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1

[Strategies and approaches of ecological and economical construction in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of north China].  

PubMed

After a century's exploitation on agriculture, the agroecosystem in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of North China has gone on a close and consumptive state, and the soil resources has suffered from desertization, alkalization and degradation. The deterioration of soil resources and eco-environment has threatened the ecological security of the regions in Beijing, Tianjin and North China. The strategies of promoting the ecological and economical development in the ecotone should include building up an opening production structure of agriculture and animal husbandry to input artificial energy from the social system, and organizing a cooperative production on agriculture and animal husbandry by exchanging products between the close regions to gain their profits. Based on the various objectives of the local farmers and the nation in the ecological rehabilitation, and the adverse succession of the ecosystem and economics, some technological approaches for making a breakthrough of economic and ecological construction were put forward, e.g., building up a suitable pattern of arbor or shrub intercropped with artificial pasture to protect soil against wind erosion, developing vegetable production adapted to the cold climate, and raising live stocks with corn residues from agricultural zone of North China, etc.. PMID:14997676

Zhang, Lifeng

2003-11-01

2

[Antibiotics in animal husbandry: a thorny problem].  

PubMed

The widespread use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in the Netherlands poses a problem to human health, due to the development of antibiotic resistance. However, agricultural managers have to adjust to an economic reality in which antibiotic use is profitable. In the long term, there has to be far more attention to prevention of infection and biosecurity in animal husbandry so that fewer antibiotics are required and the risks of passing on resistant organisms to the population are limited. An important stimulus would be for the meat-processing industry, the supermarkets and the consumers to impose demands concerning food-safety and to be prepared to pay for them. Alternatively, making antibiotics more expensive is a negative stimulus which could work well. PMID:21118591

Mevius, Dik; Hellebrekers, Ludo J

2010-01-01

3

Migration and animal husbandry: Competing or complementary livelihood strategies.  

E-print Network

Migration and animal husbandry: Competing or complementary livelihood strategies. Evidence from Kyrgyzstan Nadia Schoch, Bernd Steimann and Susan Thieme Abstract Animal husbandry and labour migration is to explore the links between animal husbandry and labour migration. Results show that for most rural

Richner, Heinz

4

Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.  

PubMed

This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified. PMID:17652071

Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

2008-02-12

5

HUSBANDRY OF ANIMALS ON LAND AND IN WATER: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The husbandry of aquatic animals originated in China in approximately 1,100 B.C., thousands of years after the beginning of animal agriculture. The practice did not reach Europe until the Middle Ages. Aquaculture apparently was not very important in Western Europe. The early immigrants from that region did not include fish with the other food animals that they brought with them

E. W. Shell

2010-01-01

6

Development of the Animal Management and Husbandry Online Placement Tool.  

PubMed

The workplace provides veterinary students with opportunities to develop a range of skills, making workplace learning an important part of veterinary education in many countries. Good preparation for work placements is vital to maximize learning; to this end, our group has developed a series of three computer-aided learning (CAL) packages to support students. The third of this series is the Animal Management and Husbandry Online Placement Tool (AMH OPT). Students need a sound knowledge of animal husbandry and the ability to handle the common domestic species. However, teaching these skills at university is not always practical and requires considerable resources. In the UK, the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) requires students to complete 12 weeks of pre-clinical animal management and husbandry work placements or extramural studies (EMS). The aims are for students to improve their animal handling skills and awareness of husbandry systems, develop communication skills, and understand their future clients' needs. The AMH OPT is divided into several sections: Preparation, What to Expect, Working with People, Professionalism, Tips, and Frequently Asked Questions. Three stakeholder groups (university EMS coordinators, placement providers, and students) were consulted initially to guide the content and design and later to evaluate previews. Feedback from stakeholders was used in an iterative design process, resulting in a program that aims to facilitate student preparation, optimize the learning opportunities, and improve the experience for both students and placement providers. The CAL is available online and is open-access worldwide to support students during veterinary school. PMID:24016847

Bates, Lucy; Crowther, Emma; Bell, Catriona; Kinnison, Tierney; Baillie, Sarah

2013-01-01

7

Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

8

Strengthening Agricultural Education in Africa: The Approach of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attainment of sustainable food security in sub-Saharan Africa requires the efforts of a large cadre of well-trained agricultural resource specialists familiar with the constraints and perspectives of smallhold farmers and experienced in interdisciplinary problem-solving. The Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry (FORUM) was initiated in 1992 by The Rockefeller Foundation to stabilize Faculties of Agriculture in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Uganda

Bharati K. Patel; Paul L. Woomer

2000-01-01

9

Antibiotic alternatives: the substitution of antibiotics in animal husbandry?  

PubMed Central

It is a common practice for decades to use of sub-therapeutic dose of antibiotics in food-animal feeds to prevent animals from diseases and to improve production performance in modern animal husbandry. In the meantime, concerns over the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the unreasonable use of antibiotics and an appearance of less novelty antibiotics have prompted efforts to develop so-called alternatives to antibiotics. Whether or not the alternatives could really replace antibiotics remains a controversial issue. This review summarizes recent development and perspectives of alternatives to antibiotics. The mechanism of actions, applications, and prospectives of the alternatives such as immunity modulating agents, bacteriophages and their lysins, antimicrobial peptides, pro-, pre-, and synbiotics, plant extracts, inhibitors targeting pathogenicity (bacterial quorum sensing, biofilm, and virulence), and feeding enzymes are thoroughly discussed. Lastly, the feasibility of alternatives to antibiotics is deeply analyzed. It is hard to conclude that the alternatives might substitute antibiotics in veterinary medicine in the foreseeable future. At the present time, prudent use of antibiotics and the establishment of scientific monitoring systems are the best and fastest way to limit the adverse effects of the abuse of antibiotics and to ensure the safety of animal-derived food and environment. PMID:24860564

Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Dai, Menghong; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

2014-01-01

10

Genomic interplay in bacterial communities: implications for growth promoting practices in animal husbandry  

PubMed Central

The discovery of antibiotics heralded the start of a “Golden Age” in the history of medicine. Over the years, the use of antibiotics extended beyond medical practice into animal husbandry, aquaculture and agriculture. Now, however, we face the worldwide threat of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to all existing major classes of antibiotic, reflecting the possibility of an end to the antibiotic era. The seriousness of the threat is underscored by the severely limited production of new classes of antibiotics. Evolution of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics results from the inherent genetic capability that bacteria have to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, under antibiotic selection pressures, bacteria have acquired resistance to all classes of antibiotics, sometimes very shortly after their introduction. Arguably, the evolution and rapid dissemination of multiple drug resistant genes en-masse across microbial pathogens is one of the most serious threats to human health. In this context, effective surveillance strategies to track the development of resistance to multiple antibiotics are vital to managing global infection control. These surveillance strategies are necessary for not only human health but also for animal health, aquaculture and plant production. Shortfalls in the present surveillance strategies need to be identified. Raising awareness of the genetic events that promote co-selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobials is an important prerequisite to the design and implementation of molecular surveillance strategies. In this review we will discuss how lateral gene transfer (LGT), driven by the use of low-dose antibiotics in animal husbandry, has likely played a significant role in the evolution of multiple drug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative bacteria and has complicated molecular surveillance strategies adopted for predicting imminent resistance threats. PMID:25161648

Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; McKinnon, Jessica; Wyrsch, Ethan; Hammond, Jeffrey M.; Charles, Ian G.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

2014-01-01

11

Interactions and coupling between emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor\\u000a storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g., composting, anaerobic treatment), land application\\u000a and chemical fertilisers. Although in many countries emphasis is put on reduction

G. J. Monteny; C. M. Groenestein; M. A. Hilhorst

2001-01-01

12

Delivery of health and husbandry improvements to working animals in Africa.  

PubMed

Problems have been identified in the delivery of extension messages about the maintenance of healthy and well-fed working animals. The different factors that need to be considered in developing effective disease control and prevention programmes for working oxen and equids including vector-borne diseases, helminth disease, and vaccination programmes have been reported and discussed and experiences in improving husbandry including footcare, harness, and worm management reported. Most draught animals are owned by people who lack the financial means to pay for or to access the information needed on nutritional supplements, vaccinations and drug treatment. Smallholder farms are often remote from veterinary services, thereby requiring greater emphasis on preventive measures and local remedies. Several NGOs have traditionally provided static and mobile treatment teams for equines and training courses for farriers and harness makers. The effectiveness and sustainability of these services and ways in which delivery of health care and husbandry messages could be delivered to improve impact are discussed. PMID:17682593

Pearson, R A; Krecek, R C

2006-02-01

13

Frozen soil change and adaptation of animal husbandry: a case of the source regions of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the spatial and temporal change of different frozen soil types from 1980s to 2000s, and the impacts of frozen soil change on rangeland productivity and sustainable livelihood in the source regions of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers employed numerical model and GIS technology. Authors use the analytical framework of adaptation of animal husbandry according to national, regional, community

Yiping Fang; Dahe Qin; Yongjian Ding

2011-01-01

14

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia. 9.6 Section 9.6 Public Health...well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia. (a) What are the requirements...Facility Veterinarian may recommend euthanasia in those cases that do not respond...

2012-10-01

15

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia. 9.6 Section 9.6 Public Health...well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia. (a) What are the requirements...Facility Veterinarian may recommend euthanasia in those cases that do not respond...

2014-10-01

16

Animal husbandry in Moretele 1 of North-West Province: implications for veterinary training and research.  

PubMed

Little is known regarding the keeping of animals in the Moretele 1 area of North-West Province, South Africa. Therefore, the status and dynamics of animal husbandry, as well as a general assessment of the needs of animal owners in this area were researched. Results of the investigation will be used to make recommendations for improved veterinary extension servicing in the area. Semi-structured interviews, based on discussions with relevant stakeholders in the community and a resultant problem conceptualisation, were undertaken at 266 randomly selected households in 51 villages and centres in the area, after which the data was checked and verified before being captured and analysed. The findings reveal that within the field of veterinary extension delivery: 1) there is a demand for visual and written extension material, 2) the extension services must function where clients reside, 3) limitations in terms of infrastructure are present and should be addressed through partnerships and coordination amongst all the role-players in the Moretele 1 area, and 4) cattle and poultry are the most important of the animal species and should be the focus points of extension, but the need to curb zoonotic disease should not be disregarded. In this regard veterinary clinics, private veterinarians and other role-players should be used in partnership with extension workers. Lastly, the veterinary clinic is regarded as helpful in many respects by the community consulted and the service should be upgraded and made available to a wider client base, especially where private and state veterinarians are unavailable or too expensive in such resource-limited communities. PMID:11030358

Letsoalo, S S; Krecek, R C; Botha, C A; Ngetu, X

2000-06-01

17

A C?As lyase for degradation of environmental organoarsenical herbicides and animal husbandry growth promoters  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is the most widespread environmental toxin. Substantial amounts of pentavalent organoarsenicals have been used as herbicides, such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA), and as growth enhancers for animal husbandry, such as roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) [Rox(V)]. These undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. We previously demonstrated a two-step pathway of degradation of MSMA to As(III) by microbial communities involving sequential reduction to methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)] by one bacterial species and demethylation from MAs(III) to As(III) by another. In this study, the gene responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was identified from an environmental MAs(III)-demethylating isolate, Bacillus sp. MD1. This gene, termed arsenic inducible gene (arsI), is in an arsenic resistance (ars) operon and encodes a nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenase with C?As lyase activity. Heterologous expression of ArsI conferred MAs(III)-demethylating activity and MAs(III) resistance to an arsenic-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli, demonstrating that MAs(III) demethylation is a detoxification process. Purified ArsI catalyzes Fe2+-dependent MAs(III) demethylation. In addition, ArsI cleaves the C?As bond in trivalent roxarsone and other aromatic arsenicals. ArsI homologs are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and we propose that ArsI-catalyzed organoarsenical degradation has a significant impact on the arsenic biogeocycle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular mechanism for organoarsenic degradation by a C?As lyase. PMID:24821808

Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rosen, Barry P.

2014-01-01

18

A C?As lyase for degradation of environmental organoarsenical herbicides and animal husbandry growth promoters.  

PubMed

Arsenic is the most widespread environmental toxin. Substantial amounts of pentavalent organoarsenicals have been used as herbicides, such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA), and as growth enhancers for animal husbandry, such as roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) [Rox(V)]. These undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. We previously demonstrated a two-step pathway of degradation of MSMA to As(III) by microbial communities involving sequential reduction to methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)] by one bacterial species and demethylation from MAs(III) to As(III) by another. In this study, the gene responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was identified from an environmental MAs(III)-demethylating isolate, Bacillus sp. MD1. This gene, termed arsenic inducible gene (arsI), is in an arsenic resistance (ars) operon and encodes a nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenase with C ? As lyase activity. Heterologous expression of ArsI conferred MAs(III)-demethylating activity and MAs(III) resistance to an arsenic-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli, demonstrating that MAs(III) demethylation is a detoxification process. Purified ArsI catalyzes Fe(2+)-dependent MAs(III) demethylation. In addition, ArsI cleaves the C ? As bond in trivalent roxarsone and other aromatic arsenicals. ArsI homologs are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and we propose that ArsI-catalyzed organoarsenical degradation has a significant impact on the arsenic biogeocycle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular mechanism for organoarsenic degradation by a C ? As lyase. PMID:24821808

Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rosen, Barry P

2014-05-27

19

Aquatic toxicity of four veterinary drugs commonly applied in fish farming and animal husbandry.  

PubMed

Doramectin (DOR), metronidazole (MET), florfenicol (FLO), and oxytetracycline (OXT) are among the most widely used veterinary drugs in animal husbandry or in aquaculture. Contamination of the environment by these pharmaceuticals has given cause for concern in recent years. Even though their toxicity has been thoroughly analyzed, knowledge of their ecotoxicity is still limited. We investigated their aquatic toxicity using tests with marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustaceans (Daphnia magna). All the ecotoxicological tests were supported by chemical analyses to confirm the exposure concentrations of the pharmaceuticals used in the toxicity experiments, since deviations from the nominal concentration can result in underestimation of biological effects. It was found that OXT and FLO have a stronger adverse effect on duckweed (EC50=3.26 and 2.96mgL(-1) respectively) and green algae (EC50=40.4 and 18.0mgL(-1)) than on bacteria (EC50=108 and 29.4mgL(-1)) and crustaceans (EC50=114 and 337mgL(-1)), whereas MET did not exhibit any adverse effect in the tested concentration range. For DOR a very low EC50 of 6.37×10(-5)mgL(-1) towards D. magna was determined, which is five orders of magnitude lower than values known for the toxic reference compound K2Cr2O7. Our data show the strong influence of certain veterinary drugs on aquatic organisms and contribute to a sound assessment of the environmental hazards posed by commonly used pharmaceuticals. PMID:23689096

Ko?odziejska, Marta; Maszkowska, Joanna; Bia?k-Bieli?ska, Anna; Steudte, Stephanie; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

2013-08-01

20

Determination of antibiotic consumption index for animal originated foods produced in animal husbandry in Iran, 2010  

PubMed Central

The public health concerns over the long-term exposure to antibiotics have risen in different parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibiotic consumption pattern in livestock and poultry and to estimate the quantity of antibiotic active ingredient (mg) consumed per unit weight (Kg) of red meat, milk and egg production in Iran in 2010. A cross-sectional study was designed in charmahal - bakhtiary province-Iran. A questioner has been developed by naming 110 types of antibiotics. Twenty two veterinary clinicians and three livestock pharmaceutical distributor companies were included in the survey to determine the antibiotic prescription and distribution pattern in the farms. Veterinary organization of Iran supplied the information of the total antibiotic consumption in different dosage forms. National and international data on the livestock and poultry production were obtained from the relevant official web sites. Tetracycline class of antibiotics was the most common types of antibacterial prescribed and sold to both livestock and poultry farms. Amino glycoside, penicillin and macrolide in the cattle farms and furofenocole in broiler farms were the second most used groups of antibiotics. The quantity of antibiotic active ingredients consumed per unit weight of animal-originated food products was counted as 107.4 mg/kg for both milk and red meat and 249.5 mg/kg for broiler meat and egg. Totally, it was estimated that 133 mg antibiotic substances was used per kg of milk, meat and egg produced in 2010. In comparison to available data for other countries, consumption of antibiotics in livestock and poultry in Iran is higher than developed countries with an exception of South Korea. The findings of the present study could be alarming for the legislative authorities in food security and safety. More clear evaluation should be carried out as well as implementation of national monitoring and inspective programs in order to reach an added safety regarding animal-originated foods. PMID:24468281

2014-01-01

21

Agriculture? Animal and?  

E-print Network

Seeds Not for PlantingThe U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or part of an individual’s income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400

Plant Health; Plant Protection

22

Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program  

E-print Network

Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program Approved by AACUC May 2003 Goals The goals of the Agricultural Animal Care Training Program are to ensure animal well-being, the validity and effectiveness of research and teaching activities, and the health and safety of animal care

Maxwell, Bruce D.

23

Breeding, Husbandry, Veterinary Care, and Hematology of Marsh Rice Rats (Oryzomys palustris), a Small Animal Model for Periodontitis.  

PubMed

Rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) are a recognized animal model for studying periodontal disease and the photoperiodic regulation of reproduction. Here we share information regarding the breeding, husbandry, veterinary care, and hematologic findings about this animal species to facilitate its use in studies at other research institutions. Rice rats initially were quarantined and monitored for excluded pathogens by using microbiologic, parasitologic, and serologic methods with adult female Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus sentinel animals. Breeders were paired in a monogamous, continuous-breeding system. Rats were housed in static filter-top cages, maintained on commercial chow under 14:10-h light:dark cycles at 68 to 79 °F (20.0 to 26.1 °C) and 30% to 70% humidity. Rice rats apparently adapt relatively well to standard laboratory conditions, despite their aggressive behavior toward conspecifics and humans. Our analysis of 97 litters revealed that dams gave birth to an average of 5.2 pups per dam and weaned 4.2 pups per dam. Several procedures and biologic reagents normally used in standard laboratory rodents (mice and rats) can be used with rice rats. In addition, we present hematologic and serum chemistry values that can be used as preliminary reference values for future studies involving rice rats. PMID:25651091

Aguirre, J Ignacio; Edmonds, Kent; Zamora, Bernadette; Pingel, Jennifer; Thomas, Linda; Cancel, Denisse; Schneider, Laura; Reinhard, Mary K; Battles, August H; Akhter, Mohammed P; Kimmel, Donald B; Wronski, Thomas J

2015-01-01

24

Ecological Patterns and Comparative Nutrient Dynamics of Natural and Agricultural  

E-print Network

Ecological Patterns and Comparative Nutrient Dynamics of Natural and Agricultural Mediterranean agricultural activities and animal husbandry. The behavior of nitrogen and phosphorus showed remarkable of environmental protection has grown and formed an incentive for research towards the reduction of soil

Arhonditsis, George B.

25

Frequency of trypanosomosis and gastrointestinal parasites in draught donkeys in the Gambia in relation to animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of trypanosomosis, gastrointestinal strongyles and level of strongyle egg outputs were studied in relation to husbandry practices in the draught donkey population in The Gambia. Feeding regime, number of working hours per day and overnight penning practices of donkeys affected significantly (PP>0·05) trypanosomosis prevalence. Dual trypanosome and gastrointestinal strongyle infection significantly reduced the PCV (PP>0·05) lower PCV than those

R. C. Mattioli; J. Zinsstag; K. Pfister

1994-01-01

26

Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

27

Animal Enterprise Record Book. Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This record book is intended for use by agricultural education students who have ownership arrangements in animal enterprise experience programs. A major purpose of this book is to aid in separating out or allocating the costs and returns to a specific enterprise. The financial, labor, and management aspects of each enterprise can then be studied…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

28

Animal husbandry and hunting in the Middle Neolithic settlement at Tiszavasvári-Deákhalmi d?l? (Upper Tisza region)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Foreword In 1991-92 in Tiszavasvári-Deákhalmi d?l? a kur- gan\\/barrow was demolished during which a large number of archaeologica l potsherds and animal bones were found. During the course of the rescue excavations, Eszter Istvánovits and Katalin Kurucz (Jósa András Museum, Nyíregyháza) researched two nearly 1500 m territories (surface A and B) where Neolithic, Celtic and Sarmatian features were recov­

István VÖRÖS

29

Photocatalytic TiO2 coating-to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries.  

PubMed

Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform NH3 into N2, N2O or NO and water. Field experiments aimed at determining effects on indoor air quality and NH3 and polluting gas emissions into the environment of coating pig house walls with TiO2 catalytic paint and to assess the potential efficiency of this simple painting technique as a low cost BAT technique for animal farmers. The trial was performed in two identical mechanical ventilated farrowing rooms in a swine farm in Northern Italy. Environmental parameters, ventilation rate and gas concentrations were continuously monitored in the two units throughout a 28 day production cycle. NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 average concentrations of 5.41, 1.18, 6.28 and 2109.38 mg m(-3) (reference unit without treatment) and 3.76, 1.13, 5.32 and 1881.64 mg m(-3) (experimental unit) were, respectively, recorded during a full farrowing cycle. Pollutant emissions, expressed on a Livestock Unit (LU, i.e., 500 kg live weight) basis, were 16.33, 3.57, 18.96 and 6365.01 kg y(-1)LU(-1) (reference unit) and 11.37, 3.43, 16.11 and 5695.58 kg y(-1) LU(-1) (experimental unit), respectively. Significantly higher pollutant concentrations and emissions were found in the untreated reference unit, under similar environmental conditions and with identical numbers of sows and piglets per unit. PMID:17574843

Guarino, Marcella; Costa, Annamaria; Porro, Marco

2008-05-01

30

Ecosystems, Sustainability, and Animal Agriculture 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term sustainability of animal agriculture is examined in an ecological context. As an aid to defining agriculture, animal agriculture, and sustainable agriculture, a broad overview of the structural and functional aspects of ecosystems is presented. Energy output\\/cultural energy input ratios were then calculated for 11 beef cattle management systems as relative measures of their long-term sustainability. Energy output was

R. K. Heitschmidt; R. E. Short; E. E. Grings

2010-01-01

31

Application of 34S analysis for elucidating terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems: Evidence of animal movement/husbandry practices in an early Viking community around Lake Mývatn, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) have been used widely in archaeology to investigate palaeodiet. Sulphur stable isotope ratios (?34S) have shown great promise in this regard but the potential of this technique within archaeological science has yet to be fully explored. Here we report ?34S, ?13C and ?15N values for 129 samples of animal bone collagen from Skútustaðir, an early Viking age (landnám) settlement in north-east Iceland. This dataset represents the most comprehensive study to date of its kind on archaeological material and the results show a clear offset in ?34S values between animals deriving their dietary resources from terrestrial (mean = +5.6 ± 2.8‰), freshwater (mean = -2.7 ± 1.4‰) or marine (mean = +15.9 ± 1.5‰) reservoirs (with the three food groups being significantly different at 2?). This offset allows reconstruction of the dietary history of domesticated herbivores and demonstrates differences in husbandry practices and animal movement/trade, which would be otherwise impossible using only ?13C and ?15N values. For example, several terrestrial herbivores displayed enriched bone collagen ?34S values compared to the geology of the Lake Mývatn region, indicating they may have been affected by sea-spray whilst being pastured closer to the coast, before being traded inland. Additionally, the combination of heavy ?15N values coupled with light ?34S values within pig bone collagen suggests that these omnivores were consuming freshwater fish as a significant portion of their diet. Arctic foxes were also found to be consuming large quantities of freshwater resources and radiocarbon dating of both the pigs and foxes confirmed previous studies showing that a large freshwater radiocarbon (14C) reservoir effect exists within the lake. Overall, these stable isotope and 14C data have important implications for obtaining a fuller reconstruction of the diets of the early Viking settlers in Iceland, and may allow a clearer identification of the marine and/or freshwater 14C reservoir effects that are known to exist in human bone collagen.

