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1

Trimethylamine emissions in animal husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation of plant material by animals is an important transformation pathway in the nitrogen (N) cycle. During the involved processes, volatile reduced alkaline nitrogen compounds, mainly ammonia (NH3) and aliphatic amines such as trimethylamine (TMA), are formed. Today, animal husbandry is estimated to constitute a main source of aliphatic amines into the atmosphere with TMA being the main emitted compound. Here, we show how the interaction between faeces and urine in animal production systems provides the primary source for agricultural TMA emissions. Excreted urine contains large quantities of urea and TMA-N-oxide, which are transformed into NH3 and TMA, respectively, via enzymatic processes provided by microbes present in faeces. TMA emissions from areas polluted with urine-faeces mixture are on average in the order of 10 to 50 nmol m-2s-1. Released amines promote secondary aerosol particle formation in the agricultural emission plume. The atmospheric lifetime of TMA, which was estimated to be in the order of 30 to 1000 s, is determined by the condensation on aerosol particles.

Sintermann, J.; Schallhardt, S.; Kajos, M.; Jocher, M.; Bracher, A.; Münger, A.; Johnson, D.; Neftel, A.; Ruuskanen, T.

2014-05-01

2

Effects of plastic-film mulching and nitrogen application on forage-oriented maize in the agriculture-animal husbandry ecotone in North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To counter the actual problems of forage shortage and low quality existing in the agriculture-animal husbandry ecotone in\\u000a North China, a research was conducted to study the effects of plastic-film mulching and nitrogen application on the production\\u000a of forageoriented maize with the aim of producing water-saving forage with high-yield and good quality. Field experiments\\u000a combined with laboratory experimental estimation and

Xiong Du; Xiuju Bian; Weihong Zhang; Fucun Yang; Lifeng Zhang

2008-01-01

3

[Migrant workers in agriculture and animal husbandry: experiences of health surveillance].  

PubMed

In Italy, 5 millions migrants live and work. Among them, the employment rate is much higher in comparison with the Italians' one (75% versus 62%). The well known "healthy migrant effect" is confirmed by statistics from the National Institute for Statistics: according to it, migrants access the National Health System for pregnancy and delivery and for accidents. The chronic pathology is not a major concern. Moreover, their work ability is generally complete, without any limitation. Nevertheless, migrants seem to represent a vulnerable subgroup with regard to the risk of 1) occupational injuries: this is strongly linked with the risk of Tetanus infection; 2) disorders of the metabolism, like hyperglycaemia and hyperlipemia, which is linked to a higher cardiovascular risk. In this light data from health surveillance carried out by the International centre for Rural Health of the San Paolo University Hospital in agricultural setting in the Region of Lombardy and the participation of the Centre itself to the Promovax EC-cofunded project are presented. PMID:22187923

Somaruga, C; Troja Martinazzoli, M G; Brambilla, G; Colosio, C

2011-01-01

4

Greenhouse gases from animal husbandry: mitigation options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abatement strategies for direct emissions of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry are discussed. The reduction options are\\u000a divided into preventive and `end of pipe' options. Preventive measures reduce either the carbon and nitrogen input into the\\u000a system of animal husbandry or their output from the system, respectively. `End of pipe' measures reduce the formation of greenhouse\\u000a gases from carbon and

Joachim Clemens; Heinz-Jürgen Ahlgrimm

2001-01-01

5

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Agricultural Business and Management Technology Cluster: Agricultural Business and Management Technology (CIP: 01.0302--Agricultural Animal Husbandry/Prod) (CIP: 01.0501--Agric Supplies Retail & Wholesale); Animal Husbandry Technology (CIP: 01.0302--Agricultural Animal Husbandry/Prod); Field Crops Technology (CIP: 01.0104--Farm & Ranch Management). Postsecondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the agricultural business and management technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a framework of courses and concentrations, a description of the program, and…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

6

The introduction of expert systems in animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive nature of modern animal husbandry has changed the environmental conditions, so that protection against diseases, especially those caused by secondary pathogenic organisms, becomes an increasing concern. Production inefficiencies become more and more important. Because of their complex nature, many associated problems cannot be solved by farmers alone. With the introduction of information technology in the form of expert

J. F. Schreinemakers; M. L. Vos; A. Brand; D. S. Brée; J. H. M. Verheijden

1988-01-01

7

Grazing animal husbandry based on sustainable nutrient management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable husbandry systems for grazing animals (cattle and sheep) can be achieved by sustainable nutrient management (SNM). This implies the tuning of inputs to outputs of nutrients, to achieve and maintain optimum ranges of agronomically wanted and ecologically acceptable reserves of single nutrients in the soil. P is presented as the ‘boss cow of the nutrient herd’ and its optimum

C. Hermans; P. H. Vereijken

1995-01-01

8

Animal husbandry in Africa: Climate change impacts and adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a cross-sectional approach to analyze the impacts of climate change on animal husbandry and the way farmers adapt. The study is based on surveys of almost 5000 livestock farmers across ten countries in Africa. A traditional Ricardian regression finds that the livestock net revenues of large farms in Africa are more sensitive to temperature than those of

S. Niggol Seo; Robert Mendelsohn

2008-01-01

9

Improved Animal Husbandry Practices as a Basis for Profitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Synopsis  Animal husbandry on rangelands has been the mainstay of people’s livelihoods in NW China for centuries. The rangeland\\/livestock\\u000a system is complex and improvements in animal productivity will depend on raising awareness of the underlying ecological principles\\u000a but more specifically on the training of herders\\/farmers on new approaches and techniques in animal health, animal nutrition,\\u000a breed improvement and in better winter

Wu Jianping; Victor Squires; Yang Lian

10

Antibiotic alternatives: the substitution of antibiotics in animal husbandry?  

PubMed Central

It is a common practice for decades to use of sub-therapeutic dose of antibiotics in food-animal feeds to prevent animals from diseases and to improve production performance in modern animal husbandry. In the meantime, concerns over the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the unreasonable use of antibiotics and an appearance of less novelty antibiotics have prompted efforts to develop so-called alternatives to antibiotics. Whether or not the alternatives could really replace antibiotics remains a controversial issue. This review summarizes recent development and perspectives of alternatives to antibiotics. The mechanism of actions, applications, and prospectives of the alternatives such as immunity modulating agents, bacteriophages and their lysins, antimicrobial peptides, pro-, pre-, and synbiotics, plant extracts, inhibitors targeting pathogenicity (bacterial quorum sensing, biofilm, and virulence), and feeding enzymes are thoroughly discussed. Lastly, the feasibility of alternatives to antibiotics is deeply analyzed. It is hard to conclude that the alternatives might substitute antibiotics in veterinary medicine in the foreseeable future. At the present time, prudent use of antibiotics and the establishment of scientific monitoring systems are the best and fastest way to limit the adverse effects of the abuse of antibiotics and to ensure the safety of animal-derived food and environment.

Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Dai, Menghong; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

2014-01-01

11

Thousands upon thousands of households to build forestry and animal husbandry mobilize bases  

SciTech Connect

This article proposes that a good natural environment and a reliable material base can be created for economic construction in northwestern China by relating the activity of growing grass and trees and the development of animal husbandry to the development of agriculture. It is also necessary to develop light industry (e.g., the food industry, wool spinning, leather and wood processing) and to exploit coal, oil, and other energy and mineral resources. The great northwest makes up more than one-third of China's territory, and it contains one-tenth of the national population. The focal point of China's economic construction is expected to be shifted to this area by the end of the century. The disadvantages of the northwest include sparse vegetation, drought, serious soil erosion, and an unbalanced ecological system.

Not Available

1983-09-18

12

[Inspection of laboratory animal breeding and husbandry/experiments on animals, examples].  

PubMed

In Berlin, the authorization and inspection of experiments on animals and of facilities for laboratory animal breeding and husbandry are carried out by the same authority. According to Section 16 (1) sentence one no. 3 Tierschutzgesetz (German animal protection act), there are presently 1200 procedures registered and 68 facilities approved to breed and keep vertebrates for experiments (according to Section 11 (1) sentence one no. 1 Tierschutzgesetz). In 2006, the use of 300,903 vertebrates was reported. There are 38 animal welfare officers in the twenty major scientific facilities who are in charge of in-house supervision. The authority visits the facilities where experiments take place at regular intervals to observe and supervise their operations. On request, the facilities must send the records from the experiments to the authority for examination (according to Section 9 a Tierschutzgesetz). With the annual laboratory animal report, the authority can verify the number of authorised laboratory animals. By checking the scientific publications the authority can compare them with the authorised animal experiments. Facilities for laboratory animal breeding and husbandry are continuously supervised. Offences against the animal protection act are prosecuted. When there are deficiencies in animal welfare, the authority sets a deadline to correct the defects. If the deficiency still exists after the expiry of the term, the authority imposes a penalty payment or initiates legal proceedings. The important role of the animal welfare officers (Section 8 a Tierschutzgesetz) is apparent. The majority of supervisions show that there are deficiencies. This indicates that more emphasis must be put on prevention. The facilities must provide better support and resources for the animal welfare officers. Furthermore, the scientists must be more receptive to the animal welfare officers in their role as advisers. Continuous and adequate training is imperative to the goal of maintaining sufficient in-house supervision and to keep the animals from suffering. If in-house supervision works well, the State's role in regulating animal experiments can be reduced. PMID:18500148

Ratsch, H

2008-04-01

13

Climate change impacts on animal husbandry in Africa : a Ricardian analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impact of climate change on animal husbandry in Africa. It regresses the net revenue from raising animals in small and large farms across Africa on climate, soil, and other control variables to test the climate sensitivity of livestock. The study is based on a survey of over 9,000 farmers across 11 countries conducted by the World

Robert Mendelsohn; Sungno Niggol Seo

2007-01-01

14

Interactions and coupling between emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor\\u000a storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g., composting, anaerobic treatment), land application\\u000a and chemical fertilisers. Although in many countries emphasis is put on reduction

G. J. Monteny; C. M. Groenestein; M. A. Hilhorst

2001-01-01

15

Interaction and coupling in the emission of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g., composting, anaerobic treatment), land application and chemical fertilisers. Although in many countries emphasis is put on reduction

G. J. Monteny; C. M. Groenestein; M. A. Hilhorst

2001-01-01

16

New aspects of the use of tranquillizers in animal husbandry, with particular reference to pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tranquillizers have been used in animal husbandry to inorease production, to control stress from transport or herding together or to prevent abnormal behaviour patterns, such as fighting. Neuroleptic drugs (phenothiazine derivatives, reserpine and butyrophenones) have been widely used for these purposes, while anxiolytic sedatives (meprobamate and benzodiazepines), which have more limited effects, have only been little used. In view of

Robert Dantzer

1977-01-01

17

Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Rö?ler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

18

The control of risk in animal husbandry primary production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the nutritional aspects, including drinking water, that produce a negative influence on safety, health,\\u000a nutritional and technological properties of food of animal origin, such as dairy and meat products, eggs, fish, and including\\u000a processed and manufactured products. The purpose was to define an overview concerning the main aspects of food safety and\\u000a to produce guidelines that best

F. Valfrè

2008-01-01

19

Biogaserzeugungspotenzial aus Gülle und Koppelprodukten in viehhaltenden und viehlosen Betriebssystemen des ökologischen Landbaus Potential of Biogas production by using slurry and coupled products in organic farming systems with and without animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two agricultural systems with and without animal husbandry the potential to produce renewable energy by digesting slurry and organic residues to biogas were assessed. In comparison to some other methods of energy production by biomass biogas pro- duction has the advantage of keeping the nutrients of the substrates within the agricul- tural system. They can be used as fertilisers.

K. Möller; W. Stinner; A. Deuker; G. Leithold

20

APPLICATIONS OF RADIO-ISOTOPES IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE; Primenenie Radioizotopov v Zhivotnovodstve i Veterinarii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translated from a paper presented at the Conference on the Use of ; Radioisotopes in Animal Biology and in the Medical Sciences held in Mexico City, ; November 21 to December 1, 1961. 20p. Work by Soviet researchers on the use of ; radioisotopes in animal husbandry and veterinary science is reviewed. M.C.G.);

A. A. Kudryavtsev; A. I. Vertunov

1962-01-01

21

Human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Domestic animal husbandry, a common practice globally, can lead to zoonotic transmission of enteric pathogens. However, this risk has received little attention to date. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the evidence for an association between domestic exposure to food-producing animals and cases of human diarrhea and specific enteric infections. We performed a systematic review of available literature to examine domestic livestock and poultry as risk factors for diarrhea and applied pre-determined quality criteria. Where possible, we carried out meta-analysis of specific animal-pathogen pairs. We found consistent evidence of a positive association between exposure to domestic food-producing animals and diarrheal illness across a range of animal exposures and enteric pathogens. Out of 29 studies included in the review, 20 (69.0%) reported a positive association between domestic animal exposure and diarrhea. Domestic exposure to poultry revealed a substantial association with human campylobacteriosis (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.90-3.93). Our results suggest that domestic poultry and livestock exposures are associated with diarrheal illness in humans. Failure to ascertain the microbial cause of disease may mask this effect. Exposure to domestic animals should be considered a risk factor for human diarrheal illness and additional studies may identify potential mitigation strategies to address this risk. PMID:24812065

Zambrano, Laura D; Levy, Karen; Menezes, Neia P; Freeman, Matthew C

2014-06-01

22

Comparing Norse animal husbandry practices: paleoethnobotanical analyses from Iceland and Greenland.  

PubMed

The popular view of the Norse settlement across the North Atlantic describes colonies with similar subsistence practices being established from the Faroe Islands in the west to L'Anse aux Meadows in the east. The importance of plant resources to the Norse animal husbandry strategies implemented by settlers upon arrival are not well established, nor are the changes these strategies underwent, eventually resulting in different cultural solutions to varying environmental and social factors. This paper compares archaeobotanical samples from two Icelandic archaeological sites, Svalbarð and Gjögur, and one Greenlandic site, Gården Under Sandet (GUS). Results of this comparison suggest that heathland shrubs were an important fodder resource for caprines in both Iceland and Greenland while apophytes ("weedy taxa") were part of the cattle fodder in Greenland. Further, the results indicate that mucking out of cattle barns to provide fertilizer was likely practiced at the GUS site in the Western Norse settlement of Greenland. PMID:21847841

Ross, Julie M; Zutter, Cynthia

2007-01-01

23

Frozen soil change and adaptation of animal husbandry: a case of the source regions of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the spatial and temporal change of different frozen soil types from 1980s to 2000s, and the impacts of frozen soil change on rangeland productivity and sustainable livelihood in the source regions of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers employed numerical model and GIS technology. Authors use the analytical framework of adaptation of animal husbandry according to national, regional, community

Yiping Fang; Dahe Qin; Yongjian Ding

2011-01-01

24

Frequency of trypanosomosis and gastrointestinal parasites in draught donkeys in The Gambia in relation to animal husbandry.  

PubMed

Prevalence of trypanosomosis, gastrointestinal strongyles and level of strongyle egg outputs were studied in relation to husbandry practices in the draught donkey population in The Gambia. Feeding regime, number of working hours per day and overnight penning practices of donkeys affected significantly (P < 0.05) the level of gastrointestinal strongyle egg output, but not (P > 0.05) trypanosomosis prevalence. Dual trypanosome and gastrointestinal strongyle infection significantly reduced the PCV (P < 0.001). Animals positive for gastrointestinal strongyles alone did not show a significantly (P > 0.05) lower PCV than those found negative. Husbandry practices to improve the situation are recommended. PMID:7941024

Mattioli, R C; Zinsstag, J; Pfister, K

1994-05-01

25

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...population management and control. Specific requirements include the following: (1) Chimpanzees must have access to food, water, and bedding at all times, unless medical or behavioral conditions dictate otherwise. Husbandry procedures shall...

2012-10-01

26

Farm-level plans and husbandry measures for aquatic animal disease emergencies.  

PubMed

Disease is one of the gravest threats to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A good understanding of biosecurity and disease causation is essential for developing and implementing farm-level plans and husbandry measures to respond to disease emergencies. Using epidemiological approaches, it is possible to identify pond- and farm-level risk factors for disease outbreaks and develop intervention strategies. Better management practices (BMPs) should be simple, science-based, cost-effective and appropriate to their context if farmers are to adopt and implement them. As part of a regional initiative by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) to control aquatic animal diseases, effective extension approaches to promote the widespread adoption of BMPs have been developed in India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, and have proved their worth. A highly successful programme, which addresses rising concerns about the effect of disease on the sustainability of shrimp farming in India, is now in its seventh year. In this paper, the authors present a brief insight into the details of the programme, its outcomes and impact, the lessons learned and the way forward. PMID:18666486

Mohan, C V; Phillips, M J; Bhat, B V; Umesh, N R; Padiyar, P A

2008-04-01

27

Estimation of Zn and Cu unit output loads from animal husbandry facilities.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are toxic to aquatic organisms at very low concentrations that do not affect humans. We measured the daily output of Zn and Cu in wastewater from livestock farms to aquatic environments because waste from animal husbandry operations contains high levels of Zn and Cu. At most pig farms in Japan, a mixture of urine, some faeces, and service water is treated in onsite wastewater treatment facilities and discharged into a water body. Some dairy farms also have wastewater treatment facilities. We surveyed 21 pig farms and six dairy farms. The unit (i.e., per head) output load from piggery wastewater treatment facilities ranged from 0.13 to 17.8 mg/head/d for Zn and from 0.15 to 9.4 mg/head/d for Cu. Over 70% of pig farms had unit output loads of Zn and Cu below 6 and 2 mg/head/d, respectively. For dairy farms, the unit output load from wastewater treatment facilities was estimated at 1.8-3.6 mg/head/d for Zn and 0.6 mg/head/d for Cu. The unit output load for Zn from piggery wastewater treatment facilities was similar to that from treatment facilities for human waste. However, pig farms generally raise several thousand to tens of thousands of pigs; pig farms are therefore presumed to be a significant point source of Zn in rural areas. PMID:22744698

Abe, Kaoru; Waki, Miyoko; Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Kasuya, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryouji; Itahashi, Sunao; Banzai, Kenji

2012-01-01

28

A C?As lyase for degradation of environmental organoarsenical herbicides and animal husbandry growth promoters.  

PubMed

Arsenic is the most widespread environmental toxin. Substantial amounts of pentavalent organoarsenicals have been used as herbicides, such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA), and as growth enhancers for animal husbandry, such as roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) [Rox(V)]. These undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. We previously demonstrated a two-step pathway of degradation of MSMA to As(III) by microbial communities involving sequential reduction to methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)] by one bacterial species and demethylation from MAs(III) to As(III) by another. In this study, the gene responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was identified from an environmental MAs(III)-demethylating isolate, Bacillus sp. MD1. This gene, termed arsenic inducible gene (arsI), is in an arsenic resistance (ars) operon and encodes a nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenase with C?As lyase activity. Heterologous expression of ArsI conferred MAs(III)-demethylating activity and MAs(III) resistance to an arsenic-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli, demonstrating that MAs(III) demethylation is a detoxification process. Purified ArsI catalyzes Fe(2+)-dependent MAs(III) demethylation. In addition, ArsI cleaves the C?As bond in trivalent roxarsone and other aromatic arsenicals. ArsI homologs are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and we propose that ArsI-catalyzed organoarsenical degradation has a significant impact on the arsenic biogeocycle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular mechanism for organoarsenic degradation by a C?As lyase. PMID:24821808

Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rosen, Barry P

2014-05-27

29

Department of Agriculture's Animal Welfare Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the Animal Welfare Act, the Department of Agriculture inspects sites that handle certain warm-blooded animals to ensure their humane care and treatment. GAO obtained information in six states on (1) training and guidance given to Agriculture's inspe...

1985-01-01

30

European agricultural policy and farm animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a neglected aspect of food policy: the impact of agricultural policy on farm animal welfare. Defining farm animal welfare is difficult but some general standards are now widely accepted and the determinants of these are increasingly seen as being tied up with farm structural and enterprise characteristics. In Europe both of these are heavily influenced by the

M. Winter; C. Fry; S. P. Carruthers

1998-01-01

31

Association between the consumption of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry and the occurrence of resistant bacteria among food animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals may cause problems in the therapy of infections by selecting for resistance among bacteria pathogenic for animals or humans. The emergence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes following the use of antimicrobial

Frank Møller Aarestrup

1999-01-01

32

Animal Enterprise Record Book. Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This record book is intended for use by agricultural education students who have ownership arrangements in animal enterprise experience programs. A major purpose of this book is to aid in separating out or allocating the costs and returns to a specific enterprise. The financial, labor, and management aspects of each enterprise can then be studied…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

33

Future of Animal Agriculture: 2030. One in a Series of Educational Programs Presented by the Future Trends in Animal Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Preface; Sponsors; FTAA Mission, Vision, Goals; Welcome; History of the Future Trends in Animal Agriculture; What Will Animal Agriculture Look Like: the Role of Government; Alternative Viewpoints on Food Animal Production and Processing; Panel: ...

2009-01-01

34

Husbandry Helps Harvests of Healthy Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparison is presented of the relative role of husbandry or control of environmental conditions, and diseases in the fluctuations of abundance in populations of marine animals. Emphasis is placed on cultured animals such as shrimp. The University of Mi...

G. E. Krantz E. S. Iverson

1973-01-01

35

Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Basic Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, part of a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, is built around specimens of agricultural writing in Spanish. The manual contains 12 lessons on general agriculture, sugar production, grain production, geography, forestry, animal husbandry, soy bean production, agricultural

Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

36

Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in slaughtered animals in south-eastern Lake Chad area in relation to husbandry practices and seasonal water levels  

PubMed Central

Background Fasciolosis has been described in sub-Saharan Africa in many accounts, but the latest reports from Chad are from the 1970s. Mobile pastoralists perceive liver parasites as a significant problem and think that proximity to Lake Chad can lead to infection. This study aimed to assess the importance of liver fluke infections in mobile pastoralists’ livestock in the south-eastern Lake Chad region. In 2011, all animals presented at three slaughter slabs near Gredaya in the south-eastern Lake Chad area were examined for infection with Fasciola spp. during routine meat inspections. Results This study included 616 goats, 132 sheep and 130 cattle. The prevalence of adult Fasciola gigantica was 68% (CI 60-76%) in cattle, 12% (CI 10-16%) in goats and 23% (CI 16-30%) in sheep. From all infected animals (n?=?200), 53% (n?=?106) were classified as lightly infected with 1-10 parasites, 18% (n =36) as moderately infected with 11-100 parasites and 29% (n?=?58) as heavily infected with more than 100 parasites per animal. Animals grazing close to the shores of Lake Chad had a much higher risk of infection (prevalence =38%; n?=?329) than animals not feeding at the lake (n?=?353), with only one goat being positive (prevalence?=?0.28%). The ethnic group of the owner was a strong determinant for the risk of infection. Ethnic group likely served as a proxy for husbandry practices. Geospatial distribution showed that animals originating from areas close to the lake were more likely to be infected with F. gigantica than those from more distant areas. Conclusions Livestock belonging to ethnic groups which traditionally stay near surface water, and which were reported to feed near Lake Chad, have a high risk of infection with F. gigantica. Pastoralist perception of fasciolosis as a priority health problem was confirmed. Regular preventive and post-exposure treatment is recommended for animals grazing near the lake. However, further economic analysis is needed.

2014-01-01

37

[Nature of animal husbandry in the community systems and the administrative and legal status of the veterinary medical services in agroindustrial complexes].  

PubMed

A characteristic is given of the public, private, and auxiliary system of animal breeding within the structure of the community systems. Important integrational links are stated to exist between these three categories of farms. On the base of the contractual system with private animal breeding a solid trend concerning the stock production seems to be established. In connection with the new character of animal husbandry the changes that have taken place in the territorial community structure and the implementation of the system of providing the supply of meat, milk, eggs, and fish of own resources have substantiated the necessity to stabilize the administrative and juridical statute of the veterinary service on the agro-industrial complexes with a view to guaranteeing the more effective veterinary service with all categories of farms. A suggestion is made to transfer the veterinary establishments from the agro-industrial complexes to the community systems, with responsibilities and rights of their own for the entire and dependable veterinary service in aid of the community systems. PMID:3992930

Kostadinov, I; Iliev, I

1985-01-01

38

Promoting transboundary animal disease risk management via a multiple health and husbandry intervention strategies in upland Lao PDR.  

PubMed

Surveys of smallholder farmer knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) and income were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in five northern provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR; n = 200 farmers). Participating villages were classified as either from a livelihood development project (LV; n = 80 farmers) or a livestock research project that contained both 'high-intervention' (HI; n = 60 farmers) or 'low-intervention' (LI; n = 60 farmers) villages. Farmer training plus a suite of health and productivity interventions were implemented in HI sites; only vaccination was implemented in LI sites, whilst various interventions and limited vaccination were introduced to LV sites. Farmer interviews were conducted with survey questions on socioeconomic variables and KAP of large ruminant health and disease risk management, enabling determination of quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits and comparison of results from HI, LI and LV villages. The average farmer income from sales of large ruminants in HI was USD 621, in LI was USD 547 and in LV was USD 225 (p < 0.001). The predicted mean of total knowledge scores (/42) in the 2012 survey in HI was 28, in LI was 22 and in LV was 17 (p < 0.001). We conclude that improved KAP of large ruminant health and production can be achieved by intensive training, although with some farmers yet to apply their knowledge on husbandry and biosecurity practices, continued learning support and closed linkage of research and development projects to improve extension capacity is recommended. This multiple participatory approach promoting biosecurity in addition to vaccination may provide a more sustainable pathway for the advancement of Lao PDR on the Progressive Control Pathway for foot and mouth disease control. PMID:24310441

Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Rast, Luzia; Windsor, Peter A

2014-02-01

39

Photocatalytic TiO 2 coating—to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform

Marcella Guarino; Annamaria Costa; Marco Porro

2008-01-01

40

Photocatalytic TiO2 coating-to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries.  

PubMed

Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform NH3 into N2, N2O or NO and water. Field experiments aimed at determining effects on indoor air quality and NH3 and polluting gas emissions into the environment of coating pig house walls with TiO2 catalytic paint and to assess the potential efficiency of this simple painting technique as a low cost BAT technique for animal farmers. The trial was performed in two identical mechanical ventilated farrowing rooms in a swine farm in Northern Italy. Environmental parameters, ventilation rate and gas concentrations were continuously monitored in the two units throughout a 28 day production cycle. NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 average concentrations of 5.41, 1.18, 6.28 and 2109.38 mg m(-3) (reference unit without treatment) and 3.76, 1.13, 5.32 and 1881.64 mg m(-3) (experimental unit) were, respectively, recorded during a full farrowing cycle. Pollutant emissions, expressed on a Livestock Unit (LU, i.e., 500 kg live weight) basis, were 16.33, 3.57, 18.96 and 6365.01 kg y(-1)LU(-1) (reference unit) and 11.37, 3.43, 16.11 and 5695.58 kg y(-1) LU(-1) (experimental unit), respectively. Significantly higher pollutant concentrations and emissions were found in the untreated reference unit, under similar environmental conditions and with identical numbers of sows and piglets per unit. PMID:17574843

Guarino, Marcella; Costa, Annamaria; Porro, Marco

2008-05-01

41

[Ostriches--an agricultural domestic animal?].  

