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1

Trimethylamine emissions in animal husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation of plant material by animals is an important transformation pathway in the nitrogen (N) cycle. During the involved processes, volatile reduced alkaline nitrogen compounds, mainly ammonia (NH3) and aliphatic amines such as trimethylamine (TMA), are formed. Today, animal husbandry is estimated to constitute a main source of aliphatic amines in the atmosphere with TMA being the main emitted compound. Here, we show how the interaction between faeces and urine in animal production systems provides the primary source for agricultural TMA emissions. Excreted urine contains large quantities of urea and TMA-N-oxide, which are transformed into NH3 and TMA, respectively, via enzymatic processes provided by microbes present in faeces. TMA emissions from areas polluted with urine-faeces mixtures are on average of the order of 10 to 50 nmol m-2s-1. Released amines promote secondary aerosol particle formation in the agricultural emission plume. The atmospheric lifetime of TMA, which was estimated to be of the order of 30 to 1000 s, is determined by the condensation onto aerosol particles.

Sintermann, J.; Schallhart, S.; Kajos, M.; Jocher, M.; Bracher, A.; Münger, A.; Johnson, D.; Neftel, A.; Ruuskanen, T.

2014-09-01

2

Organic Compounds Used in Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although in general, the same drugs are used by humans as for animal husbandry, some compounds are unique to CAFOs. In raising\\u000a and fattening steers, anabolic steroids are widely used in the US. In the cattle industry, large use is made of the acaricides,\\u000a avermectins, and the cypermethrins as well as juvenile growth hormone inhibitor for fly and tick control

Laurence Shore; Robert Wershaw

3

Integration of animal husbandry and nature conservation on grassland farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A farming model for peat grassland has been designed as an instrument in physical planning, integrating equally nature conservation and animal husbandry by combining the conditions for existence of both. It includes a subdivision of the farm in production grassland and nature grassland, such as marsh marigold Caltha palustris hayfield and blue grassland. Each type of grassland ha a suitable

C. Hermans; P. H. Vereijken

1992-01-01

4

Consumer Attitudes Towards the Development of Animal-Friendly Husbandry Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent policy developments in the area of livestock husbandry have suggested that, from the perspective of optimizing animal welfare, new animal husbandry systems should be developed that provide opportunities for livestock animals to be raised in environments where they are permitted to engage in “natural behavior.” It is not known whether consumers regard animal husbandry issues as important, and whether

L. J. Frewer; A. P. W. Kole; S. M. A. Van de Kroon; C. de Lauwere

2005-01-01

5

Zinc fate in animal husbandry systems.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) is considered in animal production systems as both an essential nutrient and a possible pollutant. While it is generally supplemented at low levels in animal diets, with less than 200 mg kg(-1) in complete feeds, it is under scrutiny due to potential accumulation in the environment. This explains why international regulations limit maximum supplementation levels in animal feeds in a stricter way. This article gives an overview of the current knowledge on the fate of zinc in animal production systems, from animal diets to animal wastes. Some analytical methods can be used for the quantification and qualification of Zn chemical forms: X-ray crystallography, electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, separation techniques, hyphenated techniques… Analysis of chelated forms issued from complex matrices, like hydrolysed proteins, remains difficult, and the speciation of Zn in diluted carriers (premix and feed) is a challenge. Our understanding of Zn absorption has made progress with recent research on ZnT/Zip families and metallothioneins. However, fine-tuned approaches towards the nutritional and metabolic interactions for Zn supplementation in farm conditions still require further studies. The speciation of zinc in pig manure and poultry litter has been a priority as monogastric animals are usually raised under intensive conditions and fed with high quantities of trace minerals, leading to high animal density and elevated quantities of zinc from animal wastes. PMID:25209575

Romeo, A; Vacchina, V; Legros, S; Doelsch, E

2014-10-22

6

Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

7

Grassland Butterfly Fauna under Traditional Animal Husbandry: Contrasts in Diversity in Mown Meadows and Grazed Pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-natural grasslands resulting from traditional land use practices (mowing and grazing) are severely endangered throughout Europe due to the intensification of agriculture. The ecological impact of mowing and grazing on grassland butterflies was studied in eight mown meadows and eight grazed pastures under traditional animal husbandry in NW Russia and adjacent Finland. Transect count data over 3 years (1997–1999) covered a

Kimmo Saarinen; Juha Jantunen

2005-01-01

8

Mobilize thousands upon thousands of households to build forestry and animal husbandry bases  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the effort to mobilize thousands of households in Gansu Province, China to build forestry and animal husbandry bases. The goals are to achieve a forest acreage of 150 million mu, the planting by each household of an average of 10 mu of grass and 2 mu of forest, and the raising by each household of 2 head of livestock and 10 head of sheep. The people across the province will be organized to discuss the question of grass and tree planting and how to eliminate poverty and mobilize the enthusiasm of the people of various nationalities and trades in planting grass and trees. Trade unions, women's associations, scientific associations, and various academic organizations will be called upon to make grass and tree planting a key task. Agricultural, animal husbandry, and forest bureaus will compile textbooks about grass and tree planting and seeds.

Li Zigi

1983-10-15

9

Antibiotic alternatives: the substitution of antibiotics in animal husbandry?  

PubMed Central

It is a common practice for decades to use of sub-therapeutic dose of antibiotics in food-animal feeds to prevent animals from diseases and to improve production performance in modern animal husbandry. In the meantime, concerns over the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the unreasonable use of antibiotics and an appearance of less novelty antibiotics have prompted efforts to develop so-called alternatives to antibiotics. Whether or not the alternatives could really replace antibiotics remains a controversial issue. This review summarizes recent development and perspectives of alternatives to antibiotics. The mechanism of actions, applications, and prospectives of the alternatives such as immunity modulating agents, bacteriophages and their lysins, antimicrobial peptides, pro-, pre-, and synbiotics, plant extracts, inhibitors targeting pathogenicity (bacterial quorum sensing, biofilm, and virulence), and feeding enzymes are thoroughly discussed. Lastly, the feasibility of alternatives to antibiotics is deeply analyzed. It is hard to conclude that the alternatives might substitute antibiotics in veterinary medicine in the foreseeable future. At the present time, prudent use of antibiotics and the establishment of scientific monitoring systems are the best and fastest way to limit the adverse effects of the abuse of antibiotics and to ensure the safety of animal-derived food and environment. PMID:24860564

Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Dai, Menghong; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

2014-01-01

10

Animal and Range Sciences Department General Livestock Husbandry Policies and Procedures  

E-print Network

Animal and Range Sciences Department General Livestock Husbandry Policies and Procedures Approved the welfare and well-being of all animals in its care. The Department of Animal and Range Sciences seeks and managers. Proper management is essential for the well-being of the animals (FASS, 1999). The purpose

Maxwell, Bruce D.

11

[Inspection of laboratory animal breeding and husbandry/experiments on animals, examples].  

PubMed

In Berlin, the authorization and inspection of experiments on animals and of facilities for laboratory animal breeding and husbandry are carried out by the same authority. According to Section 16 (1) sentence one no. 3 Tierschutzgesetz (German animal protection act), there are presently 1200 procedures registered and 68 facilities approved to breed and keep vertebrates for experiments (according to Section 11 (1) sentence one no. 1 Tierschutzgesetz). In 2006, the use of 300,903 vertebrates was reported. There are 38 animal welfare officers in the twenty major scientific facilities who are in charge of in-house supervision. The authority visits the facilities where experiments take place at regular intervals to observe and supervise their operations. On request, the facilities must send the records from the experiments to the authority for examination (according to Section 9 a Tierschutzgesetz). With the annual laboratory animal report, the authority can verify the number of authorised laboratory animals. By checking the scientific publications the authority can compare them with the authorised animal experiments. Facilities for laboratory animal breeding and husbandry are continuously supervised. Offences against the animal protection act are prosecuted. When there are deficiencies in animal welfare, the authority sets a deadline to correct the defects. If the deficiency still exists after the expiry of the term, the authority imposes a penalty payment or initiates legal proceedings. The important role of the animal welfare officers (Section 8 a Tierschutzgesetz) is apparent. The majority of supervisions show that there are deficiencies. This indicates that more emphasis must be put on prevention. The facilities must provide better support and resources for the animal welfare officers. Furthermore, the scientists must be more receptive to the animal welfare officers in their role as advisers. Continuous and adequate training is imperative to the goal of maintaining sufficient in-house supervision and to keep the animals from suffering. If in-house supervision works well, the State's role in regulating animal experiments can be reduced. PMID:18500148

Ratsch, H

2008-04-01

12

Thousands upon thousands of households to build forestry and animal husbandry mobilize bases  

SciTech Connect

This article proposes that a good natural environment and a reliable material base can be created for economic construction in northwestern China by relating the activity of growing grass and trees and the development of animal husbandry to the development of agriculture. It is also necessary to develop light industry (e.g., the food industry, wool spinning, leather and wood processing) and to exploit coal, oil, and other energy and mineral resources. The great northwest makes up more than one-third of China's territory, and it contains one-tenth of the national population. The focal point of China's economic construction is expected to be shifted to this area by the end of the century. The disadvantages of the northwest include sparse vegetation, drought, serious soil erosion, and an unbalanced ecological system.

Not Available

1983-09-18

13

Climate change impacts on animal husbandry in Africa : a Ricardian analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impact of climate change on animal husbandry in Africa. It regresses the net revenue from raising animals in small and large farms across Africa on climate, soil, and other control variables to test the climate sensitivity of livestock. The study is based on a survey of over 9,000 farmers across 11 countries conducted by the World

Robert Mendelsohn; Sungno Niggol Seo

2007-01-01

14

Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Rö?ler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

15

Toward a criterion for suspect thiouracil administration in animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyreostats are growth-promoters banned in Europe since 1981. The identification of thiouracil (TU) in animal biological matrices can, however, no longer be systematically interpreted as a consequence of illegal administration. Indeed, some experimental results have indicated a causal link between cruciferous-based diet and the presence of TU in urine of bovines. The present study aims at investigating, on a large

Bruno Le Bizec; Emmanuelle Bichon; Yoann Deceuninck; Stéphanie Prévost; Fabrice Monteau; Jean-Philippe Antignac; Gaud Dervilly-Pinel

2011-01-01

16

Animal husbandry practices in rural Bangladesh: potential risk factors for antimicrobial drug resistance and emerging diseases.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial drug administration to household livestock may put humans and animals at risk for acquisition of antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogens. To describe animal husbandry practices, including animal healthcare-seeking and antimicrobial drug use in rural Bangladesh, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with key informants, including female household members (n = 79), village doctors (n = 10), and pharmaceutical representatives, veterinarians, and government officials (n = 27), and performed observations at animal health clinics (n = 3). Prevalent animal husbandry practices that may put persons at risk for acquisition of pathogens included shared housing and water for animals and humans, antimicrobial drug use for humans and animals, and crowding. Household members reported seeking human and animal healthcare from unlicensed village doctors rather than formal-sector healthcare providers and cited cost and convenience as reasons. Five times more per household was spent on animal than on human healthcare. Strengthening animal and human disease surveillance systems should be continued. Interventions are recommended to provide vulnerable populations with a means of protecting their livelihood and health. PMID:24062478

Roess, Amira A; Winch, Peter J; Ali, Nabeel A; Akhter, Afsana; Afroz, Dilara; El Arifeen, Shams; Darmstadt, Gary L; Baqui, Abdullah H

2013-11-01

17

Job Title:Animal Caretaker (Biocontainment) -Recent Graduates Department:Department Of Agriculture  

E-print Network

Job Title:Animal Caretaker (Biocontainment) - Recent Graduates Department:Department Of Agriculture graduates to perform Animal Caretaker (Biocontainment) duties for the National Animal Disease Center, Animal species of domestic, wildlife and small laboratory animals. Performs husbandry procedures such as tagging

Behmer, Spencer T.

18

Animal cloning applications in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of this article will be to outline the potential benefits of cloning technology to the animal agricultural industry and highlight some of the possibilities for combining the tools offered by nuclear transfer, animal genomics, and genetic engineering to make improved animal agricultural products.

RAYMOND L. PAGE; SAKTHIKUMAR AMBADY

2004-01-01

19

Comparing Norse animal husbandry practices: paleoethnobotanical analyses from Iceland and Greenland.  

PubMed

The popular view of the Norse settlement across the North Atlantic describes colonies with similar subsistence practices being established from the Faroe Islands in the west to L'Anse aux Meadows in the east. The importance of plant resources to the Norse animal husbandry strategies implemented by settlers upon arrival are not well established, nor are the changes these strategies underwent, eventually resulting in different cultural solutions to varying environmental and social factors. This paper compares archaeobotanical samples from two Icelandic archaeological sites, Svalbarð and Gjögur, and one Greenlandic site, Gården Under Sandet (GUS). Results of this comparison suggest that heathland shrubs were an important fodder resource for caprines in both Iceland and Greenland while apophytes ("weedy taxa") were part of the cattle fodder in Greenland. Further, the results indicate that mucking out of cattle barns to provide fertilizer was likely practiced at the GUS site in the Western Norse settlement of Greenland. PMID:21847841

Ross, Julie M; Zutter, Cynthia

2007-01-01

20

Non-Violence Towards Animals in the Thinking of Gandhi: the Problem of Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the imperatives induced by the Gandhian concept of non-violence towards animals is an issue that has been neglected by specialists on the thinking of the Mahatma. The aim of this article is to highlight the systematic – and significant – character of this particular aspect of his views on non-violence. The first part introduces the theoretical foundations

Florence Burgat

2004-01-01

21

Aquatic toxicity of four veterinary drugs commonly applied in fish farming and animal husbandry.  

PubMed

Doramectin (DOR), metronidazole (MET), florfenicol (FLO), and oxytetracycline (OXT) are among the most widely used veterinary drugs in animal husbandry or in aquaculture. Contamination of the environment by these pharmaceuticals has given cause for concern in recent years. Even though their toxicity has been thoroughly analyzed, knowledge of their ecotoxicity is still limited. We investigated their aquatic toxicity using tests with marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustaceans (Daphnia magna). All the ecotoxicological tests were supported by chemical analyses to confirm the exposure concentrations of the pharmaceuticals used in the toxicity experiments, since deviations from the nominal concentration can result in underestimation of biological effects. It was found that OXT and FLO have a stronger adverse effect on duckweed (EC50=3.26 and 2.96mgL(-1) respectively) and green algae (EC50=40.4 and 18.0mgL(-1)) than on bacteria (EC50=108 and 29.4mgL(-1)) and crustaceans (EC50=114 and 337mgL(-1)), whereas MET did not exhibit any adverse effect in the tested concentration range. For DOR a very low EC50 of 6.37×10(-5)mgL(-1) towards D. magna was determined, which is five orders of magnitude lower than values known for the toxic reference compound K2Cr2O7. Our data show the strong influence of certain veterinary drugs on aquatic organisms and contribute to a sound assessment of the environmental hazards posed by commonly used pharmaceuticals. PMID:23689096

Ko?odziejska, Marta; Maszkowska, Joanna; Bia?k-Bieli?ska, Anna; Steudte, Stephanie; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

2013-08-01

22

Depressive-like behavioral response of adult male rhesus monkeys during routine animal husbandry procedure  

PubMed Central

Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors—lying on the substrate and day time sleeping—that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7–14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood. PMID:25249954

Hennessy, Michael B.; McCowan, Brenda; Jiang, Jing; Capitanio, John P.

2014-01-01

23

A C?As lyase for degradation of environmental organoarsenical herbicides and animal husbandry growth promoters  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is the most widespread environmental toxin. Substantial amounts of pentavalent organoarsenicals have been used as herbicides, such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA), and as growth enhancers for animal husbandry, such as roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) [Rox(V)]. These undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. We previously demonstrated a two-step pathway of degradation of MSMA to As(III) by microbial communities involving sequential reduction to methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)] by one bacterial species and demethylation from MAs(III) to As(III) by another. In this study, the gene responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was identified from an environmental MAs(III)-demethylating isolate, Bacillus sp. MD1. This gene, termed arsenic inducible gene (arsI), is in an arsenic resistance (ars) operon and encodes a nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenase with C?As lyase activity. Heterologous expression of ArsI conferred MAs(III)-demethylating activity and MAs(III) resistance to an arsenic-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli, demonstrating that MAs(III) demethylation is a detoxification process. Purified ArsI catalyzes Fe2+-dependent MAs(III) demethylation. In addition, ArsI cleaves the C?As bond in trivalent roxarsone and other aromatic arsenicals. ArsI homologs are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and we propose that ArsI-catalyzed organoarsenical degradation has a significant impact on the arsenic biogeocycle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular mechanism for organoarsenic degradation by a C?As lyase. PMID:24821808

Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rosen, Barry P.

2014-01-01

24

A C?As lyase for degradation of environmental organoarsenical herbicides and animal husbandry growth promoters.  

PubMed

Arsenic is the most widespread environmental toxin. Substantial amounts of pentavalent organoarsenicals have been used as herbicides, such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA), and as growth enhancers for animal husbandry, such as roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) [Rox(V)]. These undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. We previously demonstrated a two-step pathway of degradation of MSMA to As(III) by microbial communities involving sequential reduction to methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)] by one bacterial species and demethylation from MAs(III) to As(III) by another. In this study, the gene responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was identified from an environmental MAs(III)-demethylating isolate, Bacillus sp. MD1. This gene, termed arsenic inducible gene (arsI), is in an arsenic resistance (ars) operon and encodes a nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenase with C ? As lyase activity. Heterologous expression of ArsI conferred MAs(III)-demethylating activity and MAs(III) resistance to an arsenic-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli, demonstrating that MAs(III) demethylation is a detoxification process. Purified ArsI catalyzes Fe(2+)-dependent MAs(III) demethylation. In addition, ArsI cleaves the C ? As bond in trivalent roxarsone and other aromatic arsenicals. ArsI homologs are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and we propose that ArsI-catalyzed organoarsenical degradation has a significant impact on the arsenic biogeocycle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular mechanism for organoarsenic degradation by a C ? As lyase. PMID:24821808

Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rosen, Barry P

2014-05-27

25

Student Opinion Formation on Animal Agriculture Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture and animal science stu- dent bodies are shifting toward a more urban composi- tion at the same time that criticism of animal industries by nonagricultural groups is increasing. Animal science classes include students with diverse educational goals, agricultural knowledge and ex- perience, and values. Students without agricultural backgrounds or who have not formed opinions on agricultural questions may lack

G. Walter; A. Reisner

2010-01-01

26

Animal Disease and the Industrialization of Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrialization of animal agriculture has fundamentally transformed animal health markets while animal health innovations have promoted this industrialization. The subtlety of these interactions shows how little we know about agricultural industrialization. To illustrate, we consider three stylized features of industrialized animal agriculture. These are the closing off of production activities from external effects, emphasis on control, and use of

David A. Hennessy; Tong Wang

2010-01-01

27

Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program  

E-print Network

Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program Approved by AACUC May 2003 Goals The goals of the Agricultural Animal Care Training Program are to ensure animal well-being, the validity and effectiveness of research and teaching activities, and the health and safety of animal care

Maxwell, Bruce D.

28

[Ecological animal husbandry--main developmental points for production and marketing as in the example of the Bioland Association].  

PubMed

The data from Bioland are presented as an example of the development in ecological animal husbandry. Dairy cows (29.000 in 1000 dairy farms) are typical in organic farming. In the past 4 years there has been an annual increase in dairy farming of about 6.5%. The increase is even higher in suckled cows and laying hens (both 23% annually), or apiculture. Pigs have been of minor importance, but are gaining more interest recently. In each category the number of animals is growing faster than the number of farms. In ecological husbandry, specialisation of personnel has to go hand in hand with improvements in keeping, feeding, hygiene, health of animals, integration of farming and stock breeding and documentation to cope with the demands of the market. The standard aimed for is dictated by the actual current state of knowledge in the ecological and ethological sciences. There are various possibilities for consultations and there are regional groups of specialists to provide know-how to the farmers. Ecologically produced goods are economically undersubsidised compared to conventionally produced ones. However, the development of the market is correlated with the production. The number of butcher's and dairies that have contracts with ecological associations has clearly been increasing lately. A high percentage of the raw products as well as food processed on the farm is sold directly by the farmers, however, there is a slow trend towards the retail trade. Various possibilities of improving the market are discussed. Ecological husbandry offers especially good conditions to farmers with high activity in marketing. The system of control is developing steadily according to the increasing demands in quality of production and products. As a result of good cooperation between farmers, control institutions and Bioland, practical solutions can be found to most problems. A list of high priority future work, investigation and development is given. All costs that arise during production and processing have to be internalised to widely realise ecological farming especially animal production in favour of environmental protection. Furthermore, farmers need an intensive education in agrarian ecology. PMID:9763732

Schumacher, U

1998-08-01

29

Animal Agriculture: Symbiosis, Culture, or Ethical Conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several writers on animal ethics defend the abolition of most or all animal agriculture, which they consider an unethical\\u000a exploitation of sentient non-human animals. However, animal agriculture can also be seen as a co-evolution over thousands\\u000a of years, that has affected biology and behavior on the one hand, and quality of life of humans and domestic animals on the\\u000a other.

Vonne Lund; I. Anna S. Olsson

2006-01-01

30

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...adequate veterinary care and animal health program? The sanctuary...American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine document, “The Provision...serum for banking and/or testing shall be obtained as appropriate...the chimpanzee and human and animal safety concerns....

2013-10-01

31

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...adequate veterinary care and animal health program? The sanctuary...American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine document, “The Provision...serum for banking and/or testing shall be obtained as appropriate...the chimpanzee and human and animal safety concerns....

2010-10-01

32

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...adequate veterinary care and animal health program? The sanctuary...American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine document, “The Provision...serum for banking and/or testing shall be obtained as appropriate...the chimpanzee and human and animal safety concerns....

2011-10-01

33

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...adequate veterinary care and animal health program? The sanctuary...American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine document, “The Provision...serum for banking and/or testing shall be obtained as appropriate...the chimpanzee and human and animal safety concerns....

2012-10-01

34

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND DISEASE Reference: Biol. Bull. 195: 223-225. (October, 1998)  

E-print Network

quality parameters were pH, 7.80-8.10; salinity, 29-33 ppt; dissolved oxygen, 7.0-9.0 mg/l (cephalopods system do not affect the water system ad- ' Laboratory for Aquatic Animal Medicine and Pathology number varied greatly). The range of egg fertility rates was 32-80% (avg. = 48%, out of 2850 eggs

Hanlon, Roger T.

35

Transgenesis in Animal Agriculture: Addressing Animal Health and Welfare Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Food and Drug Administration’s final Guidance for Industry on the regulation of transgenesis in animal agriculture\\u000a has paved the way for the commercialization of genetically engineered (GE) farm animals. The production-related diseases associated\\u000a with extant breeding technologies are reviewed, as well as the predictable welfare consequences of continued emphasis on prolificacy\\u000a at the potential expense of physical fitness.

Michael Greger

36

Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

37

Animal Enterprise Record Book. Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This record book is intended for use by agricultural education students who have ownership arrangements in animal enterprise experience programs. A major purpose of this book is to aid in separating out or allocating the costs and returns to a specific enterprise. The financial, labor, and management aspects of each enterprise can then be studied…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

38

Interrelationships of Animal Agriculture, the Environment, and Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal agriculture is closely interrelated to both the natural environment and human systems, including rural communities. Accordingly, changes in animal agriculture can have wide-ranging consequences across many areas. During the past 50 yr, there has been tremendous change in animal agriculture, involving an increase in the size of production units, greater reliance on technology, a corresponding decrease in human labor,

M. G. Hogberg; S. L. Fales; F. L. Kirschenmann; Mark Honeyman; John Miranowski; P. Lasley

2005-01-01

39

Promoting transboundary animal disease risk management via a multiple health and husbandry intervention strategies in upland Lao PDR.  