Sayle, Kerry L.; Cook, Gordon T.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Hastie, Helen R.; Einarsson, Árni; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hicks, Megan T.; Edwald, Ágústa; Friðriksson, Adolf

2013-11-01

32

Amphibian biology and husbandry.  

PubMed

Extant amphibians comprise three lineages-- salamanders (Urodela or Caudata), frogs and toads (Anura), and caecilians (Gymnophiona, Apoda, or Caecilia)--which contain more than 6,000 species. Fewer than a dozen species of amphibians are commonly maintained in laboratory colonies, and the husbandry requirements for the vast majority of amphibians are poorly known. For these species, a review of basic characteristics of amphibian biology supplemented by inferences drawn from the morphological and physiological characteristics of the species in question provides a basis for decisions about housing and feeding. Amphibians are ectotherms, and their skin is permeable to water, ions, and respiratory gases. Most species are secretive and, in many cases, nocturnal. The essential characteristics of their environment include appropriate levels of humidity, temperature, and lighting as well as retreat sites. Terrestrial and arboreal species require moist substrates, water dishes, and high relative humidity. Because temperature requirements for most species are poorly known, it is advisable to use a temperature mosaic that will allow an animal to find an appropriate temperature within its cage. Photoperiod may affect physiology and behavior (especially reproduction and hibernation), and although the importance of ultraviolet light for calcium metabolism by amphibians is not yet known, ecological observations suggest that it might be important for some species of frogs. Some amphibians are territorial, and some use olfactory cues to mark their territory and to recognize other individuals of their species. All amphibians are carnivorous as adults, and the feeding response of many species is elicited by the movement of prey. Diets should include a mixture of prey species, and it may be advisable to load prey with vitamins and minerals. PMID:17592184

Pough, F Harvey

2007-01-01

33

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment ASC Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

, reproduction, genetic and behavior of domestic animals. ASC 102 APPLICATIONS OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. (3College of Agriculture, Food and Environment ASC Animal Sciences KEY: # = new course * = course ANIMAL BIOLOGY. (3) The first in a sequence of two courses providing an introduction to the subject

MacAdam, Keith

34

The role of land-based strategies in rural livelihoods: The contribution of arable production, animal husbandry and natural resource harvesting in communal areas in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of South Africa's rural population resides in the former homelands. Although cash from urban and government sources is the mainstay of the rural economy in many areas, the multiple and diverse livelihood base of rural households is not widely recognised. This diversity includes the land-based strategies of arable farming, livestock husbandry and consumption and trade in natural resources.

Charlie Shackleton; Sheona Shackleton; Ben Cousins

2001-01-01

35

Montana Agricultural Experiment Station/College of Agriculture Animal Operations Policies  

E-print Network

) of Animal and Range Sciences, Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, and Veterinary and Molecular Biology Biology, and Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology department offices. The Animal Operations ManagerMontana Agricultural Experiment Station/College of Agriculture Animal Operations Policies June 2008

Maxwell, Bruce D.

36

Who Monitors the Use of Animals in United States Department of Agriculture -Animal and Plant Health  

E-print Network

by a designated committee Animal defined as "any vertebrate animal used in research, teaching or testing". #12 compounds in the laboratory prior to testing in an animal model #12;Who Monitors the Use of Animals in Research? United States Department of Agriculture -Animal

37

Chapter 6: Instrumentation for Research and Management in Animal Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Defining thermal environments and an animal’s response to its environment is critical; this chapter ‘Chapter 6 - Instrumentation for Research and Management in Animal Agriculture’ of the book ‘Thermal Environment and Livestock Energetics’ deals with instrumentation with respect to physiological meas...

38

Epigenetic Case Studies in Agricultural Animals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many biological processes, the regulation of gene expression involves epigenetic mechanisms. An altered pattern of epigenetic modification is central to many animal diseases. Using animal disease models, we have studied one of the major epigenetic components: DNA methylation. We characterized the...

39

Guidelines for Sheep and Goat Husbandry.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (Guide) is considered the standard for reference when protocols are developed for using agricultural animals in agricultural research or teaching. The Animal Welfare Act (CFR, 1992) regulates the use of agr...

40

Influence of livestock husbandry on schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous regions of Yunnan Province.  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted in the highly endemic areas of schistosomiasis japonica in Weishan and Eryuan counties, Yunnan Province. The results are summarized as follows: 1) the number of domestic animals was increasing annually; 2) the proportion of animal husbandry gains in the total agriculture income had a yearly escalating tendency; 3) the infection rate of inhabitants was upgrading as a result of the development of and the prevalence in domestic animals in the recent decades. Owing to frequent migration of domestic animals, serious spread of infection sources and high prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica occurred. It is suggested that more attention should be paid to the control of schistosomiasis japonica in mountainous endemic regions during the course of economic development, especially in the development of domestic animals. PMID:9444008

Jiang, Z; Zheng, Q S; Wang, X F; Hua, Z H

1997-06-01

41

Animal Intensification at Neolithic Gritille  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of agriculture in the Near East was the result of innovative methods of plant and animal husbandry. The adoption\\u000a of these new methods led to the domestication of plants and animals, that is to say the development of plants and animals\\u000a that are dependent on humans for survival and reproduction. While these innovative methods of utilization were adopted

Belinda H. Monahan

42

The Future of Animal Agriculture and the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this presentation is to set the stage for establishing a vision for the future of animal agriculture and the environment. This is a daunting task because of so many factors that will play a role in the years ahead. These factors include environmental regulations; eating trends of the public; economics of production; food safety; international competition; and

Richard Hegg

43

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences epartment of Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences epartment of Animal Sciences (IFAS) D Fall 2008 Russ Giesy Retired from UF Dairy Extension Multicounty dairy extension agent Russ Giesy retired in August from UF/IFAS Extension after 21 years of service. Russ served the dairy industry

Watson, Craig A.

44

Moving GIS Research Indoors: Spatiotemporal Analysis of Agricultural Animals  

PubMed Central

A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare. PMID:25098421

Daigle, Courtney L.; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A.; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M.

2014-01-01

45

School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences Measuring Sustainable Intensification in Agriculture: An Action Research  

E-print Network

sustainability of agriculture, the idea of "Sustainable Intensification" (SI) is increasingly gaining popularitySchool of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences Measuring Sustainable Intensification in Agriculture: An Action Research Faced with the dual challenges of increasing agricultural productivity to feed

Evans, Paul

46

Animals and their moral standing: A philosophical exploration of the relationship between animals and human beings in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main focus of this dissertation is to unearth some core values from within agriculture and to introduce to animal agriculture and philosophical animal ethics an ethic of fiduciary responsibility. Traditionally, an ethic of stewardship and accountability, which celebrated the intimate interconnectedness between human communities, nature and farmed animals, served as the cornerstone of sustainable communities and sanctioned legitimate uses

Raymond Anthony

2003-01-01

47

Agricultural (Nonbiomedical) Animal Research Outside the Laboratory: A Review of Guidelines for Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges and published guidelines associated with appro- priate care and use of farm animals in agricultural research conducted outside the laboratory are briefly reviewed. The Animal Welfare Act (Title 9 of the 2000 Code of Federal Regulations), which regulates the care and use of agricul- tural animals in biomedical research, does not include live- stock and poultry used in agricultural

David E. Granstrom

48

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service  

E-print Network

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine April 2010 1 Lacey Act Primer United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine #12;United States Department of Agriculture Animal

49

USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Awards Application 2012  

E-print Network

USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease authorization. Proposals that involve or utilize research animals, biohazards, human subjects, or Veterinary have been obtained. II. USDA Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Award In addition to research

Stephens, Graeme L.

50

Introductory animal science-based instruction influences attitudes on animal agriculture issues.  

PubMed

The demographics of incoming university animal science majors have shifted from students with a farm background to urban students with no history of direct livestock contact. Research completed before the Internet was a central source of information indicated that incoming urban students tend to express no opinion or a neutral opinion regarding livestock agriculture issues. Due to the changing background of incoming students enrolled in introductory university-level animal science classes, we sought to determine 1) if livestock background (self-identified as raised in a farm or urban setting), sex, or animal science career interest influenced the opinions of incoming students regarding critical issues involving livestock farming practices and 2) if 15 wk of introductory animal science instruction changed student opinions. A total of 224 students were given 2 identical anonymous surveys (start and end of 15 wk) with 5 demographic questions and 9 animal issue statements. For each statement, students marked their opinion by placing a vertical line on a continuous 130 mm horizontal line, where a vertical line placed at 0 mm = strongly agree and 130 mm = strongly disagree. Data were analyzed by ANOVA to determine any significant effects of instruction, background, sex, and future career preference on survey responses. Before instruction, urban students were less agreeable than farm students that animal farming was moral and humane and that farmers are concerned about animal welfare and livestock are of value to society (P ? 0.05). Urban students were more likely than farm students to purchase organic foods or food based on environmental/welfare standards (P ? 0.05). Introductory animal science instruction resulted in students becoming more agreeable that animal farming was humane, farmers are concerned about animal welfare, and animal agriculture is a value to society (P ? 0.05). Postinstruction, students were more likely to buy food products based on price (P ? 0.05). Males found farm practices more humane than females (P ? 0.05), but sex differences were not evident for other questions. Future professional career plans did not affect student opinions. Data showed that incoming urban students tend to be more neutral with regards to animal farming issues, and introductory animal science instruction fosters a more agreeable attitude towards animal farming practices, especially in students with urban backgrounds. PMID:24398836

Bobeck, E A; Combs, D K; Cook, M E

2014-02-01

51

Alternatives to antibiotics in animal agriculture: an ecoimmunological view.  

PubMed

Ecological immunology (or ecoimmunology) is a new discipline in animal health and immunology that extends immunologists' views into a natural context where animals and humans have co-evolved. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance (ART) in bacteria are manifested in antibiosis-surviving subsets of resisters and persisters. ART has emerged though natural evolutionary consequences enriched by human nosocomial and agricultural practices, in particular, wide use of antibiotics that overwhelms other ecological and immunological interactions. Most previous reviews of antibiotic resistance focus on resisters but overlook persisters, although both are fundamental to bacteria survival through antibiosis. Here, we discuss resisters and persisters together to contrast the distinct ecological responses of persisters during antibiotic stress and propose different regimens to eradicate persisters. Our intention is not only to provide an ecoimmunological interpretation, but also to use an ecoimmunological system to categorize available alternatives and promote the discovery of prospective approaches to relieve ART problems within the general scope of improving animal health. Thus, we will categorize available alternatives to antibiotics and envision applications of ecoimmunological tenets to promote related studies in animal production. PMID:25551290

Sang, Yongming; Blecha, Frank

2014-01-01

52

Zooarchaeology, Improvement and the British Agricultural Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to revisit the debate concerning the nature and timing of the British Agricultural Revolution. Specifically, it considers how zooarchaeological evidence can be employed to investigate later-medieval and post-medieval “improvements” in animal husbandry. Previous studies of animal bone assemblages have indicated that the size of many domestic species in England increases from the fifteenth century—an observation that has

Richard Thomas

2005-01-01

53

RSPCA/AHVLA meeting on: Welfare of agricultural animals in research  

E-print Network

RSPCA/AHVLA meeting on: Welfare of agricultural animals in research ­ cattle, goats, pigs and sheep: Research.Animals@rspca.org.uk #12;Discussion topics could include the following: Is there a need for a UK network to enable those using and caring for agricultural animals in research and testing to exchange

Spoel, Steven

54

Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste  

SciTech Connect

The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report formed the basis for much of the subsequent work under the grant. An explanation of the process is presented as well as the completed work on the four tasks.

Gabriel Miller

2009-03-25

55

Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria  

PubMed Central

One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to provide some insights into possible solutions to this major health issue. PMID:25878509

Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota

2015-01-01

56

Complexities of nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry in plant-soil systems: implications for the study of ancient agricultural and animal management practices  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen isotopic studies have the potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1) agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage) and (2) animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens). The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts. PMID:25002865

Szpak, Paul

2014-01-01

57

We and they: Animal welfare in the era of advanced agricultural biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses central moral issues raised by the applications of advanced biotechnology to animal agriculture and introduces the major ethical concepts and principles of animal bioethics. It is argued that biotechnology enables human beings to transform animals according to human needs, which blurs the boundary between humans and non-human animals in moral and biological sense. The more humans change

A. K. Pascalev

2006-01-01

58

Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

59

Frank Mitloehner is an expert for agricultural air quality, animal-environmental interactions, and agricultural engineering. He is a Professor and Air Quality  

E-print Network

, and agricultural engineering. He is a Professor and Air Quality Specialist in Cooperative Extension. Since heFrank Mitloehner is an expert for agricultural air quality, animal-environmental interactions System". Dr. Mitloehner received his MS degree in Animal Science and Agricultural Engineering from

Delany, Mary E.

60

[Water requirements, water supply and thermoregulation in small ruminants in pasture-based husbandry systems].  

PubMed

Water is an essential source of life and is available to animals as free water, water content of feed, film water (e. g. dew) and metabolic water. The water requirements of small ruminants are influenced by the type of feed, climate, stage of production, type and length of the fleece or hair coat, husbandry factors and the general health of the animal. Differences in water metabolism, drinking behaviour and the efficiency of temperature regulation are further influenced by species, breed, production type, husbandry system, acclimatisation and adaptation. Small ruminants have been, and are still predominantly kept in extensive husbandry systems. They are therefore genetically and phenotypically well adapted to these conditions and possess a range of physiological and behavioural mechanisms to deal with adverse and suboptimal weather conditions. Regarding animal welfare, there is considerable debate in the discussion and assessment of what constitutes a sufficient water supply for small ruminants under different husbandry conditions, often involving differences between theoretical demands and practical experience. This publication reviews and summarises the current literature regarding water requirements, water metabolism and thermoregulatory mechanisms of small ruminants to provide the basis for an informed assessment of extensive husbandry systems in terms of compliance with animal-welfare requirements. PMID:25634729

Spengler, D; Strobel, H; Axt, H; Voigt, K

2015-02-17

61

Revising and Updating the Animal Science Components of the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use in teaching Connecticut's revised animal science curriculum at regional vocational agriculture centers. Like its predecessor, this curriculum includes exploratory (intended for grades 9 and 10) and specialized (intended for grades 11 and 12) animal science units and is based on the following major areas of…

Mannebach, Alfred J.; And Others

62

Current and Projected Modes of Delivery of Veterinary Medical Services to Animal Agriculture: The Private Practitioner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trend in agriculture is to fewer and larger farms--a trend that is evident in the food animal industry as well. The economic value of services delivered, and the need for veterinarians to improve relationships with people in all fields of animal science are discussed. (MLW)

Jarrett, James A.

1980-01-01

63

Persistence and transport of pathogens from animal agriculture in soil and water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a chapter in the book An Introduction to Manure Pathogens, Manure Management and Regulation, it focuses on zoonotic pathogens from animal agriculture and their persistence and transport in soil and water. The combination of increased animal production and subsequent increased quantities of waste...

64

Recent advances and future options for New Zealand agriculture derived from animal cloning and transgenics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient animal cloning technology, using the procedure of nuclear transfer (NT), coupled with the genetic modification of cultured cells, would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture. It is still remarkable that NT using differentiated donor cells can produce physiologically normal animals, but the process is inefficient and highly prone to epigenetic errors. Aberrant patterns of gene expression in

G. Laible; D. N. Wells

2007-01-01

65

Incorporating Behavioral Enrichment into Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of human education has helped in recognizing the needs for humane animal care. Animal welfare became a topic focusing on the morality of human actions (or the lack thereof) when it comes to proper animal care. As a result, institutions started to recognize they had an ethical and legal obligation to research and provide for the needs of

Hilda Tresz

66

Functional landscape heterogeneity and animal biodiversity in agricultural landscapes.  

PubMed

Biodiversity in agricultural landscapes can be increased with conversion of some production lands into 'more-natural'- unmanaged or extensively managed - lands. However, it remains unknown to what extent biodiversity can be enhanced by altering landscape pattern without reducing agricultural production. We propose a framework for this problem, considering separately compositional heterogeneity (the number and proportions of different cover types) and configurational heterogeneity (the spatial arrangement of cover types). Cover type classification and mapping is based on species requirements, such as feeding and nesting, resulting in measures of 'functional landscape heterogeneity'. We then identify three important questions: does biodiversity increase with (1) increasing heterogeneity of the more-natural areas, (2) increasing compositional heterogeneity of production cover types and (3) increasing configurational heterogeneity of production cover types? We discuss approaches for addressing these questions. Such studies should have high priority because biodiversity protection globally depends increasingly on maintaining biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes. PMID:21087380

Fahrig, Lenore; Baudry, Jacques; Brotons, Lluís; Burel, Françoise G; Crist, Thomas O; Fuller, Robert J; Sirami, Clelia; Siriwardena, Gavin M; Martin, Jean-Louis

2011-02-01

67

The Nature and Longevity of Agricultural Impacts on Soil Carbon and Nutrients: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the domestication of plant and animal species around 10,000 years ago, cultivation and animal husbandry have been major\\u000a components of global change. Agricultural activities such as tillage, fertilization, and biomass alteration lead to fundamental\\u000a changes in the pools and fluxes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) that originally existed in native ecosystems.\\u000a Land is often taken out

Kendra McLauchlan

2006-01-01

68

Reuse of concentrated animal feed operation wastewater on agricultural lands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal areas, further lim...

69

Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

70

COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES  

E-print Network

3.E.8 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES applies to all Research staff and LAF personnel working with this chemical or performing animal husbandry for STREPTOZOTOCIN INJECTIONS AND HUSBANDRY OF INJECTED ANIMALS 1. Purpose: This procedure outlines the Occupational

Krovi, Venkat

71

COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES  

E-print Network

-4153 to determine whether presumptive therapy is warranted. 3.8 Principal investigator will inform animal care staff3.E.3 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES For HUSBANDRY OF ANIMALS EXPOSED TO ROTENONE OR MPTP 1.0 Purpose This procedure details the husbandry/safety precautions

Krovi, Venkat

72

An Unremembered Diversity: Mixed Husbandry and the American Grasslands  

PubMed Central

The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought about a dramatic rise in global crop yields. But, as most observers acknowledge, this has come at a considerable cost to biodiversity. Plant breeding, synthetic fertilizers, and mechanization steadily narrowed the number of crop varieties commercially available to farmers and promoted fencerow-to-fencerow monocultures. Many historians trace the origins of this style of industrialized agriculture to the last great plow-up of the Great Plains in the 1920s. In the literature, farms in the plains are often described metaphorically as wheat factories, degrading successive landscapes. While in many ways these farms were a departure from earlier forms of husbandry in the American experience, monocultures were quite rare during the early transformation of the plains. Analysis of a large representative sample, based on manuscript agricultural censuses and involving twenty-five townships across the state of Kansas, demonstrates that diverse production reached even the most challenging of plains landscapes. PMID:19839113

SYLVESTER, KENNETH; CUNFER, GEOFF

2009-01-01

73

Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry, and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has placed online this entire (1996) textbook entitled Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry, and Conservation. Edited by David Ellis, George Gee, and Claire Mirande, the textbook contains thirteen chapters by the world's leading crane experts, covering general biology, husbandry, behavior, artificial insemination, pest management, and conservation, among other topics. In addition to the text, numerous illustrations capture the majesty of these birds. Chapters may be downloaded separately, or browsed online. For anyone interested in cranes and their conservation, this resource is definitely required reading.

Ellis, David H.

74

COMPARATIVE DIVERSITY OF FECAL BACTERIA IN AGRICULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE TARGETS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING  

EPA Science Inventory

Animals of agricultural significance contribute a large percentage of fecal pollution to waterways via runoff contamination. The premise of microbial source tracking is to utilize fecal bacteria to identify target populations which are directly correlated to specific animal feces...

75

A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal Products  

SciTech Connect

Transfer factors are used in radiological risk assessments to estimate the amount of radioactivity that could be present in a food crop or organism based on the calculated concentration in the source medium (i.e., soil or animal feed). By calculating the concentration in the food, the total intake can be estimated and a dose calculated as a result of the annual intake. This report compiles transfer factors for radiological risk assessments, using common food products, including meats, eggs, and plants. Transfer factors used were most often selected from recommended values listed by national or international organizations for use in radiological food chain transport calculations. Several methods of estimation and extrapolation were used for radionuclides not listed in the primary information sources. Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables.

Staven, Lissa H.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rhoads, Kathleen; Strenge, Dennis L.

2003-06-02

76

From Farm to Nuisance: Animal Agriculture and the Rise of Planning Regulation  

PubMed Central

Municipal ordinances to remove farm animals from city limits played a central part in defining city planning's role in urban ecosystems, economies, and public health. This article examines the regulation of animal agriculture since the eighteenth century in four cities: Baltimore, Boston, Philadelphia, and New York. Across the nineteenth century, municipal ordinances to remove farm animals from city limits set the tone for the planning profession, aligning it with the field of public health in creating a hygienic city. In the efforts to untangle animal agriculture from waste management, public space, and urban food supply, urban authorities employed some of the first land-use regulations in the United States, shaping new planning powers. Ordinances banning slaughterhouses, piggeries, and dairies culminated with zoning as planning became a profession. These regulations ultimately allowed planners to transform cities and their food environments by dismantling a system in which animals and their caretakers among the urban poor had played integral parts in food production, processing, and municipal waste management. Unpacking the objectives, debates, and impacts of these early regulations reveals enduring tensions and challenges as planners today seek to reweave animal agriculture into cities. PMID:25484629

Brinkley, Catherine; Vitiello, Domenic

2014-01-01

77

From Farm to Nuisance: Animal Agriculture and the Rise of Planning Regulation.  