PubMed

Since more than 100 years ostriches have been used as farm animals in South Africa. At present there are ca. 200 000 ostriches in 350 farms. Well known have been ostrich feathers which had formerly been equally previous (around 1900) as gold. Today, however, ostrich meat and leather are much appreciated. Since more than 10 years experiments with ostriches have been also carried out in other countries of the world, mainly in hot areas e. G. Australia, USA, Israel and Italy. Maybe the African ostrich will soon also belong to the daily life of animals bred and marketed in Germany. Since 1993 ca. 30 ostrich farms (with about 500 animals) have been known in Germany and a further 100 ostrich breeders in neighbouring countries. An additional many interested persons are looking forward to earn money through sales of eggs, chicks and breeding pairs. However, not everybody is farmer, some are rather well-to-do part-time or hobby-farmers who are speculating with these exotic wild birds. Anyway, at present business with breeding stock is booming. South Africa has prohibited the export and there are only few offers over here. A mature breeding ostrich at the age of 2-3 years costs about 10 000 DM. Since the animals use to live in small family units (one cock, two hens) the start of the breeding business begins at ca. 30 000 DM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8205959

Göbbel, T

1994-03-01

42

Application of 34S analysis for elucidating terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems: Evidence of animal movement/husbandry practices in an early Viking community around Lake Mývatn, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) have been used widely in archaeology to investigate palaeodiet. Sulphur stable isotope ratios (?34S) have shown great promise in this regard but the potential of this technique within archaeological science has yet to be fully explored. Here we report ?34S, ?13C and ?15N values for 129 samples of animal bone collagen from Skútustaðir, an early Viking age (landnám) settlement in north-east Iceland. This dataset represents the most comprehensive study to date of its kind on archaeological material and the results show a clear offset in ?34S values between animals deriving their dietary resources from terrestrial (mean = +5.6 ± 2.8‰), freshwater (mean = ?2.7 ± 1.4‰) or marine (mean = +15.9 ± 1.5‰) reservoirs (with the three food groups being significantly different at 2?). This offset allows reconstruction of the dietary history of domesticated herbivores and demonstrates differences in husbandry practices and animal movement/trade, which would be otherwise impossible using only ?13C and ?15N values. For example, several terrestrial herbivores displayed enriched bone collagen ?34S values compared to the geology of the Lake Mývatn region, indicating they may have been affected by sea-spray whilst being pastured closer to the coast, before being traded inland. Additionally, the combination of heavy ?15N values coupled with light ?34S values within pig bone collagen suggests that these omnivores were consuming freshwater fish as a significant portion of their diet. Arctic foxes were also found to be consuming large quantities of freshwater resources and radiocarbon dating of both the pigs and foxes confirmed previous studies showing that a large freshwater radiocarbon (14C) reservoir effect exists within the lake. Overall, these stable isotope and 14C data have important implications for obtaining a fuller reconstruction of the diets of the early Viking settlers in Iceland, and may allow a clearer identification of the marine and/or freshwater 14C reservoir effects that are known to exist in human bone collagen.

Sayle, Kerry L.; Cook, Gordon T.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Hastie, Helen R.; Einarsson, Árni; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hicks, Megan T.; Edwald, Ágústa; Friðriksson, Adolf

2013-11-01

43

Food Animal Agriculture in 2020. One in a Series of Educational Programs Presented by the Future Trends in Animal Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this symposium is to provide the opinions of speakers regarding the status and structure of animal agriculture, primarily focused in the United States, in a short 13 years. We will look at how food animal production and processing will or s...

2007-01-01

44

Review of ammonia emission factors for United States animal agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emissions from agricultural industries are a significant source of atmospheric reactive nitrogen, which can lead to negative environmental consequences such as ecosystem change and formation of fine particulate. While a number of emission factors (EFs) have been proposed for developing ammonia emissions inventories for the US, most are based on European research with little discussion of their applicability to US production systems. Recently developed ammonia EFs from literature for animal feeding operations (AFOs), including production facilities for beef and dairy cattle, swine, and poultry, are presented. Tentative EFs for US animal agriculture are suggested until further research can be conducted. Currently, there is a dearth of EFs developed specifically for agricultural production practices in the US.

Faulkner, W. B.; Shaw, B. W.

45

Transgenic animals in biomedicine and agriculture: outlook for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic animals are produced by introduction of ‘foreign’ deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into preimplantation embryos. The foreign DNA is inserted into the genetic material and may be expressed in tissues of the resulting individual. This technique is of great importance to many aspects of biomedical science including gene regulation, the immune system, cancer research, developmental biology, biomedicine, manufacturing and agriculture. The

M. B. Wheeler; E. M. Walters; S. G. Clark

2003-01-01

46

Bioconversion of agricultural wastes into animal feed and fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work performed to date has shown the technical feasibility of the proposed process to produce both protein and carbohydrate constituents for animal feed and fuel gas from agricultural wastes. The anaerobic liquor has proven to be a good source of nutrients, supporting a cell biomass of at least 7 g\\/liter. The aerobic fermentor has been utilized sucessfully to grow

M. Moo-Young; A. R. Moreira; A. J. Daugulis; C. W. Robinson

1978-01-01

47

Poultry housing and husbandry.  

PubMed

1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency. PMID:20711899

Elson, H A

2010-08-01

48

[Biological risk prevention in agriculture and animal breeding: immunization strategies].  

PubMed

Vaccine preventable diseases are, so far, a main focus of Public Health programmes all over the world since people still die in consequence of Dyphteria or Tetanus. Biological risk is widely represented in agriculture and animal breeding, due to environmental characteristics and to injury typology. Moreover, aged people and migrants represent a significant part of the workforce. These two groups are, for instance, more exposed to Clostridium tetani infection because not fully immunized. Among infectious diseases that can affect agricultural workers, just tetanus can be well controlled by immunization programmes. Teaching and training activities are the most important tools to get protection against Leptospira interrogans, Salmonella spp and hepatitis E Virus infection. As for every training activity, linguistic and cultural barriers have to be taken into account. PMID:21438285

Colosio, C; Somaruga, C; Vellere, F; Neri, L; Rabozzi, G; Romanó, L; Tabibi, R; Brambilla, G; Baccalini, R; d'Eril, G V Melzi; Zanetti, A; Colombi, A

2010-01-01

49

Analgesia for Surgical Husbandry Procedures in Sheep and Other Livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Surgical husbandry procedures in livestock are invariably associated with pain and stress, yet are traditionally performed without analgesia. Concern for the welfare of animals undergoing these procedures is contributing to major conflicts between farmers and animal advocacy organisations with important negative trade implications. Whilst the ultimate long term solution is to breed animals that do not require these procedures,

Meredith L Sheil

50

Introductory animal science-based instruction influences attitudes on animal agriculture issues.  

PubMed

The demographics of incoming university animal science majors have shifted from students with a farm background to urban students with no history of direct livestock contact. Research completed before the Internet was a central source of information indicated that incoming urban students tend to express no opinion or a neutral opinion regarding livestock agriculture issues. Due to the changing background of incoming students enrolled in introductory university-level animal science classes, we sought to determine 1) if livestock background (self-identified as raised in a farm or urban setting), sex, or animal science career interest influenced the opinions of incoming students regarding critical issues involving livestock farming practices and 2) if 15 wk of introductory animal science instruction changed student opinions. A total of 224 students were given 2 identical anonymous surveys (start and end of 15 wk) with 5 demographic questions and 9 animal issue statements. For each statement, students marked their opinion by placing a vertical line on a continuous 130 mm horizontal line, where a vertical line placed at 0 mm = strongly agree and 130 mm = strongly disagree. Data were analyzed by ANOVA to determine any significant effects of instruction, background, sex, and future career preference on survey responses. Before instruction, urban students were less agreeable than farm students that animal farming was moral and humane and that farmers are concerned about animal welfare and livestock are of value to society (P ? 0.05). Urban students were more likely than farm students to purchase organic foods or food based on environmental/welfare standards (P ? 0.05). Introductory animal science instruction resulted in students becoming more agreeable that animal farming was humane, farmers are concerned about animal welfare, and animal agriculture is a value to society (P ? 0.05). Postinstruction, students were more likely to buy food products based on price (P ? 0.05). Males found farm practices more humane than females (P ? 0.05), but sex differences were not evident for other questions. Future professional career plans did not affect student opinions. Data showed that incoming urban students tend to be more neutral with regards to animal farming issues, and introductory animal science instruction fosters a more agreeable attitude towards animal farming practices, especially in students with urban backgrounds. PMID:24398836

Bobeck, E A; Combs, D K; Cook, M E

2014-02-01

51

Reuse of concentrated animal feeding operation wastewater on agricultural lands.  

PubMed

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. When applied to land at agronomic rates, CAFO wastewater has the potential to be a valuable fertilizer and soil amendment that can improve the physical condition of the soil for plant growth and reduce the demand for high quality water resources. However, excess amounts of nutrients, heavy metals, salts, pathogenic microorganisms, and pharmaceutically active compounds (antibiotics and hormones) in CAFO wastewater can adversely impact soil and water quality. The USEPA currently requires that application of CAFO wastes to agricultural lands follow an approved nutrient management plan (NMP). A NMP is a design document that sets rates for waste application to meet the water and nutrient requirements of the selected crops and soil types, and is typically written so as to be protective of surface water resources. The tacit assumption is that a well-designed and executed NMP ensures that all lagoon water contaminants are taken up or degraded in the root zone, so that ground water is inherently protected. The validity of this assumption for all lagoon water contaminants has not yet been thoroughly studied. This review paper discusses our current level of understanding on the environmental impact and sustainability of CAFO wastewater reuse. Specifically, we address the source, composition, application practices, environmental issues, transport pathways, and potential treatments that are associated with the reuse of CAFO wastewater on agricultural lands. PMID:18765783

Bradford, Scott A; Segal, Eran; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Qiquan; Hutchins, Stephen R

2008-01-01

52

Register of Inventions Published in the USSR (1896-June 1963) Class 45. Agriculture, Including Forestry. Animal Husbandry. Hunting and Animal Trapping. Fish Breeding and Fishery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Soil cultivation; Planting, sowing, fertilizing; Harvesting; New plants; Processing of harvested produce; Culture of vegetables, flowers, fruit, vines and hops; Forestry; Watering; Spraying; Manufacture of dairy products (mechanical part); Breed...

1968-01-01

53

Governmental policies and measures regulating nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure in European agriculture1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses governmental pol- icies and measures that regulate the use of animal ma- nure in the European Union (EU-15). Systematic inter- vention by governments with European agriculture in general started at the end of the 19th century. Major changes in governmental policies on agriculture fol- lowed after the establishment of the EU and its Com- mon Agricultural Policy

O. Oenema

2004-01-01

54

Governmental policies and measures regulating nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure in European Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses governmental policies and measures that regulate the use of animal manure in the European Union (EU-15). Systematic intervention by governments with European agriculture in general started at the end of the 19th century. Major changes in governmental policies on agriculture followed after the establishment of the EU and its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 1957. Environmental side

O. Oenema

2005-01-01

55

A Comparative Study of Reproductive Performance in Organic and Conventional Dairy Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative cohort study of reproductive perfor- mance in organic and conventional dairy husbandry was conducted using longitudinal data from the Norwe- gian National Board of Animal Production Recording from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1996. The pres- ent study is the first study comparing reproductive effi- ciency in organic and conventional husbandry in which characteristics such as herd

O. Reksen; A. Tverdal; E. Ropstad

1999-01-01

56

We and they: Animal welfare in the era of advanced agricultural biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses central moral issues raised by the applications of advanced biotechnology to animal agriculture and introduces the major ethical concepts and principles of animal bioethics. It is argued that biotechnology enables human beings to transform animals according to human needs, which blurs the boundary between humans and non-human animals in moral and biological sense. The more humans change

A. K. Pascalev

2006-01-01

57

Complexities of nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry in plant-soil systems: implications for the study of ancient agricultural and animal management practices  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen isotopic studies have the potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1) agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage) and (2) animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens). The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts.

Szpak, Paul

2014-01-01

58

Complexities of nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry in plant-soil systems: implications for the study of ancient agricultural and animal management practices.  

PubMed

Nitrogen isotopic studies have the potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1) agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage) and (2) animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens). The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts. PMID:25002865

Szpak, Paul

2014-01-01

59

Animal Health, Livestock and Pets: 1984 Yearbook of Agriculture,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Animal health: Our roles in achieving it; Barring the door to foreign diseases; Backyard poultry and pet birds; Dairy and beef cattle; Sheep and goats; Keeping fish healthy; Dogs and cats; Rabbits and other small animals; Horses.

J. Hayes

1984-01-01

60

Water Quality Signal of Animal Agriculture at USGS Monitoring Stations is Related to Animal Confinement and/or Farm Size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US animal agriculture has undergone major structural changes over the past two decades, with the total number of livestock producers declining dramatically and the average size of the remaining operations increasing substantially. The result has been a pronounced trend towards greater spatial concentration and confinement of livestock. The change raises important questions about the water quality effects of animal agriculture in regions where livestock waste production has become more intensive but recovery, handling, and application of animal wastes to cropland more systematized. In previous research, we developed three separate national-level SPARROW models of surface water contaminants (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria). Based on USGS monitoring and ancillary data from more than 400 US stream and river basins, the models include point and nonpoint sources of contaminants, land-to-water transport factors, and in-stream loss processes; parameter estimation is by non-linear regression. In this study we report on a pattern in the statistical results for the three models: The source coefficients (quantity of contaminant delivered to streams per unit of contaminant input) for unconfined animals are consistently larger and more statistically significant than those for confined animals. The implicit meaning is that something associated with waste management on large farms and/or animal confinement (e.g. retention period, recovery of manure for application to crops and subsequent crop uptake, and/or better waste treatment) reduces the average water quality signal of this scale of animal agriculture (per unit of manure input) to barely detectable at downstream monitoring stations, while the water quality signal from unconfined animal agriculture is more clear. The county-level data for confined and unconfined manure inputs (defined primarily by farm size) are from the USDA, and are spatially distributed in the model GIS by 1-km land use data. To date, our analytical probing of the results has not identified a viable alternative to the implicit conclusion.

Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

2007-12-01

61

Revising and Updating the Animal Science Components of the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use in teaching Connecticut's revised animal science curriculum at regional vocational agriculture centers. Like its predecessor, this curriculum includes exploratory (intended for grades 9 and 10) and specialized (intended for grades 11 and 12) animal science units and is based on the following major areas of…

Mannebach, Alfred J.; And Others

62

Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation Wastewater on Agricultural Lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. When applied to land at agronomic rates, CAFO wastewater has the potential to be a valuable fertilizer and soil amendment that can improve the physical condition of the soil for plant growth and reduce the demand for high quality water resources. However, excess amounts

Scott A. Bradford; Eran Segal; Wei Zheng; Qiquan Wang; Stephen R. Hutchins

2008-01-01

63

Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

64

Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water.

Pandey, Pramod K.; Soupir, Michelle L.; Ikenberry, Charles

2014-03-01

65

Enhanced Use of Feed and Manure Nutrients in Animal Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-farm nutrient balances and animal:cropland ratios are used to asses overall pollution risks of livestock farms. These whole-farm indicators cannot address, however, how nutrient management in one production component (e.g., feed) may affect nutrient cycling in other production components (e.g., soils and crops) and the relative impact of each component's management on the environment. Many livestock operations rely on inexpensive

J. Mark Powell

66

Microencapsulation and testing of the agricultural animal repellent, Daphne.  

PubMed

The microencapsulated animal repellent Daphne was prepared by in situ polymerization of melamine-formaldehyde prepolymer with styrene-maleic acid anhydride copolymer as a modifying agent. Pure Daphne (a mixture of essential oils and other volatile compounds) and Daphne (45 wt%) diluted with isopropylmyristate (55 wt%) were used as core materials. Three types of formulations were prepared: (1) aqueous suspension concentrates, to be diluted for spraying, (2) thickened pastes with microcapsules for coating tree bark, and (3) textile, paper and metal strips, coated or impregnated with microcapsules. In field testing, all formulations with microcapsules showed a prolonged effect in comparison with non-encapsulated Daphne. The repelling effect on animals was stronger in summer and weaker in winter, when the pressure of the animals was much more intense, and diffusion of repellent from the microcapsules was reduced due to low temperatures. However, pastes for the bark and non-woven textile strips impregnated with microencapsulated Daphne showed good repelling effect against deer and rabbits in the winter period. PMID:10080111

Boh, B; Kosir, I; Knez, E; Kukovic, M; Skerlavaj, V; Skvarc, A

1999-01-01

67

The use of viral vectors in introducing genes into agricultural animal species.  

PubMed

The use of viral vectors is a method for introducing foreign genes into various animal species. Vectors based on retro-, adeno-, flavi-, and parvoviruses have been used for research in animal species of agricultural importance, such as chickens, quail, swine, cows, goats, sheep, fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. Viral vectors allow for efficient transgenic integration into host genome or for transient expression of the transgenic construct in somatic tissues. Because of that, viral vectors are important tools for research and potentially other biotechnology applications such as improving animal production qualities and introducing disease resistance, thus improving food quality and safety. Other uses may include generating animal models of human diseases and using animals as bioreactors for production of therapeutic proteins. Each vector type provides a unique set of advantages and limitations, which are in some cases specific to an animal species or a method of introduction. This article discusses viral vector characteristics and potential applications in agriculturally important animal species. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of using viral vectors in genetic engineering of agricultural animals. PMID:19937496

Modric, Tomislav; Mergia, Ayalew

2009-01-01

68

Attitudes to Farm Animal Welfare: Factor Structure and Personality Correlates in Farmers and Agriculture Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the there is considerable public interest in farm animal welfare, relatively little work has been done on the welfare attitudes of farmers. We describe the development of a welfare attitude scale, the EFAWS. The factor structure and correlates of this scale were examined in Scottish pig and sheep farmers, and in agriculture students. The EFAWS was found to have

Elizabeth J. Austin; Ian J. Deary; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Dale Arey

2005-01-01

69

Attitudes to Farm Animal Welfare Factor Structure and Personality Correlates in Farmers and Agriculture Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the there is considerable public interest in farm animal welfare, relatively little work has been done on the welfare attitudes of farmers. We describe the development of a welfare attitude scale, the EFAWS. The factor structure and correlates of this scale were examined in Scottish pig and sheep farmers, and in agriculture students. The EFAWS was found to have

Elizabeth J. Austin; Ian J. Deary; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Dale Arey

70

Selected examples of dispersal of arthropods associated with agricultural crop and animal production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic importance of arthropods in agricultural production systems and the possibilities of using dispersal behavior to develop and manipulate control are examined. Examples of long and short distance dispersal of economic insect pests and beneficial species from cool season host reservoirs and overwintering sites are presented. Significant dispersal of these species often occurring during crop and animal production is discussed.

Henneberry, T. J.

1979-01-01

71

Primitive agriculture in a social amoeba.  

PubMed

Agriculture has been a large part of the ecological success of humans. A handful of animals, notably the fungus-growing ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, have advanced agriculture that involves dispersal and seeding of food propagules, cultivation of the crop and sustainable harvesting. More primitive examples, which could be called husbandry because they involve fewer adaptations, include marine snails farming intertidal fungi and damselfish farming algae. Recent work has shown that microorganisms are surprisingly like animals in having sophisticated behaviours such as cooperation, communication and recognition, as well as many kinds of symbiosis. Here we show that the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a primitive farming symbiosis that includes dispersal and prudent harvesting of the crop. About one-third of wild-collected clones engage in husbandry of bacteria. Instead of consuming all bacteria in their patch, they stop feeding early and incorporate bacteria into their fruiting bodies. They then carry bacteria during spore dispersal and can seed a new food crop, which is a major advantage if edible bacteria are lacking at the new site. However, if they arrive at sites already containing appropriate bacteria, the costs of early feeding cessation are not compensated for, which may account for the dichotomous nature of this farming symbiosis. The striking convergent evolution between bacterial husbandry in social amoebas and fungus farming in social insects makes sense because multigenerational benefits of farming go to already established kin groups. PMID:21248849

Brock, Debra A; Douglas, Tracy E; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

2011-01-20

72

Investigation of agricultural and animal wastes in Greece and their allocation to potential application for energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural and animal wastes constitute a high proportion of biomass in Greece, and are able to play an important role towards the satisfaction of heat and\\/or energy and related material supply, with respect to the environmental protection targets. This paper describes pyrolysis, gasification and combustion, as a potential agricultural and animal waste exploitation method, and presents a comparison between those

V. Skoulou; A. Zabaniotou

2007-01-01

73

Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance in an animal-based agriculture river system.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance within an animal-based agriculture river system. The study area consisted of a 1,345 ha upper part of Pinhal catchment. A total of 384 samples were collected in four years of monitoring. Salmonella was isolated from 241 samples (62.7%), resulting in 324 isolates. The highest number of Salmonella sp. occurred in samples associated with sites with high stoking density animal unit per hectare. It was possible to demonstrate the variability of serovars in the study area: 30 different serovars were found and at least 11 per monitoring site. Thirty-three potentially related isolates were genotyped by PFGE, one major clone was observed in serovar Typhimurium, which occurred in animal feces (swine and bovine), and different sites and samplings proving the cross-contamination and persistence of this specific clone. Among 180 isolates submitted to an antimicrobial susceptibility test, 50.5% were susceptible to all 21 antimicrobials tested and 54 different profiles were found. In the current study, 49.5% of the tested isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and multi-resistance occurred in 18% of isolates. Results indicate a close interaction between animal-based agriculture, Salmonella, and antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24317171

Palhares, Julio Cesar Pascale; Kich, Jalusa D; Bessa, Marjo C; Biesus, Luiza L; Berno, Lais G; Triques, Nelise J

2014-02-15

74

An Unremembered Diversity: Mixed Husbandry and the American Grasslands  

PubMed Central

The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought about a dramatic rise in global crop yields. But, as most observers acknowledge, this has come at a considerable cost to biodiversity. Plant breeding, synthetic fertilizers, and mechanization steadily narrowed the number of crop varieties commercially available to farmers and promoted fencerow-to-fencerow monocultures. Many historians trace the origins of this style of industrialized agriculture to the last great plow-up of the Great Plains in the 1920s. In the literature, farms in the plains are often described metaphorically as wheat factories, degrading successive landscapes. While in many ways these farms were a departure from earlier forms of husbandry in the American experience, monocultures were quite rare during the early transformation of the plains. Analysis of a large representative sample, based on manuscript agricultural censuses and involving twenty-five townships across the state of Kansas, demonstrates that diverse production reached even the most challenging of plains landscapes.

SYLVESTER, KENNETH; CUNFER, GEOFF

2009-01-01

75

Role of Land Holding Patterns for Adoption of Dairy Husbandry Practices in Rural Areas of Bareilly District in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bhushan, B., Singh, S. K., Umang, Agrawal, N., Dutt, T., Kumar, P., Sharma, A. and Ahlawat, S.P.S. 2008. Role of land holding patterns for adoption of dairy husbandry practices in rural areas of Bareilly district in India. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 34: 185–188.To find out the effect of various land holdings on dairy husbandry practices, door-to-door survey was conducted to

Bharat Bhushan; S. K. Singh; Umang; Nidhi Agrawal; Triveni Dutt; Pushpendra Kumar; Arjava Sharma; S. P. S. Ahlawat

2008-01-01

76

Life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases associated with burning animal wastes in countries of the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning animal wastes for the production of electricity is stimulated in the European Union because of the ‘climate neutrality’ of its life cycle. In doing so fossil fuel inputs in animal husbandry and the N2O and CH4 emissions associated with animal husbandry are neglected. Here types of relatively fossil fuel efficient animal husbandry in the European Union are analysed without

L. Reijnders; M. A. J. Huijbregts

2005-01-01

77

GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations  

PubMed Central

In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away from a GE evaluation process that currently focuses only on risk assessment and identifying ever diminishing marginal hazards, to a regulatory approach that more objectively evaluates and communicates the likely impact of approving a new GE plant or animal on agricultural production systems.

2013-01-01

78

GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations.  

PubMed

In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away from a GE evaluation process that currently focuses only on risk assessment and identifying ever diminishing marginal hazards, to a regulatory approach that more objectively evaluates and communicates the likely impact of approving a new GE plant or animal on agricultural production systems. PMID:24066781

Van Eenennaam, Alison L

2013-01-01

79

Seahorse behaviour and aquaculture: How to improve Hippocampus guttulatus husbandry and reproduction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, aquaculture development has been based on the use of new tools and technologies from different scientific areas. Animal behaviour can also constitute a useful tool for aquaculture and contribute to the improvement of rearing protocols. In this study, a behavioural approach was developed for the long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) culture, in order to improve broodstock husbandry and

Filipa Faleiro; Luís Narciso; Luís Vicente

2008-01-01

80

Animal production and wheeze in the Agricultural Health Study: interactions with atopy, asthma, and smoking  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the role of animal exposures and wheeze, and to assess whether their impact differs among susceptible subgroups, including atopics, asthmatics, and smokers. Methods: Using the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina enrolled in 1994–97, wheeze associated with animal production was evaluated and interactions among susceptible subgroups assessed. Logistic regression models were used to examine risk factors for wheeze in the past year among 20 468 farmers. Results: Individuals raising animals requiring direct contact had the highest odds ratios (OR) for wheeze (ORdairy = 1.26; OReggs = 1.70). A significant dose response was observed for both the number of poultry and the number of livestock on the farm. Farmers who performed veterinary procedures on a daily basis had an OR of 1.51. The odds of wheeze associated with poultry production was greater among atopic than non-atopic individuals. Milking cows daily increased the odds of wheeze in all individuals, with the largest association observed among atopic asthmatic individuals. The impact of dairy, poultry, and egg production varied among smoking groups. Past smokers had the highest odds ratios, followed by never smokers, and then current smokers. The OReggs was 2.88 among past smokers but only 1.46 for never smokers. The OReggs for current smokers of 0.80 might reflect self selection of exposure among smokers. Conclusions: Results are consistent with animal production and respiratory symptoms, and suggest that subgroups may respond differently to exposure.

Hoppin, J; Umbach, D; London, S; Alavanja, M; Sandler, D

2003-01-01

81

Development of husbandry practices for the captive breeding of Key Largo woodrats (Neotoma floridana smalli).  

PubMed

The Key Largo woodrat is an endangered rodent endemic to the island of Key Largo in the Florida Keys. After several reports documented a steep decline in the population, the US Fish and Wildlife Service developed a recovery plan, including captive breeding and reintroduction. Captive breeding efforts were to be focused on providing animals for future reintroduction to protected areas on Key Largo. However, little was known about the husbandry needs or reproductive behavior of this elusive nocturnal species. In 2005, Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) received 11 animals and began to systematically investigate methods of breeding Key Largo woodrats. Since the program's inception, 30 pups have been born and successfully parent reared. In this report, we describe some of the husbandry techniques that have contributed to the success of the Key Largo woodrat captive breeding program at Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) . The results obtained may be of use to other facilities maintaining woodrats and other rodent species. PMID:20853415

Alligood, Christina A; Daneault, Andre J; Carlson, Robert C; Dillenbeck, Thomas; Wheaton, Catharine J; Savage, Anne

2011-01-01

82

Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater

Serena Ciparis; Luke R. Iwanowicz; J. Reese Voshell

83

Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

2010-01-01

84

Nebraska Vocational Agribusiness Curriculum Guide for City Schools. Agricultural Processing. Companion Animals. A Curriculum Guide. 11th Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use with high school juniors, this agribusiness curriculum for city schools contains twenty-four units of instruction in the areas of agricultural processing and companion animals. Among the units included in the curriculum are (1) The Meat Processing Industry, (2) Retail Cuts of Meat, (3) Buying Meat and Portion Control, (4) Dairy…

Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

85

THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

86

Selected veterinary pharmaceuticals in agricultural water and soil from land application of animal manure.  