PubMed

Surveys of smallholder farmer knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) and income were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in five northern provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR; n = 200 farmers). Participating villages were classified as either from a livelihood development project (LV; n = 80 farmers) or a livestock research project that contained both 'high-intervention' (HI; n = 60 farmers) or 'low-intervention' (LI; n = 60 farmers) villages. Farmer training plus a suite of health and productivity interventions were implemented in HI sites; only vaccination was implemented in LI sites, whilst various interventions and limited vaccination were introduced to LV sites. Farmer interviews were conducted with survey questions on socioeconomic variables and KAP of large ruminant health and disease risk management, enabling determination of quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits and comparison of results from HI, LI and LV villages. The average farmer income from sales of large ruminants in HI was USD 621, in LI was USD 547 and in LV was USD 225 (p < 0.001). The predicted mean of total knowledge scores (/42) in the 2012 survey in HI was 28, in LI was 22 and in LV was 17 (p < 0.001). We conclude that improved KAP of large ruminant health and production can be achieved by intensive training, although with some farmers yet to apply their knowledge on husbandry and biosecurity practices, continued learning support and closed linkage of research and development projects to improve extension capacity is recommended. This multiple participatory approach promoting biosecurity in addition to vaccination may provide a more sustainable pathway for the advancement of Lao PDR on the Progressive Control Pathway for foot and mouth disease control. PMID:24310441

Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Rast, Luzia; Windsor, Peter A

2014-02-01

40

Agriculture, Food, and Animal Sciences Art, Design, and Music  

E-print Network

#12;Agriculture, Food, and Animal Sciences Art, Design, and Music Contents 2013-2014 Program Guide #12;2 | W W W. G E T S T A R T E D W I T H C S U . C O M Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Agriculture, Food, and Animal Sciences DEGREES Agricultural Business ­ Bachelor of Science (Degree Completion) Use

Stephens, Graeme L.

41

Ecosystems, Sustainability, and Animal Agriculture 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term sustainability of animal agriculture is examined in an ecological context. As an aid to defining agriculture, animal agriculture, and sustainable agriculture, a broad overview of the structural and functional aspects of ecosystems is presented. Energy output\\/cultural energy input ratios were then calculated for 11 beef cattle management systems as relative measures of their long-term sustainability. Energy output was

R. K. Heitschmidt; R. E. Short; E. E. Grings

2010-01-01

42

Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in slaughtered animals in south-eastern Lake Chad area in relation to husbandry practices and seasonal water levels  

PubMed Central

Background Fasciolosis has been described in sub-Saharan Africa in many accounts, but the latest reports from Chad are from the 1970s. Mobile pastoralists perceive liver parasites as a significant problem and think that proximity to Lake Chad can lead to infection. This study aimed to assess the importance of liver fluke infections in mobile pastoralists’ livestock in the south-eastern Lake Chad region. In 2011, all animals presented at three slaughter slabs near Gredaya in the south-eastern Lake Chad area were examined for infection with Fasciola spp. during routine meat inspections. Results This study included 616 goats, 132 sheep and 130 cattle. The prevalence of adult Fasciola gigantica was 68% (CI 60-76%) in cattle, 12% (CI 10-16%) in goats and 23% (CI 16-30%) in sheep. From all infected animals (n?=?200), 53% (n?=?106) were classified as lightly infected with 1-10 parasites, 18% (n =36) as moderately infected with 11-100 parasites and 29% (n?=?58) as heavily infected with more than 100 parasites per animal. Animals grazing close to the shores of Lake Chad had a much higher risk of infection (prevalence =38%; n?=?329) than animals not feeding at the lake (n?=?353), with only one goat being positive (prevalence?=?0.28%). The ethnic group of the owner was a strong determinant for the risk of infection. Ethnic group likely served as a proxy for husbandry practices. Geospatial distribution showed that animals originating from areas close to the lake were more likely to be infected with F. gigantica than those from more distant areas. Conclusions Livestock belonging to ethnic groups which traditionally stay near surface water, and which were reported to feed near Lake Chad, have a high risk of infection with F. gigantica. Pastoralist perception of fasciolosis as a priority health problem was confirmed. Regular preventive and post-exposure treatment is recommended for animals grazing near the lake. However, further economic analysis is needed. PMID:24708774

2014-01-01

43

Trait selection and welfare of genetically engineered animals in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the com- mercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in trans- genic research, rather than on the health and welfare

M. Greger

2010-01-01

44

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment ASC Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment ASC Animal Sciences KEY: # = new course * = course,physiology,nutrition,reproduction,geneticsandbehaviorinthemanagementofdomesticanimals. Prereq: ASC 101. ASC 106 ANIMAL AGRICULTURE IN THE MODERN WORLD. (3) Relationships of food production, grading and evaluation of carcasses and wholesale cuts of beef, pork andlamb

MacAdam, Keith

45

Publisher: Institute for Animal Husbandry, Belgrade-Zemun UDC 636.085 DOI:10.2298/BAH1004203R HERBS IN A SUSTAINABLE ANIMAL NUTRITION  

E-print Network

Abstract: Animal has a direct impact on the quality of meat, milk and eggs in a positive and negative sense. Over the composition of a meal for animals can manipulate the quality of products of animal origin and can be achieved by a variety of nutritional, sensory, chemical, physical and physiological characteristics. The use of medicine in intensive and extensive farming is a big and risky to the quality of food and thus health. In organic farming of animals is not allowed to use medicines. Because are increasingly looking for natural healing resources. Herbs provides, in the manufacture of animal feed, a real opportunity to increase value through the use of different functional additions. Addition food for animals, really can improve its functionality in terms of a physiological effect. In developed countries in Europe is very strong trend of replacing synthetic antibiotic drugs based on medicinal herbal preparations. As herbal feed additives may be used drug (finely divided dry medicinal herbal raw materials), herbal extracts or herbal isolate (e.g. essential oil). The paper gives a short overview of the most important potential of herbal medicinal materials with antibacterial activity, antiinflammatory, digestion-stimulating, laxative, antidiarrhoeal, choleretic etc. activities that have an approved application in human medicine and which can be added to animal feed for use in different animal health disorders. The use of herbs is more current and all higher, in human and veterinary food industry. Key words: herbs in a sustainable animal nutrition, antibacterial activity, veterinary food industry.

D. Runjai?-anti?; S. Pavkov; J. Levi?

46

The role of land-based strategies in rural livelihoods: The contribution of arable production, animal husbandry and natural resource harvesting in communal areas in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of South Africa's rural population resides in the former homelands. Although cash from urban and government sources is the mainstay of the rural economy in many areas, the multiple and diverse livelihood base of rural households is not widely recognised. This diversity includes the land-based strategies of arable farming, livestock husbandry and consumption and trade in natural resources.

Charlie Shackleton; Sheona Shackleton; Ben Cousins

2001-01-01

47

Water Quality Monitoring in Animal Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal pathogens originating from grazing animals can affect water quality in a manner that is harmful to humans and other organisms. Over 36% of the assessed rivers and streams in the Southeastern region are classified as impaired, meaning that they do not fully support one or more designated uses (USEPA, 2000). These impairments include various pollutants, including E. coli and

W. F. Owsley; W. Deutsch; J. Oates

48

DRAFT Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen is found in relatively high levels in all excreted animal manures. It can exist in many chemical forms and can move easily in the environment as a gas in air; as a dissolved constituent of ground or surface water; or in combination with other materials. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3) is of particular concern because of its potential to create odors

Jennifer G. Becker; Robert E. Graves

49

Environmental Policy and Technology Adoption in Animal Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The increasing number and concentration of animals in beef, swine and poultry production units has led to heightened concerns\\u000a over the environmental and nuisance impacts of such operations. Whether flexible incentives can be used effectively to reduce\\u000a such environmental risks requires consideration of the economic and institutional factors driving the structural changes in\\u000a animal agriculture. The design of environmental policy

Patricia E. Norris; Amy Purvis Thurow

1997-01-01

50

Animals domestication and agriculture as outcomes of collusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is known that there are circumstances where the competitive situation does not promote social welfare maximization, collusion is usually associated with firms’ strategies that decrease welfare. In this paper, using the theoretical framework of the industrial organization, I demonstrate in a model with two sectors that the economic revolution induced by the animal domestication and the agriculture is

Pedro Cosme Costa Vieira

2005-01-01

51

The Future of Animal Agriculture and the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this presentation is to set the stage for establishing a vision for the future of animal agriculture and the environment. This is a daunting task because of so many factors that will play a role in the years ahead. These factors include environmental regulations; eating trends of the public; economics of production; food safety; international competition; and

Richard Hegg

52

Review of ammonia emission factors for United States animal agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emissions from agricultural industries are a significant source of atmospheric reactive nitrogen, which can lead to negative environmental consequences such as ecosystem change and formation of fine particulate. While a number of emission factors (EFs) have been proposed for developing ammonia emissions inventories for the US, most are based on European research with little discussion of their applicability to US production systems. Recently developed ammonia EFs from literature for animal feeding operations (AFOs), including production facilities for beef and dairy cattle, swine, and poultry, are presented. Tentative EFs for US animal agriculture are suggested until further research can be conducted. Currently, there is a dearth of EFs developed specifically for agricultural production practices in the US.

Faulkner, W. B.; Shaw, B. W.

53

Moving GIS research indoors: spatiotemporal analysis of agricultural animals.  

PubMed

A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare. PMID:25098421

Daigle, Courtney L; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M

2014-01-01

54

Agricultural (Nonbiomedical) Animal Research Outside the Laboratory: A Review of Guidelines for Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges and published guidelines associated with appro- priate care and use of farm animals in agricultural research conducted outside the laboratory are briefly reviewed. The Animal Welfare Act (Title 9 of the 2000 Code of Federal Regulations), which regulates the care and use of agricul- tural animals in biomedical research, does not include live- stock and poultry used in agricultural

David E. Granstrom

55

Customs related to animal breeding in Russian seasonal rites (the Kama Area)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Russian as well as Eastern Slavonic groups, over most of the territory, animal breeding was the second most important traditional occupation, after agriculture. This led to a multitude and variety of seasonal rites related to animal husbandry. Apotropaic and fertility rites were practiced during all seasonal cycles. While rites related to animal breeding have been traditionally viewed in the

A. V. Chernykh

2007-01-01

56

Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste  

SciTech Connect

The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report formed the basis for much of the subsequent work under the grant. An explanation of the process is presented as well as the completed work on the four tasks.

Gabriel Miller

2009-03-25

57

Using biosolids from agricultural processing as food for animals  

SciTech Connect

A diverse inventory of secondary products arise from processing of agricultural commodities. Societal, economic and physical constraints will curtail traditional disposal methods and create a need for alternatives that conserve, recycle and capitalize on these underutilized resources. Economic viability of some processes or primary products may depend upon practical alternatives for disposing of secondary products. The broad nature of secondary products and the process from which they emanate along with the complex transformations needed for remediation will require the efforts of multidisciplinary teams of scientists to identify creative solutions. Most secondary products have significant nutritional value and could be fed to animals as a means of disposal. However, detailed chemical and biological characterization is needed to determine nutrient concentrations and to ensure safety and efficacy. Feeding studies will be necessary to demonstrate palatability and to determine effects upon animal health and performance. New bioprocessing techniques will be needed to remediate the attributes of some secondary products into more appropriate forms or qualities. The potential for using wash water biosolids as animal food was investigated. Wash water biosolids from a broad cross section of food processing plants were found to be free from pollutants and other harmful entities. Nutrient composition varied considerably within and among different types of food processing plants (i.e., milk vs poultry). However, within a particular plant, variation in mineral concentration of biosolids over several months was quite small. Wash water biosolids from a milk processing plant were found to be free of pollutants and to have nutritional value. Diets containing biosolids were palatable when fed to sheep, cows, turkeys, or swine. Safety and efficacy studies with sheep and swine indicated that feeding up to 20% biosolids did not adversely affect growth, reproduction or survival.

Belyea, R.L.; Clevenger, T.E.; Van Dyne, D.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Eckhoff, S.E.; Wallig, M.A.; Tumbleson, M.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1993-12-31

58

We and they: Animal welfare in the era of advanced agricultural biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses central moral issues raised by the applications of advanced biotechnology to animal agriculture and introduces the major ethical concepts and principles of animal bioethics. It is argued that biotechnology enables human beings to transform animals according to human needs, which blurs the boundary between humans and non-human animals in moral and biological sense. The more humans change

A. K. Pascalev

2006-01-01

59

Public image of animal agriculture in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States citizens have concerns about food safety (especially animal-derived products), animal production methods, efficient resource use, and environmental degradation by farming as well as applying biotechnology to food production and the ethics of using animals. Activists have little influenced demand for animal-derived products using ethical arguments, but since expanding to networked issues concern has increased about how animals are

R. G. Zimbelman; L. L. Wilson; M. B. Bennett; S. E. Curtis

1995-01-01

60

Services of the Animal Welfare Information Center at the National Agricultural Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) was created by the first Commissioner of Agriculture after the establishment of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) by the Organic Act of 1862. The NAL now includes a diverse collection of 1.9 million items that are in English and many foreign languages, covering multiple subjects and different formats, including electronic. The Animal Welfare

Jean Larson

1988-01-01

61

Complexities of nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry in plant-soil systems: implications for the study of ancient agricultural and animal management practices  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen isotopic studies have the potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1) agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage) and (2) animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens). The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts. PMID:25002865

Szpak, Paul

2014-01-01

62

Complexities of nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry in plant-soil systems: implications for the study of ancient agricultural and animal management practices.  

PubMed

Nitrogen isotopic studies have the potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1) agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage) and (2) animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens). The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts. PMID:25002865

Szpak, Paul

2014-01-01

63

ABE Agricultural and Biological Engineering F9 ADDL Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab G10  

E-print Network

ABE Agricultural and Biological Engineering F9 ADDL Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab G10 AERO Aerospace Science Laboratory C11 AGAD Agricultural Administration Building G8 AHF Animal Holding Facility G10 AQUA Boilermaker Aquatic Center D6 AR Armory G6 ARMS Armstrong (Neil) Hall of Engineering G5 ASTL

64

ANIMAL AGRICULTURE AND WATERSHED IMPAIRMENT IN SOUTH CAROLINA A GIS-Based Spatial Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal agricultural non-point source pollution remains one of the most challenging watershed problems. As reduction of the pollution becomes the top priority in the Clean Water Action Plan and states are required to implement the non-degradation policy, understanding the characteristics of animal agriculture, watershed impairment and their relationships at the state level are very important for making proper regulatory and

Kang S. Lu; Jeffery S. Allen

65

Identifying the Future Needs for Long-Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural animal research has been immensely successful over the past century in developing technology and methodologies that have dramatically enhanced production efficiency of the beef, dairy, swine, poultry, sheep, and aquaculture industries. In the past two decades, molecular biology has changed the face of agricultural animal research, primarily in the arena of genomics and the relatively new offshoot areas of

R. D. Green; M. A. Qureshi; J. A. Long; P. J. Burfening; D. L. Hamernik

2007-01-01

66

Copper content in animal manures and potential risk of soil copper pollution with animal manure use in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of livestock and poultry production and the wide abuse of copper as an additive in most animal feeds in China, the risk of soil copper (Cu) pollution due to the use of animal manure in agriculture has become more and more focused. The objectives of this study were to investigate the concentrations of Cu in pig,

Xiong Xiong; Li Yanxia; Li Wei; Lin Chunye; Han Wei; Yang Ming

2010-01-01

67

Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech  

E-print Network

Engineering, Virginia Tech Katharine F. Knowlton, Assistant Professor, Dairy Science, Virginia Tech on the environment. Although most environmental concerns related to animal agriculture have focused on water quality by-product of animal waste due to the often inefficient conversion of feed nitrogen into animal

Liskiewicz, Maciej

68

USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Awards Application 2012  

E-print Network

USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Awards Application 2012 I. USDA/AES Funds USDA and Colorado Agriculture Experiment Station funds funds. Multistate projects are listed at lgu.umd.edu/lgu_v2/ and www

Stephens, Graeme L.

69

Animal Science, Including Instruction in Agricultural Mechanics, Careers, Leadership, and Supervised Occupational Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed and reviewed by a committee of 16 teachers, the state supervisory staff, and the teacher education staff, this curriculum guide is for vocational agriculture teacher use with ninth grade students interested in agricultural occupations. Some objectives for this 1-year course in animal science are--(1) to develop competencies in…

Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City. Agricultural Education Section.

70

Review of ammonia emission factors for United States animal agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia emissions from agricultural industries are a significant source of atmospheric reactive nitrogen, which can lead to negative environmental consequences such as ecosystem change and formation of fine particulate. While a number of emission factors (EFs) have been proposed for developing ammonia emissions inventories for the US, most are based on European research with little discussion of their applicability to

W. B. Faulkner; B. W. Shaw

2008-01-01

71

Air Quality Standards and Nuisance Issues for Animal Agriculture  

E-print Network

Animal feeding operations face increased scrutiny and accountability for how they affect the air quality of their neighbors and communities. This publication helps operators become familiar with fundamental air quality principles, which will help...

Mukhtar, Saqib; Auvermann, Brent W.

2006-05-24

72

Frank Mitloehner is an expert for agricultural air quality, animal-environmental interactions, and agricultural engineering. He is a Professor and Air Quality  

E-print Network

Frank Mitloehner is an expert for agricultural air quality, animal-environmental interactions, and agricultural engineering. He is a Professor and Air Quality Specialist in Cooperative Extension. Since he

Delany, Mary E.

73

Identifying the Future Needs for Long-Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics  

PubMed Central

Agricultural animal research has been immensely successful over the past century in developing technology and methodologies that have dramatically enhanced production efficiency of the beef, dairy, swine, poultry, sheep, and aquaculture industries. In the past two decades, molecular biology has changed the face of agricultural animal research, primarily in the arena of genomics and the relatively new offshoot areas of functional genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and metagenomics. Publication of genetic and physical genome maps in the past 15 years has given rise to the possibility of being able finally to understand the molecular nature of the genetic component of phenotypic variation. While quantitative geneticists have been remarkably successful in improving production traits, genomic technology holds potential for being able to lead to more accurate and rapid animal improvement, especially for phenotypic traits that are difficult to measure. Recently, the agricultural research community has been able to capitalize on the infrastructure built by the human genome project by sequencing two of the major livestock genomes (Gallus domesticus and Bos Taurus). The 2005 calendar year is truly unprecedented in the history of agricultural animal research since draft genome sequences were completed for chickens and cattle. In addition, sequencing the swine and equine genome was initiated in early 2006. We now have in place a powerful toolbox for understanding the genetic variation underlying economically important and complex phenotypes. Over the past few years, new challenges have emerged for animal agriculture. Enhancements in production efficiency have not come without some negative side effects on animal well-being and longevity in production environments, including losses in reproductive efficiency, increased stress susceptibility, increased animal waste issues, and increased susceptibility to animal metabolic and infectious diseases. When considered in concert with societal concerns in the areas of natural resource conservation and protection, animal welfare, and food safety, it is clear that publicly supported agricultural research must be focused on enhancing the functionality and well-being of livestock and poultry in environmentally neutral production systems in the future. Realizing the great potential for animal genomics to address these and other issues, a workshop was convened by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Washington, DC in September of 2004. The workshop was entitled “Charting the Road Map for Long Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics”. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the workshop and the resulting recommendations. The need for a cohesive, comprehensive long-term plan for all of USDA's research efforts in animal genomics was evident at the workshop, requiring further integration of the efforts of the USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) and the USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) to achieve the greatest return on investment. PMID:17384737

Green, R. D.; Qureshi, M. A.; Long, J. A.; Burfening, P.J.; Hamernik, D.L.

2007-01-01

74

Identifying the future needs for long-term USDA efforts in agricultural animal genomics.  

PubMed

Agricultural animal research has been immensely successful over the past century in developing technology and methodologies that have dramatically enhanced production efficiency of the beef, dairy, swine, poultry, sheep, and aquaculture industries. In the past two decades, molecular biology has changed the face of agricultural animal research, primarily in the arena of genomics and the relatively new offshoot areas of functional genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and metagenomics. Publication of genetic and physical genome maps in the past 15 years has given rise to the possibility of being able finally to understand the molecular nature of the genetic component of phenotypic variation. While quantitative geneticists have been remarkably successful in improving production traits, genomic technology holds potential for being able to lead to more accurate and rapid animal improvement, especially for phenotypic traits that are difficult to measure.Recently, the agricultural research community has been able to capitalize on the infrastructure built by the human genome project by sequencing two of the major livestock genomes (Gallus domesticus and Bos Taurus). The 2005 calendar year is truly unprecedented in the history of agricultural animal research since draft genome sequences were completed for chickens and cattle. In addition, sequencing the swine and equine genome was initiated in early 2006. We now have in place a powerful toolbox for understanding the genetic variation underlying economically important and complex phenotypes. Over the past few years, new challenges have emerged for animal agriculture. Enhancements in production efficiency have not come without some negative side effects on animal well-being and longevity in production environments, including losses in reproductive efficiency, increased stress susceptibility, increased animal waste issues, and increased susceptibility to animal metabolic and infectious diseases. When considered in concert with societal concerns in the areas of natural resource conservation and protection, animal welfare, and food safety, it is clear that publicly supported agricultural research must be focused on enhancing the functionality and well-being of livestock and poultry in environmentally neutral production systems in the future. Realizing the great potential for animal genomics to address these and other issues, a workshop was convened by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Washington, DC in September of 2004. The workshop was entitled "Charting the Road Map for Long Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics". This paper summarizes the proceedings of the workshop and the resulting recommendations. The need for a cohesive, comprehensive long-term plan for all of USDA's research efforts in animal genomics was evident at the workshop, requiring further integration of the efforts of the USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) and the USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) to achieve the greatest return on investment. PMID:17384737

Green, R D; Qureshi, M A; Long, J A; Burfening, P J; Hamernik, D L

2007-01-01

75

Who Monitors the Use of Animals in United States Department of Agriculture -Animal and Plant Health  

E-print Network

by a designated committee Animal defined as "any vertebrate animal used in research, teaching or testing". #12 and facilities Review all protocols describing animal use; procedures may not begin until protocols are approved compounds in the laboratory prior to testing in an animal model #12;

76

COMMUNITIES, ANIMAL AGRICULTURE AND AIR POLLUTION: POLICY ISSUES AND OPTIONS FOR THE FUTURE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. The many products of animal agriculture are important to American consumers - of that there can be no question. Effective demand for meat and other animal products increases with income and is often used as an indicator of economic improvement for a population. Livestock production is a visible aspect of farming, and people appreciate farming for the various ways

Lawrence W. Libby

77

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Department of Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Department of Animal Sciences Quarterly? If so your chlorine sanitizer is now yellow water. Chemicals should be under shade. 8. Do you have fans); 2) Buchneri 500 Combo inoculant (BUC) from Lallemand Animal Nutrition (supplied 100,000 cfu

Watson, Craig A.

78

Recent advances and future options for New Zealand agriculture derived from animal cloning and transgenics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient animal cloning technology, using the procedure of nuclear transfer (NT), coupled with the genetic modification of cultured cells, would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture. It is still remarkable that NT using differentiated donor cells can produce physiologically normal animals, but the process is inefficient and highly prone to epigenetic errors. Aberrant patterns of gene expression in

G. Laible; D. N. Wells

2007-01-01

79

The Use of Viral Vectors in Introducing Genes into Agricultural Animal Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of viral vectors is a method for introducing foreign genes into various animal species. Vectors based on retro-, adeno-, flavi-, and parvoviruses have been used for research in animal species of agricultural importance, such as chickens, quail, swine, cows, goats, sheep, fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. Viral vectors allow for efficient transgenic integration into host genome or for transient

Tomislav Modric; Ayalew Mergia

2009-01-01

80

Current and Projected Modes of Delivery of Veterinary Medical Services to Animal Agriculture: The Private Practitioner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trend in agriculture is to fewer and larger farms--a trend that is evident in the food animal industry as well. The economic value of services delivered, and the need for veterinarians to improve relationships with people in all fields of animal science are discussed. (MLW)

Jarrett, James A.

1980-01-01

81

Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation Wastewater on Agricultural Lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. When applied to land at agronomic rates, CAFO wastewater has the potential to be a valuable fertilizer and soil amendment that can improve the physical condition of the soil for plant growth and reduce the demand for high quality water resources. However, excess amounts

Scott A. Bradford; Eran Segal; Wei Zheng; Qiquan Wang; Stephen R. Hutchins

2008-01-01

82

Department of Animal Science College of Agricultural Sciences  

E-print Network

Graduate Program in Animal Science Student Handbook Policies Effective January 2008 and June 2012 This publication is available in alternative media on request. The Pennsylvania State University encourages with your application that cannot be used in the admission decision process, e.g., Individual Education

Kaye, Jason P.

