suitable pattern of arbor or shrub intercropped with artificial pasture to protect soil against wind erosion, developing vegetable production adapted to the cold climate, and raising live stocks with corn residues from agricultural zone of North China, etc.. PMID:14997676

Zhang, Lifeng

2003-11-01

6

[Effect of grazing on grassland under protective plantation in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry or Songnen plain].  

PubMed

Based on the current special position that grassland under protective plantation is one of the most important grazing spaces of the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in Songnen plain, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of grazing on grassland under protective plantation. The results showed that no-grazing grassland in the grassland under protective plantation was seriously degenerated, but light and moderate grazing could stimulate the growth of grass and the product and quality of grassland. The index of grassland quality (IGQ) of no-grazing grassland was the lowest (15.51), attributing to serious degradation, while that of light grazing grassland was the highest (86.41), and the IGQ was decreased with increasing grazing intensity. Therefore, in order to stimulate the grass growth of the grassland, fully utilize the leaves of poplar, and increase the available forage resources, light and moderate grazing intensity should be advocated, but no-grazing and extreme grazing should be avoided. PMID:15320396

He, Nianpeng; Wu, Ling; Zhou, Daowei

2004-05-01

7

Effects of plastic-film mulching and nitrogen application on forage-oriented maize in the agriculture-animal husbandry ecotone in North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To counter the actual problems of forage shortage and low quality existing in the agriculture-animal husbandry ecotone in\\u000a North China, a research was conducted to study the effects of plastic-film mulching and nitrogen application on the production\\u000a of forageoriented maize with the aim of producing water-saving forage with high-yield and good quality. Field experiments\\u000a combined with laboratory experimental estimation and

Xiong Du; Xiuju Bian; Weihong Zhang; Fucun Yang; Lifeng Zhang

2008-01-01

8

Greenhouse gases from animal husbandry: mitigation options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abatement strategies for direct emissions of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry are discussed. The reduction options are\\u000a divided into preventive and `end of pipe' options. Preventive measures reduce either the carbon and nitrogen input into the\\u000a system of animal husbandry or their output from the system, respectively. `End of pipe' measures reduce the formation of greenhouse\\u000a gases from carbon and

Joachim Clemens; Heinz-Jürgen Ahlgrimm

2001-01-01

9

Greenhouse gas abatement strategies for animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture contributes significantly to the anthropogenic emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, a review is presented of the agriculture related sources of methane and nitrous oxide, and of the main strategies for mitigation. The rumen is the most important source of methane production, especially in cattle husbandry. Less, but still substantial, amounts of methane

Gert-Jan Monteny; Andre Bannink; David Chadwick

2006-01-01

10

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Agricultural Business and Management Technology Cluster: Agricultural Business and Management Technology (CIP: 01.0302--Agricultural Animal Husbandry/Prod) (CIP: 01.0501--Agric Supplies Retail & Wholesale); Animal Husbandry Technology (CIP: 01.0302--Agricultural Animal Husbandry/Prod); Field Crops Technology (CIP: 01.0104--Farm & Ranch Management). Postsecondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the agricultural business and management technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a framework of courses and concentrations, a description of the program, and…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

11

Monitoring system for animal husbandry  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A monitoring system (800) is operative for receiving sensor signals and analyzing the sensor signals to identify events or conditions of interest, such as colic, with respect to a monitored animal. The sensors may be animal-borne sensors such as motion related sensors. The system (800) includes a processor (802) operative to identify the conditions of interest based on a stored pattern database (806), threshold tables (808) and heuristic engines (812). Upon identification of a condition of interest, a human expert may be consulted and alerts may be generated as required.

Rugg; Geoffrey B. (Boulder, CO)

2008-02-26

12

Supply Chain Optimisation in Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The pig husbandry is an important economic sector. Major changes occurred in the last decade. As a result, farmers came together\\u000a to introduce the ‘Eco-label pig’, meeting the strong consumer and governmental call for high quality, animal friendly and\\u000a environmentally friendly food. The market for Eco-label food will grow enormously in the next years, asking for the development\\u000a of an

Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard; Ciska M. Smeets; Jo A. E. E. van Nunen

2003-01-01

13

Modern problems of population genetics in animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge in animal husbandry derives from a complex of disciplines, and in this review the theory of one of these (population genetics) is discussed with regard to animal improvement, but with consideration of its implications in the other disciplines together with contributions from these to animal improvement programmes.

J. S. F. Barker

1967-01-01

14

The Ethical Contract as a Tool in Organic Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores what an ethicfor organic animal husbandry might look like,departing from the assumption that organicfarming is substantially based in ecocentricethics. We argue that farm animals arenecessary functional partners in sustainableagroecosystems. This opens up additional waysto argue for their moral standing. We suggestan ethical contract to be used as acomplementary to the ecocentric framework. Weexpound the content of the

Vonne Lund; Raymond Anthony; Helena Röcklinsberg

2004-01-01

15

Grazing animal husbandry based on sustainable nutrient management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable husbandry systems for grazing animals (cattle and sheep) can be achieved by sustainable nutrient management (SNM). This implies the tuning of inputs to outputs of nutrients, to achieve and maintain optimum ranges of agronomically wanted and ecologically acceptable reserves of single nutrients in the soil. P is presented as the ‘boss cow of the nutrient herd’ and its optimum

C. Hermans; P. H. Vereijken

1995-01-01

16

Instrumentalization Theory and Reflexive Design in Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animal husbandry in The Netherlands, as in a wide variety of other societal areas, we see an increased awareness of the fact that progress cannot be attained anymore by simply repeating the way we modernized this sector in the decades before, due to the multiplicity of the problems to be dealt with. The theory of reflexive modernization articulates this

A. P. Bos

2008-01-01

17

Animal husbandry in Africa: Climate change impacts and adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a cross-sectional approach to analyze the impacts of climate change on animal husbandry and the way farmers adapt. The study is based on surveys of almost 5000 livestock farmers across ten countries in Africa. A traditional Ricardian regression finds that the livestock net revenues of large farms in Africa are more sensitive to temperature than those of

S. Niggol Seo; Robert Mendelsohn

2008-01-01

18

Training Veterinary Care Technicians and Husbandry Staff Improves Animal Care  

PubMed Central

Our animal care facility has always relied on an animal health team consisting of veterinarians, veterinary care technicians, and husbandry staff to provide a high level of animal care. As our rodent population increased, it became necessary to modify the roles and responsibilities of these staff members to accommodate the program's expansion. To accomplish that modification, we developed a training program that focused primarily on technicians by using a case-management algorithm. To support our technicians, we provided additional training to animal husbandry staff as they assumed the primary role in the initial assessment of the animals’ health. After completing the training, technicians made the transition from simply identifying health issues to actually making decisions for treating and euthanizing rodents. This training program empowered all team members and resulted in a staff that could provide consistent, high-quality veterinary care more efficiently.

Lockworth, Cynthia R; Craig, Suzanne L; Liu, Jun; Tinkey, Peggy T

2011-01-01

19

Training veterinary care technicians and husbandry staff improves animal care.  

PubMed

Our animal care facility has always relied on an animal health team consisting of veterinarians, veterinary care technicians, and husbandry staff to provide a high level of animal care. As our rodent population increased, it became necessary to modify the roles and responsibilities of these staff members to accommodate the program's expansion. To accomplish that modification, we developed a training program that focused primarily on technicians by using a case-management algorithm. To support our technicians, we provided additional training to animal husbandry staff as they assumed the primary role in the initial assessment of the animals' health. After completing the training, technicians made the transition from simply identifying health issues to actually making decisions for treating and euthanizing rodents. This training program empowered all team members and resulted in a staff that could provide consistent, high-quality veterinary care more efficiently. PMID:21333169

Lockworth, Cynthia R; Craig, Suzanne L; Liu, Jun; Tinkey, Peggy T

2011-01-01

20

Study of Strategic Opportunities for Canadian Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry Products. Phase 1 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Phase I Report of The Strategic Opportunities for Canadian Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry Products presents the following information: (1) The potential benefits of biotechnology in the animal husbandry sector are in the billions of dollars; (2) Th...

1990-01-01

21

Biofiltration for Mitigation of Methane Emission from Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of methane from exhaust air of animal houses and manure storage has a large potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from animal husbandry. The aim of this study was to design a biofilter for methane removal at a full-scale livestock production facility. Air from the headspace of a covered 6 m3 liquid manure storage (air flow: 0.75-8.5

Roland W. Melse; Werf van der A. W

2005-01-01

22

Grassland Butterfly Fauna under Traditional Animal Husbandry: Contrasts in Diversity in Mown Meadows and Grazed Pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-natural grasslands resulting from traditional land use practices (mowing and grazing) are severely endangered throughout Europe due to the intensification of agriculture. The ecological impact of mowing and grazing on grassland butterflies was studied in eight mown meadows and eight grazed pastures under traditional animal husbandry in NW Russia and adjacent Finland. Transect count data over 3 years (1997–1999) covered a

Kimmo Saarinen; Juha Jantunen

2005-01-01

23

Improved Animal Husbandry Practices as a Basis for Profitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Synopsis  Animal husbandry on rangelands has been the mainstay of people’s livelihoods in NW China for centuries. The rangeland\\/livestock\\u000a system is complex and improvements in animal productivity will depend on raising awareness of the underlying ecological principles\\u000a but more specifically on the training of herders\\/farmers on new approaches and techniques in animal health, animal nutrition,\\u000a breed improvement and in better winter

Wu Jianping; Victor Squires; Yang Lian

24

Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

25

Infantile stimulation and animal husbandry: A methodological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of 2 animal husbandry conditions during infancy––the method of presenting food to the mother and the changing or not changing of shavings––in combination with handling during infancy were investigated in rats. Dependent variables were body weight and open-field behavior. Handled Ss weighed significantly more in adulthood and were significantly more active in the open field. Ss whose shavings were

Victor H. Denenberg; Arthur E. Whimbey

1963-01-01

26

Mobilize thousands upon thousands of households to build forestry and animal husbandry bases  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the effort to mobilize thousands of households in Gansu Province, China to build forestry and animal husbandry bases. The goals are to achieve a forest acreage of 150 million mu, the planting by each household of an average of 10 mu of grass and 2 mu of forest, and the raising by each household of 2 head of livestock and 10 head of sheep. The people across the province will be organized to discuss the question of grass and tree planting and how to eliminate poverty and mobilize the enthusiasm of the people of various nationalities and trades in planting grass and trees. Trade unions, women's associations, scientific associations, and various academic organizations will be called upon to make grass and tree planting a key task. Agricultural, animal husbandry, and forest bureaus will compile textbooks about grass and tree planting and seeds.

Li Zigi

1983-10-15

27

Programs in Animal Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)|

Herring, Don R.; And Others

1980-01-01

28

Using a cleaner production preventive stategy for the reduction of the negative environmental impacts of agricultural production—using cattle husbandry as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the problem of the negative impact of cattle husbandry on the natural environment is presented. The main sort of waste discharged into the soil and water from animal production and its connected installations was discussed. Serious damage is also caused by the drainage of wetlands. Such practice causes damage to the natural environment. Necessary changes in agricultural

Aleksy Galka

2004-01-01

29

[Inspection of laboratory animal breeding and husbandry/experiments on animals, examples].  

PubMed

In Berlin, the authorization and inspection of experiments on animals and of facilities for laboratory animal breeding and husbandry are carried out by the same authority. According to Section 16 (1) sentence one no. 3 Tierschutzgesetz (German animal protection act), there are presently 1200 procedures registered and 68 facilities approved to breed and keep vertebrates for experiments (according to Section 11 (1) sentence one no. 1 Tierschutzgesetz). In 2006, the use of 300,903 vertebrates was reported. There are 38 animal welfare officers in the twenty major scientific facilities who are in charge of in-house supervision. The authority visits the facilities where experiments take place at regular intervals to observe and supervise their operations. On request, the facilities must send the records from the experiments to the authority for examination (according to Section 9 a Tierschutzgesetz). With the annual laboratory animal report, the authority can verify the number of authorised laboratory animals. By checking the scientific publications the authority can compare them with the authorised animal experiments. Facilities for laboratory animal breeding and husbandry are continuously supervised. Offences against the animal protection act are prosecuted. When there are deficiencies in animal welfare, the authority sets a deadline to correct the defects. If the deficiency still exists after the expiry of the term, the authority imposes a penalty payment or initiates legal proceedings. The important role of the animal welfare officers (Section 8 a Tierschutzgesetz) is apparent. The majority of supervisions show that there are deficiencies. This indicates that more emphasis must be put on prevention. The facilities must provide better support and resources for the animal welfare officers. Furthermore, the scientists must be more receptive to the animal welfare officers in their role as advisers. Continuous and adequate training is imperative to the goal of maintaining sufficient in-house supervision and to keep the animals from suffering. If in-house supervision works well, the State's role in regulating animal experiments can be reduced. PMID:18500148

Ratsch, H

2008-04-01

30

Interactions and coupling between emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor\\u000a storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g., composting, anaerobic treatment), land application\\u000a and chemical fertilisers. Although in many countries emphasis is put on reduction

G. J. Monteny; C. M. Groenestein; M. A. Hilhorst

2001-01-01

31

Interaction and coupling in the emission of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g., composting, anaerobic treatment), land application and chemical fertilisers. Although in many countries emphasis is put on reduction

G. J. Monteny; C. M. Groenestein; M. A. Hilhorst

2001-01-01

32

Beyond Animal Husbandry: The Study of Farm Animal Cognition and Ensuing Ethical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about the welfare of agricultural animals in corporate or “factory farming” systems are growing. Increasingly, it is suggested that modern farm animal production practices are morally objectionable, causing physical and mental suffering to animals. Such criticisms are premised on beliefs about the mental capacities of farm animals that are not wholly supported by scientific evidence, for little is known

C. C. Croney; B. Gardner; S. Baggot

2004-01-01

33

Animal husbandry among the Norwegian population in finnmark c. 1685–1705  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is part of a larger work about the settlement development among the Norwegian population on the coast of Finnmark in the period c. 1520–1700. To understand properly the motive power behind the settlement changes, it is of importance to have insight into the industries of the area, especially the fisheries, but also animal husbandry. In the following a

Alf Ragnar Nielssen

1984-01-01

34

Pastoralism or household herding? Problems of scale and specialization in early Greek animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent strategies of animal husbandry in Greece range from pastoralism to mixed farming. Pastoralists tend to keep larger herds, schedule grazing to enhance nutrition and productivity, and specialize in particular products for exchange. Each of these tendencies has implications for the species and age\\/sex composition of livestock which are amenable to archaeozoological investigation. Faunai assemblages from seventh?second millennium BC Greece

Paul Halstead

1996-01-01

35

New aspects of the use of tranquillizers in animal husbandry, with particular reference to pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tranquillizers have been used in animal husbandry to inorease production, to control stress from transport or herding together or to prevent abnormal behaviour patterns, such as fighting. Neuroleptic drugs (phenothiazine derivatives, reserpine and butyrophenones) have been widely used for these purposes, while anxiolytic sedatives (meprobamate and benzodiazepines), which have more limited effects, have only been little used. In view of

Robert Dantzer

1977-01-01

36

Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Rö?ler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

37

Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices\\u000a on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry,\\u000a the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link\\u000a up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and

Arne Kuhlmann; Daniel Herd; Benjamin Röbetaler; Eva Gallmann; Thomas Jungbluth

2009-01-01

38

Common husbandry-related variables in biomedical research with animals.  

PubMed

Common, often overlooked, variables in biomedical research with animals are reviewed. The barren primary enclosure is an abnormal living environment for laboratory animals. Species-appropriate enrichment attenuates some of the distress resulting from chronic understimulation. Social deprivation distress of individually-caged social animals is best mitigated by the provision of compatible companionship. Biotelemetry and positive reinforcement training avoid or minimize stress reactions that typically occur when animals are forcibly restrained during procedures. The variables, 'light' and 'position of living quarters' are inherent in the multi-tier caging system. To date there is no satisfactory alternative other than the single-tier cage arrangement that eliminates both variables. Removing test animals from their familiar home environment and from their cage mates for procedures introduces stress as an avoidable influential variable. Music may become an important variable if not all subjects are exposed to it. Disturbance time cannot be controlled as an extraneous variable but it should at least be mentioned to explain possible incongruities of data. A positive relationship between animal care personnel and research subjects is a key requisite to minimize stress as a data-confounding variable. PMID:15207033

Reinhardt, Viktor

2004-07-01

39

Adaptation by learning: Its significance for farm animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm animals are confronted with major changes in their environment as they go through different phases of the production system. Examples include introduction to a new housing system, provision of a new type of feed, mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics or being exposed to new human handlers. Learning processes that reduce uncertainty in such situations are likely to be very important

Beat Wechsler; Stephen E. G. Lea

2007-01-01

40

Circular-economy models of animal husbandry industry in Jilin Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal husbandry industry in Jilin Province is developing rapidly toward the one in large-scale, standardization and industrialization.\\u000a It is upgrading to a higher level. This lays the foundation for the industry to practice ecological industry. Following the\\u000a policies of Chinese Government, more and more enterprises are being engaged in seeking the effective ways of circular-economy.\\u000a This paper does some researches

Liang Han; Bo Li; Tao Song; Lian-jun Tong

2006-01-01

41

Biogaserzeugungspotenzial aus Gülle und Koppelprodukten in viehhaltenden und viehlosen Betriebssystemen des ökologischen Landbaus Potential of Biogas production by using slurry and coupled products in organic farming systems with and without animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two agricultural systems with and without animal husbandry the potential to produce renewable energy by digesting slurry and organic residues to biogas were assessed. In comparison to some other methods of energy production by biomass biogas pro- duction has the advantage of keeping the nutrients of the substrates within the agricul- tural system. They can be used as fertilisers.

K. Möller; W. Stinner; A. Deuker; G. Leithold

42

Emission of aliphatic amines from animal husbandry and their reactions: Potential source of N 2 O and HCN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the emissions of volatile aliphatic amines and ammonia produced by the manure of beef cattle, dairy cows, swine, laying hens and horses in livestock buildings. The amine emissions consisted almost exclusively of the three methylamines and correlated with those of ammonia. The molar emission ratios of the methylamines to ammonia, and data on NH3 emissions from animal husbandry

Gunnar W. Schade; Paul J. Crutzen

1995-01-01

43

Effects of light intensity on animal husbandry and digestive enzyme activities in sea bass Dicentrachus labrax post-larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of light intensity on animal husbandry performances (mainly growth, survival and cannibalism rates) and their relationships with digestive enzyme activities (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase) in sea bass post-larvae. Four light intensities (5, 50, 100 and 400 lx) were compared in triplicate. Fish (initial body weight: 34 mg) were automatically

Armande Cuvier-Péres; Stéphane Jourdan; Pascal Fontaine; Patrick Kestemont

2001-01-01

44

Animal husbandry in Moretele 1 of North-West Province: implications for veterinary training and research.  

PubMed

Little is known regarding the keeping of animals in the Moretele 1 area of North-West Province, South Africa. Therefore, the status and dynamics of animal husbandry, as well as a general assessment of the needs of animal owners in this area were researched. Results of the investigation will be used to make recommendations for improved veterinary extension servicing in the area. Semi-structured interviews, based on discussions with relevant stakeholders in the community and a resultant problem conceptualisation, were undertaken at 266 randomly selected households in 51 villages and centres in the area, after which the data was checked and verified before being captured and analysed. The findings reveal that within the field of veterinary extension delivery: 1) there is a demand for visual and written extension material, 2) the extension services must function where clients reside, 3) limitations in terms of infrastructure are present and should be addressed through partnerships and coordination amongst all the role-players in the Moretele 1 area, and 4) cattle and poultry are the most important of the animal species and should be the focus points of extension, but the need to curb zoonotic disease should not be disregarded. In this regard veterinary clinics, private veterinarians and other role-players should be used in partnership with extension workers. Lastly, the veterinary clinic is regarded as helpful in many respects by the community consulted and the service should be upgraded and made available to a wider client base, especially where private and state veterinarians are unavailable or too expensive in such resource-limited communities. PMID:11030358

Letsoalo, S S; Krecek, R C; Botha, C A; Ngetu, X

2000-06-01

45

Estimation of Zn and Cu unit output loads from animal husbandry facilities.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are toxic to aquatic organisms at very low concentrations that do not affect humans. We measured the daily output of Zn and Cu in wastewater from livestock farms to aquatic environments because waste from animal husbandry operations contains high levels of Zn and Cu. At most pig farms in Japan, a mixture of urine, some faeces, and service water is treated in onsite wastewater treatment facilities and discharged into a water body. Some dairy farms also have wastewater treatment facilities. We surveyed 21 pig farms and six dairy farms. The unit (i.e., per head) output load from piggery wastewater treatment facilities ranged from 0.13 to 17.8 mg/head/d for Zn and from 0.15 to 9.4 mg/head/d for Cu. Over 70% of pig farms had unit output loads of Zn and Cu below 6 and 2 mg/head/d, respectively. For dairy farms, the unit output load from wastewater treatment facilities was estimated at 1.8-3.6 mg/head/d for Zn and 0.6 mg/head/d for Cu. The unit output load for Zn from piggery wastewater treatment facilities was similar to that from treatment facilities for human waste. However, pig farms generally raise several thousand to tens of thousands of pigs; pig farms are therefore presumed to be a significant point source of Zn in rural areas. PMID:22744698

Abe, Kaoru; Waki, Miyoko; Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Kasuya, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryouji; Itahashi, Sunao; Banzai, Kenji

2012-01-01

46

Non-Violence Towards Animals in the Thinking of Gandhi: the Problem of Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the imperatives induced by the Gandhian concept of non-violence towards animals is an issue that has been neglected by specialists on the thinking of the Mahatma. The aim of this article is to highlight the systematic – and significant – character of this particular aspect of his views on non-violence. The first part introduces the theoretical foundations

Florence Burgat

2004-01-01

47

Farm-level plans and husbandry measures for aquatic animal disease emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Disease is one of the gravest threats to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A good understanding of biosecurity and disease causation is essential for developing and implementing farm-level plans and husbandry measures to respond to disease emergencies. Using epidemiological approaches, it is possible to identify pond- and farm-level risk factors for disease outbreaks and develop intervention strategies. Better

C. V. Mohan; M. J. Phillips; B. V. Bhat; N. R. Umesh; P. A. Padiyar

48

Ecosystems, sustainability, and animal agriculture.  

PubMed

The long-term sustainability of animal agriculture is examined in an ecological context. As an aid to defining agriculture, animal agriculture, and sustainable agriculture, a broad overview of the structural and functional aspects of ecosystems is presented. Energy output/cultural energy input ratios were then calculated for 11 beef cattle management systems as relative measures of their long-term sustainability. Energy output was estimated by direct conversion of whole body mass of steers to caloric values. Cultural energy inputs were estimated using published forage and cereal grain production budgets in combination with estimated organic matter intakes. Cultural energy inputs included raw materials, manufacturing, distribution, maintenance, and depreciation of all equipment and products used in a 250-animal cow-calf farm/ranch operation. Management systems evaluated included 1) spring calving with slaughter beginning at either weaning (age of calf approximately 6 mo) or after 84, 168, or 252 d in postweaning finishing lot; 2) spring calving with slaughter beginning at about 18 mo of age after either 0, 42, 84, or 126 d in finishing lot; and 3) fall calving with slaughter beginning at about 14 mo of age after either 63, 126, or 189 d in finishing lot. Estimated efficiencies were < 1.0 in all treatments, even when assumed marketed calf crop was 100%. Product energy output/cultural energy input ratios ranged from a high of .40 in the spring calving--stocker--126 d in finishing lot treatment to a low of .23 in the spring calving--slaughter at weaning treatment. The low levels of efficiency were found to be largely the result of the interaction effects of the high levels of cultural energy required to maintain a productive cow herd and grow and finish calves in the rather harsh environment of the Northern Great Plains. Results pointedly reveal the high level of dependency of the U.S. beef cattle industry on fossil fuels. These findings in turn bring into question the ecological and economic risks associated with the current technology driving North American animal agriculture. PMID:8791214

Heitschmidt, R K; Short, R E; Grings, E E

1996-06-01

49

Animal Agriculture: Symbiosis, Culture, or Ethical Conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several writers on animal ethics defend the abolition of most or all animal agriculture, which they consider an unethical\\u000a exploitation of sentient non-human animals. However, animal agriculture can also be seen as a co-evolution over thousands\\u000a of years, that has affected biology and behavior on the one hand, and quality of life of humans and domestic animals on the\\u000a other.

Vonne Lund; I. Anna S. Olsson

2006-01-01

50

Critical perspectives in animal agriculture: A response  

Microsoft Academic Search

People who work in the animal indus- tries are faced with questions and criticisms about a variety of contentious issues, including animal manage- ment practices, ethics, diversity in animal agriculture, and animal welfare. Formulating responses to these questions requires a critical evaluation of our own work and open discussion of these controversial issues. Effec- tive debate on these issues can

M. S. Weber Nielsen; E. Bergfeld

2010-01-01

51

Electrochemical oxidation of tetracycline antibiotics using a Ti/IrO2 anode for wastewater treatment of animal husbandry.  

PubMed

In animal husbandry, antibiotics are widely used to treat and prevent diseases or to promote growth. The use of antibiotics for domestic animals enables to promote safety of livestock products and enhance productivity. Tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) are one of the primarily used groups of antibiotics for cattle and swine. However, the unintentional spreading of antibiotics from animal waste to the environment may leave out drug residues, promoting resistant strains of bacteria, and will adversely affect the ecosystem and human health. To prevent the spread of veterinary antibiotics in the environment, it is required to treat residual antibiotics in livestock wastewater. In this study, we investigated the electrochemical oxidation of TCs to treat livestock wastewater. The concentrations of TCs in aqueous solutions were reduced from 100 mg/L to less than 0.6 mg/L by 6 h of electrochemical treatment using a Ti/IrO2 anode with Na2SO4 electrolyte. The concentration of oxytetracycline (OTC) in livestock wastewater was also reduced from 100 mg/L to less than 0.7 mg/L by the same treatment. Thus, the electrochemical oxidation using a Ti/IrO2 anode with Na2SO4 electrolyte was found to be effective for degradation of TCs. The results suggest that the electrochemical oxidation method is a promising treatment for TCs in livestock wastewater. PMID:21278467

Miyata, M; Ihara, I; Yoshid, G; Toyod, K; Umetsu, K

2011-01-01

52

National Animal Agriculture Conservation Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

American consumers expect a great deal of the nations food and agriculture system. And there is no doubt that it delivers more nutritious food with wider variety; improved safety with fewer adverse environmental impacts; and, greater convenience than at a...