PubMed

Municipal ordinances to remove farm animals from city limits played a central part in defining city planning's role in urban ecosystems, economies, and public health. This article examines the regulation of animal agriculture since the eighteenth century in four cities: Baltimore, Boston, Philadelphia, and New York. Across the nineteenth century, municipal ordinances to remove farm animals from city limits set the tone for the planning profession, aligning it with the field of public health in creating a hygienic city. In the efforts to untangle animal agriculture from waste management, public space, and urban food supply, urban authorities employed some of the first land-use regulations in the United States, shaping new planning powers. Ordinances banning slaughterhouses, piggeries, and dairies culminated with zoning as planning became a profession. These regulations ultimately allowed planners to transform cities and their food environments by dismantling a system in which animals and their caretakers among the urban poor had played integral parts in food production, processing, and municipal waste management. Unpacking the objectives, debates, and impacts of these early regulations reveals enduring tensions and challenges as planners today seek to reweave animal agriculture into cities. PMID:25484629

Brinkley, Catherine; Vitiello, Domenic

2014-05-01

78

COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES  

E-print Network

animals will be rejected on arrival. Animals found to be suffering will be evaluated by a veterinarian by the veterinarian prior to the ordering of the animals. 3.2 Husbandry A. All ferrets are housed in stainless wire

Krovi, Venkat

79

Captive husbandry of stoats Mustela erminea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Captive stoats are essential for testing technological developments for pest control in New Zealand. We have reviewed husbandry practices and experiences of keeping stoats in captivity for a range of purposes. Stoats can be kept individually outside and subjected to normal regimes of light and temperature if sufficient bedding and shelter is provided. They appear to survive and breed best

Robbie A. McDonald; Serge Larivière

2002-01-01

80

ANIMAL-BASED AGRICULTURE, PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT AND WATER QUALITY IN BRAZIL: OPTIONS FOR THE FUTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eutrophication has become a major threat to water quality in the U.S., Europe, and Australasia. In most cases, freshwater eutrophication is accelerated by increased inputs of phosphorus (P), of which agricultural runoff is now a major contributor, due to an intensification of crop and animal produc...

81

Commentary on domestic animals in agricultural and biomedical research: An endangered enterprise  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite the long and successful history of research on agriculturally relevant domestic animals, basic and translational research using domestic species is becoming increasingly threatened due to budgetary erosion. This funding decline is well documented in a recent article by Ireland et al., publis...

82

Selected examples of dispersal of arthropods associated with agricultural crop and animal production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic importance of arthropods in agricultural production systems and the possibilities of using dispersal behavior to develop and manipulate control are examined. Examples of long and short distance dispersal of economic insect pests and beneficial species from cool season host reservoirs and overwintering sites are presented. Significant dispersal of these species often occurring during crop and animal production is discussed.

Henneberry, T. J.

1979-01-01

83

Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech  

E-print Network

Engineering, Virginia Tech Katharine F. Knowlton, Assistant Professor, Dairy Science, Virginia Tech Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended a short-term (15-minute) exposure limit of 35 ppm. One strategy animal feeding operations. w.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture

Liskiewicz, Maciej

84

Specialty Animal Production Curriculum Guide for Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness. Curriculum Development. Bulletin No. 1806.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was developed to aid vocational agriculture/agribusiness teachers in Louisiana in improving their instruction and to provide students with the opportunity to obtain skills and knowledge in the production of nontraditional specialty animals. The guide covers the techniques of production, management, care, and marketing of…

University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.

85

Animating Community Supported Agriculture in North East England: Striving for a "Caring Practice"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on a case study of a new Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) scheme in the north of England to draw attention to some of the ethical issues encountered when using a participatory action research approach to animating CSA. Both CSA and participatory action research have been associated with the concept of "caring practice" and an…

Charles, Liz

2011-01-01

86

Applied manure research—looking forward to the benign roles of animal manure in agriculture and the environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

By definition, animal manure is discarded animal excreta and bedding materials usually applied to soils as a fertilizer for agricultural production. However, the impact of manure generation and disposal is far more than the role of organic fertilizers, even though the fertilizer function of animal m...

87

A history of the department of animal science at Texas A&M University  

E-print Network

and physical facilities. After Burns' retirement, George Streator Templeton continued the policies of his predecessor until his own resignation in 1923, David Willard Williams succeeded Templeton and served as Depart- ment Head until 1943. During Williams... the 52 department. Also in 1902, William D, Gibbs, Dean of the Department of Agri- culture and Director of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, called for a department of animal husbandry. " It is a question of how Dethloff, "A Centennial...

Lucko, Paul Michael

1975-01-01

88

The Effects of Predictability in Daily Husbandry Routines on Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed indoors experience many routine husbandry activities on a daily basis. The anticipation of these events can lead to stress, regardless of whether the events themselves are positive or aversive in nature. The specific goal of this study was to identify whether increasing the predictability of husbandry events could decrease stress and anxiety in captive rhesus macaques. This study was conducted on 39 single-housed subjects in four indoor rooms at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Temporal and signaled predictability were added to four daily husbandry events: morning and afternoon feeding, enrichment distribution, and room cleaning. Temporally predictable husbandry events occurred reliably at the same time daily, while signaled predictable husbandry events were preceded by a distinct event-specific signal in the form of a doorbell. Informal tests prior to study onset found the doorbells not to be aversive to the subjects. Subjects received each of four treatments: unpredictable events, temporally predictable events, signaled predictable events, and temporally and signaled predictable events. Change in stress was evaluated by monitoring changes in motor stereotypies and displacement behaviors. Our results showed that subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and enrichment events when the events were temporally predictable (P < 0 .0001). When husbandry events were preceded by a reliable signal, subjects vocalized less prior to the event and were less responsive to activity outside of the room (P < 0 .01). However this may have come at a cost as the animals were extremely reactive to the doorbell signals and showed a heightened stress response during the actual husbandry events (P < 0 .01). Similar to temporal predictability alone, when temporal predictability was combined with signaled predictability subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and enrichment events (P < 0 .0001). In addition, when both forms of predictability were combined subjects showed less stress behaviors while waiting for daily room cleaning (P < 0 .01). When signaled predictability was paired with temporal predictability subjects no longer had the negative response to the doorbell signal, as they were able to predict and anticipate when the events would occur. Because these results are not necessarily applicable to animals that are given control over their environment or housed in a group setting, the management recommendation that can be made from this study is that temporal predictability of feeding reduces stress and anxiety and is thus beneficial to captive indoor single-housed rhesus macaques. PMID:23439920

Gottlieb, Daniel H; Coleman, Kristine; McCowan, Brenda

2012-01-01

89

The presence and management of contaminants in non-certified, agriculturally sourced food items used as enrichment for laboratory animals.  

PubMed

One enrichment strategy for laboratory animals is the provision of food variety and foraging opportunities. Fresh agricultural items, including produce or packaged human food items, provide variation in palatability, texture and complexity and can therefore be used as enrichment for lab animals. But concerns are often raised that these food items might sometimes carry contaminants that could affect research subjects and confound experimental results. The author discusses the potential for agriculturally sourced foods used as enrichment for lab animals to be contaminated with mycotoxins, microorganisms and pesticide residues and the effects these contaminants might have on lab animals. He also suggests strategies for reducing the risk of contamination. PMID:25602396

Cooper, Dale M

2015-02-01

90

Husbandry practices and health in smallholder dairy farms near Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study was conducted from November 2001 to April 2002 in the Debre-Zeit area (near Addis Ababa), Ethiopia to assess the husbandry practices and to identify health constraints in 100 market-oriented smallholder dairy farms. A questionnaire survey, farm visit and animal examination were conducted.Thirty-eight percent of the smallholder farms were owned by women. Women-owned farms had more cows (median=3) than

H. M. Mekonnen; K. Asmamaw; J. F. Courreau

2006-01-01

91

GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations.  

PubMed

In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away from a GE evaluation process that currently focuses only on risk assessment and identifying ever diminishing marginal hazards, to a regulatory approach that more objectively evaluates and communicates the likely impact of approving a new GE plant or animal on agricultural production systems. PMID:24066781

Van Eenennaam, Alison L

2013-01-01

92

GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations  

PubMed Central

In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away from a GE evaluation process that currently focuses only on risk assessment and identifying ever diminishing marginal hazards, to a regulatory approach that more objectively evaluates and communicates the likely impact of approving a new GE plant or animal on agricultural production systems. PMID:24066781

2013-01-01

93

Nutrition and health in amphibian husbandry.  

PubMed

Amphibian biology is intricate, and there are many inter-related factors that need to be understood before establishing successful Conservation Breeding Programs (CBPs). Nutritional needs of amphibians are highly integrated with disease and their husbandry needs, and the diversity of developmental stages, natural habitats, and feeding strategies result in many different recommendations for proper care and feeding. This review identifies several areas where there is substantial room for improvement in maintaining healthy ex situ amphibian populations specifically in the areas of obtaining and utilizing natural history data for both amphibians and their dietary items, achieving more appropriate environmental parameters, understanding stress and hormone production, and promoting better physical and population health. Using a scientific or research framework to answer questions about disease, nutrition, husbandry, genetics, and endocrinology of ex situ amphibians will improve specialists' understanding of the needs of these species. In general, there is a lack of baseline data and comparative information for most basic aspects of amphibian biology as well as standardized laboratory approaches. Instituting a formalized research approach in multiple scientific disciplines will be beneficial not only to the management of current ex situ populations, but also in moving forward with future conservation and reintroduction projects. This overview of gaps in knowledge concerning ex situ amphibian care should serve as a foundation for much needed future research in these areas. PMID:25296396

Ferrie, Gina M; Alford, Vance C; Atkinson, Jim; Baitchman, Eric; Barber, Diane; Blaner, William S; Crawshaw, Graham; Daneault, Andy; Dierenfeld, Ellen; Finke, Mark; Fleming, Greg; Gagliardo, Ron; Hoffman, Eric A; Karasov, William; Klasing, Kirk; Koutsos, Elizabeth; Lankton, Julia; Lavin, Shana R; Lentini, Andrew; Livingston, Shannon; Lock, Brad; Mason, Tom; McComb, Alejandra; Morris, Cheryl; Pessier, Allan P; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Probst, Tom; Rodriguez, Carlos; Schad, Kristine; Semmen, Kent; Sincage, Jamie; Stamper, M Andrew; Steinmetz, Jason; Sullivan, Kathleen; Terrell, Scott; Wertan, Nina; Wheaton, Catharine J; Wilson, Brad; Valdes, Eduardo V

2014-01-01

94

Animal production and wheeze in the Agricultural Health Study: interactions with atopy, asthma, and smoking  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the role of animal exposures and wheeze, and to assess whether their impact differs among susceptible subgroups, including atopics, asthmatics, and smokers. Methods: Using the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina enrolled in 1994–97, wheeze associated with animal production was evaluated and interactions among susceptible subgroups assessed. Logistic regression models were used to examine risk factors for wheeze in the past year among 20 468 farmers. Results: Individuals raising animals requiring direct contact had the highest odds ratios (OR) for wheeze (ORdairy = 1.26; OReggs = 1.70). A significant dose response was observed for both the number of poultry and the number of livestock on the farm. Farmers who performed veterinary procedures on a daily basis had an OR of 1.51. The odds of wheeze associated with poultry production was greater among atopic than non-atopic individuals. Milking cows daily increased the odds of wheeze in all individuals, with the largest association observed among atopic asthmatic individuals. The impact of dairy, poultry, and egg production varied among smoking groups. Past smokers had the highest odds ratios, followed by never smokers, and then current smokers. The OReggs was 2.88 among past smokers but only 1.46 for never smokers. The OReggs for current smokers of 0.80 might reflect self selection of exposure among smokers. Conclusions: Results are consistent with animal production and respiratory symptoms, and suggest that subgroups may respond differently to exposure. PMID:12883030

Hoppin, J; Umbach, D; London, S; Alavanja, M; Sandler, D

2003-01-01

95

Oligonucleotide-mediated gene modification and its promise for animal agriculture.  

PubMed

One of the great aspirations in modern biology is the ability to utilise the expanding knowledge of the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity through the purposeful tailoring of the mammalian genome. A number of technologies are emerging which have the capacity to modify genes in their chromosomal context. Not surprisingly, the major thrust in this area has come from the evaluation of gene therapy applications to correct mutations implicated in human genetic diseases. The recent development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) provides access to these technologies for the purposeful modification of livestock animals. The enormous phenotypic variety existent in contemporary livestock animals has in many cases been linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their underlying point mutations, often referred to as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, the ability for the targeted genetic modification of livestock animals constitutes an attractive opportunity for future agricultural applications. In this review, we will summarize attempts and approaches for oligonucleotide-mediated gene modification (OGM) strategies for the site-specific modification of the genome, with an emphasis on chimeric RNA-DNA oligonucleotides (RDOs) and single-stranded oligonucletides (ssODNs). The potential of this approach for the directed genetic improvement of livestock animals is illustrated through examples, outlining the effects of point mutations on important traits, including meat and milk production, reproductive performance, disease resistance and superior models of human diseases. Current technological hurdles and potential strategies that might remove these barriers in the future are discussed. PMID:16330159

Laible, Götz; Wagner, Stefan; Alderson, Jon

2006-01-17

96

Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.

Emo, Kenneth Roy

97

Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater

Serena Ciparis; Luke R. Iwanowicz; J. Reese Voshell

98

Review of the Third Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching  

PubMed Central

The third edition (January 2010) of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching (the Ag Guide) was the collaborative effort of a group of 64 authors and provides a science-based reference and performance-based guidelines for institutions that use agricultural species in research and teaching. The adoption of the Ag Guide by the AAALAC Board of Trustees as a primary standard signifies its importance in the AAALAC accreditation process. PMID:22776185

2012-01-01

99

Review of the third edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching.  

PubMed

The third edition (January 2010) of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching (the Ag Guide) was the collaborative effort of a group of 64 authors and provides a science-based reference and performance-based guidelines for institutions that use agricultural species in research and teaching. The adoption of the Ag Guide by the AAALAC Board of Trustees as a primary standard signifies its importance in the AAALAC accreditation process. PMID:22776185

Vaughn, Sherry E

2012-05-01

100

Methods and techniques for measuring gas emissions from agricultural and animal feeding operations.  

PubMed

Emissions of gases from agricultural and animal feeding operations contribute to climate change, produce odors, degrade sensitive ecosystems, and pose a threat to public health. The complexity of processes and environmental variables affecting these emissions complicate accurate and reliable quantification of gas fluxes and production rates. Although a plethora of measurement technologies exist, each method has its limitations that exacerbate accurate quantification of gas fluxes. Despite a growing interest in gas emission measurements, only a few available technologies include real-time, continuous monitoring capabilities. Commonly applied state-of-the-art measurement frameworks and technologies were critically examined and discussed, and recommendations for future research to address real-time monitoring requirements for forthcoming regulation and management needs are provided. PMID:25391561

Hu, Enzhu; Babcock, Esther L; Bialkowski, Stephen E; Jones, Scott B; Tuller, Markus

2014-01-01

101

Job Title:Student Trainee (Animal Care) -Pathways Intern Department:Department Of Agriculture  

E-print Network

, disagreeable odors, allergens, and animal waste from diseased or distressed animals. Incumbent may be required with certain infectious agents, chemicals, and animal allergens. PPE provides necessary protection against

Behmer, Spencer T.

102

Feeding habit of goats in the scavenging system of Bangladesh Dept of General Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh  

E-print Network

Feeding habit of goats in the scavenging system of Bangladesh MR Alam Dept of General Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh In the mixed farming system goats are reared mostly by the landless farmers to supplement their income. Feeding of goats depend on systems

Boyer, Edmond

103

A NETWORK-BASED MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANIMAL  

E-print Network

A NETWORK-BASED MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANIMAL HUSBANDRY IN FARMS Jing Han1 , Xi Wang ,*2 of the management information system is studied. The security strategy model of the MIS is proposed: management information system, ASP, animal husbandry information, network technology Currently, the economy

Boyer, Edmond

104

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Mrs. Unsworth

2005-03-31

105

The origin of human pathogens: evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution of human disease.  

PubMed

Many significant diseases of human civilization are thought to have arisen concurrently with the advent of agriculture in human society. It has been hypothesised that the food produced by farming increased population sizes to allow the maintenance of virulent pathogens, i.e. civilization pathogens, while domestic animals provided sources of disease to humans. To determine the relationship between pathogens in humans and domestic animals, I examined phylogenetic data for several human pathogens that are commonly evolutionarily linked to domestic animals: measles, pertussis, smallpox, tuberculosis, taenid worms, and falciparal malaria. The majority are civilization pathogens, although I have included others whose evolutionary origins have traditionally been ascribed to domestic animals. The strongest evidence for a domestic-animal origin exists for measles and pertussis, although the data do not exclude a non-domestic origin. As for the other pathogens, the evidence currently available makes it difficult to determine if the domestic-origin hypothesis is supported or refuted; in fact, intriguing data for tuberculosis and taenid worms suggests that transmission may occur as easily from humans to domestic animals. These findings do not abrogate the importance of agriculture in disease transmission; rather, if anything, they suggest an alternative, more complex series of effects than previously elucidated. Rather than domestication, the broader force for human pathogen evolution could be ecological change, namely anthropogenic modification of the environment. This is supported by evidence that many current emerging infectious diseases are associated with human modification of the environment. Agriculture may have changed the transmission ecology of pre-existing human pathogens, increased the success of pre-existing pathogen vectors, resulted in novel interactions between humans and wildlife, and, through the domestication of animals, provided a stable conduit for human infection by wildlife diseases. PMID:16672105

Pearce-Duvet, Jessica M C

2006-08-01

106

Compliance with the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) work practice recommendations for youth working with large animals.  

PubMed

The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to reduce the risk of childhood agricultural injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate compliance with NAGCAT-recommended work practices (WPs) when youth work with large animals. On a daily basis, over a period of 10 weeks, youth self-reported the number of minutes they worked with a large animal and whether they followed the associated NAGCAT WP guidelines. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare boys to girls and to consider the effect of factors such as youth age, farm residence status, and selected parental characteristics. A high proportion of youth exhibited relatively low compliance for most of the five WPs evaluated. Respirators were rarely worn, but checking for people and obstacles in the area while working with large animals was commonly reported. In general, boys, especially the older boys, exhibited higher compliance than did girls. The results of our study demonstrate, in general, that youth are not following recommended NAGCAT WPs when working with large animals, identifying an area in agricultural safety and health requiring focused attention. PMID:21728869

Asti, L; Canan, B D; Heaney, C; Ashida, S; Renick, K; Xiang, H; Stallones, L; Jepsen, S D; Crawford, J M; Wilkins, J R

2011-01-01

107

Bioethics Symposium: The ethical food movement: What does it mean for the role of science and scientists in current debates about animal agriculture?  

PubMed

Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions on key issues pertaining to animal agriculture is also discussed. PMID:22573840

Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S

2012-05-01

108

Principles of Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT): Providing Optimal Veterinary and Husbandry Care to Irradiated Mice in BMT Studies  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the treatment of choice for many leukemias, solid tumors, and metabolic diseases. The field of bone marrow research is highly dependent on in vivo experimentation, because in vitro techniques do not mimic these complicated in vivo systems. Therefore, understanding the medical and husbandry care needs of these transiently immunodeficient bone marrow recipient animals is crucial for researchers, veterinary and animal care personnel. Here we discuss the principles of bone marrow transplantation, mouse pathogens that can interfere with transplantation research, and important husbandry and veterinary practices for mice that may help to minimize unnecessary infections during the transplantation process. Whole-body irradiation is one of the most common tools for myeloablation of the recipient's bone marrow. We discuss the crucial role of the irradiator for BMT research and the importance of aseptic husbandry practices to lessen the possibility of the irradiator for being a source for disease transmission. Finally, we discuss some important guidelines for Institutional Animal Use and Care Committees reviewing irradiation and BMT protocols. PMID:19245745

Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Dysko, Robert C

2009-01-01

109

Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24% in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide. PMID:23569971

El-Maghraby, Somia; Nawwar, Galal A; Bakr, Reda FA; Helmy, Nadia; Kamel, Omnia MHM

2012-01-01

110

Phototransformation rates and mechanisms for synthetic hormone growth promoters used in animal agriculture.  

PubMed

Trenbolone acetate, melengestrol acetate, and zeranol are synthetic hormones extensively used as growth promoters in animal agriculture, yet despite occurrence in water and soil little is known about their environmental fate. Here, we establish the time scales and mechanisms by which these synthetic growth promoters and their metabolites (SGPMs) undergo phototransformation in sunlit surface waters. The families of trenbolone acetate (including 17?-trenbolone, 17?-trenbolone, and trendione) and melengestrol acetate (including melengestrol) readily undergo direct photolysis, exhibiting half-lives between ?0.25 and 1 h in both natural and simulated sunlight that were largely insensitive to solution variables (e.g., pH, temperature, and cosolutes). Direct photolysis yielded products that not only are more photostable but also maintain their steroidal ring structure and therefore may retain some biological activity. In contrast, zeranol, ?-zearalanol, and zearalanone only exhibited reactivity in irradiated solutions of model humic and fulvic acids, and rates of indirect photolysis increased steadily from pH 7 to 9. Use of selective probe and quencher compounds suggest hydroxyl radical and triplet state dissolved organic matter are responsible for zeranol family decay at neutral pH, although singlet oxygen contributes modestly in more alkaline waters. This observed pH-dependence appears to result from photooxidants reacting primarily with the monodeprotonated form of zeranol (pK(a) values of 8.44 and 11.42). This investigation provides the first characterization of the fate of this emerging pollutant class in sunlit surface waters and prioritizes future efforts on the identity, fate, and biological impact of their more persistent phototransformation products. PMID:23163486

Qu, Shen; Kolodziej, Edward P; Cwiertny, David M

2012-12-18

111

Animal Order Submission Schedule 20142015 Holiday Season  

E-print Network

Animal Order Submission Schedule 20142015 Holiday Season No Animal Deliveries or Animal, December 18 by noon Wed, January 7 ULAR husbandry staff will continue to provide animal care during campus closures; however, there will be no animal deliveries over Thanksgiving or during winter break

Rose, Michael R.

112

Animal and human influenzas.  

PubMed

Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security. PMID:25707182

Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

2014-08-01

113

Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: the Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been lacking. Research has infrequently considered students' interest in agricultural content areas as well as influencing factors on students' agricultural interests. In this study, a factorial design of agricultural interests was developed combining five agricultural content areas and four components of individual interest. The instrument was validated with German fifth and sixth graders (N = 1,085) using a variance decomposition confirmatory factor analysis model. The results demonstrated a second-order factor of general agricultural interest, with animal husbandry, arable farming, vegetable and fruit cropping, primary food processing, and agricultural engineering as discrete content areas of agricultural interest. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that prior knowledge, garden experience, and disgust sensitivity are predictors of general agricultural interest. In addition, gender influenced interest in four of the five agricultural content areas. Implications are directed at researchers, teachers, and environmental educators concerning how to trigger and develop pupils' agricultural interests.

Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

2014-08-01

114

The Effects of a Serious Digital Game on the Animal Science Competency, Mathematical Competency, Knowledge Transfer Ability, and Motivation of Secondary Agricultural Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to compare the effectiveness of two teaching methods (i.e., lecture/discussion and digital game-based learning) on student achievement in agriculture and mathematics regarding a unit on swine diseases in animal science courses offered through secondary agricultural education programs in Oklahoma; 2) to…

Bunch, James Charles

2012-01-01

115

A case study of Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.  

PubMed

The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations. PMID:22610959

Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M

2013-01-01

116

Experimental and husbandry procedures as potential modifiers of the results of phenotyping tests  

PubMed Central

To maximize the sensitivity of detecting affects of genetic variants in mice, variables have been minimized through the use of inbred mouse lines, by eliminating infectious organisms and controlling environmental variables. However, the impact of standard animal husbandry and experimental procedures on the validity of experimental data is under appreciated. In this study we monitored the impact of these procedures by using parameters that reflect stress and physiological responses to it. Short-term measures included telemetered heart rate and systolic arterial pressure, core body temperature and blood glucose, while longer-term parameters were assessed such as body weight. Male and female C57BL6/NTac mice were subjected to a range of stressors with different perceived severities ranging from repeated blood glucose and core temperature measurement procedures, intra-peritoneal injection and overnight fasting to cage transport and cage changing. Our studies reveal that common husbandry and experimental procedures significantly influence mouse physiology and behaviour. Systolic arterial pressure, heart rate, locomotor activity, core temperature and blood glucose were elevated in response to a range of experimental procedures. Differences between sexes were evident, female mice displayed more sustained cardiovascular responses and locomotor activity than male mice. These results have important implications for the design and implementation of multiple component experiments where the lasting effects of stress from previous tests may modify the outcomes of subsequent ones. PMID:22713295

Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Igosheva, Natalia; Roberson, Laura-Anne; Ismail, Ozama; Karp, Natasha; Sanderson, Mark; Cambridge, Emma; Shannon, Carl; Sunter, David; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Bussell, James; White, Jacqueline K.

2012-01-01

117

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

118

Selected References and Aids for Teaching Animal Science to Students of Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resource guide for animal science education is divided into six subject areas: general animal science, beef, dairy, poultry, sheep, and swine. Within each of these areas, the guide provides bibliographic and availability data for relevant materials in the following forms: bulletins and circulars; textbooks; films, filmstrips, and slides; and…

Miller, Larry E.

119

Manure in the Bay: A Report on Industrial Animal Agriculture in Maryland and Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a substantive and detailed look at the concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and other animal feeding operations (AFO) programs in Maryland and Pennsylvania, as well as a general overview of the federal CAFO program. The information in this report was gathered through publicly available resources as well as a series of interviews with agency officials and other

Rena I. Steinzor; Yee Huang

2012-01-01

120

MYCOTOXINS AND FUNGI, CHRONIC DELETERIOUS CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN US AGRICULTURE: PLANTS, ANIMALS, HUMANS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Public health, the economy, and a country's independence is predicated on its food production and utilization. Mycotoxins are natural toxins produced by fungi growing on or in corn, wheat, barley, sorghum, other cereal grains, a variety of other agricultural commodities, and food and feed products....

121

Animal and industrial by-products management strategies for sustainable agricultural production system and environmental quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Repeated application of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter to agricultural lands often results in soil P and heavy metal accumulations, which may pose risks to water bodies. We evaluated six different application strategies on P, N and heavy metal losses from an established bermudagrass (Cyno...

122

Agriculture: Sustainable crop and animal production to help mitigate nitrous oxide emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agriculture can be tackled by reducing demand for, and consumption of, N inputs via diet modification and waste reduction, and/or through technologies applied at the field level. Here we focus on the latter options. To advance opportunities for mitigating N2O emiss...

123

Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.  

PubMed

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C

2012-01-01

124

Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty  

PubMed Central

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C.

2012-01-01

125

Animator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

Tech Directions, 2008

2008-01-01

126

Juvenile mortality in captive lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) at Basle Zoo and its relation to nutrition and husbandry.  

PubMed

Since 1956, when the Basle Zoo (Switzerland) initiated the breeding of lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis), 43% of the lesser kudu juveniles died before reaching an age of 6 mo. In this study, the objective was to obtain the pathological findings, nutritional history, and family tree information in order to evaluate the influence of husbandry on juvenile mortality in these animals. The main cause of death was white muscle disease (WMD), diagnosed in 14 cases (26%) of the deceased juveniles. Although enclosure size had remained constant and animal accessibility to the public was constantly high, both herd size and juvenile mortality had increased from 1956-2004. The diet consumed by the whole group in 2004 had deficient levels of vitamin E and selenium. The increasing linear trend of the mortality rate since the 1960s was significant, and there was a significant correlation between herd size and overall juvenile mortality. In contrast, there was no correlation between herd size and the occurrence of juvenile mortality associated specifically with WMD. Other investigated factors (sex, inbreeding, and season) had no significant effect on overall mortality up to 6 mo of age or on mortality associated with WMD. These results characterize both a dietary and a husbandry problem, and are supported by a lack of similar juvenile mortality in another facility where the diet was supplemented with vitamin E, animal numbers were kept low, and the enclosure structure offered more retreat options for the animals. PMID:18432100

Besselmann, Dorothea; Schaub, Daniela; Wenker, Christian; Völlm, Jürg; Robert, Nadia; Schelling, Claude; Steinmetz, Hanspeter; Clauss, Marcus

2008-03-01

127

REMOVAL OF PHOSPHORUS FROM ANIMAL MANURES EXPERIENCES OF THE USDA - AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A major problem in sustainability of animal production is surplus of manure phosphorus (P) exceeding land assimilative capacity. Land application of manure may result in P buildup in soil and increased potential for P losses through runoff and subsequent eutrophication of surface waters. A wastewate...

128

Improving the sustainability of animal agriculture by treating manure with alum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two of the biggest environmental problems associated with animal manure management are ammonia emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff. Research conducted during the past two decades has shown that a simple topical application of aluminum sulfate (alum) to manure can greatly reduce the magnitude of bot...

129

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Department of Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

need to plan for all the enterprises on your dairy. What makes money, what must we do and they also transport bacteria from one animal to another. Mow pastures often, spray and kill weeds also of milking cows. Less mastitis, higher quality milk, lower SCC and bacteria counts. You don

Watson, Craig A.

130

Job Title:Animal Caretaker (Biocontainment) -Recent Graduates Department:Department Of Agriculture  

E-print Network

, automatic water systems, autoclaves, cage washers, rack washers, electric forklifts, trucks and automobiles contamination. Reports history of each animal's medical treatment, physical state, diet, feed and water system, hydraulic necropsy tables, commercial band-saws, down-draft tables, high pressure cleaners

Behmer, Spencer T.

131

IDENTIFYING THE FUTURE NEEDS FOR LONG-TERM USDA EFFORTS IN AGRICULTURAL ANIMAL GENOMICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In response to a request by USDA Undersecretary Joe Jen, a new Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Domestic Animal Genomics was chartered in September of 2002 by the U.S. National Science and Technology Council with the mission of enhancing communication and awareness of the importance of livestock a...

132

Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem. III. Epidemiological investigations of Trichinella spiralis in resident wild and feral animals.  

PubMed

As part of a larger epidemiological study examining the transmission of Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem, resident wild and feral animals were trapped to determine the extent of their involvement in the natural, on-farm cycling of the parasite among swine. During a 21-mo-study, seven of 15 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), one of three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two of two feral domestic cats and a raccoon (Procyon lotor) were found to be infected, while five shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and 18 deer mice (Peromyscus spp.) were uninfected. Most of the former hosts probably became infected by scavenging dead infected swine or rats (Rattus norvegicus). However, infections obtained through predation of living rats, particularly with regard to the cats, cannot be excluded. Our observations do not suggest that there was transmission of T. spiralis from the wild animals to swine. Therefore, transmission of T. spiralis appeared to occur only from the farm's swine and rats to the associated wild and feral animals. PMID:3193554

Leiby, D A; Schad, G A; Duffy, C H; Murrell, K D

1988-10-01

133

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Christopher Griffith

134

The longevity legacy: the problem of old animals in zoos   

E-print Network

Zoos once demonstrated their skill in keeping wild mammals in captivity by longevity records. However, as our knowledge of animal husbandry in zoos has increased and breeding in most species has become commonplace, so the emphasis has shifted...

Kitchener, Andrew; Macdonald, Alastair A

2002-01-01

135

Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams.  

PubMed

Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17?-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000 ?g/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R(2) = 0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R(2) = 0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO(4)-P were weaker, but were also significant (R(2) = 0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO(4)-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO(4)-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. PMID:22088420

Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Voshell, J Reese

2012-01-01

136

Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production  

PubMed Central

Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

2014-01-01

137

Several problems on a rational structure for agricultural production and the agro-ecology of the Tai region of Tiangsu province  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a method of determining whether the output value structure, the soil structure, and the labor force structure are relatively balanced in an agricultural region of a Chinese province. Topics covered include several rational agricultural production structures for different types of soil, and several problems in setting up a rational agricultural production structure. A rational agricultural production structure is a consequence of the integrated development of farming, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline occupations, fisheries, and industry. The Tai Region has nine distinct types of soil. It is indicated that the level of grain production directly bears on the size and speed of development of economic diversification. Tables are presented on the output value structure of several representative communes and brigades, and soil nutrient content.

Ma Xiangyong

1983-08-01

138

College of Agricultural Sciences College of Agricultural Sciences  

E-print Network

and maintaining a productive, safe, and sustainable environment. Agricultural programs integrate biologicalCollege of Agricultural Sciences College of Agricultural Sciences Office in Shepardson Building MAJORS Agricultural Business Agricultural Education Animal Science Environmental and Natural Resource

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

139

Health and welfare of dairy cows in different husbandry systems in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Our objective was to compare health and welfare of dairy cows kept in three types of husbandry systems: (1) tie stalls with regular exercise in summer but minimal outdoor access during winter (the reference level for analyses); (2) tie stalls with regular exercise in an exercise yard or pasture throughout the year; (3) loose-housing with regular access to an outdoor exercise yard or pasture. A total of 134 farms were visited (two to) three times in two years. Cows were examined for lameness, skin alterations at the hock joints, scars or injuries at the teats, and skin injuries at other locations. Lying and standing-up behavior were also evaluated. Farmers were requested to record the incidence of medical treatments for the whole observation period. A multivariable logistic-regression analysis was performed for each indicator of health and welfare with husbandry type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines as the predictor variables. For welfare indicators recorded on individual animals, regression was performed correcting for clustering of observations within herds by Generalized Estimation Equation. Risk factors for the incidence of medical treatments were analyzed in a negative-binomial regression model. The odds for lameness were reduced for tie stalls with regular exercise throughout the year (OR=0.7). The prevalence of alterations at the hock joints was lower in loose-housing with regular outdoor exercise (OR=0.4). Teat injuries were less frequent in loose-housing with regular outdoor exercise (OR=0.1) and tie stalls with regular exercise (OR=0.4). Farms with loose-housing and regular outdoor exercise had a lower incidence of medical treatments (IR=0.6) than reference level farms. PMID:15579346

Regula, G; Danuser, J; Spycher, B; Wechsler, B

2004-12-15

140

Assessing the Animal Science Technical Skills Needed by Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates for Employment in the Animal Industries: A Modified Delphi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career and technical education courses, such as agricultural education, exist, in part, to assist students in acquiring the competencies needed to achieve employability. However, whether the current secondary agricultural education curriculum meets the needs of industry leaders who employ high school graduates of agricultural education programs is…

Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

2011-01-01

141

Husbandry practices and health in smallholder dairy farms near Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Our study was conducted from November 2001 to April 2002 in the Debre-Zeit area (near Addis Ababa), Ethiopia to assess the husbandry practices and to identify health constraints in 100 market-oriented smallholder dairy farms. A questionnaire survey, farm visit and animal examination were conducted. Thirty-eight percent of the smallholder farms were owned by women. Women-owned farms had more cows (median=3) than men-owned ones. The median herd size (including young animals) was four animals per farm. Median age, parity number and daily milk production of cows were, respectively, 5 years, 3 and 10l. The housing conditions were tie-stall barns for 53% and shades for the rest. About 48% of the herd were kept under poor housing conditions; land-resource limitation was mentioned as the major problem. Twenty percent of the farms were using hired labour. Mastitis (both clinical and subclinical) was the most-frequently encountered disease condition (prevalence at herd level 30%) followed by foot-and-leg problems. Farms owned by men or using hired labour had higher disease prevalences. The poor housing conditions were associated with the observed prevalences of health constraints. PMID:16289383

Mekonnen, H M; Asmamaw, K; Courreau, J F

2006-05-17

142

Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture - an initiative of the University of West Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In whole Central Europe agricultural production is highly vulnerable and sensitive to impacts of projected climatic changes. The low-elevation regions of the Carpathian Basin (most of the territory of Hungary), where precipitation is the minimum factor of production, are especially exposed to climatic extremes, especially to droughts. Rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry on nature-close pastures and nature-close forestry are the most sensitive sectors due to limited possibilities to counterbalance moisture supply constraints. These sectors have to be best prepared to frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses. So far, there is a lack of information about the middle and long term consequences on regional and local level. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimation is increasing. The aim of the initiative is to set up a fine-scale, GIS-based, complex, integrated system for the definition of the most important regional and local challenges and tasks of climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and also nature protection. The Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture is planned to provide the following services: § Complex, GIS-supported database, which integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions; § Evaluation of existing satellite-based and earth-based monitoring systems; § GIS-supported information about the future trends of climate change impacts on the agroecological potential and sensitivity status on regional and local level (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.) in fine-scale horizontal resolution, based first of all on natural produce, including also social and economic consequences; § Complex decision supporting system on regional and local scale for middle- and long term adaptation and mitigation strategies, providing information on optimum technologies and energy balances. Cooperation with already existing Climate Service Centres and national and international collaboration in monitoring and research are important elements of the activity of the Centre. In the future, the Centre is planned to form part of a national information system on climate change adaptation and mitigation, supported by the Ministry of Development. Keywords: climate change impacts, forestry, rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry

Matyas, Cs.; Berki, I.; Drüszler, A.; Eredics, A.; Galos, B.; Moricz, N.; Rasztovits, E.

2012-04-01

143

Agricultural Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

144

Evolutionary demography of agricultural expansion in preindustrial northern Finland.  

PubMed

A shift from nomadic foraging to sedentary agriculture was a major turning point in human evolutionary history, increasing our population size and eventually leading to the development of modern societies. We however lack understanding of the changes in life histories that contributed to the increased population growth rate of agriculturalists, because comparable individual-based reproductive records of sympatric populations of agriculturalists and foragers are rarely found. Here, we compared key life-history traits and population growth rate using comprehensive data from the seventieth to nineteenth century Northern Finland: indigenous Sami were nomadic hunter-fishers and reindeer herders, whereas sympatric agricultural Finns relied predominantly on animal husbandry. We found that agriculture-based families had higher lifetime fecundity, faster birth spacing and lower maternal mortality. Furthermore, agricultural Finns had 6.2% higher annual population growth rate than traditional Sami, which was accounted by differences between the subsistence modes in age-specific fecundity but not in mortality. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the most detailed demonstration yet of the demographic changes and evolutionary benefits that resulted from agricultural revolution. PMID:25232134

Helle, Samuli; Brommer, Jon E; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi; Enbuske, Matti; Jokela, Jukka

2014-11-01

145

THE APPLICATION OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND THE HUMANE CARE OF FARM ANIMALS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Humane care is best defined as maintaining husbandry procedures in keeping with the traits which are species-specific to the animal farmed. It must be evaluated in relation to the ethogram of the species, and not to anthropomorphic human feelings about animal care. If humane care is pursued, some compatability may be found between what the animal behavior scien- tists

R. Kilgour

2010-01-01

146

Husbandry and veterinary aspects of the bearded dragon ( pogona spp.) in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate husbandry and management are fundamental to the health of the Bearded Dragon (Pogona spp.) in captivity. This article discusses the application of the important parameters of lizard husbandry as part of a clinical examination of the different species of Bearded Dragon found in Australia.

Michael James Cannon

2003-01-01

147

Storm flow dynamics and loads of fecal bacteria associated with ponds in southern piedmont and coastal plain watersheds with animal agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storm events that increase hydrologic flow rates can disturb sediments and produce overland runoff in watersheds with animal agriculture, and, thus, can increase surface water concentrations of fecal bacteria and risk to public health. We tested the hypothesis that strategically placed ponds in wate...

148

Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

149

Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins) often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced). It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high) directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct costs for the farming sector. PMID:21247506

2011-01-01

150

Harnessing: Technologies for Sustainable Reindeer Husbandry in the Arctic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To accelerate the development of sustainable reindeer husbandry under the lead of indigenous reindeer herders, it is critical to empower reindeer herders with the best available technologies and to promote a new kind of science where traditional knowledge is fully integrated into the scientific management of the natural environment in the Arctic. This is particularly true given the dramatic environmental, climatic, economic, social and industrial changes, which have taken place across the Arctic in recent years, all of which have had serious impacts on the reindeer herding communities of the North. The Anar Declaration, adopted by the 2d World Reindeer Herders Congress (WRHC), in Inari, Finland, June 2001drew guidelines for the development of a sustainable reindeer husbandry based on reindeer peoples values and goals. The declaration calls for the reindeer herding peoples to be given the possibilities to develop and influence the management of the reindeer industry and its natural environment because of their knowledge and traditional practices. At the same time, Arctic scientists from many institutions and governments are carrying out increasingly highly technical reindeer related research activities. It is important that the technologies and results of these activities be more commonly co-produced with the reindeer herder community and/or made more readily available to the reindeer peoples for comparison with traditional knowledge for improved herd management. This paper describes a project in which reindeer herders and scientists are utilizing technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing knowledge. The project, Reindeer Mapper, is creating an information management and knowledge sharing system, which will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. The paper describes some of the technologies which comprise the system including an intranet system to enable the team members to work together and share information electronically, remote sensing data for monitoring environmental parameters important to reindeer husbandry (e.g. SAR, Landsat), acquisition of ground-based measurements, and the GIS-based information management and knowledge sharing system.

Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein

2004-01-01

151

Astyanax transgenesis and husbandry: how cavefish enters the laboratory.  

PubMed

Astyanax mexicanus, a teleost fish comprising both sighted river-dwelling and blind cave-dwelling morphs, is becoming increasingly used in the field of developmental and evolutionary biology. Thus, new experimental and technological tools are needed on this emerging fish model by the expanding scientific community. Here, we describe Astyanax husbandry and egg spawning habits, a prerequisite to the successful establishment of Astyanax transgenic lines. We then compare two different transgenesis methods on both surface and cave Astyanax. Both meganuclease (I-SceI)- and transposase (Tol2)-mediated transgenesis are equivalently efficient, resulting in ?40% mosaic transgenic fish in F0. Furthermore, the transmission rate was analyzed in F1 in the case of the I-SceI method and was found to be 16%. Finally, the transgene was found stable up the F3 generation, demonstrating the feasibility of generating stable transgenic lines in Astyanax and opening a wide range of possibilities for this fish model. PMID:25004161

Elipot, Yannick; Legendre, Laurent; Père, Stéphane; Sohm, Frédéric; Rétaux, Sylvie

2014-08-01

152

A Decision Support System for Climate Change Adaptation in Rainfed Sectors of Agriculture for Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

• Background and aims: Rainfed sectors of agriculture such as nature-close forestry, non-irrigated agriculture and animal husbandry on nature-close pastures are threatened by projected climate change especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is the limiting factor of production and ecosystem stability. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimization is increasing. The aim of the Decision Support System under development is to raise awareness and initiate preparation for frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses in the mentioned sectors. • Services provided: The Decision Support System provides GIS-supported information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options regarding climate change impacts, projected for reference periods until 2100 (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, potential production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.). The projections are referring first of all on biological production (natural produce), but the System includes also social and economic consequences. • Methods: In the raster based system, the latest image processing technology is used. We apply fuzzy membership functions, Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifier. The System is developed in the first step for a reference area in SW Hungary (Zala county). • Novelty: The coherent, fine-scale regional system integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions and expected production potential for three sectors of agriculture as options for land use and conservation. • Funding: The development of the Decision Support System "Agrárklíma" is supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and 4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018 "Talentum" joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate change impacts, forestry, rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry

Mátyás, Csaba; Berki, Imre; Drüszler, Áron; Eredics, Attila; Gálos, Borbála; Illés, Gábor; Móricz, Norbert; Rasztovits, Ervin; Czimber, Kornél

2013-04-01

153

Science of Agricultural Animals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

Murdock, Ashleigh Barbee, Ed.

2010-01-01

154

Health Risks Faced by Turkish Agricultural Workers  

PubMed Central

Background. Individuals who make a living through agriculture and animal husbandry are faced with a variety of physical and psychological health risks. In many international studies, it has been shown that these risks can result in disease. The purpose of this study is to summarize the health risks faced by Turkish agricultural workers. Materials and Methods. This study used a nonrandom, convenience sample. The biopsychosocial health statuses of 177 farmers from 11 central villages in Kars, Turkey, were examined. Results. It was determined that the depression rate among the study group was 62.1%, the rate of physical health problems was 52.0%, and the rate of social isolation was 53.7%. There was a statistically significant difference between the depression scale scores and lower education levels, having ? three children, and physical health problems, as well as the physical condition of the farmers' homes. There was a significant difference between poor physical health and older age, lower education levels, having ? three children, and social isolation. Conclusions. In providing data-based evidence, it is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the causality of health problems in this population and in planning the development of public health and veterinary services based on regional needs. PMID:25054165

Çakmur, Hülya

2014-01-01

155

TRICHINEL.L.A SPIRALIS IN AN AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEM. III. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS IN RESIDENT WILD AND FERAL ANIMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a larger epidemiological study examining the transmission of Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem, resident wild and feral animals were trapped to determine the extent of their involvement in the natural, on-farm cycling of the parasite among swine. During a 21-mo-study, seven of 15 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), one of three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two of two feral

David A. Leiby; Gerhard A. Schad; Charles H. Duffy; K. Darwin

156

Introduction to working safely with large animals in containment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript examines biosafety challenges posed when conducting work with animals and zoonotic pathogens. It provides solutions for working with animals in a manner that promotes both safe and responsible research. Good safety and animal husbandry are essential for good science. Best practices w...

157

VIRTUAL FENCING - AUTOMATED ANIMAL CONTROL IN THE 21ST CENTURY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Controlling free-ranging animal distribution is among the most challenging jobs a producer faces when managing livestock. Melding of time-tested animal husbandry practices with cutting-edge technological advances and scientific breakthroughs coming from the disciplines of range, animal and ethologi...