83

Forages for Grazing Animal Health AGRICULTURE IN 2008  

E-print Network

; and isoflavones to mimic estrogenic activity. Genetic transformation of forage plants to express novel bio-active proteins also has potential to impact animal health issues. One exciting possibility is the genetic transformation of a forage crop (grass or legume) to ex- press a novel Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal

84

Traceability of 4-H exhibition animals: Issues and analysis for animal agriculture in West Central Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle and swine are comingled across the nation on numerous occasions when they are exhibited by seedstock producers and junior (4-H and FFA) exhibitors at state and national shows, as well as at county fairs. Livestock exhibitions provide an opportunity for animal diseases to spread by convening large numbers of animals from geographically disperse areas, comingling these animals at the

Jenna Marie Smith

2008-01-01

85

Enhanced Use of Feed and Manure Nutrients in Animal Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-farm nutrient balances and animal:cropland ratios are used to asses overall pollution risks of livestock farms. These whole-farm indicators cannot address, however, how nutrient management in one production component (e.g., feed) may affect nutrient cycling in other production components (e.g., soils and crops) and the relative impact of each component's management on the environment. Many livestock operations rely on inexpensive

J. Mark Powell

86

Husbandry and breeding in the Octodon degu (Molina 1782).  

PubMed

The Octodon degu is a native rodent species from South America, which lives in colonies with a well-structured social organization grouping of 5-10 young and 2-5 adult animals sharing a burrow system. They show a temperature-dependent diurnal-crepuscular activity pattern. In nature they rarely survive 2 yr, mostly because of predation. However, in captivity, females reproduce for 4-4.5 yr, and both sexes live for 5-7 yr. Males remain fertile until death. Some care is required to maintain healthy degus, particularly breeding females. Here we describe husbandry and breeding guidelines from the experience of the University of Michigan degu colony. With the husbandry practices described here, 90% of pups born in our colony reach maturity (6 mo of age), and no diarrheal diseases are apparent in our adult population. PMID:23547155

Palacios, Adrian G; Lee, Theresa M

2013-04-01

87

[Comparative pharmacokinetic research on amoxicillin in agricultural animals].  

PubMed

Described is the pharmacokinetic of amoxycillin following i/v and oral administration to calves, pigs, and rabbits at the rate of 10 mg per kg of body mass and to turkeys at 30 mg/kg body mass. The pharmacokinetic was found to be of first order, whereas a bispatial model was applicable after i/v introduction of the sodium salt and a monospatial model--following the oral administration of amoxycillin trihydrate. Discussed are the differences in the absorption, distribution, and excretion of the antibiotic as affected by the mode of application and the species peculiarities of the animals. PMID:3811209

Lashev, L

1986-01-01

88

Patterns of animal diversity in different forms of tree cover in agricultural landscapes.  

PubMed

As tropical regions are converted to agriculture, conservation of biodiversity will depend not only on the maintenance of protected forest areas, but also on the scope for conservation within the agricultural matrix in which they are embedded. Tree cover typically retained in agricultural landscapes in the neotropics may provide resources and habitats for animals, but little is known about the extent to which it contributes to conservation of animal species. Here, we explore the animal diversity associated with different forms of tree cover for birds, bats, butterflies, and dung beetles in a pastoral landscape in Nicaragua. We measured species richness and abundance of these four animal taxa in riparian and secondary forest, forest fallows, live fences, and pastures with high and low tree cover. We recorded over 20,000 individuals of 189 species including 14 endangered bird species. Mean abundance and species richness of birds and bats, but not dung beetles or butterflies, were significantly different among forms of tree cover. Species richness of bats and birds was positively correlated with tree species richness. While the greatest numbers of bird species were associated with riparian and secondary forest, forest fallows, and pastures with >15% tree cover, the greatest numbers of bat species were found in live fences and riparian forest. Species assemblages of all animal taxa were different among tree cover types, so that maintaining a diversity of forms of tree cover led to conservation of more animal species in the landscape as a whole. Overall, the findings indicate that retaining tree cover within agricultural landscapes can help conserve animal diversity, but that conservation efforts need to target forms of tree cover that conserve the taxa that are of interest locally. Preventing the degradation of remaining forest fragments is a priority, but encouraging farmers to maintain tree cover in pastures and along boundaries may also make an important contribution to animal conservation. PMID:17069389

Harvey, Celia A; Medina, Arnulfo; Sánchez, Dalia Merlo; Vílchez, Sergio; Hernández, Blas; Saenz, Joel C; Maes, Jean Michel; Casanoves, Fernando; Sinclair, Fergus L

2006-10-01

89

Bad Ethics, Good Ethics and the Genetic Engineering of Animals in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineers have been remiss in addressing ethical and social issues emerging from this powerful new technology, a technology whose implications for agriculture are profound. As a conse- quence of this failure, society has been uneasy about genetic engineering of animals and has had difficulty distinguishing between genuine and spurious ethical issues the technology occasions. Many of the most prominent

Bernard E. Rollin

2010-01-01

90

Animal Cloning – the route to new genomics in agriculture and medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the origin and development of animal cloning in metazoans starting with primitive experiments performed during the late 1880's and early 1900's, followed by nuclear transplantation in amphibians in 1952, then extended to fish and insects in the 1960's, and finally to mammals in the 1980's. Emphasis is placed on the applications of mammalian cloning to agriculture, medicine,

Marie A. Di Berardino

2001-01-01

91

Specialty Animal Production Curriculum Guide for Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness. Curriculum Development. Bulletin No. 1806.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was developed to aid vocational agriculture/agribusiness teachers in Louisiana in improving their instruction and to provide students with the opportunity to obtain skills and knowledge in the production of nontraditional specialty animals. The guide covers the techniques of production, management, care, and marketing of…

University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.

92

Changing Paradigms in Animal Agriculture: The Role of Academia and Industry in Technology Transfer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges abound for academia, industry, and animal agriculture. Universities, espe- cially land-grant universities, are losing their credibil- ity with the public on whom they depend for support. Industries have gone and continue to go through wrenching restructuring, driven by the realities of the marketplace. On the farm and in the classrooms, laboratories, and field research stations of land-grant universities, agriculturalists

D. G. Braund

93

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Department of Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Department of Animal Sciences industry. Much of this is produced on catfish farms in the southeast. Feeding supplemental fat that defines the way the dairy operates, a comprehensive plan that explains how all jobs are done

Watson, Craig A.

94

Annual Meeting Keynote Address: Animal agriculture and emerging social ethics for animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their auton- omy. A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past three decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. This point can be illus- trated with numerous examples across all areas of ani- mal use. These examples reflect society's

B. E. Rollin

2010-01-01

95

Incorporating Behavioral Enrichment into Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of human education has helped in recognizing the needs for humane animal care. Animal welfare became a topic focusing on the morality of human actions (or the lack thereof) when it comes to proper animal care. As a result, institutions started to recognize they had an ethical and legal obligation to research and provide for the needs of

Hilda Tresz

96

COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES  

E-print Network

animals will be rejected on arrival. Animals found to be suffering will be evaluated by a veterinarian by the veterinarian prior to the ordering of the animals. 3.2 Husbandry A. All ferrets are housed in stainless wire

Krovi, Venkat

97

An Unremembered Diversity: Mixed Husbandry and the American Grasslands  

PubMed Central

The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought about a dramatic rise in global crop yields. But, as most observers acknowledge, this has come at a considerable cost to biodiversity. Plant breeding, synthetic fertilizers, and mechanization steadily narrowed the number of crop varieties commercially available to farmers and promoted fencerow-to-fencerow monocultures. Many historians trace the origins of this style of industrialized agriculture to the last great plow-up of the Great Plains in the 1920s. In the literature, farms in the plains are often described metaphorically as wheat factories, degrading successive landscapes. While in many ways these farms were a departure from earlier forms of husbandry in the American experience, monocultures were quite rare during the early transformation of the plains. Analysis of a large representative sample, based on manuscript agricultural censuses and involving twenty-five townships across the state of Kansas, demonstrates that diverse production reached even the most challenging of plains landscapes. PMID:19839113

SYLVESTER, KENNETH; CUNFER, GEOFF

2009-01-01

98

Seahorse behaviour and aquaculture: How to improve Hippocampus guttulatus husbandry and reproduction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, aquaculture development has been based on the use of new tools and technologies from different scientific areas. Animal behaviour can also constitute a useful tool for aquaculture and contribute to the improvement of rearing protocols. In this study, a behavioural approach was developed for the long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) culture, in order to improve broodstock husbandry and

Filipa Faleiro; Luís Narciso; Luís Vicente

2008-01-01

99

Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance in an animal-based agriculture river system.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance within an animal-based agriculture river system. The study area consisted of a 1,345 ha upper part of Pinhal catchment. A total of 384 samples were collected in four years of monitoring. Salmonella was isolated from 241 samples (62.7%), resulting in 324 isolates. The highest number of Salmonella sp. occurred in samples associated with sites with high stoking density animal unit per hectare. It was possible to demonstrate the variability of serovars in the study area: 30 different serovars were found and at least 11 per monitoring site. Thirty-three potentially related isolates were genotyped by PFGE, one major clone was observed in serovar Typhimurium, which occurred in animal feces (swine and bovine), and different sites and samplings proving the cross-contamination and persistence of this specific clone. Among 180 isolates submitted to an antimicrobial susceptibility test, 50.5% were susceptible to all 21 antimicrobials tested and 54 different profiles were found. In the current study, 49.5% of the tested isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and multi-resistance occurred in 18% of isolates. Results indicate a close interaction between animal-based agriculture, Salmonella, and antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24317171

Palhares, Julio Cesar Pascale; Kich, Jalusa D; Bessa, Marjo C; Biesus, Luiza L; Berno, Lais G; Triques, Nelise J

2014-02-15

100

Zoo Biology 29 : 114 (2010) HUSBANDRY REPORTS  

E-print Network

Zoo Biology 29 : 1­14 (2010) HUSBANDRY REPORTS First Captive Breeding of the Imperial Parrot and low population density have frustrated a detailed understanding of its ecology and reproduction. Zoo (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/zoo.20374 Received 17 November 2010; Accepted 19 November 2010 Grant sponsor

101

Husbandry and diseases of camelids.  

PubMed

Camels of the Old World and the New World have provided the indigenous human population with meat, milk, fibre and fuel, also serving as beasts of burden to carry loads, for millennia. With the advent of motorized vehicles, the use of camelids became obsolete except in isolated situations. The numbers of camelids diminished dramatically. A reversal of that trend is now occurring, with a recognition that these animals still function in their respective environments better than any other species of livestock. Camelids have always been popular animals in zoos. Camels and two of the South American camelids are domestic animals which adapt well to contained management. They have a unique ability to obtain nourishment from harsh forages. Their reproductive physiology is different from that of any other livestock species. PMID:8924702

Fowler, M E

1996-03-01

102

Prairie dog care and husbandry.  

PubMed

The species of prairie dog most commonly found in the pet trade is the black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus ludovicianus. These prairie dogs are active, playful, and strong rodents that can make wonderful, affectionate pets when they are properly socialized and given attention. However, with a life span of 8 to 12 years, prairie dogs require a lot of care and a long-term commitment. Prairie dogs live in colonies; thus, they are highly social animals. Potential owners should understand a prairie dog's need for attention before adopting one. PMID:15145390

Pilny, Anthony A; Hess, Laurie

2004-05-01

103

Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.

Emo, Kenneth Roy

104

Husbandry, working practices and field performance when using draught oxen in land preparation in Shambat, Nile Valley, Sudan.  

PubMed

Little quantitative information is available on animal power in the Nile Valley in Sudan, despite that it is being used in the area for centuries and playing an important role in agriculture in the present day. A survey was conducted to assess draught oxen management and its association with field capacity and efficiency at the farm level and to identify potential areas for intervention. A sample of 50 farmers was selected for this purpose using the systematic random sampling technique. The main management parameters discussed were animal health, feeding, housing, work strategy and care for yoke and plough. The results showed that most of the farmers poorly manage their animals, and this was reflected in low working speeds and field efficiencies. The main dimensions of poor management were in veterinary care (78 % did not take their animals to the veterinary centre), feeding (66 % feed their animals shortly before work) and care for yoke (80 % did not follow daily care measures for their yokes) and plough (74 % did not follow plough care measure before and after work). Low working speeds (0.90–2.0 km/h) were recorded by the majority of the farmers (64 %). The majority of the farmers (70 %) recorded field capacities between 0.06 and 0.10 ha/h, while all of them worked at high field efficiencies of >86 %. The only parameter that significantly affected field capacity was the yoke-related wounds (p?=?0.019). Extension advice and capacity building in husbandry and working practices were identified as principal entry points for intervention. PMID:24022833

Makki, Elsamawal Khalil

2014-01-01

105

Value-added animal agriculture: inclusion of race and gender in the professional formula.  

PubMed

The Morrill Act establishing the land grant university system created public higher education institutions and paved the way for women and racial minorities to access them. Today women are -50% of the undergraduate population in animal science (AS) departments at the original land grant state universities, but racial minorities lag far behind, in part because the schools created under the 1890 legislation provided a diversion away from the state universities. Demographic trends from the U.S. Census and the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate increasing positive growth in nonwhite workforce participation, with concurrent decreases in non-Hispanic male participation; men and women will be nearly equally represented by early in the 21st Century. In the faculties of AS departments, both women and minorities are seriously under-represented; causative factors underlying this phenomenon are similar. Although, historically, adherence to role stereotypes and divisions of labor explain some of the under-representation, these assumptions do not hold across all economic classes. Other factors contributing to the scarcity of women and faculty of color in AS include assumptions and mechanisms of scientific research itself; the very neutrality and disinterestedness of researchers, inherent in the scientific method, prevent recognition that values and personal biases affect decisions of hiring selections and mentoring effectiveness. We explore the cultural factors that underlie these values and biases that are common not only to agriculture but also to science more broadly. PMID:14601894

Beck, M M; Swanson, J C

2003-11-01

106

The management and welfare of working animals: identifying problems, seeking solutions and anticipating the future.  

PubMed

Working animals, mainly equids, camelids and bovids, are draught animals that perform transport and traction activities. In developed countries technological development has resulted in animal power being minimised, however, in developing countries most agricultural operations are still being conducted by animals, and animal welfare is a major concern. Inadequate knowledge and inappropriate attitudes and practices regarding the management and welfare of working animals are the main contributory factors to welfare problems. The paper highlights the situation of working animals in developing countries, especially those of equids in Africa and Asia and bullocks in India, which are examined as examples. There is much room for improvement in the welfare of working animals, via the provision of basic veterinary care, technical advice on health and husbandry, including foot care, improved design and maintenance of harnesses and other equipment, and the development of appropriate policies and legislation. The paper discusses the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health in addressing these issues. PMID:25000792

Abul Rahman, S; Reed, K

2014-04-01

107

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Unsworth, Mrs.

2005-03-31

108

Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24% in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide. PMID:23569971

El-Maghraby, Somia; Nawwar, Galal A; Bakr, Reda FA; Helmy, Nadia; Kamel, Omnia MHM

2012-01-01

109

A universal method for measuring functional activity of complement in humans, laboratory, domestic, and agricultural animals, amphibians, and birds.  

PubMed

A new universal method for measuring activity of the serum complement system in humans, laboratory, domestic, agricultural animals, birds and amphibians is based on automated evaluation of the mortality of ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis under the effect of the complement system. In contrast to the hemolytic method, measured activity of the complement shows no erroneously high results caused by reactive lysis in febrile patients. The method can be used for studies of the complement system in humans and animals without species-specific adaptation. PMID:24952500

Kuleshina, O N; Kozlov, L V; Cheremnykh, E G

2014-06-01

110

John Buckley, Animal Technician  

Cancer.gov

John Buckley is an animal technician who provides murine expertise to the entire Pediatric Oncology Branch. John is well versed in the breeding and husbandry of mice as well as a variety of surgical techniques. John’s expertise and teaching serves as a vital resource for the conduct of animal studies in the Immunology Section.

111

The National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program in animal reproduction: changes in priorities and scope relevant to United States animal agriculture.  

PubMed

The National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive Grants Program is the USDA's major competitive grants program and is administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service. The NRI was authorized by the US Congress in the 1990 Farm Bill at a funding level of $500 million; however, the maximal NRI appropriation was $181.17 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006. Across all programs, the NRI is mandated to use 40% of its funding to support mission-linked research. Since its inception in 1991, the NRI has funded competitive grants in the discipline of animal reproduction. Before 2004, the Animal Reproduction Program funded a broad range of projects encompassing almost every subdiscipline in reproductive biology of farm animals, including aquatic species important to the aquaculture industry and laboratory animals. During FY 2004, the NRI Animal Reproduction Program narrowed the focus of its funding priorities to 5 issue-based topics in an effort to make greater measurable improvements in a few high-impact areas over the next 10 years. Funding priorities were narrowed further in FY 2006 to 3 subdisciplines based, in part, on recommendations that emerged from a stakeholder workshop conducted by Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service in August 2004. In FY 2003, Congress authorized expenditure of up to 20% of the funds appropriated to the NRI to support projects that integrate at least 2 of the 3 functions of research, education, and extension. In FY 2004, the Animal Reproduction Program included a funding priority for integrated projects focused primarily on infertility in dairy cattle. The program funded its first integrated project in FY 2005. During FY 2002, increased emphasis on justification for the use of model systems (e.g., laboratory animals and in vitro systems) was included in the NRI request for applications. In FY 2006, applications proposing to primarily utilize nonagricultural animal models were excluded from the program. Currently, all proposed studies must be thoroughly justified in terms of their relevance to US animal agriculture and to program priorities identified within the request for applications. PMID:17322121

Mirando, M A

2007-03-01

112

Teaching animal welfare in the land grant universities.  

PubMed

Colleges and universities have an obligation to teach the basis of animal husbandry and welfare and must prepare students so that they can respond effectively to challenges by proponents of the animal welfare and animal rights movements. Veterinary curricula must now contain formal instruction in professional ethics and humane stewardship of animals for accreditation by the American Veterinary Medical Association. It is helpful if students have an understanding of farm animal behavior, stress physiology and methods of assessing welfare prior to learning about the animal welfare/rights movement's philosophies and issues. A review of early judicial practices, "classical" Judeo-Christian philosophy, the philosophy of Rene Descartes, Jeremy Bentham, Albert Schweitzer, and current philosophers and the entertainment media places the movements in perspective. Students should be familiar with such concepts as the mind-body controversy, equality of suffering, self-awareness or intelligence, and speciesism. After acquiring an appreciation of the basics, a knowledge of the issues facing animal agriculture and the arguments for and against each issue are necessary. Graduates of colleges of agriculture need to realize the potential effects the movements can have and take the initiative to improve the image of animal agriculture. PMID:2254215

Friend, T H

1990-10-01

113

NATURAL ZEOLITES - REMEDY FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal and use of animal manures are major concerns of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) worldwide. Concerns are both environmental and economic: environmental because of noxious odors from ammonia volatilization, leaching of nitrates into ground and surface waters, and excessive amount of heavy metals in the manure; economic because of disposal costs, compliance of envi- ronmental regulations, and the

J. Krason; C. F. Knud-Hansen

114

Nutrient management for intensive animal agriculture: policies and practices for sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensity of animal production around the world has increased substantially during the last half-century, which has led to large problems with the disposal of manures and waste waters. The focus of this paper is on the development of national policies to improve the nutrient management of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), where nutrients are invariably in surplus. To create

J. L. Sims; L. F. Bergstrom; B. T. Bowden; O. Oenema

2005-01-01

115

Manure in the Bay: A Report on Industrial Animal Agriculture in Maryland and Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a substantive and detailed look at the concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and other animal feeding operations (AFO) programs in Maryland and Pennsylvania, as well as a general overview of the federal CAFO program. The information in this report was gathered through publicly available resources as well as a series of interviews with agency officials and other

Rena I. Steinzor; Yee Huang

2012-01-01

116

This Little Piggy Went to Press: The American News Media's Construction of Animals in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textual analysis examines the representations of farmed animals in national print and broadcast news discourse in over 100 stories published from 2000 to 2003. Findings show these American news media largely support the speciesist status quo by favoring elite viewpoints and failing to provide balance. Although exceptions are provided, news media often objectify nonhuman animals discursively through: 1) commodification,

Carrie Packwood Freeman

2009-01-01

117

Research, values and ethics in organic agriculture - examples from sustainability, precaution, nature quality and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural systems are characterised by involving both natural and social systems. Organic farming, in particular, has developed as part of a wider organic movement incorporating producers, manufacturers and consumers. The organic movement is based on explicit rules as well as broader formulated principles and goals for farming and manufacturing, which are connected to underlying values and perceptions of the relationship

Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe; Erik Steen Kristensen

2000-01-01

118

The Role of Industry in International Animal Agriculture1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of agribusiness and the linkages needed with other organizations and govern- ments to be effective in developing countries are examined. After these links are established, then the strengths of business (organizing knowledge, capital, and people into productive and profitable enterprises) can contribute to improved agricultural productivity in developing countries. Technologies and products al- ready transferred and examples of

Colin J. Peel

2010-01-01

119

Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: the Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been lacking. Research has infrequently considered students' interest in agricultural content areas as well as influencing factors on students' agricultural interests. In this study, a factorial design of agricultural interests was developed combining five agricultural content areas and four components of individual interest. The instrument was validated with German fifth and sixth graders (N = 1,085) using a variance decomposition confirmatory factor analysis model. The results demonstrated a second-order factor of general agricultural interest, with animal husbandry, arable farming, vegetable and fruit cropping, primary food processing, and agricultural engineering as discrete content areas of agricultural interest. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that prior knowledge, garden experience, and disgust sensitivity are predictors of general agricultural interest. In addition, gender influenced interest in four of the five agricultural content areas. Implications are directed at researchers, teachers, and environmental educators concerning how to trigger and develop pupils' agricultural interests.

Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

2014-08-01

120

Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty  

PubMed Central

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C.

2012-01-01

121

Reinventing Regulation of Agriculture: Alternative Performance Standards for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) are point sources of pollution and require Clean Water Act permits. The 2003 regulations allow Large CAFOs to propose alternative performance standards (APS) that offer equivalent or better environmental performance than the baseline technology. Principal obstacles to APS success include the complexities of demonstrating superior performance, cost uncertainties for obtaining approval, CAFO risks of participation,

James W. Pease; Darrell J. Bosch

2004-01-01

122

School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences Measuring Sustainable Intensification in Agriculture: An Action Research  

E-print Network

School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences Measuring Sustainable Intensification research methodology that will begin by developing a theoretical model for measuring SI through rigorous context to test its applicability and suitability. It will be looking at livestock, arable, and mixed

Evans, Paul

123

Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem. III. Epidemiological investigations of Trichinella spiralis in resident wild and feral animals.  

PubMed

As part of a larger epidemiological study examining the transmission of Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem, resident wild and feral animals were trapped to determine the extent of their involvement in the natural, on-farm cycling of the parasite among swine. During a 21-mo-study, seven of 15 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), one of three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two of two feral domestic cats and a raccoon (Procyon lotor) were found to be infected, while five shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and 18 deer mice (Peromyscus spp.) were uninfected. Most of the former hosts probably became infected by scavenging dead infected swine or rats (Rattus norvegicus). However, infections obtained through predation of living rats, particularly with regard to the cats, cannot be excluded. Our observations do not suggest that there was transmission of T. spiralis from the wild animals to swine. Therefore, transmission of T. spiralis appeared to occur only from the farm's swine and rats to the associated wild and feral animals. PMID:3193554

Leiby, D A; Schad, G A; Duffy, C H; Murrell, K D

1988-10-01

124

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Griffith, Christopher

125

Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17?-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 ?g/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

2012-01-01

126

Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production  

PubMed Central

Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

2014-01-01

127

A case study of Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.  

PubMed

The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations. PMID:22610959

Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M

2013-01-01

128

Environmental contamination of chromium in agricultural and animal products near a chromate industry  

SciTech Connect

India is one of the largest leather exporting countries. Accordingly the important raw material required for leather tanning, namely sodium dichromate production, has also been boosted in some states of India. Investigations on irrigation reservoirs, irrigation wells and soil revealed high level contamination of chromium. There was no effluent treatment plant installed and effluents stored in earthen lagoons without cement lining caused contamination of underground aquafers. There is little information on the biomagnification and movement of toxic chromate compounds from the contaminated soil and water resources into the components of the foodchain which might ultimately reach humans. Hence an analysis of chromium was carried out in some commercial plants cultivated in these areas and also in some animal products and foods like milk and fishes.

Khasim, D.I. (Research Centre of Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Kakinada (India)); Kumar, N.V.N.; Hussain, R.C. (Sri Venkateswara Univ., Tirupati (India))

1989-11-01

129

Controlling plant form through husbandry to minimise lodging in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant characters which affect lodging in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated through husbandry-change experiments at ADAS Rosemaund near Hereford (UK) over three seasons (1994–1996). Treatments were sowing date (20 September to 1 November), seed rate (500 and 250 seedsm?2) and residual soil nitrogen (116–46kgha?1 in February), in all combinations with four spring treatments: none, one or two plant

P. M Berry; J. M Griffin; R Sylvester-Bradley; R. K Scott; J. H Spink; C. J Baker; R. W Clare

2000-01-01

130

Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology.  