2003-01-01

53

Diet and Animal Husbandry of the Preclassic Maya at Cuello, Belize: Isotopic and Zooarchaeological Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of the Preclassic Maya at Cuello, Belize was studied by means of carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements on human and animal bones from the site, as well as on modern animals from the region. The average ?13C value for Preclassic human bone collagen was ?12.9±0.9‰ (n=28) and for tooth enamel apatite it was ?8.7±2.3‰ (n=33); the average ?13N

Nikolaas Merwe; Robert Tykot; Norman Hammond; Kim Oakberg

54

A Glossary of Agricultural Terms. English-French, French-English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume consists of two glossaries of agricultural terms, one English-French, the other French-English. The terms provided deal with animals, plants, crop cultivation, animal husbandry and agricultural technology. (CLK)|

American Univ., Washington, DC. American Language Center.

55

Health Research, Agricultural Domestic Animals (Welzijnsonderzoek Landbouwhuisdieren).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with the health aspect and research of agricultural domestic animals. For each species a survey provides the health-limiting factors, and the health research going on at present. For determination of the health of animals, different metho...

L. J. Huisman

1981-01-01

56

Effects of the Chernobyl accident on animal husbandry and production, from a Swedish perspective  

SciTech Connect

About 20% of the Swedish land area was considerably contaminated by radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. However, less than 10% of the arable land was contaminated. The heavy contamination was closely correlated with the amount of rain received during the first days of May 1986. Immediate restrictions on grazing limited the early uptake of contaminants in animal products. Changes in management of animals, especially sheep, goats, and reindeer in the contaminated areas have effectively reduced the transfer of radionuclides to human beings. One important factor was the possibility of obtaining uncontaminated feeds from unaffected parts of the country. The direct costs during the first 2 years after the accident were approximately +10 million for analyses and +90 million for compensation to farmers for condemned products (milk, mutton, and reindeer meat) and reimbursement for purchase of uncontaminated feeds from other parts of the country.

Jones, B.E.

1989-04-01

57

Anglo-Saxon animal husbandry techniques revealed though isotope and chemical variations in cattle teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sr concentration and isotope composition of tooth enamel from domesticated animals from two neighbouring Anglo-Saxon settlements, at Empingham (6–7th century) and Ketton (10–12th century) in Rutland, central England, are compared both with each other, and with associated human populations. Data from the Empingham II site form discrete fields in Sr concentration and isotope composition space for cattle, pig and

J. A. Evans; S. Tatham; S. R. Chenery; C. A. Chenery

2007-01-01

58

Association between the consumption of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry and the occurrence of resistant bacteria among food animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals may cause problems in the therapy of infections by selecting for resistance among bacteria pathogenic for animals or humans. The emergence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes following the use of antimicrobial

Frank Møller Aarestrup

1999-01-01

59

Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Manual 90.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

60

Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Manual 90.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)|

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

61

Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

62

Future of Animal Agriculture: 2030. One in a Series of Educational Programs Presented by the Future Trends in Animal Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Preface; Sponsors; FTAA Mission, Vision, Goals; Welcome; History of the Future Trends in Animal Agriculture; What Will Animal Agriculture Look Like: the Role of Government; Alternative Viewpoints on Food Animal Production and Processing; Panel: ...

2009-01-01

63

Interrelationships of Animal Agriculture, the Environment, and Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal agriculture is closely interrelated to both the natural environment and human systems, including rural communities. Accordingly, changes in animal agriculture can have wide-ranging consequences across many areas. During the past 50 yr, there has been tremendous change in animal agriculture, involving an increase in the size of production units, greater reliance on technology, a corresponding decrease in human labor,

M. G. Hogberg; S. L. Fales; F. L. Kirschenmann; Mark Honeyman; John Miranowski; P. Lasley

2005-01-01

64

Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Basic Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual, part of a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, is built around specimens of agricultural writing in Spanish. The manual contains 12 lessons on general agriculture, sugar production, grain production, geography, forestry, animal husbandry, soy bean production, agricultural

Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

65

Ecosystems, Sustainability, and Animal Agriculture 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term sustainability of animal agriculture is examined in an ecological context. As an aid to defining agriculture, animal agriculture, and sustainable agriculture, a broad overview of the structural and functional aspects of ecosystems is presented. Energy output\\/cultural energy input ratios were then calculated for 11 beef cattle management systems as relative measures of their long-term sustainability. Energy output was

R. K. Heitschmidt; R. E. Short; E. E. Grings

2010-01-01

66

Surveying China's agricultural resources: Patterns and progress from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of an agricultural remote sensing center at Beijing Agricultural University (BAU) and an initial network of participating subcenters located in Harbin, Nanjing, and Chengdu marks the beginning of Chinas efforts to assess, monitor, and tabulate its agricultural production. The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, and Fisheries (MAAF) has designated BAU as its lead research and applications center to

S. A. Morain

1986-01-01

67

Trait selection and welfare of genetically engineered animals in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the com- mercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in trans- genic research, rather than on the health and welfare

M. Greger

2010-01-01

68

[Husbandry-related diseases in the chinchilla].  

PubMed

The developing popularity of the chinchilla as a pet over recent years has increased its importance in veterinary practice. The husbandry of pet chinchillas differs significantly from that in commercial fur farms, where the veterinary input is directed towards diseases of animal groups. Veterinary advice and prophylaxis is particularly important for pet chinchillas, as there is relatively little literature about their husbandry and relevant diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The owners of this 'new' companion animal frequently lack relevant knowledge, and many chinchillas are presented due to inadequate husbandry and feeding. Therefore this report describes the physiology, the management and feeding requirements and examination methods. A selection of the most frequent diseases caused by poor husbandry is presented. PMID:8122245

Hartmann, K

1993-12-01

69

Impact of nitrogen cycling on stream water quality in a basin associated with forest, grassland, and animal husbandry, Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct discharge of wastes from agricultural fields and livestock feedlots increases the concentration of nitrogen (N) in streams. This study was conducted to determine the impact of farm N budgets on stream water quality. In 1999–2000, we investigated an experimental livestock farm of 457ha in the Kepau River watershed in Shizunai, Southern Hokkaido, Japan, where grasslands and maize fields

Ryusuke Hatano; Toshiyuki Nagumo; Hiroshi Hata; Kanta Kuramochi

2005-01-01

70

Ethical obligations of veterinarians and animal scientists in animal agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is patent that society is evolving an ethic for the treatment of animals which goes well beyond the standard prohibitions against cruelty. This new ethic for animals takes the consensus ethic for the treatment of humans in society and extends it,mutatis mutandis, to the treatment of animals. Though this ethic has been applied first to research animals, its extension

Bernard E. Rollin

1989-01-01

71

The origins of animal domestication and husbandry: A major change in the history of humanity and the biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to summarize the present archaeo(zoo)logical knowledge and reflections on the origins of Neolithic animal domestication. It targets the main characteristics of early Neolithic animal domestication set against a backdrop of two complementary scales, namely the global and macro-regional scales (the latter using the example of the Near East). It discusses the conceptual and methodological issues, arguing in

Jean-Denis Vigne

2011-01-01

72

Photocatalytic TiO 2 coating—to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform

Marcella Guarino; Annamaria Costa; Marco Porro

2008-01-01

73

Evidence for Banana Cultivation and Animal Husbandry During the First Millennium bc in the Forest of Southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The faunal and botanical data from the first millennium bc site of Nkang, Southern Cameroon, are presented in this paper. The analysed material, retrieved from refuse pits, comprises charcoal, phytoliths, molluscs and animal bones, which allow a reconstruction of the former environment. In addition, the site provides new insights into the emergence of food-producing communities in the African rainforest. Food

Christophe M. Mbida; Wim Van Neer; Hugues Doutrelepont; Luc Vrydaghs

2000-01-01

74

Using Grazing Animals to Restore Resilience in our Agricultural Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key feature of agricultural intensification has been specialization in crop and livestock production in monoculture systems that capture economies of scale and have contributed to increased animal and plant production. Concerns are growing over the ability to maintain long-term intensive monoculture agriculture and increasingly, these systems are recognized as extracting a non-sustainable environmental cost. Such systems are also more

Vivien Gore Allen; Charles Philip Brown

2006-01-01

75

The origins of animal domestication and husbandry: a major change in the history of humanity and the biosphere.  

PubMed

This article aims to summarize the present archaeo(zoo)logical knowledge and reflections on the origins of Neolithic animal domestication. It targets the main characteristics of early Neolithic animal domestication set against a backdrop of two complementary scales, namely the global and macro-regional scales (the latter using the example of the Near East). It discusses the conceptual and methodological issues, arguing in favor of an anthropozoological approach taking into account the intentions and the dynamics of human societies and critically analyzes the reductionist neo-Darwinian concepts of co-evolution and human niche construction. It also provides a brief discussion on the birth of ungulate domestication and its roots, as well as appropriate bibliographic references to enlighten the current status of domestication research. PMID:21377611

Vigne, Jean-Denis

2011-02-02

76

Photocatalytic TiO2 coating-to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries.  

PubMed

Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform NH3 into N2, N2O or NO and water. Field experiments aimed at determining effects on indoor air quality and NH3 and polluting gas emissions into the environment of coating pig house walls with TiO2 catalytic paint and to assess the potential efficiency of this simple painting technique as a low cost BAT technique for animal farmers. The trial was performed in two identical mechanical ventilated farrowing rooms in a swine farm in Northern Italy. Environmental parameters, ventilation rate and gas concentrations were continuously monitored in the two units throughout a 28 day production cycle. NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 average concentrations of 5.41, 1.18, 6.28 and 2109.38 mg m(-3) (reference unit without treatment) and 3.76, 1.13, 5.32 and 1881.64 mg m(-3) (experimental unit) were, respectively, recorded during a full farrowing cycle. Pollutant emissions, expressed on a Livestock Unit (LU, i.e., 500 kg live weight) basis, were 16.33, 3.57, 18.96 and 6365.01 kg y(-1)LU(-1) (reference unit) and 11.37, 3.43, 16.11 and 5695.58 kg y(-1) LU(-1) (experimental unit), respectively. Significantly higher pollutant concentrations and emissions were found in the untreated reference unit, under similar environmental conditions and with identical numbers of sows and piglets per unit. PMID:17574843

Guarino, Marcella; Costa, Annamaria; Porro, Marco

2007-06-15

77

Blueprint for USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics 2008-2017.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Animal improvement programs have greatly increased the ability of animal agriculture to provide high quality, low cost and safe animal products to the American consumer. A large part of this change is a result of investments made by USDA in quantitative a...

2007-01-01

78

Use of Competing Conceptions of Risk in Animal Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers a theory of risk as a means of coping with risk and uncertainty that have become a growing reality for animal agriculture. Microbial contaminations of food, waste management, animal products in the human diet, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) incorporate different conceptions of risk and require different approaches to handling the uncertainty involved. A dichotomous schema is

H. O. Kunkel; Paul B. Thompson; Brooke A. Miller; C. L. Skaggs

2010-01-01

79

DRAFT Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen is found in relatively high levels in all excreted animal manures. It can exist in many chemical forms and can move easily in the environment as a gas in air; as a dissolved constituent of ground or surface water; or in combination with other materials. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3) is of particular concern because of its potential to create odors

Jennifer G. Becker; Robert E. Graves

80

Application of 34S analysis for elucidating terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems: Evidence of animal movement/husbandry practices in an early Viking community around Lake Mývatn, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) have been used widely in archaeology to investigate palaeodiet. Sulphur stable isotope ratios (?34S) have shown great promise in this regard but the potential of this technique within archaeological science has yet to be fully explored. Here we report ?34S, ?13C and ?15N values for 129 samples of animal bone collagen from Skútustaðir, an early Viking age (landnám) settlement in north-east Iceland. This dataset represents the most comprehensive study to date of its kind on archaeological material and the results show a clear offset in ?34S values between animals deriving their dietary resources from terrestrial (mean = +5.6 ± 2.8‰), freshwater (mean = -2.7 ± 1.4‰) or marine (mean = +15.9 ± 1.5‰) reservoirs (with the three food groups being significantly different at 2?). This offset allows reconstruction of the dietary history of domesticated herbivores and demonstrates differences in husbandry practices and animal movement/trade, which would be otherwise impossible using only ?13C and ?15N values. For example, several terrestrial herbivores displayed enriched bone collagen ?34S values compared to the geology of the Lake Mývatn region, indicating they may have been affected by sea-spray whilst being pastured closer to the coast, before being traded inland. Additionally, the combination of heavy ?15N values coupled with light ?34S values within pig bone collagen suggests that these omnivores were consuming freshwater fish as a significant portion of their diet. Arctic foxes were also found to be consuming large quantities of freshwater resources and radiocarbon dating of both the pigs and foxes confirmed previous studies showing that a large freshwater radiocarbon (14C) reservoir effect exists within the lake. Overall, these stable isotope and 14C data have important implications for obtaining a fuller reconstruction of the diets of the early Viking settlers in Iceland, and may allow a clearer identification of the marine and/or freshwater 14C reservoir effects that are known to exist in human bone collagen.

Sayle, Kerry L.; Cook, Gordon T.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Hastie, Helen R.; Einarsson, Árni; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hicks, Megan T.; Edwald, Ágústa; Friðriksson, Adolf

2013-11-01

81

Food Animal Agriculture in 2020. One in a Series of Educational Programs Presented by the Future Trends in Animal Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this symposium is to provide the opinions of speakers regarding the status and structure of animal agriculture, primarily focused in the United States, in a short 13 years. We will look at how food animal production and processing will or s...

2007-01-01

82

Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

2000-04-12

83

The role of land-based strategies in rural livelihoods: The contribution of arable production, animal husbandry and natural resource harvesting in communal areas in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of South Africa's rural population resides in the former homelands. Although cash from urban and government sources is the mainstay of the rural economy in many areas, the multiple and diverse livelihood base of rural households is not widely recognised. This diversity includes the land-based strategies of arable farming, livestock husbandry and consumption and trade in natural resources.

Charlie Shackleton; Sheona Shackleton; Ben Cousins

2001-01-01

84

Environmental Policy and Technology Adoption in Animal Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The increasing number and concentration of animals in beef, swine and poultry production units has led to heightened concerns\\u000a over the environmental and nuisance impacts of such operations. Whether flexible incentives can be used effectively to reduce\\u000a such environmental risks requires consideration of the economic and institutional factors driving the structural changes in\\u000a animal agriculture. The design of environmental policy

Patricia E. Norris; Amy Purvis Thurow

1997-01-01

85

The Future of Animal Agriculture and the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this presentation is to set the stage for establishing a vision for the future of animal agriculture and the environment. This is a daunting task because of so many factors that will play a role in the years ahead. These factors include environmental regulations; eating trends of the public; economics of production; food safety; international competition; and

Richard Hegg

86

INDUSTRALIZATION OF ANIMAL AGRICULTURE: SEASONALITY IN THE PORK, BEEF AND MILK MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic concerns and the technological developments increased control over nature and nurture in the animal agriculture. That changed the seasonality pattern of the supply side and lead to structural change in the animal agriculture together with the demand side factors. In this study we focused on the supply side factors and document the 'industralization' of the animal agricultural production.

Oya S. Erdogdu; David Hennessy

87

Mitigation of Nitrogen Emissions from Animal Agriculture in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 70% of the utilized agricultural area (187 Mha) in the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU-27) is used for animal production. In addition, a considerable amount of animal feed is imported. Dairy and beef cattle, pigs, and poultry are the dominant animal species. Total livestock density is highest in the Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Denmark and some regions in France, Germany and Italy. The mean nitrogen (N) retention in animal products in EU-27 in 2005 was 20% for milk, 8% for beef, 25% for pork, 38% for poultry and 28% for egg production. This indicates that dairy cows excreted on average 80% of the N intake, beef cattle 92%, pigs 75%, poultry 62% and layers 72%. There was a large variation in N retention between countries. Animal manures and nitrogen (N) fertilizers are main sources of N emissions. In 2005, mean N excretion by animals ranged from less than 25 kg per ha per year in Bulgaria to nearly 250 kg per ha in The Netherlands. On average 25% of the total amount of N excreted was lost as ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere, though with a considerable variation between countries. About 10% was lost as NH3-N from housing systems, 9% from manure application to land, 4% from manure storage and treatment facilities, and 3% from grazing. Nitrogen leaching was in the same order of magnitude. Animal production also had a considerable share in the total emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere (range 5-25%). Especially dairy cattle and beef cattle contribute to the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. Considerable efforts are being made to decrease N emissions from agriculture in EU-27. Good agricultural practices and mandatory emission mitigation measures are enforced through EU environmental policies, including Nitrates Directive, National Emissions Ceiling Directive, and Water Framework Directive. Some countries have succeeded to decrease the NH3 emissions to air and N leaching losses to groundwater and surface waters by more than 50%. However, other countries are less successful, and in general there is a delay in the implementation of effective emission mitigation measures in practice. Most effective measures include (i) Improving animal performance, i.e., increasing productivity and feed conversion of the animals, (ii) Improving manure management, using proper manure collection and low-emission manure storage and application techniques, and (iii) Balanced fertilization, i.e. applying manure and fertilizer N in the right ways, times and amounts. There is now a wealth of information about improving the recycling of manure nutrients effectively in crop production through proper implementation of management and technological measures. Some of this information is derived from experiments, some from practice. Our scenario analyses use information from experiments and practice and indicate that N emissions in EU-27 can decreased further by 25 to 50%, depending on N species and country. In conclusion, decreasing N emissions from animal production requires an integral whole-farming systems approach. The weakest part of the whole chain of activities in a farming system should be cured first. A coherent package of three types of measures provide the best result, i.e., improving animal performance, improving manure management and balanced fertilization.

Oenema, O.

2011-12-01

88

Influence of livestock husbandry on schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous regions of Yunnan Province.  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted in the highly endemic areas of schistosomiasis japonica in Weishan and Eryuan counties, Yunnan Province. The results are summarized as follows: 1) the number of domestic animals was increasing annually; 2) the proportion of animal husbandry gains in the total agriculture income had a yearly escalating tendency; 3) the infection rate of inhabitants was upgrading as a result of the development of and the prevalence in domestic animals in the recent decades. Owing to frequent migration of domestic animals, serious spread of infection sources and high prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica occurred. It is suggested that more attention should be paid to the control of schistosomiasis japonica in mountainous endemic regions during the course of economic development, especially in the development of domestic animals. PMID:9444008

Jiang, Z; Zheng, Q S; Wang, X F; Hua, Z H

1997-06-01

89

Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste  

SciTech Connect

The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report formed the basis for much of the subsequent work under the grant. An explanation of the process is presented as well as the completed work on the four tasks.

Gabriel Miller

2009-03-25

90

Register of Inventions Published in the USSR (1896-June 1963) Class 45. Agriculture, Including Forestry. Animal Husbandry. Hunting and Animal Trapping. Fish Breeding and Fishery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Soil cultivation; Planting, sowing, fertilizing; Harvesting; New plants; Processing of harvested produce; Culture of vegetables, flowers, fruit, vines and hops; Forestry; Watering; Spraying; Manufacture of dairy products (mechanical part); Breed...

1968-01-01

91

Services of the Animal Welfare Information Center at the National Agricultural Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) was created by the first Commissioner of Agriculture after the establishment of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) by the Organic Act of 1862. The NAL now includes a diverse collection of 1.9 million items that are in English and many foreign languages, covering multiple subjects and different formats, including electronic. The Animal Welfare

Jean Larson

1988-01-01

92

Identifying the Future Needs for Long-Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural animal research has been immensely successful over the past century in developing technology and methodologies that have dramatically enhanced production efficiency of the beef, dairy, swine, poultry, sheep, and aquaculture industries. In the past two decades, molecular biology has changed the face of agricultural animal research, primarily in the arena of genomics and the relatively new offshoot areas of

R. D. Green; M. A. Qureshi; J. A. Long; P. J. Burfening; D. L. Hamernik

2007-01-01

93

REGULATION OF ANIMAL CARE AND RESEARCH? VIEWPOINT OF AN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION SCIENTIST 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The issue of regulating animal care in modern animal production systems and in the research laboratory is discussed from the perspective of an animal scientist with a farm background and 25 years of agricultural experiment station experience. Evidence is presented for a long-term association of humans with (and dependence on) animals, which extends into prehistory far beyond the beginnings

Duane E. Ulirev

2010-01-01

94

Isotopic reconstruction of human diet and animal husbandry practices during the Classical-Hellenistic, imperial, and Byzantine periods at Sagalassos, Turkey.  

PubMed

An isotopic reconstruction of human dietary patterns and livestock management practices (herding, grazing, foddering, etc.) is presented here from the sites of Düzen Tepe and Sagalassos in southwestern Turkey. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined from bone collagen extracted from humans (n = 49) and animals (n = 454) from five distinct time periods: Classical-Hellenistic (400-200 BC), Early to Middle Imperial (25 BC-300 AD), Late Imperial (300-450 AD), Early Byzantine (450-600 AD), and Middle Byzantine (800-1200 AD). The humans had protein sources that were based on C(3) plants and terrestrial animals. During the Classical-Hellenistic period, all of the domestic animals had ?(13) C and ?(15) N signatures that clustered together; evidence that the animals were herded in the same area or kept in enclosures and fed on similar foods. The diachronic analysis of the isotopic trends in the dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats highlighted subtle but distinct variations in these animals. The ?(13) C values of the dogs and cattle increased (reflecting C(4) plant consumption) during the Imperial and Byzantine periods, but the pigs and the goats displayed little change and a constant C(3) plant-based diet. The sheep had a variable ?(13) C pattern reflecting periods of greater and lesser consumption of C(4) plants in the diet. In addition, the ?(15) N values of the dogs, pigs, cattle, and sheep increase substantially from the Classical-Hellenistic to the Imperial periods reflecting a possible increase in protein consumption, but the goats showed a decrease. Finally, these isotopic results are discussed in the context of zooarcheological, archeobotanical, and trace element evidence. PMID:22729657

Fuller, Benjamin T; De Cupere, Bea; Marinova, Elena; Van Neer, Wim; Waelkens, Marc; Richards, Michael P

2012-06-23

95

Pharmaceutical contamination in residential, industrial, and agricultural waste streams: Risk to aqueous environments in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a comprehensive study of the occurrence of antibiotics, hormones and other pharmaceuticals in water sites that have major potential for downstream environmental contamination. These include residential (hospitals, sewage treatment plants, and regional discharges), industrial (pharmaceutical production facilities), and agricultural (animal husbandries and aquacultures) waste streams. We assayed 23 Taiwanese water sites for 97 targeted compounds, of which a

Angela Yu-Chen Lin; Tsung-Hsien Yu; Cheng-Fang Lin

2008-01-01

96

Animal Husbandry Equipment in the United Kingdom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the survey were to: (1) Gauge the overall U.K. market potential for U. S. equipment, accessories and materials used on the farm for the feeding and care of livestock, including poultry; (2) Identify specific products for which the potent...

1966-01-01

97

Revising and Updating the Animal Science Components of the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is intended for use in teaching Connecticut's revised animal science curriculum at regional vocational agriculture centers. Like its predecessor, this curriculum includes exploratory (intended for grades 9 and 10) and specialized (intended for grades 11 and 12) animal science units and is based on the following major areas of…

Mannebach, Alfred J.; And Others

98

A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal Products  

SciTech Connect

Transfer factors are used in radiological risk assessments to estimate the amount of radioactivity that could be present in a food crop or organism based on the calculated concentration in the source medium (i.e., soil or animal feed). By calculating the concentration in the food, the total intake can be estimated and a dose calculated as a result of the annual intake. This report compiles transfer factors for radiological risk assessments, using common food products, including meats, eggs, and plants. Transfer factors used were most often selected from recommended values listed by national or international organizations for use in radiological food chain transport calculations. Several methods of estimation and extrapolation were used for radionuclides not listed in the primary information sources. Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables.

Staven, Lissa H.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rhoads, Kathleen; Strenge, Dennis L.

2003-06-02

99

Animating Community Supported Agriculture in North East England: Striving for a "Caring Practice"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper draws on a case study of a new Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) scheme in the north of England to draw attention to some of the ethical issues encountered when using a participatory action research approach to animating CSA. Both CSA and participatory action research have been associated with the concept of "caring practice" and…

Charles, Liz

2011-01-01

100

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)|

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

101

Commentary on domestic animals in agricultural and biomedical research: An endangered enterprise  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite the long and successful history of research on agriculturally relevant domestic animals, basic and translational research using domestic species is becoming increasingly threatened due to budgetary erosion. This funding decline is well documented in a recent article by Ireland et al., publis...

102

Bad Ethics, Good Ethics and the Genetic Engineering of Animals in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineers have been remiss in addressing ethical and social issues emerging from this powerful new technology, a technology whose implications for agriculture are profound. As a conse- quence of this failure, society has been uneasy about genetic engineering of animals and has had difficulty distinguishing between genuine and spurious ethical issues the technology occasions. Many of the most prominent

Bernard E. Rollin

2010-01-01

103

Specialty Animal Production Curriculum Guide for Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness. Curriculum Development. Bulletin No. 1806.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide was developed to aid vocational agriculture/agribusiness teachers in Louisiana in improving their instruction and to provide students with the opportunity to obtain skills and knowledge in the production of nontraditional specialty animals. The guide covers the techniques of production, management, care, and marketing of…

University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.

104

Husbandry and breeding in the Octodon degu (Molina 1782).  

PubMed

The Octodon degu is a native rodent species from South America, which lives in colonies with a well-structured social organization grouping of 5-10 young and 2-5 adult animals sharing a burrow system. They show a temperature-dependent diurnal-crepuscular activity pattern. In nature they rarely survive 2 yr, mostly because of predation. However, in captivity, females reproduce for 4-4.5 yr, and both sexes live for 5-7 yr. Males remain fertile until death. Some care is required to maintain healthy degus, particularly breeding females. Here we describe husbandry and breeding guidelines from the experience of the University of Michigan degu colony. With the husbandry practices described here, 90% of pups born in our colony reach maturity (6 mo of age), and no diarrheal diseases are apparent in our adult population. PMID:23547155

Palacios, Adrian G; Lee, Theresa M

2013-04-01

105

The Nature and Longevity of Agricultural Impacts on Soil Carbon and Nutrients: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the domestication of plant and animal species around 10,000 years ago, cultivation and animal husbandry have been major\\u000a components of global change. Agricultural activities such as tillage, fertilization, and biomass alteration lead to fundamental\\u000a changes in the pools and fluxes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) that originally existed in native ecosystems.\\u000a Land is often taken out

Kendra McLauchlan

2006-01-01

106

9 CFR 130.3 - User fees for exclusive use of space at APHIS Animal Import Centers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section, and on routine husbandry needs, the maximum number of animals and birds permitted...Import Center, but two animal health technicians cannot fulfill the routine husbandry needs of the number of animals or birds proposed...