158

Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture & emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones: Need to assess the impact on public health  

PubMed Central

Widespread use of antibiotics in human, veterinary medicine and agricultural settings has played a significant role in the emergence of resistant MRSA clones due to selection pressure. MRSA has now become established in human population as well as in various animal species. An animal associated clone, MRSA ST 398 has been reported from animal foods and also from human infections in the community as well as from the health care associated infections. Clonal relationship between strains of animal and human origins are indicators of interspecies transmission of clones. Spread of these organisms may pose a great impact on public health if animal associated strains enter into the community and health care settings. Surveillance is important to correlate the genetic changes associated with their epidemiological shift and expansion to predict its impact on public health. Strict regulations on the use of antibiotics in humans as well as in animal food production are required to control the emergence of drug resistant clones. This article reviews the information available on the role of antibiotics in emergence of MRSA strains, their epidemiological shift between humans and animals and its impact on the public health. PMID:25366200

Mehndiratta, P.L.; Bhalla, P.

2014-01-01

159

ANIMAL SCIENCE GRADUATE STUDENT DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SCIENCE  

E-print Network

ANIMAL SCIENCE GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SCIENCE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL .................................................................................................................. 4 ANIMAL SCIENCE GRADUATE PROGRAM HISTORY..............................................................................................................................7 GRADUATE RESEARCH FACULTY

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

160

Husbandry of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and the cortisol stress response.  

PubMed

The effect of common husbandry conditions (crowding, social environment, water quality, handling, and background color) on the cortisol stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, was investigated to check the usefulness of zebrafish as a model organism in aquaculture research. In addition, a noninvasive methodology for assessing stress was evaluated. Zebrafish showed a fast cortisol response with high values at 30 min that returned to basal levels within 2 h of poststress. There was a significant positive correlation between trunk cortisol concentrations and the free water cortisol rate (r(2)=0.829-0.850, p<0.001), indicating that measurement of the water-borne cortisol release rate may serve as a noninvasive and reliable stress indicator at the population level. Crowding resulted in 13- to 21-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations compared with controls. However, even at low stocking density (2-5 fish/L), the maintenance cost was higher than the one at higher densities (10 fish/L) due to the formation of dominance hierarchies. The background color affected trunk cortisol concentrations, with fish exposed to brighter backgrounds (green and white) showing 3- to 8-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations than fish exposed to a black background or transparent aquaria. Fish exposed to high stocking densities for 2 h or 5 days had similar high mean trunk cortisol levels, indicating that exposure of fish for the period of 2 h to a specific stressor may represent a chronic situation in zebrafish. It is concluded that adult laboratory zebrafish had a preference for a transparent or black background aquarium, at a number of 10 individuals per 2 L of available water volume, to express their normal behavior and avoid increased cortisol stress reaction. PMID:23886279

Pavlidis, Michail; Digka, Nikoletta; Theodoridi, Antonia; Campo, Aurora; Barsakis, Konstantinos; Skouradakis, Gregoris; Samaras, Athanasios; Tsalafouta, Alexandra

2013-12-01

161

Agricultural Biodiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

Postance, Jim

1998-01-01

162

Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.  

PubMed

To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

2014-08-01

163

COLLABORATIVE ANIMAL SCIENCE RESEARCH: IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURE AND TRADE POLICIES ON CROSS-BORDER RANGELAND RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In sharing a common boundary, Mexico and the United States also shares common landscapes and an agricultural economy that is inextricably linked. Due to the high degree of connectedness between these countries, factors that affect one country also affect the other, either directly or indirectly. Cur...

164

Intriguing links between animal behavior and anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this review is to examine the literature on possible animal models for anorexia nervosa. Method: The literature was searched using MedLine, PSYCHLIT, and CAB Abstracts using search items that included body composition, thin sow syndrome, and halo- thane gene. In addition, key workers in the field of animal husbandry and body composition were sent earlier drafts

Janet L. Treasure; John B. Owen

1997-01-01

165

Agricultural Extension in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensus exists that extension services, if functioning effectively, improve agricultural productivity through providing farmers with information that helps them to optimize their use of limited resources. Variations in management practices and husbandry skills among small farmers in Kenya are very great. Tremendous poverty-reducing benefits could be reaped by bringing the production costs of the most inefficient farmers to mean

Milu Muyanga; Thomas S. Jayne

2006-01-01

166

Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 11. Effects of climate change on animal agriculture. [Proposals for research programs  

SciTech Connect

The impact of CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ambient temperature is predicted to result in an overall reduction in animal productivity, although animal productivity may increase in some parts of the world. New technologies will be needed to maintain or overcome the adverse effects of climate that are predicted. The effects of temperature (and other associated changes in climate) impact directly on the physiology of the animals as well as indirectly through changes in parasites, diseases, forages, crops and soils. The purpose of this paper is to identify the researchable issues which will permit animals to maintain and perhaps increase their food production capacity and efficiency in spite of potential increases in ambient temperature. In order for animal agricultural systems to maintain or increase efficiency and productivity in the face of altered climate, additional knowledge must be gained in understanding the multiplicity of pathways whereby weather exerts its effects on the biological components involved in animal agriculture. Research needed to permit animals to cope with increasing ambient temperatures are described for the following topics: animal productivity; nutrition; endocrinology; reproduction; acclimation and behavior; genetics; animal health; environmental modification and housing; adaptation, yield and quality of primary feed producing plants; soil resources for animal feed production; international aspects; systems management; and economics. The research approaches suggested range from highly detailed physiological and biochemical studies in environmentally controlled animal chambers to studies of animals managed in extensive grazing conditions.

Tucker, H.A.

1982-10-01

167

Animals, Animals, Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

Mrs. Laz

2006-12-16

168

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND DISEASE Reference: Biol. Bull. 195: 223-225. (October, 1998)  

E-print Network

) in the loop. This water was heated or chilled at different times of the year to maintain a temperature to maintain good water quality, the rapid exchange of seawater prevented depletion of trace elements which rather than ozone treat- ment (for which the loops were designed), because mechanical failures of the UV

Hanlon, Roger T.

169

vanA-mediated high-level glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium from animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains were isolated from a pig farm and a poultry farm both using avoparcin as a food additive. Such organisms were not isolated in a hen's eggs-producing farm not using avoparcin. Glycopeptide-resistant enterococci were also detected in broiler chicken carcasses that were delivered to a hospital's kitchen. The resistance was determined by the vanA gene as indicated

I. Klare; H. Heier; H. Claus; R. Reissbrodt; W. Witte

1995-01-01

170

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the appropriate viruses, the sanctuary must perform a viral panel and serology for the various chronic hepatitis viruses and HIV. (9) Additional tests or procedures that are deemed beneficial to the chimpanzees' health may be required by the...

2011-10-01

171

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the appropriate viruses, the sanctuary must perform a viral panel and serology for the various chronic hepatitis viruses and HIV. (9) Additional tests or procedures that are deemed beneficial to the chimpanzees' health may be required by the...

2013-10-01

172

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the appropriate viruses, the sanctuary must perform a viral panel and serology for the various chronic hepatitis viruses and HIV. (9) Additional tests or procedures that are deemed beneficial to the chimpanzees' health may be required by the...

2010-10-01

173

Chemtrails And Vaccines What You Didn't Know About Vaccines And Human Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-17-5 In 1946, future pharmaceutical czar George Merck reported to the US Secretary of War, that he'd managed to weaponise the toxin extracted from the Brucella bacterium and to isolate it into an indestructible crystalline form using only the DNA particles. Aerial spraying of the crystals via chemtrails was deployed on Chinese and Korean populations during the Korean War. Many

Mark Owen

174

9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES,...

2011-01-01

175

9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES,...

2013-01-01

176

9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

177

9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES,...

2014-01-01

178

9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2012-01-01

179

9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

180

9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2013-01-01

181

9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

182

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2010-01-01

183

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2013-01-01

184

9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2010-01-01

185

9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2011-01-01

186

9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES,...

2010-01-01

187

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2012-01-01

188

9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

189

9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES,...

2012-01-01

190

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2014-01-01

191

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2011-01-01

192

9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2014-01-01

193

Developing forage based rations for lactating buffaloes Department of Animal Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar, 125 004 Haryana, India  

E-print Network

Developing forage based rations for lactating buffaloes MA Akbar Department of Animal Nutrition but its crude protein content, and its intake by the buffaloes are low which could be overcome by mixing on nutrients utilization and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Twelve Murrah buffaloes were randomly divided

Boyer, Edmond

194

An Overview of the Design, Construction, and Operational Management of the US Department of Agriculture National Centers for Animal Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

World-wide interest and demand for high containment, biosecure facilities for veterinary medicine and animal health research is increasing. This demand has been spurred on in part by the recent emergence of potential zoonotic pathogens such as Avian Influenza, West Nile Virus, and Tuberculosis, amo...

195

DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO CONVERT GREEN AND ANIMAL WASTES TO A USEFUL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT WITH POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE FUEL USE  

EPA Science Inventory

Initially, we thought that we would shred the green waste to use as a binder for the animal manure to produce a material useful as a fuel or soil amendment. Our first experiments in mixing the materials revealed that manure was, instead, better used as a binder for the green w...

196

Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)  

PubMed Central

Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. PMID:19531062

Ramsay, J M; Watral, V; Schreck, C B; Kent, M L

2009-01-01

197

Stocker & Gallant 1 Fly Husbandry Getting started: An overview on raising and  

E-print Network

Stocker & Gallant 1 Fly Husbandry Getting started: An overview on raising and handling Drosophila@zool.unizh.ch Abstract Drosophila melanogaster has long been a prime model organism for developmental biologists. During flies an attractive system for many other biomedical researchers who have otherwise no background in fly

Singh, Amit

198

Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, V.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

2009-01-01

199

Behaviour of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) with suggestions for husbandry  

E-print Network

and Buru), B.b. togeanensis (Togian islands) and B.b. celebenesis (Sulawesi) (Groves, 1980), of which only the latter is currently represented in captivity. The species is listed in the IUCN Red Data Book as vulnerable and can be considered a marker animal...

Leus, Kristin; Bowles, D; Bell, J; Macdonald, Alastair A

1992-01-01

200

2004 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead,  

E-print Network

; Melissa.Bateson@newcastle.ac.uk Abstract Choice tests are commonly used to measure animals preferences, and the results of such tests are used to make recommendations regarding animal husbandry. An implicit assumption. These findings have implications for the design and interpretation of choice tests. Keywords: animal welfare

Indiana University

201

75 FR 47769 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2010-08-09

202

75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2010-06-14

203

75 FR 24569 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2010-05-05

204

Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in cattle, sheep, goats, horses and camels in the State of Eritrea; influence of husbandry systems.  

PubMed Central

Samples from 2427 cattle, 661 goats, 104 sheep, 98 camels and 82 horses were screened for brucella infections by the Rose Bengal Test and positive reactors confirmed by the complement fixation test. In cattle, the highest individual seroprevalence was in dairy herds kept under the intensive husbandry system, with an individual prevalence of 8.2% and unit (herd) seroprevalence of 35.9%. This was followed by the pastoral husbandry system in the Western Lowlands with 5.0% individual but a higher unit (vaccination site) prevalence of 46.1%. The lowest was in the mixed crop-livestock system in the Southern Highlands with individual 0.3% and unit (village) prevalence of 2.4%. In sheep and goats, no positive animals were detected in the mixed crop-livestock areas. In the Eastern Lowlands individual prevalences of 3.8% (goats) and 1.4% (sheep) and unit prevalence of 33.3% (goats) and 16.7% were found, while 14.3% of individual goats and 56.3% of the units in the Western Lowlands were positive. No positive horses were found. The present study documents the first serological evidence of Brucella spp. infection in camels (3.1%) in Eritrea. PMID:11117970

Omer, M. K.; Skjerve, E.; Holstad, G.; Woldehiwet, Z.; Macmillan, A. P.

2000-01-01

205

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture  

E-print Network

's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources promotes sustainable land use and embraces the landOklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma agriculture affects each of us every day, young and old, whether we live in largely rural regions or the state

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

206

Biological and Agricultural Studies on Application of Discharge Plasma and Electromagnetic Fields 5. Effects of High Electric Fields on Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biological effects of extremely low frequency electric fields on animals are reviewed with emphasis on studies of the nervous system, behavior, endocrinology, and blood chemistry. First, this paper provides a histrical overview of studies on the electric field effects initiated in Russia and the United States mainly regarding electric utility workers in high voltage substations and transmission lines. Then, the possible mechanisms of electric field effects are explained using the functions of surface electric fields and induced currents in biological objects. The real mechanisms have not yet been identified. The thresholds of electric field perception levels for rats, baboons, and humans are introduced and compared. The experimental results concerning the depression of melatonin secretion in rats exposed to electric fields are described.

Isaka, Katsuo

207

Current husbandry of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in zoos.  

PubMed

The endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is held in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how red pandas are kept and managed in captivity and to compare it with the management guidelines. Sixty-nine zoos, mainly from Europe but also from North America and Australia/New Zealand, responded to our survey. The results revealed that in general zoos follow the management guidelines for most of the investigated issues. The average enclosure is almost four times larger than the minimum size recommended by the management guidelines, although seven zoos have smaller enclosures. About half the zoos do not follow the guidelines concerning visitor access and number of nest boxes. Other issues that may compromise animal welfare include proximity of neighboring carnivore species and placement of nest boxes. PMID:21182101

Eriksson, P; Zidar, J; White, D; Westander, J; Andersson, M

2010-01-01

208

Health-risk behaviors in agriculture and related factors, southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Human behavior plays a central role in the maintenance of health and the prevention of diseases. This study aimed to determine the risky behaviors of farm operators selected from a province of Turkey's southeastern Anatolian region, as well as the factors related to risky behaviors. In this cross-sectional analysis, 380 farm operators were enrolled through simple random selection method, and the response rate was 85%. Health-risk behavior was measured using the Control List of Occupational Risks in Agriculture. Of 323 farm operators, 85.4% were male. The prevalence of risky behaviors related to measures of environmental risks were higher in animal husbandry, transportation, transportation and maintenance of machinery, pesticide application, child protection, thermal stress, and psychosocial factors in the work place. Education, age, duration of work, and size of agricultural area were associated with risky behaviors in a multiple linear regression (P < .05). Findings showed that a certified training program and a behavior surveillance system for agriculture should be developed. PMID:25275402

Yavuz, Hasret; Simsek, Zeynep; Akbaba, Muhsin

2014-01-01

209

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2011-01-01

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9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2012-01-01

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9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2014-01-01

212

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2010-01-01

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9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2012-01-01

214

9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2014-01-01

215

9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2013-01-01

216

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2013-01-01

217

Beneficial effect of lantibiotic nisin in rabbit husbandry.  

PubMed

Nisin is a bacteriocin marketed as Nisaplin. The aim of our work was to test its in vivo effect in a rabbit model; its effect on phagocytic activity (PA) and morphometry has not so far been studied. Post-weaning rabbits (48), 5 weeks old (both sexes, Hycole breed), were divided into the experimental (E) and the control groups (C), 24 animals in each. They were fed a commercial diet with access to water ad libitum. Rabbits in E had nisin additionally administered to their drinking water (500 IU-20 ?g per animal/day) for 28 days. The experiment lasted 42 days. On day 28, significant decrease in coagulase-positive (CoPS) staphylococci and coliforms was noted (p < 0.01) in faeces of group E compared with C. Pseudomonads and clostridiae were also significantly reduced (p < 0.001; p < 0.05) and slight decrease was also in CoNS and enterococci. On day 42, coliforms were still significantly reduced (p < 0.001) in faeces; slight decrease in CoPS and pseudomonads was noted. In the caecum, significant decrease in pseudomonads (p < 0.05) was noted on day 28; slight decrease in coliforms. In the appendix slight decrease in coliforms, pseudomonads was obtained on both days. PA was increased significantly in E on days 28, 42 (p < 0.001). Biochemical parameters were not influenced; nor were volatile fatty acids or lactic acid in the chymus. Nisin application did not evoke oxidative stress. In group E, an increase in average body weight gain (about 9.4 %) was noted. The villus height/crypt depth ratio was not influenced; that is, resorption surface and functionality of mucosa were not influenced. PMID:24676766

Lauková, Andrea; Chrastinová, Lubica; Plachá, Iveta; Kandri?áková, Anna; Szabóová, Renáta; Strompfová, Viola; Chrenková, Mária; Cobanová, Klaudia; Zit?an, Rudolf

2014-03-01

218

[The species-specific feeding of rabbits in pet husbandry].  

PubMed

To meet nutrient demands as well as the species specific requirements of an animal it is absolutely necessary to know its nutrition physiology (KAMPHUES et al. 1999). Characteristics of the nutrition physiology of rabbits include the anatomy of the intestinal tract (i.e. the teeth, the size of gut as well as the small intestine and colon), the special ingesting behaviour (selection, intensity of gnawing and chewing) and digestive processes within the intestinal tract (digestion by own as well as by microbial enzymes, processes of separation (producing soft faeces) and the excretion of digested or undigested nutrients (excretion via faeces or kidneys, quality of faeces). In feeding pet rabbits it has to be recommended, that these species do not need concentrates, but ingredients with higher crude fiber contents due to their origin and their intestinal tract. Therefore these herbivorous species should be fed with hay, straw or vegetables and not with concentrates exclusively. If these components are not offered (an usual feeding practice in rabbits kept as companion animals), other products rich in crude fibre have to be fed. The offer of a pressed diet in cube form with long fibrous ingredients would be a possibility to upgrade a ration poor in crude fibre. To meet the gnawing requirement of the rabbits this cubes should be pressed intensively. Furthermore it is advisable to exchange ingredients of the mixed feed with a high energy content (i.e. sunflower seeds, nuts) for ingredients of lower energy density (i.e. oat hulls, pelleted ground hay). Finally calcium oversupply has to be avoided because higher calcium intake may result in urolithiasis (calcium stones/concrements). PMID:11314470

Kamphues, J

2001-03-01

219

Ants farm subterranean aphids mostly in single clone groups - an example of prudent husbandry for carbohydrates and proteins?  

PubMed Central

Background Mutualistic interactions are wide-spread but the mechanisms underlying their evolutionary stability and ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Cultivation mutualisms in which hosts consume symbionts occur in phylogenetically diverse groups, but often have symbiont monocultures for each host. This is consistent with the prediction that symbionts should avoid coexistence with other strains so that host services continue to benefit relatives, but it is less clear whether hosts should always favor monocultures and what mechanisms they might have to manipulate symbiont diversity. Few mutualisms have been studied in sufficient genetic detail to address these issues, so we decided to characterize symbiont diversity in the complex mutualism between multiple root aphid species and Lasius flavus ants. After showing elsewhere that three of these aphid species have low dispersal and mostly if not exclusively asexual reproduction, we here investigate aphid diversity within and between ant nest mounds. Results The three focal species (Geoica utricularia, Forda marginata and Tetraneura ulmi) had considerable clonal diversity at the population level. Yet more than half of the ant mounds contained just a single aphid species, a significantly higher percentage than expected from a random distribution. Over 60% of these single-species mounds had a single aphid clone, and clones tended to persist across subsequent years. Whenever multiple species/clones co-occurred in the same mound, they were spatially separated with more than 95% of the aphid chambers containing individuals of a single clone. Conclusions L. flavus “husbandry” is characterized by low aphid “livestock” diversity per colony, especially at the nest-chamber level, but it lacks the exclusive monocultures known from other cultivation mutualisms. The ants appear to eat most of the early instar aphids, so that adult aphids are unlikely to face limited phloem resources and scramble competition with other aphids. We suggest that such culling of carbohydrate-providing symbionts for protein ingestion may maintain maximal host yield per aphid while also benefitting the domesticated aphids as long as their clone-mates reproduce successfully. The cost-benefit logic of this type of polyculture husbandry has striking analogies with human farming practices based on slaughtering young animals for meat to maximize milk-production by a carefully regulated adult livestock population. PMID:22747564

2012-01-01

220

All farming operations that land apply manure or agricultural process wastewater, whether they generate the manure or import it from another operation, must have a written Manure Management Plan. All farming operations that include an Animal Concentra-  

E-print Network

All farming operations that land apply manure or agricultural process wastewater, whether they generate the manure or import it from another operation, must have a written Manure Management Plan. All Management Plan. For farms not defined as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) or Concentrated

Guiltinan, Mark

221

Colorimetric polymer-metal nanocomposite sensor of ammonia for the agricultural industry of confined animal feeding operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed colorimetric sensor of ammonia for the confined animal feeding industry uses the method of optoelectronic spectroscopic measurement of the reversible change of the color of a nanocomposite reagent film in response to ammonia. The film is made of a gold nanocolloid in a polymer matrix with an ammonia-sensitive indicator dye additive. The response of the indicator dye (increase of the optical absorption between 550 and 650 nm) is enhanced by the nanoparticles (˜8 nm in size) in two ways: (a) concentration of the optical field near the nanoparticle due to the plasmon resonance and (b) catalytic acceleration of the chemical reaction of deprotonization of the indicator dye in the presence of ammonia and water vapor. This enhancement helps to miniaturize the sensing element without compromising its sensitivity of <1 parts per million (ppm) for the range 0 to 100 ppm. The sensor underwent field tests in commercial poultry farms in Georgia and Arkansas and was compared against a scientific-grade photoacoustic gas analyzer. The coefficient of correlation between the sensor and the photoacoustic data for several weeks of continuous side-by-side operation in a commercial poultry house was ˜0.9 and the linear regression slope was 1.0. The conclusions on the necessary improvements were made.

Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Czarick, Michael; Fairchild, Brian D.; Liang, Yi; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Curley, Michael J.

2014-02-01

222

Utilisation of the boer goat for intensive animal production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence is examined for the utilisation of Boer goats for intensive animal production. They are used for meat production and the skins are a valuable byproduct. They are by preference browsers and can utilise bushveld most efficiently in combination with cattle. They have a peak in sexual activity in autumn but will breed at any time provided correct husbandry

J. D. Skinner

1972-01-01

223

Special Cards The CMLAF uses several special cards to help both the LAF and Investigative staff to identify animals that  

E-print Network

to identify animals that have special husbandry requirements, have recently had surgical procedures or may to animals. The LAF staff is responsible for placing the card on the cage and for administering the special" will be placed on cages that have too many animals being housed in them. This will be followed up by an email

Krovi, Venkat

224

Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure.  