PubMed

Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins) often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced). It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high) directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct costs for the farming sector. PMID:21247506

Christophersen, Olav A; Haug, Anna

2011-01-01

131

Agricultural Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

132

Pet husbandry and infection control practices related to zoonotic disease risks in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Despite this concern, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet husbandry and infection control practices. The objective of this study was to characterize zoonotic disease related-husbandry and infection preventive practices in pet-owning households in Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. One adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Four hundred one pet-owners completed the questionnaire. Households reported ownership of dogs (68%), cats (48%), fish (13%), exotic mammals (7%), such as hamsters, and reptiles and birds (each 6%). Across all species, individuals at higher risk of infections (i.e. < 5yrs, ? 65yrs, immunocompromised) were often (46-57%) present in households. Children < 16 yrs of age had close pet contact, as households reported dogs (13%) and cats (30%) usually slept in a child’s bed and dogs often licked a child’s face (24%). Household husbandry practices that increase zoonotic disease risk were frequently identified; some fed high-risk foods (i.e. raw eggs, raw meat, or raw animal product treats) to their dogs (28%) or cats (3%); 14% of reptile-owning households allowed the pet to roam through the kitchen or washed it in the kitchen sink. Reported hand washing by children was high for all species (> 76% washed hands sometimes or greater after touching the pet, its feces, or housing), although fewer reported children always washed their hands (3-57%; by species). With a few exceptions, practices were not associated with the presence of higher risk members in the household or recall of having previously received zoonotic disease education. Conclusions The results suggest there is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households with individuals at higher risk of infection and those with high-risk species (e.g., reptiles). Further research is needed to determine the role of education in altering higher risk pet practices. PMID:23714625

2013-01-01

133

Administration ............................................................................................................2 School of Agriculture Faculty .........................................................................................3  

E-print Network

.........................................................................................3 Agricultural and Biological Engineering ­ ABE Agricultural Economics ­ AG ECON Agronomy ­ AGRY ...................................................................................................16 Agricultural and Biological Engineering Agricultural Economics Agronomy Animal Sciences, Agricultural Economics Craig Beyrouty, Head, Agronomy Alan L. Grant, Interim Head, Animal Sciences James D

134

Administration ....................................................................................................................................3 School of Agriculture Faculty ............................................................................  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................................4 Agricultural and Biological Engineering ­ ABE Agricultural Economics ­ AG ECON Agronomy ­ AGRY .......................................................................................................................18 Agricultural and Biological Engineering Agricultural Economics Agronomy Animal Sciences, Agricultural Economics Craig Beyrouty, Head, Agronomy Alan L. Grant, Head, Animal Sciences James D. Forney

135

Administration....................................................................................................................................3 School of Agriculture Faculty..............................................................................  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................................4 Agricultural and Biological Engineering ­ ABE Agricultural Economics ­ AG ECON Agronomy ­ AGRY .......................................................................................................................19 Agricultural and Biological Engineering Agricultural Economics Agronomy Animal Sciences, Agricultural Economics Craig Beyrouty, Head, Agronomy Alan L. Grant, Head, Animal Sciences James D. Forney

136

Administration....................................................................................................................................3 School of Agriculture Faculty..............................................................................  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................................4 Agricultural and Biological Engineering ­ ABE Agricultural Economics ­ AG ECON Agronomy ­ AGRY .......................................................................................................................18 Agricultural and Biological Engineering Agricultural Economics Agronomy Animal Sciences, Agricultural Economics Craig Beyrouty, Head, Agronomy Alan L. Grant, Head, Animal Sciences James D. Forney

137

DIVISION OF COMPARATIVE MEDICINE AND LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES OF SUNY AT BUFFALO  

E-print Network

from the CMLAF. PURPOSE: This procedure outlines husbandry needs of SCID mice housed in CMLAF. SCOPE: This procedure applies to all animal caretakers working with SCID mice. PROCEDURE: Details enclosed ATTACHMENTS: N/A THIS SOP SUPERCEDES: 1.B.12 Husbandry of SCID Mice effective date 5/19/06 Change of title Change

Krovi, Venkat

138

Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture - an initiative of the University of West Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In whole Central Europe agricultural production is highly vulnerable and sensitive to impacts of projected climatic changes. The low-elevation regions of the Carpathian Basin (most of the territory of Hungary), where precipitation is the minimum factor of production, are especially exposed to climatic extremes, especially to droughts. Rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry on nature-close pastures and nature-close forestry are the most sensitive sectors due to limited possibilities to counterbalance moisture supply constraints. These sectors have to be best prepared to frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses. So far, there is a lack of information about the middle and long term consequences on regional and local level. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimation is increasing. The aim of the initiative is to set up a fine-scale, GIS-based, complex, integrated system for the definition of the most important regional and local challenges and tasks of climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and also nature protection. The Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture is planned to provide the following services: § Complex, GIS-supported database, which integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions; § Evaluation of existing satellite-based and earth-based monitoring systems; § GIS-supported information about the future trends of climate change impacts on the agroecological potential and sensitivity status on regional and local level (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.) in fine-scale horizontal resolution, based first of all on natural produce, including also social and economic consequences; § Complex decision supporting system on regional and local scale for middle- and long term adaptation and mitigation strategies, providing information on optimum technologies and energy balances. Cooperation with already existing Climate Service Centres and national and international collaboration in monitoring and research are important elements of the activity of the Centre. In the future, the Centre is planned to form part of a national information system on climate change adaptation and mitigation, supported by the Ministry of Development. Keywords: climate change impacts, forestry, rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry

Matyas, Cs.; Berki, I.; Drüszler, A.; Eredics, A.; Galos, B.; Moricz, N.; Rasztovits, E.

2012-04-01

139

Evolutionary demography of agricultural expansion in preindustrial northern Finland.  

PubMed

A shift from nomadic foraging to sedentary agriculture was a major turning point in human evolutionary history, increasing our population size and eventually leading to the development of modern societies. We however lack understanding of the changes in life histories that contributed to the increased population growth rate of agriculturalists, because comparable individual-based reproductive records of sympatric populations of agriculturalists and foragers are rarely found. Here, we compared key life-history traits and population growth rate using comprehensive data from the seventieth to nineteenth century Northern Finland: indigenous Sami were nomadic hunter-fishers and reindeer herders, whereas sympatric agricultural Finns relied predominantly on animal husbandry. We found that agriculture-based families had higher lifetime fecundity, faster birth spacing and lower maternal mortality. Furthermore, agricultural Finns had 6.2% higher annual population growth rate than traditional Sami, which was accounted by differences between the subsistence modes in age-specific fecundity but not in mortality. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the most detailed demonstration yet of the demographic changes and evolutionary benefits that resulted from agricultural revolution. PMID:25232134

Helle, Samuli; Brommer, Jon E; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi; Enbuske, Matti; Jokela, Jukka

2014-11-01

140

Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: past, present and perspectives.  

PubMed

Recycling and composting of organic materials such as animal waste, crop residues and green manures has a long tradition in China. In the past, the application of organic manures guaranteed a high return of organic materials and plant mineral nutrients and thus maintained soil fertility and crop yield. As a result of rapid economic development coupled with the increasing urbanization and labour costs, the recycling rate of organic materials in Chinese agriculture has dramatically declined during the last two decades, in particular in the more developed eastern and southeastern provinces of China. Improper handling and storage of the organic wastes is causing severe air and water pollution. Because farmers are using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizer, only 47% of the cropland is still receiving organic manure, which accounted for 18% of N, 28% of P and 75% of K in the total nutrient input in 2000. Nowadays, the average proportion of nutrients (N+P+K) supplemented by organic manure in Chinese cropland is only 35% of the total amount of nutrients from both inorganic and organic sources. In China, one of the major causes is the increasing de-coupling of animal and plant production. This is occurring at a time when "re-coupling" is partly being considered in Western countries as a means to improve soil fertility and reduce pollution from animal husbandry. Re-coupling of modern animal and plant production is urgently needed in China. A comprehensive plan to develop intensive animal husbandry while taking into account the environmental impact of liquid and gaseous emissions and the nutrient requirements of the crops as well as the organic carbon requirements of the soil are absolutely necessary. As a consequence of a stronger consideration of ecological aspects in agriculture, a range of environmental standards has been issued and various legal initiatives are being taken in China. Their enforcement should be strictly monitored. PMID:16512218

Ju, Xiaotang; Zhang, Fusuo; Bao, Xuemei; Römheld, V; Roelcke, M

2005-12-01

141

A Decision Support System for Climate Change Adaptation in Rainfed Sectors of Agriculture for Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

• Background and aims: Rainfed sectors of agriculture such as nature-close forestry, non-irrigated agriculture and animal husbandry on nature-close pastures are threatened by projected climate change especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is the limiting factor of production and ecosystem stability. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimization is increasing. The aim of the Decision Support System under development is to raise awareness and initiate preparation for frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses in the mentioned sectors. • Services provided: The Decision Support System provides GIS-supported information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options regarding climate change impacts, projected for reference periods until 2100 (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, potential production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.). The projections are referring first of all on biological production (natural produce), but the System includes also social and economic consequences. • Methods: In the raster based system, the latest image processing technology is used. We apply fuzzy membership functions, Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifier. The System is developed in the first step for a reference area in SW Hungary (Zala county). • Novelty: The coherent, fine-scale regional system integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions and expected production potential for three sectors of agriculture as options for land use and conservation. • Funding: The development of the Decision Support System "Agrárklíma" is supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and 4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018 "Talentum" joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate change impacts, forestry, rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry

Mátyás, Csaba; Berki, Imre; Drüszler, Áron; Eredics, Attila; Gálos, Borbála; Illés, Gábor; Móricz, Norbert; Rasztovits, Ervin; Czimber, Kornél

2013-04-01

142

Relationships between biotic and abiotic range characteristics and productivity of reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reindeer husbandry is a form of pastoralism where vast areas are used as forage ranges throughout the year. The productivity of the reindeer industry in Sweden is affected by a multitude of factors on different geographical and temporal scales. Our aim was to find combinations of factors characterizing the environmental conditions for reindeer husbandry in the 51 herding districts in

Henrik Lundqvist; Lennart Norell; Öje Danell

2009-01-01

143

In partnership with the New York State Department of Agriculture & Markets' Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Program Animal Health  

E-print Network

Laboratory Program Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test & Fee Schedule and Submission Guidelines web site 6/12/2012 College of Veterinary Medicine Cornell University Ithaca, New York #12; #12;Animal Health Diagnostic Center Table of Contents Animal Health Diagnostic Center web: http

Keinan, Alon

144

Health Risks Faced by Turkish Agricultural Workers  

PubMed Central

Background. Individuals who make a living through agriculture and animal husbandry are faced with a variety of physical and psychological health risks. In many international studies, it has been shown that these risks can result in disease. The purpose of this study is to summarize the health risks faced by Turkish agricultural workers. Materials and Methods. This study used a nonrandom, convenience sample. The biopsychosocial health statuses of 177 farmers from 11 central villages in Kars, Turkey, were examined. Results. It was determined that the depression rate among the study group was 62.1%, the rate of physical health problems was 52.0%, and the rate of social isolation was 53.7%. There was a statistically significant difference between the depression scale scores and lower education levels, having ? three children, and physical health problems, as well as the physical condition of the farmers' homes. There was a significant difference between poor physical health and older age, lower education levels, having ? three children, and social isolation. Conclusions. In providing data-based evidence, it is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the causality of health problems in this population and in planning the development of public health and veterinary services based on regional needs. PMID:25054165

Cakmur, Hulya

2014-01-01

145

Increasing incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome could be associated with livestock husbandry in Changchun, Northeastern China  

PubMed Central

Background Since the end of the 1990s, the incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been increasing dramatically in Changchun, northeastern China. However, it is unknown which, and how, underlying risk factors have been involved in the reemergence of the disease. Methods Data on HFRS cases at the county scale were collected from 1998 to 2012. Data on livestock husbandry including the numbers of large animals (cattle, horses, donkeys and mules), sheep, and deer, and on climatic and land cover variables were also collected. Epidemiological features, including the spatial, temporal and human patterns of disease were characterized. The potential factors related to spatial heterogeneity and temporal trends were analyzed using standard and time-series Poisson regression analysis, respectively. Results Annual incidence varied among the 10 counties. Shuangyang County in southeastern Changchun had the highest number of cases (1,525 cases; 35.9% of all cases), but its population only accounted for 5.6% of the total population. Based on seasonal pattern in HFRS incidence, two epidemic phases were identified. One was a single epidemic peak at the end of each year from 1988 to 1997 and the other consisted of dual epidemic peaks at both the end and the beginning of each year from 1998 to the end of the study period. HFRS incidence was higher in males compared to females, and most of the HFRS cases occurred in peasant populations. The results of the Poisson regression analysis indicated that the spatial distribution and the increasing incidence of HFRS were significantly associated with livestock husbandry and climate factors, particularly with deer cultivation. Conclusions Our results indicate that the re-emergence of HFRS in Changchun has been accompanied by changing seasonal patterns over the past 25 years. Integrated measures focusing on areas related to local livestock husbandry could be helpful for the prevention and control of HFRS. PMID:24894341

2014-01-01

146

Harnessing: Technologies for Sustainable Reindeer Husbandry in the Arctic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To accelerate the development of sustainable reindeer husbandry under the lead of indigenous reindeer herders, it is critical to empower reindeer herders with the best available technologies and to promote a new kind of science where traditional knowledge is fully integrated into the scientific management of the natural environment in the Arctic. This is particularly true given the dramatic environmental, climatic, economic, social and industrial changes, which have taken place across the Arctic in recent years, all of which have had serious impacts on the reindeer herding communities of the North. The Anar Declaration, adopted by the 2d World Reindeer Herders Congress (WRHC), in Inari, Finland, June 2001drew guidelines for the development of a sustainable reindeer husbandry based on reindeer peoples values and goals. The declaration calls for the reindeer herding peoples to be given the possibilities to develop and influence the management of the reindeer industry and its natural environment because of their knowledge and traditional practices. At the same time, Arctic scientists from many institutions and governments are carrying out increasingly highly technical reindeer related research activities. It is important that the technologies and results of these activities be more commonly co-produced with the reindeer herder community and/or made more readily available to the reindeer peoples for comparison with traditional knowledge for improved herd management. This paper describes a project in which reindeer herders and scientists are utilizing technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing knowledge. The project, Reindeer Mapper, is creating an information management and knowledge sharing system, which will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. The paper describes some of the technologies which comprise the system including an intranet system to enable the team members to work together and share information electronically, remote sensing data for monitoring environmental parameters important to reindeer husbandry (e.g. SAR, Landsat), acquisition of ground-based measurements, and the GIS-based information management and knowledge sharing system.

Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein

2004-01-01

147

Astyanax transgenesis and husbandry: how cavefish enters the laboratory.  

PubMed

Astyanax mexicanus, a teleost fish comprising both sighted river-dwelling and blind cave-dwelling morphs, is becoming increasingly used in the field of developmental and evolutionary biology. Thus, new experimental and technological tools are needed on this emerging fish model by the expanding scientific community. Here, we describe Astyanax husbandry and egg spawning habits, a prerequisite to the successful establishment of Astyanax transgenic lines. We then compare two different transgenesis methods on both surface and cave Astyanax. Both meganuclease (I-SceI)- and transposase (Tol2)-mediated transgenesis are equivalently efficient, resulting in ?40% mosaic transgenic fish in F0. Furthermore, the transmission rate was analyzed in F1 in the case of the I-SceI method and was found to be 16%. Finally, the transgene was found stable up the F3 generation, demonstrating the feasibility of generating stable transgenic lines in Astyanax and opening a wide range of possibilities for this fish model. PMID:25004161

Elipot, Yannick; Legendre, Laurent; Père, Stéphane; Sohm, Frédéric; Rétaux, Sylvie

2014-08-01

148

ANIMAL SCIENCE GRADUATE STUDENT DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SCIENCE  

E-print Network

ANIMAL SCIENCE GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SCIENCE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL .................................................................................................................. 4 ANIMAL SCIENCE GRADUATE PROGRAM HISTORY..............................................................................................................................7 GRADUATE RESEARCH FACULTY

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

149

Building a Sustainable Future for Animal Agriculture: An Environmental Virtue Ethic of Care Approach within the Philosophy of Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural technologies are non-neutral and ethical challenges are posed by these technologies themselves. The technologies\\u000a we use or endorse are embedded with values and norms and reflect the shape of our moral character. They can literally make\\u000a us better or worse consumers and\\/or people. Looking back, when the world’s developed nations welcomed and steadily embraced\\u000a industrialization as the dominant paradigm

Raymond Anthony

150

What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

2007-01-01

151

Animals, Animals, Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

Laz, Mrs.

2006-12-16

152

Refinements in husbandry, care and common procedures for non-human primates: Ninth report of the BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement.  

PubMed

Preface Whenever animals are used in research, minimizing pain and distress and promoting good welfare should be as important an objective as achieving the experimental results. This is important for humanitarian reasons, for good science, for economic reasons and in order to satisfy the broad legal principles in international legislation. It is possible to refine both husbandry and procedures to minimize suffering and improve welfare in a number of ways, and this can be greatly facilitated by ensuring that up-to-date information is readily available. The need to provide such information led the British Veterinary Association Animal Welfare Foundation (BVAAWF), the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME), the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) and the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) to establish a Joint Working Group on Refinement (JWGR) in the UK. The chair is Professor David Morton and the secretariat is provided by the RSPCA. This report is the ninth in the JWGR series. The RSPCA is opposed to the use of animals in experiments that cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm and together with FRAME has particular concerns about the continued use of non-human primates. The replacement of primate experiments is a primary goal for the RSPCA and FRAME. However, both organizations share with others in the Working Group, the common aim of replacing primate experiments wherever possible, reducing suffering and improving welfare while primate use continues. The reports of the refinement workshops are intended to help achieve these aims. This report produced by the British Veterinary Association Animal Welfare Foundation (BVAAWF)/Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME)/Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA)/Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Joint Working Group on Refinement (JWGR) sets out practical guidance on refining the husbandry and care of non-human primates (hereinafter primates) and on minimizing the adverse effects of some common procedures. It provides a valuable resource to help understand the physical, social and behavioural characteristics and needs of individual primates, and is intended to develop and complement the existing literature and legislative guidelines. Topics covered include refinements in housing, husbandry and common procedures such as restraint, identification and sampling, with comprehensive advice on issues such as primate communication, assessing and facilitating primate wellbeing, establishing and maintaining social groups, environmental and nutritional enrichment and animal passports. The most commonly used species are the key focus of this resource, but its information and recommendations are generally applicable to other species, provided that relevant individual species characteristics are taken into account. PMID:19286892

Jennings, M; Prescott, M J; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Gamble, Malcolm R; Gore, Mauvis; Hawkins, Penny; Hubrecht, Robert; Hudson, Shirley; Jennings, Maggy; Keeley, Joanne R; Morris, Keith; Morton, David B; Owen, Steve; Pearce, Peter C; Prescott, Mark J; Robb, David; Rumble, Rob J; Wolfensohn, Sarah; Buist, David

2009-04-01

153

The Therapeutic Use of Animals with the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green Chimneys, a residential center for emotionally disturbed and learning disabled children in New York, uses farm animals in the treatment program. Children learn horseback riding, animal husbandry, gardening, and farming on a working farm. The program seeks to involve the community and provide training to volunteers, interns, and learning…

Ross, Samuel B., Jr.

154

Aquatic animal nutrition for the exotic animal practitioner.  

PubMed

Fish are the most popular pets in the United States based on numbers and high-quality medical care is coming to be expected by owners. Increasing numbers of veterinarians are responding to this need and providing veterinary care for aquatic animals. Part of good medical care for exotic animals is advice on husbandry, including nutrition. However, there are numerous missing areas of research for the nutritional needs of many ornamental fish species. What is known for food species can be combined with what is known for ornamental species to give nutritional advice to owners to maximize health in these animals. PMID:25155660

Corcoran, Mike; Roberts-Sweeney, Helen

2014-09-01

155

Breeding amiable animals? Improving farm animal welfare by including social effects in breeding programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social interactions between individuals, such as co-operation and competition, are key factors in evolution by natural selection. As a consequence, evolutionary biologists have developed extensive theories to understand the consequences of social interactions for response to natural selection. Current genetic improvement programmes in animal husbandry, in contrast, largely ignore the implications of social interactions for the design of breeding programmes.

T. B. Rodenburg; P. Bijma; E. D. Ellen; R. Bergsma; Vries de S; J. E. Bolhuis; B. Kemp; Arendonk van J. A. M

2010-01-01

156

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma agriculture affects each of us every day, young and old, whether we live in largely rural regions or the state's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources promotes sustainable land use and embraces the land

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

157

Experiential learning in the animal sciences: development of a multispecies large-animal management and production practicum.  

PubMed

Students enrolled in an introductory animal science course (ASG 3003) at the University of Florida were surveyed (n = 788) over a 3-yr period to ascertain their current experience and career goals in animal agriculture. Sixty-one percent of the students indicated that they were from an urban background. Only 4% were raised on a farm or ranch where the majority of family income was attributed to production agriculture. Eighty-six percent of the students had minimal or no experience working with large domestic farm animals, but nearly 64% of the students wanted to pursue a career in veterinary medicine. Disciplinary and species interests of the students were highly associated with previous background experiences. Students from nonagricultural backgrounds, who were most likely to indicate a career interest involving veterinary medicine, were most interested (P < 0.05) in animal behavior, whereas the students of rural background were more interested (P < 0.05) in animal management. Thirty-three percent of students were primarily interested in small companion animals; 22% in horses; 20% in domestic farm animals, including beef, dairy, swine, or sheep; and 24% in undomesticated zoo animals or wildlife. The career goals indicated by most students necessitate practical application of animal husbandry skills that are often assumed as general knowledge. Thus, a multispecies large animal management and production practicum (ANS 3206) was developed to provide students with hands-on experience. It was an elective course, and students were encouraged to enroll for two consecutive semesters. Teams of students rotated responsibilities among four livestock species (beef, dairy, equine, and swine). Daily responsibilities at each of the units included feeding and monitoring growth of feedlot cattle and finishing swine, farrowing assistance and baby pig processing, and equine training and foaling assistance. Students were also involved with all facets of a working dairy. Additionally, students completed written assignments specific to their individual species responsibilities that included daily journals, worksheets, or calculation of performance measures. Weekly class meetings allowed for instruction and were used to manage the varied course activities. Using a 5-point scale (1 = poor, 5 = excellent), students indicated that the course further stimulated their interest (4.73) and facilitated their learning (4.63) of animal science concepts. Overall course evaluations ranged from 4.54 +/- 0.55 to 4.85 +/- 0.38 over a 4-yr period. As more students enter animal science programs with nonagricultural backgrounds, it will become necessary to reemphasize basic animal-handling skills and practical applications through experiential learning activities. PMID:14677876

Reiling, B A; Marshall, T T; Brendemuhl, J H; McQuagge, J A; Umphrey, J E

2003-12-01

158

Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.  

PubMed

To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

2014-08-01

159

Sustainability of ruminant agriculture in the new context: feeding strategies and features of animal adaptability into the necessary holistic approach.  

PubMed

There are numerous recent studies highlighting sustainability problems for the development of ruminant production systems (RPS) while facing increasing human food necessities and global climate change. Despite the complexity of the context, in our view the main objectives of the ruminants' physiologist should be convergent for both industrialized (IC) and developing countries (DC) in a common and global strategy of advancing knowledge. In DC, this means improving the efficiency of RPS, taking into account the unique possibility of using rangelands. For IC settings, RPS should be revisited in terms of autonomy and environment- friendly feeding and managing practices. Assuming that competition for feed/food use is still a crucial criterion, future ruminant feeding systems (FeSyst) should preferably focus on lignocellulosic sources. According to biome distributions, and the recent increases in volumes of crop residues and their by-products, the annually renewed volumes of these biomasses are considerable. Therefore, we need to redesign our strategies for their efficient utilization at the local level. For this purpose, digestion processes and rumen functioning need to be better understood. The renewed vision of ruminal digestion through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is also a key aspect as it is an environmental demand that cannot be ignored. With regard to other ruminants' physiological functions, accumulated knowledge could be mobilized into an integrative approach that puts forward the adaptive capacities of animals to face variability in quantity and quality of supplied feeds. Basically, the reduction of inputs that were traditionally used to ensure FeSyst will need more flexible animals. In that sense, the concepts of homeostasis and teleophorhesis need to be updated and adapted to domestic species and breeds that were until now largely excluded from the dominant productive systems. In conclusion, a more holistic approach of research targets is required in which physiological functions and farmers' practices must converge and respond to each particular situation in an integral, dynamic and flexible conceptual perspective. From a scientific point of view, both for ICs and DCs, a broader range of experimental scenarios should be explored in order to arrive at innovative practices and solutions that respect environmental, ethical and economical issues. The clear challenge is to in evaluate the sustainability of RPSs. This includes, in our opinion, a strong interaction with other disciplines (multi- and trans-disciplinary conception), thus structuring new relevant indicators for the evaluation sustainability. PMID:22444621

Bocquier, F; González-García, E

2010-07-01

160

2014-2015Series College of Agriculture,  

E-print Network

2014-2015Series College of Agriculture, Food and Environment University of Kentucky is accredited of University of Kentucky. Agricultural Biotechnology Agricultural biotechnology encompasses cellular and molecular approaches to the manipulation and improvement of agricultural plants, animals and microorganisms

MacAdam, Keith

161

[Blood amoxicillin concentrations in agricultural animals and poultry treated intramuscularly with drug forms containing amoxicillin sodium and amoxicillin trihydrate].  