2013-01-01

107

Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market

Kenneth Roy Emo

2005-01-01

108

An Unremembered Diversity: Mixed Husbandry and the American Grasslands  

PubMed Central

The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought about a dramatic rise in global crop yields. But, as most observers acknowledge, this has come at a considerable cost to biodiversity. Plant breeding, synthetic fertilizers, and mechanization steadily narrowed the number of crop varieties commercially available to farmers and promoted fencerow-to-fencerow monocultures. Many historians trace the origins of this style of industrialized agriculture to the last great plow-up of the Great Plains in the 1920s. In the literature, farms in the plains are often described metaphorically as wheat factories, degrading successive landscapes. While in many ways these farms were a departure from earlier forms of husbandry in the American experience, monocultures were quite rare during the early transformation of the plains. Analysis of a large representative sample, based on manuscript agricultural censuses and involving twenty-five townships across the state of Kansas, demonstrates that diverse production reached even the most challenging of plains landscapes.

SYLVESTER, KENNETH; CUNFER, GEOFF

2009-01-01

109

Incorporating Behavioral Enrichment into Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of human education has helped in recognizing the needs for humane animal care. Animal welfare became a topic focusing on the morality of human actions (or the lack thereof) when it comes to proper animal care. As a result, institutions started to recognize they had an ethical and legal obligation to research and provide for the needs of

Hilda Tresz

110

Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.  

PubMed

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral characterization, and for streamlining the process to update poultry vaccines for avian influenza. PMID:20521664

Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

2010-03-01

111

Compliance With the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) Work Practice Recommendations for Youth Working With Large Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to reduce the risk of childhood agricultural injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate compliance with NAGCAT-recommended work practices (WPs) when youth work with large animals. On a daily basis, over a period of 10 weeks, youth self-reported the number of minutes they worked with a large

L. Asti; B. D. Canan; C. Heaney; S. Ashida; K. Renick; H. Xiang; L. Stallones; S. D. Jepsen; J. M. Crawford; J. R. Wilkins III

2011-01-01

112

Life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases associated with burning animal wastes in countries of the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning animal wastes for the production of electricity is stimulated in the European Union because of the ‘climate neutrality’ of its life cycle. In doing so fossil fuel inputs in animal husbandry and the N2O and CH4 emissions associated with animal husbandry are neglected. Here types of relatively fossil fuel efficient animal husbandry in the European Union are analysed without

L. Reijnders; M. A. J. Huijbregts

2005-01-01

113

Applications of RNA interference-based gene silencing in animal agriculture.  

PubMed

Classical genetic selection, recently aided by genomic selection tools, has been successful in achieving remarkable progress in livestock improvement. However, genetic selection has led to decreased genetic diversity and, in some cases, acquisition of undesirable traits. In order to meet the increased demands of our expanding population, new technologies and practices must be developed that contend with zoonotic and animal disease, environmental impacts of large farming operations and the increased food and fibre production needed to feed and clothe our society. Future increases in productivity may be dependent upon the acquisition of genetic traits not currently encoded by the genomes of animals used in standard agricultural practice, thus making classical genetic selection impossible. Genetic engineering of livestock is commonly used to produce pharmaceuticals or to impart enhanced production characteristics to animals, but has also demonstrated its usefulness in producing animals with disease resistance. However, significant challenges remain because it has been more difficult to produce animals in which specific genes have been removed. It is now possible to modify livestock genomes to block expression of endogenous and exogenous genes (such as those expressed following virus infection). In the present review, we discuss mechanisms of silencing gene expression via the biology of RNA interference (RNAi), the technology of activating the RNAi pathway and the application of this technology to enhance livestock production through increased production efficiency and prevention of disease. An increased demand for sustainable food production is at the forefront of scientific challenges and RNAi technology will undoubtedly play a key role. PMID:20003845

Long, Charles R; Tessanne, Kimberly J; Golding, Michael C

2010-01-01

114

Oligonucleotide-mediated gene modification and its promise for animal agriculture.  

PubMed

One of the great aspirations in modern biology is the ability to utilise the expanding knowledge of the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity through the purposeful tailoring of the mammalian genome. A number of technologies are emerging which have the capacity to modify genes in their chromosomal context. Not surprisingly, the major thrust in this area has come from the evaluation of gene therapy applications to correct mutations implicated in human genetic diseases. The recent development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) provides access to these technologies for the purposeful modification of livestock animals. The enormous phenotypic variety existent in contemporary livestock animals has in many cases been linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their underlying point mutations, often referred to as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, the ability for the targeted genetic modification of livestock animals constitutes an attractive opportunity for future agricultural applications. In this review, we will summarize attempts and approaches for oligonucleotide-mediated gene modification (OGM) strategies for the site-specific modification of the genome, with an emphasis on chimeric RNA-DNA oligonucleotides (RDOs) and single-stranded oligonucletides (ssODNs). The potential of this approach for the directed genetic improvement of livestock animals is illustrated through examples, outlining the effects of point mutations on important traits, including meat and milk production, reproductive performance, disease resistance and superior models of human diseases. Current technological hurdles and potential strategies that might remove these barriers in the future are discussed. PMID:16330159

Laible, Götz; Wagner, Stefan; Alderson, Jon

2005-12-05

115

Investigation of the tetracycline, sulfonamide, and fluoroquinolone antimicrobial compounds in animal manure and agricultural soils in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of antimicrobial residuals in the environment is of concern because of the emergence and development of antimicrobial-resistance in pathogen bacteria, and the ecotoxicological behaviour of these compounds. Investigation of antimicrobial pollution in animal manure has special importance since they constitute the major source for the dissemination of these chemicals into the environment. Hence, eight animal manure and nine agricultural

Ak?n Karc?; I??l Akmehmet Balc?o?lu

2009-01-01

116

Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.

Emo, Kenneth Roy

117

Review of the Third Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching  

PubMed Central

The third edition (January 2010) of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching (the Ag Guide) was the collaborative effort of a group of 64 authors and provides a science-based reference and performance-based guidelines for institutions that use agricultural species in research and teaching. The adoption of the Ag Guide by the AAALAC Board of Trustees as a primary standard signifies its importance in the AAALAC accreditation process.

2012-01-01

118

Nitrogen Gaseous Emission from Animal Based Agriculture: Effect of Soil Physical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture has been implicated as an important source of atmospheric nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions. In dairy areas the main source of N is due to the spreading of animal waste on the agricultural land. Fifty to eighty percent of the excreted N from animals occurs in urine with the varying proportion depending on the diet. The main goal of the research was to quantify ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from urine-treated soils and to relate these results to urinary N-transformation processes in soil. We studied effects of soil texture, air filled porosity, and rate of air exchange. Series of laboratory experiments were carried out in aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions in which synthetic urine was mixed with either fine and coarse sand. Ammonia and nitrous oxide were measured at the time intervals of 20 minutes up to 6 hours. The air flow rate ranged from zero to 2000 ml/min. As expected, most ammonia volatilized during the first hours of the experiment and was well correlated with moisture loss by evaporation. Ammonia volatilization and evaporation rates were greater for coarse rather than fine sand. Consequently the total nitrous oxide emission was higher for the fine sand because more ammonium was available for nitrification and subsequent denitrification. Under no air flow conditions, the input of denitrification to total nitrous oxide production was higher in the fine sand than in the coarse sand at the same moisture content. In all experiments, the most nitrous oxide was emitted within two ranges of oxidation-reduction potential: -50-50 with denitrification-dominant conditions and 250-400 mV with nitrification-dominant conditions.

Singurindy, O.; Molodovskaya, M.; Giri, S. K.; Richards, B. K.; Steenhuis, T. S.

2005-12-01

119

Linamarase activities in Bacillus spp. responsible for thermophilic aerobic digestion of agricultural wastes for animal nutrition.  

PubMed

Thermophilic Bacillus spp. isolated from thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) of model agricultural slurry were screened for ability to secret linamarase activity and degrade linamarin, a cyanogenic glycoside toxin abundant in cassava. Screening was performed by both linamarin - picrate assay and by p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucoside (PNPG) degradation, and results of both assays were related. Linamarase positive isolates were identified as Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus stearothermophilus. Enzyme production was growth related and peak production was reached in 48 h in B. coagulans and 36 h in B. stearothermophilus. B. coagulans produced over 40 times greater activity than B. stearothermophilus. Enzyme productivity in shake flask was not strictly related to screening assay result. Crude enzyme of B. coagulans was optimally active at 75 degrees C while that of B. stearothermophilus was optimally active at 80 degrees C and both had optimum activity at pH 8.0. The thermophilic and neutrophilic- to marginally alkaline activity of the crude enzymes could be very useful in the detoxification and reprocessing of cyanogens containing cassava wastes by TAD for use in animal nutrition. PMID:17207614

Ugwuanyi, J Obeta; Harvey, L M; McNeil, B

2007-01-04

120

Husbandry practices and health in smallholder dairy farms near Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study was conducted from November 2001 to April 2002 in the Debre-Zeit area (near Addis Ababa), Ethiopia to assess the husbandry practices and to identify health constraints in 100 market-oriented smallholder dairy farms. A questionnaire survey, farm visit and animal examination were conducted.Thirty-eight percent of the smallholder farms were owned by women. Women-owned farms had more cows (median=3) than

H. M. Mekonnen; K. Asmamaw; J. F. Courreau

2006-01-01

121

Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria  

PubMed Central

Microbial Resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, in part because of inappropriate use of antibiotics in human medicine but also because of practices in the agricultural industry. Intensive animal production involves giving livestock animals large quantities of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent infection. These uses promote the selection of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. The resistant bacteria from agricultural environments may be transmitted to humans, in whom they cause disease that cannot be treated by conventional antibiotics. The author reviews trends in antibiotic use in animal husbandry and agriculture in general. The development of resistance is described, along with the genetic mechanisms that create resistance and facilitate its spread among bacterial species. Particular aspects of resistance in bacterial species common to both the human population and the agrifood industry are emphasized. Control measures that might reverse the current trends are highlighted.

Khachatourians, G G

1998-01-01

122

Phototransformation rates and mechanisms for synthetic hormone growth promoters used in animal agriculture.  

PubMed

Trenbolone acetate, melengestrol acetate, and zeranol are synthetic hormones extensively used as growth promoters in animal agriculture, yet despite occurrence in water and soil little is known about their environmental fate. Here, we establish the time scales and mechanisms by which these synthetic growth promoters and their metabolites (SGPMs) undergo phototransformation in sunlit surface waters. The families of trenbolone acetate (including 17?-trenbolone, 17?-trenbolone, and trendione) and melengestrol acetate (including melengestrol) readily undergo direct photolysis, exhibiting half-lives between ?0.25 and 1 h in both natural and simulated sunlight that were largely insensitive to solution variables (e.g., pH, temperature, and cosolutes). Direct photolysis yielded products that not only are more photostable but also maintain their steroidal ring structure and therefore may retain some biological activity. In contrast, zeranol, ?-zearalanol, and zearalanone only exhibited reactivity in irradiated solutions of model humic and fulvic acids, and rates of indirect photolysis increased steadily from pH 7 to 9. Use of selective probe and quencher compounds suggest hydroxyl radical and triplet state dissolved organic matter are responsible for zeranol family decay at neutral pH, although singlet oxygen contributes modestly in more alkaline waters. This observed pH-dependence appears to result from photooxidants reacting primarily with the monodeprotonated form of zeranol (pK(a) values of 8.44 and 11.42). This investigation provides the first characterization of the fate of this emerging pollutant class in sunlit surface waters and prioritizes future efforts on the identity, fate, and biological impact of their more persistent phototransformation products. PMID:23163486

Qu, Shen; Kolodziej, Edward P; Cwiertny, David M

2012-12-04

123

Animal Models for Porcine Xenotransplantation Products ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... assist devices containing porcine cells/tissues as a ... or proposals; Discuss animal husbandry issues; ... engineered source animals*; Provide definitive ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

124

Guidelines and References: Livestock Training Component (Small Animal Husbandry).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a handout for Pre-Service Trainee, very useful after training has been completed. Contains food, nutrition, reproduction, and disease information on swine, rabbits, poultry and goats. Includes a record keeping/field notebook guide.

1985-01-01

125

North American halophytes: Potential use in animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a North America is rich in halophyte plants with over 200 distinct species occurring in coastal and inland regions. They are\\u000a not a single taxonomic group but represent many different taxa and growth forms. Emphasis has shifted from studying halophyte\\u000a ecology and physiology to a serious attempt to utilize them in farming systems. Promising results have been obtained from\\u000a preliminary studies

E. P. Glenn; J. J. Riley; R. S. Swingle; C. U. Mota; M. C. Watson; V. R. Squires

126

Towards sustainable management of rodents in organic animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production chain from health hazards to livestock and humans. Some organic farmers prefer biological rodent

B. G. Meerburg; M. Bonde; F. W. A. Brom; S. Endepols; A. N. Jensen; H. Leirs; J. Lodal; G. R. Singleton; H.-J. Pelz; T. B. Rodenburg; A. Kijlstra

2005-01-01

127

Towards sustainable management of rodents in organic animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production chain from health hazards to livestock and humans. Some organic farmers prefer biological rodent

B. G. Meerburg; M. Bonde; F. W. A. Brom; S. Endepols; A. N. Jensen; H. Leirs; J. Lodal; G. R. Singleton; H.-J. Pelz; T. B. Rodenburg; A. Kijlstra

2004-01-01

128

Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress (Updated January 17, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes several scientifically emerging animal biotechnologies that are raising a variety of questions concerning risks to humans, animals, and the environment, as well as ethical concerns. The report examines applications of the technologie...

G. S. Becker T. Cowan

2008-01-01

129

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Unsworth, Mrs.

2005-03-31

130

Research, values and ethics in organic agriculture - examples from sustainability, precaution, nature quality and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural systems are characterised by involving both natural and social systems. Organic farming, in particular, has developed as part of a wider organic movement incorporating producers, manufacturers and consumers. The organic movement is based on explicit rules as well as broader formulated principles and goals for farming and manufacturing, which are connected to underlying values and perceptions of the relationship

Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe; Erik Steen Kristensen

2000-01-01

131

NATURAL ZEOLITES - REMEDY FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal and use of animal manures are major concerns of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) worldwide. Concerns are both environmental and economic: environmental because of noxious odors from ammonia volatilization, leaching of nitrates into ground and surface waters, and excessive amount of heavy metals in the manure; economic because of disposal costs, compliance of envi- ronmental regulations, and the

J. Krason; C. F. Knud-Hansen

132

Selected Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in Agricultural Water and Soil from Land Application of Animal Manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary pharmaceuticals are commonly administered to animals for disease control, and added into feeds at subtherapeutic levels to improve feeding effi ciency. As a result of these practices, a certain fraction of the pharmaceuticals are excreted into animal manures. Land application of these manures contaminates soils with the veterinary pharmaceuticals, which can subsequently lead to contamination of surface and groundwaters.

Wenlu Song; Yunjie Ding; Cary T. Chiou; Hui Li

2010-01-01

133

This Little Piggy Went to Press: The American News Media's Construction of Animals in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textual analysis examines the representations of farmed animals in national print and broadcast news discourse in over 100 stories published from 2000 to 2003. Findings show these American news media largely support the speciesist status quo by favoring elite viewpoints and failing to provide balance. Although exceptions are provided, news media often objectify nonhuman animals discursively through: 1) commodification,

Carrie Packwood Freeman

2009-01-01

134

The Utilization of Computer-Generated Animation in Agricultural Power Technology Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

concepts or content that may be abstract, vague, hard to visualize, too fast or slow to see, or hidden from view, hence, they are abstract concepts in the student's mind (Gagné, 1985). The uses of still pictorial representations,specialized learning aids, machinery cutaways, and actual parts have all been integral weapons,in the agricultural power instructor’s arsenal for combating the phenomena of

Kyle W. McGregor

135

Meeting Critical Laboratory Needs for Animal Agriculture: Examination of Three Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In April 2012, the National Research Council convened a committee to provide advice on the requirements and alternatives for ensuring the nation has the necessary foreign animal and zoonotic disease research and diagnostic laboratory capabilities. In less...

2012-01-01

136

Fatal injuries in Finnish agriculture, 1988-2000.  

PubMed

Agriculture is one of the most hazardous industries in Finland. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze fatal farm injuries in Finland in 1988 to 2000. The information regarding farm-related fatalities was collected by the Kuopio Regional Institute of Occupational Health. The material of this study consisted of all fatal injuries that occurred on a farm or away from a farm in the course of agricultural work. A total of 217 farm-related fatalities occurred in Finland between 1988 and 2000. Of these, 120 were tractor-related, and 97 were other fatal farm injuries. Most of the injuries involved middle-aged or older male farmers. The most typical fatalities with tractors were tractor overturns during driving on a road or working in a field. Other fatal farm incidents occurred mainly in construction work, animal husbandry, or forest work. Elderly farmers and children proved to be risk groups for fatal injuries. PMID:14679879

Rissanen, P; Taattola, K

2003-11-01

137

Issues and special features of animal health research  

PubMed Central

In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

2011-01-01

138

Changes in biogas production due to different ratios of some animal and agricultural wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogas production and some biochemical parameters of anaerobic fermentation at 30°C for 40 days were studied for eight experimental groups of fermentation media, as affected by two factors: (1) the type of the animal waste (sheep waste, S and goat waste, G), and (2) the ratio of waste to olive cake which constitutes four levels (100:0 for S1 and

M. R Al-Masri

2001-01-01

139

Improving the sustainability of animal agriculture by treating manure with alum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two of the biggest environmental problems associated with animal manure management are ammonia emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff. Research conducted during the past two decades has shown that a simple topical application of aluminum sulfate (alum) to manure can greatly reduce the magnitude of bot...

140

Alternative Sources of Protein for Animal Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the benefit of livestock and poultry producers, feed manufacturers and scientists and researchers in animal husbandry, this report reviews potential sources of protein and considers ways to increase the quantity and improve the biological value of pro...

1972-01-01

141

Antibiotic Abuse in Animal Agriculture: Exacerbating Drug Resistance in Human Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the antibiotics produced in the U.S. are fed to farm animals routinely as “growth promoters,” and to facilitate “factory farming.” Unfortunately, this places selective pressure on bacteria to develop antibiotic-resistance. Genes that neutralize antibiotics wind up protecting disease-causing germs. We have seen a tremendous increase in antibiotic-resistance in common food poisoning bacteria like Salmonella, but the problem is

Emanuel Goldman

2004-01-01

142

Principles of Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT): Providing Optimal Veterinary and Husbandry Care to Irradiated Mice in BMT Studies  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the treatment of choice for many leukemias, solid tumors, and metabolic diseases. The field of bone marrow research is highly dependent on in vivo experimentation, because in vitro techniques do not mimic these complicated in vivo systems. Therefore, understanding the medical and husbandry care needs of these transiently immunodeficient bone marrow recipient animals is crucial for researchers, veterinary and animal care personnel. Here we discuss the principles of bone marrow transplantation, mouse pathogens that can interfere with transplantation research, and important husbandry and veterinary practices for mice that may help to minimize unnecessary infections during the transplantation process. Whole-body irradiation is one of the most common tools for myeloablation of the recipient's bone marrow. We discuss the crucial role of the irradiator for BMT research and the importance of aseptic husbandry practices to lessen the possibility of the irradiator for being a source for disease transmission. Finally, we discuss some important guidelines for Institutional Animal Use and Care Committees reviewing irradiation and BMT protocols.

Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Dysko, Robert C

2009-01-01

143

Principles of bone marrow transplantation (BMT): providing optimal veterinary and husbandry care to irradiated mice in BMT studies.  

PubMed

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the treatment of choice for many leukemias, solid tumors, and metabolic diseases. The field of bone marrow research is highly dependent on in vivo experimentation, because in vitro techniques do not mimic these complicated in vivo systems. Therefore, understanding the medical and husbandry care needs of these transiently immunodeficient bone marrow recipient animals is crucial for researchers, veterinary and animal care personnel. Here we discuss the principles of bone marrow transplantation, mouse pathogens that can interfere with transplantation research, and important husbandry and veterinary practices for mice that may help to minimize unnecessary infections during the transplantation process. Whole-body irradiation is one of the most common tools for myeloablation of the recipient's bone marrow. We discuss the crucial role of the irradiator for BMT research and the importance of aseptic husbandry practices to lessen the possibility of the irradiator for being a source for disease transmission. Finally, we discuss some important guidelines for Institutional Animal Use and Care Committees reviewing irradiation and BMT protocols. PMID:19245745

Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Dysko, Robert C

2009-01-01

144

Agricultural Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

145

The assessment and implementation of animal welfare: theory into practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper reviews the procedures and protocols necessary for the development of a practical programme for the assessment and implementation of animal welfare on farms and in other commercial situations. An effective programme must incorporate measures of both husbandry and welfare. Most current systems are based almost entirely on measures of husbandry provision, e.g. resources and management. However, what

J. Webster

146

Effects of Training on Stress-Related Behavior of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in Relation to Coping With Routine Husbandry Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using positive reinforcement, J. McKinley trained 12 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to provide urine samples on request. The study then exposed the marmosets to mildly stressful, routine husbandry procedures (i.e., capture and weighing). The nonhuman animals spent less time inactive poststressor as opposed to prestressor. L. Bassett collected matched behavioral data from 12 nontrained marmosets who were less accustomed to

Lois Bassett; Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith; Jean McKinley; Tessa Smith

2003-01-01

147

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Right from its inception, a main strength of Flash has been its animation capabilities. Despite the arrival of ActionScript\\u000a programming shifting the focus somewhat, animation (or tweening in Flash authoring terms) is still considered a core feature of Flash. As yet, we have no timeline functionality for animating\\u000a 3D objects aside from some limited 2.5 effects (the “postcards in space”

Rob Bateman; Richard Olsson

148

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

149

Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins) often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced). It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high) directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct costs for the farming sector.

2011-01-01

150

Several problems on a rational structure for agricultural production and the agro-ecology of the Tai region of Tiangsu province  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a method of determining whether the output value structure, the soil structure, and the labor force structure are relatively balanced in an agricultural region of a Chinese province. Topics covered include several rational agricultural production structures for different types of soil, and several problems in setting up a rational agricultural production structure. A rational agricultural production structure is a consequence of the integrated development of farming, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline occupations, fisheries, and industry. The Tai Region has nine distinct types of soil. It is indicated that the level of grain production directly bears on the size and speed of development of economic diversification. Tables are presented on the output value structure of several representative communes and brigades, and soil nutrient content.

Ma Xiangyong

1983-08-01

151

Experimental and husbandry procedures as potential modifiers of the results of phenotyping tests.  

PubMed

To maximize the sensitivity of detecting affects of genetic variants in mice, variables have been minimized through the use of inbred mouse lines, by eliminating infectious organisms and controlling environmental variables. However, the impact of standard animal husbandry and experimental procedures on the validity of experimental data is under appreciated. In this study we monitored the impact of these procedures by using parameters that reflect stress and physiological responses to it. Short-term measures included telemetered heart rate and systolic arterial pressure, core body temperature and blood glucose, while longer-term parameters were assessed such as body weight. Male and female C57BL6/NTac mice were subjected to a range of stressors with different perceived severities ranging from repeated blood glucose and core temperature measurement procedures, intra-peritoneal injection and overnight fasting to cage transport and cage changing.Our studies reveal that common husbandry and experimental procedures significantly influence mouse physiology and behaviour. Systolic arterial pressure, heart rate, locomotor activity, core temperature and blood glucose were elevated in response to a range of experimental procedures. Differences between sexes were evident, female mice displayed more sustained cardiovascular responses and locomotor activity than male mice. These results have important implications for the design and implementation of multiple component experiments where the lasting effects of stress from previous tests may modify the outcomes of subsequent ones. PMID:22713295

Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Igosheva, Natalia; Roberson, Laura-Anne; Ismail, Ozama; Karp, Natasha; Sanderson, Mark; Cambridge, Emma; Shannon, Carl; Sunter, David; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Bussell, James; White, Jacqueline K

2012-07-16

152

Experimental and husbandry procedures as potential modifiers of the results of phenotyping tests  

PubMed Central

To maximize the sensitivity of detecting affects of genetic variants in mice, variables have been minimized through the use of inbred mouse lines, by eliminating infectious organisms and controlling environmental variables. However, the impact of standard animal husbandry and experimental procedures on the validity of experimental data is under appreciated. In this study we monitored the impact of these procedures by using parameters that reflect stress and physiological responses to it. Short-term measures included telemetered heart rate and systolic arterial pressure, core body temperature and blood glucose, while longer-term parameters were assessed such as body weight. Male and female C57BL6/NTac mice were subjected to a range of stressors with different perceived severities ranging from repeated blood glucose and core temperature measurement procedures, intra-peritoneal injection and overnight fasting to cage transport and cage changing. Our studies reveal that common husbandry and experimental procedures significantly influence mouse physiology and behaviour. Systolic arterial pressure, heart rate, locomotor activity, core temperature and blood glucose were elevated in response to a range of experimental procedures. Differences between sexes were evident, female mice displayed more sustained cardiovascular responses and locomotor activity than male mice. These results have important implications for the design and implementation of multiple component experiments where the lasting effects of stress from previous tests may modify the outcomes of subsequent ones.

Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Igosheva, Natalia; Roberson, Laura-Anne; Ismail, Ozama; Karp, Natasha; Sanderson, Mark; Cambridge, Emma; Shannon, Carl; Sunter, David; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Bussell, James; White, Jacqueline K.

2012-01-01

153

Science of Agricultural Animals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

Murdock, Ashleigh Barbee, Ed.