PubMed

Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in countries where goats are frequently reared in backyards that are also homes to cats (the definitive host of this parasite) elevates such concern. To date, there has been little attention to either the prevalence or genotypic characteristics of T. gondii isolates in young ruminant food animals in Europe. Here, we estimated the prevalence of T. gondii goat-kids raised in backyards and slaughtered for human consumption during Easter. We collected 181 paired samples of serum and diaphragm. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against T. gondii , and muscle tissues were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect T. gondii DNA. Thirty-two diaphragm samples were also bioassayed in mice, and the isolates were genotyped using microsatellite markers. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in goat-kids was 33.1% (60/181; 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.3-40.5%), and T. gondii DNA was found in 6.1% (11/181; 95% CI 3.1-10.6) of the diaphragm samples. We isolated the parasite from 2 of 32 goat-kids, and the T. gondii strains belonged to genotype II. The results showed that 1/3 of 3-mo-old goats may be infected with T. gondii , and their consumption during Easter (as barbecue) may seriously compromise food safety as a result. PMID:25003793

Pa?tiu, Anamaria I; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Györke, Adriana; ?uteu, Ovidiu; Balea, Anamaria; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Dom?a, Cristian; Cozma, Vasile

2015-02-01

225

Quantification of reductions in ammonia emissions from fertiliser urea and animal urine in grazed pastures with urease inhibitors for agriculture inventory: New Zealand as a case study.  

PubMed

Urea is the key nitrogen (N) fertiliser for grazed pastures, and is also present in excreted animal urine. In soil, urea hydrolyses rapidly to ammonium (NH4(+)) and may be lost as ammonia (NH3) gas. Unlike nitrous oxide (N2O), however, NH3 is not a greenhouse gas although it can act as a secondary source of N2O, and hence contribute indirectly to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Various urease inhibitors (UIs) have been used over the last 30 years to reduce NH3 losses. Among these, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT), sold under the trade name Agrotain®, is currently the most promising and effective when applied with urea or urine. Here we conduct a critical analysis of the published and non-published data on the effectiveness of nBTPT in reducing NH3 emission, from which adjusted values for FracGASF (fraction of total N fertiliser emitted as NH3) and FracGASM (fraction of total N from, animal manure and urine emitted as NH3) for the national agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory are recommended in order to provide accurate data for the inventory. We use New Zealand as a case study to assess and quantify the overall reduction in NH3 emission from urea and animal urine with the application of UI nBTPT. The available literature indicates that an application rate of 0.025% w/w (nBTPT per unit of N) is optimum for reducing NH3 emissions from temperate grasslands. UI-treated urine studies gave highly variable reductions (11-93%) with an average of 53% and a 95% confidence interval of 33-73%. New Zealand studies, using UI-treated urea, suggest that nBTPT (0.025% w/w) reduces NH3 emissions by 44.7%, on average, with a confidence interval of 39-50%. On this basis, a New Zealand specific value of 0.055 for FracGASF FNUI (fraction of urease inhibitor treated total fertiliser N emitted as NH3) is recommended for adoption where urea containing UI are applied as nBTPT at a rate of 0.025% w/w. Only a limited number of published data sets are available on the effectiveness of UI for reducing NH3 losses from animal urine-N deposited during grazing in a grazed pasture system. The same can be said about mixing UI with urine, rather than spraying UI before or after urine application. Since it was not possible to accurately measure the efficacy of UI in reducing NH3 emissions from animal urine-N deposited during grazing, we currently cannot recommend the adoption of a FracGASM value adjusted for the inclusion of UI. PMID:22959073

Saggar, Surinder; Singh, J; Giltrap, D L; Zaman, M; Luo, J; Rollo, M; Kim, D-G; Rys, G; van der Weerden, T J

2013-11-01

226

2012-2013 Series College of Agriculture  

E-print Network

2012-2013 Series College of Agriculture and School of Human Environmental Sciences University about the accreditation of University of Kentucky. AgriculturalBiotechnology Agriculturalbiotechnologyencompassescellularandmolecularapproaches to the manipulation and improvement of agricultural plants, animals and microorganisms

Hayes, Jane E.

227

9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2010-01-01

228

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

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9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

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9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2010-01-01

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9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

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9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

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9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

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9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

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9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

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9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

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9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

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9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2010-01-01

239

9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

240

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

241

9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

242

9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

243

9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

244

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2010-01-01

245

9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

246

9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

247

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

248

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

249

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

250

9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

251

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2010-01-01

252

9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

253

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

254

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

255

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

256

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

257

9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

258

9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

259

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

260

9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

261

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

262

9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2010-01-01

263

Heavy metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in soil and water bodies impacted by agriculture and aquaculture  

PubMed Central

The use of antibiotic agents as growth promoters was banned in animal husbandry to prevent the selection and spread of antibiotic resistance. However, in addition to antibiotic agents, heavy metals used in animal farming and aquaculture might promote the spread of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. To investigate which heavy metals are likely to co-select for antibiotic resistance in soil and water, the available data on heavy metal pollution, heavy metal toxicity, heavy metal tolerance, and co-selection mechanisms was reviewed. Additionally, the risk of metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in the environment was assessed based on heavy metal concentrations that potentially induce this co-selection process. Analyses of the data indicate that agricultural and aquacultural practices represent major sources of soil and water contamination with moderately to highly toxic metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). If those metals reach the environment and accumulate to critical concentrations they can trigger co-selection of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, co-selection mechanisms for these heavy metals and clinically as well as veterinary relevant antibiotics have been described. Therefore, studies investigating co-selection in environments impacted by agriculture and aquaculture should focus on Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn as selecting heavy metals. Nevertheless, the respective environmental background has to be taken into account. PMID:23248620

Seiler, Claudia; Berendonk, Thomas U.

2012-01-01

264

Space Technologies for Enhancing the Resilience and Sustainability of Indigenous Reindeer Husbandry in the Russian Arctic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To adapt successfully to the major changes - climate, environment, economic, social and industrial - which have taken place across the Arctic. in recent years, indigenous communities such as reindeer herders must become increasingly empowered with the best available technologies to add to their storehouse of traditional knowledge. Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters critical to the characterization of pasture quality and migratory routes, such as vegetation distribution, snow cover, infrastructure development, and pasture damages due to fires. This paper describes a series of remote sensing capabilities, which are useful to reindeer husbandry, and gives the results of the first year of a project, "Reindeer Mapper", which is a remote sensing and GIs-based system to bring together space technologies with indigenous knowledge for sustainable reindeer husbandry in the Russian Arctic. In this project, reindeer herders and scientists are joining together to utilize technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing space-based and indigenous knowledge in the Russian Arctic. The "Reindeer Mapper" system will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. This paper describes some of the technologies which comprise the system including an intranet system to enable to the team members to work together and share information electronically, remote sensing data for monitoring environmental parameters important to reindeer husbandry (e.g., SAR, Landsat, AVHRR, MODIS), indigenous knowledge about important environmental parameters, acquisition of ground- based measurements, and the integration of all useful data sets for more informed decision-making.

Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris S.; Sleptsov, Yuri A.; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathlesen, Svein D.

2005-01-01

265

Drug Research Agriculture Animal Breeding  

E-print Network

that sequencing the human genome--or any genome, really--would unlock all of our biological secrets.Today we know are using the maize reference genome to study the plant family's genetic diversity and domestication

Napp, Nils

266

Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry.  

PubMed

Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated the effect of received predation compensation on individual husbandry units' future herd size. The main finding in this study is that predation compensation had a positive effect on husbandry units' future herd size. The effect of predation compensation, however, was nonlinear in some years, indicating that predation compensation had a positive effect on future herd size only up to a certain threshold whereby adding additional predation compensation had little effect on future herd size. More importantly, the effect of predation compensation was positive after controlling for reindeer density, indicating that for a given reindeer density husbandry units receiving more predation compensation performed better (measured as the size of future herds) compared to husbandry units receiving less compensation. PMID:21874081

Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Tveraa, Torkild

2011-08-01

267

Proper care, husbandry, and breeding guidelines for the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata.  

PubMed

The zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata castanotis is a songbird commonly used in the laboratory, particularly for studies of vocal learning, neurobiology, and physiology. Within the laboratory, it is important to adopt careful husbandry practices that allow for normal development of the birds. For example, their song is a learned trait, passed culturally from adult males to juveniles, and thus its learning can be influenced by the health and social conditions of the birds present in the laboratory. Here we present guidelines for the successful maintenance and breeding of captive zebra finches. PMID:25342067

Olson, Christopher R; Wirthlin, Morgan; Lovell, Peter V; Mello, Claudio V

2014-12-01

268

Nutritional and husbandry factors influencing performance of Bobwhite quail grown in confinement  

E-print Network

NUTRIllO'!AL AND lii!SBANDRY FAC'I'OPS TNvLUENCING PERnOFJM:CE Qn BOBNHITE Qnerl, GRQ!IN IN CONFINE. !ENT A Thesis by ROCRY JOE TERRY Submitted to he Grnduate College of Ter;. s AEB! Uni--ersity in partiel fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of EASTER OF SCIENCE December 1970 Kzjor Subject: Poultry Science NUTRITIONAL AViD HUSBANDRY FACTORS INFLUENCING PERFORiVANCE OF BOBWHITE QUAIL GROFIN IN CONFINFMENT A Thesis by ROCKY JOE TERRY Approved as to s'yle and content 'oy...

Terry, Rocky Joe

1970-01-01

269

Stable isotopes and dietary adaptations in humans and animals at pre-pottery Neolithic Nevalli Cori, southeast Anatolia.  

PubMed

Human and animal bones from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B site of Nevali Cori (southeast Anatolia) were analyzed with regard to stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in bone collagen, and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in bone carbonate. The reconstruction of the vertebrate food web at this site revealed that humans may have faced difficulties with meat procurement, since their stable-isotope ratios reflect a largely herbivorous diet. This is in contrast with the preceding Pre-Pottery Neolithic A contexts and late Neolithic sites in the Fertile Crescent, where humans are located at the top of the food chain. Conceivably, Nevali Cori represents a community in the transition from a hunting and gathering subsistence to an economy with agriculture and animal husbandry, since domesticated einkorn and sheep, pigs, and probably also goats are in evidence at the site. In the second half of the 9th millennium calibrated (cal.) BC, however, the contribution of stock on the hoof to the human diet still seems modest. Animals kept under cultural control obviously had a dietary spectrum different from their free-ranging relatives. We conclude that these animals had been deliberately nourished by their owners, whereby the overall low delta(15)N-signatures in both humans and livestock might result from the consumption of protein-rich pulses. PMID:16596597

Lösch, Sandra; Grupe, Gisela; Peters, Joris

2006-10-01

270

Short-term Care of White-tailed Deer Fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) in a Conventional Laboratory Animal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory animal medicine professionals are often required to develop husbandry practices for species not com- monly considered for use as laboratory animals. Although protocols exist for management of captive white-tailed deer in an outdoor facility, it was necessary to modify those procedures to house fawns in an indoor facility. Four abandoned fawns were acquired through a cooperative effort with the

LON V. KENDALL; MARY J. KENNETT; RICHARD E. FISH

1998-01-01

271

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

ScienceCinema

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2010-01-08

272

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed. SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Joergensen, 1994) in which systems are modeled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Danuso, Francesco (University of Udine) [University of Udine

2008-06-18

273

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2008-06-18

274

Survey of the husbandry, health and welfare of 102 pet rabbits.  

PubMed

One hundred and two pet rabbits were examined and their husbandry, health and welfare were reviewed. The most common breed was the dwarf lop (n = 38). The most common problem was dental disease, which affected 30 rabbits although only six of their owners were aware of the problem, which was significantly associated with feeding a rabbit mix. All the rabbits were housed in ;hutches' at some stage, but 89 had access to the outside and 47 came inside the home at times. Hutches bought at pet shops were significantly smaller than home-made hutches. Forty-five of the rabbits were housed alone; the relationships between rabbits with rabbit companions were described by their owners as ;very friendly' for 84 per cent of them and ;quite friendly' for the rest. PMID:16861388

Mullan, S M; Main, D C J

2006-07-22

275

Revitalizing veterinary and animal science education for the future in India — Issues and approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the veterinary science and animal husbandry education system, India has two deemed universities, three veterinary universities, several research stations and 34 veterinary colleges with an annual intake of 2000 students. Veterinary graduates have to play a very crucial role in extending the health coverage and enhancing the production of over 1000 million livestock and poultry. This paper presents a

P. V. K. Sasidhar

2002-01-01

276

Environmental and societal consequences of a possible COâ-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 11. Effects of climate change on animal agriculture. [Proposals for research programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of COâ-induced increases in ambient temperature is predicted to result in an overall reduction in animal productivity, although animal productivity may increase in some parts of the world. New technologies will be needed to maintain or overcome the adverse effects of climate that are predicted. The effects of temperature (and other associated changes in climate) impact directly on

1982-01-01

277

Improving pig husbandry in tropical resource-poor communities and its potential to reduce risk of porcine cysticercosis.  

PubMed

To minimise the risk of cysticercosis in pigs it is necessary to raise pigs in confinement. The prevailing production system using free-range pigs is apparently very resilient although economic studies have shown that these traditional production systems are wasteful and unprofitable due to poor feed conversion, high mortality rates, low reproductive rates and poor final products. However, experiences from Africa show that intensive pig farming is stagnant and the sustainability of the traditional sector is better than that of the intensive sector. Examples from various African countries are given on the failure of intensive pig farming. This apparent paradox has various explanations. The lower fixed cost of traditional pig production compared with intensive production is one. Another explanation is that many households have some kind of kitchen waste, which can be exploited by a pig, but there is only enough for the partial feeding of a single pig. A third explanation of the paradox is that the pig has functions that are not reflected in a simple economic balance. The pig is a source of capital income, which can be realised at times of major expenses, and it can also be used as a way to put aside small amounts of money, which alternatively might evaporate. The pig's scavenging behaviour has clear nutritional benefits. Thus, a diet consisting of e.g. maize or sorghum, which are some of the feeds available on the small farms, will only provide approximately 30% of the pigs requirements of lysine and methionine, which are the most limiting amino-acids in pig feeds. Simulations with data available for green feeds and material of animal origin show that a 20% "supplement" from the fields may increase the amino-acid provision to about 80% of the optimum. If pigs are kept enclosed this supplement has to be fed to the pig which involves purchase and labour costs. The paper discusses the various options in terms of feeding, housing and use of genetic resources for the improvement of pig husbandry in tropical resource-poor countries. PMID:12781385

Lekule, Faustin P; Kyvsgaard, Niels C

2003-06-01

278

Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

279

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2011-01-01

280

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2011-01-01

281

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2014-01-01

282

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2012-01-01

283

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2012-01-01

284

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2013-01-01

285

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2014-01-01

286

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2013-01-01

287

Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation  

E-print Network

next class #12;Traditional Cel Animation · Film runs at 24 frames per second (fps) ­ That's 1440 stand - Transfer onto film by taking a photograph of the stack #12;Principles of Traditional AnimationAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

Treuille, Adrien

288

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

289

Introduction Agriculture/Agricultural Science  

E-print Network

38 Introduction Guide Entrance Life Career Inquiries Agriculture/Agricultural Science Mission and goal of the Graduate School of Agricultural Science The mission of agricultural science organization which aims to realize this agricultural ideal, the Graduate School of Agricultural Science's basic

Banbara, Mutsunori

290

Agriculture Cluster Brief. Vocational Education in Oregon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide sets forth minimum approval criteria for vocational agriculture cluster programs in Oregon. The agriculture cluster program includes instruction in six areas: animal science, soil science, plant science, agricultural economics, agriculture mechanics, and leadership development. The information in the guide is intended for use by…

Galbraith, Gordon

291

Animal leptospirosis.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

Ellis, William A

2015-01-01

292

College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

of the world. Courses also are offered in experimental statistics agricultural mechanization, community certification. ANIMAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES Master of Science Doctor of Philosophy Applicants to the Animal and Veterinary Sciences programs should have a strong background in the animal, biological, and physical sciences

Stuart, Steven J.

293

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

294

Agricultural & Environmental Sciences eap.ucop.edu  

E-print Network

Agricultural & Environmental Sciences eap.ucop.edu #12;UC Education Abroad Program Special Focus Pilot Program in Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Wageningen University and Research Centre, animal sciences, environmental sciences, agrotechnology, food technology, nutrition, and biodiversity

Hernes, Peter J.

295

Agriculture Education Curriculum Grades 6-12 (BS)  

E-print Network

Agriculture Education Curriculum Grades 6-12 (BS) Freshman Year English (GER) English 101, 102..................................................... 3 Agricultural Science 209,211..............................3 Animal Science 111...................................................3 Agricultural Business 220................................... 3 Content Electives

Selmic, Sandra

296

Data and animal management software for large-scale phenotype screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis program at the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) uses MouseTRACS\\u000a to analyze phenotype screens and manage animal husbandry. MouseTRACS is a Web-based laboratory informatics system that electronically\\u000a records and organizes mouse colony operations, prints cage cards, tracks inventory, manages requests, and reports Institutional\\u000a Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocol usage. For

Keith A. Ching; Michael P. Cooke; Lisa M. Tarantino; Hilmar Lapp

2006-01-01

297

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...structures, holding facilities, conveyances, and materials contaminated because of occupation or use by the depopulated animals,...

2014-01-01

298

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...structures, holding facilities, conveyances, and materials contaminated because of occupation or use by the depopulated animals,...

2013-01-01

299

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...structures, holding facilities, conveyances, and materials contaminated because of occupation or use by the depopulated animals,...

2011-01-01

300

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...structures, holding facilities, conveyances, and materials contaminated because of occupation or use by the depopulated animals,...

2012-01-01

301

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...structures, holding facilities, conveyances, and materials contaminated because of occupation or use by the depopulated animals,...

2010-01-01

302

Animal Science Curriculum (BS) (effective Spring Quarter 2011)  

E-print Network

Animal Science Curriculum (BS) (effective Spring Quarter 2011) Freshman Year Animal Science 111..........................................3 Animal Science 201, 202, 204 or 211....................... 3 Biological Sciences 260 Agricultural Business Any 300 or 400 level..................................................3 Animal Science

Selmic, Sandra

303

Agricultural Operations  

MedlinePLUS

... refers to any worker in the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting (GP2AFH) industry. These numbers are the ... Profiles database queried by industry for Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting (GP2AFH), Accessed June 2013. 2 Agricultural ...

304

Saskatchewan Agricultural  

E-print Network

Saskatchewan Agricultural Hall of Fame College of Agriculture and Bioresources Inductees 2014 Edition #12;"SALUTE TO SASKATCHEWAN FARM LEADERS" Photos courtesy of the Saskatchewan Agriculture Hall Williams 1941- Lorne Alan Babiuk 1946- #12;"SALUTE TO SASKATCHEWAN FARM LEADERS" Photos courtesy

Peak, Derek

305

Pakistan Agricultural Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) works at the highest national level to coordinate and support research being conducted at universities, provincial institutions, and federal institutions. The four main PARC research divisions are: Crop Sciences, Natural Resources, Animal Sciences, and Social Sciences. The PARC website contains summary information about these main research areas, as well as information about a variety of crops, research staff, publications, and more. From the PARC site, visitors can also learn about regional research efforts by linking to one the seven major PARC centers including the Sugar Crops Research Institute in Thatta; the National Agricultural Research Centre in Islamabad; the Himalayan Agricultural Research Institute in Kaghan, and the Arid Zone Research Centre in Quetta. Various databases are also available including Plant Genetic Resources with over 15,000 records searchable by species and/or genus; and Pakistan Agriculture--a bibliographic database with more than 32,000 records regarding agriculture in Pakistan.

306

The globalisation of farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

Fraser, D

2014-04-01

307

Animal Algorithm Animation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Guido Rö�ling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.

308

7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT...

2010-01-01

309

7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT...

2011-01-01

310

7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT...

2014-01-01

311

7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT...

2013-01-01

312

7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT...

2012-01-01

313

Agricultural lung diseases.  

PubMed Central

Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

2000-01-01

314

7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal...

2011-01-01

315

76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2011-05-17

316

Agricultural Production. An Administrative Guide for Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This basic instructional guide for an agricultural production program is one in a series of such guides for agricultural education. It is useful in developing and selecting instructional material and implementing competency-based education for a program directed toward helping students to become proficient in animal, plant, and soil sciences and…

Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

317

Animal welfare and meat quality: the perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.  

PubMed

Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions. PMID:25052465

Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

2014-11-01

318

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation  

E-print Network

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior Xiaoyuan Tu 1996 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12; Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics animation. Animals in their natural habitats have presented a long­standing and difficult challenge

Toronto, University of

319

Assessment of nitrogen ceilings for Dutch agricultural soils to avoid adverse environmental impacts.  

PubMed

In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N) into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1) nitrate (NO3) contamination of drinking water, (2) eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3) acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4) ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5) global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling) and to the soil surface (application in the field) by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO 3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3) emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH 3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year(-1) depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year(-1). A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture. PMID:12805837

de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O; Erisman, J W

2001-11-01

320

Agrometeorology and sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concerns with the sustainability of agroecosystems in different parts of the world have hightened the awareness for careful use of the natural resource base on which agriculture depends. For proper and efficient use of soils and plant\\/animal genetic material, knowledge of the role of climate is an essential precondition. Several elements of the chapters in Agenda 21, a global

M. V. K. Sivakumar; R. Gommes; W. Baier

2000-01-01

321

AGRICULTURE FACT SHEET Food & Agriculture  

E-print Network

Haddad, UNH Cooperative Extension Food and Agriculture Field Specialist F or growers, it's a placeAGRICULTURE FACT SHEET June 2014 Food & Agriculture Selling Successfully at a Farmers Market Nada legal right to use it. Your name is or will become an invaluable asset to your agricultural business

New Hampshire, University of

322

Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural

Smith, Eddie; And Others

323

The novel use of waste animal bone from New Zealand agricultural sources as a feedstock for forming plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on biomedical implant materials.  

PubMed

This study presents the feasibility of using animal bone-derived hydroxyapatite (HAP) as feedstock powders for plasma spraying. Bovine, cervine and ovine bone from abattoirs was boiled in a pressure cooker to remove blood, fat and adhering meat tissue. The bone was then placed in a muffler furnace, pyrolyzed at approximately 1000 degrees C to remove collagen and resid-ual organics, cooled and subsequently ground to a powder then digested in nitric acid. Sodium hydroxide was added to the digest to reprecipitate the HAP. Ageing of the precipitate followed by filtration, extensive washing and drying produced the white powder used as the feedstock. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the powder to be poorly crystalline HAP with low-level carbonate. Out of several batches of the sieved powders, one batch was plasma sprayed to produce adherent HAP coatings; therefore, demonstrating that animal bone-derived HAP powders can be seri-ously considered as a feedstock powder, subject to the powder being processed for the correct rheological characteristics for easy flowing within the plasma spray flow lines. The phase composition of the successful plasma sprayed HAP coatings on both stainless steel and titanium were found by XRD to be mainly HAP with minor contributions from á -tricalcium phosphate, tetra-calcium phosphate and CaO; therefore, demonstrating that feedstock decomposition on its passage through the plasma spray torch was insignificant under the conditions employed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of the coatings indicated that their morphology featured the classical heterogeneous and splat-like appearance expected of plasma sprayed coatings. Young's modulus and Vicker's microhardness tests conducted on the coatings revealed values in the range, respectively, 22-87 GPa and 166-287 (HV200 ) indicating high strength plasma spray HAP coatings had been produced from the feedstock powder. PMID:20803443

Mucalo, M R; Foster, D L; Wielage, B; Steinhaeuser, S; Mucha, H; Knighton, D; Kirby, J

2004-01-01

324

Antibiotic resistance in agricultural and non-agricultural settings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of antibiotics in animal agriculture is an issue that has captured national attention, with the primary concern being the transfer of antibiotic resistance from animals to humans via food or water. It has also been proposed that antibiotic resistance genes themselves be considered an enviro...