PubMed

The sodium salts of ampicillin and amoxicillin at the single i/m application in 20 per cent water solutions at the rate of 10 mg per kg of body mass guaranteed close therapeutic concentrations of both antibiotics in the blood serum of birds and rabbits. Amoxicillin-trihydrate in a 20% water suspension applied i/m in a single dose of 10 mg/kg persisted in a therapeutic concentrations in the blood serum of birds for a longer time (10 hours) than ampicillin-trihydrate (8 hours). The oil suspension containing 20% amoxicillin-trihydrate guaranteed bacteriostatic serum concentrations in the course of 24 to 48 hours at single i/m application in doses of 20 and 30 mg/kg, depending on the amount and the species of animal. The optimal doses for calves and sheep were 20 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg injected at intervals of 24, resp., 48 hours, and for pigs and birds it were 30 mg/kg at 24-hour intervals. The choice of one or another dose depended on the sensitivity of the disease agents. PMID:6666035

Lashev, L; Drumev, D

1983-01-01

162

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2014-01-01

163

9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2014-01-01

164

9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

165

9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

166

9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

167

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2012-01-01

168

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2013-01-01

169

9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2013-01-01

170

9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2012-01-01

171

PUTTING KNOWLEDGE TO WORK The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State College, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and counties of the state cooperating.  

E-print Network

. Why has McDonald's done this? Animal rights groups have claimed that the animals used to produce Mc FOR ANIMAL WELFARE In August of 2000, McDonald's Corporation announced animal welfare-related husbandry and fries. It does not need public image problems related to its products. By coming up with animal welfare

Navara, Kristen

172

Greenhouse gas reduction and improved sustainability of animal husbandry using amino acids in swine, poultry feeds.  

PubMed

In Annex 1 countries, nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from swine and poultry excreta have been calculated and the N2 O reduction potential of each country by using amino acids in feed could also be calculated, then a comparison made among the countries. The N2 O reduction rates were approximately 25% for these Annex 1 countries and amino acids were able to make a large contribution to that reduction. Greenhouse gases (GHG) which are N2 O combined with methane (CH4 ) were estimated to reduce by 24.8% in Japan when amino acids were introduced into the feed, but only a 7.2% reduction was estimated in France. Purification, which is mainly used for manure treatment in Japan, emits much more N2 O and less CH4 , whereas the liquid system which is mainly used in France emits more CH4 and less N2 O based on the emission factors from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change data base. Changing the French manure treatment system to the Japanese style with amino acids in feed would reduce GHG emissions by 23.4%. Reduction of the arable land use in Japan by changing crop formulations supported by adding amino acids to feed was also quantified as about 10% and led to an increase in the production of meat using the same arable land area. PMID:23607750

Tsujimoto, Susumu; Takagi, Tomo; Osada, Takashi; Ogino, Akifumi

2013-05-01

173

vanA-mediated high-level glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium from animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains were isolated from a pig farm and a poultry farm both using avoparcin as a food additive. Such organisms were not isolated in a hen's eggs-producing farm not using avoparcin. Glycopeptide-resistant enterococci were also detected in broiler chicken carcasses that were delivered to a hospital's kitchen. The resistance was determined by the vanA gene as indicated

I. Klare; H. Heier; H. Claus; R. Reissbrodt; W. Witte

1995-01-01

174

Report on Animal Husbandry among the Ngok Dinka of the Sudan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Among the Ngok Dinka in Abyei, Sudan, cattle fulfill various sociocultural needs as well as contributing economically, primarily through milk production. Reported here are the findings and recommendations from a 4/80-4/81 survey examining the Ngok Dinka l...

M. Niamir

1982-01-01

175

Respiratory toxicity and inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to biosolids, animal manure, and agricultural soil particulate matter.  

PubMed

This study investigated cytotoxicity and inflammation caused by human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to respirable aerosols produced during the land application of stabilized sewage sludges (biosolids). BEAS-2B cells were exposed to respirable aerosols (PM(10)) derived from soils, biosolids stabilized by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), and composting (COM) as well as animal manures stabilized by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AMAD) and composting (ACOM). Anaerobically digested particles (MAD, TPAD, AMAD) induced the highest cytotoxicity with LD(50) levels of 70 microg/cm(2), 310 microg/cm(2) for, and 375 microg/cm(2) for MAD, AMAD, and TPAD, respectively. Conversely, there was no observed cytotoxicity for soils, composted biosolids, or composted manures at the in vitro doses tested. Inflammatory responses, measured by interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 release, were 2- to 15-fold greater in biosolids and manures than for equivalent doses in soils. Biosolids treatment rankings for human bronchial epithelial cell toxicity and inflammation were similar to the rankings found in recent biosolids pathogen content studies-from lowest pathogen content or toxicity to highest, rankings were as follows: COM < TPAD < MAD. Coupling in vitro responses with modeled tracheobronchial lung surface doses that may occur during a biosolids land application event suggests that an inflammatory aerosol exposure in the TB region could only occur under worst case scenarios (exercising human with reduced lung capacity at <65 m set backs), but examination of lower in vitro doses as well as consideration of the head and lower lung respiratory tract regions are needed to more definitively describe the links between biosolids aerosols and the potential for respiratory inflammation. PMID:20232909

Viau, Emily; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca; Peccia, Jordan

2010-04-15

176

Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

177

The Effects of Husbandry Training on Stereotypic Pacing in Captive African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effects of operant conditioning on stereotypic pacing in 3 female African wild dogs located at the Franklin Park Zoo in Boston, this study made recordings of pacing behavior immediately following individual sessions of husbandry training and 2 no-training conditions. The study found significant differences in the percentage of observations spent in stereotypic pacing behaviors for all 3

Amanda Shyne; Martin Block

2010-01-01

178

Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)  

PubMed Central

Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. PMID:19531062

Ramsay, J M; Watral, V; Schreck, C B; Kent, M L

2009-01-01

179

Training fish and aquatic invertebrates for husbandry and medical behaviors.  

PubMed

Fishes and aquatic invertebrates are highly diverse groups of animals that are well adapted to their aquatic environments. For the past 200 years, researchers have been studying the learning potential of fishes and have shown them to be extensive. By using these animals' abilities to learn, caretakers can use operant conditioning with an emphasis on positive reinforcement to train behaviors aiding in dietary management, capture techniques, and medical procedures. Training fishes and aquatic invertebrates can help advance the care and well-being of these species in human care. PMID:22998962

Corwin, Allison L

2012-09-01

180

Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation  

E-print Network

Animation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics #12;Overview · Animation techniques ­Performance-based (motion capture) ­Traditional animation (frame

Treuille, Adrien

181

Drug Research Agriculture Animal Breeding  

E-print Network

that sequencing the human genome--or any genome, really--would unlock all of our biological secrets.Today we know for studies of human variation (for instance, the 1000 Genomes Project), disease gene mapping (Miller syndrome genome sequence of a given organism--a molecular yardstick against which other sequences can be measured

Napp, Nils

182

Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station 109 Agriculture Hall  

E-print Network

and partnership with Michigan communities, agricultural and natural resources industries and organizations its Web site at . The Animal Industry Initiative (AII) has funded 96 projects with the industry, MSU Extension, the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) and the MAES in creating the Michigan

183

[The introduction of paddocks in circus elephant husbandry].  

PubMed

The guidelines for the keeping, the education and the using of animals in circuses and similar institutions, which are made in connection with the law for prevention of cruelty to animals, claim to keep elephants daily one hour unshackled in the group in a paddock. This paper deals with the effect of the paddock to the social, the play, and the comfort behaviour, and the stereotyped movements of circus elephants. Basically for the behaviour of kept elephants are results of observations in nature. A pilot study with 29 elephants in four circuses showed that the paddock enabled the elephants to carry out social and comfort behaviour more frequently than in the shackled keeping. The stereotyped movements were nearly absent by keeping the elephants in the paddock. If they keep shackled, this behaviour anomaly will take up much time. PMID:8149900

Schmid, J; Zeeb, K

1994-02-01

184

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2012-01-01

185

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2011-01-01

186

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2013-01-01

187

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2014-01-01

188

Agriculture in Gloria Land.  

PubMed

A farming system has been developed on the Gloria Land farm at the Sri Aurobindo Ashram that uses purely organic materials and achieves yields comparable with or better than those on conventional farms under similar agroclimatic conditions. The stimulus for the conversion to organic farming came from observations of the toxicity of chemical pesticides and their apparent ineffectiveness in reducing the impact of pests and diseases. On the Gloria Land farm, a carefully integrated mixture of activities includes crop growing, animal husbandry, fish rearing and sericulture. Sufficient organic waste is produced to fulfill at the needs of the farm's crops. Energy is partially supplied by biogas produced on the farm. This system is economically viable and ecologically sustainable. PMID:8149819

Pal, M

1993-01-01

189

Brittany Joan Colbath Animal Science  

E-print Network

Brittany Joan Colbath 2014 Animal Science College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Annette Fey 2014 Animal Science College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Animalia #12;2 OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRAM Animalia, animalia is concerned with many aspects of animal life, human interface with animals, properly caring

Hayden, Nancy J.

190

Medical Monitoring Program for Vertebrate Animal Users Enrollment and Risk Assessment Form Instructions  

E-print Network

. Laboratory technician Handling unfixed tissues Voles Hr min. Custodian/Janitor Husbandry & care of animalsMedical Monitoring Program for Vertebrate Animal Users Enrollment and Risk Assessment Form-8842), Campus Mail (Mail code 4481), or deliver it to 1200 Carothers Hall. Please note that the Medical

Sura, Philip

191

Current husbandry of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in zoos.  

PubMed

The endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is held in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how red pandas are kept and managed in captivity and to compare it with the management guidelines. Sixty-nine zoos, mainly from Europe but also from North America and Australia/New Zealand, responded to our survey. The results revealed that in general zoos follow the management guidelines for most of the investigated issues. The average enclosure is almost four times larger than the minimum size recommended by the management guidelines, although seven zoos have smaller enclosures. About half the zoos do not follow the guidelines concerning visitor access and number of nest boxes. Other issues that may compromise animal welfare include proximity of neighboring carnivore species and placement of nest boxes. PMID:21182101

Eriksson, P; Zidar, J; White, D; Westander, J; Andersson, M

2010-01-01

192

S:\\irb\\IRBWeb\\ComplianceWebFiles\\AnimalToIACUC\\uvminfo\\pol_proc_pages\\ppmq_agricultural.docx 1 of 2 University of Vermont  

E-print Network

by the USDA under the Animal Welfare Act as documented in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 9, Subchapter by the Assurance on file with the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare in accordance with PHS Policy or regulated of animal welfare. Commercial farm operators are encouraged to follow best management practices. Prior

Bermingham, Laura Hill

193

out in areas that are not suitable for agriculture and forage production ; in these situations, animals adapted to the harsh tropical environments are required. Due to superior resistance  

E-print Network

progeny testing, but there is still scope for a large increase in the proportion of crossbred animals, animals adapted to the harsh tropical environments are required. Due to superior resistance to parasites production situations is described. Animal breeding and dairy development in India P. BRUMBY World Bank

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Peace Corps | Agriculture Agriculture Volunteers  

E-print Network

Peace Corps | Agriculture Agriculture Volunteers Agriculture is the primary economic activity Volunteers contribute sustain- able solutions to a community's agricultural issues and help preserve natural resources. Programs and Sample Projects Agriculture and Forestry Extension · Collaborate with farmers

Kaminsky, Werner

195

PUTTING KNOWLEDGE TO WORK The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State College, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and counties of the state cooperating.  

E-print Network

of the country's largest egg producers had to defend itself against animal cruelty charges in court. Even though in commercial egg production and other animal rearing industries that the eyes and ears of the public are on us. This is done in order to ensure that the producers are complying with the Animal Husbandry Guidelines. Eggs

Navara, Kristen

196

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

197

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

198

9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

199

9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

200

9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

201

9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

202

9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

203

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

204

9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

205

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

206

9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

207

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

208

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

209

9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

210

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

211

Action Plan Agricultural Sciences  

E-print Network

and animal origin that are suitable for industrial processing, and all at minimum cost to the environmentAction Plan 2010-2013 Agricultural Sciences Area EXECUTIVE SUMMARY #12;N.B.: If you require any Research Strategy and Proposed Actions 12 #12;4 2010-13 Action Plan. Area 4 4Agricultural Sciences Area 1

Fitze, Patrick

212

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2008-06-18

213

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed. SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Joergensen, 1994) in which systems are modeled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Danuso, Francesco (University of Udine) [University of Udine

2008-06-18

214

Environmental and societal consequences of a possible COâ-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 11. Effects of climate change on animal agriculture. [Proposals for research programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of COâ-induced increases in ambient temperature is predicted to result in an overall reduction in animal productivity, although animal productivity may increase in some parts of the world. New technologies will be needed to maintain or overcome the adverse effects of climate that are predicted. The effects of temperature (and other associated changes in climate) impact directly on

1982-01-01

215

Introduction Agriculture/Agricultural Science  

E-print Network

38 Introduction Guide Entrance Life Career Inquiries Agriculture/Agricultural Science Mission and goal of the Graduate School of Agricultural Science The mission of agricultural science organization which aims to realize this agricultural ideal, the Graduate School of Agricultural Science's basic

Banbara, Mutsunori

216

Husbandry risk factors associated with hock pododermatitis in UK pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).  

PubMed

Pododermatitis, often called 'sore hocks', is a chronic, granulomatous, ulcerative dermatitis which most commonly affects the plantar aspect of the caudal metatarsal and tarsal areas. Pododermatitis is a common clinical finding in the pet rabbit population, but no data is available regarding the actual prevalence of this condition in the UK pet rabbit population or possible husbandry-related factors which may predispose pet rabbits to development of this condition. It was the aim of this study to determine the prevalence of pododermatitis within a sample pet rabbit population, and study possible correlations with husbandry, sex, breed and origin of the rabbits. Findings suggested that young rabbits are at a lower risk of pododermatitis compared with older rabbits; female domestic rabbits are more predisposed to pododermatitis than males; and 100 per cent of the neutered females examined showed clinical evidence of pododermatitis. The effect that different types of bedding may have on the prevalence of pododermatitis was also investigated. This study also produced a scoring system which can be used to score clinical cases. Our study is of clinical importance because it helps to recognise many of the factors which predispose pet rabbits to pododermatitis, representing the first step towards increased awareness of this extremely common problem. PMID:24572721

Mancinelli, E; Keeble, E; Richardson, J; Hedley, J

2014-04-26

217

Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.  

PubMed

Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks. PMID:23560798

Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

2013-10-01

218

How small is too small for small animals? Four terrestrial arthropod species in different-sized remnant woodlands in agricultural Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island biogeography theory, and the 50\\/500 rule of genetics, have effectively devalued small habitat fragments for species conservation. Metapopulation theory has given new value to small remnants but data on species persistence are scarce. This study examined the capacity of very small and sheep-grazed remnants of eucalypt woodland in agricultural Western Australia to support remnant-dependent terrestrial arthropods. We surveyed 53

Max Abensperg-Traun; Graeme T. Smith

1999-01-01

219

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

220

Perspectives on Indiana Animal Industries 2007 toAnimal Industries 2007 to  

E-print Network

Perspectives on Indiana Animal Industries 2007 toAnimal Industries 2007 to 2011 Department of Agricultural Economics Purdue University #12;Meat Animal OutlookMeat Animal Outlook 2010/2011 Big Issues: 1.Adjustment to Economic Shocksj 2.Exports as the Growth Market 3.Acceptance of Animal Agriculture??? h k d4

221

Residual veterinary antibiotics in swine manure from concentrated animal feeding operations in Shandong Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific interest in the occurrence and fate of antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during the past decades because of the emergence and development of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria. This study developed a method for simultaneous detection of five sulfonamides, three tetracyclines and one macrolide in swine manure with stable recoveries (73.0–110.6%) and high sensitivity (limit of quantification

Xun Pan; Zhimin Qiang; Weiwei Ben; Meixue Chen

2011-01-01

222

9 CFR 311.29 - Unborn and stillborn animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unborn and stillborn animals. 311.29 Section 311.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

223

9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

2011-01-01

224

9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section 318.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

2012-01-01

225

Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society  

PubMed Central

Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models. PMID:20579432

Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

2010-01-01

226

Alternatives and the Animal Welfare Act  

E-print Network

Alternatives and the Animal Welfare Act REDUCTION Minimize the number of animals used REFINEMENT, Maryland, USA 20705 ANIMAL WELFARE INFORMATION CENTER Congressional Record - House 17 December 1985 Senator to a minimum." United States Department of Agriculture ANIMAL WELFARE INFORMATION CENTER National Agricultural

Krstic, Miroslav

227

Agricultural Operations  

MedlinePLUS

... any worker in the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting (GP2AFH) industry. These numbers are the best available ... queried by industry for Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting (GP2AFH), Accessed June 2013. 2 Agricultural Safety . Centers ...

228

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

229

College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

of the world. Courses also are offered in experimental statistics agricultural mechanization, community certification. ANIMAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES Master of Science Doctor of Philosophy Applicants to the Animal and Veterinary Sciences programs should have a strong background in the animal, biological, and physical sciences

Stuart, Steven J.

230

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2011-01-01

231

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

...2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2014-01-01

232

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2013-01-01

233

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2012-01-01

234

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2013-01-01

235

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2012-01-01

236

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

...2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2014-01-01

237

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2011-01-01

238

Potentials for win-win alliances among animal agriculture and forest products industries: Application of the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial forests in many parts of the world are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrient-deficient forests often\\u000a exist in close proximity to large animal feeding operations, meat processing and other food, textile, or other biomass-processing\\u000a plants, and municipal waste treatment facilities. Many of these facilities produce large surpluses of nitrogen, phosphorus,\\u000a and organic matter as gaseous ammonia, urea, uric

Ellis B. Cowling; Cari S. Furiness

2005-01-01

239

The effects of husbandry training on stereotypic pacing in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).  

PubMed

To examine the effects of operant conditioning on stereotypic pacing in 3 female African wild dogs located at the Franklin Park Zoo in Boston, this study made recordings of pacing behavior immediately following individual sessions of husbandry training and 2 no-training conditions. The study found significant differences in the percentage of observations spent in stereotypic pacing behaviors for all 3 dogs among the 3 different conditions. The authors discuss the data in terms of the contribution of motivated tasks to the effects and the role of food deprivation in the expression of stereotypic pacing. The study suggests that even short periods of training may improve the African wild dogs' welfare by reducing stereotypic pacing following the conditioning sessions. PMID:20017046

Shyne, Amanda; Block, Martin

2010-01-01

240

Assessing habitat quality of farm-dwelling house sparrows in different agricultural landscapes.  

PubMed

Having historically been abundant throughout Europe, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) has in recent decades suffered severe population declines in many urban and rural areas. The decline in rural environments is believed to be caused by agricultural intensification, which has resulted in landscape simplification. We used giving-up densities (GUDs) of house sparrows feeding in artificial food patches placed in farmlands of southern Sweden to determine habitat quality during the breeding season at two different spatial scales: the landscape and the patch scale. At the landscape scale, GUDs were lower on farms in homogeneous landscapes dominated by crop production compared to more heterogeneous landscapes with mixed farming or animal husbandry. At the patch level, feeding patches with a higher predation risk (caused by fitting a wall to the patch to obstruct vigilance) had higher GUDs. In addition, GUDs were positively related to population size, which strongly implies that GUDs reflect habitat quality. However, the increase followed different patterns in homogeneous and heterogeneous landscapes, indicating differing population limiting mechanisms in these two environments. We found no effect of the interaction between patch type and landscape type, suggesting that predation risk was similar in both landscape types. Thus, our study suggests that simplified landscapes constitute a poorer feeding environment for house sparrows during breeding, that the population-regulating mechanisms in the landscapes differ, but that predation risk is the same across the landscape types. PMID:22037991

von Post, Maria; Borgström, Pernilla; Smith, Henrik G; Olsson, Ola

2012-04-01

241

Animal Algorithm Animation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Guido RöÃÂling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.

242

29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry, or lumbering operations) performed by...

2012-07-01

243

29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry, or lumbering operations) performed by...

2011-07-01

244

29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry, or lumbering operations) performed by...

2013-07-01

245

Agriculture Education Curriculum Grades 6-12 (BS)  

E-print Network

Agriculture Education Curriculum Grades 6-12 (BS) Freshman Year English (GER) English 101, 102..................................................... 3 Agricultural Science 209,211..............................3 Animal Science 111...................................................3 Agricultural Business 220................................... 3 Content Electives

Selmic, Sandra

246

Infrared spectroscopy of the mineralogy of coprolites from Brean Down: evidence of past human activities and animal husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineralogy of 11 concretions from the Bronze Age settlement horizons at Brean Down near Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, UK, has been examined by infrared spectroscopy. The concretions are found to contain calcite and apatite and, in some cases, quartz. Four further concretions from the later Iron Age Meare Village, soil samples from Brean Down and mineralised samples of known faecal origin from a cesspit within the Tudor Merchant's house in Tenby have been similarly examined. It is found that all samples contain calcite, but only the concretions and the Tenby cesspit samples contain apatite. None of the soil samples contain apatite, although these are relatively high in quartz. This suggests that the concretions are coprolites and that the apatite has a biological origin in small bone fragments. The infrared study is backed up by scanning electron microscopy which confirms the presence of phosphorus in the coprolite samples and shows a morphology suggestive of the presence of bone fragments; it is likely, therefore, that the coprolites result from a carnivore—most probably from dogs. The findings show the usefulness of infrared spectroscopy for the rapid identification of mineralised coprolitic material from archaeological sites.

Allen, Samantha D. M.; Almond, Matthew J.; Bell, Martin G.; Hollins, Peter; Marks, Sonja; Mortimore, Joanne L.

2002-03-01

247

Feeding Baby Beeves.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT- STATION BULLETIN NO. 198 NOVEMBER, 1916 DIVISION OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY FEEDING BABY BEEVES COLLEGE POSTOFFICE : STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. AUSTIN, TEXAS : VON BOECKMA'IN-JONES CO., PRINTERS, 1916. [Blank... Page in Original Bulletin] TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 198 NOVEMBER, 19 16 ---- DIVISION OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY FEEDING BABY BEEVES J. C. BURNS, B. S. Animal Husbandry, Feeding 1 nvestigations ' POSTOFFICE : COLLEGE STATION...

Burns, John C.

1916-01-01

248

The globalisation of farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

Fraser, D

2014-04-01

249

AgriculturAl Development  

E-print Network

alleviation. SLU's areas of expertise also cover other urgent global issues such as effects of climate change of the most critical issues for mankind today ­ like food security and climate change ­ are truly global, bioenergy production, biodiversity conservation, and control of infectious diseases in animals and man. SLU

250

Future Requirements of Agricultural Machines for Mechanizing Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural mechanization refers to interjection of improved tools, implements and machines between farm workers and materials handled by them. Independent India ushered in a process of agricultural mechanization and revival of rural agro- processing which got acceleration during post-Green Revolution period. Irrigation pump sets, power threshers, tractors, power tillers and matching implements, including for 65Million draft animals have became popular.

Anwar Alam

251

Potentials for win-win alliances among animal agriculture and forest products industries: application of the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development.  