2010-01-01

154

Audiotutorial Teaching of Laboratory Animal Medicine and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This audiotutorial course consists of 35 minicourses including biology, husbandry, and diseases of the common laboratory animals. Each minicourse includes an audiocassette tape recording and visual and written materials. The course is available for distribution. (Author/LBH)|

Clark, J. D.; And Others

1976-01-01

155

Pet husbandry and infection control practices related to zoonotic disease risks in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Despite this concern, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet husbandry and infection control practices. The objective of this study was to characterize zoonotic disease related-husbandry and infection preventive practices in pet-owning households in Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. One adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Four hundred one pet-owners completed the questionnaire. Households reported ownership of dogs (68%), cats (48%), fish (13%), exotic mammals (7%), such as hamsters, and reptiles and birds (each 6%). Across all species, individuals at higher risk of infections (i.e. < 5yrs, ? 65yrs, immunocompromised) were often (46-57%) present in households. Children < 16 yrs of age had close pet contact, as households reported dogs (13%) and cats (30%) usually slept in a child’s bed and dogs often licked a child’s face (24%). Household husbandry practices that increase zoonotic disease risk were frequently identified; some fed high-risk foods (i.e. raw eggs, raw meat, or raw animal product treats) to their dogs (28%) or cats (3%); 14% of reptile-owning households allowed the pet to roam through the kitchen or washed it in the kitchen sink. Reported hand washing by children was high for all species (> 76% washed hands sometimes or greater after touching the pet, its feces, or housing), although fewer reported children always washed their hands (3-57%; by species). With a few exceptions, practices were not associated with the presence of higher risk members in the household or recall of having previously received zoonotic disease education. Conclusions The results suggest there is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households with individuals at higher risk of infection and those with high-risk species (e.g., reptiles). Further research is needed to determine the role of education in altering higher risk pet practices.

2013-01-01

156

Recycling Biosolids and Lake-Dredged Materials to Pasture-based Animal Agriculture: Alternative Nutrient Sources for Forage Productivity and Sustainability: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer\\u000a costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling\\u000a and influencing the quantity, quality and characteristics of these materials in such a way that negative impacts to the environment\\u000a are avoided and beneficial uses are

Gilbert C. Sigua

157

Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer\\u000a costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling\\u000a and influencing the quantity, quality and characteristics of these materials in such a way that negative impacts to the environment\\u000a are avoided and beneficial uses are

Gilbert C. Sigua

2009-01-01

158

Livestock agroterrorism: the deliberate introduction of a highly infectious animal pathogen.  

PubMed

Agroterrorism refers to attacks with any of a variety of biological or chemical agents against commercial crops or livestock populations, either as targets in their own right or as vehicles to attack humans. An agroterrorism incident would generally involve bioterrorism, and potential agents include pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi. Within the context of agroterrorism, livestock agroterrorism is described as the intentional introduction of an animal-borne infectious disease with the goal of spreading fear, producing economic losses, and/or threatening social stability. Causing human illness or human casualties is another potential goal of livestock agroterrorism. Livestock agroterrorism is considered to be attractive to terrorists because biological agents that affect livestock or poultry are more readily available and more difficult to monitor than are agents that infect humans. In addition, a terrorist attack on animal husbandry may have huge economic consequences with no human casualties. Therefore, a biological attack that targets the animal husbandry sector should be regarded as both a "high-consequence" event and a grave national security risk. This review addresses the use of biological weapons that may be used to target livestock or poultry rather than agricultural inputs or equipment. It first defines livestock agroterrorism. Then, the common priority disease agents that may be used to target livestock or poultry in an agroterrorist attack and that are attractive to terrorists are outlined. PMID:23035724

Yeh, Jung-Yong; Seo, Hyun-Ji; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, Yun Sang; Cho, In-Soo; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Jeong-Min; Choi, In-Soo

2012-10-01

159

THE APPLICATION OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND THE HUMANE CARE OF FARM ANIMALS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Humane care is best defined as maintaining husbandry procedures in keeping with the traits which are species-specific to the animal farmed. It must be evaluated in relation to the ethogram of the species, and not to anthropomorphic human feelings about animal care. If humane care is pursued, some compatability may be found between what the animal behavior scien- tists

R. Kilgour

2010-01-01

160

Agricultural Biodiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

Postance, Jim

1998-01-01

161

[Gas and particle emissions from housing in animal production].  

PubMed

Animal agriculture is increasingly regarded as a source of pollutants such as gases, odours and particulates which may be both aggravating and ecologically harmful. An overview of the origin, number and quantity of pollutants emitted from animal housing and from manure stores is presented and possible means of preventing or reducing them are discussed. Of the 136 trace gases in the air of animal houses ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) present the greatest risk to the environment. The gases and particulates are emitted principally from freshly deposited and stored excreta, from animal feed, from litter and from the animals themselves. Total NH3 emissions from animal production in Germany are estimated as approximately 750,000 t/a. It is calculated that the average of which is higher than the average "critical loads" for most natural habitats. However, there is still a shortage of satisfactory information on the extent of emissions, in particular on those from naturally ventilated animal houses. NH3 has a direct effect on the trees in the vicinity of animal houses and is also transported long distances through the air contributing to eutrophication and acidification of water and soil. This frequently results in changes in plant ecology, hence reducing plant diversity. CH4 and N2O contribute to the "greenhouse effect". Emissions of CH4 from animal husbandry in Germany are estimated at about 1.5 Mt/a. This corresponds to 0.2% of the assumed global emission from all sources. There is still little knowledge about the quantities of N2O released from agricultural animals. The concentration of airborne microorganisms in livestock housing is between some 100 and several 1000 per liter of air.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8591757

Hartung, J

1995-07-01

162

New Technological Era for American Agriculture. Volume 2. OTA Commissioned Background Papers. Part A. (1st Section). Emerging Animal Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These background papers were prepared for the assessment 'A New Technological Era for American Agriculture: Issues and Choices for the 1990s.' The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of OTA. Papers in Volume II Part A (1st...

1992-01-01

163

Effects of Computer-Animated Instruction Upon Low-Level Cognition of Undergraduates in an Agricultural Power Technology Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of visual elaboration has been a key component of the educational process for instructors of agricultural power technology. Traditionally, still illustration and representatives of real equipment (realia) have been utilized to teach the hidden theoretical concepts that comprise the most basic operational processes of the internal combustion engine and its accompanying systems. Exponential technology advancement has allowed the

Kyle W. McGregor; Steve Fraze; Matt Baker; David Drueckhammer; David Lawver

164

New Technological Era for American Agriculture. Volume 2. OTA Commissioned Background Papers. Part A. (2nd Section). Emerging Animal Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These background papers were prepared for the assessment 'A New Technological Era for American Agriculture: Issues and Choices for the 1990s.' The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of OTA. Papers in Volume II Part A (2nd...

1992-01-01

165

Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication  

PubMed Central

Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5%) of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7) of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR) = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6) and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2) showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9) and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6). Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and information on its occurrence, human brucellosis is most likely misdiagnosed for other febrile diseases prevailing in the areas and treated empirically. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that bovine brucellosis is widely prevalent in the study areas particularly in pastoral production system. Hence, the study suggests the need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on prevention methods of brucellosis.

2011-01-01

166

[West Nile virus infection of agricultural animals in the Astrakhan region, as evidenced by the 2001-2004 serological surveys].  

PubMed

Sera sampled from 2,884 farming animals in the Astrakhan region in 2001 to 2004 were investigated by the hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT) in order to indicate specific antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV). HIT-positive samples were investigated by the neutralization test (NT). WNV antibodies were detected in all the examined species of animals: horses (the proportion of positive tests throughout the observation averaged 9.8%; the agreement with NT results was 94.1%), cattle (6,4 and 72.%), camels (5.2 and 41.7%), pigs (3.1 and 75%), and sheep (2.2 and 57.1). Relationships between the environmental features of WNV in different natural zones, the infection rate, and the conditions of keeping farming animals in the Astrakhan region are analyzed. PMID:16408630

Vasil'ev, A V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Dzharkenov, A F; Aristova, V A; Galkina, I V; L'vov, D N; Morozova, T N; Kovtunov, A I; Grenkova, E P; Zhernovo?, A V; Shatilova, V P; Slavski?, A A; Petrenko, M S; Chirkizov, P F; Dybal', V D; Leont'ev, E A; Gabbasov, F B; Odolevski?, E A; Ibragimov, R M; Idrisova, R Z; Sokolova, N N; Artiukh, N P; Andreeva, N I; Bondarev, A D; Deriabin, P G; Gromashevski?, V L; Nepoklonov, E A; Aliper, T I; L'vov, D K

167

Selected Topics in Laboratory Animal Medicine. Volume XVIII. The Squirrel Monkey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of the husbandry, diseases, and uses of the squirrel monkey in biomedical research is presented. The fifty-seven references provide source information for this species of laboratory animal. (Author)

J. L. Kupper W. E. Britz

1972-01-01

168

An Overview of the Design, Construction, and Operational Management of the US Department of Agriculture National Centers for Animal Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

World-wide interest and demand for high containment, biosecure facilities for veterinary medicine and animal health research is increasing. This demand has been spurred on in part by the recent emergence of potential zoonotic pathogens such as Avian Influenza, West Nile Virus, and Tuberculosis, amo...

169

Predatory Potential of Freshwater Animals on an Invasive Agricultural Pest, the Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae), in Southern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is an invasive species and a serious pest of rice in many Asian countries. We studied predatory activities of various animals living in Japanese freshwater habitats, by keeping each individual of a potential predator species with 36 snails of various sizes for three days in the aquarium. Forty-six species were tested, and 26 in eight

Yoichi Yusa; Naoyuki Sugiura; Takashi Wada

2006-01-01

170

9 CFR 3.108 - Employees or attendants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.108 Employees...limited to, species appropriate husbandry techniques, animal handling techniques,...

2013-01-01

171

9 CFR 3.108 - Employees or attendants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.108 Employees...limited to, species appropriate husbandry techniques, animal handling techniques,...

2009-01-01

172

Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

173

Animals, Animals, Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

Laz, Mrs.

2006-12-16

174

Cinema: The Animals that Therefore We Are (On Temple Grandin’s Thinking, in Pictures)  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the animal scientist Temple Grandin, the success of her work in animal husbandry which has resulted in ameliorating the conditions many farm animals endure stems from the fact that she thinks like an animal, that is, she thinks in images. This is not her human way of thinking about images, but a way of thinking in pictures, a

John Mullarkey

2011-01-01

175

[Blood amoxicillin concentrations in agricultural animals and poultry treated intramuscularly with drug forms containing amoxicillin sodium and amoxicillin trihydrate].  

PubMed

The sodium salts of ampicillin and amoxicillin at the single i/m application in 20 per cent water solutions at the rate of 10 mg per kg of body mass guaranteed close therapeutic concentrations of both antibiotics in the blood serum of birds and rabbits. Amoxicillin-trihydrate in a 20% water suspension applied i/m in a single dose of 10 mg/kg persisted in a therapeutic concentrations in the blood serum of birds for a longer time (10 hours) than ampicillin-trihydrate (8 hours). The oil suspension containing 20% amoxicillin-trihydrate guaranteed bacteriostatic serum concentrations in the course of 24 to 48 hours at single i/m application in doses of 20 and 30 mg/kg, depending on the amount and the species of animal. The optimal doses for calves and sheep were 20 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg injected at intervals of 24, resp., 48 hours, and for pigs and birds it were 30 mg/kg at 24-hour intervals. The choice of one or another dose depended on the sensitivity of the disease agents. PMID:6666035

Lashev, L; Drumev, D

1983-01-01

176

Water and Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Irrigated agriculture is a vital component of total agriculture that supplies many of the fruits, vegetables, and cereal foods,\\u000a the grains fed to animals used as human food, and the feed to sustain work animals in many parts of the world. Consequently,\\u000a agriculture is the largest user of fresh water globally, and irrigation practices sometimes are biologically, economically,\\u000a and socially

Iván Francisco García-Tejero; Víctor Hugo Durán-Zuazo; José Luis Muriel-Fernández; Carmen Rocío Rodríguez-Pleguezuelo

177

The Therapeutic Use of Animals with the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Green Chimneys, a residential center for emotionally disturbed and learning disabled children in New York, uses farm animals in the treatment program. Children learn horseback riding, animal husbandry, gardening, and farming on a working farm. The program seeks to involve the community and provide training to volunteers, interns, and learning…

Ross, Samuel B., Jr.

178

Intriguing links between animal behavior and anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this review is to examine the literature on possible animal models for anorexia nervosa. Method: The literature was searched using MedLine, PSYCHLIT, and CAB Abstracts using search items that included body composition, thin sow syndrome, and halo- thane gene. In addition, key workers in the field of animal husbandry and body composition were sent earlier drafts

Janet L. Treasure; John B. Owen

1997-01-01

179

Animal-Drawn Agricultural Implements, Hand-Operated Machines and Simple Power Equipment in the Least Developed and Other Developing Countries; Report of a Manufacturing Development Clinic Held at New Delhi, India on 21-30 October 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Manufacturing Development Clinic on Animal-Drawn Agricultural Implements, Hand-Operated Machines and Simple Power Equipment in the Least Developed and Other Developing Countries was held at New Delhi from 21 to 30 October 1974. The Clinic was organize...

1974-01-01

180

Definition of yearly emission factor of dust and greenhouse gases through continuous measurements in swine husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of this study was to develop an accurate estimation method to evaluate the contribution of the various compartments of swine husbandry to dust and GHG (greenhouse gases, CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O) emission into the atmosphere during one year of observation. A weaning, a gestation, a farrowing and a fattening room in an intensive pig house were observed in three different periods (Autumn-Winter, Springtime and Summer, monitoring at least 60% of each period (20% at the beginning, in the middle and at the end) of each cycle). During monitoring, live weight, average live weight gain, number of animals and its variation, type of feed and feeding time were taken into account to evaluate their influence on PM 10, or the fraction of suspended particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 ?m [Emission Inventory Guidebook, 2007. B1100 Particle Emissions from Animal Husbandry Activities. Available from: (accessed October 2008)] and to define GHG emission. The selected piggery had a ventilation control system using a free running impeller to monitor continuously real-time environmental and management parameters with an accuracy of 5%. PM 10 concentration was monitored by a sampler (Haz Dust EPAM 5000), either continuously or through traditional gravimetric technique, and the mean value of dust amount collected on the membranes was utilized as a correction factor to be applied to continuously collected data. PM 10 concentration amount incoming from inlets was removed from PM 10 emission calculation, to estimate the real contribution of pig house dust pollution into atmosphere. Mean yearly emission factor of PM 10 was measured in 2 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.09 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 2.59 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 1.23 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. The highest PM 10 concentration and emission per LU was recorded in the fattening compartment while the lowest value was recorded in the farrowing room. CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O concentrations were continuously measured in the exhaust ducts using an infrared photoacoustic detector IPD (Brüel & Kjaer, Multi-gas Monitor Type 1302, Multipoint Sampler and Doser Type 1303) sampling data every 15 min, for the 60% of the cycles. Yearly emission factor for CO 2 was measured in 5997 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 1278 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 13,636 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 8851 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. Yearly emission factor for CH 4 was measured in 24.57 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 4.68 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 189.82 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 132.12 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. Yearly emission factor for N 2O was measured in 3.62 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.66 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 3.26 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 2.72 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room.

Costa, Annamaria; Guarino, Marcella

181

Distribution of Ergosterol in Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Agricultural Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergosterol is generally assumed to be one of the best indicators of fungal biomass and soil quality. The present case studies describe variations in ergosterol content in soil, sampled at three Danish farms. One is organically cultivated according to the biodynamical principles (ORG). The other two are conventionally cultivated, one with animal husbandry (CONV-H) and one with plant production (CONV-P).

Ulla Birgitte Jensen; Susanne Elmholt; Rodrigo Labouriau

2000-01-01

182

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following: (4) Tuberculin (TB) tests must be negative for...suspected of harboring the TB organism, or that is diagnosed with TB will be isolated and treated...permitted for reasons of health or quality of life of the individual...

2010-10-01

183

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following: (4) Tuberculin (TB) tests must be negative for...suspected of harboring the TB organism, or that is diagnosed with TB will be isolated and treated...permitted for reasons of health or quality of life of the individual...

2009-10-01

184

Veterinary medicine and animal husbandry in Mexico: From empiricism to science and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion Foot-and-mouth disease was the event which led to the increased and improved training of veterinarians able to produce through their research new veterinary knowledge for practical application.

Larissa Adler Lomnitz; Leticia Mayer

1994-01-01

185

Chemtrails And Vaccines What You Didn't Know About Vaccines And Human Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-17-5 In 1946, future pharmaceutical czar George Merck reported to the US Secretary of War, that he'd managed to weaponise the toxin extracted from the Brucella bacterium and to isolate it into an indestructible crystalline form using only the DNA particles. Aerial spraying of the crystals via chemtrails was deployed on Chinese and Korean populations during the Korean War. Many

Mark Owen

186

[Genetic variability of growth in sheep grown at the animal husbandry research center of Dahra].  

PubMed

Data on growth performances of 778 Peulpeul and Touabire sheep were collected over five years (1983-1987) in APRC of Dahra. Studied parameters were: birth weight (BBW), one month weight (MBW), weaning weight (WBW) yearling weight (YBW) and growth rate between adjacent stages of growth. BBW, MBW, WBW and YBW are: 3.6 +/- 0.6 kg, 9.5 +/- 1.8 kg; 17.5 +/- 3.5 kg; 30.6 +/- 4.3 kg. Growth rates were 197.0 +/- 51.2 g between birth and one month (MGR), 87.2 +/- 28.1 g, between one month and weaning (WGR) and 50.8 +/- 15.3 g, between weaning and yearling (YGR). Year and season of birth, dam parity, prolificity, sex and race had significant effect on most of the parameters studied. The heritability estimates were 0.50 +/- 0.14 (BBW), 0.52 +/- 0.15 (MBW), 0.71 +/- 0.18 (WBW), 0.44 +/- 0.13 (MGR) and 0.60 +/- 0.16 (WGR). High and positive correlations existed between BBW and the other growth components. PMID:7882848

Missohou, A; Sow, R; Nahar, M T; Gongnet, P

1993-01-01

187

HIGH-THROUGHPUT PHYLOGENOMICS: FROM ANCIENT DNA TO SIGNATURES OF HUMAN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We utilized the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip with 54,693 single nucleotide polymorphism loci developed for Bos taurus taurus to rapidly genotype 677 individuals representing 61 Pecoran (horned ruminant) species diverged by up to 29 million years. We produced a completely bifurcating tree, the first...

188

Greenhouse gas reduction and improved sustainability of animal husbandry using amino acids in swine, poultry feeds.  

PubMed

In Annex 1 countries, nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from swine and poultry excreta have been calculated and the N2 O reduction potential of each country by using amino acids in feed could also be calculated, then a comparison made among the countries. The N2 O reduction rates were approximately 25% for these Annex 1 countries and amino acids were able to make a large contribution to that reduction. Greenhouse gases (GHG) which are N2 O combined with methane (CH4 ) were estimated to reduce by 24.8% in Japan when amino acids were introduced into the feed, but only a 7.2% reduction was estimated in France. Purification, which is mainly used for manure treatment in Japan, emits much more N2 O and less CH4 , whereas the liquid system which is mainly used in France emits more CH4 and less N2 O based on the emission factors from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change data base. Changing the French manure treatment system to the Japanese style with amino acids in feed would reduce GHG emissions by 23.4%. Reduction of the arable land use in Japan by changing crop formulations supported by adding amino acids to feed was also quantified as about 10% and led to an increase in the production of meat using the same arable land area. PMID:23607750

Tsujimoto, Susumu; Takagi, Tomo; Osada, Takashi; Ogino, Akifumi

2013-01-09

189

Transforming information into applied knowledge in smallholder pig husbandry in Son La province - what are the challenges ahead?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As increasing land pressure hampers crop production in the mountainous regions of Northern Vietnam and off-farm income opportunities are limited, the importance of pig husbandry is further increasing. The Vietnamese vertical and linear model of research, education and extension has contributed tremendously to pig husbandry development since its foundation in 1993. The current transition to a more pluralistic approach with

Iven Schad; Andreas Neef; Volker Hoffmann

190

75 FR 47769 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2010-08-09

191

75 FR 24569 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2010-05-05

192

75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2010-06-14

193

Quantification of reductions in ammonia emissions from fertiliser urea and animal urine in grazed pastures with urease inhibitors for agriculture inventory: New Zealand as a case study.  

PubMed

Urea is the key nitrogen (N) fertiliser for grazed pastures, and is also present in excreted animal urine. In soil, urea hydrolyses rapidly to ammonium (NH4(+)) and may be lost as ammonia (NH3) gas. Unlike nitrous oxide (N2O), however, NH3 is not a greenhouse gas although it can act as a secondary source of N2O, and hence contribute indirectly to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Various urease inhibitors (UIs) have been used over the last 30years to reduce NH3 losses. Among these, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT), sold under the trade name Agrotain®, is currently the most promising and effective when applied with urea or urine. Here we conduct a critical analysis of the published and non-published data on the effectiveness of nBTPT in reducing NH3 emission, from which adjusted values for FracGASF (fraction of total N fertiliser emitted as NH3) and FracGASM (fraction of total N from, animal manure and urine emitted as NH3) for the national agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory are recommended in order to provide accurate data for the inventory. We use New Zealand as a case study to assess and quantify the overall reduction in NH3 emission from urea and animal urine with the application of UI nBTPT. The available literature indicates that an application rate of 0.025% w/w (nBTPT per unit of N) is optimum for reducing NH3 emissions from temperate grasslands. UI-treated urine studies gave highly variable reductions (11-93%) with an average of 53% and a 95% confidence interval of 33-73%. New Zealand studies, using UI-treated urea, suggest that nBTPT (0.025% w/w) reduces NH3 emissions by 44.7%, on average, with a confidence interval of 39-50%. On this basis, a New Zealand specific value of 0.055 for FracGASF FNUI (fraction of urease inhibitor treated total fertiliser N emitted as NH3) is recommended for adoption where urea containing UI are applied as nBTPT at a rate of 0.025% w/w. Only a limited number of published data sets are available on the effectiveness of UI for reducing NH3 losses from animal urine-N deposited during grazing in a grazed pasture system. The same can be said about mixing UI with urine, rather than spraying UI before or after urine application. Since it was not possible to accurately measure the efficacy of UI in reducing NH3 emissions from animal urine-N deposited during grazing, we currently cannot recommend the adoption of a FracGASM value adjusted for the inclusion of UI. PMID:22959073

Saggar, Surinder; Singh, J; Giltrap, D L; Zaman, M; Luo, J; Rollo, M; Kim, D-G; Rys, G; der Weerden, T J van

2012-09-07

194

Agriculture in Gloria Land.  

PubMed

A farming system has been developed on the Gloria Land farm at the Sri Aurobindo Ashram that uses purely organic materials and achieves yields comparable with or better than those on conventional farms under similar agroclimatic conditions. The stimulus for the conversion to organic farming came from observations of the toxicity of chemical pesticides and their apparent ineffectiveness in reducing the impact of pests and diseases. On the Gloria Land farm, a carefully integrated mixture of activities includes crop growing, animal husbandry, fish rearing and sericulture. Sufficient organic waste is produced to fulfill at the needs of the farm's crops. Energy is partially supplied by biogas produced on the farm. This system is economically viable and ecologically sustainable. PMID:8149819

Pal, M

1993-01-01

195

Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption

N. Maynard; B. Yurchak; Y. Sleptsov; J. M. Turi

2004-01-01

196

Agricultural Research Service  

MedlinePLUS

... Island Guarding the country against foreign animal diseases USDA's science magazine View online version of Agricultural Research ... 3D Fighting pecan scab Nickel and phosphate New USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map ARS Timeline: History of ...

197

Basic biogenic aerosol precursors: Agricultural source attribution of volatile amines revised  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite recent evidence on an important role of volatile amines in the nucleation of particulate matter, very scarce information is available on their atmospheric abundance and source distribution. Previous measurements in animal housings had identified livestock husbandry as the main amine source, with trimethylamine (TMA) being the key component. This has led to the assumption that the agricultural sources for amines are similar as for ammonia, emitted throughout the cascade of animal excretion, storage and application in the field. In this study, we present the first micrometeorological flux measurements as well as dynamic enclosure experiments showing that the amine source strength from stored slurry is negligible, implying significant consequences for the global amine emission inventory. In the case of cattle, amine production is attributed to the animal's rumination activity and exhalation is suggested to be an important emission pathway, similar to the greenhouse gas methane. Fodder like hay and silage also emits volatile amines, potentially assigning these alkaloid compounds a key function in enhancing particle formation in remote areas.

Kuhn, U.; Sintermann, J.; Spirig, C.; Jocher, M.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

2011-08-01

198

Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

199

The husbandry of zebrafish ( Danio rerio): A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a pre-eminent vertebrate biomedical research model. The same favorable characteristics that have contributed to its popularity as a model of human disease and development; i.e. high fecundity, small size, rapid generation time, optical transparency during early embryogenesis, have also long endeared it to investigators in numerous other disciplines, including animal behavior, fish

Christian Lawrence

2007-01-01

200

Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of concepts of sustainable agriculture and possible methods of attaining sustainability of agricultural yields and production. Reasons are given as to why modern industrialised agriculture might be less sustainable in terms of yields than traditional agriculture. The question of whether organic agriculture is likely to be more sustainable than non-organic agriculture is considered as well

Clement A. Tisdell

2005-01-01

201

[The influence of the socio-economic structure of the breeding farms of Franches-Montagnes horses on the conditions of husbandry].  

PubMed

The socio-economic structure of the breeding farms of Franches-Montagnes horses (FM) in Switzerland is evaluated on the basis of an investigation carried out in 2002 by the Swiss FM breeding federation. Questionnaires were sent to 3500 of its members and the results include data from 968 breeding enterprises, housing a total of 3965 FM. The quality of the husbandry of FM varies according to factors such as the altitude and the geographical situation of the farms and studs. Socio-economic parameters, such as the role of FM in the business, their use (breeding, driving, riding) and the age and level of professional education of the owners may also have an effect on standards of husbandry. The results show that the owners for whom FM represent a source of income more frequently keep their horses in standing stalls, but give them more time to exercise at liberty than the horses belonging to amateur breeders. Younger and better educated breeders are more likely to house their animals in groups. PMID:16703759

Poncet, P A; Ionita, J C; Doherr, M G; Steiger, A

2006-04-01

202

Heavy metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in soil and water bodies impacted by agriculture and aquaculture.  