325

Antibiotic resistance gene abundances associated with antibiotics and heavy metals in animal manures and agricultural soils adjacent to feedlots in Shanghai; China.  

PubMed

Eight antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), 7 heavy metals, and 6 antibiotics were quantified in manures and soils collected from multiple feedlots in Shanghai. The samples were analyzed to determine if ARG abundances were associated with heavy metal concentration and independent of antibiotics. The results revealed the presence of chloramphenicol, sulfonamides and tetracyclines at concentration ranges of 3.27-17.85, 5.85-33.37 and 4.54-24.66 mg kg(-1), respectively. Typical heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and As, were detected at concentration ranges of 32.3-730.1, 75.9-4333.8, and 2.6-617.2 mg kg(-1). All ARGs tested were detected in the collected samples except tetB(P), which was absent in animal manures. Overall, sulfonamide ARGs were more abundant than tetracycline ARGs. Except for sulII, only a weak positive correlation was found between ARGs and their corresponding antibiotics. On the contrary, significant positive correlations (p<0.05) were found between some ARGs and typical heavy metals. For example, sulA and sulIII were strongly correlated with levels of Cu, Zn and Hg. The data demonstrated that the presence of ARGs was relatively independent of their respective antibiotic inducer. In addition to antibiotics, toxic heavy metals, such as Hg, Cu, and Zn, exerted a strong selection pressure and acted as complementary factors for ARG abundance. PMID:22868748

Ji, Xiuling; Shen, Qunhui; Liu, Fang; Ma, Jing; Xu, Gang; Wang, Yuanlong; Wu, Minghong

2012-10-15

326

[From Rumanian folk medicine: Non-specific stimulus therapy using transcutaneous implantation of hellebore (Helleborus purpurascens, Fam. Ranunculaceae) in agriculturally useful animals].  

PubMed

In the Rumanian traditional medicine a transcutaneous implantation of the root of Helleborus purpurascens is used to provoke leucocytosis and neutrophils with the aim to activate chronic diseases for better healing. The skin is perforated with a thick needle (in cattle and horses in the area of the thorax, in sheep and pigs in the ear flap), the transplant is introduced and after 24 hours removed. Though the method is more than 100 years old, it is not reported in the literature. The way of action is unknown. The investigation are performed to show the efficacy of this method of Helleborus-implants in comparison with the effect of an placebo. It could be shown that Helleborus-implant increased leucocytes in horses, sheep and pigs and increased neutrophils in all animal species. In the same way the phagocytosis was increased. Only in horses an abscess was observed. As a loss of performance may occur and fever and inappetence is followed by the implantation the authors dissuade from the use of Helleborus-implants in cattle and horses. Pigs and sheep tolerate this procedure without any problems, so that the methods may be used in modern treatment. PMID:2088706

Bogdan, I; Nechifor, A; B??ea, I; Hruban, E

1990-12-01

327

INFLUENCES GNTIQUES ET ENVIRONNEMENTALES SUR LES MCANISMES DE DFENSE  

E-print Network

are described. Selection is based on performance testing of young kids. By the testing the animals are injected and environmental aspects of the immune response C.C. OOSTERLEE Department of Animal Husbandry, Agricultural be immunosuppressive. In modern animal husbandry practice.such factors exist and can influence disease resistance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

328

AgriculturAl Development  

E-print Network

the expertise of our university has a unique and highly relevant role to play in food security and poverty, bioenergy production, biodiversity conservation, and control of infectious diseases in animals and man. SLU of the most critical issues for mankind today ­ like food security and climate change ­ are truly global

329

Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.  

PubMed

Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry. PMID:22726305

Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

2013-08-01

330

Prevalence of nematode infection and faecal egg counts in free-range laying hens: relations to housing and husbandry.  

PubMed

1. Faecal samples from 19 commercial, 65 week old free-range egg laying flocks were examined to assess the prevalence and number of parasitic nematode eggs. Data were collected to characterise the housing, husbandry, behaviour and welfare of the flocks to examine possible relationships with the egg counts. 2. Eggs of at least one genus of nematode were present in the faeces of all 19 flocks. Heterakis eggs were detected in 17 (89%) flocks, Ascaridia in 16 (84%), Trichostrongylus in 9 (47%), and Syngamus in 6 (32%). Faecal egg counts (FEC) were greatest for Ascaridia and Heterakis. 3. For each nematode genus, there was no significant difference in FEC between organic (N?=?9) and non-organic (N?=?10) flocks, or between static (N?=?8) and mobile (N?=?11) flocks. 4. FEC were correlated with a range of housing, husbandry and management practices which varied between the nematode genus and included depth of the litter, percentage of hens using the range, and number of dead hens. Statistical analysis indicated relationships with FEC that included light intensity above the feeder, indoor and outdoor stocking density, fearfulness in the shed and on the range, distance to the nearest shelter, and swollen toes. 5. None of the FEC for any of the genera was correlated with weekly egg production or cumulative mortality. 6. Although nematode FEC were highly prevalent among the flocks, the overall lack of relation to other welfare and production measures suggests that these infections were not severe. PMID:23444850

Sherwin, C M; Nasr, M A F; Gale, E; Petek, M; Stafford, K; Turp, M; Coles, G C

2013-01-01

331

Grassland agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

332

Agricultural Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... based public meeting, please contact mgoldcamp@cdc.gov . Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries. Farmers are ... and illnesses experienced by workers and families in agriculture. NIOSH supports intramural research and funds extramural research ...

333

Activated Carbons from Agricultural Residuals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water quality and public health impacts of animal manure produced at large concentrated animal facilities prompted the need for viable solutions for their conversion and reuse. Our laboratory at the Southern Regional Research Center, as part of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Departme...

334

Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Animal Welfare Institute, a nonprofit organization founded "to reduce the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans," offers this frequently updated bibliographic database for information on all aspects of environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates. Search results include a list of relevant references with complete bibliographic information, brief summaries of each entry, Web links to full-text documents where available, and a keyword index for easily finding related sources. Users may also browse the entire contents of the database alphabetically. Primatologists and animal handlers alike should find this comprehensive database particularly useful.

335

Agriculture INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

impact on small and mar- ginal farmers. · Increased non-agricultural demand for land and water1 Agriculture INTRODUCTION 1.1 Although its share in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has declined from over half at Independence to less than one-fifth currently, agriculture remains the predominant sector

Sohoni, Milind

336

Pennsylvania Agricultural  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Agricultural Environmental Requirements AmIInCompliance? Agricultural activities this involve me? Am I InAm I In Compliance? Pennsylvania Agricultural Environmental Requirements May 2012 FIRSTManagementPlanincludes... Winter application of manure: If applicable Manure storage facilities: If applicable #12;AmIincompliancewithPennsylvania

Guiltinan, Mark

337

Composting Large Animal Carcasses  

E-print Network

Disposing of large animal carcasses can be a problem for agricultural producers. Composting is a simple, low-cost method that yields a useful product that can be used as fertilizer. In this publication you'll learn the basics of composting, how...

Auvermann, Brent W.; Mukhtar, Saqib; Heflin, Kevin

2006-10-31

338

MINIMISE CALF DIARRHOEA BY GOOD HUSBANDRY: TREAT SICK CALVES BY FLUID THERAPY  

E-print Network

. This was not unexpected in view of the widespread antibiotic resistance also demonstrated. Enteric diseases are the main neces- sary to protect an animal is dependent on the level of infection in the environment so that small

Boyer, Edmond

339

Adapting to extreme climates: raising animals in hot and arid ecosystems in Australia.  

PubMed

This paper provides an analysis of adaptation to extreme climate changes using the Australian animal husbandry data. The paper finds that farmers have adapted to a hot and arid climate regime through animal husbandry. The number of sheep vastly increases into arid ecosystems while the number of beef cattle does not decline in high temperatures. In the future climate system in which Australia becomes hotter and more arid, we predict that farmers will increase by large percentages the numbers of beef cattle and/or sheep owned in order to adapt to a highly unfavorable climate condition, especially into the arid ecosystems. This paper shows how humanity has adapted to climate extremes taking into account changing ecosystems. PMID:25022609

Seo, S Niggol

2015-05-01

340

Adapting to extreme climates: raising animals in hot and arid ecosystems in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an analysis of adaptation to extreme climate changes using the Australian animal husbandry data. The paper finds that farmers have adapted to a hot and arid climate regime through animal husbandry. The number of sheep vastly increases into arid ecosystems while the number of beef cattle does not decline in high temperatures. In the future climate system in which Australia becomes hotter and more arid, we predict that farmers will increase by large percentages the numbers of beef cattle and/or sheep owned in order to adapt to a highly unfavorable climate condition, especially into the arid ecosystems. This paper shows how humanity has adapted to climate extremes taking into account changing ecosystems.

Seo, S. Niggol

2014-07-01

341

Visiting Assistant Professor Animal Science Berea College  

E-print Network

Visiting Assistant Professor ­ Animal Science Berea College The Berea College of Agriculture encouraged to apply. Teaching responsibilities will include animal science, animal nutrition, animal on the College's 480-acre educational farm. Commitments to the purposes of the College and to superior teaching

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

342

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

343

Agriculture 21  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To "promote food security and sustainable development into the next millennium," the Agriculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has recently created this new resource. An impressive and clearly arranged interface leads researchers to more than one gigabyte of data from various UN Agriculture Department sites. A detailed list of available software, databases, publication lists, and email conferences is provided via the Guides section of the site. Other services include Magazine, a monthly publication on international agricultural issues, and Gateway, a link pointing to UN Department of Agriculture divisional homepages.

344

76 FR 57682 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-09-16

345

76 FR 315 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-01-04

346

76 FR 9537 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-02-18

347

78 FR 79658 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2013-0044] Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2013-12-31

348

48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contractor shall acquire animals used in research and development...Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National...National Research Council (NRC...the Agricultural Research Service, USDA...the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

2013-10-01

349

48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Contractor shall acquire animals used in research and development...Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National...National Research Council (NRC...the Agricultural Research Service, USDA...the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

2014-10-01

350

48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Contractor shall acquire animals used in research and development...Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National...National Research Council (NRC...the Agricultural Research Service, USDA...the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

2011-10-01

351

48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contractor shall acquire animals used in research and development...Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National...National Research Council (NRC...the Agricultural Research Service, USDA...the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

2010-10-01

352

48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Contractor shall acquire animals used in research and development...Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National...National Research Council (NRC...the Agricultural Research Service, USDA...the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

2012-10-01

353

9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...disease, and materials required to be destroyed because of being contaminated by or exposed to disease shall be appraised by an...

2014-01-01

354

9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...disease, and materials required to be destroyed because of being contaminated by or exposed to disease shall be appraised by an...

2012-01-01

355

9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...disease, and materials required to be destroyed because of being contaminated by or exposed to disease shall be appraised by an...

2011-01-01

356

9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...disease, and materials required to be destroyed because of being contaminated by or exposed to disease shall be appraised by an...

2013-01-01

357

Managing the Interactions Between Plants and Animals in Marine Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a China has long been known for manure-based integrated multiple species fish farming technology. Commonly known as “polyculture,”\\u000a this traditional Chinese system is practiced in pond aquaculture where several fish species are reared together, creating\\u000a a multi-output production structure. For example, polyculture of carps with animal and plant husbandry is based on the efficient\\u000a utilization of organic manures in the ponds.

Daniel Robledo; Yolanda Freile-PelegrÍn

358

The Post-Diploma B.Sc. degree program in Agricultural Studies employs a multidisciplinary perspective, including courses in Agricultural Studies, Biological Sciences, Economics and Geography.  

E-print Network

. The multidisciplinary nature of the program is complementary to the technical training from agricultural colleges Planning GuideThe University of Lethbridge Fairview College Agricultural Technology Animal Health Technology Turfgrass Management Technology Lakeland College Animal Health Technology Crop Technology Herd

Seldin, Jonathan P.

359

The Post-Diploma B.Sc. degree program in Agricultural Studies employs a multidisciplinary perspective, including courses in Agricultural Studies, Biological Sciences, Economics and Geography.  

E-print Network

. The multidisciplinary nature of the program is complementary to the technical training from agricultural colleges: Arts & Science Fairview College Agricultural Technology Animal Health Technology Turfgrass Management Technology Lakeland College Agri-Business Animal Health Technology Crop Technology Diversified Livestock

Seldin, Jonathan P.

360

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

361

College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Agricultural Technology  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Agricultural Technology Applied Agricultural Management Option Checksheet for Students Graduating in Calendar Year 2013 Associate of Agriculture Degree Required Agricultural Technology Core Courses (31 credits) 3 AT 0104 Computer Applications 3 AT 0114 Applied

Virginia Tech

362

Determination of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site in an intensively managed agricultural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition have been found to affect the primary productivity and species composition of most terrestrial ecosystems. Highly vulnerable ecosystems such as nutrient-poor bogs are expected to respond to increasing N input rates with a decrease in plant species diversity. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog and one of only very few remaining protected peatland areas in Northwestern Germany - is surrounded by highly fertilised agricultural land and intensive livestock production. We quantified the annual deposition of atmospheric N over a period of two years. Dry deposition rates of different N species and their reactants were calculated from day and night-time concentrations measured by a KAPS denuder filter system. Dry N deposition amounted to 10.9 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (year 1) and 10.5 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (year 2). More than 80% of total deposited N was attributed to ammonia (NH3). A strong seasonality in NH3 concentrations and depositions could be observed. Day and night-time concentrations and depositions, however, did not differ significantly. Total N deposition including bulk N deposition resulted in about 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results suggest that the intensive agricultural land management of surrounding areas and strongly emitting animal husbandry lead to N inputs into the protected peatland area that exceed the ecosystem's specific critical load up to fivefold. This gives rise to the assumption that a further shift in plant species composition with a subsequent alteration of the local hydrological regime can be expected.

Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Grünhage, Ludger; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

2014-11-01

363

[Musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture].  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD. PMID:17708093

Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias

2007-06-15

364

Fig Culture in the Gulf Coast Region of Texas.  

E-print Network

. Scoates, A. E., Agricultural Engineering J. H. Knox, M. S.. Animal Husbandry A. K. Mackey. M. S., Animal Husbandry A. L. Darn&", M. A.. Dairy Husbandry "rl STATION STAFF+ Administration : Veterinary Science: A. B. Conner. M. S., Director *M. Francis... nitrate of soda 2 pounds superphosphate 7% ounces muriate of potash 12% pounds hydrated lime .------. 2849 3109 3164 2426 I 1582 2004 1732 1864 2144 2424 2323 2223 1983 I I 2216 2557 2448 2145 1737 1561 1292 1363 1230 2423 2445...

Stansel, R. H. (Roy Harrison); Wyche, R. H. (Robert Henry)

1932-01-01

365

[Housing situation of small animals in Swiss pet shops].  

PubMed

This study investigates the situation regarding housing of small animals in Swiss pet shops. Data of 92 pet shops were collected with a questionnaire. On average 813 fish, 52.5 invertebrates, 32.2 small mammals, 26.9 birds, 8.9 reptiles and 2.7 amphibians were offered for sale per pet shop. Small mammals, birds and reptiles were mainly obtained from Swiss breeders, while fish and amphibians were almost exclusively purchased from foreign providers. The housing systems which were sold differed from those in which the animals were kept in the shop. This may be misleading to the future pet owners and may lead to faulty husbandry. Animals on reserve were often kept in different housing systems than those in the pet shop. Sick animals were usually treated or killed by the pet shop owners. The killing methods varied between the various species. PMID:18714938

Schrickel, B; Gebhardt-Henrich, S; Steiger, A

2008-07-01

366

36 CFR 222.20 - Authority and definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses...animals means wild free-roaming horses...standard animal husbandry practices... means a wild free-roaming horse...Wild-horse and burro range means an...

2010-07-01

367

9 CFR 3.34 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.34 [Reserved] Transportation Standards...

2010-01-01

368

9 CFR 3.32 - Employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.32 Employees. A sufficient number of employees shall...

2010-01-01

369

78 FR 49445 - Wildlife Services Policy on Wildlife Damage Management in Urban Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...controlling animal species that are injurious to agriculture, horticulture, forestry, animal husbandry, endangered and threatened species...urban rodent control, it does not define the term. This has led to confusion about when APHIS-WS may provide wildlife...

2013-08-14

370

9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and research...

2010-01-01

371

9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and research...

2011-01-01

372

9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and research...

2014-01-01

373

9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and research...

2012-01-01

374

9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and research...

2013-01-01

375

Visible Earth: Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of Visible Earth, which is hosted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and contains a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. The agriculture section contains images pertaining to aquaculture, crop and plant yields, irrigation, reclamation, soil moisture, and more. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

376

Farm, Field and Fireside: Agricultural Newspaper Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What did newspapers mean to the rural frontier? They were (and are) vital sources of information about everything from big city life to the changing rural landscape around farmers and other folks far from city life. This digital newspaper collection from the University of Illinois was made possible with funding from a wide range of organizations, including the Institute of Museum and Library Services, the Illinois State Library, and the Center for Research Libraries. Visitors can browse over twenty titles here, including "Banker Farmer," "Farmer's Wife," "Ohio Farmer," and "Western Rural." It's quite amazing, as visitors can look through all of the advertisements, photo captions, and so on. Visitors can also use the Preview the Collection area to download a slide show of highlights from this prodigious cache. The Browse option is quite fun, and visitors might do well to start by typing in keywords like animal husbandry, machine tools, or railroads.

377

Science, Medicine, and Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher's Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher's Association.

Committee to Update Science, Medicine, and Animals, National Research Council

2004-01-01

378

Entomophagy and space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

379

An integrated perspective on assessing agricultural air quality  

E-print Network

An integrated perspective on assessing agricultural air quality Viney P. Aneja* Department. In this paper, we summarise an integrated assessment framework for studying the agricultural air quality issues air quality; air emissions; air pollution; ammonia; animal feeding operations; biogeochemical cycles

Niyogi, Dev

380

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2011-04-01

381

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2014-04-01

382

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2010-04-01

383

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2012-04-01

384

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2013-04-01

385

Animation collage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method to automatically transform mesh animations into animation collages, i.e. moving assemblies of shape primitives from a database given by an artist. An animation collage is a complete reassembly of the original animation in a new abstract visual style that imitates the spatio-temporal shape and deformation of the input. Our algorithm automatically decomposes input animations into plausible

Christian Theobalt; Christian Rössl; Edilson De Aguiar; Hans-peter Seidel

2007-01-01

386

Agricultural Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

1978-01-01

387

Agricultural Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief summary of the state of agricultural research in the United States. The agricultural research system is finely attuned to the immediate needs of its clients, as evident in its response to the attack of corn blight in 1970. (JR)

Waggoner, Paul E.

1973-01-01

388

Instructions for the care and husbandry of the Mini-Opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Important numbers for DLAR and the Vivarium  

E-print Network

are solitary animals in the wild. To prevent fighting and injury, adult animals should always be housed). Important numbers for DLAR and the Vivarium Animal care helpline: 919-684-3555 DLAR emergency beeper 970. The health and welfare of the animals. It is critical that the animals be cared for meticulously. This means

Smith, Kathleen K.

389

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Miss Emily

2009-03-02

390

Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

391

MANAGING WATERBORNE PATHOGENS ASSOCIATED WITH CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pathogenic microorganisms of fecal origin are the leading cause of river and stream impairments in the United States. Runoff from agricultural operations, particularly animal agricultural, can be a major contributor of fecal microbial pollution in a watershed. Several management...

392

[Thoughts on the complex relationship between medicine and animals: a death prayer for a loyal cat].  

PubMed

From its basis in the writings of the philosopher Peter Singer and the bioethical shortcomings of animal experimentation and animal husbandry, the animal rights movement has evolved into an important societal movement critical of animal experimentation in biomedical research. A lack of dialogue and transparency, an absence of understanding and an unreasonable radicalization of different positions regarding animal experimentation has frequently resulted in an adversarial relationship between some members of the scientific community and societal groups aggressively protecting animal rights. In response to this problem, both the bioethical regulations pertaining to biomedical experimentation with animals and the powers of animal care committees (IACUCs) have been strengthened. Careful analysis of the relevance of animal models to human conditions, replacement of these models with non-animal models when possible, adequate re-examination of existing knowledge before undertaking new experimental projects involving animals, and the improvement of methods to avoid animal stress and pain have further strengthened the bioethical basis of animal experimentation. To improve the ethical integrity of research conducted with animals, it is also necessary to increase the editorial scrutiny of the bioethical standards of potentially publishable research utilizing animals. Of note is also the recent use of animals in alternative animal associated therapies (AAT) to ameliorate several medical conditions. Education of the biomedical community, including students and professionals, and of societal groups concerned about this issue as well as directness and continuous dialogue among all the stakeholders are essential to insure the wellbeing of animals and the ethical integrity of biomedical research. PMID:24718472

Cabello C, Felipe

2013-11-01

393

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture  

E-print Network

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture ­ Livestock, Crops and Land Use Report from a multidisciplinary research platform. Phase I (2009 ­ 2012) #12;Future Agriculture ­ Livestock Waldenström Utgivningsår: 2012, Uppsala Utgivare: SLU, Framtidens lantbruk/Future Agriculture Layout: Pelle

394

7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture...Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions...

2010-01-01

395

Animals. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animals are the subject of the student resource unit which is to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Animal housing and equipment, the first section, deals with controlled environment, energy requirements, esthetics, air, water, and noise. Animal waste and byproducts are covered in terms of Federal government program, some of…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

396

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1982-01-01

397

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

398

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks

2004-02-05

399

Agricultural Geophysics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

400

Agricultural Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

Brill, Winston J.

1981-01-01

401

Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.  

PubMed Central

Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animal health, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture. PMID:9366596

Garrett, E. S.; dos Santos, C. L.; Jahncke, M. L.

1997-01-01

402

AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY  

E-print Network

) (ms I) (ms J) Corn 2.8 3.0 2.09 0.60 0.20 crop Deciduous 23.0 5.5 0.90 0.42 0.15 forest Coniferous 16AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY ELSEVIER Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 68 (1994)201 212 Modelling the effect of mean pressure gradient on the mean flow within forests Xuhui Lee *'a, Roger H. Shaw

Lee, Xuhui

403

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

2014-03-10

404

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What animals abandon their offspring? Find out this and more as you explore reproduction in the animal world. Did you know that all animals must reproduce to survive? In this project you will be learning some interesting facts about reproduction in animals. After you have some background information you will have a chance to select 3 animals and complete a chart on reproduction. TASK: Day 1 ...