PubMed

Commercial forests in many parts of the world are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrient-deficient forests often exist in close proximity to large animal feeding operations, meat processing and other food, textile, or other biomass-processing plants, and municipal waste treatment facilities. Many of these facilities produce large surpluses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter as gaseous ammonia, urea, uric acid, phosphorus compounds, bacterial sludges, and partially treated municipal wastewaters. These co-existing and substantial nutrient deficiencies and surpluses offer ready-made opportunities for discovery, demonstration, and commercial development of science-based, technology-facilitated, environmentally sound, economically viable, and socially acceptable "win-win alliances" among these major industries based on the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development. The major challenge is to discover practical means to capture the surplus nutrients and put them to work in forest stands from which value-added products can be produced and sold at a profit. PMID:16512193

Cowling, Ellis B; Furiness, Carl S

2005-12-01

252

Demographics and husbandry of pet cats living in Sydney, Australia: results of cross-sectional survey of pet ownership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to collect baseline data on the age, gender, breed, reproductive status and husbandry (housing, diet, vaccination, veterinary attention) of pet cats living in Sydney. Accordingly, a cross-sectional survey of 2768 households was conducted using a postal questionnaire. The 2006 Sydney residential phone book was used as the sampling frame. Non-responders were re-mailed the questionnaire on two further

Jenny-Ann L. M. Toribio; Jacqueline M. Norris; Joanna D. White; Nanveet K. Dhand; Samuel A. Hamilton; Richard Malik

2009-01-01

253

Anthrax in animals and humans in Mongolia.  

PubMed

Anthrax is endemic throughout Mongolia, except in the semi-desert and desert areas of the south. The prevalence of anthrax in Mongolia had drastically decreased since the 1950s due to the use of anthrax antiserum and vaccines, but the privatisation of the animal husbandry sector and changes in the structures of the veterinary and medical delivery systems in Mongolia over the last decade have resulted in challenges for disease control. Animal and human anthrax has become an increasing problem since the mid-1990s. Human cutaneous anthrax is common in Mongolia as a result of exposure to infected animals. In this paper, the authors identify potential causes forthe increase of anthrax in Mongolia. The current prevention efforts may not be adequate. Anthrax surveillance and control must be intensified, particularly in areas of high prevalence. PMID:18293618

Odontsetseg, N; Sh, Tserendorj; Adiyasuren, Z; Uuganbayar, D; Mweene, A S

2007-12-01

254

Canadian Agricultural  

E-print Network

In 1995 the Canadian Government abolished an export subsidy on railway shipments of grain from the Canadian Prairies known as the Western Grain Transportation Act (WGTA). This decision marked the end of one of the longest-running agricultural subsidies in the world, first known as the Crow's Nest Pass Agreement of 1897 3 and commonly referred to as the “Crow Rate. ” The removal of this transportation subsidy increased the cost of exporting grain from the prairie region of Canada by $17-$34/tonne, equivalent to 8%-17 % of its value 4. These increased transportation costs translated into lower grain prices at the farm-gate. The repeal of the WGTA is often associated with a range of adaptations by farmers to the lower prices for export grains (see, for example, Doan et al. 2003, 2006). It is believed that some farmers adapted to the new environment by shifting to high-value export crops, feed grain production and animal production or by pursuing economies of size in grain production.

Shon Ferguson; Rose Olfert

255

Agriculture INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

1 Agriculture INTRODUCTION 1.1 Although its share in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has declined from over half at Independence to less than one-fifth currently, agriculture remains the predominant sector in it as the principal occupation. Agriculture still contributes significantly to export earnings and is an important

Sohoni, Milind

256

Pennsylvania Agricultural  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Agricultural Environmental Requirements AmIInCompliance? Agricultural activities, and $2 Billion from crops. There are more than 63,000 farms, and 98% are family owned. Agriculture has a huge impact on PA's economy, with a history rich in conservation and environmental stewardship. Before

Guiltinan, Mark

257

ANIMAL COGNITION Animal cognition  

E-print Network

·Social learning #12;Social learning ·Possibly associative at least in some aspects. ·ObservingCHAPTER 9 ANIMAL COGNITION #12;Animal cognition ·Basic concepts ·Case study: incentive learning ·Rule learning ·Social learning #12;Rule learning ·A cognitive form of learning. ·Initial learning based

Cooper, Brenton G.

258

Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

2004-12-01

259

Agriculture 21  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To "promote food security and sustainable development into the next millennium," the Agriculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has recently created this new resource. An impressive and clearly arranged interface leads researchers to more than one gigabyte of data from various UN Agriculture Department sites. A detailed list of available software, databases, publication lists, and email conferences is provided via the Guides section of the site. Other services include Magazine, a monthly publication on international agricultural issues, and Gateway, a link pointing to UN Department of Agriculture divisional homepages.

260

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

261

Animal Science Curriculum (BS) Freshman Year  

E-print Network

......................................................3 Social/Behavioral Sciences (GER)............................3 32 Sophomore Year Agricultural Business 220.................3 Animal Science 318, 401, 409.................................. 7 Social/Behavioral Sciences (GERAnimal Science Curriculum (BS) Freshman Year Animal Science 111

Selmic, Sandra

262

Relationship between nitrogen and phosphate surplus from agricultural production and river water quality in two types of production structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P2O5) surplus derived from agriculture and river water quality. We selected two river basins; one was a paddy farming area (Omoigawa) and the other was an intensive livestock husbandry area (Nakagawa). Nitrogen and P2O5 surpluses, defined as the difference between their input and output on regional farmland, from farmland in Omoigawa

Shin-Ichiro Mishima; Satoru Taniguchi; Kazunori Kohyama; Michio Komada

2007-01-01

263

Agricultural scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

264

Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.  

PubMed

Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry. PMID:22726305

Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

2013-08-01

265

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

Omsi

2004-01-01

266

VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

267

Agricultural Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief summary of the state of agricultural research in the United States. The agricultural research system is finely attuned to the immediate needs of its clients, as evident in its response to the attack of corn blight in 1970. (JR)

Waggoner, Paul E.

1973-01-01

268

Sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is important for different reasons in different parts of the world and sustainability is defined in many ways. Sustainability may be a necessary but is never a sufficient condition. Agriculturally, it must involve the responsible use of resources, mainly in order to produce the food needed, but this is quite different from ensuring that people are adequately fed. This

Colin Spedding

1998-01-01

269

Ants and Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a 60% of the world’s ecosystems are not used in a sustainable way. Modern agriculture is blamed for declining soil carbon and\\u000a biodiversity. Climate change, habitat fragmentation and other obstacles impede the movement of many animal species, and distribution\\u000a changes are projected to continue. Therefore, we need alternative management strategies. The colony organisation of social\\u000a insects, especially of ants, is seen

Gero Benckiser

270

INFLUENCES GNTIQUES ET ENVIRONNEMENTALES SUR LES MCANISMES DE DFENSE  

E-print Network

are described. Selection is based on performance testing of young kids. By the testing the animals are injected and environmental aspects of the immune response C.C. OOSTERLEE Department of Animal Husbandry, Agricultural be immunosuppressive. In modern animal husbandry practice.such factors exist and can influence disease resistance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

Entomophagy and space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

272

Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

273

Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

Crank, Ron

274

Cattle Husbandry in Ethiopia Is a Predominant Factor Affecting the Pathology of Bovine Tuberculosis and Gamma Interferon Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is a major economic problem and a potential public health risk. Improved diagnostics like the gamma interferon (IFN-?) test with ESAT6 and/or CFP10 could contribute to the control program. We assessed IFN-? responses in zebu (Ethiopian Arsi breed) and Holstein cattle kept indoors or in a pasture to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) and an ESAT6-CFP10 protein cocktail. Furthermore, the intensity and distribution of pathology of bovine tuberculosis were compared between the two breeds. Our data demonstrated significantly (all P < 0.02) higher IFN-? responses to avian PPD, bovine PPD, and the ESAT6-CFP10 protein cocktail in Holstein than in zebu cattle, while lesion severities in infected animals and tuberculin skin test responses did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the two breeds. Holstein cattle that were kept indoors produced significantly (all P < 0.01) higher IFN-? levels in response to avian PPD, bovine PPD, and the ESAT6-CFP10 protein cocktail than did Holstein cattle kept in a pasture. Moreover, lesion severity was significantly higher in Holstein cattle kept indoors (P = 0.001) than in those kept in the pasture. Lesions were localized predominantly in the digestive tract in cattle kept in a pasture, while they were localized in the respiratory tract in cattle kept indoors. In conclusion, in Holstein cattle, husbandry was a dominant factor influencing the severity of tuberculosis lesions and IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens compared to breed. A difference in the cellular immune response between zebu and Holstein cattle was observed, while tuberculosis lesion severities were identical in the two breeds, when both were kept in a pasture. PMID:16960115

Ameni, Gobena; Aseffa, Abraham; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Hewinson, Glyn; Vordermeier, Martin

2006-01-01

275

Cancer in offspring of parents engaged in agricultural activities in Norway: incidence and risk factors in the farm environment.  

PubMed

In this study of cancer in offspring we demonstrate that factors linked to horticulture and use of pesticides are associated with cancer at an early age, whereas factors in animal husbandry, in particular poultry farming, are associated with cancers in later childhood and young adulthood. Incident cancer was investigated in offspring born in 1952-1991 to parents identified as farm holders in agricultural censuses in Norway in 1969-1989. In the follow-up of 323,292 offspring for 5.7 million person-years, 1,275 incident cancers were identified in the Cancer Registry for 1965-1991. The standardized incidence for all cancers was equal to the total rural population of Norway, but cohort subjects had an excess incidence of nervous-system tumours and testicular cancers in certain regions and strata of time that could imply that specific risk factors were of importance. Classification of exposure indicators was based on information given at the agricultural censuses. Risk factors were found for brain tumours, in particular non-astrocytic neuroepithelial tumours: for all ages, pig farming tripled the risk [rate ratio (RR), 3.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.89-5.13]; indicators of pesticide use had an independent effect of the same magnitude in a dose-response fashion, strongest in children aged 0 to 14 years (RR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.63-6.94). Horticulture and pesticide indicators were associated with all cancers at ages 0 to 4 years, Wilms' tumour, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, eye cancer and neuroblastoma. Chicken farming was associated with some common cancers of adolescence, and was strongest for osteosarcoma and mixed cellular type of Hodgkin's disease. The main problem in this large cohort study is the crude exposure indicators available; the resulting misclassification is likely to bias any true association towards unity. PMID:8543394

Kristensen, P; Andersen, A; Irgens, L M; Bye, A S; Sundheim, L

1996-01-01

276

Determination of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site in an intensively managed agricultural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition have been found to affect the primary productivity and species composition of most terrestrial ecosystems. Highly vulnerable ecosystems such as nutrient-poor bogs are expected to respond to increasing N input rates with a decrease in plant species diversity. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog and one of only very few remaining protected peatland areas in Northwestern Germany - is surrounded by highly fertilised agricultural land and intensive livestock production. We quantified the annual deposition of atmospheric N over a period of two years. Dry deposition rates of different N species and their reactants were calculated from day and night-time concentrations measured by a KAPS denuder filter system. Dry N deposition amounted to 10.9 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (year 1) and 10.5 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (year 2). More than 80% of total deposited N was attributed to ammonia (NH3). A strong seasonality in NH3 concentrations and depositions could be observed. Day and night-time concentrations and depositions, however, did not differ significantly. Total N deposition including bulk N deposition resulted in about 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results suggest that the intensive agricultural land management of surrounding areas and strongly emitting animal husbandry lead to N inputs into the protected peatland area that exceed the ecosystem's specific critical load up to fivefold. This gives rise to the assumption that a further shift in plant species composition with a subsequent alteration of the local hydrological regime can be expected.

Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Grünhage, Ludger; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

2014-11-01

277

Agricultural Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

Brill, Winston J.

1981-01-01

278

Child Labor in Texas Agriculture  

E-print Network

, agricultural workers over age 18 account for only 14 percent of all work fatalities. Farm hazards include machinery, confined spaces, animals and live- stock, chemicals, respiratory irritants, toxic gases and extreme environmental conditions. Children... restric- tions and general exemptions to these rules. One exemption to Federal and Texas child labor restrictions applies to children employed in agriculture when they are not legally required to be attending school. According to Chapter 51 of the Texas...

Smith, David

2005-04-28

279

Collection Policy: ANIMAL SCIENCE Subject Scope | Priority Tables | Other policies . . .  

E-print Network

of the department is on food and fiber-producing animals and animals for traction, including dairy cattle, beef laboratory animals. There is limited interest in exotic species. World Wide Web pages describing the Animal, nutrition Exotic and Zoo Animal Research Horse Systems International Animal Agriculture specifically

Angenent, Lars T.

280

Science, Medicine, and Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher's Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher's Association.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2004-01-01

281

MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date  

E-print Network

.R. Black, Extension Economist Agricultural Economics Issued November 1978 10 pages The PDF file Animal Husbandry and J.R. Black, Extension Economist Agricultural Economics Nutrient requirements. Energy, protein, calcium, and phosphorus requirements are summarized in Table 1. The requirements

282

Technical matters The practice and politics of geo-referencing  

E-print Network

for agricultural production such as crops and animal husbandry, and where to set up industrial plants..." 7 Agriculture & Forestry Office #12;Extra slides #12;National Land Management Authority (Dec. 2006) "The lack

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

283

Organic agriculture cannot replace conventional agriculture  

E-print Network

Organic agriculture cannot replace conventional agriculture Sina Adl , David Iron and Theodore Agriculture | Pathogen Dispersal Introduction Organic farming [1, 2] is gaining in popularity in Eu- rope, because or- ganic agriculture avoids using environmentally harmful chem- icals that pollute soil

Kolokolnikov, Theodore

284

Transforming Agriculture through Pervasive Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale, outdoor pervasive computing system uses static and animal-borne nodes to measure the state of a complex system comprising climate, soil, pasture, and animals. Agriculture faces many challenges, such as climate change, water shortages, labor shortages due to an aging urbanized population, and increased societal concern about issues such as animal welfare, food safety, and environmental impact. Humanity depends

Tim Wark; Peter I. Corke; Pavan Sikka; Lasse Klingbeil; Ying Guo; Christopher Crossman; Philip Valencia; Dave Swain; Greg Bishop-hurley

2007-01-01

285

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

286

Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Animal Welfare Institute, a nonprofit organization founded "to reduce the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans," offers this frequently updated bibliographic database for information on all aspects of environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates. Search results include a list of relevant references with complete bibliographic information, brief summaries of each entry, Web links to full-text documents where available, and a keyword index for easily finding related sources. Users may also browse the entire contents of the database alphabetically. Primatologists and animal handlers alike should find this comprehensive database particularly useful.

2008-08-29

287

Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Animal Welfare Institute, a nonprofit organization founded "to reduce the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans," offers this frequently updated bibliographic database for information on all aspects of environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates. Search results include a list of relevant references with complete bibliographic information, brief summaries of each entry, Web links to full-text documents where available, and a keyword index for easily finding related sources. Users may also browse the entire contents of the database alphabetically. Primatologists and animal handlers alike should find this comprehensive database particularly useful.

1998-01-01

288

An integrated perspective on assessing agricultural air quality  

E-print Network

An integrated perspective on assessing agricultural air quality Viney P. Aneja* Department. In this paper, we summarise an integrated assessment framework for studying the agricultural air quality issues air quality; air emissions; air pollution; ammonia; animal feeding operations; biogeochemical cycles

Niyogi, Dev

289

29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry or lumbering operations) performed...

2012-07-01

290

29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry or lumbering operations) performed...

2011-07-01

291

29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry or lumbering operations) performed...

2013-07-01

292

29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.  

...defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry or lumbering operations) performed...

2014-07-01

293

Industrialization in hog production: implications for Midwest agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mega producers have ushered in a new era for Midwest agriculture and amplified the growing environmental concerns associated with concentrated animal agriculture. The combination threatens to undermine the Midwest's long-held dominance in hog production and processing.

Gary L. Benjamin

1997-01-01

294

International Agriculture College of Agriculture  

E-print Network

, like European corn borer, Russian wheat aphid, and Hessian fly. The blight that devastated our vast to learn about technological innovations in agriculture early on, and to be among the early adopters

295

n. ISBN Title Subject 1 9780444519245 Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science Agricultural and Biological Sciences  

E-print Network

n. ISBN Title Subject 1 9780444519245 Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science Agricultural and Biological Sciences 2 9780080453378 Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 9780122270505 Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 9780123739629

Malerba, Donato

296

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2014-04-01

297

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2011-04-01

298

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2010-04-01

299

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2012-04-01

300

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2013-04-01

301

All farming operations that land apply manure or agricultural process wastewater, whether they generate the manure or import it from another operation, must have a written Manure Management Plan. All farming operations that include an Animal Concentra-  

E-print Network

farming operations that include an Animal Concentra- tion Area (ACA) or pasture must have a written Manure Management Plan. For farms not defined as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) or Concentrated Animal Operations (CAOs), Manure Management Plans can be prepared by the farmer, although the farmer may

Guiltinan, Mark

302

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

2007-01-20

303

Animal Clues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity (found under "Activities"), young learners match animals with either their tracks or sounds. The animals are all common wild North American species: raccoon, duck, bear, fox, deer, frog and beaver. The tracks and sounds are animated, so learners can visualize how the animal walks and examine the shape of its foot. The activity is in both English and Spanish.

Omsi

2006-01-01

304

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks;

2004-02-05

305

High Prevalence and Increased Severity of Pathology of Bovine Tuberculosis in Holsteins Compared to Zebu Breeds under Field Cattle Husbandry in Central Ethiopia?  

PubMed Central

A comparative study on the prevalence and pathology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 5,424 cattle (2,578 zebus, 1,921 crosses, and 925 Holsteins), which were kept on pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia, using a comparative intradermal tuberculin test, postmortem examination, and bacteriology. The overall prevalence of bovine TB was 13.5%; prevalence was higher in Holsteins than either zebus (22.2% versus 11.6%, ?2 = 61.8; P < 0.001) or crosses (22.2% versus 11.9%, ?2 = 50.7; P < 0.001). Moreover, the severity of pathology in Holsteins (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM], 6.84 ± 0.79) was significantly higher (P = 0.018) than the severity of pathology in zebus (5.21 ± 0.30). In addition, the risk of TB in Holsteins was more than twice (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.89, 2.85) that in zebus. Animals between 5 and 9 years of age were at higher (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.80, 3.12) risk of bovine TB than those 2 years of age or below. A significant difference (?2 = 351; P < 0.001) in the occurrence of TB lesions in lymph nodes was recorded; the mesenteric lymph node (mean pathology score ± SEM, 1.95 ± 0.08) was most severely affected, followed by the retropharyngeal (0.80 ± 0.05) and caudal mediastinal (0.8 ± 0.06) lymph nodes. Fifty-six percent (n = 145) of the animals with gross TB lesions were culture positive; the lowest culture positivity was recorded in the skin lesions (27.3%) and the lesions of the mesenteric lymph node (31.5%). Both the skin test response and the postmortem findings suggested a higher susceptibility to bovine TB in Holsteins than zebus under identical field husbandry conditions (on pasture). In the light of increased numbers of Holstein cattle introduced into this area to raise milk production to satisfy the needs of Addis Ababa's growing population, these findings highlight the need for a control program in these herds. PMID:17761523

Ameni, Gobena; Aseffa, Abraham; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen; Hewinson, Glyn; Vordermeier, Martin

2007-01-01

306

Agricultural Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made the Agricultural Outlook publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Agricultural Outlook, the monthly short and long term commodity outlook publication, long available via the USDA Economics and Statistics system at Cornell University's Mann Library, (discussed in the September 15, 1995 issue of the Scout Report) is now available with graphics and charts. Selected archives of the publication are available and articles can be downloaded individually. About the only drawback to this terrific addition to ERS's electronic holdings is that the separate statistical section that accompanies AO (over 20 pages of tables), is not available at this time. This is particularly unfortunate, as these tables are one of the most valuable aspects of the publication.

1996-01-01

307

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

Museum Of Science, Boston

2005-01-01

308

Purdue extension CAFOsConcentrated Animal Feeding OperationsConcentrated Animal Feeding Operations  

E-print Network

are increasingly suspicious of an industrialized agriculture typified by non-local management, and they are uncertain about the long run im pacts on community well-being. As a result, animal agriculture is often. This singling out is fostered by the livestock industry's narrow focus on developing agricultural oppor tunities

309

9 CFR 3.32 - Employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.32 Employees. A sufficient number of employees shall...

2010-01-01

310

9 CFR 3.34 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.34 [Reserved] Transportation Standards...

2010-01-01

311

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation  

E-print Network

animation. Animals in their natural habitats have presented a long­standing and difficult challenge in certain natural ecosystems, with minimal animator intervention. Our approach is to construct artificial the animator plays the role of a nature cinematographer, rather than the more conventional role of a graphical

Toronto, University of

312

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation  

E-print Network

animation. Animals in their natural habitats have presented a long-standing and difficult challenge in certain natural ecosystems, with minimal animator intervention. Our approach is to construct artificial the animator plays the role of a nature cinematographer, rather than the more conventional role of a graphical

Toronto, University of

313

Husbandry practices employed by private aviculturists, bird markets and zoo collections, which may be conducive to fostering infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Zoos, quarantine stations, and bird markets, dealers and breeders are in the business of propagating or moving birds. Facilities often house and transport birds which have unknown histories of exposure to disease. As few tests are available for disease screening and monitoring in exotic avian species, familiarization with significant avian pathogens will enable the manager and veterinarian to recognize and prevent a disease outbreak. Implementing aviary management practices which minimize the spread of pathogens, in conjunction with quarantine and the proper handling of birds during shipment, can greatly reduce the threat of disease. The author reviews the husbandry practices (caging, nutrition, transport, quarantine) which can reduce the incidence and spread of infectious disease. Significant avian pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites) are listed, together with their host range and modes of transmission. PMID:8924716

Wolff, P L

1996-03-01

314

Effect of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme with reference to biocontrol strategies.  

PubMed

A study was carried out at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, to assess the impact of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding and identify indigenous biocontrol agents with potential for controlling mosquito breeding in the scheme. The study established a close relationship between the schedule of the farming practices (particularly the flooding phase) and mosquito breeding. Two groups of agents, entomopathogenic bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) and larvivorous fish, were identified. Laboratory evaluation of the agents produced encouraging results. The bacterial isolates showed broad-spectrum larvicidal potency against Anopheles, Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae and 2 of the fish species, Tilapia zilli and Oreochromis niloticus, demonstrated a strong predation for a mosquito larval diet. To facilitate their use in effective biocontrol strategies, the agents would require further evaluation under field conditions. PMID:8096871

Asimeng, E J; Mutinga, M J

1993-03-01

315

9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous...dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class...are licensed under the Act and in accordance...

2010-01-01

316

9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous...dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class...are licensed under the Act and in accordance...

2013-01-01

317

9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous...dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class...are licensed under the Act and in accordance...

2011-01-01

318

9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.  

...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous...dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class...are licensed under the Act and in accordance...

2014-01-01

319

9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous...dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class...are licensed under the Act and in accordance...

2012-01-01

320

9 CFR 96.5 - Instructions regarding handling certified animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...96.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY...indicated, be released for industrial use. (d)...

2013-01-01

321

9 CFR 96.5 - Instructions regarding handling certified animal casings.  

...96.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY...indicated, be released for industrial use. (d)...

2014-01-01

322

9 CFR 96.5 - Instructions regarding handling certified animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...96.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY...indicated, be released for industrial use. (d)...

2012-01-01

323

9 CFR 96.5 - Instructions regarding handling certified animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...96.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY...indicated, be released for industrial use. (d)...

2010-01-01

324

Sustainable Agriculture Tuesdays Spring 2014 Speaker Series  

E-print Network

the Challenges o Dr. Charles Walthall, USDA Agricultural Research Service ! April 1: GMO Seed & Seed Saving o: "Certified Humane" Labeling o Adele Douglass, Humane Farm Animal Care ! May 6: Foraging and Edible Weeds o

Yorke, James

325

Agriculture Policy Briefing Book: Legislative Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features links to information on legislative issues such as farm support, conservation and resources, animal agriculture, the 2002 Farm Bill and other topics. The research, analysis, and information on this website are provided by the Congressional Research Service.

Service, Congressional R.; Environment, National C.