PubMed

The use of antibiotic agents as growth promoters was banned in animal husbandry to prevent the selection and spread of antibiotic resistance. However, in addition to antibiotic agents, heavy metals used in animal farming and aquaculture might promote the spread of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. To investigate which heavy metals are likely to co-select for antibiotic resistance in soil and water, the available data on heavy metal pollution, heavy metal toxicity, heavy metal tolerance, and co-selection mechanisms was reviewed. Additionally, the risk of metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in the environment was assessed based on heavy metal concentrations that potentially induce this co-selection process. Analyses of the data indicate that agricultural and aquacultural practices represent major sources of soil and water contamination with moderately to highly toxic metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). If those metals reach the environment and accumulate to critical concentrations they can trigger co-selection of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, co-selection mechanisms for these heavy metals and clinically as well as veterinary relevant antibiotics have been described. Therefore, studies investigating co-selection in environments impacted by agriculture and aquaculture should focus on Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn as selecting heavy metals. Nevertheless, the respective environmental background has to be taken into account. PMID:23248620

Seiler, Claudia; Berendonk, Thomas U

2012-12-14

203

Developing a systematic strategy incorporating ethical, animal welfare and practical principles to guide the genetic improvement of dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

People have complex and diverse relationships and interactions with, and expectations of, animals; relationships which are very important. In making sense of this complexity, we draw on our values. The objective of this study was to reflect upon, develop and articulate key values guiding the genetic improvement of dairy cattle.Animal husbandry is guided by the philosophy that while animals serve

MW Fisher; DJ Mellor

2008-01-01

204

The productivity of small animal species in small-scale mixed farming systems in subtropical Bolivia.  

PubMed

The productivity of the scavenging, small animal species (chickens, ducks, pigs, hair sheep and guinea-pigs) commonly found on small-scale farms at the forest margin in subtropical Bolivia was monitored over a full year. Chickens and guinea-pigs were kept mainly for home consumption, while ducks and pigs were kept mainly for sale. Sheep served both purposes, depending upon the family requirements. In the absence of veterinary treatment, the productivity varied greatly between farms. Pigs gave the greatest gross return, but received the largest amount of supplementary feed. Under the existing system, chickens, ducks and sheep all gave similar gross returns per breeding female, although chickens produced good returns and made a large contribution to the family diet where the reproductive efficiency was high and the chick mortality was low. Mortality resulting from disease was a major problem in poultry, while internal parasites appeared to be important limiting factors in pigs and sheep. Guinea-pigs showed no major problems apart from theft, and were an important dietary component for immigrant families from the highlands of the country. Small animal species have largely been ignored by agricultural research and development activities in Bolivia and elsewhere. They currently make significant contributions to the livelihoods of poor people in terms of both income and food security, and this could be greatly increased by simple improvements in animal husbandry. PMID:11234187

Paterson, R T; Joaquín, N; Chamón, K; Palomino, E

2001-02-01

205

Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Transformation in a Reindeer Husbandry Area in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Östlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

2012-02-01

206

Forest fragmentation and landscape transformation in a reindeer husbandry area in Sweden.  

PubMed

Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry. PMID:22102063

Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Ostlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

2011-11-19

207

Current husbandry of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in zoos.  

PubMed

The endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is held in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how red pandas are kept and managed in captivity and to compare it with the management guidelines. Sixty-nine zoos, mainly from Europe but also from North America and Australia/New Zealand, responded to our survey. The results revealed that in general zoos follow the management guidelines for most of the investigated issues. The average enclosure is almost four times larger than the minimum size recommended by the management guidelines, although seven zoos have smaller enclosures. About half the zoos do not follow the guidelines concerning visitor access and number of nest boxes. Other issues that may compromise animal welfare include proximity of neighboring carnivore species and placement of nest boxes. PMID:21182101

Eriksson, P; Zidar, J; White, D; Westander, J; Andersson, M

208

[Animal welfare requirements for the raising and breeding of pheasants].  

PubMed

The different husbandry systems for raising pheasants are introduced and discussed. In particular, size and shaping of aviaries are described. Some remarks are made on the critical points, e.g. individual space, stocking density, planting of aviaries, and feeding of animals. Special emphasis is put on the problem of feather picking, which may lead to a struggle for existence of the owner. Existing methods for prevention of feather picking are introduced and assessed. Finally, an assessment with respect to animal welfare is made, revealing that, in general, raising of pheasants is not in conflict with animal welfare regulations. Nevertheless, in some aspects improvements are recommended, and some of the husbandry systems and manipulations can not be tolerated from the animal welfare point of view. Further research is needed to ensure a species specific raising of pheasants on a scientific base. PMID:2651074

Degen, H

1989-03-01

209

Husbandry and breeding of the lesser Egyptian Jerboa, Jaculus jaculus.  

PubMed

The lesser Egyptian jerboa, Jaculus jaculus, is the ideal jerboa species for use as a laboratory model system. As a member of the most derived clade of three-toed jerboas, it shows all of the specialized characteristics for bipedalism, including loss of the lateral digits and fusion and elongation of the metatarsals. It is a small rodent, weighing ?55 g as an adult, and it does not hibernate through the winter as is common with many other jerboa species. It is the first Dipodoid rodent whose genome is to be sequenced, and multiple genomic resources are being generated. The jerboa has been notoriously difficult to breed in captivity with only a small number of zoos and private breeders achieving success. The Harvard University colony of 60 adult animals (half male/half female) has had 36 offspring born in captivity in one year. The jerboa colony at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE has been operating since 2007 and has had 180 live births. Here, we outline guidelines for successfully maintaining and breeding a colony of J. jaculus in a laboratory setting. PMID:22135654

Jordan, Björn; Vercammen, Paul; Cooper, Kimberly L

2011-12-01

210

Regulatory and Biosafety Issues in Relation to Transgenic Animals in Food and Agriculture, Feeds Containing Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) and Veterinary Biologics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of

H. P. S. Kochhar; G. A. Gifford; S. Kahn

211

Animal Welfare Report, Fiscal Year 1998. Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Letter From the Secretary: A Whale of a Year for Animal Care; The AWA: A Legislative and Regulatory History; How USDA Administers the Law; Inspection Highlights; Inspections by Business Type; Enforcement Highlights; Charting the Future: AC's Str...

1999-01-01

212

Pakistan Agricultural Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) works at the highest national level to coordinate and support research being conducted at universities, provincial institutions, and federal institutions. The four main PARC research divisions are: Crop Sciences, Natural Resources, Animal Sciences, and Social Sciences. The PARC website contains summary information about these main research areas, as well as information about a variety of crops, research staff, publications, and more. From the PARC site, visitors can also learn about regional research efforts by linking to one the seven major PARC centers including the Sugar Crops Research Institute in Thatta; the National Agricultural Research Centre in Islamabad; the Himalayan Agricultural Research Institute in Kaghan, and the Arid Zone Research Centre in Quetta. Various databases are also available including Plant Genetic Resources with over 15,000 records searchable by species and/or genus; and Pakistan Agriculture--a bibliographic database with more than 32,000 records regarding agriculture in Pakistan.

213

Entrapped in Group Solidarity? Animal Welfare, the Ethical Positions of Farmers and the Difficult Search for Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare in today's husbandry systems has become the subject of intense public debate, especially in the Netherlands. The debate reflects the moral tensions that exist between farmers, on the one hand, and the general public on the other, whose attitudes towards animal welfare vary considerably. The debate also shows that current legislation is not a satisfactory instrument for bridging

S. J. G. de Rooij; C. C. de Lauwere; J. D. van der Ploeg

2010-01-01

214

Agricultural Operations  

MedlinePLUS

... associated with chemical use and prolonged sun exposure. Agriculture ranks among the most dangerous industries. Between 2003 ... by several Occupational Safety and Health standards including Agriculture ( 29 CFR 1928 ), General Industry ( 29 CFR 1910 ), ...

215

Potentials for win-win alliances among animal agriculture and forest products industries: Application of the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial forests in many parts of the world are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrient-deficient forests often\\u000a exist in close proximity to large animal feeding operations, meat processing and other food, textile, or other biomass-processing\\u000a plants, and municipal waste treatment facilities. Many of these facilities produce large surpluses of nitrogen, phosphorus,\\u000a and organic matter as gaseous ammonia, urea, uric

Ellis B. Cowling; Cari S. Furiness

2005-01-01

216

7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT...

2013-01-01

217

9 CFR 3.78 - 0utdoor housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...generally accepted professional and husbandry practices. (c) Capacity...If aggressive or dominant animals are housed in the...

2013-01-01

218

9 CFR 3.59 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.59...

2013-01-01

219

9 CFR 3.83 - Watering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.83...

2013-01-01

220

9 CFR 3.30 - Watering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.30...

2013-01-01

221

9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.105...

2013-01-01

222

9 CFR 3.55 - Watering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.55...

2013-01-01

223

9 CFR 3.34 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.34...

2013-01-01

224

Nuba agriculture and ethnobotany, with particular reference to sesame and sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a remarkably high level of variation within cultivated sesame and sorghum in the Nuba Mountains of Sudan although\\u000a the region is relatively small. The Nuba people are geographically isolated and culturally diverse in religion, language,\\u000a material inventory, agricultural practices and in their rituals involving crop plants, and this contributes to the diversity\\u000a in their cultivars. Nuba crop husbandry

Dorothea Bedigian; Jack R. Harlan

1983-01-01

225

Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bifidobacterium thermophilum and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum Isolates from Animal Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of antimicrobial substances has led to resistant populations of microorganisms in several ecosystems. In animal husbandry, the application of antibiotics has contributed to resistance development in pathogenic and commensal bacteria. These strains or their resistance genes can be spread along several ecological routes, including the food chain. Antibiotic resistance is important in terms of the safety of

S. Mayrhofer; J. D. Konrad; E. Amtmann; Hoek van A. H. A. M; A. Petersson; C. Mair; H. K. Mayer; W. Kneifel

2007-01-01

226

The assimilation of dioxins and PCBs in conventionally reared farm animals: Occurrence and biotransfer factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assimilation of PCDD\\/Fs and PCBs in chickens, pigs and sheep was investigated in studies using conventional animal husbandry practices. Closely matched samples of muscle (meat), liver, kidneys, eggs, milk, feed, soil and grass were collected of which 105 were analysed. The data obtained were consistent with the PCB and PCDD\\/F TEQ concentrations to be expected in rural background locations.

A. R. Fernandes; C. Foxall; A. Lovett; M. Rose; A. Dowding

2011-01-01

227

Agrometeorology and sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concerns with the sustainability of agroecosystems in different parts of the world have hightened the awareness for careful use of the natural resource base on which agriculture depends. For proper and efficient use of soils and plant\\/animal genetic material, knowledge of the role of climate is an essential precondition. Several elements of the chapters in Agenda 21, a global

M. V. K. Sivakumar; R. Gommes; W. Baier

2000-01-01

228

Agriculture 21  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To "promote food security and sustainable development into the next millennium," the Agriculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has recently created this new resource. An impressive and clearly arranged interface leads researchers to more than one gigabyte of data from various UN Agriculture Department sites. A detailed list of available software, databases, publication lists, and email conferences is provided via the Guides section of the site. Other services include Magazine, a monthly publication on international agricultural issues, and Gateway, a link pointing to UN Department of Agriculture divisional homepages.

229

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture ...Information Order Definitions § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a...

2012-01-01

230

9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.2 Animal facilities. Animal facilities shall comply with the...

2013-01-01

231

9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.4 Test animals. (a) All test animals shall be examined for...

2013-01-01

232

Husbandry stress during early life stages affects the stress response and health status of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aquaculture management it is important to establish objective criteria to assess health and welfare of the fish. Here we show that European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) confronted with husbandry-associated stress (tank cleaning, i.e. scrubbing, and water temperature variation) during early life stages show poorer survival and disease resistance as juveniles. We evaluated several parameters for stress (plasma cortisol, glucose

S. Varsamos; G. Flik; J. F. Pepin; S. E. Wendelaar Bonga; G. Breuil

2006-01-01

233

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

234

Precision agriculture and food security.  

PubMed

Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. PMID:20150492

Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

2010-02-12

235

Agricultural scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

236

Legal Liability Issues in Agricultural Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

animal is safe to humans and the environment. Regula- tory approval deals with whether and under what condi- This article presents an overview of the legal liability issues in torts tions agricultural biotechnology crops and animals may and patent law that arise from the use of transgenic crops produced be produced, marketed, and used. By contrast, before or by agricultural

Drew L. Kershen

2004-01-01

237

Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Purdue University's Sustainable Agriculture program provides electronic and print resources for farmers who wish to incorporate environmentally-sustainable farming techniques. Topics include community supported agriculture, enhancement of natural resources, and innovative marketing strategies. The site also provides links to farmer networks, professional development and research topics.

2007-02-09

238

Infrared spectroscopy of the mineralogy of coprolites from Brean Down: evidence of past human activities and animal husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineralogy of 11 concretions from the Bronze Age settlement horizons at Brean Down near Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, UK, has been examined by infrared spectroscopy. The concretions are found to contain calcite and apatite and, in some cases, quartz. Four further concretions from the later Iron Age Meare Village, soil samples from Brean Down and mineralised samples of known faecal origin from a cesspit within the Tudor Merchant's house in Tenby have been similarly examined. It is found that all samples contain calcite, but only the concretions and the Tenby cesspit samples contain apatite. None of the soil samples contain apatite, although these are relatively high in quartz. This suggests that the concretions are coprolites and that the apatite has a biological origin in small bone fragments. The infrared study is backed up by scanning electron microscopy which confirms the presence of phosphorus in the coprolite samples and shows a morphology suggestive of the presence of bone fragments; it is likely, therefore, that the coprolites result from a carnivore—most probably from dogs. The findings show the usefulness of infrared spectroscopy for the rapid identification of mineralised coprolitic material from archaeological sites.

Allen, Samantha D. M.; Almond, Matthew J.; Bell, Martin G.; Hollins, Peter; Marks, Sonja; Mortimore, Joanne L.

2002-03-01

239

Infrared spectroscopy of the mineralogy of coprolites from Brean Down: evidence of past human activities and animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogy of 11 concretions from the Bronze Age settlement horizons at Brean Down near Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, UK, has been examined by infrared spectroscopy. The concretions are found to contain calcite and apatite and, in some cases, quartz. Four further concretions from the later Iron Age Meare Village, soil samples from Brean Down and mineralised samples of known faecal origin

Samantha D. M. Allen; Matthew J. Almond; Martin G. Bell; Peter Hollins; Sonja Marks; Joanne L. Mortimore

2002-01-01

240

Informatics for mutagenesis: the design of Mutabase —a distributed data recording system for animal husbandry, mutagenesis, and phenotypic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The increasing use of high-throughput methods for the production of biologically important information and the increasing\\u000a diversity of that information pose considerable bioinformatics challenges. These challenges will be met by implementing electronic\\u000a data management systems not only to capture the data, but increasingly to provide a platform for data integration and mining\\u000a as we enter the post-genomic era. We

Mark A. Strivens; Rachel L. Selley; Simon J. Greenaway; Mazda Hewitt; Xinhong Liu; Kirstin Battershill; Stefan L. McCormack; Karen A. Pickford; Lucie Vizor; Patrick M. Nolan; A. Jacqueline Hunter; Josephine Peters; Stephen D. M. Brown

2000-01-01

241

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.5 Segregation of animals. Animals which have been...

2013-01-01

242

Taking Ethics into Account in Farm Animal Breeding: What can the Breeding Companies Achieve?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare and the ethical issues it raises have been discussed intensively for a couple of decades. The emphasis has\\u000a been on the direct effects of housing and husbandry, but more attention is now being given to problems originating in selective\\u000a breeding. European attempts to adjust animal welfare legislation to deal with these problems have been largely unsuccessful,\\u000a but the

I. Anna S. Olsson; Christian Gamborg; Peter Sandøe

2006-01-01

243

Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

244

Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

Crank, Ron

245

Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

Crank, Ron

246

76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2011-05-17

247

Influence of husbandry systems on physiological stress reactions of captive brown brocket ( Mazama gouazoubira ) and marsh deer ( Blastocerus dichotomus )—noninvasive analysis of fecal cortisol metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study addresses the relationship of different husbandry systems to fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) concentrations\\u000a in captive brown brocket deer and marsh deer in order to ascertain a less stressful captive condition for these species. Thus,\\u000a three pairs from both species were submitted to three different husbandry systems (10 days per system), and fecal samples\\u000a were collected in the last

Maurício Durante Christofoletti; Ricardo José Garcia Pereira; José Maurício Barbanti Duarte

2010-01-01

248

Entomophagy and space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

249

Agricultural Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)|

Brill, Winston J.

1981-01-01

250

Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation\\u000a of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how\\u000a official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated\\u000a the effect of received predation compensation

Marius Warg Næss; Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen; Elisabeth Pedersen; Torkild Tveraa

251

Use of Elastic Lidar to Examine the Dynamics of Plume Dispersion from an Agricultural Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of odors and noxious chemicals from large scale animal husbandry activities is an increasingly large problem in a number of states, particularly Iowa. The goal of this project is to understand the manner and pathways in which emissions from animal husbandry facilities occurs and how it is transported downwind. Evidence is presented that demonstrates that current assupmtions about the manner in which pollutants are emitted from these facilites are not correct. Contrary to current assumptions, the emissions are not along the surface, are not continuous, and bear little resemblance to commonly used Gaussian plume models. Remediation activities and emissions estimates based on these assumptions, may well be ineffective. If we are ever to devise effective remediation strategies, they must be based on comprehensive understanding of the actual phenomena.

Nichols, J. J.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J. H.; Cooper, D. I.; Hatfield, J. L.; Hipps, L. E.; Pfeiffer, R. L.; Sauer, T. J.

2006-12-01

252

Animal care guidelines and future directions.  

PubMed

Two notions broadly accepted in developed western societies have made animal care guidelines inevitable. These are that domestic animals are sentient and that humans are responsible to ensure the proper care of domestic animals. Despite these common views, people have differing moral understandings of the human-animal relationship, and there are sharp divisions over how these views should be applied to domestic animal care. Animal care guidelines have been developed by different nations at several organizational levels to represent a compromise that is acceptable to most people. These organizational levels include individual poultry companies, national poultry associations, individual customers of the poultry industry, national associations of customer companies, national governments, and international organizations. Animal care guideline development has typically included input from producers and scientists and, depending on the sponsoring organization, animal advocates and government representatives as well. Animal advocacy groups have also sought to influence domestic animal care by campaigning against animal production practices or by offering their preferred guidelines for producers to adopt in the hope that the endorsement of the welfare group would add value to the product. Originally, animal care guidelines were only recommended, with little or no requirement for compliance. In recent years, the need for retail companies to assure certain welfare standards has led to animal welfare auditing of production facilities. Animal care guidelines primarily have sought to establish standards for handling and husbandry in existing production systems. Future guidelines may put increasing emphasis on adoption of alternative management practices or housing systems. International animal care guidelines are being developed on 2 levels (i.e., among national governments to create a common standard for trade in animal products and within international retail companies to create company-wide animal care standards). These initiatives should tend to unify farm animal care standards worldwide but perhaps at a level some nations might consider lower than preferable. PMID:17495102

Webster, A B

2007-06-01

253

Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

2004-12-01

254

Short communication: Breed differences affecting dairy cattle welfare in traditional alpine tie-stall husbandry systems.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to compare the prevalence of indicators of poor welfare among 5 Italian cattle breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian, Italian Bruna, Pezzata Rossa Italiana, Grigia Alpina, and Pezzata Rossa d'Oropa) kept in tie-stalls in the Italian Alps under similar housing and management conditions. We recorded the presence of integument alterations (hairless patch areas, lesion/swollen areas, or overgrown claws) and lameness in 612 cows. Additionally, we checked 834 cows for the presence of physical malformations ("open" shoulders). In general, the prevalence of welfare problems showed a decreasing trend from the more productive to the less productive breeds. Local breeds (Grigia Alpina and Pezzata Rossa d'Oropa) showed a significantly lower prevalence of welfare problems compared with the other 3 breeds, whereas Italian Holstein-Friesian usually had the highest percentage of individuals with problems. No differences were found between Pezzata Rossa Italiana and Italian Bruna, both of which showed fewer problems than Italian Holstein-Friesian. The effect of the breed significantly affected the welfare of dairy cows in tie-stalls in alpine traditional husbandry systems. The prevalence of the negative welfare indicators studied was lower in local breeds, which are better adapted to local breeding conditions. Our results indicate an urgent need to promote changes in the criteria used for genetic selection in the dairy industry and underline the importance of maintaining the diversity of local breeds, which should be carefully chosen for each specific environmental condition. PMID:21524530

Mattiello, S; Battini, M; Andreoli, E; Barbieri, S

2011-05-01

255

[Routes of ampicillin elimination in agricultural animals].  

PubMed

Studied were ampicillin-Na and ampicillin-trihydrate of an 800 IU/mg activity. The first was applied in the form of aqueous solution, and the second--in the form of an aqueous suspension. It was found that i/m injection of ampicillin-trihydrate to sheep (10 and 25 mg/kg) and lambs (10 and 20 mg/kg) led to the elimination of the antibiotic via the urine in bacteriostatic concentrations for 48 hours, while the application of ampicillin-Na under the same conditions led to its elimination in the course of 24 hours. In lactating ewes ampicillin was eliminated through the milk secretion. At a single muscular injection to ewes at the rate of 25 mg/kg ampicillin-Na was eliminated via the milk in higher concentrations, reaching a peak volume at the fourth hour--0.75 mg/cm3, for a shorter period of time (up to the 14th hour) as compared to ampicillin-trihydrate (up to 24th hour) when used in the same dose. When applied to laying hens directly through the crop at 60 mg/kg in the course of six days it was excreted during treatment and two days later via the eggs in therapeutic concentrations. PMID:7303489

Chaleva, E

1981-01-01

256

Cite as: Buchanan-Smith, H.M. (2006) Primates in laboratories: Standardisation, Harmonisation, Variation and Science. ALTEX - Alternatives to Animal Experimentation, 23, 115-119. Primates in laboratories: Standardisation, Harmonisation, Variation and Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Many animals are bred specifically for use in laboratories; the genetic variation between individuals is minimised, and housing and husbandry is often standardised. The rationale is to decrease the variation of the scientific findings, and allow a reduction in number of animals used, although these relationships are questioned. Non-human primates used in laboratories present a different case; there are

Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith

257

9 CFR 3.33 - Classification and separation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.33 Classification and separation. Animals housed in the same primary...

2013-01-01

258

9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.85 Employees. Every person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9...

2013-01-01

259

9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS...Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry...degree that might be harmful or uncomfortable to the animals therein due to leakage...of accumulations of trash. (c) Pest...

2010-01-01

260

9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS...Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry...degree that might be harmful or uncomfortable to the animals therein due to leakage...of accumulations of trash. (c) Pest...

2009-01-01

261

Agricultural Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made the Agricultural Outlook publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Agricultural Outlook, the monthly short and long term commodity outlook publication, long available via the USDA Economics and Statistics system at Cornell University's Mann Library, (discussed in the September 15, 1995 issue of the Scout Report) is now available with graphics and charts. Selected archives of the publication are available and articles can be downloaded individually. About the only drawback to this terrific addition to ERS's electronic holdings is that the separate statistical section that accompanies AO (over 20 pages of tables), is not available at this time. This is particularly unfortunate, as these tables are one of the most valuable aspects of the publication.

1996-01-01

262

Assessing Animal Cognition: Ethological and Philosophical Perspectives1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in the scientific and philosophical study of animal cognition and mentality are of great importance to animal scientists who face continued public scrutiny of the treatment of animals in research and agriculture. Because beliefs about animal minds, animal cognition, and animal cons- ciousness underlie many people's views about the ethical treatment of nonhuman animals, it has become increasingly difficult

Colin Allen

2009-01-01

263

Investigation of the Influence of Odor Emission from Livestock Farms in the Surroundings Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal husbandry always accumulates a large number of excrement that cause the serious air pollution problems if there were no effective air pollution prevention or controlling equipments. The odor was one of the serious problems of animal husbandry farms; it would influence the air quality in the surrounding residential area. There were 698 animal farms around the Pingtung Agricultural Biotechnology

Chung-Yi Chung; Pei-Ling Chung; Shao-Wei Liao; Wen-Liang Lai; Chang-Ling Miaw

2011-01-01

264

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2013-04-01

265

76 FR 315 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-01-04

266

76 FR 9537 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-02-18

267

78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2013-0044] Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2013-10-25

268

Research for Tomorrow: 1986 Yearbook of Agriculture,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Agricultural research; Biotechnology: An overview; Biotechnology: Its application in the Microbial World; Biotechnology: Its application to animals; Biotechnology: Its application to plants; Insects and weeds; Human nutrition and food; Our fores...

J. J. Crowley

1986-01-01

269

Teaching Biology Using Agriculture as the Context: Perceptions of High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine how high school students perceived science and agriculture after completing a traditional yearlong biology class that used animal agriculture as the context. The specific research questions asked respondents their perceptions concerning the relationship between science and agriculture, their perceptions of agriculture in general, and their knowledge of agriculture after completing a traditional

Mark A. Balschweid

2001-01-01

270

Agribusiness Management. The Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These materials in agribusiness management for the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum were designed for use in the following areas: Animal Science; Plant Science; Agricultural Mechanics; and Natural Resources and Aquaculture. Each unit of this competency-based guide contains title of unit, unit length, grade level, objectives, teacher…

EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

271

Study Guide for TCT in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study guide was specifically designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in agriculture. The agriculture test was developed by the National Evaluation Systems, Inc. and educators in Georgia. The test covers 13 subareas: (1) plant science; (2) crop management; (3) animal science; (4) livestock and…

Sailors, Robert A.

272

Agricultural Education--Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation presents over 950 resumes of instructional materials in agricultural education, which have appeared quarterly in "Abstracts of Instructional Materials in Vocational and Technical Education" (AIM), Fall 1967 through Fall 1971. Resumes cover a broad range of fields and occupations, such as agribusiness, agronomy, animal and plant…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

273

Agricultural Education--Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This compilation presents over 950 resumes of instructional materials in agricultural education, which have appeared quarterly in "Abstracts of Instructional Materials in Vocational and Technical Education" (AIM), Fall 1967 through Fall 1971. Resumes cover a broad range of fields and occupations, such as agribusiness, agronomy, animal and plant…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

274

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

Omsi

2004-01-01

275

Home gardening and access to animals in households with xerophthalmic children in rural Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case-control study compares the home garden and animal husbandry practices of households with and with- out xerophthalmic children in south-central Nepal, focus- ing on the relationship between these practices and house- hold intake of vitamin A-rich foods. Eighty-one households with a child between the ages of one and six years diag- nosed with xerophthalmia (cases) and 81 households with

Anita V. Shankar; Elizabeth K. Pradhan; Chandra Dhungel

1998-01-01

276

Managing the Interactions Between Plants and Animals in Marine Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a China has long been known for manure-based integrated multiple species fish farming technology. Commonly known as “polyculture,”\\u000a this traditional Chinese system is practiced in pond aquaculture where several fish species are reared together, creating\\u000a a multi-output production structure. For example, polyculture of carps with animal and plant husbandry is based on the efficient\\u000a utilization of organic manures in the ponds.