PubMed

Veterinary pharmaceuticals are commonly administered to animals for disease control, and added into feeds at subtherapeutic levels to improve feeding efficiency. As a result of these practices, a certain fraction of the pharmaceuticals are excreted into animal manures. Land application of these manures contaminates soils with the veterinary pharmaceuticals, which can subsequently lead to contamination of surface and groundwaters. Information on the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in soil and water is needed to assess the potential for exposure of at-risk populations and the impacts on agricultural ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and fate of four commonly used veterinary pharmaceuticals (amprolium, carbadox, monensin, and tylosin) in a farm in Michigan. Amprolium and monensin were frequently detected in nearby surface water, with concentrations ranging from several to hundreds of nanograms per liter, whereas tylosin or carbadox was rarely found. These pharmaceuticals were more frequently detected in surface runoff during nongrowing season (October to April) than during growing season (May to September). Pharmaceuticals resulting from postharvest manure application appeared to be more persistent than those from spring application. High concentrations of pharmaceuticals in soils were generally observed at the sites where the respective concentrations in surface water were also high. For monensin, the ratios of soil-sorbed to aqueous concentrations obtained from field samples were within the order of the distribution coefficients obtained from laboratory studies. These results suggest that soil is a reservoir for veterinary pharmaceuticals that can be disseminated to nearby surface water via desorption from soil, surface runoff, and soil erosion. PMID:20830908

Song, Wenlu; Ding, Yunjie; Chiou, Cary T; Li, Hui

2010-01-01

87

[Preliminary discussion on the current over-population in agriculture in China].  

PubMed

The population devoted to agriculture constitutes more than 80% of China's total population. This high percentage is not very common in today's world. In the last 30 years, the population devoted to agriculture has increased by 81.9%, but the area of arable land has decreased in the same period of time. This situation has created problems, such as a surplus of agricultural labor, an imbalance between the agricultural population growth and agricultural means of production, a serious contradiction between the agricultural population growth and mechanization of agriculture, an imbalance between the agricultural population growth and means of livelihood, and the current low standard of living for populations engaged in agricultural work. In order to solve the problems of overpopulation, various measures must be taken in different places. The economic structure of agriculture is to be reasonably arranged, and various operations in agriculture are to be carried out. In addition to the production of main agricultural crops, forestry, animal husbandry, the fishing industry, and family supplementary income are to be developed in order to provide more job opportunities. Communes and production teams should emphasize labor intensive plans for more profit with less investment. Agriculture should focus on intensive farming in order to increase productivity. Arable land can be expanded with reclamation projects, and water and soil conservation is necessary. The surplus agricultural population should be utilized for productive activities. PMID:12339505

Yang, L

1982-09-29

88

Integrated Use of GLEAMS and GIS to Prevent Groundwater Pollution Caused by Agricultural Disposal of Animal Waste  

PubMed

/ In modern intensive animal farming the disposal of a large amount of waste is of great concern, as, if not properly performed, it can cause the pollution of water, mainly because of the high content of nitrate and phosphate. This paper presents the results of a study intended to assess the environmental sustainability of animal waste disposal on agricultural soils in the alluvial plain of the River Chiana (Tuscany, Italy), a particularly sensitive area because of the high vulnerability of the shallow aquifer and of the intensive agricultural and breeding activities. With this aim, a strategy has been employed, that consists of the integrated use of a management model and GISs. The consequences on groundwater of applying animal waste to different kind of soils and crop arrangements have been simulated by means of the management model GLEAMS (Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems, ver 2.01). As the huge amount of data required by such a sophisticated model does not allow applications at a scale larger than the field size, IDRISI and GRASS GIS packages have been used to divide the study area into land units, with homogeneous environmental characteristics, and then to generalize on these units the outputs of the model. The main conclusions can be synthesized as follows: The amount of animal waste produced in some of the investigated areas (i.e., municipal territory) is greater than that disposable on their own agricultural soil with no risks to the groundwater; consequently a cooperative approach among municipalities is necessary in order to plan waste disposal in a comprehensive and centralized way.KEY WORDS: Land use; Animal waste disposal; Groundwater protection; GIS, Management models PMID:9680542

Garnier; Lo Porto A; Marini; Leone

1998-09-01

89

Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria  

PubMed Central

Microbial Resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, in part because of inappropriate use of antibiotics in human medicine but also because of practices in the agricultural industry. Intensive animal production involves giving livestock animals large quantities of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent infection. These uses promote the selection of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. The resistant bacteria from agricultural environments may be transmitted to humans, in whom they cause disease that cannot be treated by conventional antibiotics. The author reviews trends in antibiotic use in animal husbandry and agriculture in general. The development of resistance is described, along with the genetic mechanisms that create resistance and facilitate its spread among bacterial species. Particular aspects of resistance in bacterial species common to both the human population and the agrifood industry are emphasized. Control measures that might reverse the current trends are highlighted.

Khachatourians, G G

1998-01-01

90

Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24% in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide.

El-Maghraby, Somia; Nawwar, Galal A; Bakr, Reda FA; Helmy, Nadia; Kamel, Omnia MHM

2012-01-01

91

Phototransformation rates and mechanisms for synthetic hormone growth promoters used in animal agriculture.  

PubMed

Trenbolone acetate, melengestrol acetate, and zeranol are synthetic hormones extensively used as growth promoters in animal agriculture, yet despite occurrence in water and soil little is known about their environmental fate. Here, we establish the time scales and mechanisms by which these synthetic growth promoters and their metabolites (SGPMs) undergo phototransformation in sunlit surface waters. The families of trenbolone acetate (including 17?-trenbolone, 17?-trenbolone, and trendione) and melengestrol acetate (including melengestrol) readily undergo direct photolysis, exhibiting half-lives between ?0.25 and 1 h in both natural and simulated sunlight that were largely insensitive to solution variables (e.g., pH, temperature, and cosolutes). Direct photolysis yielded products that not only are more photostable but also maintain their steroidal ring structure and therefore may retain some biological activity. In contrast, zeranol, ?-zearalanol, and zearalanone only exhibited reactivity in irradiated solutions of model humic and fulvic acids, and rates of indirect photolysis increased steadily from pH 7 to 9. Use of selective probe and quencher compounds suggest hydroxyl radical and triplet state dissolved organic matter are responsible for zeranol family decay at neutral pH, although singlet oxygen contributes modestly in more alkaline waters. This observed pH-dependence appears to result from photooxidants reacting primarily with the monodeprotonated form of zeranol (pK(a) values of 8.44 and 11.42). This investigation provides the first characterization of the fate of this emerging pollutant class in sunlit surface waters and prioritizes future efforts on the identity, fate, and biological impact of their more persistent phototransformation products. PMID:23163486

Qu, Shen; Kolodziej, Edward P; Cwiertny, David M

2012-12-18

92

The role of councils on animal ethics in assessing acceptable welfare standards in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way production animals are treated is a matter of public concern, and public opinion is often a driving force to introduce new animal welfare legislation. In Norway, a Council on Animal Ethics has been appointed by the authorities since 1993. The composition of the council is broad and it encounters both lay people and experts. The council is independent

C. M. Mejdell

2006-01-01

93

North American halophytes: Potential use in animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a North America is rich in halophyte plants with over 200 distinct species occurring in coastal and inland regions. They are\\u000a not a single taxonomic group but represent many different taxa and growth forms. Emphasis has shifted from studying halophyte\\u000a ecology and physiology to a serious attempt to utilize them in farming systems. Promising results have been obtained from\\u000a preliminary studies

E. P. Glenn; J. J. Riley; R. S. Swingle; C. U. Mota; M. C. Watson; V. R. Squires

94

Towards sustainable management of rodents in organic animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production chain from health hazards to livestock and humans. Some organic farmers prefer biological rodent

B. G. Meerburg; M. Bonde; F. W. A. Brom; S. Endepols; A. N. Jensen; H. Leirs; J. Lodal; G. R. Singleton; H.-J. Pelz; T. B. Rodenburg; A. Kijlstra

2004-01-01

95

Towards sustainable management of rodents in organic animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production chain from health hazards to livestock and humans. Some organic farmers prefer biological rodent

B. G. Meerburg; M. Bonde; F. W. A. Brom; S. Endepols; A. N. Jensen; H. Leirs; J. Lodal; G. R. Singleton; H.-J. Pelz; T. B. Rodenburg; A. Kijlstra

2005-01-01

96

John Buckley, Animal Technician  

Cancer.gov

John Buckley is an animal technician who provides murine expertise to the entire Pediatric Oncology Branch. John is well versed in the breeding and husbandry of mice as well as a variety of surgical techniques. John’s expertise and teaching serves as a vital resource for the conduct of animal studies in the Immunology Section.

97

Traditional llama husbandry and breeding management in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia.  

PubMed

The llama claims the largest population of the domestic South American camelids, most of which are raised in Bolivia. More than 53,000 rural families are dedicated to llama husbandry as part of their livelihood strategy. Contemporary Andean societies deliberately select animals for specific traits and employ substantial livestock management to secure subsistence. This study presents traditional llama husbandry and breeding management activities in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia. Traditional selection traits for male and female llamas are documented and assessed by a ranking and a ratio-scaled evaluation. Husbandry and management parameters are in concordance with other studies conducted in the region, but show a high variation. Average llama herd sizes are rather small (mu = 45.6). In some herds, breeding males are utilized for a long time and mix with other herds, causing concerns about inbreeding. Preferred trait groups for llama males according to farmers' responses were body conformation, fibre, testicle conformation, fleece colour and height at withers. Traditional selection criteria generally relate to the phenotype, but also include the commercially interesting fibre trait. The presented results should be considered in breeding and management programmes for the respective llama population to ensure sustainable use of this genetically and culturally valuable resource. PMID:19544004

Markemann, A; Valle Zárate, A

2010-01-01

98

Effects of Structural Changes in US Animal Agriculture on Fecal Bacterial Contamination of Streams: Comparison of Confined and Unconfined Livestock Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US animal agriculture has undergone major structural changes over the past two decades. Although the total size of the national livestock population (when measured in animal units) has remained relatively unchanged over the period, the number of livestock producers has declined dramatically, and the average size of the remaining operations has increased substantially. A related change has been a pronounced trend towards greater confinement and spatial concentration of farm animals. These changes raise important questions about the water quality effects of animal agriculture. Fewer, larger operations and increased animal confinement might be expected to spatially focus the discharge of manure-related contaminants and result in a smaller number of more heavily impacted watersheds in high production areas. But at a less simplistic level, assessing the overall national effects of the restructuring of animal agriculture requires a spatially detailed analysis covering a wide range of watershed scales. In this study, we use an empirical (SPARROW) model of fluvial fecal coliform bacteria loads to compare the effects of confined and unconfined farm animal populations on levels of fecal contamination in US streams and rivers. The model was calibrated with monitoring data from 341 stream and river monitoring stations distributed among the nation's 48 conterminous states. Bacteria monitoring records cover the period 1978 to 1995. The model accounts for six categories of fecal coliform sources: municipal point sources, urban runoff, forest land, shrublands/wetlands, confined animal agriculture, and unconfined animal agriculture. Bacterial inputs from agricultural sources for the study period are based on data from the Agricultural Statistics Service and the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Model output (fecal coliform loads and concentrations) is produced for 62,000 stream locations.

Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

2004-12-01

99

Selected Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in Agricultural Water and Soil from Land Application of Animal Manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary pharmaceuticals are commonly administered to animals for disease control, and added into feeds at subtherapeutic levels to improve feeding effi ciency. As a result of these practices, a certain fraction of the pharmaceuticals are excreted into animal manures. Land application of these manures contaminates soils with the veterinary pharmaceuticals, which can subsequently lead to contamination of surface and groundwaters.

Wenlu Song; Yunjie Ding; Cary T. Chiou; Hui Li

2010-01-01

100

Manure in the Bay: A Report on Industrial Animal Agriculture in Maryland and Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a substantive and detailed look at the concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and other animal feeding operations (AFO) programs in Maryland and Pennsylvania, as well as a general overview of the federal CAFO program. The information in this report was gathered through publicly available resources as well as a series of interviews with agency officials and other

Rena I. Steinzor; Yee Huang

2012-01-01

101

Selected References and Aids for Teaching Animal Science to Students of Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resource guide for animal science education is divided into six subject areas: general animal science, beef, dairy, poultry, sheep, and swine. Within each of these areas, the guide provides bibliographic and availability data for relevant materials in the following forms: bulletins and circulars; textbooks; films, filmstrips, and slides; and…

Miller, Larry E.

102

NATURAL ZEOLITES - REMEDY FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal and use of animal manures are major concerns of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) worldwide. Concerns are both environmental and economic: environmental because of noxious odors from ammonia volatilization, leaching of nitrates into ground and surface waters, and excessive amount of heavy metals in the manure; economic because of disposal costs, compliance of envi- ronmental regulations, and the

J. Krason; C. F. Knud-Hansen

103

Vulnerability of European reindeer husbandry to global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reindeer husbandry represents a major land use in the Barents region, and has been predicted to be adversely affected by climate\\u000a change. This paper considers the likely response of reindeer husbandry to changes both in climate and in socio-economic circumstances\\u000a in the four countries of the Barents region from 1990 to 2080. Key natural factors include vegetation distribution, and a

W. G. Rees; F. M. Stammler; F. S. Danks; P. Vitebsky

2008-01-01

104

Issues and special features of animal health research  

PubMed Central

In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

2011-01-01

105

Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty  

PubMed Central

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future.

Devendra, C.

2012-01-01

106

Changes in biogas production due to different ratios of some animal and agricultural wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogas production and some biochemical parameters of anaerobic fermentation at 30°C for 40 days were studied for eight experimental groups of fermentation media, as affected by two factors: (1) the type of the animal waste (sheep waste, S and goat waste, G), and (2) the ratio of waste to olive cake which constitutes four levels (100:0 for S1 and

M. R Al-Masri

2001-01-01

107

Current and Projected Modes of Delivery of Veterinary Medical Services to Animal Agriculture: Diagnostic Laboratory Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The veterinary diagnostic laboratory's prime role has been diagnosis and/or laboratory findings to assist a diagnosis. Interpretation and evaluation and more involvement with decision-making in monitoring groups of animals and their health status are seen as future roles for diagnostic laboratories. (MLW)

Seaton, Vaughn A.

1980-01-01

108

Reinventing Regulation of Agriculture: Alternative Performance Standards for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) are point sources of pollution and require Clean Water Act permits. The 2003 regulations allow Large CAFOs to propose alternative performance standards (APS) that offer equivalent or better environmental performance than the baseline technology. Principal obstacles to APS success include the complexities of demonstrating superior performance, cost uncertainties for obtaining approval, CAFO risks of participation,

James W. Pease; Darrell J. Bosch

2004-01-01

109

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

110

A survey of husbandry practices for lorisid primates in North American zoos and related facilities.  

PubMed

Zoos and related facilities in North America currently manage five species in the primate family Lorisidae: the greater (Nycticebus coucang), Bengal (N. bengalensis) and pygmy (N. pygmaeus) slow lorises, red slender loris (Loris tardigradus), and potto (Perodicticus potto). We used an online survey to describe institutional housing and husbandry practices for these species and assess the extent to which practices are consistent with established guidelines. Our results show that most captive lorisids are housed solitarily or in pairs. Most individuals occupy a single exhibit space in a building dedicated to nocturnal animals. Facilities are commonly meeting recommendations for abiotic exhibit design and are providing animals with an enriched environment. However, pottos and slender lorises currently occupy exhibit spaces smaller than the recommended minimum, and the impact of cleaning protocols on olfactory communication should be critically evaluated. Few facilities are taking advantage of the benefits of positive reinforcement training for promoting animal welfare. Research is greatly needed on the effects of exhibit lighting on behavior, health, and reproduction; and to determine how best to manage the social needs of lorisids with naturally dispersed social structures. Although captive populations of slender lorises, pottos, and slow lorises are declining, we suggest that improved husbandry knowledge has the potential to positively influence population sustainability and to enhance future efforts to manage the growing pygmy loris population. PMID:23161761

Fuller, Grace; Kuhar, Christopher W; Dennis, Patricia M; Lukas, Kristen E

2013-01-01

111

Refinement of the use of non-human primates in scientific research. Part II: housing, husbandry and acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to safeguard the welfare of laboratory-housed non-human primates, refinement techniques should be applied to every aspect of the life of animals used in the laboratory, from birth to death, with the aim of both minimising harm and maximising well-being. In this second part of a three-part review we summarise published information on housing and husbandry practices, and describe

AE Rennie; HM Buchanan-Smith

112

Conservation and management of animal genetic resources in agriculture: a challenge for German development cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although farm-animal biodiversity (FAB) played a role already in the Transfer-of- Technology phase of development cooperation and although the importance of local adaptation to the natural and economic environment is increasingly recognised, a generally accepted operational concept of FAB is still lacking. This is being sought through a recent GTZ project on agro-biodiversity. Necessary elements for a concept include avoiding

Wolfgang Bayer; Annette von Lossau

113

Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17?-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 ?g/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

2012-01-01

114

Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO 4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17??-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000??g/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R 2=0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R 2=0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO 4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R 2=0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO 4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO 4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ciparis, S.; Iwanowicz, L. R.; Voshell, J. R.

2012-01-01

115

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

116

Nutrition and husbandry of callitrichids (marmosets and tamarins).  

PubMed

Proper care of callitrichids (marmosets and tamarins) requires a thorough understanding of the natural history, nutritional requirements, and husbandry requirements of these small delicate monkeys. This article provides information to formulate appropriate diets, to bottle-feed a rejected infant, to learn normal behaviors, to give an overview of nutritionally related diseases and treatments, provide information about husbandry, and to provide an overview of infectious diseases. Veterinarians will be better able to assist callitrichid owners in their proper care with the information provided in this article. PMID:11228694

Wissman, M A

1999-01-01

117

Animator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

Tech Directions, 2008

2008-01-01

118

Environmental contamination of chromium in agricultural and animal products near a chromate industry  

SciTech Connect

India is one of the largest leather exporting countries. Accordingly the important raw material required for leather tanning, namely sodium dichromate production, has also been boosted in some states of India. Investigations on irrigation reservoirs, irrigation wells and soil revealed high level contamination of chromium. There was no effluent treatment plant installed and effluents stored in earthen lagoons without cement lining caused contamination of underground aquafers. There is little information on the biomagnification and movement of toxic chromate compounds from the contaminated soil and water resources into the components of the foodchain which might ultimately reach humans. Hence an analysis of chromium was carried out in some commercial plants cultivated in these areas and also in some animal products and foods like milk and fishes.

Khasim, D.I. (Research Centre of Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Kakinada (India)); Kumar, N.V.N.; Hussain, R.C. (Sri Venkateswara Univ., Tirupati (India))

1989-11-01

119

[Recommendations for the husbandry and welfare of sheep and goats by the German Small Ruminant Veterinary Association. Part 1].  

PubMed

Recommendations for the different forms of sheep and goat husbandry based on the legal regulations are summarized. These are given in particular respect to transhumance, tending, alpine farming, and indoor housing. The requirements for pasture, housing, supply of water and food, lambing, rearing of lambs, and health management are intensively discussed. The general requirements of the extensive as well as of the intensive husbandry of sheep and goats are defined. Examples of species-specific capabilities for adaption, the limits of adaption, and signs of decompensation are provided. Compliance with these recommendations should accord the animals entrusted to our care the "five freedoms (13)": 1. Freedom from hunger and thirst, 2. freedom from discomfort, 3. freedom from pain, injury, or disease, 4. freedom to express normal behaviour, and 5. freedom from fear and distress. PMID:23076761

Ganter, M; Benesch, C; Bürstel, D; Ennen, S; Kaulfuß, K-H; Mayer, K; Moog, U; Moors, E; Seelig, B; Spengler, D; Strobel, H; Tegtmeyer, P; Voigt, K; Wagner, H W

2012-10-17

120

Relative exposure to swine animal feeding operations and childhood asthma prevalence in an agricultural cohort.  

PubMed

Large swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) have become the model of livestock production throughout the United States. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an increase in adverse respiratory symptoms among workers at AFOs. However, the impact on communities surrounding these facilities is still being investigated. We evaluated the association between relative environmental exposure to AFOs and the prevalence of prescribed medication for wheeze and/or childhood asthma in rural Iowa. Demographic and health information on 565 children aged 0-17 was obtained from a previous population-based cohort study while data on the AFOs were collected from publically available tax records. We created a metric of each child's relative environmental exposure to swine CAFOs which incorporated the size of the AFO as well as distance and wind direction. We determined the association between self-reported prescription medication for wheeze and/or self-reported physician diagnosed asthma and relative exposure while controlling for recognized risk factors using correlated logistic regression. The prevalence of childhood asthma in the cohort was 11.0% while 22.7% of children had been previously prescribed medication for wheeze or had a lifetime asthma diagnosis. Children with a larger relative environmental exposure to AFOs had a significantly increased odds of both outcomes (OR=1.51, p=0.014 asthma; OR=1.38, p=0.023 asthma or medication for wheeze). When stratified into exposure quartiles a linear trend was observed with asthma or medication for wheeze as the dependent variable but not with asthma alone. This study is the first to investigate children's cumulative relative exposure to smaller AFOs and adds to the growing volume of literature supporting a link between proximity to swine AFOs and adverse respiratory health. PMID:23332647

Pavilonis, Brian T; Sanderson, Wayne T; Merchant, James A

2013-04-01

121

Relative exposure to swine animal feeding operations and childhood asthma prevalence in an agricultural cohort  

PubMed Central

Large swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) have become the model of livestock production throughout the United States. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an increase in adverse respiratory symptoms among workers at AFOs. However, the impact on communities surrounding these facilities is still being investigated. We evaluated the association between relative environmental exposure to AFOs and the prevalence of prescribed medication for wheeze and/or childhood asthma in rural Iowa. Demographic and health information on 565 children aged 0 to 17 was obtained from a previous population-based cohort study while data on the AFOs was collected from publically available tax records. We created a metric ofeach child’s relative environmental exposure to swine CAFOs which incorporated the size of the AFO as well as distance and wind direction. We determined the association between self-reported prescription medication for wheeze and/or self-reported physician diagnosed asthmaand relative exposure while controlling for recognized risk factors using correlated logistic regression. The prevalence of childhood asthma in the cohort was 11.0% while 22.7% of children had been previously prescribed medication for wheeze or had a lifetime asthma diagnosis. Children with a larger relative environmental exposure to AFOs had a significantly increased odds of both outcomes (OR=1.51, p=0.014 asthma; OR=1.38, p=0.023 asthma or medication for wheeze). When stratified into exposure quartiles a linear trend was observed with asthma or medication for wheezeas the dependent variable but not with asthma alone. This study is the first to investigate children’s cumulative relative exposure to smaller AFOs and adds to the growing volume of literature supporting a link between proximity to swine AFOs and adverse respiratory health.

Pavilonis, Brian T.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Merchant, James A.

2014-01-01

122

FROM NOVOSIBIRSK RUSSIA TO TEXAS: A ROLE FOR AGRICULTURAL AND EXTENSION EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AND DELIVERING PROGRAMS PROMOTING THE USE OF DRAFT ANIMAL POWER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to delineate contextual applications in agricultural education used for acquiring the knowledge and skills necessary for the operation of contemporary businesses supporting or supported by the use of draft animal power. The researcher sought to determine if the reacquisition of knowledge and skills was driven in whole or in part by historical, cultural, or

James W. Hynes; James R. Lindner

123

Project CHOICE: #170. A Career Education Unit for Grades 1 and 2. We Work with Animals. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Career Cluster).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit on working with animals is part of the Agriculture and Biological Studies Career Cluster included in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education). The units are designed to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking first and second…

Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

124

A case study of Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.  

PubMed

The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations. PMID:22610959

Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M

2013-01-01

125

Experimental and husbandry procedures as potential modifiers of the results of phenotyping tests  

PubMed Central

To maximize the sensitivity of detecting affects of genetic variants in mice, variables have been minimized through the use of inbred mouse lines, by eliminating infectious organisms and controlling environmental variables. However, the impact of standard animal husbandry and experimental procedures on the validity of experimental data is under appreciated. In this study we monitored the impact of these procedures by using parameters that reflect stress and physiological responses to it. Short-term measures included telemetered heart rate and systolic arterial pressure, core body temperature and blood glucose, while longer-term parameters were assessed such as body weight. Male and female C57BL6/NTac mice were subjected to a range of stressors with different perceived severities ranging from repeated blood glucose and core temperature measurement procedures, intra-peritoneal injection and overnight fasting to cage transport and cage changing. Our studies reveal that common husbandry and experimental procedures significantly influence mouse physiology and behaviour. Systolic arterial pressure, heart rate, locomotor activity, core temperature and blood glucose were elevated in response to a range of experimental procedures. Differences between sexes were evident, female mice displayed more sustained cardiovascular responses and locomotor activity than male mice. These results have important implications for the design and implementation of multiple component experiments where the lasting effects of stress from previous tests may modify the outcomes of subsequent ones.

Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Igosheva, Natalia; Roberson, Laura-Anne; Ismail, Ozama; Karp, Natasha; Sanderson, Mark; Cambridge, Emma; Shannon, Carl; Sunter, David; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Bussell, James; White, Jacqueline K.

2012-01-01

126

Science of Agricultural Animals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

Murdock, Ashleigh Barbee, Ed.

2010-01-01

127

A Decision Support System for Climate Change Adaptation in Rainfed Sectors of Agriculture for Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

• Background and aims: Rainfed sectors of agriculture such as nature-close forestry, non-irrigated agriculture and animal husbandry on nature-close pastures are threatened by projected climate change especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is the limiting factor of production and ecosystem stability. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimization is increasing. The aim of the Decision Support System under development is to raise awareness and initiate preparation for frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses in the mentioned sectors. • Services provided: The Decision Support System provides GIS-supported information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options regarding climate change impacts, projected for reference periods until 2100 (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, potential production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.). The projections are referring first of all on biological production (natural produce), but the System includes also social and economic consequences. • Methods: In the raster based system, the latest image processing technology is used. We apply fuzzy membership functions, Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifier. The System is developed in the first step for a reference area in SW Hungary (Zala county). • Novelty: The coherent, fine-scale regional system integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions and expected production potential for three sectors of agriculture as options for land use and conservation. • Funding: The development of the Decision Support System "Agrárklíma" is supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and 4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018 "Talentum" joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate change impacts, forestry, rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry

Mátyás, Csaba; Berki, Imre; Drüszler, Áron; Eredics, Attila; Gálos, Borbála; Illés, Gábor; Móricz, Norbert; Rasztovits, Ervin; Czimber, Kornél

2013-04-01

128

Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: past, present and perspectives.  

PubMed

Recycling and composting of organic materials such as animal waste, crop residues and green manures has a long tradition in China. In the past, the application of organic manures guaranteed a high return of organic materials and plant mineral nutrients and thus maintained soil fertility and crop yield. As a result of rapid economic development coupled with the increasing urbanization and labour costs, the recycling rate of organic materials in Chinese agriculture has dramatically declined during the last two decades, in particular in the more developed eastern and southeastern provinces of China. Improper handling and storage of the organic wastes is causing severe air and water pollution. Because farmers are using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizer, only 47% of the cropland is still receiving organic manure, which accounted for 18% of N, 28% of P and 75% of K in the total nutrient input in 2000. Nowadays, the average proportion of nutrients (N+P+K) supplemented by organic manure in Chinese cropland is only 35% of the total amount of nutrients from both inorganic and organic sources. In China, one of the major causes is the increasing de-coupling of animal and plant production. This is occurring at a time when "re-coupling" is partly being considered in Western countries as a means to improve soil fertility and reduce pollution from animal husbandry. Re-coupling of modern animal and plant production is urgently needed in China. A comprehensive plan to develop intensive animal husbandry while taking into account the environmental impact of liquid and gaseous emissions and the nutrient requirements of the crops as well as the organic carbon requirements of the soil are absolutely necessary. As a consequence of a stronger consideration of ecological aspects in agriculture, a range of environmental standards has been issued and various legal initiatives are being taken in China. Their enforcement should be strictly monitored. PMID:16512218

Ju, Xiaotang; Zhang, Fusuo; Bao, Xuemei; Römheld, V; Roelcke, M

2005-12-01

129

Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: past, present and perspectives.  