Mrs. Joggerst

2008-03-30

405

Agriculture Policy Briefing Book: Legislative Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features links to information on legislative issues such as farm support, conservation and resources, animal agriculture, the 2002 Farm Bill and other topics. The research, analysis, and information on this website are provided by the Congressional Research Service.

Congressional Research Service

406

Agricultural Education Curriculum Guide. Agricultural Production and Management I. Course No. 6811. Agricultural Production and Management II. Course No. 6812.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed for use by teachers of Agricultural Production and Management courses in North Carolina. It updates the competencies and content outlines from the previous guide. It lists core and optional competencies for two courses in seven areas as follows: leadership; supervised agricultural experience programs; animal science;…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

407

Animal Science Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library, along with the USDA and the American Society of Animal Science are collaborators on this website of animal science images. The images, animations, and videos, which also have accompanying text, are intended for classroom and educational outreach. Additionally, the site also encourages the public to submit their own images relevant to animal science, and it also fully explains the process of selection, the criteria the image must meet to be suitable for classroom and educational outreach, and the copyright and use information for each submission. On the left side of the page are the categories of animals and topics included on the website. Some of the links include "Dairy Cattle", "Companion Animals", "Horses", "Poultry", "Genetics", "Reproduction", and "Nutrition". Although some of the categories have fewer images than others, such as Companion Animals, others such as "Nutrition" and "Horses" have over 100 images. For categories that do have images, the visitor can choose to view subcategories, or just view all the images in the category. Once you've chosen an image to view, you will initially see a thumbnail and a description of the image. If you click on "Image Details" at the bottom of each description, you will be privy to details such as the date created, image rights, how many times downloaded, and how many times viewed. Conveniently, you can download the image in different file and dimensional sizes to suit your needs.

2009-06-11

408

Wisconsin Agriculture SPECIAL ARTICLE  

E-print Network

STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2009 · SPECIAL ARTICLE: Bioenergy and Agriculture in Wisconsin Economy Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2009 An annual report by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department

Radeloff, Volker C.

409

What is Sustainable Agriculture?  

E-print Network

What is Sustainable Agriculture? Sustainable agriculture is one that produces abundant food without. Sustainable agriculture is also the agriculture of social values, one whose suc- cess is indistinguishable, increased our dependence What is Sustainable Agriculture?...................... 1 How Do We Achieve

Wang, Changlu

410

Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes and Antibiotic Residues in Wastewater and Soil Adjacent to Swine Feedlots: Potential Transfer to Agricultural Lands  

PubMed Central

Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics in swine feed could cause accelerated emergence of antibiotic resistance genes, and agricultural application of swine waste could spread antibiotic resistance genes to the surrounding environment. Objectives: We investigated the distribution of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes from swine feedlots and their surrounding environment. Methods: We used a culture-independent method to identify PMQR genes and estimate their levels in wastewater from seven swine feedlot operations and corresponding wastewater-irrigated farm fields. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones in wastewater and soil samples were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The predominant PMQR genes in both the wastewater and soil samples were qnrD, qepA, and oqxB, whereas qnrS and oqxA were present only in wastewater samples. Absolute concentrations of all PMQR genes combined ranged from 1.66 × 107 to 4.06 × 108 copies/mL in wastewater and 4.06 × 106 to 9.52 × 107 copies/g in soil. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones ranged from 4.57 to 321 ng/mL in wastewater and below detection limit to 23.4 ng/g in soil. Significant correlations were found between the relative abundance of PMQR genes and (fluoro)quinolone concentrations (r = 0.71, p = 0.005) and the relative abundance of PMQR genes in paired wastewater and agricultural soil samples (r = 0.91, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Swine feedlot wastewater may be a source of PMQR genes that could facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in animal husbandry environments using a culture-independent method. PMID:22569244

Li, Juan; Wang, Thanh; Shao, Bing; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Shaochen

2012-01-01

411

Study Guide for TCT in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was specifically designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in agriculture. The agriculture test was developed by the National Evaluation Systems, Inc. and educators in Georgia. The test covers 13 subareas: (1) plant science; (2) crop management; (3) animal science; (4) livestock and…

Sailors, Robert A.

412

Agribusiness Management. The Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials in agribusiness management for the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum were designed for use in the following areas: Animal Science; Plant Science; Agricultural Mechanics; and Natural Resources and Aquaculture. Each unit of this competency-based guide contains title of unit, unit length, grade level, objectives, teacher…

EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

413

Enhancing Water Use Efficiency in Irrigated Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated agriculture is a vital component of total agriculture and the world's food production to keep pace with its grow- supplies many of the fruits, vegetables, and cereal foods consumed ing population, if that is even possible. Sinclair et al. by humans; the grains fed to animals that are used as human food; (1984) described WUE on various scales from

Terry A. Howell

2001-01-01

414

Adaptation of agriculture to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparing agriculture for adaptation to climate change requires advance knowledge of how climate will change and when. The direct physical and biological impacts on plants and animals must be understood. The indirect impacts on agriculture's resource base of soils, water and genetic resources must also be known. We lack such information now and will, likely, for some time to come.

Norman J. Rosenberg

1992-01-01

415

USDA APHIS-PPQ agriculture safeguard program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1998, the National Plant Board (NPB) reviewed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) efforts to safeguard American agriculture and plant resources. The NPB review is presented here in full (in .pdf format).

416

Investigations on the Effects of Dietary Essential Oils and Different Husbandry Conditions on the Gut Ecology in Piglets after Weaning  

PubMed Central

Essential oils (EO) are being considered as possible alternatives to in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in pig nutrition. The effects of an EO mixture consisting of limonene, eugenol and pinene (10.0, 2.0, and 4.8 mg/kg diet, resp.) on gut physiology and ecology were studied in piglets. The experiment was conducted at low (commercial farm) and high hygienic conditions (experimental farm), to elucidate interactions between EO supplementation and husbandry methods. Piglets were weaned at 28 days of age, when they were offered either a control diet (C) or C with EO. Four piglets were sacrificed in each group on day 29, 30, 33 and 39. Digesta from the third distal part of the small intestine and from the colon were sampled and analysed for pH, dry matter, lactic acid, short chain fatty acids and ammonia concentrations. Enterobacteria, enterococci, lactobacilli and yeast counts were obtained by plating. Genomic DNA was extracted from digesta and polymerase chain reaction—denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed. Individual microbial communities were identified at each farm. Age affected the intestinal parameters. No effects of the EO with exception for a significant reduction in colon bacterial diversity at 39 days of age could be recorded at experimental farm. PMID:20016670

Janczyk, P.; Pieper, R.; Urubschurov, V.; Wendler, K. R.; Souffrant, W. B.

2009-01-01

417

Optimized axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) husbandry, breeding, metamorphosis, transgenesis and tamoxifen-mediated recombination.  

PubMed

The axolotl (Mexican salamander, Ambystoma mexicanum) has become a very useful model organism for studying limb and spinal cord regeneration because of its high regenerative capacity. Here we present a protocol for successfully mating and breeding axolotls in the laboratory throughout the year, for metamorphosing axolotls by a single i.p. injection and for axolotl transgenesis using I-SceI meganuclease and the mini Tol2 transposon system. Tol2-mediated transgenesis provides different features and advantages compared with I-SceI-mediated transgenesis, and it can result in more than 30% of animals expressing the transgene throughout their bodies so that they can be directly used for experimentation. By using Tol2-mediated transgenesis, experiments can be performed within weeks (e.g., 5-6 weeks for obtaining 2-3-cm-long larvae) without the need to establish germline transgenic lines (which take 12-18 months). In addition, we describe here tamoxifen-induced Cre-mediated recombination in transgenic axolotls. PMID:24504478

Khattak, Shahryar; Murawala, Prayag; Andreas, Heino; Kappert, Verena; Schuez, Maritta; Sandoval-Guzmán, Tatiana; Crawford, Karen; Tanaka, Elly M

2014-03-01

418

Agricultural Education--Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation presents over 950 resumes of instructional materials in agricultural education, which have appeared quarterly in "Abstracts of Instructional Materials in Vocational and Technical Education" (AIM), Fall 1967 through Fall 1971. Resumes cover a broad range of fields and occupations, such as agribusiness, agronomy, animal and plant…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

419

Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its mission to promote sustainable and environmentally friendly farm techniques, the Leopold Center sponsors a variety of research and educational projects related to marketing and food systems, ecology, and policy. Initiatives include alternative swine production systems/ agroecology, animal management, cropping systems, human systems, integrated pest management, manure management, organic agriculture, and weed management.

420

Agricultural Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made the Agricultural Outlook publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Agricultural Outlook, the monthly short and long term commodity outlook publication, long available via the USDA Economics and Statistics system at Cornell University's Mann Library, (discussed in the September 15, 1995 issue of the Scout Report) is now available with graphics and charts. Selected archives of the publication are available and articles can be downloaded individually. About the only drawback to this terrific addition to ERS's electronic holdings is that the separate statistical section that accompanies AO (over 20 pages of tables), is not available at this time. This is particularly unfortunate, as these tables are one of the most valuable aspects of the publication.

421

Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

422

Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

423

Among Animals  

E-print Network

The tendency to see humans as special and separate influences even practices like scientific taxonomy which explicitly place them among other animals. The animal-related scholarship that has emerged throughout the humanities ...

Ritvo, Harriet

424

Endangered animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. Humans are largely to blame for their endangerment. Over-hunting and habitat destruction are only a couple of ways that humans are endangering animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-05-26

425

NEED AND METHODS OF GENE CONSERVATION IN ANIMAL BREEDING (*)  

E-print Network

- ronment (feeding, housing, managements, disease); 5) experiences from plant breeding; 6) existenceNEED AND METHODS OF GENE CONSERVATION IN ANIMAL BREEDING (*) K. MAIJALA Agricultural Research Centre, Department of Animal Breeding, Tikkurila, Finland SUMMARY The problem of gene losses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

426

Going Forth and Multiplying: Animal Acclimatization and Invasion  

E-print Network

The nineteenth century saw numerous transfers and attempted transfers of animal populations, mostly as the result of the spread of European agriculture. The exchange of animal populations facilitated by the acclimatization ...

Ritvo, Harriet

427

Incorporating Laptop Technologies into an Animal Sciences Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching animal sciences, like most agricultural disciplines, requires giving students hands-on learning opportunities in remote and often computer-unfriendly sites such as animal farms. How do faculty integrate laptop use into such an environment?

Birrenkott, Glenn; Bertrand, Jean A.; Bolt, Brian

2005-01-01

428

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

TERC

2010-01-01

429

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

430

Animal Behaviour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

Dr. Paul McGreevey

2010-01-01

431

Water Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do animals adapt to their environments? Use the chart Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos record what you learn for each animal in the chart. The first animal you will learn about is a bottlenose dolphin. Watch Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos Learn about Wild Bills. Watch wild bill video ...

Ms. Beardsley

2011-10-26

432

Computer Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.

433

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt

434

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.

435

Animal Scent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior. Learners will create five or six scent blocks by rubbing wood blocks with different kitchen spices, foods, or animal scents. Then, learners let their pets investigate each block separately. Carefully observed behaviors are recorded for interpretation. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Animal Scent.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

436

Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China  

PubMed Central

Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3?-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

437

9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals...

2012-01-01

438

9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals...

2013-01-01

439

9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals...

2010-01-01

440

9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals...

2011-01-01

441

Animals’ Place in Legal Theory: Introduction to the Special issue on Animals’ Place in Jurisprudence  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is an animal? To some, an animal is a family pet, a companion or a family member. To others, it represents food, a tool for agriculture, commodity, resource or part of the landscape. In the eyes of the law in most countries, an animal is property, either personal property or property that belongs to no one. However, we all

Deborah Cao

442

Animal Alert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from Animal Planet offers visitors the very latest news about animals around the globe. Scroll along the map of the world, and then click on an icon. A pop-up window will appear with a synopsis of a news story, a link to the full story, and a list of related features on the Animal Planet Web site. A key to the map icons is provided. The full news story page also provides general information and trivia about each animal. This is a great resource for anyone wishing to keep informed about animal-related current events without having to register for an email newsletter.

2002-01-01

443

ALS 3133 section 9685 I. Title: Agriculture and Environmental Quality  

E-print Network

on environmental quality, especially water quality, with emphasis on agricultural practices (fertilization, waste practices for agricultural irrigation Discuss the issues with managing animal wastes Name some biofuelsALS 3133 section 9685 Fall 2014 I. Title: Agriculture and Environmental Quality M, W, F, Period 2

Ma, Lena

444

Agricultural biotechnology research: Practices, consequences, and policy recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current trends in the development of agricultural biotechnology, including (1) the recent and potential biotechnology products and processes in the plant, animal and food sciences, and (2) the enormous increase in Federal and State government and industrial investments in biotechnology research. Next we analyze the impacts and possible consequences of agricultural biotechnology for public and private agricultural

William B. Lacy; Laura R. Lacy; Lawrence Busch

1988-01-01

445

West Virginia University 1 Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources,  

E-print Network

Management · Agribusiness Management and Rural Development · Agricultural and Extension EducationWest Virginia University 1 Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Design Majors The Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Design is organized into five divisions: Animal

Mohaghegh, Shahab

446

University Students' Perceptions of Issues Related to Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Telephone interviews with 390 of 400 college students revealed an overall favorable impression of food safety and agriculture's impact on the economy and environment. Males were more positive about animal welfare and production agriculture. Gender, college major, and hometown were related to attitudes about agriculture issues. (SK)

Terry, Robert, Jr.; Lawver, David E.

1995-01-01

447

CASESTUDIES AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

(Rosenzweig and Hillel 1998). A warmer climate is likely to induce shifts in the opti- mal zonation of crops. The resulting poleward shift of crop-growing and timber-growing regions could expand the potential productionCASESTUDIES AGRICULTURE CLIMATE CHANGE, CROP PESTS AND DISEASES Cynthia Rosenzweig X.B. Yang Pamela

448

Agricultural Bioterrorism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article warns that agricultural bioterrorism can be as devastating as other forms of terrorism because it: cripples the economy of a nation, can destroy the livelihood of many people puts food supply at risk, perhaps for a long time, and may not be detected before it reaches difficult-to-control levels.

Radford G. Davis (Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine; )

2001-10-01

449

Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

2005-01-01

450

Identification of Emerging Science Competencies in Agriculture. Vocational Education Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research project identified new and emerging science concepts that should be taught in high school vocational agriculture. Agricultural scientists on an advisory panel identified the emerging science concepts. The majority were in the areas of plant science and animal science. Animal science was completely reorganized with greater emphasis on…

Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. School of Vocational Education.

451

CHALLENGES IN INCREASING WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irrigated agriculture is a vital component of total agriculture and supplies many of the fruits, vegetables, and cereal foods consumed by humans; the grains fed to animals that are used as human food; and the feed to sustain animals for work in many parts of the world. World-wide irrigation was pra...

452

Office of the Vice President for Research UGA IACUC Policy for Satellite Animal Facilities and  

E-print Network

Office of the Vice President for Research UGA IACUC Policy for Satellite Animal Facilities Animals or the FASS Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching. In general: · The room should have

Arnold, Jonathan

453

Land use Intensification and its Ecological Impacts, in Himalayas of India - Lessons for scenario development in mountainous regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional agriculture land use system in Indian Himalayan region is an integral part of the society and local environment as in that the crop husbandry, animal husbandry and forests constitute interlinked systems. But due to variety of factors the land use under traditional crops is changing very fast in a part of Indian Himalayan region. This kind of land

S. Nautiyal; K. S. Rajan; R. Shibasaki; K. S. Rao; R. K. Maikhuri; I. S. Bisht

454

Animation Studies - Animated Dialogues, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is need for a recorded history - perhaps more than one is necessary to fully reveal the multi-layered identity of animation in Australia. With animation's becoming an accepted discipline for study and source for critical writing, it becomes important to define each country's history of its foundations and growth, whatever the significance, to identify each national animation in its

Lienors Torre

455

Agricultural Science I. Supplementary Units. Instructor Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply agricultural skills in the areas of animal breeding, animal nutrition, leadership, and power tools. Specific competencies are listed as study questions at the beginning of each of the 10 self-paced and self-contained units. Skill sheets, activity sheets, and…

Martin, Donna; And Others

456

Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?  

PubMed

Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as ?-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality. PMID:25253809

Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

2014-12-01

457

Undergraduate Teaching in the Animal Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of a conference which reviewed the content of undergraduate animal science curricula, content of courses in the animal sciences, and methods and materials used in undergraduate teaching in the animal sciences are presented in this bulletin. These individual papers are included: Trends in Animal Agriculture and the Future of…

Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

458

Preindustrial agriculture versus organic agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of traditional agrarian systems can provide useful knowledge for improving the sustainability of present-day agriculture. Nonetheless, with the loss of traditional agro-ecosystems and the rationale that guides them, as has happened in Europe, an historical research approach can have a decisive role to play in recapturing this knowledge. In this article we study the evolution of a typical

G. I. Guzmán Casado; M. González de Molina

2009-01-01

459

Peace Corps | Agriculture Agriculture Volunteers  

E-print Network

Volunteers contribute sustain- able solutions to a community's agricultural issues and help preserve natural conservation structures and practices · Raise trees in small nurseries and work in fruit tree production techniques · Share marketing techniques for products like meat, wool, and eggs · Promote vaccination against

Kaminsky, Werner

460

Factors affecting agricultural journalists and agricultural communicators  

E-print Network

Agricultural journalism and agricultural communication have been researched in depth, identifying job skills, job satisfaction, educational backgrounds, and curriculum issues. However, a study examining the spheres (subjective, institutional...

Chenault, Edith Anne

2009-05-15

461

Boscawen Agricultural Commission  

E-print Network

.com Presenter: Dot Perkins, UNH Cooperative Extension, Food & Agriculture Dot has been raising meat, milk Boscawen Agricultural Commission presents their 2015 Winter Workshop Series CHICKENS: To register, contact the Boscawen Agricultural Commission at 7539188 x 301 or agriculture03303@gmail

New Hampshire, University of

462

78 FR 46255 - Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans; Stay of Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR...APHIS-2006-0159] RIN 0579-AC69 Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans; Stay of Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2013-07-31

463

76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Swine 2012 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2011-08-23

464

78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...APHIS-2012-0088] Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2013-01-09

465

75 FR 34423 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...APHIS-2009-0025] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2010-06-17

466

76 FR 34031 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-06-10

467

75 FR 34422 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2009-0024] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2010-06-17

468

77 FR 41716 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9...APHIS-2011-0003] RIN 0579-AC36 Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2012-07-16

469

77 FR 34934 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2012-06-12

470

19 CFR 10.70 - Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate...of purebred animals for breeding purposes under...for a certificate of pure breeding to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health...

2013-04-01

471

19 CFR 10.70 - Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate...of purebred animals for breeding purposes under...for a certificate of pure breeding to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health...

2014-04-01

472

19 CFR 10.70 - Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate...of purebred animals for breeding purposes under...for a certificate of pure breeding to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health...

2010-04-01

473

19 CFR 10.70 - Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate...of purebred animals for breeding purposes under...for a certificate of pure breeding to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health...

2012-04-01

474

19 CFR 10.70 - Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate...of purebred animals for breeding purposes under...for a certificate of pure breeding to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health...

2011-04-01

475

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2011-01-01

476

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2014-01-01

477

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2013-01-01

478

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2014-01-01

479

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2011-01-01

480

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2010-01-01

481

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2012-01-01

482

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2010-01-01

483

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2012-01-01

484

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2013-01-01

485

77 FR 47922 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...preventing infectious disease; promoting maternal/child health, animal husbandry, food security, and sustainable agriculture; conservation of endangered species of fauna and flora and their supporting natural habitats; and the...

2012-08-10

486

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, KynWai.

1996-01-01

487

Vocational Agriculture II Curriculum Guide, 10th Grade. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education: Basic Core Curriculum II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This basic core curriculum for vocational agriculture education contains 35 units of instruction in five content areas: agricultural chemicals (1 unit), leadership (2 units), farm management (5 units), plant and soil science (10 units), animal science (8 units), and farm mechanics (9 units). Each unit follows a typical format that includes…

Pittsburg State Univ., KS. Kansas Vocational Curriculum and Research Center.

488

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

489

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Ms. Cole

2011-04-07

490

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

491

NMR Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animated tutorials on NMR with sufficient depth to be useful to the non NMR savvy. The animations are accompanied by short descriptions so that the processes displayed can be understood by the viewer. This site goes beyond just showing precession. There are nice animations showing the effect of different pulses, including composite pulses on the magnetization, the effects of magnetic gradient pulses to measure diffusion and do coherence pathway selection.

492

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

493

An online agricultural genetics course.  

PubMed

In this age of rapidly developing online learning, the advent of a series of talks and supplementary material devoted to genetics in agriculture from Henry Stewart Talks ( http://hstalks.com/main/browse_talks.php?r=776&c=252 ) is welcome indeed. The series is designed for researchers and graduate students in the fields of genetics, plant science, animal science, agricultural science, food science, human nutrition and environmental science, advanced undergraduate students, policy makers and managers in public and private sectors, and continuing professional education/development. PMID:25437233

Moses, Vivian

2014-07-01

494

Physics Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you would like a taste of classical mechanics in an animated form, this website is right up your alley. This site from the physics department at the University of Toronto offers up over 100 helpful animations that cover quantum mechanics, vectors, waves, relativity, and optics. Visitors can scroll through the topical headings to look for items of interest and should note the entire website is searchable as well. There are some great topical animations here, such as one on fluid mechanics that involves a theoretical dropping of a ball from the CN Tower in Toronto. Animations have also been translated into Catalan, Spanish, and Basque.

495

Animal Omnibus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed with children in mind, the Animal Omnibus site is "a list of web sources indexed by the name of the animal." Users search by animal name to get returns in the form of hyperlinked resource lists. The resource lists contain sites ranging from simple color photographs of individual species to sites steeped in scientific classification to publicly targeted zoo sites. Animal Omnibus may also be browsed by generic name within each taxonomic category (amphibians, arthropods, birds, dinosaurs, fish, mammals, mollusks, and reptiles). Although depth of content varies widely, this unique and diverse collection of information types is at once unpredictable and refreshing.

496

Animal cytomegaloviruses.  

PubMed Central

Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

Staczek, J

1990-01-01

497

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animal’s reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

498

Animal Traction. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for use by Peace Corps volunteers and agricultural extension personnel working in animal traction development programs. While some of the information contained in the manual is specific to the extension of animal-powered agriculture in Africa, the principles covered are generally applicable wherever the method is being used…

Watson, Peter R.

499

9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...137 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS...absorbant material, which is safe and nontoxic to the live...

2012-01-01

500

Teaching Biology Using Agriculture as the Context: Perceptions of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of 531 students in a course using animal agriculture to teach biology, 90% felt it helped them understand the relationship between science and agriculture and the importance of agriculture. Nearly 90% disagreed with statements that animals should not be used for food and that farmers are not concerned about the environment. (Contains 18…

Balschweid, Mark A.

2002-01-01