Daniel Robledo; Yolanda Freile-PelegrÍn

277

Energy and agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on farm energy management. Topics considered at the conference included economic impacts of energy prices on agriculture, energy analysis of the environmental role in agriculture, genetic engineering, energy sources for agriculture, agricultural labor, the food-producing sector of the Common Market, energy in Australian agriculture, and energy management in U.S. agriculture.

Stanhill, G.

1984-01-01

278

Prevalence of nematode infection and faecal egg counts in free-range laying hens: relations to housing and husbandry.  

PubMed

1. Faecal samples from 19 commercial, 65 week old free-range egg laying flocks were examined to assess the prevalence and number of parasitic nematode eggs. Data were collected to characterise the housing, husbandry, behaviour and welfare of the flocks to examine possible relationships with the egg counts. 2. Eggs of at least one genus of nematode were present in the faeces of all 19 flocks. Heterakis eggs were detected in 17 (89%) flocks, Ascaridia in 16 (84%), Trichostrongylus in 9 (47%), and Syngamus in 6 (32%). Faecal egg counts (FEC) were greatest for Ascaridia and Heterakis. 3. For each nematode genus, there was no significant difference in FEC between organic (N?=?9) and non-organic (N?=?10) flocks, or between static (N?=?8) and mobile (N?=?11) flocks. 4. FEC were correlated with a range of housing, husbandry and management practices which varied between the nematode genus and included depth of the litter, percentage of hens using the range, and number of dead hens. Statistical analysis indicated relationships with FEC that included light intensity above the feeder, indoor and outdoor stocking density, fearfulness in the shed and on the range, distance to the nearest shelter, and swollen toes. 5. None of the FEC for any of the genera was correlated with weekly egg production or cumulative mortality. 6. Although nematode FEC were highly prevalent among the flocks, the overall lack of relation to other welfare and production measures suggests that these infections were not severe. PMID:23444850

Sherwin, C M; Nasr, M A F; Gale, E; Petek, M; Stafford, K; Turp, M; Coles, G C

2013-01-01

279

Science, Medicine, and Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher's Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher's Association.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2004-01-01

280

MANAGING WATERBORNE PATHOGENS ASSOCIATED WITH CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pathogenic microorganisms of fecal origin are the leading cause of river and stream impairments in the United States. Runoff from agricultural operations, particularly animal agricultural, can be a major contributor of fecal microbial pollution in a watershed. Several management...

281

32 CFR 256.8 - Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...production and extraction and open land: Agriculture 10 Yes...designation for compatible land use is to be...but excludes feedlots and intensive animal husbandry. 11 Includes feedlots and intensive animal...

2010-07-01

282

32 CFR 256.8 - Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...production and extraction and open land: Agriculture 10 Yes...designation for compatible land use is to be...but excludes feedlots and intensive animal husbandry. 11 Includes feedlots and intensive animal...

2009-07-01

283

9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and research...

2013-01-01

284

Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes and Antibiotic Residues in Wastewater and Soil Adjacent to Swine Feedlots: Potential Transfer to Agricultural Lands  

PubMed Central

Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics in swine feed could cause accelerated emergence of antibiotic resistance genes, and agricultural application of swine waste could spread antibiotic resistance genes to the surrounding environment. Objectives: We investigated the distribution of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes from swine feedlots and their surrounding environment. Methods: We used a culture-independent method to identify PMQR genes and estimate their levels in wastewater from seven swine feedlot operations and corresponding wastewater-irrigated farm fields. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones in wastewater and soil samples were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The predominant PMQR genes in both the wastewater and soil samples were qnrD, qepA, and oqxB, whereas qnrS and oqxA were present only in wastewater samples. Absolute concentrations of all PMQR genes combined ranged from 1.66 × 107 to 4.06 × 108 copies/mL in wastewater and 4.06 × 106 to 9.52 × 107 copies/g in soil. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones ranged from 4.57 to 321 ng/mL in wastewater and below detection limit to 23.4 ng/g in soil. Significant correlations were found between the relative abundance of PMQR genes and (fluoro)quinolone concentrations (r = 0.71, p = 0.005) and the relative abundance of PMQR genes in paired wastewater and agricultural soil samples (r = 0.91, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Swine feedlot wastewater may be a source of PMQR genes that could facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in animal husbandry environments using a culture-independent method.

Li, Juan; Wang, Thanh; Shao, Bing; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Shaochen

2012-01-01

285

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

286

Assessing and Mitigating N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural cropping and animal production systems are important sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The assessment of the importance of N fertilization from synthetic fertilizer, animal wastes used as fertilizers and from N incorporated into the soil through biological N fixation, to global N2O emissions presented in this paper suggests that this source has been underestimated. We estimate that agricultural

A. R. Mosier; J. M. Duxbury; J. R. Freney; O. Heinemeyer; K. Minami

1998-01-01

287

Identification of Emerging Science Competencies in Agriculture. Vocational Education Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A research project identified new and emerging science concepts that should be taught in high school vocational agriculture. Agricultural scientists on an advisory panel identified the emerging science concepts. The majority were in the areas of plant science and animal science. Animal science was completely reorganized with greater emphasis on…

Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. School of Vocational Education.

288

APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY TO AGRICULTURAL AIR QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing need for air that is free of pathogenic organisms and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field of agriculture. In confined-animal feeding operations (CAFOs) infectious agents can enter with the air needed for ventilation. In order to prevent development and spread of diseases in animals contained in the area, there is a need to maintain acceptable

L. A. Vera; L. E. Erickson; R. G. Maghirang; K. J. Klabunde

289

Climate change, land use conflicts, predation and ecological degradation as challenges for reindeer husbandry in northern Europe: what do we really know after half a century of research?  

PubMed

Reindeer grazing has been entitled as ecological keystone in arctic-alpine landscapes. In addition, reindeer husbandry is tightly connected to the identity of the indigenous Sámi people in northern Europe. Nowadays, reindeer husbandry is challenged in several ways, of which pasture degradation, climate change, conflicting land uses and predation are the most important. Research on reindeer-related topics has been conducted for more than half a century and this review illuminates whether or not research is capable to match these challenges. Despite its high quality, traditional reindeer-related research is functionally isolated within the various disciplines. The meshwork of ecology, socio-economy, culture and politics, however, in which reindeer husbandry is embedded by various interactions, will remain unclear and difficult to manage, if actors and relationships are kept separate. We propose some targets for new integrative research approaches that incorporate traditional knowledge and focus on the entire human-ecological system 'reindeer husbandry' to develop solutions for its challenges. PMID:22451266

Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg

2012-03-28

290

“Safety for Agricultural Educators”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety for Agricultural Educators (SAGE) is a two-sided fact sheet on agricultural hazards that has been distributed by the New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and Health (NYCAMH) to Northeastern high school agriculture educators over the past six years. It was intended to supplement and stimulate the teaching of safety principles in agricultural education classes and thus enhance the awareness

John J. May; Sharon Scofield

2005-01-01

291

Animals. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animals are the subject of the student resource unit which is to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Animal housing and equipment, the first section, deals with controlled environment, energy requirements, esthetics, air, water, and noise. Animal waste and byproducts are covered in terms of Federal government program, some of…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

292

Animals. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Animals are the subject of the student resource unit which is to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Animal housing and equipment, the first section, deals with controlled environment, energy requirements, esthetics, air, water, and noise. Animal waste and byproducts are covered in terms of Federal government program, some…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

293

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks;

2004-02-05

294

Agricultural Outlook, April 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Agricultural Economy (U.S. Agricultural Outlook for 1998); Briefs (Specialty Crops: Rains and Freezing Temperatures Damage Horticultural Crops); Commodity Spotlight (U.S. Horticultural Trade: Long- & Short-Term Factors); World Agriculture and Tr...

1998-01-01

295

China: Agriculture in 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses agricultural production in 1978 and the outlook for early 1979. The paper also reports on developments in agricultural trade, and examines the new policies that will guide agricultural development in China in the future. The report con...

1979-01-01

296

Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

297

Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.  

PubMed Central

Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animal health, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture.

Garrett, E. S.; dos Santos, C. L.; Jahncke, M. L.

1997-01-01

298

Agricultural waste utilization and management  

SciTech Connect

These papers were presented at a symposium on the management and use of agricultural waste products, including food industry wastes. Topics covered include fat and protein recovery from fish wastes, treatments for straw to improve its digestibility, using food industry wastes as animal feeds, various manure treatments and studies of its combustion properties, fermentation, methane and ethanol production, hemp waste water treatment, and heat recovery from manure combustion.

Not Available

1985-01-01

299

Behaviour and welfare of veal calves in relation to husbandry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional housing of veal calves in individual crates without roughage has received prolonged and serious criticism, since it denies the animals various social activities, freedom of movement and the possibility to consume roughage and to ruminate. In order to develop an economically acceptable alternative to this housing system, which would provide a significant improvement in calf welfare, the housing

Wilt de J. G

1985-01-01

300

Phenotyping of Genetically Engineered Mice: Humane, Ethical, Environmental, and Husbandry Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of genetically engineered (GE) mice in scientific research has raised many concerns about the ani- mal welfare of such mice. The types of welfare concerns may differ within the three stages that comprise the estab- lishment of GE animal models: development, production, and research use. The role and impact of the members of the research team on

Marilyn J. Brown; Kathleen A. Murray

301

Effects of cattle husbandry on abundance and activity of methanogenic archaea in upland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that animal treading associated with a high input of organic matter would favour methanogenesis in soils used as overwintering pasture. Hence, methane emissions and methanogen populations were examined at sections with different degree of cattle impact in a Farm in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. In spring, methane emission positively corresponded to the

Viviane Radl; Andreas Gattinger; Alica Chro?áková; Anna N?mcová; Jiri ?uhel; Miloslav Šimek; Jean Charles Munch; Michael Schloter; Dana Elhottová

2007-01-01

302

Agricultural sustainability in a sensitive environment--a case analysis of Loess Plateau in China.  

PubMed

Loess Plateau, an arid and semi-arid region in Northwest China, is well-known for its most serious soil erosion in terms of sediment yield each year. Soil erosion, which is intensified by agricultural activities, is the major factor influencing sustainable agriculture development in this region. It reduces productivity by removing nutrients and especially reducing water availability that is essential for crop production in the area. It also brings about off-site costs by demanding more efforts for maintenance of banks and dams along Yellow River through raising the riverbed with sediment. Climate is capricious and extreme weather conditions occur frequently, which impairs normal agricultural production with erosion and also decrease of water availability. Extensive way of farming still dominates on the Loess Plateau, which cannot produce satisfying economic results and needs to be improved or altered. Conventional agricultural production pattern needs to be reconsidered for husbandry has not been granted its due position. Agriculture is the backbone of economy. Poor agricultural production impedes economic development and vice versa, backward economy also influences the advancement of agriculture. Besides a large population, education status of farmers is another threshold that requires being resolved for a sustainable agriculture. Although conventional agriculture has been practiced there for more than 5000 years, now it cannot meet the demand for food and fiber by the increasing population and some of its farming practices are contributing to environmental degradation directly or indirectly and can sustain no longer. Agriculture on Loess Plateau needs to find its own way of sustainability. To work toward a sustainable agriculture, chances and challenges both indwell on Loess Plateau. PMID:12211987

Kong, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Xin-Shi; Zhou, Guang-Sheng

2002-07-01

303

Integrated Crop\\/Livestock Agriculture in the United States: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. agriculture has become increasingly specialized over the last century with attendant benefits to food production and affordability. At the same time, specialized agricultural production has led to concerns for animal welfare, environmental degradation, and loss of biodiversity. An alternative to specialized agriculture is the integration of crops and livestock at the farm scale. Integrated crop\\/livestock agriculture could improve soil

Kathleen Hilimire

2011-01-01

304

Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

305

Endangered animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. Humans are largely to blame for their endangerment. Over-hunting and habitat destruction are only a couple of ways that humans are endangering animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-26

306

Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

307

Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

Jackson, R.B.

1993-01-01

308

The impact of companion animal problems on society and the role of veterinarians.  

PubMed

The benefits of companion animals are immense, but there can be negative impacts also. Noise, destructive behaviors, excrement, bites, and the overpopulation of domestic cats and dogs are some of the major problems that can result in stress and hardships on owners, neighbors, the community, and the pets themselves. The perpetuation of pets in society requires that the negative aspects of living with dogs and cats be addressed. Veterinarians can play an important role in addressing these problems by incorporating the concept of behavior wellness into their practices and promoting education regarding husbandry, animal behavior, responsible pet ownership, and the effects of pets on the environment. PMID:19185196

Voith, Victoria L

2009-03-01

309

Special challenges of maintaining wild animals in captivity in South America.  

PubMed

The author summarises the occurrence of major diseases in wild animals maintained in captivity in South America. The epidemiology, impact and significance of the diseases are discussed, together with appropriate husbandry practices to control and prevent transmissible diseases. The following animal groups and pathologies are considered in this review: poxvirus dermatitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, amoebosis and coccidiosis in reptiles, management practices and diseases (including botulism, bacterial enteritis, psittacosis, aspergillosis and parasitic diseases in birds), enterocolitis, pneumonias and internal parasites in non-human primates, canine distemper, parvoviruses, babesiosis, internal and external parasites in carnivores, tuberculosis and enteritis in tapirs, haemorrhagic disease in cervids. PMID:8924710

Cubas, Z S

1996-03-01

310

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

311

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

312

[Mendelism in animal breeding as developed by professor Leopold Frateur, Louvain (1877-1946)].  

PubMed

Educated as a veterinarian at Cureghem, Leopold Frateur started his scientific career in 1899 as a professor at the Faculty of Sciences of the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium, in charge of the course in zootechnology. After a study tour to zootechnical institutes and centres of animal breeding in Europe he was invited by the governmental department of Agriculture and the Belgian Society of Zootechnology to investigate the relevance of the Mendelian laws of heredity for the improvement of cattle breeding. In the early years of the century, Frateur conducted field research in order to determine the characteristics of the cattle breeds in Belgium. In 1908 Frateur founded the Institute of Animal Husbandry at his university. Here he worked out his programme of experimental genetics until his retirement in 1936. The last six years of his professorship he teached also agricultural economics in the Faculty of Economical Sciences. In Frateur's experimental research the following main lines can be distinguished: 1) The analysis of simple and complex hereditary factors in cattle, rabbits and poultry; 2) The study of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of importance for the improvement of animal breeds; 3) The synthesis of genetic factors from different stock in order to obtain higher yielding breeds with stable characteristics; 4) Theoretical study of the relationship between genotype and phenotype and the influence of environment factors; 5) Theoretical exploration of the issue of variability and modification of newly formed characteristics; 6) Research leading to an explanation of telegony and atavism; 7) The formulation of a theory on the creation of new breeds in domestic animals and plants, and the relation between breed and species. Also he was responding to topical needs, e.g. he determined the causal factor of pullorum epidemic in chicken farming, or he investigated the hereditary resistance against diphteric infection amongst chickens. Frateur took the theoretical knowledge on heredity as the starting point for practical application in cattle breeding. During and right after W. W. I. he stated that the current scientific knowledge is enough advanced to consider the start of a large breeding programme for the improvement of cattle livestock. In order to realise this reinstatement Frateur received important support from the authorities (Royal Decree, August 1919). From then onwards he focussed his efforts on the realisation of a national framework for improvement of cattle livestock, in collaboration with regional centres and societies for animal selection, breeding and production. Later he also started programmes for the improvement of chicken and pig breeding, again in a joint effort with official consultants and members of breeding societies. He was not only the architect of these programmes, providing the necessary scientific and technical guidance, but he had also a chair in the governing bodies, supervising the execution and control of the breeding programmes. In order to draw a picture of the research community engaged in animal breeding during the first decennia of the 20th century Frateur's contacts through study tours, congresses and learned societies are investigated. The life and work of Frateur is described by the author in two volumes, published in 1999. The second volume consists of a reprint of 50 selected papers on animal breeding. PMID:12051273

Gobin, A

2000-01-01

313

76 FR 28910 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee on Animal Health (the Committee) advises the Secretary of Agriculture on means...eradicate animal diseases of national importance. In doing so, the...will consider public health, conservation of natural...

2011-05-19

314

Incorporating Laptop Technologies into an Animal Sciences Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching animal sciences, like most agricultural disciplines, requires giving students hands-on learning opportunities in remote and often computer-unfriendly sites such as animal farms. How do faculty integrate laptop use into such an environment?|

Birrenkott, Glenn; Bertrand, Jean A.; Bolt, Brian

2005-01-01

315

Coordination of Programs on Domestic Animal Genomics: The Federal Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Domestic Animal Genomics was chartered in 2002 with the charge of enhancing interagency communication and awareness of the importance of agricultural and companion animal species, increasing leverage of investments a...

2004-01-01

316

Mascot animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computer Animation Festival issued a special call for short animations of our robot mascot character. Students and professionals around the world submitted many creative, entertaining animations. The largest group of submissions came from students at the Digital Hollywood school in Tokyo.

Shinji Ameda; Kumiko Arai; Tomonori Isogaya; Taiki Ito; Chihiro Iwamoto; Mari Kameyama; Haruki Kato; Yoshihiro Maruyama; Satoko Matsumaru; Hiroki Matsuoka; Takato Nakai; Moemi Nakano; Kumiko Obora; Naomi Ogura; Koichi Okamura; Yuko Sato; Tetsuro Satomi; Mio Sawaguchi; Nobuhiko Suzuki; Yugo Takahashi; Mai Takayanagi; Keigo Takeshige; Naomi Tanaka; Takeshi Tsuzaki; Yoshihumi Uehiro; Shuhei Yamada; Koji Yamamoto; Melanie Beisswenger; Toru Ogura; Takeshi Saito; Takayuki Sato; Atsushi Sugito; Seiichi Tsuji

2009-01-01

317

Animal Behaviour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

Mcgreevey, Paul

2010-01-01

318

Windbreaks in North American agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Windbreaks are a major component of successful agricultural systems throughout the world. The focus of this chapter is on\\u000a temperate-zone, commercial, agricultural systems in North America, where windbreaks contribute to both producer profitability\\u000a and environmental quality by increasing crop production while simultaneously reducing the level of off-farm inputs. They help\\u000a control erosion and blowing snow, improve animal health and survival

J. R. Brandle; L. Hodges; X. H. Zhou

2004-01-01

319

Handbook of Agricultural Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter surveys studies that have used the methods of mechanism design, optimal taxation, nonlinear pricing, and principal-agent analyses in the analysis of agricultural policy. The optimal design and reform of agricultural policy are studied under the presumption that agricultural producers are better informed about their technology or their actions than agricultural policy makers. The existence of these information asymmetries

Robert G. Chambers

320

Challenges and issues of early life vaccination in animals and humans.  

PubMed

This overview considers the major issues related to successful neonatal vaccination of domestic animals. A major factor is the balance between the essential protection provided by maternally derived immunity and the potential inhibitory effects of this immunity on generation of the neonatal vaccinal immune response. The design of vaccine programs should also take into account the predicted life expectancy and husbandry of the animal species concerned. Relatively short-lived production animals or wildlife species may have different vaccination requirements from long-lived companion animals. The purpose of vaccination also differs depending upon the animals concerned, and may range from the establishment of protective immunity in the individual animal or herd, through to programs designed to eliminate an infectious agent from a specific geographical area. PMID:17574267

Pastoret, P-P

2007-06-15

321

Agriculture and water quality. Agriculture Information Bulletin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the Nation's water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural-chemical or land-use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface waterways in runoff; some leach through soil into ground water. Because surface-water

B. M. Crowder; M. O. Ribaudo; C. E. Young

1988-01-01

322

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, Kynwai.; Cowan, Bob.

1996-01-01

323

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Cole, Ms.

2011-04-07

324

Animation Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides physics tutorials and other resources for animation artists and professionals working in the animation industry. There are three tutorials covering topics related to the graphical representation of linear and accelerated motion, rotations, and center of mass. The presentation is non-mathematical and focuses on the consequences of the laws of physics. The web site also provides other physics references for animators and has started a wiki for community building.

Garcia, Alejandro

2009-04-02

325

Quantification of PCDD/F concentrations in animal manure and comparison of the effects of the application of cattle manure and sewage sludge to agricultural land on human exposure to PCDD/Fs.  

PubMed

PCDD/Fs were quantified in samples of cattle, pig, sheep and chicken manure. TEQs ranged from 0.19 ng TEQ/kg dw for the pig manure to 20 ng TEQ/kg dw for one cattle manure sample. Exposure assessments were carried out to compare the effect of various sewage sludge and cattle manure land application scenarios on human PCDD/F exposure. Background exposure was estimated at 4.9 pg TEQ/kg bw/day and it was found that land application of sewage sludge and cattle manure at contemporary rates did not increase PCDD/F TEQ background exposure. It was concluded that the application of sewage sludge, under the new UK guidelines, and cattle manure to agricultural land, do not make a significant contribution to human exposure to PCDD/Fs. PMID:12547332

Stevens, Joanna L; Jones, Kevin C

2003-03-01

326

Effects of husbandry parameters on the life-history traits of the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis: effects of temperature, photoperiod, and population density.  

PubMed

These experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis. The overall objective of the program is to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations of this species in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this article, we focus on the effects of photoperiod, temperature, and population density on adult fecundity and juvenile growth. Increasing photoperiod from 12 to 16 h of light per day had no effect on adult fecundity or egg hatching and relatively minor effects on juvenile growth and development. Rearing snails at temperatures between 22 degrees C and 28 degrees C did not influence the rates of egg production or egg clutch size. However, the rates of growth and development (of eggs and juveniles) increased with increasing temperature in this range, and when temperatures were reduced to 22 degrees C egg-hatching success was impaired. Juvenile growth and development were more sensitive to rearing density than adult fecundity traits. On the basis of the present results, we conclude that rearing individuals of M. cornuarietis at a temperature of 25 degrees C, a photoperiod of 12L:12D, and a density of <0.8 snails L(-1) (with lower densities for juvenile snails) should provide favorable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations of this species. PMID:19009043

Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; Pounds, Nadine; File-Emperador, Sharon; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

2006-04-01

327

Effects of husbandry parameters on the life-history traits of the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis: effects of temperature, photoperiod, and population density  

PubMed Central

These experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis. The overall objective of the program is to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations of this species in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this article, we focus on the effects of photoperiod, temperature, and population density on adult fecundity and juvenile growth. Increasing photoperiod from 12 to 16 h of light per day had no effect on adult fecundity or egg hatching and relatively minor effects on juvenile growth and development. Rearing snails at temperatures between 22°C and 28°C did not influence the rates of egg production or egg clutch size. However, the rates of growth and development (of eggs and juveniles) increased with increasing temperature in this range, and when temperatures were reduced to 22°C egg-hatching success was impaired. Juvenile growth and development were more sensitive to rearing density than adult fecundity traits. On the basis of the present results, we conclude that rearing individuals of M. cornuarietis at a temperature of 25°C, a photoperiod of 12L:12D, and a density of <0.8 snails L?1 (with lower densities for juvenile snails) should provide favorable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations of this species.

Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; Pounds, Nadine; File-Emperador, Sharon; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

2006-01-01

328

Agriculture: access to technology limited.  

PubMed

From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737

1997-01-01

329

Undergraduate Teaching in the Animal Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The proceedings of a conference which reviewed the content of undergraduate animal science curricula, content of courses in the animal sciences, and methods and materials used in undergraduate teaching in the animal sciences are presented in this bulletin. These individual papers are included: Trends in Animal Agriculture and the Future of…

Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

330

The Animal Welfare Act's Impact on the Scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bond between animals and humans has existed for a long time. Humans are entrusted with the stewardship for animal care and well-being as a part of their use. Legislation has addressed humane care of animals in the United States since 1873. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for administering many of these laws, including the Animal

James W. Glosser; Phyllis B. York

1988-01-01

331

Sampling Methodology for Estimation of Egg Production and Study of Poultry Keeping Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute carried out pilot sample surveys in different animal husbandry regions of the country for developing a suitable sampling methodology for estimation of annual output of principal livestock products. Thi...

D. Singh J. N. Garg B. B. P. S. Goel K. B. Singh M. Rajagopalan

1977-01-01

332

25 CFR 166.312 - Is a conservation plan required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the tribe's agricultural resource management plan and must address the permittee's management objectives regarding animal husbandry and resource conservation. The conservation plan must cover the entire permit period and reviewed by us on an...

2013-04-01

333

75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Sheep 2011 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2010-08-27

334

76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2011-11-28

335

78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Cervid 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2013-09-23

336

78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...APHIS-2012-0088] Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2013-01-09

337

76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Needs Assessments AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2011-03-15

338

77 FR 34934 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2012-06-12

339

78 FR 46255 - Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans; Stay of Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR...APHIS-2006-0159] RIN 0579-AC69 Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans; Stay of Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2013-07-31

340

76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Swine 2012 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2011-08-23

341

78 FR 24153 - Notice of Emergency Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2013-04-24

342

76 FR 34031 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-06-10

343

76 FR 42675 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2011-07-19

344

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230.111 Agriculture...Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to the National Pork...

2012-01-01

345

77 FR 41716 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9...APHIS-2011-0003] RIN 0579-AC36 Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2012-07-16

346

75 FR 34422 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2009-0024] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2010-06-17

347

78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Bison 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2013-09-23

348

76 FR 81404 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part...From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-12-28

349

75 FR 34423 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...APHIS-2009-0025] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2010-06-17

350

9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents...

2013-01-01

351

Is rangeland agriculture sustainable?  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to examine the sustainability of rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) on a world-wide basis, with a focus on North America. Sustainability is addressed on three fronts: 1) ecological, 2) economic, and 3) social acceptance. Based on previous and on-going research, we suggest that employment of science-based rangeland grazing management strategies and tactics can ensure ecological sustainability. The formidable challenge in employing such technology centers around the need to balance efficiency of solar energy capture and subsequent harvest efficiencies across an array of highly spatially and temporally variable vegetation growing conditions using animals that graze selectively. Failure to meet this fundamental challenge often accelerates rangeland desertification processes, and in some instances, enhances rate and extent of the invasion of noxious weeds. We also suggest that the fundamental reason that ecologically sound grazing management technologies are often not employed in the management of grazed ecological systems is because social values drive management decisions more so than ecological science issues. This is true in both well-developed societies with substantial economic resources and in less-developed societies with few economic resources. However, the social issues driving management are often entirely different, ranging from multiple-use issues in developed countries to human day-to-day survival issues in poorly developed countries. We conclude that the long-term sustainability of rangeland agriculture in 1) developed societies depends on the ability of rangeland agriculturalists to continually respond in a dynamic, positive, proactive manner to ever-changing social values and 2) less-developed societies on their ability to address the ecological and social consequences arising from unsustainable human populations before the adoption of science-based sustainable rangeland management technologies. PMID:15471792

Heitschmidt, R K; Vermeire, L T; Grings, E E

2004-01-01

352

DNA: Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute makes available twenty-five short, narrated animations about DNA at this link. The animations are viewable as video clips and topics include, but are not limited to DNA structure, DNA replication, transcription and translation, mutations in DNA, polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and shotgun sequencing.