PubMed

Recycling and composting of organic materials such as animal waste, crop residues and green manures has a long tradition in China. In the past, the application of organic manures guaranteed a high return of organic materials and plant mineral nutrients and thus maintained soil fertility and crop yield. As a result of rapid economic development coupled with the increasing urbanization and labour costs, the recycling rate of organic materials in Chinese agriculture has dramatically declined during the last two decades, in particular in the more developed eastern and southeastern provinces of China. Improper handling and storage of the organic wastes is causing severe air and water pollution. Because farmers are using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizer, only 47% of the cropland is still receiving organic manure, which accounted for 18% of N, 28% of P and 75% of K in the total nutrient input in 2000. Nowadays, the average proportion of nutrients (N+P+K) supplemented by organic manure in Chinese cropland is only 35% of the total amount of nutrients from both inorganic and organic sources. In China, one of the major causes is the increasing de-coupling of animal and plant production. This is occurring at a time when "re-coupling" is partly being considered in Western countries as a means to improve soil fertility and reduce pollution from animal husbandry. Re-coupling of modern animal and plant production is urgently needed in China. A comprehensive plan to develop intensive animal husbandry while taking into account the environmental impact of liquid and gaseous emissions and the nutrient requirements of the crops as well as the organic carbon requirements of the soil are absolutely necessary. As a consequence of a stronger consideration of ecological aspects in agriculture, a range of environmental standards has been issued and various legal initiatives are being taken in China. Their enforcement should be strictly monitored. PMID:20549451

Ju, Xiaotang; Zhang, Fusuo; Bao, Xuemei; Römheld, V; Roelcke, M

2005-09-01

130

Pet husbandry and infection control practices related to zoonotic disease risks in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Despite this concern, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet husbandry and infection control practices. The objective of this study was to characterize zoonotic disease related-husbandry and infection preventive practices in pet-owning households in Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. One adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Four hundred one pet-owners completed the questionnaire. Households reported ownership of dogs (68%), cats (48%), fish (13%), exotic mammals (7%), such as hamsters, and reptiles and birds (each 6%). Across all species, individuals at higher risk of infections (i.e. < 5yrs, ? 65yrs, immunocompromised) were often (46-57%) present in households. Children < 16 yrs of age had close pet contact, as households reported dogs (13%) and cats (30%) usually slept in a child’s bed and dogs often licked a child’s face (24%). Household husbandry practices that increase zoonotic disease risk were frequently identified; some fed high-risk foods (i.e. raw eggs, raw meat, or raw animal product treats) to their dogs (28%) or cats (3%); 14% of reptile-owning households allowed the pet to roam through the kitchen or washed it in the kitchen sink. Reported hand washing by children was high for all species (> 76% washed hands sometimes or greater after touching the pet, its feces, or housing), although fewer reported children always washed their hands (3-57%; by species). With a few exceptions, practices were not associated with the presence of higher risk members in the household or recall of having previously received zoonotic disease education. Conclusions The results suggest there is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households with individuals at higher risk of infection and those with high-risk species (e.g., reptiles). Further research is needed to determine the role of education in altering higher risk pet practices.

2013-01-01

131

The captive husbandry and reproduction of the pink-eared turtle (Emydura victoriae) at Perth Zoo.  

PubMed

In 1997, Perth Zoo acquired six pink-eared turtles (Emydura victoriae) from the wild for display in the reptile facility. There is very little documented information on pink-eared turtles in captivity. This article looks at the reproductive biology, ecology, behavior, diet, and captive husbandry of the species. Eight clutches of eggs were documented over a 2-year period with an average clutch size of 10 eggs. Egg size was recorded with three clutches incubated to hatching. Ten hatchlings were maintained for a growth and development study. Measurements of weight, carapace length, width, height, and plastron length were recorded weekly for about 12 months, and then monthly for approximately 2 years. The data were analyzed and showed positive growth curves in all animals. Sexual dimorphism was observed after 20 weeks and sexual maturity in males observed after 2 years. PMID:21319211

Gaikhorst, G S; Clarke, B R; McPharlin, M; Larkin, B; McLaughlin, J; Mayes, J

2011-01-01

132

Health Risks Faced by Turkish Agricultural Workers  

PubMed Central

Background. Individuals who make a living through agriculture and animal husbandry are faced with a variety of physical and psychological health risks. In many international studies, it has been shown that these risks can result in disease. The purpose of this study is to summarize the health risks faced by Turkish agricultural workers. Materials and Methods. This study used a nonrandom, convenience sample. The biopsychosocial health statuses of 177 farmers from 11 central villages in Kars, Turkey, were examined. Results. It was determined that the depression rate among the study group was 62.1%, the rate of physical health problems was 52.0%, and the rate of social isolation was 53.7%. There was a statistically significant difference between the depression scale scores and lower education levels, having ? three children, and physical health problems, as well as the physical condition of the farmers' homes. There was a significant difference between poor physical health and older age, lower education levels, having ? three children, and social isolation. Conclusions. In providing data-based evidence, it is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the causality of health problems in this population and in planning the development of public health and veterinary services based on regional needs.

Cakmur, Hulya

2014-01-01

133

Livestock agroterrorism: the deliberate introduction of a highly infectious animal pathogen.  

PubMed

Agroterrorism refers to attacks with any of a variety of biological or chemical agents against commercial crops or livestock populations, either as targets in their own right or as vehicles to attack humans. An agroterrorism incident would generally involve bioterrorism, and potential agents include pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi. Within the context of agroterrorism, livestock agroterrorism is described as the intentional introduction of an animal-borne infectious disease with the goal of spreading fear, producing economic losses, and/or threatening social stability. Causing human illness or human casualties is another potential goal of livestock agroterrorism. Livestock agroterrorism is considered to be attractive to terrorists because biological agents that affect livestock or poultry are more readily available and more difficult to monitor than are agents that infect humans. In addition, a terrorist attack on animal husbandry may have huge economic consequences with no human casualties. Therefore, a biological attack that targets the animal husbandry sector should be regarded as both a "high-consequence" event and a grave national security risk. This review addresses the use of biological weapons that may be used to target livestock or poultry rather than agricultural inputs or equipment. It first defines livestock agroterrorism. Then, the common priority disease agents that may be used to target livestock or poultry in an agroterrorist attack and that are attractive to terrorists are outlined. PMID:23035724

Yeh, Jung-Yong; Seo, Hyun-Ji; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, Yun Sang; Cho, In-Soo; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Jeong-Min; Choi, In-Soo

2012-10-01

134

Effects of Computer-Animated Instruction Upon Low-Level Cognition of Undergraduates in an Agricultural Power Technology Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of visual elaboration has been a key component of the educational process for instructors of agricultural power technology. Traditionally, still illustration and representatives of real equipment (realia) have been utilized to teach the hidden theoretical concepts that comprise the most basic operational processes of the internal combustion engine and its accompanying systems. Exponential technology advancement has allowed the

Kyle W. McGregor; Steve Fraze; Matt Baker; David Drueckhammer; David Lawver

135

Increasing incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome could be associated with livestock husbandry in Changchun, Northeastern China  

PubMed Central

Background Since the end of the 1990s, the incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been increasing dramatically in Changchun, northeastern China. However, it is unknown which, and how, underlying risk factors have been involved in the reemergence of the disease. Methods Data on HFRS cases at the county scale were collected from 1998 to 2012. Data on livestock husbandry including the numbers of large animals (cattle, horses, donkeys and mules), sheep, and deer, and on climatic and land cover variables were also collected. Epidemiological features, including the spatial, temporal and human patterns of disease were characterized. The potential factors related to spatial heterogeneity and temporal trends were analyzed using standard and time-series Poisson regression analysis, respectively. Results Annual incidence varied among the 10 counties. Shuangyang County in southeastern Changchun had the highest number of cases (1,525 cases; 35.9% of all cases), but its population only accounted for 5.6% of the total population. Based on seasonal pattern in HFRS incidence, two epidemic phases were identified. One was a single epidemic peak at the end of each year from 1988 to 1997 and the other consisted of dual epidemic peaks at both the end and the beginning of each year from 1998 to the end of the study period. HFRS incidence was higher in males compared to females, and most of the HFRS cases occurred in peasant populations. The results of the Poisson regression analysis indicated that the spatial distribution and the increasing incidence of HFRS were significantly associated with livestock husbandry and climate factors, particularly with deer cultivation. Conclusions Our results indicate that the re-emergence of HFRS in Changchun has been accompanied by changing seasonal patterns over the past 25 years. Integrated measures focusing on areas related to local livestock husbandry could be helpful for the prevention and control of HFRS.

2014-01-01

136

Integrated Family Farm System for Agriculture, Livestock and Energy Production. With Multipurpose Crops, Multipurpose Animals, Ponds with Plants and Animals and a Digester Unit for Control of Both Human and Animal Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The integrated family farm system was proposed by the Second Annual Seminar on ''Maximum Production from Minimum Land'' held at the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh from 5 to 9 February 1981. The strategy put forward is to utilize most effic...

J. Juul Nielsen T. R. Preston

1981-01-01

137

Harnessing: Technologies for Sustainable Reindeer Husbandry in the Arctic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To accelerate the development of sustainable reindeer husbandry under the lead of indigenous reindeer herders, it is critical to empower reindeer herders with the best available technologies and to promote a new kind of science where traditional knowledge is fully integrated into the scientific management of the natural environment in the Arctic. This is particularly true given the dramatic environmental, climatic, economic, social and industrial changes, which have taken place across the Arctic in recent years, all of which have had serious impacts on the reindeer herding communities of the North. The Anar Declaration, adopted by the 2d World Reindeer Herders Congress (WRHC), in Inari, Finland, June 2001drew guidelines for the development of a sustainable reindeer husbandry based on reindeer peoples values and goals. The declaration calls for the reindeer herding peoples to be given the possibilities to develop and influence the management of the reindeer industry and its natural environment because of their knowledge and traditional practices. At the same time, Arctic scientists from many institutions and governments are carrying out increasingly highly technical reindeer related research activities. It is important that the technologies and results of these activities be more commonly co-produced with the reindeer herder community and/or made more readily available to the reindeer peoples for comparison with traditional knowledge for improved herd management. This paper describes a project in which reindeer herders and scientists are utilizing technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing knowledge. The project, Reindeer Mapper, is creating an information management and knowledge sharing system, which will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. The paper describes some of the technologies which comprise the system including an intranet system to enable the team members to work together and share information electronically, remote sensing data for monitoring environmental parameters important to reindeer husbandry (e.g. SAR, Landsat), acquisition of ground-based measurements, and the GIS-based information management and knowledge sharing system.

Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein

2004-01-01

138

Vocational Agriculture in Ponape  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general objectives of agriculture education in both the elementary and secondary schools in Ponape District are to develop interest in agriculture among students and to provide practical and technical skills in growing crops and raising domestic animals. (Author)

Dayrit, Ruben S.

1975-01-01

139

Urban Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

Corbellini, Margaret

1991-01-01

140

[Recommendations for the husbandry and welfare of sheep and goats by the German Small Ruminant Veterinary Association. Part 2].  

PubMed

The second part of the recommendations deals with the healthcare and the regulatory framework for the husbandry of sheep and goats. The suggested concept for healthcare aims to develop an individual health plan for every flock. This health plan focuses not only on the prevention of notifiable diseases, but also on chronic and slow infections as well as on parasite monitoring. The emphasis is on early detection of diseases and prophylaxis. In conjunction with this, the handling of lameness, shearing, animal trade and quarantine as well as cleaning and disinfection in sheep and goat flocks are intensively discussed. There are detailed federal and European legal regulations concerning the transport and the physical well-being of animals. These laws are clearly presented and advice for their practical implementation is provided. PMID:23242149

Ganter, M; Benesch, C; Bürstel, D; Ennen, S; Kaulfuß, K-H; Mayer, K; Moog, U; Moors, E; Seelig, B; Spengler, D; Strobel, H; Tegtmeyer, P; Voigt, K; Wagner, H W

2012-01-01

141

Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication  

PubMed Central

Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5%) of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7) of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR) = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6) and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2) showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9) and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6). Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and information on its occurrence, human brucellosis is most likely misdiagnosed for other febrile diseases prevailing in the areas and treated empirically. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that bovine brucellosis is widely prevalent in the study areas particularly in pastoral production system. Hence, the study suggests the need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on prevention methods of brucellosis.

2011-01-01

142

Predatory Potential of Freshwater Animals on an Invasive Agricultural Pest, the Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae), in Southern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is an invasive species and a serious pest of rice in many Asian countries. We studied predatory activities of various animals living in Japanese freshwater habitats, by keeping each individual of a potential predator species with 36 snails of various sizes for three days in the aquarium. Forty-six species were tested, and 26 in eight

Yoichi Yusa; Naoyuki Sugiura; Takashi Wada

2006-01-01

143

DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO CONVERT GREEN AND ANIMAL WASTES TO A USEFUL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT WITH POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE FUEL USE  

EPA Science Inventory

Initially, we thought that we would shred the green waste to use as a binder for the animal manure to produce a material useful as a fuel or soil amendment. Our first experiments in mixing the materials revealed that manure was, instead, better used as a binder for the green w...

144

Refinements in husbandry, care and common procedures for non-human primates: Ninth report of the BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement.  

PubMed

Preface Whenever animals are used in research, minimizing pain and distress and promoting good welfare should be as important an objective as achieving the experimental results. This is important for humanitarian reasons, for good science, for economic reasons and in order to satisfy the broad legal principles in international legislation. It is possible to refine both husbandry and procedures to minimize suffering and improve welfare in a number of ways, and this can be greatly facilitated by ensuring that up-to-date information is readily available. The need to provide such information led the British Veterinary Association Animal Welfare Foundation (BVAAWF), the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME), the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) and the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) to establish a Joint Working Group on Refinement (JWGR) in the UK. The chair is Professor David Morton and the secretariat is provided by the RSPCA. This report is the ninth in the JWGR series. The RSPCA is opposed to the use of animals in experiments that cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm and together with FRAME has particular concerns about the continued use of non-human primates. The replacement of primate experiments is a primary goal for the RSPCA and FRAME. However, both organizations share with others in the Working Group, the common aim of replacing primate experiments wherever possible, reducing suffering and improving welfare while primate use continues. The reports of the refinement workshops are intended to help achieve these aims. This report produced by the British Veterinary Association Animal Welfare Foundation (BVAAWF)/Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME)/Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA)/Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Joint Working Group on Refinement (JWGR) sets out practical guidance on refining the husbandry and care of non-human primates (hereinafter primates) and on minimizing the adverse effects of some common procedures. It provides a valuable resource to help understand the physical, social and behavioural characteristics and needs of individual primates, and is intended to develop and complement the existing literature and legislative guidelines. Topics covered include refinements in housing, husbandry and common procedures such as restraint, identification and sampling, with comprehensive advice on issues such as primate communication, assessing and facilitating primate wellbeing, establishing and maintaining social groups, environmental and nutritional enrichment and animal passports. The most commonly used species are the key focus of this resource, but its information and recommendations are generally applicable to other species, provided that relevant individual species characteristics are taken into account. PMID:19286892

Jennings, M; Prescott, M J; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Gamble, Malcolm R; Gore, Mauvis; Hawkins, Penny; Hubrecht, Robert; Hudson, Shirley; Jennings, Maggy; Keeley, Joanne R; Morris, Keith; Morton, David B; Owen, Steve; Pearce, Peter C; Prescott, Mark J; Robb, David; Rumble, Rob J; Wolfensohn, Sarah; Buist, David

2009-04-01

145

STRESS IN FARM ANIMALS: A NEED FOR REEVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In animal husbandry, stress has usually been conceived as a reflex reaction that occurs ineluctably when animals are exposed to adverse environmental conditions, and which is the cause of many unfavorable consequences, ranging from discomfort to death. The inade- quacy of this view is apparent from the new concepts that have been developed from research aimed at understanding the

Robert Dantzer; Pierre Morrnede

2010-01-01

146

Common gastrointestinal parasites of indigenous camels (Camelus dromedarius) with traditional husbandry management (free-ranging system) in central deserts of Iran.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal parasites of domesticated animals, especially in animals with traditional husbandry management cause reduction in production and performance of them. Aim of our study was to determine prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in indigenous camels, with traditional husbandry management that have no direct contact with other livestock. This study was carried out between Kerman and Yazd provinces of Iran, midsummer 2011. Fecal samples of 100 randomly selected camels of all age and sex, collected directly from their rectum. The fecal samples were examined by direct smear, simple flotation technique, centrifugal sedimentation technique, and McMaster egg counting technique and fecal culture to identification and determine the burden of parasites in different age groups. Nematode eggs and Eimeria oocysts were found (64 %) and (24 %) in fecal samples respectively. Parasite eggs that observed in camel feces were belong to Nematodirus spp. (52 %), Trichostrongyle type eggs (49 %), Haemonchus spp. (38 %), Trichuris spp. (14 %) Marshallagia spp. (10 %) and Eimeria cameli (24 %), the age of infected camels with helminthic infections was significantly higher than non-infected camels (p < 0.05), there was also a significant correlation between age and severity of coccidiosis (p < 0.05). Camel calves and camels below 5 years old were more infected with the Eimeria sp. than older ones. This study revealed gastrointestinal parasites is a major problem of indigenous camels with traditional husbandry, so parasite control programs must be established for increasing the productivity of this useful animal and industrial system for breeding camels recommended to increase productivity of them, especially where harsh climatic condition affected other livestock. PMID:24431575

Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Aminzadeh Gowhari, Mansour

2013-10-01

147

Husbandry of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and the cortisol stress response.  

PubMed

The effect of common husbandry conditions (crowding, social environment, water quality, handling, and background color) on the cortisol stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, was investigated to check the usefulness of zebrafish as a model organism in aquaculture research. In addition, a noninvasive methodology for assessing stress was evaluated. Zebrafish showed a fast cortisol response with high values at 30 min that returned to basal levels within 2 h of poststress. There was a significant positive correlation between trunk cortisol concentrations and the free water cortisol rate (r(2)=0.829-0.850, p<0.001), indicating that measurement of the water-borne cortisol release rate may serve as a noninvasive and reliable stress indicator at the population level. Crowding resulted in 13- to 21-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations compared with controls. However, even at low stocking density (2-5 fish/L), the maintenance cost was higher than the one at higher densities (10 fish/L) due to the formation of dominance hierarchies. The background color affected trunk cortisol concentrations, with fish exposed to brighter backgrounds (green and white) showing 3- to 8-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations than fish exposed to a black background or transparent aquaria. Fish exposed to high stocking densities for 2 h or 5 days had similar high mean trunk cortisol levels, indicating that exposure of fish for the period of 2 h to a specific stressor may represent a chronic situation in zebrafish. It is concluded that adult laboratory zebrafish had a preference for a transparent or black background aquarium, at a number of 10 individuals per 2 L of available water volume, to express their normal behavior and avoid increased cortisol stress reaction. PMID:23886279

Pavlidis, Michail; Digka, Nikoletta; Theodoridi, Antonia; Campo, Aurora; Barsakis, Konstantinos; Skouradakis, Gregoris; Samaras, Athanasios; Tsalafouta, Alexandra

2013-12-01

148

Ecosystems and the value of adjacent protected areas to agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without anthropogenic influence, Europe would not have the beautiful and rich landscape we see today. The development of open spaces through crop cultivation and animal husbandry has led to the wide diversity of landscape that exists in Europe… Over centuries people have bred livestock and cultivated plants especially suited to their local environment. Biologically valuable traditional agro-ecosystems developed within each

Waltraud Kugler; Elli Broxham Stahl

2008-01-01

149

Veterinary medicine and animal husbandry in Mexico: From empiricism to science and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion Foot-and-mouth disease was the event which led to the increased and improved training of veterinarians able to produce through their research new veterinary knowledge for practical application.

Larissa Adler Lomnitz; Leticia Mayer

1994-01-01

150

Cooperative Studies with Penned Deer. Husbandry of Experimental Animals in the Northern Lower Peninsula.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Job Final Report documents work completed during Segment 15 for a job that was funded as part of Project W-127-R through Segment 14. Work with captive deer at the Houghton Lake Wildlife Research Area was phased out during this segment. Seven bucks bo...

1997-01-01

151

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...program. (4) Many chimpanzees can be trained through positive reinforcement to cooperate with a variety of veterinary...currently acceptable practices that do not include physical punishment. (c) What are the requirements for an adequate...

2011-10-01

152

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accordance with acceptable veterinary medical practices. (13...their well-being. Emergency veterinary care must also be available...recent report of the American Veterinary Medical Association Panel...the SCCC. The NCRR Project Officer must be notified of the...

2010-10-01

153

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accordance with acceptable veterinary medical practices. (13...their well-being. Emergency veterinary care must also be available...recent report of the American Veterinary Medical Association Panel...the SCCC. The NCRR Project Officer must be notified of the...

2009-10-01

154

[Studies of the decontamination of the sewage from animal husbandry farms].  

PubMed

Investigations revealed that under the conditions prevailing in the districts of Sofia and .pernik Ascaris suum and Trichocephalus suis eggs remained viable at the conventional storage of liquid manure on the large farms for about a year, and Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum sp. eggs--for 2 to 3 months. The methods of electrocoagulation and electroflotation could be employed with success in the cleansing and rendering harmless of the sewage waters after the preliminary treatment with calcium hydroxide. In terms of stabilizing the process, enhancing the cleansing effect and harmlessness, and lowering the use of electrical energy better results are obtainable with the use of pulsating current and constant current perdiodically changing its polarity. PMID:919336

Bratanov, V; Penchev, P; Dinev, P

1977-01-01

155

Chemtrails And Vaccines What You Didn't Know About Vaccines And Human Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-17-5 In 1946, future pharmaceutical czar George Merck reported to the US Secretary of War, that he'd managed to weaponise the toxin extracted from the Brucella bacterium and to isolate it into an indestructible crystalline form using only the DNA particles. Aerial spraying of the crystals via chemtrails was deployed on Chinese and Korean populations during the Korean War. Many

Mark Owen

156

Training fish and aquatic invertebrates for husbandry and medical behaviors.  

PubMed

Fishes and aquatic invertebrates are highly diverse groups of animals that are well adapted to their aquatic environments. For the past 200 years, researchers have been studying the learning potential of fishes and have shown them to be extensive. By using these animals' abilities to learn, caretakers can use operant conditioning with an emphasis on positive reinforcement to train behaviors aiding in dietary management, capture techniques, and medical procedures. Training fishes and aquatic invertebrates can help advance the care and well-being of these species in human care. PMID:22998962

Corwin, Allison L

2012-09-01

157

[Regionalisation of Germany by data of agricultural structures].  

PubMed

In order to simplify the design of representative studies in animal populations the structural differences of animal husbandry (cattle, pigs and laying hens) in Germany were characterised. Several regions were defined and thus districts identified which are typical for the respective region and can be regarded as representatives for the whole region. Data on animal husbandry as well as human population per district originated from the Federal Statistical Office and were linked to the geometric data of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy. By this, data of "livestock units/square kilometre area" and "farms/square kilometre area" per district were calculated using methods of the spatial statistics Global Moran's Index, Anselin Local Moran's Index and Getis-Ord Gi*. With the help of these analyses six clusters could be identified which resulted in four large (Middle, Northwest, East, and South) and one smaller region (Northern Upper-Rhine) respecting the federal state borders. These regions differed significantly regarding animal and farm densities. The selection of typical districts was carried out with the help of the respective animal and farm data of the species pigs, dairy cattle and laying hens. The means of the selected districts (three to six per region) were within the 60%- and the 80%-percentile of at least two of the analysed variables. Concerning the region Northern Upper-Rhine no representative district was selected. This presented regionalisation including representative districts can be used for the design of scientific studies that are associated with animal husbandry in Germany. PMID:22372325

Merle, Roswitha; Busse, Marc; Rechter, Galina; Meer, Uwe

2012-01-01

158

Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 94-0413-2560, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Fayetteville, North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to a request from the Director of the Department of Agriculture (SIC-9199) witchweed eradication program, worker exposures to paraquat (1910425) during spray applications were investigated. Breathing zone air samples collected during eight par...

S. W. Lenhart

1996-01-01

159

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed. SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Joergensen, 1994) in which systems are modeled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Danuso, Francesco (University of Udine) [University of Udine

2008-06-18

160

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

ScienceCinema

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2010-01-08

161

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2008-06-18

162

The epidemiology of helminthosis in small ruminants under the traditional husbandry system in eastern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of helminth infections in West African dwarf sheep and goats under the traditional husbandry system prevailing in the derived savanna area of eastern Nigeria was studied for 12 months. The infections observed were due to Haemonchus contortus (87.1%), Trichostrongylus spp. (63.8%), metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena (30.2%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (22.4%), Strongyloides sp. (18.8%), Cooperia spp. (17.2%), Gaigeria pachyscelis (6.0%),

B. B. Fakae

1990-01-01

163

Production of potato minitubers by repeated harvesting: Effects of crop husbandry on yield parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Minitubers can be produced in large quantities by repeated harvesting of tubers from in vitro propagated plantlets at 4, 7\\u000a and 10 weeks after transplanting to the glasshouse at high plant densities. Yield parameters of minitubers can be manipulated\\u000a by crop husbandry.\\u000a \\u000a By supplying nutrients or using a square plant arrangement, minituber yield increased. Effects on numbers of tubers were

W. J. M. Lommen; P. C. Struik

1992-01-01

164

Forest fragmentation and landscape transformation in a reindeer husbandry area in Sweden.  

PubMed

Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry. PMID:22102063

Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Ostlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

2012-02-01

165

Current husbandry of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in zoos.  

PubMed

The endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is held in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how red pandas are kept and managed in captivity and to compare it with the management guidelines. Sixty-nine zoos, mainly from Europe but also from North America and Australia/New Zealand, responded to our survey. The results revealed that in general zoos follow the management guidelines for most of the investigated issues. The average enclosure is almost four times larger than the minimum size recommended by the management guidelines, although seven zoos have smaller enclosures. About half the zoos do not follow the guidelines concerning visitor access and number of nest boxes. Other issues that may compromise animal welfare include proximity of neighboring carnivore species and placement of nest boxes. PMID:21182101

Eriksson, P; Zidar, J; White, D; Westander, J; Andersson, M

2010-01-01

166

[The species-specific feeding of rabbits in pet husbandry].  