326

Animal Science Curriculum (BS) (effective Spring Quarter 2011)  

E-print Network

......................................................3 Social/Behavioral Sciences (GER)............................3 32 Sophomore Year Agricultural Business 220............................................ 4 Biological Sciences 200 or 310.................................3 Humanities (GER) History Agricultural Business Any 300 or 400 level..................................................3 Animal Science

Selmic, Sandra

327

Animals. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animals are the subject of the student resource unit which is to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Animal housing and equipment, the first section, deals with controlled environment, energy requirements, esthetics, air, water, and noise. Animal waste and byproducts are covered in terms of Federal government program, some of…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

328

Animal Science Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library, along with the USDA and the American Society of Animal Science are collaborators on this website of animal science images. The images, animations, and videos, which also have accompanying text, are intended for classroom and educational outreach. Additionally, the site also encourages the public to submit their own images relevant to animal science, and it also fully explains the process of selection, the criteria the image must meet to be suitable for classroom and educational outreach, and the copyright and use information for each submission. On the left side of the page are the categories of animals and topics included on the website. Some of the links include "Dairy Cattle", "Companion Animals", "Horses", "Poultry", "Genetics", "Reproduction", and "Nutrition". Although some of the categories have fewer images than others, such as Companion Animals, others such as "Nutrition" and "Horses" have over 100 images. For categories that do have images, the visitor can choose to view subcategories, or just view all the images in the category. Once you've chosen an image to view, you will initially see a thumbnail and a description of the image. If you click on "Image Details" at the bottom of each description, you will be privy to details such as the date created, image rights, how many times downloaded, and how many times viewed. Conveniently, you can download the image in different file and dimensional sizes to suit your needs.

329

Behaviour and welfare of veal calves in relation to husbandry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional housing of veal calves in individual crates without roughage has received prolonged and serious criticism, since it denies the animals various social activities, freedom of movement and the possibility to consume roughage and to ruminate. In order to develop an economically acceptable alternative to this housing system, which would provide a significant improvement in calf welfare, the housing

Wilt de J. G

1985-01-01

330

Phenotyping of Genetically Engineered Mice: Humane, Ethical, Environmental, and Husbandry Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of genetically engineered (GE) mice in scientific research has raised many concerns about the ani- mal welfare of such mice. The types of welfare concerns may differ within the three stages that comprise the estab- lishment of GE animal models: development, production, and research use. The role and impact of the members of the research team on

Marilyn J. Brown; Kathleen A. Murray

331

Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its mission to promote sustainable and environmentally friendly farm techniques, the Leopold Center sponsors a variety of research and educational projects related to marketing and food systems, ecology, and policy. Initiatives include alternative swine production systems/ agroecology, animal management, cropping systems, human systems, integrated pest management, manure management, organic agriculture, and weed management.

2007-04-12

332

Agricultural Education--Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation presents over 950 resumes of instructional materials in agricultural education, which have appeared quarterly in "Abstracts of Instructional Materials in Vocational and Technical Education" (AIM), Fall 1967 through Fall 1971. Resumes cover a broad range of fields and occupations, such as agribusiness, agronomy, animal and plant…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

333

Evolution of animal-welfare education for veterinary students.  

PubMed

Animal-welfare education is an evolving component of the veterinary curriculum. Although different veterinary schools may cover different elements of the subject and teach it in many different ways, it is important to recognize that this multidisciplinary subject is evolving rapidly. For example, welfare science is beginning to examine the quantification of positive welfare or a good life in addition to evaluating harms associated with different husbandry systems. Although the curriculum is under continual pressure, the drivers (policy makers, student expectations, and trade requirements) for including animal welfare in the course are likely to increase. Some core components of an animal-welfare course are important to include in all veterinary curriculums. This would include an appreciation of the difference between welfare science, ethics, and standards. PMID:20378875

Main, David C J

2010-01-01

334

29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing...

2012-07-01

335

29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing...

2013-07-01

336

29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing...

2011-07-01

337

29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.  

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing...

2014-07-01

338

Enhancing Water Use Efficiency in Irrigated Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated agriculture is a vital component of total agriculture and the world's food production to keep pace with its grow- supplies many of the fruits, vegetables, and cereal foods consumed ing population, if that is even possible. Sinclair et al. by humans; the grains fed to animals that are used as human food; (1984) described WUE on various scales from

Terry A. Howell

2001-01-01

339

Study Guide for TCT in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was specifically designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in agriculture. The agriculture test was developed by the National Evaluation Systems, Inc. and educators in Georgia. The test covers 13 subareas: (1) plant science; (2) crop management; (3) animal science; (4) livestock and…

Sailors, Robert A.

340

Bibliography of Texas State and Local Agricultural Literature From 1820-1945.  

E-print Network

and Indian Territory. Indian Territory?: The Association, Banner Job Print. 13 pp. 2. CAT SPRING AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 1940? . Sequin, Texas. 56 pp. 3. CATTLE RAISERS ASSOCIATION OF TEXAS. 1913. By-Laws, Rules and Regulations and Names of Members and Minutes..., Texas, March 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, 1915. El Paso: The Association; El Paso Printing Co. 76 pp. 21. PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. TEXAS STATE GRANGE. 1885. Constitution and Declaration of Purposes of the National Grange, P. of H. : Together With the Constitution...

Sandall, Sharon K.; McGeachin, Robert B.

1998-09-15

341

Endangered animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. Humans are largely to blame for their endangerment. Over-hunting and habitat destruction are only a couple of ways that humans are endangering animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-26

342

Sustainability, agriculture, and agricultural policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of achieving sustainable development in the context of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and other policy suggestions is examined. Sustainable development is defined as a commitment to conserve necessary biological, cultural, and aesthetic capital for future generations. This is not a costless process. Constraints are required on current economic activity, entailing sacrifices by the current

J Bowers

1995-01-01

343

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

344

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

345

Computer Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.

2007-01-20

346

Animal Behaviour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

Mcgreevey, Paul

2010-01-01

347

Animal Scent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior. Learners will create five or six scent blocks by rubbing wood blocks with different kitchen spices, foods, or animal scents. Then, learners let their pets investigate each block separately. Carefully observed behaviors are recorded for interpretation. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Animal Scent.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

348

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.

349

Teaching Biology Using Agriculture as the Context: Perceptions of High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine how high school students perceived science and agriculture after completing a traditional yearlong biology class that used animal agriculture as the context. The specific research questions asked respondents their perceptions concerning the relationship between science and agriculture, their perceptions of agriculture in general, and their knowledge of agriculture after completing a traditional

Mark A. Balschweid

2001-01-01

350

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

351

Factors affecting agricultural journalists and agricultural communicators  

E-print Network

Agricultural journalism and agricultural communication have been researched in depth, identifying job skills, job satisfaction, educational backgrounds, and curriculum issues. However, a study examining the spheres (subjective, institutional...

Chenault, Edith Anne

2009-05-15

352

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, Kynwai.; Cowan, Bob.

1996-01-01

353

Agricultural Science I. Supplementary Units. Instructor Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply agricultural skills in the areas of animal breeding, animal nutrition, leadership, and power tools. Specific competencies are listed as study questions at the beginning of each of the 10 self-paced and self-contained units. Skill sheets, activity sheets, and…

Martin, Donna; And Others

354

Animated statues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a layered framework for the animation of high-resolution human geometry captured using active 3D sensing technology. Commercial scanning systems can now acquire highly accurate surface data across the whole-body. However, the result is a dense, irregular, surface mesh without any structure for animation. We introduce a model-based approach to animating a scanned data-set by matching

Jonathan Starck; Gordon Collins; Raymond Smith; Adrian Hilton; John Illingworth

2003-01-01

355

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Cole, Ms.

2011-04-07

356

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

357

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

358

University Students' Perceptions of Issues Related to Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Telephone interviews with 390 of 400 college students revealed an overall favorable impression of food safety and agriculture's impact on the economy and environment. Males were more positive about animal welfare and production agriculture. Gender, college major, and hometown were related to attitudes about agriculture issues. (SK)

Terry, Robert, Jr.; Lawver, David E.

1995-01-01

359

ALS 3133 section 9685 I. Title: Agriculture and Environmental Quality  

E-print Network

students who will be involved in the management of agricultural production and processing industries practices for agricultural irrigation Discuss the issues with managing animal wastes Name some biofuelsALS 3133 section 9685 Fall 2014 I. Title: Agriculture and Environmental Quality M, W, F, Period 2

Ma, Lena

360

Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.  

PubMed

Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

361

MEDLI Animation  

NASA Video Gallery

Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

362

Animal Omnibus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed with children in mind, the Animal Omnibus site is "a list of web sources indexed by the name of the animal." Users search by animal name to get returns in the form of hyperlinked resource lists. The resource lists contain sites ranging from simple color photographs of individual species to sites steeped in scientific classification to publicly targeted zoo sites. Animal Omnibus may also be browsed by generic name within each taxonomic category (amphibians, arthropods, birds, dinosaurs, fish, mammals, mollusks, and reptiles). Although depth of content varies widely, this unique and diverse collection of information types is at once unpredictable and refreshing.

363

Physics Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you would like a taste of classical mechanics in an animated form, this website is right up your alley. This site from the physics department at the University of Toronto offers up over 100 helpful animations that cover quantum mechanics, vectors, waves, relativity, and optics. Visitors can scroll through the topical headings to look for items of interest and should note the entire website is searchable as well. There are some great topical animations here, such as one on fluid mechanics that involves a theoretical dropping of a ball from the CN Tower in Toronto. Animations have also been translated into Catalan, Spanish, and Basque.

364

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture  

E-print Network

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture ­ Livestock, Crops and Land Use Report from a multidisciplinary research platform. Phase I (2009 ­ 2012) #12;Future Agriculture ­ Livestock Waldenström Utgivningsår: 2012, Uppsala Utgivare: SLU, Framtidens lantbruk/Future Agriculture Layout: Pelle

365

Stochastic and Deterministic Models for Agricultural Production Networks  

E-print Network

the just-in-time philosophy of man- ufacturing industries. Feedstock and animals are grown in different the outbreak, animal agriculture in the UK was still declining, a chilling postscript to the widespreadStochastic and Deterministic Models for Agricultural Production Networks P. Bai1,a , H.T. Banks2,b

366

Going Forth and Multiplying: Animal Acclimatization and Invasion  

E-print Network

The nineteenth century saw numerous transfers and attempted transfers of animal populations, mostly as the result of the spread of European agriculture. The exchange of animal populations facilitated by the acclimatization ...

Ritvo, Harriet

367

USDA animal genomics program: the view from the chicken coop  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, the USDA Animal Genomics Strategic Planning Task Force prepared a Blueprint to direct national needs for future research, education, and extension efforts in agricultural animal genomics. This plan is entitled \\

Janet E Fulton; M Bridges; C Burgess; M McCarthy

2009-01-01

368

Semi-intensive olive orchards on sloping land: requiring good land husbandry for future development.  

PubMed

The semi-intensive olive production system is widespread in hilly areas with gentle to moderate slopes in Mediterranean countries. This paper reports the main findings of interdisciplinary research (the Olivero project) carried out in five target areas in southern Europe. Agro-socio-economic surveys revealed a wide range of types that could be classified as semi-intensive and subdivided into two systems: low input and high input. The description of biophysical and socio-economic characteristics of semi-intensive subsystems reveals their different productive and ecological functions and highlights two major weaknesses: the high soil erosion rate, worsened by frequent tillage, and the dependence on external sources of farm income. Of the external factors affecting the semi-intensive system, the paper focuses on changes in EU policies and on the role of local government and farmers' associations in reducing the negative impacts of entirely decoupled support to the olive sector. Moreover, the analysis of constraints indicates that the semi-intensive system requires the supply of alternative technologies in order to improve resources conservation (soil, organic matter, and water). To conclude, the authors give recommendations for various levels: farm, agricultural services, and policy. PMID:17935860

Xiloyannis, Cristos; Martinez Raya, Armando; Kosmas, Constantinos; Favia, Mariafara

2008-11-01

369

Animals’ Place in Legal Theory: Introduction to the Special issue on Animals’ Place in Jurisprudence  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is an animal? To some, an animal is a family pet, a companion or a family member. To others, it represents food, a tool for agriculture, commodity, resource or part of the landscape. In the eyes of the law in most countries, an animal is property, either personal property or property that belongs to no one. However, we all

Deborah Cao

370

Animal Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotechnology has taken two directions in efforts to speed up animal production above the rates achievable by selective breeding. Recombinant DNA methods have been used to engineer protein gene products for direct administration to livestock, as in recombinant growth hormone to stimulate lactation in dairy cows or yield faster-growing, leaner carcasses in meat animals. Cloned cellulolytic genes have been inserted

B. A. Cross

1989-01-01

371

Paper Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains ideas and brief instructions on how to build animals out of construction paper and other simple materials. Included are tips on how to roll, fold, and cut paper to make various animals parts. Learners may enjoy making a "frankenfish" that expands.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-06

372

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Boneíspecific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

Chung, Kyn W.

2011-05-24

373

Animal Allies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses young teenagers' adoption of animal personas in their creative writing classes, and the way these classroom activities follow Montessori principles. Considers both the role of imagination in the animal identification and the psychological and pedagogical significance of the underlying development of unconscious kinship with Earth and its…

Peterson, Brenda

1999-01-01

374

GPS Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2008-09-12

375

Effects of husbandry parameters on the life-history traits of the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis: effects of temperature, photoperiod, and population density  

PubMed Central

These experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis. The overall objective of the program is to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations of this species in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this article, we focus on the effects of photoperiod, temperature, and population density on adult fecundity and juvenile growth. Increasing photoperiod from 12 to 16 h of light per day had no effect on adult fecundity or egg hatching and relatively minor effects on juvenile growth and development. Rearing snails at temperatures between 22°C and 28°C did not influence the rates of egg production or egg clutch size. However, the rates of growth and development (of eggs and juveniles) increased with increasing temperature in this range, and when temperatures were reduced to 22°C egg-hatching success was impaired. Juvenile growth and development were more sensitive to rearing density than adult fecundity traits. On the basis of the present results, we conclude that rearing individuals of M. cornuarietis at a temperature of 25°C, a photoperiod of 12L:12D, and a density of <0.8 snails L?1 (with lower densities for juvenile snails) should provide favorable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations of this species. PMID:19009043

Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; Pounds, Nadine; File-Emperador, Sharon; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

2006-01-01

376

Science Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by AntÃÂónio CidadÃÂão.

377

BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: What does the future hold?  

PubMed

Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as ?-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality. PMID:25253809

Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

2014-12-01

378

Evaluation of UVB reduction by materials commonly used in reptile husbandry.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation (285-320 nm) is considered important for metabolic processes and reproduction in many reptile species by facilitating the synthesis of vitamin D(3). In captivity, UVB radiation reaching an animal may be diminished by the properties of the materials used in enclosure construction. We investigated the UVB-attenuating properties of 14 materials commonly used in cage tops for reptile enclosures. Irradiances were measured by two types of hand-held broadband radiometers and the D(3)-synthesizing potential was assessed by the use of an in vitro model. For UV-transmitting acrylic, a significant discrepancy between meter irradiances and in vitro model values for D(3)-synthesizing ability was observed, with meter readings underestimating the blocking effect. In contrast, attenuation of UVB irradiances by air-permeable materials, such as wire screen, measured with meters was generally comparable to the attenuation of D(3)-synthesizing ability as measured by in vitro models. Relatively simple meter readings can therefore be used to reflect reduction of D(3)-synthesizing ability through air-permeable materials. Zoo Biol 26:417-423, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360590

Michael Burger, R; Gehrmann, William H; Ferguson, Gary W

2007-09-01

379

Optimized axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) husbandry, breeding, metamorphosis, transgenesis and tamoxifen-mediated recombination.  

PubMed

The axolotl (Mexican salamander, Ambystoma mexicanum) has become a very useful model organism for studying limb and spinal cord regeneration because of its high regenerative capacity. Here we present a protocol for successfully mating and breeding axolotls in the laboratory throughout the year, for metamorphosing axolotls by a single i.p. injection and for axolotl transgenesis using I-SceI meganuclease and the mini Tol2 transposon system. Tol2-mediated transgenesis provides different features and advantages compared with I-SceI-mediated transgenesis, and it can result in more than 30% of animals expressing the transgene throughout their bodies so that they can be directly used for experimentation. By using Tol2-mediated transgenesis, experiments can be performed within weeks (e.g., 5-6 weeks for obtaining 2-3-cm-long larvae) without the need to establish germline transgenic lines (which take 12-18 months). In addition, we describe here tamoxifen-induced Cre-mediated recombination in transgenic axolotls. PMID:24504478

Khattak, Shahryar; Murawala, Prayag; Andreas, Heino; Kappert, Verena; Schuez, Maritta; Sandoval-Guzmán, Tatiana; Crawford, Karen; Tanaka, Elly M

2014-03-01

380

[The effect of the husbandry system on comb size and comb color in hens].  

PubMed

The comb size and comb colour of 84 hens (white and brown Hisex), living in battery cages or at free range were investigated. The main question was: does the comb size and colour correlate with the keeping systems i.e. with the quality and intensity of light and the ambient temperature? The results confirm these hypotheses and also show the genetic influence. The crest size of Hisex white hens is larger and paler compared with those of Hisex brown hens. This tendency is more distinct under the conditions of artificial light, less light and higher temperature of the environment in battery cage systems. Comb size and colour are used as a criterium for health and egg production of the hens. The combs are very important for the hen's health for the regulation of the body temperature and for absorbing light and also for the social structure of the flock; the comb form is an essential characteristic to identify the individual animal. PMID:8165660

Fölsch, D W; Sulzer, B; Meier, T; Huber, H U

1994-02-01

381

Anaerobic oxidation of methane in grassland soils used for cattle husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the importance of anaerobic methane oxidation has been reported for marine ecosystems, the role of this process in soils is still questionable. Grasslands used as pastures for cattle overwintering show an increase in anaerobic soil micro-sites caused by animal treading and excrement deposition. Therefore, anaerobic potential methane oxidation activity of severely impacted soil from a cattle winter pasture was investigated in an incubation experiment under anaerobic conditions using 13C-labelled methane. We were able to detect a high microbial activity utilizing CH4 as nutrient source shown by the respiration of 13CO2. Measurements of possible terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane were carried out. Soil sulfate concentrations were too low to explain the oxidation of the amount of methane added, but enough nitrate and iron(III) were detected. However, only nitrate was consumed during the experiment. 13C-PLFA analyses clearly showed the utilization of CH4 as nutrient source mainly by organisms harbouring 16:1?7 PLFAs. These lipids were also found as most 13C-enriched fatty acids by Raghoebarsing et al. (2006) after addition of 13CH4 to an enrichment culture coupling denitrification of nitrate to anaerobic oxidation of methane. This might be an indication for anaerobic oxidation of methane by relatives of "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" in the investigated grassland soil under the conditions of the incubation experiment.

Bannert, A.; Bogen, C.; Esperschütz, J.; Koubová, A.; Buegger, F.; Fischer, D.; Radl, V.; Fuß, R.; Chro?áková, A.; Elhottová, D.; Šimek, M.; Schloter, M.

2012-10-01

382

Anaerobic oxidation of methane in grassland soils used for cattle husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the importance of anaerobic methane oxidation has been reported for marine ecosystems, the role of this process in soils is still questionable. Grasslands used as pastures for cattle-overwintering show an increase in anaerobic soil micro-sites caused by animal treading and excrement deposition. Therefore anaerobic potential methane oxidation activity of severely impacted soil from a cattle winter pasture was investigated in an incubation experiment under anaerobic conditions using 13C-labeled methane. We were able to detect a high microbial activity utilizing CH4 as nutrient source shown by the respiration of 13CO2. Measurements of possible terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane were carried out. Soil sulfate concentrations were too low to explain the oxidation of the amount of methane added, but enough nitrate and iron(III) were detected. However, only nitrate was consumed during the experiment. 13C-PLFA analyses clearly showed the utilization of CH4 as nutrient source mainly by organisms harbouring 16:1?7 PLFAs. These lipids were found in Gram-negative microorganisms and anaerobes. The fact that these lipids are also typical for type I methanotrophs, known as aerobic methane oxidizers, might indicate a link between aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation.

Bannert, A.; Bogen, C.; Esperschütz, J.; Koubová, A.; Buegger, F.; Fischer, D.; Radl, V.; Fuß, R.; Chro?áková, A.; Elhottová, D.; Šimek, M.; Schloter, M.

2012-04-01

383

Office of the Vice President for Research UGA IACUC Policy for Satellite Animal Facilities and  

E-print Network

Office of the Vice President for Research UGA IACUC Policy for Satellite Animal Facilities Animals or the FASS Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching. In general: � The room should have

Arnold, Jonathan

384

Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-12-04

385

The Animal Welfare Act's Impact on the Scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bond between animals and humans has existed for a long time. Humans are entrusted with the stewardship for animal care and well-being as a part of their use. Legislation has addressed humane care of animals in the United States since 1873. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for administering many of these laws, including the Animal

James W. Glosser; Phyllis B. York

1988-01-01

386

National Agricultural Library: Educational Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) kids and teens page features links to book and magazine article abstracts, online interactives, educator resources and information about animals, livestock and agriculture; the environment, food and nutrition, general science, and horticulture. The education and outreach page fatures links to several collections of educational materials for teachers, parents, and students, as well as a directory of land-grant colleges with agricultural programs, a listing of events and conferences, and a link to the NAL Catalog (AGRICOLA) with citations for extension education and training from January 2005 to the present. There are also links to information on research and technology programs, natural resources and the environment, laws and regulations, and career information.

387

USDA: Animal Welfare Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA's Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) was mandated by the Animal Welfare Act, and the website contains everything from current animal issues to workshops for those in industries that utilize animals to licensing forms. Specifically, the AWIC is designed "to regulate and improve care of animals in research, testing, teaching, and exhibition." The site includes the proposed government rules about animal welfare that are in their public comment period, and how and where to submit your comment. Visitors can click on "In The News" to see all the animal-related rules that are in their public comment period. If visitors want to learn about the origins of veterinary medicine, they can click on "Companion Animals" on the left side of the homepage to find a link to "Veterinary History Resources at the National Agricultural Library". Finally, AWIC provides very important information and resources on alternatives to animal testing, under "Alternatives," on the left side of the homepage. Here visitors will find links to websites that explain the principles of alternatives to animal testing, as well as several papers from conferences that address the issue.

2008-01-01

388

What is Sustainable Agriculture?  

E-print Network

What is Sustainable Agriculture? Sustainable agriculture is one that produces abundant food without. Sustainable agriculture is also the agriculture of social values, one whose suc- cess is indistinguishable. But in the first decade of the 21st Century, sus- tainable agriculture, as a set of commonly accepted practices

Wang, Changlu

389

Wisconsin Agriculture SPECIAL ARTICLE  

E-print Network

STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2009 · SPECIAL ARTICLE: Bioenergy and Agriculture in Wisconsin Economy Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2009 An annual report by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department

Radeloff, Volker C.

390

Camera Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

2011-01-30

391

Digital Animators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting started in the world of digital animation isn't easy, and it can be useful to have a helpful resource to find out about the current trends in this dynamic field. Fortunately, there is the Digital Animators website which features career-development blogs, tutorials, new software releases, and opinion pieces. First-time visitors can get the flavor of the site by reading a few of the "Top Stories" on the homepage, and then move on to the "Tech News" or the "Company News" areas. Here they will find more detailed information on important developments that affect the business side of this type of animation. Most visitors will want to make a beeline for the "Tutorials" area. Here they will find video clips that talk about how to colorize black and white objects and how to manipulate animation layers with the Autodesk application.

392

Pulsar Animation  

NASA Video Gallery

Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

393

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

394

Animating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson challenges students to apply their knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of hand-rendered pictures that model a set of physical conditions. The challenges include animating the orbital motion of planets and satellites, the effects of gravity on a falling body, and motions of objects in inertial (moving) frames of reference. The lesson was created by a high school physics teacher to help learners build quantitative reasoning skills in preparation for understanding kinematics.

Latham, Ted

2004-07-16

395

Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

396

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

397

Screen Animals  

E-print Network

) and further elaborated by the ‘making of’ sequences featuring the expertise of scientific researchers. Mills contends that a reliance on scientific objectivity here recalls the ‘scientific racism’ (Stuart Hall) of ethnographic film – a logic... , 187. 16 Burt, Animals in Film, pp. 27, 29 (original emphasis). 17 Shukin, Animal Capital, p. 155. 18 Michael Renov, The Subject of Documentary (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004), p. 217; cited by Mills in this dossier. 19 Lawrence...

McMahon, Laura

2014-01-01

398

Agricultural waste utilization and management  

SciTech Connect

These papers were presented at a symposium on the management and use of agricultural waste products, including food industry wastes. Topics covered include fat and protein recovery from fish wastes, treatments for straw to improve its digestibility, using food industry wastes as animal feeds, various manure treatments and studies of its combustion properties, fermentation, methane and ethanol production, hemp waste water treatment, and heat recovery from manure combustion.

Not Available

1985-01-01

399

78 FR 75570 - Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products Administered...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination...important antimicrobials in animal agriculture. FDA recognizes...for use in food-producing animals, as well as data on antimicrobial...does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and...