Institute, Howard H.

2009-09-04

353

Excelsior Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)|

Steinkamp, Mary J.

2001-01-01

354

``Animal Intelligence''  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a review of my monograph on ``Animal Intelligence,'' in a recent number of NATURE, Mr. Lloyd Morgan credits me with upholding the theory that we have sensations caused by outgoing currents which innervate muscles, and with depending on that theory in some of my own statements about the nature of animals' consciousness. A careless and ambiguous sentence of mine

Edward L. Thorndike

1898-01-01

355

The animal genetic resource information network (AnimalGRIN) database: A database design and implementation case  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript presents a case study that is based on an actual project for the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The NAGP collects, preserves, and documents germplasm from various breeds of livestock in the United States, in order to preserve and e...

356

Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

357

1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

358

Science Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by António Cidadão.

359

Easy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If a picture is worth 1,000 words, then a good animation islike a classic short story--a simple tale simply told.Animations are particularly effective in the teaching ofmathematics because motion is often fundamental to theconcept at hand, and a well-designed animation is usuallyan excellent way to introduce such a concept. In thischapter, we describe two ways to make animations and postthem on your course websites. Once you master the process,you will be surprised at how easy it is to build and post yourown animations. This is a chapter in the Visualization in Science Education section of the Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) April 2004 conference proceedings published under the title Invention and Impact: Building Excellence in Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education.

Paul Blanchard (Boston University;)

2004-12-01

360

The Ecologist's View of Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides insights on the controversial issue of animal rights. Four factors are considered: (1) animals' rights; (2) research; (3) hunting and fishing; and (4) agriculture. Contends that it is imperative that the public knows all the facts before casting their vote on the issue. (ZWH)|

Howard, Walter E.

1994-01-01

361

Evaluation of UVB reduction by materials commonly used in reptile husbandry.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation (285-320 nm) is considered important for metabolic processes and reproduction in many reptile species by facilitating the synthesis of vitamin D(3). In captivity, UVB radiation reaching an animal may be diminished by the properties of the materials used in enclosure construction. We investigated the UVB-attenuating properties of 14 materials commonly used in cage tops for reptile enclosures. Irradiances were measured by two types of hand-held broadband radiometers and the D(3)-synthesizing potential was assessed by the use of an in vitro model. For UV-transmitting acrylic, a significant discrepancy between meter irradiances and in vitro model values for D(3)-synthesizing ability was observed, with meter readings underestimating the blocking effect. In contrast, attenuation of UVB irradiances by air-permeable materials, such as wire screen, measured with meters was generally comparable to the attenuation of D(3)-synthesizing ability as measured by in vitro models. Relatively simple meter readings can therefore be used to reflect reduction of D(3)-synthesizing ability through air-permeable materials. Zoo Biol 26:417-423, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360590

Michael Burger, R; Gehrmann, William H; Ferguson, Gary W

2007-09-01

362

Anaerobic oxidation of methane in grassland soils used for cattle husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the importance of anaerobic methane oxidation has been reported for marine ecosystems, the role of this process in soils is still questionable. Grasslands used as pastures for cattle-overwintering show an increase in anaerobic soil micro-sites caused by animal treading and excrement deposition. Therefore anaerobic potential methane oxidation activity of severely impacted soil from a cattle winter pasture was investigated in an incubation experiment under anaerobic conditions using 13C-labeled methane. We were able to detect a high microbial activity utilizing CH4 as nutrient source shown by the respiration of 13CO2. Measurements of possible terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane were carried out. Soil sulfate concentrations were too low to explain the oxidation of the amount of methane added, but enough nitrate and iron(III) were detected. However, only nitrate was consumed during the experiment. 13C-PLFA analyses clearly showed the utilization of CH4 as nutrient source mainly by organisms harbouring 16:1?7 PLFAs. These lipids were found in Gram-negative microorganisms and anaerobes. The fact that these lipids are also typical for type I methanotrophs, known as aerobic methane oxidizers, might indicate a link between aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation.

Bannert, A.; Bogen, C.; Esperschütz, J.; Koubová, A.; Buegger, F.; Fischer, D.; Radl, V.; Fuß, R.; Chro?áková, A.; Elhottová, D.; Šimek, M.; Schloter, M.

2012-04-01

363

Anaerobic oxidation of methane in grassland soils used for cattle husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the importance of anaerobic methane oxidation has been reported for marine ecosystems, the role of this process in soils is still questionable. Grasslands used as pastures for cattle overwintering show an increase in anaerobic soil micro-sites caused by animal treading and excrement deposition. Therefore, anaerobic potential methane oxidation activity of severely impacted soil from a cattle winter pasture was investigated in an incubation experiment under anaerobic conditions using 13C-labelled methane. We were able to detect a high microbial activity utilizing CH4 as nutrient source shown by the respiration of 13CO2. Measurements of possible terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane were carried out. Soil sulfate concentrations were too low to explain the oxidation of the amount of methane added, but enough nitrate and iron(III) were detected. However, only nitrate was consumed during the experiment. 13C-PLFA analyses clearly showed the utilization of CH4 as nutrient source mainly by organisms harbouring 16:1?7 PLFAs. These lipids were also found as most 13C-enriched fatty acids by Raghoebarsing et al. (2006) after addition of 13CH4 to an enrichment culture coupling denitrification of nitrate to anaerobic oxidation of methane. This might be an indication for anaerobic oxidation of methane by relatives of "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" in the investigated grassland soil under the conditions of the incubation experiment.

Bannert, A.; Bogen, C.; Esperschütz, J.; Koubová, A.; Buegger, F.; Fischer, D.; Radl, V.; Fuß, R.; Chro?áková, A.; Elhottová, D.; Šimek, M.; Schloter, M.

2012-10-01

364

USDA: Animal Welfare Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA's Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) was mandated by the Animal Welfare Act, and the website contains everything from current animal issues to workshops for those in industries that utilize animals to licensing forms. Specifically, the AWIC is designed "to regulate and improve care of animals in research, testing, teaching, and exhibition." The site includes the proposed government rules about animal welfare that are in their public comment period, and how and where to submit your comment. Visitors can click on "In The News" to see all the animal-related rules that are in their public comment period. If visitors want to learn about the origins of veterinary medicine, they can click on "Companion Animals" on the left side of the homepage to find a link to "Veterinary History Resources at the National Agricultural Library". Finally, AWIC provides very important information and resources on alternatives to animal testing, under "Alternatives," on the left side of the homepage. Here visitors will find links to websites that explain the principles of alternatives to animal testing, as well as several papers from conferences that address the issue.

2008-01-01

365

Agriculture: NIOSH Research Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Grants; Cooperative Agreements; NIOSH-Supported Centers for Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention; NIOSH-Supported Educational Resource Centers (ERC) Agricultural Training Programs; Sentinel Event Notification Syste...

1997-01-01

366

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

367

Limitations to Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pie chart showing the percentage of land without limitations to agriculture (11%) and the reasons that the other land is of limited agriculture usefulness. With a timeplot showing the (slight) increase in arable land over the period 1960-2000

Environment, Aaas A.

368

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

369

Childhood Agricultural Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... dollars) 11 2012 Blueprint for Protecting Children in Agriculture Lee BC, Gallager SS, Liebman AK, Miller ME and ... B (Eds.) (2012). Blueprint for Protecting Children in Agriculture: The 2012 National Action Plan. Marshfield, WI: Marshfield ...

370

Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-12-04

371

Agricultural Structures, Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing…

Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

372

Fostering Agriculture Environmental Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is important to any society, but its activity often has negative impact in the environment. We propose a game, implemented in the on-line virtual world platform Open-Simulator, that gives the opportunity to players to experience the potential effects of agriculture in the environment. The game was built with the purpose of promoting the awareness of agriculture issues, such as,

Rui Prada; Daniel Dias; Helmut Prendinger; Arturo Nakasone

2010-01-01

373

Biotechnology and Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

Kenney, Martin

374

Agriculture Business and Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

Seperich, George; And Others

375

Research careers for microbiologists in the USDA Agricultural Research Service  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) employees microbiologists in a wide variety of diverse positions. This includes work involving animal health, infectious diseases and food safety. Various agencies within the USDA are responsible for monit...

376

Agricultural Biotechnology Technician. National Voluntary Occupational Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The skill standards in this document were developed as a result of meetings between representatives of the agricultural industry and educational institutions to determine the skills and educational preparation required of an agricultural biotechnology technician, verified by technicians working in laboratories, greenhouses, animal facilities, and…

National Future Farmers of America Foundation, Madison, WI.

377

Theory and practice: the impact of mendelism on agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is a reexamination of the success story of how Mendelian genetics gave birth to a revolution in plant and animal breeding which produced the spectacular 20th century agricultural progress and made it possible to feed the exploding population of the Earth. Critics have pointed to the problematic social effect of the agricultural revolution, and they have

Nils Roll-Hansen

2000-01-01

378

Management considerations for organic waste use in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic wastes are utilized in agriculture mainly for improving the soil physical and chemical properties and for nutrient sources for growing crops. The major source of organic waste used in agriculture is animal manure, but small amounts of food processing and other industrial wastes (along with municipal wastes) are also applied to land. In the last 35 years, and especially

P. W. Westerman; J. R. Bicudo

2005-01-01

379

Valuing agricultural externalities in Canterbury rivers and streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality and quantity concerns in Canterbury are intrinsically related to agriculture. Monetary values for impacts on streams and rivers is lacking in policy debate. This paper employs choice modelling to estimate values of three impacts on rivers and streams in Canterbury associated with agriculture: health risks of E coli from animal waste, ecological effects of excess nutrients, and low-flow

Peter R. Tait; Ross Cullen; Kathryn Bicknell

2008-01-01

380

GIS in precision agriculture and watershed management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The technologies used to support the agricultural industry have changed significantly in the last 20 years. While genetic plant and animal research have improved varieties and yields, the introduction of information systems and precision management techniques have allowed reduced inputs (nutrients, ...

381

Agricultural policy and sustainable livestock development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future agricultural and rural development is, to a large extent, influenced by the projected food needs of 2.5 billion people expected to swell the world population by 2020. This increase will require more food in general and, in view of recent experience in East Asia, more animal products. To achieve this increase will require judicious use of resources, and trade,

T. W. Schillhorn van Veen

1999-01-01

382

Agriculture: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course this learning module introduces the student to some of the major trends associated with agriculture and its impact upon cultural evolution and complexity. The first section of the module describes major innovations such as animal power, irrigation and the…

Kassebaum, Peter

383

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)|

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

384

Animate Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in the United Kingdom, the Animate Projects site is designed to "explore the relationship between art and animation, and the place of animation and its concepts in contemporary art practice." With support from the Arts Council England and Channel 4, they have created this delightful site featuring over 100 films that "explore ideas around animation." On the homepage, visitors can view a rotating selection of these projects, and they are also encouraged to click on the "Films" section to browse through films dating back to 1991. Moving on, visitors can click on the "Events" section to learn about relevant screenings around Britain, lectures, and workshops. Cineastes will want to delve into the "Writing" area, which includes critical responses to some of the works which can be viewed elsewhere on the site. To get a taste of the offerings here, first-time users may wish to view "Amnesia" by Cordelia Swann or Alex Schady's work, "Everything Must Go".

385

Digital Animators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting started in the world of digital animation isn't easy, and it can be useful to have a helpful resource to find out about the current trends in this dynamic field. Fortunately, there is the Digital Animators website which features career-development blogs, tutorials, new software releases, and opinion pieces. First-time visitors can get the flavor of the site by reading a few of the "Top Stories" on the homepage, and then move on to the "Tech News" or the "Company News" areas. Here they will find more detailed information on important developments that affect the business side of this type of animation. Most visitors will want to make a beeline for the "Tutorials" area. Here they will find video clips that talk about how to colorize black and white objects and how to manipulate animation layers with the Autodesk application.

2010-05-14

386

Animal bites  

MedlinePLUS

... infected with a virus that can cause rabies. Bats may spread this disease. Rabies is rare but ... and wild animals, such as skunks, raccoons, and bats, also bite thousands of people each year. If ...

387

Animal Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Raising, fattening, and slaughtering the animals needed to produce meat for the increasing United States population generate as much waste as a human population of over 2 billion people. Modern techniques required to produce this much meat efficiently and...

1971-01-01

388

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING frequently observed in your columns accounts of remarkable instances of reasoning power in animals, I am tempted to send you the following notes, which may perhaps be not without interest to the readers of NATURE.

R. J. Harvey Gibson

1884-01-01

389

Animal Adaptations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will participate in classroom discussions and visit a website to learn more about animals and how well (or poorly) theyve adapted to satisfying their needs in their natural habitats. This will help move them toward the goal, in later grades, of understanding ecosystems.The Kratts' Creatures website used in this lesson provides students with a simple, visual means for familiarizing themselves with basic world ecosystems as well as some examples of the animals that occupy them.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)

2002-04-29

390

Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

391

Animal experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of animals are used every year in oftentimes extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation\\u000a of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more\\u000a or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context\\u000a correspond to the “3Rs” concept as

Roman Kolar

2006-01-01

392

Animating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson challenges students to apply their knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of hand-rendered pictures that model a set of physical conditions. The challenges include animating the orbital motion of planets and satellites, the effects of gravity on a falling body, and motions of objects in inertial (moving) frames of reference. The lesson was created by a high school physics teacher to help learners build quantitative reasoning skills in preparation for understanding kinematics.

Latham, Ted

2004-07-16

393

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

394

Animal signals.  

PubMed

The study of animal signals began in earnest with the publication in 1872 of Charles Darwin's The Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals, which laid the basis for a comparative study of signals across all animals, including humans. Yet even before Darwin, the exceptional diversity of animal signals has gripped the attention of natural historians and laymen alike, as these signals represent some of the most striking features of the natural world. Structures such as the long ornamented tail of the peacock, the roaring sounds of howler monkeys, audible kilometers away, and the pheromone trails laid by ants to guide their nestmates to resources are each examples of animal signals (Figure 1). Indeed, because signals evolved for the purpose of communicating (Box 1), their prominence can be hard for even a casual observer to overlook. Animal signals therefore raise many scientific questions: What are their functions? What information do they transmit? How are they produced? And why did they evolve? PMID:24070440

Laidre, Mark E; Johnstone, Rufus A

2013-09-23

395

Animal liberation or animal research?  

PubMed

The first wave of protest against animal research began over a hundred years ago and lasted for about 40 years. The present wave of protest has only existed for the past 20 years but it is already far more serious, and more violent, than the first. In this Special Feature, Mark Matfield reviews the history of the animal liberation movement, and predicts that unless the scientific community makes a greater effort to inform the public about why animal research is necessary and the humane way in which it is conducted, pharmacological and other areas of biomedical research could become seriously restricted. PMID:1796494

Matfield, M J

1991-11-01

396

PATTERNS OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, ENVIRONMENT, AND ETHNICITY IN CENTRAL ANATOLIA IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE PERIOD: FAUNAL REMAINS FROM ISLAMIC LAYERS AT KAMAN-KALEHÖYÜK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on an analysis of faunal remains from the Ottoman Empire Period Layers at Kaman-Kalehöyük, a mound site located in Kir?ehir province, Turkey. Anatolia, during the period after the Ottoman conquest in 1453, has usually been regarded as being under Turkish rule and its culture designated as \\

Hitomi Hongo

1997-01-01

397

Effect of fibre-rich diets on the backfat skatole content of entire male pigs 1 Communication no. 1055 of the Department `Animal Nutrition and Husbandry'. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine the effect of feeding diets differing in fibre content and source on backfat skatole content and boar taint score of entire male pigs. Sixty entire male pigs (Piétrain×Seghers hybrid cross) were assigned to four dietary treatments and fed ad libitum, in two phases (grower and fattening), one of the following diets: control, one with 15%

M. J Van Oeckel; N Warnants; M De Paepe; M Casteels; Ch. V Boucqué

1998-01-01

398

The development of animal husbandry from the Late Iron Age to the end of the Roman period: a case study from South-East Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper zooarchaeological evidence from Iron Age and Roman sites in South-East Britain is presented and the results are applied to the continuing debate over culture contact and change following the Roman invasion. Evidence from Heybridge in Essex indicates that there were two stages of livestock development. These may reflect the import of new breeding stock into Britain. Differences

Umberto Albarella; Cluny Johnstone; Kim Vickers

2008-01-01

399

Romano-Libyan Dryland Animal Husbandry and Landscape: Pollen and Palynofacies Analyses of Coprolites from a Farm in the Wadi el-Amud, Tripolitania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen and palynofacies from sheep\\/goat, rodent and human coprolites of Romano-Libyan, Arab and recent age from a farmstead in the Wadi el-Amud, Tripolitania, Libya are described. There are few differences between assemblages from modern sheep\\/goat dung and from recent aeolian sand—both contain high percentages of desert species and significant far-travelled pollen. The Romano-Libyan and Arab samples contain high percentages of

C. O. Hunt; G. Rushworth; D. D. Gilbertson; D. J. Mattingly

2001-01-01

400

National Agricultural Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) is part of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The library is a major international source for agriculture and related information. The website provides access to NAL's many resources which include: a Web Gateway to AGRICOLA (AGRICultural OnLine Access), the catalog of the library and its cooperator's resources; the Agriculture Network Information Center (AgNIC), a guide to quality agricultural information on the Internet; and many other databases such as the AGROS Research Data Directory, which is a collection of dataset descriptions from the USDA's environmental research. Users may also find publications, services and programs, and links to other information centers.

401

Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

402

The animal welfare act as applied to primate animal laboratories.  

PubMed

The Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 89-544, as amended) was passed by Congress to assure the humane care and treatment of certain warmblooded animals bought, sold, held, or transported for purposes of research, exhibition, or for use as pets. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for administering the minimum care and treatment requirements promulgated under the authorities of this law. This paper presents in some detail the requirements and responsibilities of users of nonhuman primates for research, testing, or experimentation. PMID:6680148

Schwindaman, D F

1983-01-01

403

Animal Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.

404

Animal welfare in relation to standards in organic farming.  

PubMed

The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999) are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so. PMID:11995386

Hammarberg, K E

2001-01-01

405

31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...intended to be consumed by and provide nutrition to humans or animals in Sudan. For purposes...from wood; clothing manufactured from plant or animal materials; agricultural equipment...cosmetics (unless derived entirely from plant materials). [74 FR 61032,...

2013-07-01

406

31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...intended to be consumed by and provide nutrition to humans or animals in Iran. For purposes...from wood; clothing manufactured from plant or animal materials; agricultural equipment...cosmetics (unless derived entirely from plant materials). (2) For the...

2013-07-01

407

The implementation of robotic technology in an animal facility: a case study.  

PubMed

The benefits of a robotics system for waste disposal and cage sanitation in an animal care facility include a reduction of ergonomic concerns and an increase in production capability. A modular approach can further provide an ability to relocate the unit to new building construction. There are numerous considerations that can affect the design and operation of a robotic cagewash system. These include facility layout, existing animal husbandry procedures, equipment selection, and employee involvement. The implementation of the complete system in an animal facility requires communication and insight from all members of the animal care staff as well as novel solutions to attain full production and operation. The system itself contains many complex technical and mechanical functions, but a successful installation can only be fully achieved with teamwork and proper training. PMID:15174811

Glass, Joan D; Klein, Hilton J; Terpeluk, William; Pouch, Walter J

2004-05-01

408

Evolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a tour of the history of the universe, the solar system, and Earth. Moving the slider allows viewers to progress from the Big Bang, almost 14 billion years ago, to the beginnings of life on Earth in the Proterozoic era, through the age of the dinosaurs and finally to the time of Homo sapiens. When the slider stops moving, animations and text appear, highlighting important events. Other animations accompany the time scale and show the movements of the continents, the advance and retreat of the polar ice caps, and changes in the oxygen content of the atmosphere. The length of the timeline helps reinforce the idea of the immense age of the universe. A French translation is available.

Kyrk, John

409

Groundwater Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash and QuickTime animations related to groundwater. They contrast the permeability of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, as well as the speed of groundwater movement in rivers, lakes, and aquifers. They also outline the hydrologic cycle, discussing infiltration, percolation, and the water table, exhibit groundwater overdraft and the resulting formation of a cone of depression, and show how groundwater entering fractured bedrock can become superheated and pushed to the surface, erupting as a geyser. The animations can be paused and rewound to stress important points. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2011-02-28

410

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animalâs reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

411

Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence.  

PubMed

Concerns about sustainability in agricultural systems centre on the need to develop technologies and practices that do not have adverse effects on environmental goods and services, are accessible to and effective for farmers, and lead to improvements in food productivity. Despite great progress in agricultural productivity in the past half-century, with crop and livestock productivity strongly driven by increased use of fertilizers, irrigation water, agricultural machinery, pesticides and land, it would be over-optimistic to assume that these relationships will remain linear in the future. New approaches are needed that will integrate biological and ecological processes into food production, minimize the use of those non-renewable inputs that cause harm to the environment or to the health of farmers and consumers, make productive use of the knowledge and skills of farmers, so substituting human capital for costly external inputs, and make productive use of people's collective capacities to work together to solve common agricultural and natural resource problems, such as for pest, watershed, irrigation, forest and credit management. These principles help to build important capital assets for agricultural systems: natural; social; human; physical; and financial capital. Improving natural capital is a central aim, and dividends can come from making the best use of the genotypes of crops and animals and the ecological conditions under which they are grown or raised. Agricultural sustainability suggests a focus on both genotype improvements through the full range of modern biological approaches and improved understanding of the benefits of ecological and agronomic management, manipulation and redesign. The ecological management of agroecosystems that addresses energy flows, nutrient cycling, population-regulating mechanisms and system resilience can lead to the redesign of agriculture at a landscape scale. Sustainable agriculture outcomes can be positive for food productivity, reduced pesticide use and carbon balances. Significant challenges, however, remain to develop national and international policies to support the wider emergence of more sustainable forms of agricultural production across both industrialized and developing countries. PMID:17652074

Pretty, Jules

2008-02-12

412

Recent Evidence of Animal Exploitation in the Axumite Epoch, 1st– 5th Centuries AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports evidence of animal exploitation during the Axumite era based on a survey of architectural features, rock art and artefacts recovered from the archaeological site at Axum, northern Ethiopia. Animals and agricultural tools were identified from materials not previously examined. Pottery, rock art and animal remains revealed a range of zoological species. Agricultural implements and sacrificial vessels also

M. Tefera

2004-01-01

413

Humane Disposability: Rethinking “Food Animals,” Animal Welfare, and Vegetarianism in Response to the Factory Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensively industrialized animal agriculture, or factory farming, poses many challenges for our notions of “life” and how it should be treated. Factory farming’s mass instrumentalization and exploitation of animals potentially unsettles both our most basic notions regarding the justice of sacrificing certain lives in order to improve other lives, and our decisions about which lives belong to each category. This

Jessica L W Carey

2011-01-01

414

Animation aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods based on aerodynamics are developed to simulate and control the motion of objects in fluid flows. To simplify the physics for animation, the problem is broken down into two parts: a fluid flow regime and an object boundary regime. With this simplification one can approximate the realistic behaviour of objects moving in liquids or air. It also enables a

Jakub Wejchert; David R. Haumann

1991-01-01

415

Transgenic Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of…

Jaenisch, Rudolf

1988-01-01

416

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN an excellent paper on ``Animal Intelligence'' (NATURE, vol. xxvi. p. 523), Mr. C. Lloyd Morgan says that ``The brute has to be contented with the experience he inherits or individually acquires. Man, through language spoken or written, profits by the experience of his fellows. Even the most savage tribe has traditions extending back to the father's father. May there

Fritz Mueller; S. GOSTAGE

1883-01-01

417

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE columns of NATURE have sometimes been open to statements illustrating the practical sagacity of animals of the lower classes. Allow me to place before you the history of an occurrence which appears to prove the power of organisation in the common house-mouse.

G. A. B

1883-01-01

418

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE following notes of facts observed in New Zealand may be thought of interest; in some way they may serve to illustrate Mr. Romanes' work on ``Animal Intelligence'' : they are submitted without making an attempt to distinguish where they may overlap the fine line between instinct and intelligence. Cases which may show apparent intelligence or the reverse are recorded

T. H. Potts

1884-01-01

419

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As NATURE frequently contains notices of intelligence in animals, I have ventured to send you the inclosed note from the Reading local paper, as containing a remarkable fact regarding intelligence in a blind horse. The writer, Mr. Gostage, is quite trustworthy, and I have taken pains to verify the truth of his statements.

Joseph Stevens; S. Gostage

1883-01-01

420

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEVERAL remarkable instances of intelligence in animals have been given in recent numbers of NATURE. Possibly the following instance of reasoning power in an elephant may not be without interest:-Some years ago I was ascending the lower part of the Darjeeling Hill Road, in the Himalaya Mountains, from Terai. At a certain part of the road, where we met a

F. R. Mallet

1883-01-01

421

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH the terms ``ass'' and, at any rate in Germany, ``ox'' (Ochs) are very generally applied to stupid persons, those who have observed the bovine and asinine genera know that this is an injustice to those animals; and the following instances of particular intelligence displayed by two of the thus maligned beasts seem worth recording.

L. C. Hurt

1902-01-01

422

Transgenic Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

Jaenisch, Rudolf

1988-01-01

423

Agricultural Awareness Activities and Their Integration into the Curriculum as Perceived by Elementary Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from 281 of 689 elementary teachers indicated they had positive perceptions of the agriculture industry and integration of agriculture into the curriculum. Over 80% used agriculture activities, especially the study of animals, plants, food, nutrition, environment, wildlife, and insects. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

Knobloch, Neil A.; Martin, Robert A.