PubMed

To meet nutrient demands as well as the species specific requirements of an animal it is absolutely necessary to know its nutrition physiology (KAMPHUES et al. 1999). Characteristics of the nutrition physiology of rabbits include the anatomy of the intestinal tract (i.e. the teeth, the size of gut as well as the small intestine and colon), the special ingesting behaviour (selection, intensity of gnawing and chewing) and digestive processes within the intestinal tract (digestion by own as well as by microbial enzymes, processes of separation (producing soft faeces) and the excretion of digested or undigested nutrients (excretion via faeces or kidneys, quality of faeces). In feeding pet rabbits it has to be recommended, that these species do not need concentrates, but ingredients with higher crude fiber contents due to their origin and their intestinal tract. Therefore these herbivorous species should be fed with hay, straw or vegetables and not with concentrates exclusively. If these components are not offered (an usual feeding practice in rabbits kept as companion animals), other products rich in crude fibre have to be fed. The offer of a pressed diet in cube form with long fibrous ingredients would be a possibility to upgrade a ration poor in crude fibre. To meet the gnawing requirement of the rabbits this cubes should be pressed intensively. Furthermore it is advisable to exchange ingredients of the mixed feed with a high energy content (i.e. sunflower seeds, nuts) for ingredients of lower energy density (i.e. oat hulls, pelleted ground hay). Finally calcium oversupply has to be avoided because higher calcium intake may result in urolithiasis (calcium stones/concrements). PMID:11314470

Kamphues, J

2001-03-01

167

Beraeknade effekter av radioaktivt nedfall paa jordbruksproduktionen i Sverige. III. Djurprodukternas foerorening. (Estimated effects of radioactive fallout on agricultural production in Sweden. Contamination of animal products).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present study is part of a research project, 'Radioactivity problems within the food sector' performed in 1991-94 at the request of the National Board of Agriculture in Sweden by The National Research Establishment, Dept. of NBC Defence, and the Dept....

A. Eriksson I. Andersson

1994-01-01

168

Husbandry and breeding of the lesser Egyptian Jerboa, Jaculus jaculus.  

PubMed

The lesser Egyptian jerboa, Jaculus jaculus, is the ideal jerboa species for use as a laboratory model system. As a member of the most derived clade of three-toed jerboas, it shows all of the specialized characteristics for bipedalism, including loss of the lateral digits and fusion and elongation of the metatarsals. It is a small rodent, weighing ?55 g as an adult, and it does not hibernate through the winter as is common with many other jerboa species. It is the first Dipodoid rodent whose genome is to be sequenced, and multiple genomic resources are being generated. The jerboa has been notoriously difficult to breed in captivity with only a small number of zoos and private breeders achieving success. The Harvard University colony of 60 adult animals (half male/half female) has had 36 offspring born in captivity in one year. The jerboa colony at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE has been operating since 2007 and has had 180 live births. Here, we outline guidelines for successfully maintaining and breeding a colony of J. jaculus in a laboratory setting. PMID:22135654

Jordan, Björn; Vercammen, Paul; Cooper, Kimberly L

2011-12-01

169

Animal and Animal Products Trade in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa has the potential for increasing livestock production and exports but faces several production and international trade constraints. To promote international trade, new rules and regulations have been established under the Agriculture Agreements of the World Trade Organization that African countries can take advantage of to expand their export trade. This paper reviews African trade in animal and animal products

E. N. Tambi; O. W. Maina; R. Bessin

2004-01-01

170

Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.  

PubMed

Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks. PMID:23560798

Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

2013-10-01

171

Animal Welfare Report, Fiscal Year 1998. Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Letter From the Secretary: A Whale of a Year for Animal Care; The AWA: A Legislative and Regulatory History; How USDA Administers the Law; Inspection Highlights; Inspections by Business Type; Enforcement Highlights; Charting the Future: AC's Str...

1999-01-01

172

Animal health pharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

The animal health pharmaceutical industry has proactively reported on the volumes of member company antimicrobial active ingredients sold in the U.S. At the individual company level, reporting of finished product distribution data to the FDA is a regulatory requirement, with applications to surveillance and pharmacovigilance. An accounting of product manufactured is done for purposes of good business practices, as well as marketing analyses. Additional applications of antimicrobial usage data might include use in risk assessments, such as for the FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine Guidance for Industry #152 for the evaluation of the microbiological safety of antimicrobials intended for use in food animals. Compilation of national usage data will be a complex undertaking, hindered by issues such as confidentiality, auditing, field use practice variations, population dynamics (e.g. disease incidence, market conditions for poultry and livestock production), and generic usage. The amounts or volumes in pounds should be considered relative to the large number of animals under husbandry in the United States. Large volumes might seem impressive unless put into proper context. Until such time as a clearly defined application of national usage data is agreed, it is recommended that local usage programs will provide more useful information to perpetuate prudent antimicrobial use in animals. PMID:16266763

Carnevale, Richard A; Shryock, Thomas R

2006-02-24

173

Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry.  

PubMed

Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated the effect of received predation compensation on individual husbandry units' future herd size. The main finding in this study is that predation compensation had a positive effect on husbandry units' future herd size. The effect of predation compensation, however, was nonlinear in some years, indicating that predation compensation had a positive effect on future herd size only up to a certain threshold whereby adding additional predation compensation had little effect on future herd size. More importantly, the effect of predation compensation was positive after controlling for reindeer density, indicating that for a given reindeer density husbandry units receiving more predation compensation performed better (measured as the size of future herds) compared to husbandry units receiving less compensation. PMID:21874081

Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Tveraa, Torkild

2011-08-01

174

Rajendra Agricultural University - Annual Report 1978-1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objects of the University are: Making provision for imparting education in different branches of agriculture. The major areas of reserch are: Agriculture, Farming System under Dryland Agriculture; Soil Science; and Veterinary Science and Animal H...

1979-01-01

175

Space Technologies for Enhancing the Resilience and Sustainability of Indigenous Reindeer Husbandry in the Russian Arctic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To adapt successfully to the major changes - climate, environment, economic, social and industrial - which have taken place across the Arctic. in recent years, indigenous communities such as reindeer herders must become increasingly empowered with the best available technologies to add to their storehouse of traditional knowledge. Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters critical to the characterization of pasture quality and migratory routes, such as vegetation distribution, snow cover, infrastructure development, and pasture damages due to fires. This paper describes a series of remote sensing capabilities, which are useful to reindeer husbandry, and gives the results of the first year of a project, "Reindeer Mapper", which is a remote sensing and GIs-based system to bring together space technologies with indigenous knowledge for sustainable reindeer husbandry in the Russian Arctic. In this project, reindeer herders and scientists are joining together to utilize technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing space-based and indigenous knowledge in the Russian Arctic. The "Reindeer Mapper" system will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. This paper describes some of the technologies which comprise the system including an intranet system to enable to the team members to work together and share information electronically, remote sensing data for monitoring environmental parameters important to reindeer husbandry (e.g., SAR, Landsat, AVHRR, MODIS), indigenous knowledge about important environmental parameters, acquisition of ground- based measurements, and the integration of all useful data sets for more informed decision-making.

Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris S.; Sleptsov, Yuri A.; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathlesen, Svein D.

2005-01-01

176

9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who...

2009-01-01

177

9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who...

2010-01-01

178

Agricultural lung diseases.  

PubMed Central

Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

2000-01-01

179

Revitalizing veterinary and animal science education for the future in India — Issues and approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the veterinary science and animal husbandry education system, India has two deemed universities, three veterinary universities, several research stations and 34 veterinary colleges with an annual intake of 2000 students. Veterinary graduates have to play a very crucial role in extending the health coverage and enhancing the production of over 1000 million livestock and poultry. This paper presents a

P. V. K. Sasidhar

2002-01-01

180

Food safety and animal production systems: controlling zoonoses at farm level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Controlling zoonotic agents in animal and poultry reservoirs has the effect of reducing the challenge to food safety management systems in processing and further along the food chain. Producing and maintaining healthy stock requires good husbandry practices, which include stock selection and veterinary attention. Feed is a key input, both as a source of pathogen-free nutrients and as a

J. D. Collins; P. G. Wall

181

Residual veterinary antibiotics in swine manure from concentrated animal feeding operations in Shandong Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific interest in the occurrence and fate of antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during the past decades because of the emergence and development of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria. This study developed a method for simultaneous detection of five sulfonamides, three tetracyclines and one macrolide in swine manure with stable recoveries (73.0–110.6%) and high sensitivity (limit of quantification

Xun Pan; Zhimin Qiang; Weiwei Ben; Meixue Chen

2011-01-01

182

7 CFR 371.7 - Animal Care.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal Care. 371.7 Section 371.7 Agriculture...DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.7 Animal Care. (a) General statement. Animal Care (AC) establishes acceptable standards of...

2014-01-01

183

7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.  

7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT...

2014-01-01

184

7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT...

2013-01-01

185

7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT...

2012-01-01

186

7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT...

2011-01-01

187

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

188

Husbandry risk factors associated with hock pododermatitis in UK pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).  

PubMed

Pododermatitis, often called 'sore hocks', is a chronic, granulomatous, ulcerative dermatitis which most commonly affects the plantar aspect of the caudal metatarsal and tarsal areas. Pododermatitis is a common clinical finding in the pet rabbit population, but no data is available regarding the actual prevalence of this condition in the UK pet rabbit population or possible husbandry-related factors which may predispose pet rabbits to development of this condition. It was the aim of this study to determine the prevalence of pododermatitis within a sample pet rabbit population, and study possible correlations with husbandry, sex, breed and origin of the rabbits. Findings suggested that young rabbits are at a lower risk of pododermatitis compared with older rabbits; female domestic rabbits are more predisposed to pododermatitis than males; and 100 per cent of the neutered females examined showed clinical evidence of pododermatitis. The effect that different types of bedding may have on the prevalence of pododermatitis was also investigated. This study also produced a scoring system which can be used to score clinical cases. Our study is of clinical importance because it helps to recognise many of the factors which predispose pet rabbits to pododermatitis, representing the first step towards increased awareness of this extremely common problem. PMID:24572721

Mancinelli, E; Keeble, E; Richardson, J; Hedley, J

2014-04-26

189

Nuba agriculture and ethnobotany, with particular reference to sesame and sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a remarkably high level of variation within cultivated sesame and sorghum in the Nuba Mountains of Sudan although\\u000a the region is relatively small. The Nuba people are geographically isolated and culturally diverse in religion, language,\\u000a material inventory, agricultural practices and in their rituals involving crop plants, and this contributes to the diversity\\u000a in their cultivars. Nuba crop husbandry

Dorothea Bedigian; Jack R. Harlan

1983-01-01

190

Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society  

PubMed Central

Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.

Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

2010-01-01

191

Agricultural Operations  

MedlinePLUS

... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Agriculture ranks among the most dangerous industries. Between 2003 ... by several Occupational Safety and Health standards including Agriculture ( 29 CFR 1928 ), General Industry ( 29 CFR 1910 ), ...

192

Agrometeorology and sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concerns with the sustainability of agroecosystems in different parts of the world have hightened the awareness for careful use of the natural resource base on which agriculture depends. For proper and efficient use of soils and plant\\/animal genetic material, knowledge of the role of climate is an essential precondition. Several elements of the chapters in Agenda 21, a global

M. V. K. Sivakumar; R. Gommes; W. Baier

193

Agrometeorology and sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concerns with the sustainability of agroecosystems in different parts of the world have hightened the awareness for careful use of the natural resource base on which agriculture depends. For proper and efficient use of soils and plant\\/animal genetic material, knowledge of the role of climate is an essential precondition. Several elements of the chapters in Agenda 21, a global

M. V. K. Sivakumar; R. Gommes; W. Baier

2000-01-01

194

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

195

Agriculture 21  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To "promote food security and sustainable development into the next millennium," the Agriculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has recently created this new resource. An impressive and clearly arranged interface leads researchers to more than one gigabyte of data from various UN Agriculture Department sites. A detailed list of available software, databases, publication lists, and email conferences is provided via the Guides section of the site. Other services include Magazine, a monthly publication on international agricultural issues, and Gateway, a link pointing to UN Department of Agriculture divisional homepages.

196

Effects of husbandry on prevalence of amoebic gill disease and performance of reared Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved husbandry has been identified as an area that may alleviate amoebic gill disease (AGD) on Tasmanian salmon farms. We report results of three trials that aimed to reduce AGD prevalence and\\/or minimise losses associated with AGD. In the first trial, cages were rotated between different sites and data compared to stationary cages that remained on a reference site; this

G. M. Douglas-Helders; I. J. Weir; D. P. O'Brien; J. Carson; B. F. Nowak

2004-01-01

197

Potential Benefits of Navy Dive Computer Use in Ships Husbandry Diving: Analysis of Dives Conducted at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Generation III Air Navy Dive Computers (AIR III) were used to record 315 ships husbandry dives conducted by divers breathing air at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard from November 2007 to January 2008. For each profile, decompression status was assessed from...

2008-01-01

198

Agricultural Research Service: biodefense research.  

PubMed

The National Animal Health Program at the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), includes research programs dedicated to the defense of animal agriculture against the treat of biological agents with the potential of significant economic harm and/or public health consequences. This article provides a summary of the program and identifies its relevance to national initiatives to protect livestock and poultry as well as global food security. An introduction to setting research priorities and a selection of research accomplishments that define the scope of the biodefense research program is provided. PMID:23689881

Gay, C G

2013-01-01

199

Animal Algorithm Animation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Guido RöÃÂling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.

200

Theme: Teaching the Science of Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses bridging the gap between agricultural and science education; involving the science department in animal science classes; working with industry to improve educational programs; integrating science and agriculture; improving scientific literacy through an agriscience curriculum; and industry's role in developing science-based agriculture.…

Sutphin, Dean; And Others

1992-01-01

201

Health, safety, and environmental concerns of farm animal waste.  

PubMed

Modern animal husbandry has been concerned with increasing efficiency by increasing the number of animals raised per unit area; decreasing labor costs by automated animal feeding, watering, and housing; and using antibiotics to increase animal growth rates. These changes in animal production practices have resulted in reduced disease risks in some cases, but also have introduced new risks and challenges to the animal handler. Topics covered here include exposure pathways and health hazards associated with animal excreta, birthing wastes, and carcasses, with emphasis on infectious microbes (e.g., bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens) and airborne hazards (e.g., gases, dust particles, aerosols, and odors). Measures for reducing risks to animal handlers, including the use of waste management and treatment techniques, are reviewed. PMID:10329913

Cole, D J; Hill, V R; Humenik, F J; Sobsey, M D

1999-01-01

202

Data warehouse for assessing animal health, welfare, risk management and -communication  

PubMed Central

The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations’ veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animal health and welfare.

2011-01-01

203

9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 ...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...

2010-01-01

204

Agricultural scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

205

The globalisation of farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

Fraser, D

2014-04-01

206

Infrared spectroscopy of the mineralogy of coprolites from Brean Down: evidence of past human activities and animal husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineralogy of 11 concretions from the Bronze Age settlement horizons at Brean Down near Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, UK, has been examined by infrared spectroscopy. The concretions are found to contain calcite and apatite and, in some cases, quartz. Four further concretions from the later Iron Age Meare Village, soil samples from Brean Down and mineralised samples of known faecal origin from a cesspit within the Tudor Merchant's house in Tenby have been similarly examined. It is found that all samples contain calcite, but only the concretions and the Tenby cesspit samples contain apatite. None of the soil samples contain apatite, although these are relatively high in quartz. This suggests that the concretions are coprolites and that the apatite has a biological origin in small bone fragments. The infrared study is backed up by scanning electron microscopy which confirms the presence of phosphorus in the coprolite samples and shows a morphology suggestive of the presence of bone fragments; it is likely, therefore, that the coprolites result from a carnivore—most probably from dogs. The findings show the usefulness of infrared spectroscopy for the rapid identification of mineralised coprolitic material from archaeological sites.

Allen, Samantha D. M.; Almond, Matthew J.; Bell, Martin G.; Hollins, Peter; Marks, Sonja; Mortimore, Joanne L.

2002-03-01

207

Animal care guidelines and future directions.  

PubMed

Two notions broadly accepted in developed western societies have made animal care guidelines inevitable. These are that domestic animals are sentient and that humans are responsible to ensure the proper care of domestic animals. Despite these common views, people have differing moral understandings of the human-animal relationship, and there are sharp divisions over how these views should be applied to domestic animal care. Animal care guidelines have been developed by different nations at several organizational levels to represent a compromise that is acceptable to most people. These organizational levels include individual poultry companies, national poultry associations, individual customers of the poultry industry, national associations of customer companies, national governments, and international organizations. Animal care guideline development has typically included input from producers and scientists and, depending on the sponsoring organization, animal advocates and government representatives as well. Animal advocacy groups have also sought to influence domestic animal care by campaigning against animal production practices or by offering their preferred guidelines for producers to adopt in the hope that the endorsement of the welfare group would add value to the product. Originally, animal care guidelines were only recommended, with little or no requirement for compliance. In recent years, the need for retail companies to assure certain welfare standards has led to animal welfare auditing of production facilities. Animal care guidelines primarily have sought to establish standards for handling and husbandry in existing production systems. Future guidelines may put increasing emphasis on adoption of alternative management practices or housing systems. International animal care guidelines are being developed on 2 levels (i.e., among national governments to create a common standard for trade in animal products and within international retail companies to create company-wide animal care standards). These initiatives should tend to unify farm animal care standards worldwide but perhaps at a level some nations might consider lower than preferable. PMID:17495102

Webster, A B

2007-06-01

208

Animal welfare and meat quality: The perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.  

PubMed

Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions. PMID:25052465

Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

2014-11-01

209

Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation\\u000a of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how\\u000a official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated\\u000a the effect of received predation compensation

Marius Warg Næss; Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen; Elisabeth Pedersen; Torkild Tveraa

210

United States Animal Health Report, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fifth annual report produced by the U.S. Department of Agricultures Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) on the Nations animal health status. This publication highlights APHIS Veterinary Services (VS) programs, events, and initia...

2009-01-01

211

Agricultural Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

Brill, Winston J.

1981-01-01

212

Agricultural Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The agricultural ecosystem concept promotes a distinctive set of ecological principles that give diversity and stability to the food production process. This system allows people to work more closely with nature and to feel a spiritual connection with the...

K. Kindscher

1984-01-01

213

Foot and mouth disease and livestock husbandry practices in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon.  

PubMed

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates and is endemic in most of the tropics. A cross-sectional study using a stratified, two-stage random sample design was undertaken in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon. The objectives were to measure the reported herd-level prevalence of FMD and a range of husbandry practices important for its transmission. The owner-reported prevalence for the previous 12 months was 57.9% (50.4-65.4%), although there was a significant variation across the Province. During the previous dry season, 46.5% (38.6-54.4%) of herds had gone on transhumance. Herds had high numbers of contacts with other herds while on transhumance (98.6%), at pasture (95.8%) and at night (74.4%), with medians of 7-10, 4-6 and 1-3 daily contacts, respectively. The high level of endemic FMD and potential for disease spread presents a significant challenge for control and eradication. Locally sustainable methods need to be developed upon which larger regional control programmes could be built in the future. PMID:14690088

Bronsvoort, B M deC; Tanya, V N; Kitching, R P; Nfon, C; Hamman, S M; Morgan, K L

2003-12-01

214

Comparative Brucella abortus antibody prevalence in cattle under contrasting husbandry practices in Uganda.  

PubMed

A study was conducted in the Luwero and Nakasongola districts in central Uganda to determine and compare the prevalence and distribution of antibodies against Brucella abortus in cattle under contrasting husbandry practices, using two serological tests. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were systematically sampled from 29 farms and subsequently tested using the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and Indirect Antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (I-ELISA). The overall prevalence of antibodies against Brucella abortus in the Nakasongola and Luwero districts was 2.4% and 4.7% on RBPT, compared with 1.2% and 3.34 % on I-ELISA. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by RBPT and indirect antibody ELISA (p > 0.05). It was noted that antibodies against Brucella abortus were widely spread over different farms regardless of the cattle grazing system (p > 0.05). Based on the findings, it is feasible to use RBPT as a cheaper screening alternative for brucellosis. A comprehensive national brucellosis study should be undertaken to study the epidemiology and prevalence of brucellosis in Uganda. PMID:23905210

Nizeyimana, Gerald; Mwiine, Frank N; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

2013-01-01

215

Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

2004-12-01

216

Housing and Husbandry of Xenopus laevis Affect the Quality of Oocytes for Heterologous Expression Studies  

PubMed Central

To assess the effect of Xenopus husbandry on oocyte quality for membrane transport physiology experiments, we compared a recirculating-water housing system with a static-water system in a 23-mo study. Two groups of frogs (n = 8) were maintained separately for the entire study: one group was housed in a multiinvestigator centrally managed Xenopus facility, which consists of 33 tanks placed on a shared and recirculating water system; the other group was housed in a satellite facility used by a single investigator and consisting of static tanks placed in a dedicated cold-room. The activity of a heterologously expressed membrane transporter was assessed every 4 to 5 wk for a total of 23 mo. Activity of the mouse cotransporter NKCC1 was assessed through isotopic 86Rb influx measurements under 2 experimental conditions: stimulation of cotransporter by coinjection of regulatory kinases and by exposure to a hypertonic solution. The results showed a significant difference in the level of ion fluxes under these 2 experimental conditions between the 2 groups of oocytes. During the entire period, oocytes isolated from frogs maintained in the static facility demonstrated consistently robust NKCC1 function, whereas oocytes isolated from frogs maintained in the recirculating facility showed inconsistent and weaker cotransporter function. Furthermore, the oocytes isolated from frogs maintained in the recirculating facility showed significant deterioration during the summer months (April to August), a seasonal variation that was muted in frog oocytes maintained in the static facility.

Delpire, Eric; Gagnon, Kenneth B; Ledford, Jonathan J; Wallace, Jeanne M

2011-01-01

217

9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane...and Transportation of Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats,...

2009-01-01

218

9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane...and Transportation of Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats,...

2010-01-01

219

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

220

Farm, Field and Fireside: Agricultural Newspaper Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What did newspapers mean to the rural frontier? They were (and are) vital sources of information about everything from big city life to the changing rural landscape around farmers and other folks far from city life. This digital newspaper collection from the University of Illinois was made possible with funding from a wide range of organizations, including the Institute of Museum and Library Services, the Illinois State Library, and the Center for Research Libraries. Visitors can browse over twenty titles here, including "Banker Farmer," "Farmer's Wife," "Ohio Farmer," and "Western Rural." It's quite amazing, as visitors can look through all of the advertisements, photo captions, and so on. Visitors can also use the Preview the Collection area to download a slide show of highlights from this prodigious cache. The Browse option is quite fun, and visitors might do well to start by typing in keywords like animal husbandry, machine tools, or railroads.

221

Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.  

PubMed

Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry. PMID:22726305

Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

2013-08-01

222

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

223

Agricultural Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made the Agricultural Outlook publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Agricultural Outlook, the monthly short and long term commodity outlook publication, long available via the USDA Economics and Statistics system at Cornell University's Mann Library, (discussed in the September 15, 1995 issue of the Scout Report) is now available with graphics and charts. Selected archives of the publication are available and articles can be downloaded individually. About the only drawback to this terrific addition to ERS's electronic holdings is that the separate statistical section that accompanies AO (over 20 pages of tables), is not available at this time. This is particularly unfortunate, as these tables are one of the most valuable aspects of the publication.

1996-01-01

224

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2013-04-01

225

48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Care and Use of Laboratory Animals prepared by the Institute of Laboratory Animals Resources (NAS-NRC...in the regulations and standards as promulgated by the Agricultural...pursuant to the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of August 24,...

2013-10-01

226

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

Omsi

2004-01-01

227

Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

Agriculture is a source for three primary greenhouse gases (GHGs): CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O. It can also be a sink for CO(2) through C sequestration into biomass products and soil organic matter. We summarized the literature on GHG emissions and C sequestration, providing a perspective on how agriculture can reduce its GHG burden and how it can help to mitigate GHG emissions through conservation measures. Impacts of agricultural practices and systems on GHG emission are reviewed and potential trade-offs among potential mitigation options are discussed. Conservation practices that help prevent soil erosion, may also sequester soil C and enhance CH(4) consumption. Managing N to match crop needs can reduce N(2)O emission and avoid adverse impacts on water quality. Manipulating animal diet and manure management can reduce CH(4) and N(2)O emission from animal agriculture. All segments of agriculture have management options that can reduce agriculture's environmental footprint. PMID:17706849

Johnson, Jane M-F; Franzluebbers, Alan J; Weyers, Sharon Lachnicht; Reicosky, Donald C

2007-11-01

228

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FEDERAL LEGISLATION HAS PROVIDED FOR PUBLIC PROGRAMS OF OCCUPATIONAL AGRICULTURE EDUCATION IN LAND GRANT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS, AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE TO DEVELOP KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS, PROVIDE OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENT, AND DEVELOP ABILITIES IN HUMAN RELATIONS AND…

STEVENS, GLENN Z.

229

Agricultural Bioterrorism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article warns that agricultural bioterrorism can be as devastating as other forms of terrorism because it: cripples the economy of a nation, can destroy the livelihood of many people puts food supply at risk, perhaps for a long time, and may not be detected before it reaches difficult-to-control levels.

Radford G. Davis (Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine;)

2001-10-01

230

Managing the Interactions Between Plants and Animals in Marine Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a China has long been known for manure-based integrated multiple species fish farming technology. Commonly known as “polyculture,”\\u000a this traditional Chinese system is practiced in pond aquaculture where several fish species are reared together, creating\\u000a a multi-output production structure. For example, polyculture of carps with animal and plant husbandry is based on the efficient\\u000a utilization of organic manures in the ponds.

Daniel Robledo; Yolanda Freile-PelegrÍn

231

Animal Welfare and the Intensification of Animal Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensification of agricultural production has been a focus of debate because of its profound effects on food availability,\\u000a rural populations, use of resources, biodiversity, and many other issues. In the case of animal production, however, the debate\\u000a over intensification has taken on a distinctive tone because at the centre of the process are animals. In many cultures animals\\u000a are

David Fraser

232

Agricultural health in The Gambia I: Agricultural practices and developments.  

PubMed

This manuscript reports results of our study to characterize the historical developments of agricultural practices in The Gambia and related health risks of farm workers. It surveys the various factors that shape production agriculture in the country and examines the degrees to which hand tools, animal traction, motorized traction and manual labour all contribute to the inherent hazards of farm work. The principal objective of this study is to lay the ground work for detailed research of occupational health hazards in Gambian agriculture; and development of policies and programmes to promote the health of Gambian farmers. The authors of this paper assume the belief that one must first understand the industry and its people before effective policies and programmes can be developed. The study concludes by highlighting the need for the integration of epidemiological investigations in the country's agricultural research programme. PMID:16841865

Kuye, Rex; Donham, Kelley; Marquez, Shannon; Sanderson, Wayne; Fuortes, Laurence; Rautiainen, Risto; Jones, Martin; Culp, Kennith

2006-01-01

233

Agriculture Policy Briefing Book: Legislative Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features links to information on legislative issues such as farm support, conservation and resources, animal agriculture, the 2002 Farm Bill and other topics. The research, analysis, and information on this website are provided by the Congressional Research Service.

Service, Congressional R.; Environment, National C.

234

Study Guide for TCT in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was specifically designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in agriculture. The agriculture test was developed by the National Evaluation Systems, Inc. and educators in Georgia. The test covers 13 subareas: (1) plant science; (2) crop management; (3) animal science; (4) livestock and…

Sailors, Robert A.

235

Enhancing Water Use Efficiency in Irrigated Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated agriculture is a vital component of total agriculture and the world's food production to keep pace with its grow- supplies many of the fruits, vegetables, and cereal foods consumed ing population, if that is even possible. Sinclair et al. by humans; the grains fed to animals that are used as human food; (1984) described WUE on various scales from

Terry A. Howell

2001-01-01

236

USDA APHIS-PPQ agriculture safeguard program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1998, the National Plant Board (NPB) reviewed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) efforts to safeguard American agriculture and plant resources. The NPB review is presented here in full (in .pdf format).