2000-01-01

424

Minnesota Department of Education Agricultural Education Program Descriptions 01.0000-01.9095  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a brief compilation of descriptions of agricultural education programs linked to Career and Technical Education (CTE) initiative in Minnesota. Agriculture Exploration courses focus on the animal sciences, plant sciences, natural resource sciences, agricultural business and marketing, and leadership development. Agribusiness…

Minnesota Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

425

Minnesota Department of Education Agricultural Education Program Descriptions 01.0000-01.9095  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides a brief compilation of descriptions of agricultural education programs linked to Career and Technical Education (CTE) initiative in Minnesota. Agriculture Exploration courses focus on the animal sciences, plant sciences, natural resource sciences, agricultural business and marketing, and leadership development. Agribusiness…

Minnesota Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

426

Agricultural Education in the Zaire: An Essay in the Methodology of Analysis and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the research done in 1970-71 in 9 secondary agricultural schools in Zaire was to generate a system for analyzing agricultural education. For this purpose, how the agricultural school relates to the 4 main currents in sociology--the sociology of organization, of education, of occupation, and of "rural animation"--is considered.…

de Failly, D.

427

Agricultural Statistics 1994  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has made full text of "Agricultural Statistics 1994" available via its Web site. Agricultural Statistics is an annual compendium of data (and selected charts) relating to all aspects of the U.S. agricultural economy. Subject coverage includes all major crop and livestock sectors, farm income and credit, stabilization and price support, agricultural conservation and forestry statistics, and fertilizers and pesticides, among others. Tables include both state and national breakdowns, and most national tables include between two and ten year time series. The book is available as one large Adobe Acrobat .PDF file (about 5 megabytes), so you'll need a fast connection to get it. You'll also need a free Acrobat Reader, which can be obtained at the same page. Acrobat allows selective searching for specific tables, as well as selective printing of those tables. (See Network Tools, below.)

1994-01-01

428

USDA: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The watchword of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is "protection". The APHIS is primarily considered with improving agricultural productivity and also ensuring the health and care of animals and plants. First-time visitors may wish to click on the "Hot Issues" section to learn more about some of the most pressing issues that the APHIS addresses. Here they will find fact sheets and news updates on avian influenza, the pesky light brown apple moth, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Moving on, visitors can also browse a list of subject headings that include animal health, biotechnology, plant health, and wildlife damage management. Finally, the site also contains an area where concerned visitors can report a pest infestation or suspected instances of agricultural smuggling.

429

Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

430

The USA perspective on animal welfare: issues and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare in the United States, as in the world at large, is a highly visible and often controversial topic. As the Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal Care program, I am responsible for implementing the regulations that support the federal Animal Welfare Act, otherwise known as the AWA, and the Horse Protection Act, known as the

Chester A Gipson

431

Animal disease outbreak control: the use of crisis management tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this era of globalisation the effective control of animal disease outbreaks requires powerful crisis management tools. In the 1990s software packages for different sectors of the government and agricultural industry began to be developed. In 2004, as a special application for tracking the movement of animals and animal products, the European Union developed the Trade Control and Expert

R. Carmanns; F. J. Conraths

2006-01-01

432

Animated Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

2002-01-01

433

77 FR 1388 - Lists of Regions Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To Receive Certain Imported Horses AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2012-01-10

434

75 FR 37377 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Disease Traceability; Tribal Nations...Systems for Location Identification AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2010-06-29

435

76 FR 31499 - Lists of Regions Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To Receive Certain Imported Horses AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2011-06-01

436

Math Animated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains courseware for single and many-variables calculus designed for introductory undergraduate physics and engineering students. Included are text explanations and solved exercises, supported by animated and interactive graphics. The graphics make the material useful for a broader audience in both the classroom and by individual students. These materials use MathML and SVG. The free Firefox browser can be used to view, these resources without any plugins on Windows, Mac and Linux.

Dagan, Samuel

2005-10-09

437

Animal Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Clinical research has delineated the nature and severity of acute and chronic cerebral disturbances in relation to abnormal\\u000a glucose metabolism, as reviewed in the previous chapters of this book. By comparison, insight into the pathophysiology is\\u000a still limited and evidence for effective treatment is largely lacking. Studies in animal models may help to fill in these\\u000a gaps in our knowledge.

Geert Jan Biessels

438

Career Preparation in Agricultural Production: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide in agricultural production is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes four occupational subgroups: animal science, plant science, farm mechanics, and farm business management. It is meant as an aid to…

McGhee, Max B., Comp.

439

How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.  

PubMed

The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

2002-05-01

440

How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.  

PubMed Central

The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable.

Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

2002-01-01

441

Agriculture and Rural Viability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

442

Agriculture in the Midwest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

443

Greening of Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consolidation of farms, agricultural input supply companies, and commodity businesses over the past several decades have led to a concentration of ownership and control. There is growing concern by society about the environmental impacts of agriculture and the food system, and companies are eager to exploit this concern by advertising products that are environmentally friendly. When there is a greening

Charles Francis; Roger Elmore; John Ikerd; Mike Duffy

2007-01-01

444

Argentine Agriculture under GATT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argentina is the world's second largest exporter of grains, oilseeds, and oilseed products. Traditionally, Argentina's economic policies have taxed the agricultural sector, which produces goods for exports, to subsidize the mostly insulated industrial sector. Despite this unfavorable treatment, the agricultural sector has remained Argentina's economic mainstay and competes successfully in world markets. Recurrent economic crises have led to substantial changes

Sergio H. Lence

1994-01-01

445

Water Conservation for Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water conservation for agriculture has been important for centuries and is becoming increasingly important due to competition among agricultural and other users. Our objectives were to review progress made in our understanding of factors affecting water conservation during the past 100 years and to ...

446

Personal Achievement Reading: Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exercises are provided in a set of five workbooks designed to aid students in agricultural programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from terminology of agriculture to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on the ability to determine word…

Rozeboom, Deborah A.

447

IS RANGELAND AGRICULTURE SUSTAINABLE?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural enterprise sustainability is most often assessed by examining long-term ecological sustainability, short- and long-term economic viability, and social acceptance. From an ecological perspective, rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) is deemed fully sustainable providing the rang...

448

Agricultural Outlook, November 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the November 2002 issue of the 'Agricultural Outlook'. This publication addresses a broad spectrum of agriculture-related issues and provides short-term outlook articles on commodity markets and food prices. It also presents in-depth analyses of U...

2002-01-01

449

Vocational Agriculture I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

450

Agricultural robotics [TC Spotlight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is just one step in the supply chain that leads to the table of the consumer. Just as automation has brought down the price of electrical goods by reducing the manpower involved, so is the price of agricultural production being reduced. Although electronic games are a luxury, food is a necessity that must be produced at all costs. We

John Billingsley; Denny Oetomo; John Reid

2009-01-01

451

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

452

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

453

Vocational Agriculture Education: Agricultural Livestock Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten units of instruction are provided in this curriculum guide on agricultural livestock skills. Unit topics are as follow: (1) restraining, (2) vaccination, (3) livestock castration, (4) dehorning, (5) docking, (6) growth stimulants, (7) identification, (8) shearing, (9) hoof trimming, and (10) birth assistance. Each instructional unit generally…

Pierce, Greg

454

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Agriculture in the Classroom initiative is designed to "improve agricultural literacy." The organization's work is supported by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which works to develop the classroom programs, including fact sheets, lesson plans, and interactive activities. Visitors can make their way through five sections on the homepage, including State Programs, Teacher Center, and Student Center. In the Teacher Center, visitors will find lesson plans, state agricultural facts, and current and back issues of "AgroWorld." This publication brings together helpful information for students and teachers seeking to learn about integrated science, Earth systems, and family and consumer science. Moving along, the Student Center includes fun activities for younger children in the Kids' Zone, such as games that allow students to learn about farm activities and the world of agricultural science.

455

Regulation of animal experimentation: United States of America.  

PubMed

Two national mechanisms regulate the humane treatment of the 20-40 million laboratory animals that are used annually for experimental purposes in the United States each year. They are: the Public Health Service policy (commonly called the National Institutes of Health (NIH) policy) of 1985, and the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 as amended, a federal law. National policies are constantly being strengthened. Until 1984, national policies covered mainly animal husbandry practices. But the 1985 revised NIH policy directly involves the laboratory for the first time by requiring protocol review for humane concerns. Protocol review of proposed experiments is to be conducted by Animal Care and Use Committees--the institutional oversight committees. It is with effective protocol review that the Refinement, Reduction, and Replacement (of Russell and Burch's three Rs) to reduce ethical costs of experiments can be made an everyday reality. With this new authority for Animal Care and Use Committees, and a mandate for broader representation in membership, the revised NIH policy should bring improvements. Proposals are currently being considered by the U.S. Congress to strengthen the Animal Welfare Act. This law is in need of revision since about 90% of the laboratory animals are currently excluded from its coverage. The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare has been active in identifying ways in which national policies can be strengthened. In particular, focus has been made on meaningful protocol review by institutional oversight committees. Some recommendations for effective oversight committees based on recent workshops conducted by the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare are described. PMID:3469871

Orlans, F B

1986-01-01

456

Animal behavior and animal welfare.  

PubMed

The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

Houpt, K A

1991-04-15

457

National Agricultural Library: Kids and Teens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) kids and teens page features links to book and magazine article abstracts, online interactives, educator resources and information about animals, livestock and agriculture; the environment, food and nutrition, general science, and horticulture. The education and outreach page fatures links to several collections of educational materials for teachers, parents, and students, as well as a directory of land-grant colleges with agricultural programs, a listing of events and conferences, and a link to the NAL Catalog (AGRICOLA) with citations for extension education and training from January 2005 to the present. There are also links to information on research and technology programs, natural resources and the environment, laws and regulations, and career information.

458

Concepts of Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Livestock Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, The International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM) developed four new ethical principles of organic\\u000a agriculture to guide its future development: the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. The key distinctive concept\\u000a of animal welfare in organic agriculture combines naturalness and human care, and can be linked meaningfully with these principles.\\u000a In practice, a number of challenges

Mette VaarstHugo; Hugo F. Alrøe

459

Transgenic farm animals: present and future.  

PubMed

Until recently, pronuclear microinjection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was the standard method for producing transgenic animals. This technique is now being replaced by more efficient protocols based on somatic nucleartransferthat also permit targeted genetic modifications. Lentiviral vectors and small interfering ribonucleic acid technology are also becoming important tools for transgenesis. Transgenic farm animals are important in human medicine as sources of biologically active proteins, as donors in xenotransplantation, and for research in cell and gene therapy. Typical agricultural applications include improved carcass composition, lactational performance and wool production, as well as enhanced disease resistance and reduced environmental impact. Product safety can be ensured by standardisation of procedures and monitored by polymerase chain reaction and array technology. As sequence information and genomic maps of farm animals are refined, it becomes increasingly practical to remove or modify individual genes. This approach to animal breeding will be instrumental in meeting global challenges in agricultural production in the future. PMID:16110896

Niemann, H; Kues, W; Carnwath, J W

2005-04-01

460

USDA Agricultural Projections to 2020.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides projections for the agricultural sector through 2020. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices. The projections are based on specific a...

2011-01-01

461

RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

462

United States Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Wenatchee to Orono, the USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is looking into everything from colony collapse disorder to hop cultivation. Of course, their work doesn't stop there as they also coordinate science partnerships with a wide range of businesses and government agencies. Visitors to their website will be presented with a list of "I Want To", where they can find an ARS location, locate an ARS employee, search for a research project, or just even ask a question. The "Spotlight" area on the homepage is a great place to learn about some of their latest work, which has included research on high-quality corn, and a national research action plan for investigating colony collapse disorder. Moving on, the "Products & Services" area includes the archive of their monthly magazine and links to their newsletters, which address nutrition and animal health-related matters.

463

9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY...subchapter A of this chapter. (b) Initial survey. When an application has been filed...

2013-01-01

464

An essay on agriculture and population pressure.  

PubMed

This is an essay highlighting the fundamental importance of agriculture (historical and present) in the agro-socioeconomic evolution of human societies, from the times of the hunter/gatherers to the modern day. Attention is drawn in the text to the importance of deforestation in relation to micro and macro climate changes, and the vital role of carbon dioxide to plant and animal life. The essay also relates the world's natural resources to the present unsustainable population pressures. PMID:22544772

Macdonald, Andrew S

2012-01-01

465

History of zinc in agriculture.  

PubMed

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

Nielsen, Forrest H

2012-11-01

466

Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

Christensen, Christian M.

467

Agriculture and Food  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text VersionPage 1. Agriculture and Food Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan* as input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/fooddefense

468

Respirators for Agricultural Work  

MedlinePLUS

... a t o r s People involved in agriculture work around substances that can cause breathing problems. Choosing ... choose the right type of respirator for their work. In July of 1998, respirators coded with N, ...

469

Agricultural Education and OSHA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agriculture teachers should be interested in and become familiar with the implications of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 for their own benefit, for their students, and for their students' future employers. (AG)

Brown, Ronald A.

1974-01-01

470

GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

471

Agricultural robots in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional mechanism of agricultural robots and their utilizations are introduced. The robots discussed include: the tangerine orange harvesting robot, the robotic fertilizer applicator, the robotic law tractor, the fully automated combine harvester, the transplanter, the driverless tractor, etc

Nobutaka Ito

1990-01-01

472

Agricultural Development Policy Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper sets forth the major policy implications and issues for A.I.D. of a broadly participatory, employment-oriented agricultural production strategy for developing countries. The 'broadly participatory' strategy reflects the major U.S. development a...

1978-01-01

473

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet about the Agricultural Heath Study, begun In 1993 by scientists from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

474

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)|

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

475

How "Animal Spirits" Wrecked the Housing Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Real-estate markets are almost as volatile as stock markets. Prices of agricultural land, of commercial real estate, and of homes and condominiums have gone through a series of huge bubbles, as if people never learned from the previous ones. Such events--in particular the recent housing bubble--are driven by what John Maynard Keynes called animal

Akerlof, George A.; Shiller, Robert J.

2009-01-01

476

How "Animal Spirits" Wrecked the Housing Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Real-estate markets are almost as volatile as stock markets. Prices of agricultural land, of commercial real estate, and of homes and condominiums have gone through a series of huge bubbles, as if people never learned from the previous ones. Such events--in particular the recent housing bubble--are driven by what John Maynard Keynes called animal

Akerlof, George A.; Shiller, Robert J.

2009-01-01

477

Animal Welfare Report, Fiscal Year 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, the Secretary of Agriculture reports on administration and enforcement activities under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) as required by Section 25 of the AWA. The present report covers fiscal year (FY) 2000, from October 1, ...

2001-01-01

478

Animal Welfare Report Fiscal Year 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, the Secretary of Agriculture reports on administration and enforcement activities under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) as required by Section 25 of the AWA. The present report covers fiscal year (FY) 1999, from October 1, ...

2000-01-01

479

USDA Perspective on Environmental Enrichment for Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a brief historical background of the events and circumstances that led to the 1985 Animal Wel- fare Act (AWA) amendments. It describes the development of the regulations promulgated by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1991 as a result of these amend- ments, the reasoning given for the proposals, and the revi- sions that were made

Jodie A. Kulpa-Eddy; Sylvia Taylor; Kristina M. Adams

480

Lunar agriculture in Mesoamerica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the moon' s role in choosing the proper time for planting, harvesting and woodcutting is widely attested in ethnographic reports, the cultural logic and structure of actions by which this celestial body is perceived and used has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this paper is to offer such an explanatory framework within which the role of the moon in the agricultural cycle may be explained. My examples of the beliefs about lunar agriculture derive from the Mesoamerican cultural tradition.

Iwaniszewski, S.

481

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

This study explores potential causes of cancer and other diseases among farmers and their families and among commercial pesticide applicators. Current medical research suggests that while agricultural workers are generally healthier than the general U.S. population, they may have higher rates of some cancers, including leukemia, myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the lip, stomach, skin, brain, and prostate. Other conditions, like asthma, neurologic disease, and adverse reproductive outcomes may also be related to agricultural exposures.

482

Sociology of Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sustainability is the core element of government policies, university research projects, and extension organizations worldwide.\\u000a Yet, the results of several decades of attempt to achieve sustainable agriculture have not been satisfactory. Despite some\\u000a improvement still conventional agriculture is the dominant paradigm. Pollution of water, soil, and air, degradation of environmental\\u000a resources, and loss of biodiversity are still the by-product of

Ezatollah Karami; Marzieh Keshavarz

483

Words matter: implications of semantics and imagery in framing animal-welfare issues.  

PubMed

As criticisms of contemporary farm-animal production escalate, scholars have begun to scrutinize the imagery and linguistic techniques used to frame animal issues and their implications. Pro-animal rights groups typically present animal use as unnecessary, oppressive, and exploitive and adopt themes of compassion and protection to engage the public. In contrast, anti-animal rights groups represent animal use as necessary for human benefit and often situate animal and human interests as being incompatible. Overly simplistic, polarized representations of animal issues therefore emerge. Several analyses, however, have indicated that the discourse on farm-animal production fails to either make a compelling ethical argument for animal agriculture or address the ethical concerns raised by animal-rights activists. Proponents of animal agriculture are argued to consistently misrepresent animal production practices and portray animals as inanimate objects, reflecting lack of genuine concern for animal suffering or welfare. Thus far, the veterinary community has escaped this level of scrutiny. However, veterinarians are often viewed as being connected to animal agriculture. As veterinarians strive to assume leadership in animal welfare, it is useful for the profession to recognize that, as is the case for members of the animal sciences and industries, some aspects of its discourse may contradict its professed values and beliefs about animal care and welfare. Analysis of this discourse affords the opportunity to more effectively engage with the public on animal-welfare issues and to develop a compelling narrative of the role of animals in an increasingly urban society. PMID:20378887

Croney, Candace C

2010-01-01

484

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

485

Theme: Changes in Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Changes in Agricultural Education in Tennessee" (Byerley, Todd); "Evolving Focus for Agricultural Education Graduates?" (Schlink); "Researching Adult Organizations in Agricultural Education" (Seevers, Dormody); "Past 25 Years" (Klein, Luft); "Agricultural Education" (Sibiga, Mannebach); "Don't Look Back" (Butcher); "Changes in…

Agricultural Education Magazine, 1997

1997-01-01

486

Module Directory for Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A modular design approach for agricultural education has been developed. As part of its development, over 200 modules were produced and tested, and are described in this volume. The modules are categorized as modules of instruction in agricultural production, in agricultural supplies and services, in agricultural mechanics, in ornamental…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

487

Sustainable Agriculture in Ancient Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable agriculture discourse describes agricultural practices and techniques used to maintain land fertility. At its broadest definition, sustainable agriculture aims to make land hospitable to cultivated crops for an indefinite amount of time. The discourse itself has only arisen in response to increased industrialization of world food production, but practices included in, and ideals behind sustainable agriculture have existed for

Hannah L Savio

2011-01-01

488

Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and

Pete Smith; Daniel Martino; Zucong Cai; Daniel Gwary; Henry Janzen; Pushpam Kumar; Bruce McCarl; Stephen Ogle; Frank O'Mara; Charles Rice; Bob Scholes; Oleg Sirotenko; Mark Howden; Tim McAllister; Genxing Pan; Vladimir Romanenkov; Uwe Schneider; Sirintornthep Towprayoon; Martin Wattenbach; Jo Smith

2009-01-01

489

Technological Change And Canadian Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian agriculture is economically vulnerable in the short-term and unsustainable in the long-term. Substantial policy changes are needed to redirect our agricultural system and harness science and technology in a manner appropriate to existing natural and human resources. The case for restructuring our agricultural colleges and the setting of research priorities illustrates a wider need. Agriculture is one of Canada's

William Smith

1991-01-01

490

A retrospective study of mortality in varanid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) at the Bronx Zoo: implications for husbandry and reproductive management in zoos.  

PubMed

Varanid lizards have been maintained in zoological parks for more than a century, yet few studies to date have attempted to pinpoint significant health issues affecting their management or areas of captive husbandry that are in need of improvement. In an effort to identify and better understand some of the husbandry-related challenges and health issues specifically affecting varanids in zoos, this study examined mortality in 16 species maintained at the Bronx Zoo between 1968 and 2009. Out of 108 records reviewed, complete necropsy reports were available for 85 individuals. Infection-related processes including bacterial (15.3%), protozoal (12.9%), nematode (9.4%), and fungal (3.5%) infections accounted for the greatest number of deaths (47.1%). Noninfectious diseases including female reproductive disorders (7.1%), neoplasia (7.1%), gout (10.8%), and hemipenal prolapse (1.3%) accounted for 29.4% of deaths. Multiple disease agents were responsible for 5.9% of deaths, and a cause for death could not be determined for 17.7% of individuals. Reproductive complications accounted for 11.5% of female deaths, but were identified in 23.1% of females. Although not necessarily the cause for death, gout was present in 18.8% of individuals. Differences in mortality between species, genders, and origin (captive-bred vs. wild-caught) were also evaluated. The results of this study corroborate earlier findings that identify bacterial infections, neoplasia, female reproductive disorders, gout, and endoparasitism as major sources of mortality in captive varanids. In light of these results, we discuss potential etiologies and offer recommendations for improving captive management practices in zoos. PMID:22997089

Mendyk, Robert W; Newton, Alisa L; Baumer, Megan

2012-09-19

491

Plant Agricultural Streptomycin Formulations Do Not Carry Antibiotic Resistance Genes?  

PubMed Central

Streptomycin is used in plant agriculture for bacterial disease control, particularly against fire blight in pome fruit orchards. Concerns that this may increase environmental antibiotic resistance have led to bans or restrictions on use. Experience with antibiotic use in animal feeds raises the possible influence of formulation-delivered resistance genes. We demonstrate that agricultural streptomycin formulations do not carry producer organism resistance genes. By using an optimized extraction procedure, Streptomyces 16S rRNA genes and the streptomycin resistance gene strA were not detected in agricultural streptomycin formulations. This diminishes the likelihood for one potential factor in resistance development due to streptomycin use.

Rezzonico, Fabio; Stockwell, Virginia O.; Duffy, Brion

2009-01-01

492

ASSESSING STUDENT ATTITUDES TOWARD ANIMAL WELFARE, RESOURCE USE, AND FOOD SAFETY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in a program addressing contemporary issues in animal agriculture had an effect on the students ' attitudes towards animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. The students in this study were participants in the Pennsylvania Governor 's School for Agricultural Sciences (PGSAS). Within the five-week PGSAS program, students completed a

Patricia A. Nordstrom; Martha J. Richards; Lowell L. Wilson; Brenda L. Coe; Marianne L. Fivek; Michele B. Brown

493

Use and misuse of nitrogen in agriculture: the German story.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) fertilization in agriculture has been discussed controversially in Germany for almost two centuries. The agronomist Carl Sprengel, who published his theory on the mineral nutrition of plants in 1828, advocated the use of mineral N fertilizers. Chemist Justus von Liebig, on the other hand, vehemently denied around 1850 the need for N fertilization. Although it soon became evident that Sprengel was right and Liebig was wrong, not much synthetic N fertilizer was used in German agriculture until around 1915, when the Haber-Bosch technique enabled the commercial production of NH3. The use of N fertilizers since then has grown, especially since 1950. To increase agricultural productivity, German governments have promoted, directly and indirectly, the use of N in crop and in animal production. Unfortunately, it was overlooked that N surpluses in agriculture increased rapidly; around 1980 they amounted yearly to more than 100 kg ha(-1). The extensive use of N in agriculture is causing environmental damage and is contributing substantially to the external costs of present agriculture. The main N compounds that affect the environment are N2O, NH3, and NO3. These compounds are considered to contribute one third to the external costs of agriculture. Additionally, the high rate of human intake of animal proteins and lipids has adversely affected the health of the country's population. Fundamental corrections in German farm policy appear inevitable. PMID:12805882

van der Ploeg, R R; Schweigert, P; Bachmann, J

2001-10-26

494

The USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology: Developing new mosquito surveillance and control products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), conducts specific research directed at reducing or eliminating the harm caused by insects to humans, animals, and crops. CMAVE is an internationally ren...

495

Proceedings 22nd U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species 2011. Held in Loews Annapolis Hotel, Annapolis, Maryland January 11-14, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The meeting was the 22nd in a series of annual USDA Interagency Research Forums that are sponsored by the Forest Service, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, and Agriculture Research Service. The groups ...

K. McManus K. W. Gottschalk

2011-01-01

496

Toward new understandings of human–animal relationships in sport: a study of Australian jumps racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of studying human–animal relationships and animal subjectivity is increasingly recognised by social and cultural geographers, particularly in agricultural pursuits. Little research, however, has been undertaken on animals in sport, resulting in a limited understanding of the perceptions and treatment of animals in society. To address this concern, we interrogate print media coverage of the construction and positioning of

Phil McManus; Daniel Montoya

2012-01-01

497

Bethesda Animal Technical Services  

Cancer.gov

Animal Holding and Technical Support Program - Bethesda Campus Animal Holding and Technical Support This service is designed to provide the highest quality of care and support services for animal research activities conducted at the NCI-Bethesda campus Animal

498

A molecular genetic approach for forensic animal species identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated potential markers within chromosomal, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) with the aim of developing a DNA based method to allow differentiation between animal species. Such discrimination tests may have important applications in the forensic science, agriculture, quarantine and customs fields. DNA samples from five different animal individuals within the same species for 10 species of

C. Bellis; K. J. Ashton; L. Freney; B. Blair; L. R. Griffiths

2003-01-01

499

Combined Animal, Dairy, and Poultry Science Extension Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This meeting emphasized an expanded concept or definition for Cooperative Extension, including cooperation across animal commodities, and addressing cultural issues. This second combined extension workshop recognized the fact that environmental, animal welfare, biosecurity, food safety, societal, and other concerns are not restricted to individual commodities. Effectively addressing these complex issues requires that agriculture present a united front and find

R. D. Reynnells

500

[Raising of fur-bearing animals and animal welfare].  

PubMed

The Ministry of Agriculture has drafted a prescription for raising animals for fur production. It contains high standards of knowledge about raising, feeding and care for those animals. Included is combined interest and negotiation between farmers and the organisations for the protection of animals. Some facts of ethology need clarification soon. Special: the social deprive of Minks; the bath taking possibility for the Mink; the requirement of space for the Mink; the collar plate on Chinchillas; the water requirement of swamp Beavers; the size of group and dense occupation of Foxes. All recommendations, directions and prescriptions up to now are patchwork. In certain cases must the advisor and the farmer be in position to recognize deficiencies in care and management and be able to stop it if necessary. In this connection they must observe behaviour of tail biting, skin tearing and consumption of new born, disturbances in mating behaviour as well as in upbringing. They must also look for stereotyped movements and the expressions of pain and anxiety. The Council of Europe gave also a draft of recommendations concerning fur animals and in this paper is also attached the importance to farmers diagnosis of disturbed behaviour. PMID:2351052

Grauvogl, A

1990-04-01