237

Agribusiness Management. The Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials in agribusiness management for the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum were designed for use in the following areas: Animal Science; Plant Science; Agricultural Mechanics; and Natural Resources and Aquaculture. Each unit of this competency-based guide contains title of unit, unit length, grade level, objectives, teacher…

EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

238

Adaptation of agriculture to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparing agriculture for adaptation to climate change requires advance knowledge of how climate will change and when. The direct physical and biological impacts on plants and animals must be understood. The indirect impacts on agriculture's resource base of soils, water and genetic resources must also be known. We lack such information now and will, likely, for some time to come.

Norman J. Rosenberg

1992-01-01

239

Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its mission to promote sustainable and environmentally friendly farm techniques, the Leopold Center sponsors a variety of research and educational projects related to marketing and food systems, ecology, and policy. Initiatives include alternative swine production systems/ agroecology, animal management, cropping systems, human systems, integrated pest management, manure management, organic agriculture, and weed management.

2007-04-12

240

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

241

Department of Agriculture  

MedlinePLUS

... Security Laws and Regulations Marketing and Trade Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and ... Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research Newsroom Agency News Releases Agency Reports Creative ...

242

78 FR 49445 - Wildlife Services Policy on Wildlife Damage Management in Urban Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...determining and implementing both research of and methods for controlling animal species that are injurious to agriculture, horticulture, forestry, animal husbandry, endangered and threatened species, other natural [[Page 49446

2013-08-14

243

32 CFR 256.8 - Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...production and extraction and open land: Agriculture 10 Yes...designation for compatible land use is to be...but excludes feedlots and intensive animal husbandry. 11 Includes feedlots and intensive animal...

2010-07-01

244

32 CFR 256.8 - Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...production and extraction and open land: Agriculture 10 Yes...designation for compatible land use is to be...but excludes feedlots and intensive animal husbandry. 11 Includes feedlots and intensive animal...

2009-07-01

245

Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate ... pants when you are in areas with venomous snakes If an animal bites you, clean the wound ...

246

[Well-being--intrinsic value--integrity. Developments in the reevaluation of the domesticated animal].  

PubMed

Owing to selective breeding and conditioning to husbandry methods, domestication has resulted in modification of the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour of animals. Nevertheless, domestic animals cannot be regarded and treated as artificial products. Public interest and concern about the welfare of domestic animals has led to the recognition of the intrinsic value of animals and, in extension of this, to the ethical principle of respect for the integrity of animals. The sensibility and acceptance of these principles by those involved in ethical decision-making depends on their fundamental views about humans and the living world. In order to make judgements about the use of, and interference with, animals, it is desirable to clarify these personal views. The principle of respect for the integrity of animals leads to considerations and arguments beyond animal health and welfare. This is shown by three examples: declawing of cats, caesarean section in cattle, and laying hens in battery cages. PMID:7570549

Grommers, F J; Rutgers, L J; Wijsmuller, J M

1995-09-01

247

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

248

9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.  

...2014-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A...

2014-01-01

249

University Students' Perceptions of Issues Related to Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Telephone interviews with 390 of 400 college students revealed an overall favorable impression of food safety and agriculture's impact on the economy and environment. Males were more positive about animal welfare and production agriculture. Gender, college major, and hometown were related to attitudes about agriculture issues. (SK)

Terry, Robert, Jr.; Lawver, David E.

1995-01-01

250

Animals. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animals are the subject of the student resource unit which is to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Animal housing and equipment, the first section, deals with controlled environment, energy requirements, esthetics, air, water, and noise. Animal waste and byproducts are covered in terms of Federal government program, some of…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

251

Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Animal Welfare Institute, a nonprofit organization founded "to reduce the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans," offers this frequently updated bibliographic database for information on all aspects of environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates. Search results include a list of relevant references with complete bibliographic information, brief summaries of each entry, Web links to full-text documents where available, and a keyword index for easily finding related sources. Users may also browse the entire contents of the database alphabetically. Primatologists and animal handlers alike should find this comprehensive database particularly useful.

2008-08-29

252

Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Animal Welfare Institute, a nonprofit organization founded "to reduce the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans," offers this frequently updated bibliographic database for information on all aspects of environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates. Search results include a list of relevant references with complete bibliographic information, brief summaries of each entry, Web links to full-text documents where available, and a keyword index for easily finding related sources. Users may also browse the entire contents of the database alphabetically. Primatologists and animal handlers alike should find this comprehensive database particularly useful.

1998-01-01

253

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

2007-01-20

254

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

255

Assessing and Mitigating N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural cropping and animal production systems are important sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The assessment of the importance of N fertilization from synthetic fertilizer, animal wastes used as fertilizers and from N incorporated into the soil through biological N fixation, to global N2O emissions presented in this paper suggests that this source has been underestimated. We estimate that agricultural

A. R. Mosier; J. M. Duxbury; J. R. Freney; O. Heinemeyer; K. Minami

1998-01-01

256

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

Museum Of Science, Boston

2005-01-01

257

High Prevalence and Increased Severity of Pathology of Bovine Tuberculosis in Holsteins Compared to Zebu Breeds under Field Cattle Husbandry in Central Ethiopia?  

PubMed Central

A comparative study on the prevalence and pathology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 5,424 cattle (2,578 zebus, 1,921 crosses, and 925 Holsteins), which were kept on pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia, using a comparative intradermal tuberculin test, postmortem examination, and bacteriology. The overall prevalence of bovine TB was 13.5%; prevalence was higher in Holsteins than either zebus (22.2% versus 11.6%, ?2 = 61.8; P < 0.001) or crosses (22.2% versus 11.9%, ?2 = 50.7; P < 0.001). Moreover, the severity of pathology in Holsteins (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM], 6.84 ± 0.79) was significantly higher (P = 0.018) than the severity of pathology in zebus (5.21 ± 0.30). In addition, the risk of TB in Holsteins was more than twice (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.89, 2.85) that in zebus. Animals between 5 and 9 years of age were at higher (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.80, 3.12) risk of bovine TB than those 2 years of age or below. A significant difference (?2 = 351; P < 0.001) in the occurrence of TB lesions in lymph nodes was recorded; the mesenteric lymph node (mean pathology score ± SEM, 1.95 ± 0.08) was most severely affected, followed by the retropharyngeal (0.80 ± 0.05) and caudal mediastinal (0.8 ± 0.06) lymph nodes. Fifty-six percent (n = 145) of the animals with gross TB lesions were culture positive; the lowest culture positivity was recorded in the skin lesions (27.3%) and the lesions of the mesenteric lymph node (31.5%). Both the skin test response and the postmortem findings suggested a higher susceptibility to bovine TB in Holsteins than zebus under identical field husbandry conditions (on pasture). In the light of increased numbers of Holstein cattle introduced into this area to raise milk production to satisfy the needs of Addis Ababa's growing population, these findings highlight the need for a control program in these herds.

Ameni, Gobena; Aseffa, Abraham; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen; Hewinson, Glyn; Vordermeier, Martin

2007-01-01

258

Animal Science Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library, along with the USDA and the American Society of Animal Science are collaborators on this website of animal science images. The images, animations, and videos, which also have accompanying text, are intended for classroom and educational outreach. Additionally, the site also encourages the public to submit their own images relevant to animal science, and it also fully explains the process of selection, the criteria the image must meet to be suitable for classroom and educational outreach, and the copyright and use information for each submission. On the left side of the page are the categories of animals and topics included on the website. Some of the links include "Dairy Cattle", "Companion Animals", "Horses", "Poultry", "Genetics", "Reproduction", and "Nutrition". Although some of the categories have fewer images than others, such as Companion Animals, others such as "Nutrition" and "Horses" have over 100 images. For categories that do have images, the visitor can choose to view subcategories, or just view all the images in the category. Once you've chosen an image to view, you will initially see a thumbnail and a description of the image. If you click on "Image Details" at the bottom of each description, you will be privy to details such as the date created, image rights, how many times downloaded, and how many times viewed. Conveniently, you can download the image in different file and dimensional sizes to suit your needs.

2009-06-11

259

Animal Science Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library, along with the USDA and the American Society of Animal Science are collaborators on this website of animal science images. The images, animations, and videos, which also have accompanying text, are intended for classroom and educational outreach. Additionally, the site also encourages the public to submit their own images relevant to animal science, and it also fully explains the process of selection, the criteria the image must meet to be suitable for classroom and educational outreach, and the copyright and use information for each submission. On the left side of the page are the categories of animals and topics included on the website. Some of the links include "Dairy Cattle", "Companion Animals", "Horses", "Poultry", "Genetics", "Reproduction", and "Nutrition". Although some of the categories have fewer images than others, such as Companion Animals, others such as "Nutrition" and "Horses" have over 100 images. For categories that do have images, the visitor can choose to view subcategories, or just view all the images in the category. Once you've chosen an image to view, you will initially see a thumbnail and a description of the image. If you click on "Image Details" at the bottom of each description, you will be privy to details such as the date created, image rights, how many times downloaded, and how many times viewed. Conveniently, you can download the image in different file and dimensional sizes to suit your needs.

260

Satisfaction of farm animal behavioral needs in behaviorally restricted systems: Reducing stressors and environmental enrichment.  

PubMed

In modern intensive husbandry, systems often restrict farm animal behavior. Behavioral needs will be generated by external stimuli such as stressors deriving from environmental factors or the method of animal care, or some internal factor in farm animals. This means that behavioral restriction would induce maladaptation to stressors or chronic stress. Such a risk of behavioral restriction degrades an animal's physical and mental health and leads to economic loss at a farm. Methods to reduce the risk of behavioral restrictions are to ameliorate the source of a stressor through adequate animal management or to carry out environmental enrichment. This review is intended to describe the relation between animal management and behavioral needs from the perspective of animal motivation. PMID:24889092

Ninomiya, Shigeru

2014-06-01

261

Potential Benefits of Navy Dive Computer Use in Ships Husbandry Diving: Analysis of Dives Conducted on the USS RONALD REAGAN (CVN-76).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Navy dive computers were used to record 23 of 25 air dives performed for ships husbandry on the aircraft carrier USS RONALD REAGAN (CVN-76) during summer 2004. For each of the 23 dives, decompression status was assessed from the maximum recorded depth and...

K. A. Gault

2006-01-01

262

Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.  

PubMed Central

Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animal health, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture.

Garrett, E. S.; dos Santos, C. L.; Jahncke, M. L.

1997-01-01

263

[Thoughts on the complex relationship between medicine and animals: a death prayer for a loyal cat].  

PubMed

From its basis in the writings of the philosopher Peter Singer and the bioethical shortcomings of animal experimentation and animal husbandry, the animal rights movement has evolved into an important societal movement critical of animal experimentation in biomedical research. A lack of dialogue and transparency, an absence of understanding and an unreasonable radicalization of different positions regarding animal experimentation has frequently resulted in an adversarial relationship between some members of the scientific community and societal groups aggressively protecting animal rights. In response to this problem, both the bioethical regulations pertaining to biomedical experimentation with animals and the powers of animal care committees (IACUCs) have been strengthened. Careful analysis of the relevance of animal models to human conditions, replacement of these models with non-animal models when possible, adequate re-examination of existing knowledge before undertaking new experimental projects involving animals, and the improvement of methods to avoid animal stress and pain have further strengthened the bioethical basis of animal experimentation. To improve the ethical integrity of research conducted with animals, it is also necessary to increase the editorial scrutiny of the bioethical standards of potentially publishable research utilizing animals. Of note is also the recent use of animals in alternative animal associated therapies (AAT) to ameliorate several medical conditions. Education of the biomedical community, including students and professionals, and of societal groups concerned about this issue as well as directness and continuous dialogue among all the stakeholders are essential to insure the wellbeing of animals and the ethical integrity of biomedical research. PMID:24718472

Cabello C, Felipe

2013-11-01

264

Husbandry practices employed by private aviculturists, bird markets and zoo collections, which may be conducive to fostering infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Zoos, quarantine stations, and bird markets, dealers and breeders are in the business of propagating or moving birds. Facilities often house and transport birds which have unknown histories of exposure to disease. As few tests are available for disease screening and monitoring in exotic avian species, familiarization with significant avian pathogens will enable the manager and veterinarian to recognize and prevent a disease outbreak. Implementing aviary management practices which minimize the spread of pathogens, in conjunction with quarantine and the proper handling of birds during shipment, can greatly reduce the threat of disease. The author reviews the husbandry practices (caging, nutrition, transport, quarantine) which can reduce the incidence and spread of infectious disease. Significant avian pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites) are listed, together with their host range and modes of transmission. PMID:8924716

Wolff, P L

1996-03-01

265

National Agricultural Library: Educational Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) kids and teens page features links to book and magazine article abstracts, online interactives, educator resources and information about animals, livestock and agriculture; the environment, food and nutrition, general science, and horticulture. The education and outreach page fatures links to several collections of educational materials for teachers, parents, and students, as well as a directory of land-grant colleges with agricultural programs, a listing of events and conferences, and a link to the NAL Catalog (AGRICOLA) with citations for extension education and training from January 2005 to the present. There are also links to information on research and technology programs, natural resources and the environment, laws and regulations, and career information.

266

Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

267

The impact of companion animal problems on society and the role of veterinarians.  

PubMed

The benefits of companion animals are immense, but there can be negative impacts also. Noise, destructive behaviors, excrement, bites, and the overpopulation of domestic cats and dogs are some of the major problems that can result in stress and hardships on owners, neighbors, the community, and the pets themselves. The perpetuation of pets in society requires that the negative aspects of living with dogs and cats be addressed. Veterinarians can play an important role in addressing these problems by incorporating the concept of behavior wellness into their practices and promoting education regarding husbandry, animal behavior, responsible pet ownership, and the effects of pets on the environment. PMID:19185196

Voith, Victoria L

2009-03-01

268

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

269

SCME Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This page contains all the animations created for the various learning modules. These include a cantilever array animation, backside pressure sensor etch animation, and pressure sensor process animation. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-10-11

270

Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.  

PubMed Central

Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks.

Loehr, R C

1978-01-01

271

Agricultural Outlook (Kit) 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides long-run baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2008. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices. The baseline assumes n...

1999-01-01

272

Mascot animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computer Animation Festival issued a special call for short animations of our robot mascot character. Students and professionals around the world submitted many creative, entertaining animations. The largest group of submissions came from students at the Digital Hollywood school in Tokyo.

Shinji Ameda; Kumiko Arai; Tomonori Isogaya; Taiki Ito; Chihiro Iwamoto; Mari Kameyama; Haruki Kato; Yoshihiro Maruyama; Satoko Matsumaru; Hiroki Matsuoka; Takato Nakai; Moemi Nakano; Kumiko Obora; Naomi Ogura; Koichi Okamura; Yuko Sato; Tetsuro Satomi; Mio Sawaguchi; Nobuhiko Suzuki; Yugo Takahashi; Mai Takayanagi; Keigo Takeshige; Naomi Tanaka; Takeshi Tsuzaki; Yoshihumi Uehiro; Shuhei Yamada; Koji Yamamoto; Melanie Beisswenger; Toru Ogura; Takeshi Saito; Takayuki Sato; Atsushi Sugito; Seiichi Tsuji

2009-01-01

273

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt

2011-09-22

274

Computer Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.

2007-01-20

275

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.

276

Water Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do animals adapt to their environments? Use the chart Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos record what you learn for each animal in the chart. The first animal you will learn about is a bottlenose dolphin. Watch Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos Learn about Wild Bills. Watch wild bill video ...

Beardsley, Ms.

2011-10-26

277

Coordination of Programs on Domestic Animal Genomics: The Federal Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Domestic Animal Genomics was chartered in 2002 with the charge of enhancing interagency communication and awareness of the importance of agricultural and companion animal species, increasing leverage of investments a...

2004-01-01

278

Teaching Biology Using Agriculture as the Context: Perceptions of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of 531 students in a course using animal agriculture to teach biology, 90% felt it helped them understand the relationship between science and agriculture and the importance of agriculture. Nearly 90% disagreed with statements that animals should not be used for food and that farmers are not concerned about the environment. (Contains 18…

Balschweid, Mark A.

2002-01-01

279

Phenotyping of Genetically Engineered Mice: Humane, Ethical, Environmental, and Husbandry Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of genetically engineered (GE) mice in scientific research has raised many concerns about the ani- mal welfare of such mice. The types of welfare concerns may differ within the three stages that comprise the estab- lishment of GE animal models: development, production, and research use. The role and impact of the members of the research team on

Marilyn J. Brown; Kathleen A. Murray

280

Farm animal welfare research in interaction with society.  

PubMed

Over the last 30 years concern about farm animal welfare has increased and has become a public issue in the Netherlands. Public discussion has stimulated research in this field, financed by both government and industry. Dutch society in general and consumers of animal products in particular, want to see high standards of welfare for production animals. Good animal welfare has gradually gained more impact in the total quality concept of the product. This will encourage scientists to continue to analyse the welfare status of animals and to come up with innovative solutions for the remaining problems. At ID-Lelystad much effort is put into farm animal welfare research. This research includes for example, the development of behavioural tests for quantifying and interpreting fear in cattle, investigations into the effects of dietary iron supply and a lack of roughage on behaviour, immunology, stress physiology, and pathology in veal calves, studies of the ontogeny of tail biting in finishing pigs and feather pecking in laying hens as well as evaluation of the welfare effects of automatic milking in dairy cows. The results of these projects contribute to concrete improvements in animal husbandry and expertise and support policy making and legislation. The animal industry as well as retailers should aim at the further implementation of this knowledge and to specify welfare standards to guarantee consumer acceptance of animal production. PMID:11087134

Blokhuis, H J; Ekkel, E D; Korte, S M; Hopster, H; van Reenen, C G

2000-10-01

281

Behavioral monitoring in zoos and aquariums: a tool for guiding husbandry and directing research.  

PubMed

Behavioral monitoring is the scientific collection of animal behavior data to understand normal patterns of behavior and changes in these patterns. This tool is underutilized in the zoo industry although it can be an effective indicator of many potential problems that compromise zoo animal well-being. We suggest that a behavioral monitoring program should be a core component of a zoological institution's care program. We detail the benefits of such a program and describe its components. We provide guidelines for implementing such a program and make recommendations that will help institutions to employ behavioral monitoring programs with reasonable expense. We argue that the benefits of such a program, primarily increased detection of rising or potential problems, far outweigh the minor costs of implementation. PMID:19358317

Watters, Jason V; Margulis, Susan W; Atsalis, Sylvia

2009-01-01

282

Relationships among functional markers, management, and husbandry in sheep: a Mediterranean case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most sheep farmers are aware of the importance of monitoring animal health and well-being for profitable sheep production.\\u000a Unfortunately, there are only a few benchmarked functional measures of sheep well-being but much can be gained from our understanding\\u000a of other species. Moreover, comprehensive monitoring programs may be complex and relatively expensive to implement. Hence,\\u000a this work reports the results of

F. Petazzi; G. Rubino; I. Alloggio; A. Caroli; E. Pieragostini

2009-01-01

283

9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.4 Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's...

2010-01-01

284

9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.4 Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's...

2009-01-01

285

Windbreaks in North American agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Windbreaks are a major component of successful agricultural systems throughout the world. The focus of this chapter is on\\u000a temperate-zone, commercial, agricultural systems in North America, where windbreaks contribute to both producer profitability\\u000a and environmental quality by increasing crop production while simultaneously reducing the level of off-farm inputs. They help\\u000a control erosion and blowing snow, improve animal health and survival

J. R. Brandle; L. Hodges; X. H. Zhou

2004-01-01

286

Microfluidics for food, agriculture and biosystems industries.  

PubMed

Microfluidics, a rapidly emerging enabling technology has the potential to revolutionize food, agriculture and biosystems industries. Examples of potential applications of microfluidics in food industry include nano-particle encapsulation of fish oil, monitoring pathogens and toxins in food and water supplies, micro-nano-filtration for improving food quality, detection of antibiotics in dairy food products, and generation of novel food structures. In addition, microfluidics enables applications in agriculture and animal sciences such as nutrients monitoring and plant cells sorting for improving crop quality and production, effective delivery of biopesticides, simplified in vitro fertilization for animal breeding, animal health monitoring, vaccination and therapeutics. Lastly, microfluidics provides new approaches for bioenergy research. This paper synthesizes information of selected microfluidics-based applications for food, agriculture and biosystems industries. PMID:21431239

Neethirajan, Suresh; Kobayashi, Isao; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Wu, Dan; Nandagopal, Saravanan; Lin, Francis

2011-05-01

287

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, Kynwai.; Cowan, Bob.

1996-01-01

288

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

289

Animation Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides physics tutorials and other resources for animation artists and professionals working in the animation industry. There are three tutorials covering topics related to the graphical representation of linear and accelerated motion, rotations, and center of mass. The presentation is non-mathematical and focuses on the consequences of the laws of physics. The web site also provides other physics references for animators and has started a wiki for community building.

Garcia, Alejandro

2009-04-02

290

NMR Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animated tutorials on NMR with sufficient depth to be useful to the non NMR savvy. The animations are accompanied by short descriptions so that the processes displayed can be understood by the viewer. This site goes beyond just showing precession. There are nice animations showing the effect of different pulses, including composite pulses on the magnetization, the effects of magnetic gradient pulses to measure diffusion and do coherence pathway selection.

2011-07-26

291

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

292

Water Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

Kyrk, John

293

Animal cytomegaloviruses.  

PubMed Central

Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions.

Staczek, J

1990-01-01

294

MEDLI Animation  

NASA Video Gallery

Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

295

Theme: Agricultural Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

1991-01-01

296

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

297

Animal Traction. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for use by Peace Corps volunteers and agricultural extension personnel working in animal traction development programs. While some of the information contained in the manual is specific to the extension of animal-powered agriculture in Africa, the principles covered are generally applicable wherever the method is being used…

Watson, Peter R.

298

Undergraduate Teaching in the Animal Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of a conference which reviewed the content of undergraduate animal science curricula, content of courses in the animal sciences, and methods and materials used in undergraduate teaching in the animal sciences are presented in this bulletin. These individual papers are included: Trends in Animal Agriculture and the Future of…

Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

299

78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2013-01-09

300

9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.  

...2014-01-01 false Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents...

2014-01-01

301

Agricultural Statistics 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1998 issue of this annual United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service compendium is available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) from the Agricultural Statistics site. Its fifteen chapters consist of time series tables covering all aspects of the US agricultural economy, including crops, livestock, farm income and expenses, price-support, and fertilizer and pesticides. Time series and geographic coverage vary. The site also contains national and state tables and an archive of Agricultural Statistics back to 1994.

302

78 FR 75570 - Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products Administered...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination...important antimicrobials in animal agriculture. FDA recognizes...for use in food-producing animals, as well as data on antimicrobial...does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and...

2013-12-12

303

Collision Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of interactive Flash animation explores all aspects of the India-Eurasian continental collision. Animations show the motion of the two continents, the growth of the Himalayas, earthquakes resulting from their collision, and the incredible rate of erosion of the newly formed mountains.

Environment, University O.

304

Animal Halter  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is one of many objects used by field scientists in the care of their animals. This type of halter was used to provide an easy way to hold on to animals that might otherwise become unruly or wander away. Object ID: USGS-000076...

2009-07-22

305

Computer Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animated images are almost magical in their ability to capture our imagination. By telling a compelling story, astounding with special eects, or mesmeriz- ing with abstract motion, animation can infuse a se- quence of inert images with the illusion of motion and life. Creating this illusion, either by hand or with the assistance of computer software, is not easy. Each

Jessica K. Hodgins; James F. O'Brien; Robert E. Bodenheimer

306

Excelsior Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

Steinkamp, Mary J.

2001-01-01

307

Animal Restrainer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The animal restrainer is designed to restrain and move a dog from one place to another. The animal is suspended in a flexible structure made up of crossed straps. The legs protrude through openings in the straps. The device is suspended from a trolley rod...

W. S. Koon N. P. Musselman

1965-01-01

308

GPS Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2008-09-12

309

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Boneíspecific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

Chung, Kyn W.

2011-05-24

310

Paper Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains ideas and brief instructions on how to build animals out of construction paper and other simple materials. Included are tips on how to roll, fold, and cut paper to make various animals parts. Learners may enjoy making a "frankenfish" that expands.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-06

311

Motor Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to animations of various types of motors, including stepper motors, brushless motors, and permanant magnet DC motors. Some of the animations are hosted on this site, and require shockwave to view. Others are provided by other websites.

2013-06-14

312

[Husbandry appropriate to the species for African naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber)].  

PubMed

It is reported about the keeping of a group of Naked Mole Rats (Heterocephalus glaber; nine males and 13 females), which had been imported from Kenya in 1996. The animals are kept in a small experimental room without windows at permanent darkness, 30 degrees C environmental temperature and relative humidity above 70%. They live in a glass container, to which a collapsible system of plexiglass tubes is connected. The moles are daily fed ad libitum with different fresh root crops. Until today three adult animals of the colony have died (tooth problems; bite injuries; parturition complication). The first queen of the colony had three litters with altogether 10 puppies, of which four are still alive. It died during its last litter caused by a complicated stillbirth. The female established after that as new queen in the colony had up to now only one litter with two puppies, which did not survive. The evaluation of the motor activity of the naked mole rats - continously recorded by video techniques - showed the period length of their circadian activity rhythm on the average with 24 h 13.5 +/- 14.4 min. It is supposed that the activity of the mole rats is regulated by the alteration of the local earth magnet field running in a 24-h rhythm. PMID:14633051

Petry, H

2003-12-01

313

Report on the Conference on Pastorlists (Kuchi). Held in Kabul, Afghanistan on November 15-17, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Conference on Pastoralists (Kuchi) was an initiative of USAID through its programme RAMP, in collaboration with the Ministry of Frontiers and Tribal Affairs (MFTA) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Food (MAAHF). It was hosted in or...

2005-01-01

314

United States Animal Health Report, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fourth annual report produced by the U.S. Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) on the status of animal health in the United States. The report includes updates on new and existing programs, condu...

2008-01-01

315

The Ecologist's View of Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides insights on the controversial issue of animal rights. Four factors are considered: (1) animals' rights; (2) research; (3) hunting and fishing; and (4) agriculture. Contends that it is imperative that the public knows all the facts before casting their vote on the issue. (ZWH)

Howard, Walter E.

1994-01-01

316

USDA: Animal Welfare Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA's Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) was mandated by the Animal Welfare Act, and the website contains everything from current animal issues to workshops for those in industries that utilize animals to licensing forms. Specifically, the AWIC is designed "to regulate and improve care of animals in research, testing, teaching, and exhibition." The site includes the proposed government rules about animal welfare that are in their public comment period, and how and where to submit your comment. Visitors can click on "In The News" to see all the animal-related rules that are in their public comment period. If visitors want to learn about the origins of veterinary medicine, they can click on "Companion Animals" on the left side of the homepage to find a link to "Veterinary History Resources at the National Agricultural Library". Finally, AWIC provides very important information and resources on alternatives to animal testing, under "Alternatives," on the left side of the homepage. Here visitors will find links to websites that explain the principles of alternatives to animal testing, as well as several papers from conferences that address the issue.

2008-01-01

317

Animal experimentation.  

PubMed

Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation. PMID:16501652

Kolar, Roman

2006-01-01

318

Assembling a geospatial database of tsetse-transmitted animal trypanosomosis for Africa  

PubMed Central

Background African animal trypanosomosis (AAT), or nagana, is widespread within the tsetse-infested belt of sub-Saharan Africa. Although a wealth of information on its occurrence and prevalence is available in the literature, synthesized and harmonized data at the regional and continental scales are lacking. To fill this gap the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) launched the Atlas of tsetse and AAT, jointly implemented with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the framework of the Programme Against African Trypanosomosis (PAAT). Methods The Atlas aims to build and regularly update a geospatial database of tsetse species occurrence and AAT at the continental level. The present paper focuses on the methodology to assemble a dynamic database of AAT, which hinges on herd-level prevalence data as estimated using various diagnostic techniques. A range of ancillary information items is also included (e.g. trypanosome species, survey period, species and breed of animals, husbandry system, etc.). Input data were initially identified through a literature review. Results Preliminary results are presented for Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda in East Africa: 122 papers were identified and analyzed, which contained field data collected from January 1990 to December 2013. Information on AAT was extracted and recorded for 348 distinct geographic locations. The presented distribution maps exemplify the range of outputs that can be directly generated from the AAT database. Conclusions Activities are ongoing to map the distribution of AAT in all affected countries and to develop the tsetse component of the Atlas. The presented methodology is also being transferred to partners in affected countries, with a view to developing capacity and strengthening data management, harmonization and sharing. In the future, geospatial modelling will enable predictions to be made within and beyond the range of AAT field observations. This variety of information layers will inform decisions on the most appropriate, site-specific strategies for intervention against AAT. Data on the occurrence of human-infective trypanosomes in non-human hosts will also provide valuable information for sleeping sickness control and elimination.

2014-01-01

319

Investigations on the Effects of Dietary Essential Oils and Different Husbandry Conditions on the Gut Ecology in Piglets after Weaning  

PubMed Central

Essential oils (EO) are being considered as possible alternatives to in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in pig nutrition. The effects of an EO mixture consisting of limonene, eugenol and pinene (10.0, 2.0, and 4.8 mg/kg diet, resp.) on gut physiology and ecology were studied in piglets. The experiment was conducted at low (commercial farm) and high hygienic conditions (experimental farm), to elucidate interactions between EO supplementation and husbandry methods. Piglets were weaned at 28 days of age, when they were offered either a control diet (C) or C with EO. Four piglets were sacrificed in each group on day 29, 30, 33 and 39. Digesta from the third distal part of the small intestine and from the colon were sampled and analysed for pH, dry matter, lactic acid, short chain fatty acids and ammonia concentrations. Enterobacteria, enterococci, lactobacilli and yeast counts were obtained by plating. Genomic DNA was extracted from digesta and polymerase chain reaction—denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed. Individual microbial communities were identified at each farm. Age affected the intestinal parameters. No effects of the EO with exception for a significant reduction in colon bacterial diversity at 39 days of age could be recorded at experimental farm.

Janczyk, P.; Pieper, R.; Urubschurov, V.; Wendler, K. R.; Souffrant, W. B.

2009-01-01

320

Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-12-04

321

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agriculture in the Classroom (AITC) is a program supported by the United States Department of Agriculture to promote increased agricultural literacy. The AITC website provides resources for teachers including suggestions for science fair projects, virtual tours, agricultural literacy quizzes, effective teaching strategies. There is also a directory of reviewed resources, including lesson plans, webquests, DVDs, maps, posters, and other items. The student's page features an interactive presentation with career information, ideas for science fair projects, opinion features on agricultural issues, games, webquests, and an interactive map with links to downloadable fact sheets about agriculture in each state.

322

Camera Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

2011-01-30

323

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

324

Wild Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

Web Feet K-8, 2000

2000-01-01

325

Animal Bytes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This browsable database is designed to help learners quickly find information about some of the creatures found in the animal kingdom. Most species' records include scientific classification, basic physical traits, fun facts, and conservation/ecological value.

2012-01-01

326

Animating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson challenges students to apply their knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of hand-rendered pictures that model a set of physical conditions. The challenges include animating the orbital motion of planets and satellites, the effects of gravity on a falling body, and motions of objects in inertial (moving) frames of reference. The lesson was created by a high school physics teacher to help learners build quantitative reasoning skills in preparation for understanding kinematics.

Latham, Ted

2004-07-16

327

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

2000-01-01

328

Mathematics Animated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Talman of the Metropolitan State College of Denver offers this site as a reference for both students and teachers of mathematics. It is an assortment of animations that demonstrate many mathematical concepts, which are often difficult to visualize. The only downside of the animations is the lack of explanation associated with them. Some have short descriptions, others are somewhat self explanatory, but the rest can initially be quite confusing.

Talman, Louis.

329

Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

330

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

331

Metrics for Agricultural Supplies & Services, Agricultural Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in agricultural supplies and services, and agricultural production, this instructional package is one of four for the agribusiness and natural resources occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

332

Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

333

1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

334

Anaerobic oxidation of methane in grassland soils used for cattle husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the importance of anaerobic methane oxidation has been reported for marine ecosystems, the role of this process in soils is still questionable. Grasslands used as pastures for cattle overwintering show an increase in anaerobic soil micro-sites caused by animal treading and excrement deposition. Therefore, anaerobic potential methane oxidation activity of severely impacted soil from a cattle winter pasture was investigated in an incubation experiment under anaerobic conditions using 13C-labelled methane. We were able to detect a high microbial activity utilizing CH4 as nutrient source shown by the respiration of 13CO2. Measurements of possible terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane were carried out. Soil sulfate concentrations were too low to explain the oxidation of the amount of methane added, but enough nitrate and iron(III) were detected. However, only nitrate was consumed during the experiment. 13C-PLFA analyses clearly showed the utilization of CH4 as nutrient source mainly by organisms harbouring 16:1?7 PLFAs. These lipids were also found as most 13C-enriched fatty acids by Raghoebarsing et al. (2006) after addition of 13CH4 to an enrichment culture coupling denitrification of nitrate to anaerobic oxidation of methane. This might be an indication for anaerobic oxidation of methane by relatives of "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" in the investigated grassland soil under the conditions of the incubation experiment.

Bannert, A.; Bogen, C.; Esperschütz, J.; Koubová, A.; Buegger, F.; Fischer, D.; Radl, V.; Fuß, R.; Chro?áková, A.; Elhottová, D.; Šimek, M.; Schloter, M.

2012-10-01

335

[Ethical issue in animal experimentation].  

PubMed

In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society. PMID:20669538

Parodi, André-Laurent

2009-11-01

336

Kid's Science Page at the National Agricultural Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture hosts this site for kids, providing "lists of children's books and articles on specific agricultural subjects, science fair projects and supplies, careers and biographies of leading scientists, and 'learn by doing' 4-H youth projects." Five main sections introduce kids to some of the building blocks of modern agriculture: Animals, Environment, Food & Nutrition, General Science, and Plants. A series of educational materials and links to other resources fill out the site.

337

Strategies for Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

1989-01-01

338

Childhood Agricultural Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... dollars) 11 2012 Blueprint for Protecting Children in Agriculture Lee BC, Gallager SS, Liebman AK, Miller ME and ... B (Eds.) (2012). Blueprint for Protecting Children in Agriculture: The 2012 National Action Plan. Marshfield, WI: Marshfield ...

339

Barter of Agricultural Commodities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Barter and barter-type agreements are employed by developing and centrally planned countries in trade of both agricultural and non-agricultural products. These types of agreements generally involve the exchange of goods without the transfer of internation...

D. U. Vogt C. L. Jabara D. A. Linse

1982-01-01

340

USSR Report, Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on USSR agriculture. Topics include: Major crop progress and weather reporting, livestock, agro-economics and organization, agricultural machinery, forestry and timber.

1984-01-01

341

Agricultural Biotechnology Technician. National Voluntary Occupational Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The skill standards in this document were developed as a result of meetings between representatives of the agricultural industry and educational institutions to determine the skills and educational preparation required of an agricultural biotechnology technician, verified by technicians working in laboratories, greenhouses, animal facilities, and…

National Future Farmers of America Foundation, Madison, WI.

342

Technology Of Controlled-Environment Agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) for commercial production of organisms, whether plants or animals. Practiced in greenhouses to produce food on nonarable lands. Describes conceptual regenerative system that incorporates biological, physical, and chemical processes to support humans in extraterrestrial environments.

Bubenheim, David L.; Bates, Maynard E.

1995-01-01

343

Agriculture: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course this learning module introduces the student to some of the major trends associated with agriculture and its impact upon cultural evolution and complexity. The first section of the module describes major innovations such as animal power, irrigation and the…

Kassebaum, Peter

344

Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 2 of 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in three major areas: (1) Animal Science, (2) Supervised Training Programs--Farm Business Management, and (3) Career Selection/Public Relations. Typical of the sixteen units included in the first…

Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

345

Measuring Agricultural Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sustainability in agriculture is a complex concept and there is no ­common viewpoint among scholars about its dimensions.\\u000a Nonetheless various parameters for measuring agricultural sustainability have been proposed. This manuscript reviews some\\u000a aspects of agricultural sustainability measures by referring to measuring difficulties, components of sustainability measurement\\u000a and their interaction. Criteria to select sustainability indicators are discussed. Agricultural sustainability scales at

Dariush Hayati; Zahra Ranjbar; Ezatollah Karami

346

SFRSF: Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses sustainable agriculture in southern Florida. Issues include: land managers and farmers working together to support habitat restoration; providing the agricultural and hydrologic science and technology needed to sustain agricultural production and a quality environment; reducing phosphorus and restoring natural hydrology in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA); and Best Management Practices developed to address these issues. There are links provided for additional information on this topic.

2006-12-23

347

Animal Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.

348

The implementation of robotic technology in an animal facility: a case study.  

PubMed

The benefits of a robotics system for waste disposal and cage sanitation in an animal care facility include a reduction of ergonomic concerns and an increase in production capability. A modular approach can further provide an ability to relocate the unit to new building construction. There are numerous considerations that can affect the design and operation of a robotic cagewash system. These include facility layout, existing animal husbandry procedures, equipment selection, and employee involvement. The implementation of the complete system in an animal facility requires communication and insight from all members of the animal care staff as well as novel solutions to attain full production and operation. The system itself contains many complex technical and mechanical functions, but a successful installation can only be fully achieved with teamwork and proper training. PMID:15174811

Glass, Joan D; Klein, Hilton J; Terpeluk, William; Pouch, Walter J

2004-05-01

349

Agricultural Structures, Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

350

Biotechnology and Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

Kenney, Martin

351

Dutch Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…

Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.

352

Information for Agricultural Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

Kaungamno, E. E.

353

Agriculture Business and Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

Seperich, George; And Others

354

The Core Historical Literature of Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly valuable research Website provides "a core electronic collection of agricultural texts published between the early nineteenth century and the middle to late twentieth century." Currently, the site holds 846 monographs comprising over 315,766 pages covering subjects such as "agricultural economics, agricultural engineering, animal science, crops and their protection, food science, forestry, human nutrition, rural sociology, and soil science." The archive can be searched or browsed with results giving access to a complete bibliographic citation in hypertext as well as the online version of the document. Users can access the document by page number from its individual table of contents. Each text also provides simple, Boolean, or proximity searches for researchers looking for specific references and topics. The authors claim that "United States history cannot fully be understood without studying its rural life and agricultural heritage," and even a quick browse through the variety of titles in this collection appears to substantiate this claim.

2007-11-20

355

Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

Gough, L. P.; Herring, J. R.

1993-01-01

356

Environmental Risk Assessment for Veterinary Medicinal Products Part 5. A guide to risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products used in animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedures described in this document give guidance on recommended\\u000amethods for the risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products applied\\u000ain slurry, for regulatory purposes. The document gives considerations to\\u000afate and effect testing strategies in particular with respect to the\\u000ahallmarks of veterinary medicinal antibiotics. It puts forward what\\u000amodelling approaches are available and what considerations to scenario\\u000adefinitions

Blackwell P; Boxall A; Haliing-Sorense B; Hermansen S; Ingerslev S; Jacobsen A; Kay P; Laak T ter; Moltmann J; Schmitt H; Soeborg T; Tarazona J; Tolls J; Verschoor A; Montforts MHMM

2007-01-01

357

Groundwater Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash and QuickTime animations related to groundwater. They contrast the permeability of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, as well as the speed of groundwater movement in rivers, lakes, and aquifers. They also outline the hydrologic cycle, discussing infiltration, percolation, and the water table, exhibit groundwater overdraft and the resulting formation of a cone of depression, and show how groundwater entering fractured bedrock can become superheated and pushed to the surface, erupting as a geyser. The animations can be paused and rewound to stress important points. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2011-02-28

358

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animalâs reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

359

Board on Agriculture & Natural Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the early 1900s, the Board on Agriculture & Natural Resources has served the United States as a unit of the National Research Council. BANR's work largely revolves around providing expert advice on "issues of food and fiber production and related matters of natural resource development, including forestry, fisheries, wildlife and land and water use." On the organization's website, visitors can learn about the events it sponsors (such as conferences and meetings), its reports, ongoing projects, and its well-known Animal Nutrition Program. The report section is well-developed and visitors can view recent works dealing with genetically engineered organisms and the nutrient requirements of nonhuman primates. Cat or dog lovers will definitely want to take a look at Petdoor, which serves as a guide for pet owners who would like information on specific nutrient needs for their animal.

360

Animating explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce techniques for animating explosions and their effects. The primary effect of an explosion is a disturbance that causes a shock wave to propagate through the surrounding medium. The disturbance determines the behavior of nearly all other secondary effects seen in explosion. We simulate the propagation of an explosion through the surrounding air using a computational

Gary D. Yngve; James F. O'Brien; Jessica K. Hodgins

2000-01-01

361

Computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive 3-D real-time computer animation system is based upon a broad range of research activities in the field of computer graphics. In many ways the requirements for such a system are more challenging and complex than for other graphics systems. This is particularly true if one builds a language and a system which is truly user oriented and which

Charles Csuri

1975-01-01

362

Animal Bioacoustics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

Fletcher, Neville

363

Transgenic Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to introduce foreign genes into the germ line and the successful expression of the inserted gene in the organism have allowed the genetic manipulation of animals on an unprecedented scale. The information gained from the use of the transgenic technology is relevant to almost any aspect of modern biology including developmental gene regulation, the action of oncogenes, the

Rudolf Jaenisch

1988-01-01

364

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, this site is a concise overview of animal reproduction. The site addresses important aspects of sexual and asexual reproduction, the male and female reproductive systems, fertilization, and the importance of hormones. Visitors to the site will find diagrams outlining biological processes especially helpful.

Gregory, Michael

2007-12-14

365

Animal Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

VanCleave, Janice

2001-01-01

366

National Agricultural Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) is part of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The library is a major international source for agriculture and related information. The website provides access to NAL's many resources which include: a Web Gateway to AGRICOLA (AGRICultural OnLine Access), the catalog of the library and its cooperator's resources; the Agriculture Network Information Center (AgNIC), a guide to quality agricultural information on the Internet; and many other databases such as the AGROS Research Data Directory, which is a collection of dataset descriptions from the USDA's environmental research. Users may also find publications, services and programs, and links to other information centers.

367

USDA: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The watchword of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is "protection". The APHIS is primarily considered with improving agricultural productivity and also ensuring the health and care of animals and plants. First-time visitors may wish to click on the "Hot Issues" section to learn more about some of the most pressing issues that the APHIS addresses. Here they will find fact sheets and news updates on avian influenza, the pesky light brown apple moth, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Moving on, visitors can also browse a list of subject headings that include animal health, biotechnology, plant health, and wildlife damage management. Finally, the site also contains an area where concerned visitors can report a pest infestation or suspected instances of agricultural smuggling.

368

Agriculture and nutrition at village level, Underexploited village resources.  

PubMed

Developing country villages contain plants, animals and technologies whose extraordinary potentials are poorly appreciated by scientists. Examples of nutritious village crops that are still largely undeveloped and unappreciated outside their traditional villages are the winged bean, amaranths and the tepary bean. Tropical tree legumes, such as leucaena, grow fast and fix nitrogen and--although barely studied by foresters--are promising sources for village firewood and lumber. There are several animals with great promise for use in villages. The water buffalo is a gentle, productive village resource, neglected by the cow used by Indonesian villagers and unknown elsewhere in the tropics. And Papua New Guinea's new village farms for crocodiles and butterflies graphically demonstrate that wildlife husbandry can be valuable for remote rural areas, despite its neglect by animal science. Among exceptionally useful village technologies, an example is the amazingly efficient cooking system used on the small Indonesian islands of Roti and Sumba, which has so far been described only in Captain Cook's journals. PMID:6106942

Vietmeyer, N D

1980-07-28

369

Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of

Rita G. Betty; Jill Marie Bieker; Mark David Tucker

2005-01-01

370

Agricultural Awareness Activities and Their Integration into the Curriculum as Perceived by Elementary Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from 281 of 689 elementary teachers indicated they had positive perceptions of the agriculture industry and integration of agriculture into the curriculum. Over 80% used agriculture activities, especially the study of animals, plants, food, nutrition, environment, wildlife, and insects. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

Knobloch, Neil A.; Martin, Robert A.

2000-01-01

371

Agricultural Education in the Zaire: An Essay in the Methodology of Analysis and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research done in 1970-71 in 9 secondary agricultural schools in Zaire was to generate a system for analyzing agricultural education. For this purpose, how the agricultural school relates to the 4 main currents in sociology--the sociology of organization, of education, of occupation, and of "rural animation"--is considered.…

de Failly, D.

372

77 FR 22327 - Draft Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...considered necessary for assuring animal health and include veterinary...encourages all sponsors of new animal drug products covered by draft...important antimicrobials in animal agriculture. However, FDA...does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and...

2012-04-13

373

Animated Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

2002-01-01

374

[Dangerous animals].  

PubMed

As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

Hasle, Gunnar

2002-06-30

375

Animation Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online magazine is all about animation and features regular articles, reviews of films and books, and profiles about people in the industry and tutorials. Articles in the current issue address topics such as "the impact of new technology on performance and the future roles of technology, new and old" and international perspectives on Bridging the Cultural Divide in Digital Entertainment. The tutorials cover topics such as how to make 3-D characters come to life and making molds. The Special Features articles report on gaming, production, technology and voice acting. Past issues are also available and can be searched by key word or sorted by category. Numerous other links are listed for more information on animation, resources for education, and listings of upcoming events and contests.

376

Animal cellulases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Previous dogma has maintained that cellulose, ingested by xylophagous or herbivorous animals, is digested by cellulolytic\\u000a symbiotes. The first evidence in conflict with this contention involved the demonstration of cellulolytic activities in symbiote-free\\u000a secreting organs (e.g., the salivary glands of termites) or defaunated guts. Following these demonstrations, possible endogenous\\u000a cellulase components were purified from several cellulose-digesting invertebrates, but this

H. Watanabe; G. Tokuda

2001-01-01

377

Animal Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Many animals – traditionally considered “mindless” organisms – make up a series of signs and are engaged in making,\\u000a manifesting or reacting to a series of signs: through this semiotic activity – which is fundamentally model-based – they are at the same time engaged in “being cognitive agents” and therefore in thinking intelligently. An important effect\\u000a of this semiotic

Lorenzo Magnani

2007-01-01

378

Health and safety risks in production agriculture.  

PubMed Central

Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.

Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

1998-01-01

379

Agricultural aviation research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

Chevalier, H. L. (compiler); Bouse, L. F. (compiler)

1977-01-01

380

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

381

Desert Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on adaptations that desert animals must make in order to survive in the harsh desert environment. Each student studies a certain creature and reports on specific adaptations it has made, and then a game is played to introduce students to these concepts. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

382

Animal Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

383

How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.  

PubMed Central

The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable.

Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

2002-01-01

384

A revised taxonomy of assistance animals.  

PubMed

The use of animals in various assistive, therapeutic, and emotional support roles has contributed to the uncoordinated expansion of labels used to distinguish these animals. To address the inconsistent vocabulary and confusion, this article proposes a concise taxonomy for classifying assistance animals. Several factors were identified to differentiate categories, including (1) whether the animal performs work or tasks related to an individual's disability; (2) the typical level of skill required by the animal performing the work or task; (3) whether the animal is used by public service, military, or healthcare professionals; (4) whether training certifications or standards are available; and (5) the existence of legal public access protections for the animal and handler. Acknowledging that some category labels have already been widely accepted or codified, six functional categories were identified: (1) service animal; (2) public service animal; (3) therapy animal; (4) visitation animal; (5) sporting, recreational, or agricultural animal; and (6) support animal. This taxonomy provides a clear vocabulary for use by consumers, professionals working in the field, researchers, policy makers, and regulatory agencies. PMID:24203538

Parenti, Lindsay; Foreman, Anne; Meade, B Jean; Wirth, Oliver

2013-01-01

385

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

...scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals...Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals...scrapie-positive animal, high-risk animal, exposed animal,...

2014-01-01

386

ANIMAL COMMUNICATION.  

PubMed

Semiotics and ethology have converged in a new behavioral science, zoosemiotics. Those who are interested in the theoretical analysis of the complex problems of non-verbal behavior that arise where these two disciplines interact aim to treat comprehensively animal communication systems by the aid of representations that have proved illuminating in the study of sentences of human language. Students of zoosemiotics are concerned with codes and messages much as linguists are concerned with competence, or language, and performance, or speech. They thus face the twin tasks of constructing a model for the addresser to specify how a message is encoded and transformed into a signal carried by a variety of channels to the addressee; and of constructing a model for the addressee to specify the ways in which animals utilize their knowledge of their code to recognize the messages they receive. Finally, they assess the context of the communicative event in the hope of dissecting that which is relevant to the selection process from the rest of the background, a program for which there is as yet neither a procedural eliciting technique nor a satisfactory theoretical solution in sight. PMID:14245775

SEBEOK, T A

1965-02-26

387

Animal papillomaviruses.  

PubMed

We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination. PMID:23711385

Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

2013-10-01

388

RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

389

Dry-Structured Foams from Animal Hide Glues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to collagenous fibrous proteins, which on hydrolysis yield alpha amino acids or their derivatives for use as improved agricultural foams. These foams have been prepared from certain formulations which contain animal hide glu...

M. G. Lambou J. J. Spadaro

1972-01-01

390

FAPRI 2000 World Agricultural Outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) prepares a preliminary agricultural outlook on world agricultural production, consumption, and trade every fall. This is followed by an outside review, re-evaluation of projections, and completion of the final baseline in January. The FAPRI 2000 World Agricultural Outlook presents these final projections for world agricultural markets. A companion volume, the FAPRI 2000

Bruce A. Babcock; John C. Beghin; Samarendu Mohanty; Frank H. Fuller; Jacinto F. Fabiosa; Phillip J. Kaus; Cheng Fang; Chad E. Hart; Karen Kovarik; Abner W. Womack; Robert E. Young II; Gregg Suhler; Patrick C. Westhoff; Joe Trujillo; D. Scott Brown; Gary M. Adams; Brian Willott; Daniel Madison; Seth D. Meyer; John R. Kruse

2000-01-01

391

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

392

Vocational Agriculture I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

393

Agriculture Power and Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

Rogers, Tom

394

Agricultural Technology Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

395

Agriculture and Rural Viability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

396

Community shared agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community shared agriculture is a concept that brings food producers and consumers together in a relationship that supports values associated with sustainable agriculture, community development, and food security. At the heart of the concept is the notion of sharing. Participants share the real costs of food production through fair prices for the farmer and by assuming part of the risk

Paul Fieldhouse; M. Phil

1996-01-01

397

U.S. Judge's Ruling Sets Up New Battle over Care of Lab Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A federal court decision overturning federal regulations requiring research institutions to present plans for care and use of laboratory animals has renewed debate over laboratory animal welfare. University scientists fear new, stricter Department of Agriculture regulations will result. (MSE)

Burd, Stephen

1993-01-01

398

Agricultural Production, Agricultural Land and Rural Poverty in Madagascar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rural areas dependent on agricultural income, are often among the poorest in developing countries. However, little distinction is generally made within the agricultural sector. This lack of distinction hinders targeting of agricultural investments towards...

B. Minten J. C. Randrianarisoa

2001-01-01

399

Are There Ideological Aspects to the Modernization of Agriculture?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we try to identify the roots of the persistent contemporary problems in our modernized agriculture: overproduction,\\u000a loss of biodiversity and of soil fertility, the risk of large animal disease, social controversies on the lack of animal welfare\\u000a and culling of animals, etc. Attention is paid to the historical development of present-day farming in Holland as an example

Egbert Hardeman; Henk Jochemsen

400

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

401

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

402

National Agricultural Library: Kids and Teens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) kids and teens page features links to book and magazine article abstracts, online interactives, educator resources and information about animals, livestock and agriculture; the environment, food and nutrition, general science, and horticulture. The education and outreach page fatures links to several collections of educational materials for teachers, parents, and students, as well as a directory of land-grant colleges with agricultural programs, a listing of events and conferences, and a link to the NAL Catalog (AGRICOLA) with citations for extension education and training from January 2005 to the present. There are also links to information on research and technology programs, natural resources and the environment, laws and regulations, and career information.

403

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

404

Words matter: implications of semantics and imagery in framing animal-welfare issues.  

PubMed

As criticisms of contemporary farm-animal production escalate, scholars have begun to scrutinize the imagery and linguistic techniques used to frame animal issues and their implications. Pro-animal rights groups typically present animal use as unnecessary, oppressive, and exploitive and adopt themes of compassion and protection to engage the public. In contrast, anti-animal rights groups represent animal use as necessary for human benefit and often situate animal and human interests as being incompatible. Overly simplistic, polarized representations of animal issues therefore emerge. Several analyses, however, have indicated that the discourse on farm-animal production fails to either make a compelling ethical argument for animal agriculture or address the ethical concerns raised by animal-rights activists. Proponents of animal agriculture are argued to consistently misrepresent animal production practices and portray animals as inanimate objects, reflecting lack of genuine concern for animal suffering or welfare. Thus far, the veterinary community has escaped this level of scrutiny. However, veterinarians are often viewed as being connected to animal agriculture. As veterinarians strive to assume leadership in animal welfare, it is useful for the profession to recognize that, as is the case for members of the animal sciences and industries, some aspects of its discourse may contradict its professed values and beliefs about animal care and welfare. Analysis of this discourse affords the opportunity to more effectively engage with the public on animal-welfare issues and to develop a compelling narrative of the role of animals in an increasingly urban society. PMID:20378887

Croney, Candace C

2010-01-01

405

United States Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Wenatchee to Orono, the USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is looking into everything from colony collapse disorder to hop cultivation. Of course, their work doesn't stop there as they also coordinate science partnerships with a wide range of businesses and government agencies. Visitors to their website will be presented with a list of "I Want To", where they can find an ARS location, locate an ARS employee, search for a research project, or just even ask a question. The "Spotlight" area on the homepage is a great place to learn about some of their latest work, which has included research on high-quality corn, and a national research action plan for investigating colony collapse disorder. Moving on, the "Products & Services" area includes the archive of their monthly magazine and links to their newsletters, which address nutrition and animal health-related matters.

2007-09-24

406

Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides long-run baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2007. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices. The baseline assumes ...

1997-01-01

407

Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides long-run baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2008. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices. The baseline assumes n...

1999-01-01

408

NATIONAL AGRICULTURE SAFETY DATABASE (NASD)  

EPA Science Inventory

NASD is a national central repository of agricultural health, safety, and injury prevention materials for the agricultural community and especially for agricultural safety specialists. The mission of the NASD project is: to provide a national information resource for the dissemin...

409

Animal Welfare Report, Fiscal Year 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, the Secretary of Agriculture reports on administration and enforcement activities under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) as required by Section 25 of the AWA. The present report covers fiscal year (FY) 2000, from October 1, ...

2001-01-01

410

Animal Welfare Report Fiscal Year 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, the Secretary of Agriculture reports on administration and enforcement activities under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) as required by Section 25 of the AWA. The present report covers fiscal year (FY) 1999, from October 1, ...

2000-01-01

411

Basic Principles of Animal Science. Reprinted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reference book is designed to fulfill the need for organized subject matter dealing with basic principles of animal science to be incorporated into the high school agriculture curriculum. The material presented is scientific knowledge basic to livestock production. Five units contain specific information on the following topics: anatomy and…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

412

[Animal welfare aspects regarding the raising of breeding ostriches in Germany].  

PubMed

The commercial housing of African Ostriches in Germany for the breed and meat production still represents a disputed topic under the criterion of the animal's welfare. Above all critics state that the frequently wet-cold weather in Germany impairs the well-being and health of the animals. So far however there are just a few scientifically documented data about requirements for housing conditions of ostriches in Central Europe and thus hardly answers whether housing in Germany is possible under the criteria of the animal's welfare. This study tried to evaluate ostrich housing under South German climatic conditions (Rhine level), on the basis of behavioral observations of breeding ostriches. The use of the stable and the influence of different climatic parameters on the behavior were considered. In addition the behavior of 18 adult animals in 5 breeding groups from January to December 2002 was observed. Parallel various climatic data were raised. The housing of the animals took place in open stables with unrestricted pasture possibility. The ostriches reacted in their behavior to different climatic conditions. Particularly at cold weather and adverse soil conditions they used the open stable increasingly as weather protection. In addition, with increased wind velocities the animals spent more time in the stables. The daily amount of precipitation showed no influence on the frequency or duration of the stable use. Rainfall did not animate the animals to look for protection within the stable, but more to set itself on the ground in the external enclosure. The locomotion activity of the animals was strongly in dependence to the reproduction time and the territorial behavior and therefore highest in spring. On cold days the animals performed their reproduction behavior mainly in the stable. For the comfort behaviour distinct weather dependence was seen particularly for sand bathing. Warm temperatures and dry sand were the preconditions for it. Regarding the results it seems, that with the conditions existing on the examined farm, housing of ostriches under respect of animal welfare in Germany is possible. New regulations are to be demanded, adjusted to the newest level of knowledge about ostrich husbandry, with requirements for care, support, accommodation and nutrition of the animals as well as about the qualification of the owners. An occasional hobby animal husbandry limited to few single ostriches is to be rejected. Further scientific investigations at other farms, possibly also under variable climatic conditions are however necessary. PMID:15847067

Wöhr, A C; Schulz, A; Erhard, M H

2005-03-01

413

Animal welfare: an animal science approach.  

PubMed

Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

2013-12-01

414

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

415

Fuel Gas Production from Animal and Agricultural Residues and Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic diges...

D. L. Wise R. L. Wentworth

1978-01-01

416

Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service  

MedlinePLUS

... Welfare Biotechnology Emergency Response Imports & Exports International Services Plant Health Wildlife Damage Alerts And Announcements USDA Licenses ... feed on the flower or fruit of host plants, most often grapes. It was first detected in ...

417

Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

Christensen, Christian M.

418

History of zinc in agriculture.  

PubMed

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

Nielsen, Forrest H

2012-11-01

419

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet about the Agricultural Heath Study, begun In 1993 by scientists from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

420

Agricultural Education and OSHA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agriculture teachers should be interested in and become familiar with the implications of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 for their own benefit, for their students, and for their students' future employers. (AG)

Brown, Ronald A.

1974-01-01

421

Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

Schake, L. M.

1970-01-01

422

What is Industrial Agriculture?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Highly productive commercial agriculture, known as industrial agriculture, is the focus of this investigation. Students will analyze and compare the inputs and outputs of industrial agriculture after reading background information, examining photos and satellite images, graphing data, and answering questions. The role of technology in shaping industrial agriculture is also examined. Suggestions are offered for optionally assessing this lesson in a debate format or in a role-play format. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. This is Investigation 2 of three found in the Grades 9-12 Module 2 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the three investigations in Module 2, while related, can be done independently.

423

29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term âfur-bearing...

2013-07-01

424

ASSESSING STUDENT ATTITUDES TOWARD ANIMAL WELFARE, RESOURCE USE, AND FOOD SAFETY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in a program addressing contemporary issues in animal agriculture had an effect on the students ' attitudes towards animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. The students in this study were participants in the Pennsylvania Governor 's School for Agricultural Sciences (PGSAS). Within the five-week PGSAS program, students completed a

Patricia A. Nordstrom; Martha J. Richards; Lowell L. Wilson; Brenda L. Coe; Marianne L. Fivek; Michele B. Brown

425

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

This study explores potential causes of cancer and other diseases among farmers and their families and among commercial pesticide applicators. Current medical research suggests that while agricultural workers are generally healthier than the general U.S. population, they may have higher rates of some cancers, including leukemia, myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the lip, stomach, skin, brain, and prostate. Other conditions, like asthma, neurologic disease, and adverse reproductive outcomes may also be related to agricultural exposures.

426

From the Cover: Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is a specialized form of symbiosis that is known to have evolved in only four animal groups: humans, bark beetles, termites, and ants. Here, we reconstruct the major evolutionary transitions that produced the five distinct agricultural systems of the fungus-growing ants, the most well studied of the nonhuman agriculturalists. We do so with reference to the first fossil-calibrated, multiple-gene,

Ted R. Schultz; Seán G. Brady

2008-01-01

427

Animal care and use: an issue now and in the future.  

PubMed

Animal rights proponents equate human and animal rights or capacity to suffer pain. Animal welfare is a philosophy that centers on animal well-being, a stewardship role that producers view as affecting profitability but the general public may view as having additional components. The agenda of some animal rights proponents may be positioned under the guise of animal welfare to gain acceptability for portions of their work. Currently, guidelines and accreditation programs targeted at ensuring proper animal care and use increasingly include agricultural animals. Also, public initiatives such as the Massachusetts ballot initiative to curtail animal agriculture and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine's attempts to curtail the use of milk and meat in human diets were defeated by educating the general public. Various organizations have been developed to address animal care and use issues. The Animal Industry Foundation is a broad-based agricultural organization addressing animal rights issues. National biomedical organizations, the Foundation of Biomedical Research and the National Association for Biomedical Research, address education and governmental animal rights issues. State-level coalitions, such as those recently organized in Missouri, of agricultural organizations, academic research units, biomedical institutions, and agribusiness or consumer products companies offer great promise of educating others on animals rights and welfare issues. Animal scientists need to educate themselves on these issues, participate in their own institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, and help to educate the general public through organizations and programs at the local, state, and national level. PMID:8778107

Kertz, A F

1996-01-01

428

9 CFR 92.2 - Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region.  

...Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region. 92.2 Section...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region. (a) The...

2014-01-01

429

A retrospective study of mortality in varanid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) at the Bronx Zoo: implications for husbandry and reproductive management in zoos.  

PubMed

Varanid lizards have been maintained in zoological parks for more than a century, yet few studies to date have attempted to pinpoint significant health issues affecting their management or areas of captive husbandry that are in need of improvement. In an effort to identify and better understand some of the husbandry-related challenges and health issues specifically affecting varanids in zoos, this study examined mortality in 16 species maintained at the Bronx Zoo between 1968 and 2009. Out of 108 records reviewed, complete necropsy reports were available for 85 individuals. Infection-related processes including bacterial (15.3%), protozoal (12.9%), nematode (9.4%), and fungal (3.5%) infections accounted for the greatest number of deaths (47.1%). Noninfectious diseases including female reproductive disorders (7.1%), neoplasia (7.1%), gout (10.8%), and hemipenal prolapse (1.3%) accounted for 29.4% of deaths. Multiple disease agents were responsible for 5.9% of deaths, and a cause for death could not be determined for 17.7% of individuals. Reproductive complications accounted for 11.5% of female deaths, but were identified in 23.1% of females. Although not necessarily the cause for death, gout was present in 18.8% of individuals. Differences in mortality between species, genders, and origin (captive-bred vs. wild-caught) were also evaluated. The results of this study corroborate earlier findings that identify bacterial infections, neoplasia, female reproductive disorders, gout, and endoparasitism as major sources of mortality in captive varanids. In light of these results, we discuss potential etiologies and offer recommendations for improving captive management practices in zoos. PMID:22997089

Mendyk, Robert W; Newton, Alisa L; Baumer, Megan

2013-03-01

430

Bethesda Animal Technical Services  

Cancer.gov

Animal Holding and Technical Support Program - Bethesda Campus Animal Holding and Technical Support This service is designed to provide the highest quality of care and support services for animal research activities conducted at the NCI-Bethesda campus Animal

431

Evaluation of Fecal Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria Originating from Swine Manure Applied to Agricultural Lands Using Culture-Based and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

432

Evaluation of fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria originating from swine manure applied to agricultural lands using culture-based and quantitative real-time PCR methods.  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

433

The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems  

PubMed Central

Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter–gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods by agricultural and forager communities in 22 countries of Asia and Africa (36 studies) is 90–100 species per location. Aggregate country estimates can reach 300–800 species (e.g. India, Ethiopia, Kenya). The mean use of wild species is 120 per community for indigenous communities in both industrialized and developing countries. Many of these wild foods are actively managed, suggesting there is a false dichotomy around ideas of the agricultural and the wild: hunter–gatherers and foragers farm and manage their environments, and cultivators use many wild plants and animals. Yet, provision of and access to these sources of food may be declining as natural habitats come under increasing pressure from development, conservation-exclusions and agricultural expansion. Despite their value, wild foods are excluded from official statistics on economic values of natural resources. It is clear that wild plants and animals continue to form a significant proportion of the global food basket, and while a variety of social and ecological drivers are acting to reduce wild food use, their importance may be set to grow as pressures on agricultural productivity increase.

Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules

2010-01-01

434

New partnerships between animal health services and public health agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary As Veterinary Services and animal health organisations attempt to respond to a new era of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases, their ability and skill in forming new strategic partnerships will be paramount. While these new partnerships are likely to include many relationships outside traditional Veterinary Services and animal agriculture, none will become more important than the formation of new

L. J. King; N. Marano; J. M. Hughes

2004-01-01

435

U.S. Agricultural Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This briefing room from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (reviewed in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) provides general information and data on US agricultural trade with all of the countries and regions of the world. Data publications such as the US Agricultural Trade (FATUS), Agricultural Outlook, and US Agricultural Trade Balance are gathered here on a monthly or yearly basis with export and import values by commodity and country. Users will also find FATUS reference tools as well as special ERS articles covering topics such as agricultural export figures by state and the US agricultural trade's effect on the overall economy.

1999-01-01

436

[Occupational dermatitis in the agriculture-food industry environment].  

PubMed

The agricultural and food professions are those that touch agriculture, but also the restoration, the kitchens, and the employees of slaughterhouses. Various occupational skin diseases touch these salaried employees or craftsmen: eczemas or contact hives with plants or meats and fleshes of animals and all chemical substances that are added: pesticides, food additives and various preservatives. Irritation contact dermatitis or real skin burns are observed with housekeeping products imposed by the sanitary norms, increasingly powerful, but as increasingly caustic. Infectious illnesses transmitted from the animal to the man are sometimes observed especially among the breeders and employees of slaughterhouses. PMID:12385154

Tripodi, Dominique; Géraut, Christian

2002-09-01

437

Experiential learning in the animal sciences: Development of a multispecies large-animal management and production practicum 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students enrolled in an introductory animal science course (ASG 3003) at the University of Florida were surveyed (n = 788) over a 3-yr period to ascertain their current experience and career goals in animal agriculture. Sixty-one percent of the students indicated that they were from an urban background. Only 4% were raised on a farm or ranch where the majority

B. A. Reiling; T. T. Marshall; J. H. Brendemuhl; J. A. McQuagge; J. E. Umphrey

2010-01-01

438

[Psycho-social stress in humans at mass slaughter of farm animals].  

PubMed

Animal epidemics are part of everyday life in animal husbandry, as are the psychosocial effects of the killing/slaughter of animals on the animal keeper. So here we are talking about everyday life observations of concerned people and veterinarians. But now, after the mass slaughter of contaminated animals in conjunction with BSE and MKS, society and the church have taught us to take a much closer look and we now realise that pathological traumatic states are to be considered almost universal concomitant phenomena. Rural families as well as the veterinarians and slaughtering teams involved (Keulungsteams) have to bear the emotional consequences of the circumstances of the loss of these animal for a long time. For the sake of people and the vitalization of the human-animal-relationship the pastoral service ("Kirchlicher Dienst") has initiated an oecumenically organised and specially trained pastoral care task force in Lower Saxony. Its intention is to support the initiation of trauma coverage regarding psycho-religious ways of connectivity at the entrance point of the crisis. PMID:12822253

Wichert von Holten, S

2003-05-01

439

ANIMAL NUTRITION. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNITS, ANIMAL NUTRITION, FEED CHARACTERISTICS, VITAMINS, MINERALS. FINAL REPORT NUMBER 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE ANIMAL NUTRITION PRACTICES WERE IDENTIFIED BY EXAMINATION OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. UTILIZING THIS INFORMATION, THE AUTHOR INVOLVED 16 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL USE OF A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS. INSTRUCTIONAL RESULTS WERE NOT AVAILABLE AT THE…

LONG, GILBERT A.

440

The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

2012-01-01

441

Transforming Agricultural Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Academic programs in agriculture have been a staple of many institutions for well over a century. Recently, the National Research Council crafted this thoughtful report which looks at how undergraduate agricultural education might be transformed to attract new students and "keep pace with changing times". The Council created this special site to provide interested parties with the text of the 94-page report released in March 2009, along with extra information, such as background papers and related reports. Visitors who don't want to read the entire report can view a four-page brief and also read through the nine primary recommendations. These recommendations include creating a focus on building strategic partnerships, a focused review of undergraduate programs in agriculture, and broadening the overall student experience. Additionally, visitors can learn about the study committee which was convened to create this report and also sign up for email updates about forthcoming publications.

2009-06-02

442

Proceedings: Agricultural Technology Alliance  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI-ATA meeting held in Boise, Idaho, May 28-30, 1997. The field trips consisted of an Agriculture and Aquaculture Tour, a tour of Idaho as America's Seed Supplier, and a Production of Milk, Cheese and Electricity tour. Presentations and committee reports include the following: (1) Idaho Seed Industry; (2) Controlled Environment Agriculture; (3) Irrigation in the North West: An Overview; (4) Drip Irrigation; (5) Sprinkler Irrigation; (6) Current Status of the ATA; (7) ATA Office Report; (8) Committee Reports; (9) Steering Committee Minutes.

None

1997-09-01

443

Agricultural Meteorology in China.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

Rosenberg, Norman J.

1982-03-01

444

Transforming Agricultural Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Academic programs in agriculture have been a staple of many institutions for well over a century. Recently, the National Research Council crafted this thoughtful report which looks at how undergraduate agricultural education might be transformed to attract new students and "keep pace with changing times". The Council created this special site to provide interested parties with the text of the 94-page report released in March 2009. Visitors who don't want to read the entire report can view a four-page brief. Additionally, visitors can learn about the study committee which was convened to create this report and also sign up for email updates about forthcoming publications.

2009-03-04

445

[Livelihood status assessment of farmers and herdsmen's households based on participatory appraisal: a case in Taipusi Banner of Inner Mongolia].  

PubMed

Participatory appraisal method was adopted to investigate the recent livelihood status of different type farmers and herdsmen's households in the Taipusi Banner of Inner Mongolia agriculture- animal husbandry ecotone, aimed to understand their livelihood strategies and restricting factors and to search for the ways to improve their living standards. The households dealing with pure agricultural production had smaller family size, with older age-structure and lower educational level, and their simple livelihood strategies brought about larger vulnerability and risk. To introduce and expand non-agricultural activities would be the important way to promote the livelihood diversification and to reduce the livelihood risks of these households. The households dealing with pure animal husbandry took grazing as the main subsistence, and their production activities were greatly restrained by the pasture vulnerability. To develop environment-friendly and high-yielding agriculture and animal husbandry would be the effective way to solve the livelihood problems of these households and to protect the ecological environment. The households dealing with both agricultural production and business or dealing with both animal husbandry and business generally had larger family size, with younger age- structure, higher diversity in labor division, larger proportion of non-farming activities, and better living standards. Especially for the households dealing with both animal husbandry and business, their income was much higher. PMID:22263475

Wei, Wen; Xu, Zhu; Shi, Shang-li; Tian, Qing-song; Wang, Hui-ping; Liu, Jian-li

2011-10-01

446

Animal research. Activists win big on rodent, bird rules.  

PubMed

A federal judge last month ruled that animal-rights activists have the legal right to challenge U.S. Department of Agriculture rules that exempt the vast majority of research animals from federal regulation. Observers say that the ruling almost guarantees that the agency will extend regulations governing animal handling and housing to thousands of academic and industry laboratories that work with rodents and birds. Those new rules, say animal-care experts, could impose costly new requirements on labs that don't meet standards set by the private Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care. PMID:10939943

Malakoff, D

2000-07-21

447

[Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

Tal, H

2013-10-01

448

Animals around the world  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What kinds of animals live in South Africa? Your teacher will give you KWL chart First, lets learn about Elephants Animals Record in your chart what you learn. Now lets learn about other animals Animals How is it similar or different from the Elephant? Project: Create a poster on one of the animals we discussed in this lesson. See the teacher ...

Carly, Ms.

2011-10-27

449

Cloning of farm animals: impact on animal health and welfare and implications in trade.  

PubMed

The commercial use of animal cloning for breeding food producing animals has been limited so far by biological and technical constraints such as adverse effects on the health and welfare of animals, especially high perinatal and postnatal disease and mortality of clones. However, the improvement of the technique may overcome those problems in future and contribute to the spread of cloning in agricultural production, which raises concern not only on health and welfare aspects but also on food safety and ethics. This may cause conflict in international trade. The present article reviews these topics on the basis of up-to-date scientific opinions. PMID:21274831

Menéndez González, S; Reist, M

2011-02-01

450

Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

451

Agriculture, environment and biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, modern biotechnology has been increasingly applied to crop agriculture. The manipulation of whole organisms, populations of organisms and nucleic components holds much promise for improving crop productivity. Biotechnology offers various means of manipulating the fundamental processes of energy flow and biogeochemical (nutrient) cycles. It also provides a means of designing crops for specific environments which is

A. M. Mannion

1995-01-01

452

Metrics for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of agricultural mechanics students, this instructional package is one of four for the agribusiness and natural resources occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

453

Energy and Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course overview on renewable energy in an agricultural context. Details on several learning units are included on topics including energy consumption, solar energy, wind, hydropower and ocean energy. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Cochrane, Michael

2011-04-18

454

AGRICULTURAL SIMULATION MODEL (AGSIM)  

EPA Science Inventory

AGSIM is a large-scale econometric simulation model of regional crop and national livestock production in the United States. The model was initially developed to analyze the aggregate economic impacts of a wide variety issues facing agriculture, such as technological change, pest...

455

Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

456

Agriculture, forestry, range resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

Macdonald, R. B.

1974-01-01

457

Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

458

COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL employees at the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, are sharing in a unique community agriculture program that supports EPA environmental goals?off the job as well as on. Every Wednesday afternoon, bags of farm-fresh org...

459

Agriculture. Beef Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

460

Agricultural Chemistry and Bioenergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed interest in converting biomass to biofuels such as ethanol, other forms of bioenergy, and bioenergy byproducts or coproducts of commercial value opens opportunities for chemists, including agricultural chemists and related disciplines. Applications include feedstock characterization and quantification of structural changes resulting from genetic modification and of the intermediates formed during enzymatic and chemical processing; development of improved processes for

William J. Orts; Kevin M. Holtman; James N. Seiber

2008-01-01

461

e-Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by the United Nations, the e-Agriculture initiative is primarily concerned with the "conceptualization, design, development, evaluation and application of innovative ways to use information and communication technologies (ICT) in the rural domain, with a primary focus on agriculture." This website is an integral part of the initiative, as it is set up to help interested parties exchange experiences and best practices related to this emerging field. Persons unfamiliar with the field should start their journey through the site by clicking on the "Global Examples" area. Here they will find items such as Digital Green, which is an agricultural training and advising system that seeks to benefit rural farmers by disseminating targeted information through digital videos. After that, visitors should make their way to the "Resources" section. As might be expected, this section contains learning tools and activities, along with a glossary of e-agriculture terms. Finally, visitors can also login to take an active part in their forums and create their own customized list of resources.

462

Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

463

Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

464

PRESERVICE AGRICULTURAL EDUCATORS' ABILITY TO SOLVE AGRICULTURALLY RELATED MATHEMATICS PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to apply academic skills to agriculture is increasingly important. Even so, studies have shown that students and teachers of agricultural education lack competence in solving agriculture-related mathematics problems. The purpose of this correlational study was to explain variance in the mathematical problem-solving ability of preservice agricultural educators. Findings show a lack of competence in mathematical problem-solving among the

Greg Miller; Joe A. Gliem

465

Animal welfare training at the Ontario Veterinary College.  

PubMed

The University of Guelph is internationally recognized as a leader in animal welfare and is home to the Colonel K.L. Campbell Centre for the Study of Animal Welfare and to numerous faculty with expertise in the discipline. However, while animal welfare receives significant attention within the agricultural college, its didactic teaching within the veterinary curriculum has been limited. Veterinary students receive four hours of instruction in animal ethics and apply their knowledge within the communication lectures and laboratories, totaling 11-15 hrs. Compulsory coursework explicitly addressing factual components of animal welfare science, welfare assessment, and associated animal-related policy constitute only 12 hrs throughout the four-year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine curriculum. However, an elective final-year clinical rotation and a graduate course specific to animal welfare were offered for the first time in 2004/2005. Student interest in animal welfare is evident through their participation in summer research projects in animal welfare, an animal welfare mentor group, and a student-run animal welfare club that organizes an Animal Welfare Forum each October. Veterinarians have important contributions to make in decision making about animal welfare issues, at clinician and policy levels. Although motivated individuals can seek out opportunities to expand their knowledge of animal welfare, a compulsory senior-level course in animal welfare is needed to develop the necessary depth of understanding of this discipline if veterinarians, as a profession, are to meet society's expectations about animal welfare. PMID:16421826

Millman, Suzanne T; Adams, Cindy L; Turner, Patricia V

2005-01-01

466

Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

467

Teachers' Use of Agricultural Laboratories in Secondary Agricultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends in the agriculture industry require students to have the ability to solve problems associated with scientific content. Agricultural laboratories are considered a main component of secondary agricultural education, and are well suited to provide students with opportunities to develop problem-solving skills through experiential learning. This…

Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

2012-01-01

468

Homeland Security: Agriculture Specialists' Views of Their Work Experiences After Transfer to DHS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Homeland Security Act of 2002 transferred responsibility for certain port inspections from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to the newly created Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Cust...

2006-01-01

469

Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States, November/December 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exports of farm products fell for the second consecutive year in fiscal year 1983 to $34.8 billion. Values for agricultural imports, especially for competitive items such as live animals, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, beverages, and tobacco, gained ...

1983-01-01

470

Sources for Animal Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

As ecological and human pressures on animal populations increase, so does the discussion of the importance of animal biodiversity. This paper presents sources that can be used to research animal biodiversity and related topics.

Margaret A. Mellinger

2004-01-01

471

[Animal feeding and feed legislation after the detection of the first indigenous BSE cases in Germany].  

PubMed

In Great Britain, even the earliest tangible signs indicating the epidemiologic significance of meat and bone meal in the spreading of BSE soon gave rise to increasingly rigorous legislative measures regulating animal feedstuffs. In 1994 a ban on the feeding of animal proteins to ruminants was implemented throughout the entire EU. But until the first BSE cases were actually confirmed in locally raised cattle (November 2000), feeding practice and legislation more or less in Germany remained unaffected by the efforts undertaken in Great Britain. This situation was suddenly changed on 1 December, 2000, when the so-called "Verfütterungsverbot" was put into effect, a law which drastically extended bans regarding the feedstuffs (including fishmeal and animal fats) as well as the species concerned (all animals used in food production). In 2001 the "contamination" phenomenon (ingredients of animal origin were detected in mixed feeds) became a vital issue for the feed industry; through the media, the subject "feedstuff safety" gained a previously unseen level of public awareness. Those circles concerned with mixed feed production and animal husbandry were increasingly confronted with the consequences of the "Verfütterungsverbot" (availability and pricing of substitute ingredients; the demand for amino acids and inorganic sources of phosphorus; problems finding adequate substitutes for animal fats; poor digestibility of alternative components such as indigenous legumes or vegetable fats in calf diets; lower utilization rate of original phosphorus in mixed feeds with negative consequences for skeletal development). With the conditional approval of fishmeal (except in feeds for ruminants) the situation has eased again to a certain degree; on the EU level there are increasing signals pointing toward a political intention to reinstate the utilization of by-products of slaughtered animals qualified for human consumption (with the exception of fallen/dead animals and specific risk material) in poultry and swine feeding. In Germany, at least, the question of animal fat utilization for food-producing animals is still unsolved. PMID:12224466

Kamphues, J

2002-08-01

472

Theme: In-Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven theme articles review the history and philosophy of vocational agriculture, its relationship to the national goals for education, the place of sustainable agriculture and supervised experience in the curriculum, diversifying the curriculum, and fisheries education programs in Alaska. (SK)

Elliot, Jack, Ed.; And Others

1991-01-01

473

MARYLAND AGRICULTURE AND YOUR WATERSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

Using primarily 1995 State of Maryland agricultural statistics data, a new methodology was demonstrated with which State natural resource managers can analyze the areal extent of agricultural lands and production data on a watershed basis. The report organized major crop ...

474

Energy uses in Nebraska agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report surveys the present demand level for fuels for Nebraska's agriculture, considering the mix of cultural practices, crops, and environment including irrigation, crop drying, and transportation to market. Opportunities are discussed for reducing the energy demand for productive agriculture.

P. E. Fischbach; N. C. Teter

1976-01-01

475

Feasibility Study for Paravetic Competency Development of Vocational Agriculture Teachers. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of an animal health (paravetical) competency development inservice program for vocational agriculture teachers in Pennsylvania. Objectives were to identify the paravetic (paraveterinary medical) competencies needed by vocational agriculture teachers to teach high school students and adults via…

Evans, Donald E.

476

Do Cows Belong in Nature? The Cultural Basis of Agriculture in Sweden and Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the now extensive recent literature on cultures of nature, agriculture has received less attention than might have been expected given its threshold role in transforming human relations with the earth and with plants and animals. The concept and practice of agriculture can be understood as central to the emergence and maintenance of the…

Saltzman, Katarina; Head, Lesley; Stenseke, Marie

2011-01-01

477

Agricultural Research Service research highlights in remote sensing for calendar year 1980  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AR research mission in remote sensing is to develop the basic understanding of the soil plant animal atmosphere continuum in agricultural ecosystems and to determine when remotely sensed data can be used to provide information about these agricultural ecosystems. A brief statement of the significant results of each project is given. A list of 1980 publication and location contacts is also given.

Ritchie, J. C. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

478

Treatment of sewage sludge with lime and zeolite in relation to its application to agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressive implementation of Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91\\/271\\/EEC results in increasing quantities of sewage sludge requiring safe disposal. Due to high content of nutrients, the use of sewage sludge in agriculture is encouraged, but only in a way which prevents its harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man. The risks associated with agricultural use of sewage sludge

J. Venglovský

479

Women and Agriculture: Blending the Facts with Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though the diversity of farm women's contributions was recognized by novelists such as Cather, Aldrich, and Sandoz in the 1800s, it would be many decades later before the work efforts of farm women would be formally recognized by the government and agricultural researchers. The West used a masculine environment, and farm animals and females where…

Morris, Gayle A.

480

Agricultural Education Science Activity--Nos. AS 1-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains four science learning activities on the subject of animal science that can be used in agricultural education courses. The activities cover these topics: (1) identifying internal parasites in domestic livestock; (2) the effect of feed preparation on feed palatability and consumption; (3) determining the absorption abilities of…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.