2013-12-12

400

78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2013-01-09

401

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2012-01-01

402

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2010-01-01

403

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2011-01-01

404

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2010-01-01

405

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2013-01-01

406

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2014-01-01

407

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2011-01-01

408

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2012-01-01

409

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2013-01-01

410

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2014-01-01

411

Teaching Biology Using Agriculture as the Context: Perceptions of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of 531 students in a course using animal agriculture to teach biology, 90% felt it helped them understand the relationship between science and agriculture and the importance of agriculture. Nearly 90% disagreed with statements that animals should not be used for food and that farmers are not concerned about the environment. (Contains 18…

Balschweid, Mark A.

2002-01-01

412

Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

intellectual property rights in the animal(s), the Government retains these rights. Additionally, to the extent in the animal(s), these rights are not transferred to the recipient. · Provider is transferring the animal(sAnimal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been

Bandettini, Peter A.

413

The Ecologist's View of Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides insights on the controversial issue of animal rights. Four factors are considered: (1) animals' rights; (2) research; (3) hunting and fishing; and (4) agriculture. Contends that it is imperative that the public knows all the facts before casting their vote on the issue. (ZWH)

Howard, Walter E.

1994-01-01

414

Regulation of animal biotechnology: Research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock that result from biotechnology have been a part of agricultural science for over 30 years but have not entered the market place as food or fiber. Two biotechnologies are at the forefront as challenges to the world's systems for regulating the market place: animal clones and transgenic animals. Both technologies have come before the Food and Drug Administration in

C REXROADJR; R. D. Green; R. J. Wall

2007-01-01

415

Air pollution research needs with animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information in this paper is directed toward anyone concerned with problems of air pollution on or from animal agriculture. Based on published reports, air pollution problems relating to livestock are identified. These are discussed under two categories: pollutants from industrial-urban sources affecting livestock and pollutants originating from animal production units. The available knowledge concerning these problems is briefly described. Specific

Aschbacher

1972-01-01

416

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference Conference Information This conference will discuss the drivers of Missouri agricultural and bio-fuel markets and the implications for Missouri farmsDr.JonHagler, DirectoroftheMissouriDepartment ofAgriculture. · Outlookpresentationsderivedfrom thelatestbaselineresultsof

Noble, James S.

417

Publisher: Institute for Animal Husbandry, Belgrade-Zemun UDC 639.31 NEUROBEHAVIORAL RESPONSES OF THE FRESHWATER TELEOST, CYPRINUS CARPIO (LINNAEUS.) UNDER QUINALPHOS INTOXICATION  

E-print Network

Abstract: Effect of quinalphos on the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio to elucidate inhibitory effect of quinalphos on acetyl cholinesterase activity associated behavioral changes. Fishes were exposed to one fifth (0.15µg/l) and one tenth (0.75 µg/l) of the lethal concentration (7.5 µg/l) of quinalphos for a period of 1, 7 and 14 days, and were allowed to recover for 7 days. Maximum decrement in acetyl cholinesterase activity of the exposed fish was recorded in brain followed by muscle, gill and liver. Recovery tenures witnessed increment in acetyl cholinesterase activity but significantly differed in comparison with control group. Depression of acetyl cholinesterase activity suggests decreased cholinergic transmission and consequent accumulation of acetylcholine in the tissues leading to cessation of nerve impulses. This has lead to behavioral and morphological changes due to impaired neurophysiology of the fish.

S. G. Chebbi; M. David

418

Assembling a geospatial database of tsetse-transmitted animal trypanosomosis for Africa  

PubMed Central

Background African animal trypanosomosis (AAT), or nagana, is widespread within the tsetse-infested belt of sub-Saharan Africa. Although a wealth of information on its occurrence and prevalence is available in the literature, synthesized and harmonized data at the regional and continental scales are lacking. To fill this gap the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) launched the Atlas of tsetse and AAT, jointly implemented with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the framework of the Programme Against African Trypanosomosis (PAAT). Methods The Atlas aims to build and regularly update a geospatial database of tsetse species occurrence and AAT at the continental level. The present paper focuses on the methodology to assemble a dynamic database of AAT, which hinges on herd-level prevalence data as estimated using various diagnostic techniques. A range of ancillary information items is also included (e.g. trypanosome species, survey period, species and breed of animals, husbandry system, etc.). Input data were initially identified through a literature review. Results Preliminary results are presented for Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda in East Africa: 122 papers were identified and analyzed, which contained field data collected from January 1990 to December 2013. Information on AAT was extracted and recorded for 348 distinct geographic locations. The presented distribution maps exemplify the range of outputs that can be directly generated from the AAT database. Conclusions Activities are ongoing to map the distribution of AAT in all affected countries and to develop the tsetse component of the Atlas. The presented methodology is also being transferred to partners in affected countries, with a view to developing capacity and strengthening data management, harmonization and sharing. In the future, geospatial modelling will enable predictions to be made within and beyond the range of AAT field observations. This variety of information layers will inform decisions on the most appropriate, site-specific strategies for intervention against AAT. Data on the occurrence of human-infective trypanosomes in non-human hosts will also provide valuable information for sleeping sickness control and elimination. PMID:24447638

2014-01-01

419

MONGOLIAN RANGELANDS AND RESILIENCE (MOR2)  

E-print Network

& Evaluation 9. 2011 Training & Testing8. 2009 Pilot Sample #12;MOR2 Project Partners Colorado State University Texas A&M University Research Institute for Animal Husbandry Mongolian National Agricultural

420

Role of atmospheric ammonia in particulate matter formation in Houston during summertime  

E-print Network

trillion (ppt) to parts per billion (ppb). Agricultural (e.g., fertilizer appli- cation and animal husbandry) (Mount et al., 2002; Rumburg et al., 2008) and industrial and motor vehicle (e.g., chemical

421

Oxidation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics and structurally related amines by chlorine dioxide: Reaction kinetics,  

E-print Network

wastewater effluent, wastewater sludge, manure from animal husbandry, and agricultural runoff. In recent to the large usage, FQs could enter the environment via various routes including municipal and industrial

Huang, Ching-Hua

422

INTRODUCTION Ecosystem services and agriculture: Cultivating agricultural  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Ecosystem services and agriculture: Cultivating agricultural ecosystems for diverse of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1039, United States b Department F O A B S T R A C T Article history: Received 20 September 2007 Accepted 20 September 2007 Available

Lupi, Frank

423

for a Minor in International Agriculture Academic Programs in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences  

E-print Network

3204*: International Agriculture Development and Trade - 3 credits ____________ CSES 3444: World Crops and Cropping Systems ­ 3 credits Select a minimum of three semester hours from the following: ____________ APSC 1454: Introduction to Animal and Poultry Science - 3 credits ____________ APSC 1464: Animal and Poultry

Liskiewicz, Maciej

424

Animal Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.

425

Organic Agriculture as a Strategy for Improving Small Farmers' Livelihood in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic agriculture includes all agricultural systems that promote the environmentally, socially and economically sound production of food and fibers. These systems take local soil fertility as a key to successful production. By respecting the natural capacity of plants, animals and the landscape, it aims to optimize quality in all aspects of agriculture and the environment. Organic agriculture dramatically reduces external

Hossein Mahmoudi; Abdolali Sharghi; Shabnam Vossoughi; Shabnam Salamat

426

Integrated Crop\\/Livestock Agriculture in the United States: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. agriculture has become increasingly specialized over the last century with attendant benefits to food production and affordability. At the same time, specialized agricultural production has led to concerns for animal welfare, environmental degradation, and loss of biodiversity. An alternative to specialized agriculture is the integration of crops and livestock at the farm scale. Integrated crop\\/livestock agriculture could improve soil

Kathleen Hilimire

2011-01-01

427

Image analysis for estimating the weight of live animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many components of animal production have been automated. For example weighing feeding identification and yield recording on cattle pigs poultry and fish. However some of these tasks still require a considerable degree of human input and more effective automation could lead to better husbandry. For example if the weight of pigs could be monitored more often without increasing labour input then this information could be used to measure growth rates and control fat level allowing accurate prediction of market dates and optimum carcass quality to be achieved with improved welfare at minimum cost. Some aspects of animal production have defied automation. For example attending to the well being of housed animals is the preserve of the expert stockman. He gathers visual data about the animals in his charge (in more plain words goes and looks at their condition and behaviour) and processes this data to draw conclusions and take actions. Automatically collecting data on well being implies that the animals are not disturbed from their normal environment otherwise false conclusions will be drawn. Computer image analysis could provide the data required without the need to disturb the animals. This paper describes new work at the Institute of Engineering Research which uses image analysis to estimate the weight of pigs as a starting point for the wider range of applications which have been identified. In particular a technique has been developed to

Schofield, C. P.; Marchant, John A.

1991-02-01

428

Evolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a tour of the history of the universe, the solar system, and Earth. Moving the slider allows viewers to progress from the Big Bang, almost 14 billion years ago, to the beginnings of life on Earth in the Proterozoic era, through the age of the dinosaurs and finally to the time of Homo sapiens. When the slider stops moving, animations and text appear, highlighting important events. Other animations accompany the time scale and show the movements of the continents, the advance and retreat of the polar ice caps, and changes in the oxygen content of the atmosphere. The length of the timeline helps reinforce the idea of the immense age of the universe. A French translation is available.

Kyrk, John

429

The implementation of robotic technology in an animal facility: a case study.  

PubMed

The benefits of a robotics system for waste disposal and cage sanitation in an animal care facility include a reduction of ergonomic concerns and an increase in production capability. A modular approach can further provide an ability to relocate the unit to new building construction. There are numerous considerations that can affect the design and operation of a robotic cagewash system. These include facility layout, existing animal husbandry procedures, equipment selection, and employee involvement. The implementation of the complete system in an animal facility requires communication and insight from all members of the animal care staff as well as novel solutions to attain full production and operation. The system itself contains many complex technical and mechanical functions, but a successful installation can only be fully achieved with teamwork and proper training. PMID:15174811

Glass, Joan D; Klein, Hilton J; Terpeluk, William; Pouch, Walter J

2004-05-01

430

Animal models.  

PubMed

Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

2012-01-01

431

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animalâs reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

432

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, this site is a concise overview of animal reproduction. The site addresses important aspects of sexual and asexual reproduction, the male and female reproductive systems, fertilization, and the importance of hormones. Visitors to the site will find diagrams outlining biological processes especially helpful.

Gregory, Michael

2007-12-14

433

Animation aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods based on aerodynamics are developed to simulate and control the motion of objects in fluid flows. To simplify the physics for animation, the problem is broken down into two parts: a fluid flow regime and an object boundary regime. With this simplification one can approximate the realistic behaviour of objects moving in liquids or air. It also enables a

Jakub Wejchert; David R. Haumann

1991-01-01

434

Numeric Order CIP Code Title 1 1.0308 Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.  

E-print Network

Microbiology 1 1.1299 Soil Sciences, Other. 3 3.0101 Natural Resources/Conservation, General. 3 3.0103 Environmental Studies. 3 3.0104 Environmental Science 3 3.0199 Natural Resources Conservation and Research Agriculture. 1 1.0901 Animal Sciences, General 1 1.0902 Agricultural Animal Breeding 1 1.0903 Animal Health 1

Schaefer, Marcus

435

ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH STUDIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION COMPLETED IN 1966-67 IN THE PACIFIC REGION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIRTY-FIVE STAFF STUDIES AND MASTERS' THESES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION ARE REPORTED IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS -- ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, ADMINISTRATOR ATTITUDES, ADVISORY COMMITTEES, AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, ANIMAL SCIENCE, AREA VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS, CAREER CHOICE, CURRICULUM, EDUCATIONAL NEEDS, EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES, EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES, GRADUATE…

LOREEN, C.O.

436

29 CFR 780.103 - “Agriculture” as defined by the Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry or lumbering operations) performed by a...

2013-07-01

437

29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...production, cultivation, growing and harvesting of any agricultural or horticultural commodities and the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals or poultry. If an employee is employed in any of these activities, he is engaged in agriculture...

2011-07-01

438

29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).  

...production, cultivation, growing and harvesting of any agricultural or horticultural commodities and the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals or poultry. If an employee is employed in any of these activities, he is engaged in agriculture...

2014-07-01

439

Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 84 (2001) 120 Economic and environmental threats of alien plant,  

E-print Network

Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 84 (2001) 1­20 Economic and environmental threats of alien. Precise economic costs associated with some of the most ecologically damaging alien species; Animals; Alien; Economic; Ecology; Environment; Agriculture; Non-indigenous 1. Introduction Quantifying

California at Berkeley, University of

440

College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

40 College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences 40 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND LIFE SCIENCES The College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sci- ences (virtual- nity and Economic Development Concentration; Agricultural Education; Agricultural Mechanization

Stuart, Steven J.

441

A new educational resource to improve veterinary students' animal welfare learning experience.  

PubMed

A computer-aided learning (CAL) educational resource based on experiential learning principles has been developed. Its aim is to improve veterinary students' ability to critically review the effect on welfare of husbandry systems observed during their work placement on sheep farms. The CAL consisted of lectures, multiple-choice questions, video recordings of animals in various husbandry conditions, open questions, and concept maps. An intervention group of first-year veterinary students (N=31) was selected randomly to access the CAL before their sheep farm placement, and a control group (N=50) received CAL training after placement. Assessment criteria for the categories remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create, based on Bloom's revised taxonomy, were used to evaluate farm reports submitted by all students after their 2-week placement. Students in the intervention group were more likely than their untrained colleagues (p<.05) to remember and understand animal-based measurements relating to the freedom from hunger and thirst; the freedom from discomfort; and the freedom from pain, injury, or disease. Intervention group students were also more likely to analyze the freedom from pain, injury, or disease and the freedom to exhibit normal behavior and to evaluate the freedom from fear and distress. Relatively few students in each group exhibited creativity in their reports. These findings indicate that use of CAL before farm placement improved students' ability to assess and report animal welfare as part of their extramural work experience. PMID:24072191

Kerr, Annie J; Mullan, Siobhan M; Main, David C J

2013-01-01

442

Roadmap for Agriculture  

E-print Network

environmental stewardship through the development of sustainable management practices. n Grand Challenge 7 67 WeA Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture A Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture Prepared and Agriculture #12;A Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture p i About this Publication To reference

Buckel, Jeffrey A.

443

environment and agriculture  

E-print Network

environment and agriculture environmentagriculture.curtin.edu.au Bachelor of Science - majorS in agriculture, environmental Biology or coaStal Zone management Science and engineering #12;t he department of environment and agriculture caters for students who are passionate about agriculture, biology, conserving

444

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

445

Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.  

PubMed

Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities. PMID:25000778

Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

2014-04-01

446

Animated Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

2002-01-01

447

Geoscience Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation that shows Earth's orbit around the sun and the tilt of Earth's axis relative to the sun in each month of the orbit. Students can move the cursor to a given month to see the position of Earth in its orbit at that time of year or can run a full animation of the yearly orbit. If one clicks on "Show Earth Profile" at the bottom, right corner of the resource, a small box pops up in the lower, right corner that shows the position of the Earth's axis in relation to the sun's rays at various points in the orbit. As such, it shows how the sun's rays directly strike different places on Earth during the orbit because of Earth's tilt. Accompanying text also points out number of daylight hours at the equator and at each pole during each solstice and equinox.

448

Animation Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online magazine is all about animation and features regular articles, reviews of films and books, and profiles about people in the industry and tutorials. Articles in the current issue address topics such as "the impact of new technology on performance and the future roles of technology, new and old" and international perspectives on Bridging the Cultural Divide in Digital Entertainment. The tutorials cover topics such as how to make 3-D characters come to life and making molds. The Special Features articles report on gaming, production, technology and voice acting. Past issues are also available and can be searched by key word or sorted by category. Numerous other links are listed for more information on animation, resources for education, and listings of upcoming events and contests.

449

ANIMAL INTEGRITY, ANIMAL DIGNITY, AND GENETIC ENGINEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bernard Rollin argues that it is permissible to change an animal’s telos through genetic engineering, if it doesn’t harm the animal’s welfare. Recent attempts to undermine his argument rely either on the claim that diminishing certain capacities always harms an animal’s welfare or on the claim that it always violates an animal’s integrity. I argue that these fail. However, respect

SARA ELIZABETH; GAVRELL ORTIZ

2004-01-01

450

Humane Disposability: Rethinking “Food Animals,” Animal Welfare, and Vegetarianism in Response to the Factory Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensively industrialized animal agriculture, or factory farming, poses many challenges for our notions of “life” and how it should be treated. Factory farming’s mass instrumentalization and exploitation of animals potentially unsettles both our most basic notions regarding the justice of sacrificing certain lives in order to improve other lives, and our decisions about which lives belong to each category. This

Jessica L W Carey

2011-01-01

451

Experimental design and husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodent gerontology experiments should be carefully designed and correctly analyzed so as to provide the maximum amount of information for the minimum amount of work. There are five criteria for a “good” experimental design. These are applicable both to in vivo and in vitro experiments: (1) The experiment should be unbiased so that it is possible to make a true

Michael F. W. Festing

1997-01-01

452

Effects of dairy husbandry practices and farm types on raw milk quality collected by different categories of dairy processors in the Peruvian Andes.  

PubMed

In developing countries, milk quality is often mismanaged in relation to husbandry practices, collection logistics, and the production of small batches. This paper investigates how the management of milk quality from farm to dairy processor impacts on both chemical and hygienic indicators, in a context characterized by farm scale diversity, the co-existence of formal and informal markets, and high milk demand. It is based on an analysis of the chemical and hygienic quality of milk samples collected over a 12-month period from 20 farms and three dairy processors. Data from the farmers' husbandry practices and the logistics of milk collection were also collected. A large range of quality profiles and farming practices were observed. This diversity is explained by rainfall and temperature pattern, farm size which affects hygienic quality, and lack of efficient logistics between farms and dairy processors. The findings indicate that in a context of high demand for milk and poor private and public regulations, milk quality is impacted upon by poor stakeholders' management practices. PMID:25169697

Fuentes, Eduardo; Bogue, Joe; Gómez, Carlos; Vargas, Jorge; Le Gal, Pierre-Yves

2014-12-01

453

Animal behavior and animal welfare.  

PubMed

The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

Houpt, K A

1991-04-15

454

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

455

The USA perspective on animal welfare: issues and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare in the United States, as in the world at large, is a highly visible and often controversial topic. As the Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal Care program, I am responsible for implementing the regulations that support the federal Animal Welfare Act, otherwise known as the AWA, and the Horse Protection Act, known as the

Chester A Gipson

456

Animal Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

457

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment FSC Food Science  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment FSC Food Science KEY: # = new course * = course TO FOOD SCIENCE. (3) Ageneralbasicfoodsciencecoursethatdealswithworldfoodneedsandavailablefoodsupplies,typesoffoodandnutritivevaluesand use,foodprocessingtechnologyanddistributionmethods. FSC 304 ANIMAL DERIVED FOODS. (5

MacAdam, Keith

458

26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.  

...The cultivation of the soil; (2) The raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, or management of livestock, bees, poultry, fur-bearing animals, or wildlife; or (3) The raising or harvesting of any other agricultural or...

2014-04-01

459

26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The cultivation of the soil; (2) The raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, or management of livestock, bees, poultry, fur-bearing animals, or wildlife; or (3) The raising or harvesting of any other agricultural or...

2012-04-01

460

26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The cultivation of the soil; (ii) The raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, or management of livestock, bees, poultry, fur-bearing animals, or wildlife; or (iii) The raising or harvesting of any other agricultural or...

2013-04-01

461

1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

462

77 FR 22327 - Draft Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...considered necessary for assuring animal health and include veterinary...encourages all sponsors of new animal drug products covered by draft...important antimicrobials in animal agriculture. However, FDA...does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and...

2012-04-13

463

2012-2013 Series College of Agriculture  

E-print Network

2012-2013 Series College of Agriculture and School of Human Environmental Sciences University, biochemistry, toxicology, and management; and effec- tively applying the industrial and practical aspects by the Department of Animal and Food Sciences and offers training in the basic sciences and in the fundamentals

Hayes, Jane E.

464

AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION: FOR BETTER OR WORSE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrialization of animal agriculture has created a battle groundpitting farmers against farmer, rural residents against large producers, and producer against consumer. The dilemma (tradeoff) of whether to have more small family farms or to lower food costs (with large farms) cannot easily be resolved. The answer is to internalize externalities (in waste disposal, odor, etc.), then to allow markets to

Luther G. Tweeten

1997-01-01

465

Agriculture: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course this learning module introduces the student to some of the major trends associated with agriculture and its impact upon cultural evolution and complexity. The first section of the module describes major innovations such as animal power, irrigation and the…

Kassebaum, Peter

466

Environmental Value of Draught Animals: Saving of Fossil-fuel and Prevention of Greenhouse Gas Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal energy is a renewable and sustainable source of energy. It is renewable because the animals can be reproduced by breeding and rearing the required number of animals. It is sustainable because the animals derive their energy for work largely from agricultural by-products. In addition, there are other environmental contributions of the working animal stock — consider replacing it by

A. K. Dikshit; Pratap Singh Birthal

2010-01-01

467

APPLICATION TO USE LIVING VERTEBRATE ANIMALS IN RESEARCH OR CLASSROOM SITUATIONS  

E-print Network

under the animal welfare act (these include laboratory mice/rats, birds, animals in agriculture research and cold blooded vertebrates) X* Animals covered under the animal welfare act upon which teaching, research covered under the animal welfare act upon which experiments, teaching, research, surgery, or tests were

468

Office of the Vice President for Research UGA IACUC Policy on Provision of Space to Animals  

E-print Network

documents as minimums: 1. The USDA Animal Welfare Act Regulations and Policies 2. The ILAR (NIH) Guide Investigator. References: 1. United States Department of Agriculture, Animal Welfare Act Regulations (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/awa_info.shtml) and USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Policies (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare

Scott, Robert A.

469

FirstName LastName Department College Address email phone Tracy Boyer Agricultural Economics Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources 321 Ag Hall tracy.boyer@okstate.edu 405-744-6169  

E-print Network

Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources 321 Ag Hall tracy.boyer@okstate.edu 405-744-6169 Ulrich Melcher Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources 246 Noble Research Center ulrich.melcher@okstate.edu 405-744-6210 Deb Vanoverbeke Animal Science Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources 104D Animal

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

470

Kid's Science Page at the National Agricultural Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture hosts this site for kids, providing "lists of children's books and articles on specific agricultural subjects, science fair projects and supplies, careers and biographies of leading scientists, and 'learn by doing' 4-H youth projects." Five main sections introduce kids to some of the building blocks of modern agriculture: Animals, Environment, Food & Nutrition, General Science, and Plants. A series of educational materials and links to other resources fill out the site.

471

Valuing agricultural externalities in Canterbury rivers and streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality and quantity concerns in Canterbury are intrinsically related to agriculture. Monetary values for impacts on streams and rivers is lacking in policy debate. This paper employs choice modelling to estimate values of three impacts on rivers and streams in Canterbury associated with agriculture: health risks of E coli from animal waste, ecological effects of excess nutrients, and low-flow

Peter R. Tait; Ross Cullen; Kathryn Bicknell

2008-01-01

472

LINKING WATER QUALITY WITH AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION IN A RURAL WATERSHED  

E-print Network

, agricultural pollution, animal waste, land-water interactions, nitrate, nitrogen surplus, nonpoint source; accepted 19 May 2000) Abstract. Agricultural intensification was linked to streamwater pollution in a case quality indicators suggesting that it is possible to use the budget/GIS linked techniques for pollution

Short, Daniel

473

Does Accreditation by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) Ensure Greater Compliance With Animal Welfare Laws?  

PubMed

Accreditation of nonhuman animal research facilities by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) is widely considered the "gold standard" of commitment to the well being of nonhuman animals used in research. AAALAC-accredited facilities receive preferential treatment from funding agencies and are viewed favorably by the general public. Thus, it bears investigating how well these facilities comply with U.S. animal research regulations. In this study, the incidences of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) at AAALAC-accredited facilities were evaluated and compared to those at nonaccredited institutions during a period of 2 years. The analysis revealed that AAALAC-accredited facilities were frequently cited for AWA noncompliance items (NCIs). Controlling for the number of animals at each facility, AAALAC-accredited sites had significantly more AWA NCIs on average compared with nonaccredited sites. AAALAC-accredited sites also had more NCIs related to improper veterinary care, personnel qualifications, and animal husbandry. These results demonstrate that AAALAC accreditation does not improve compliance with regulations governing the treatment of animals in laboratories. PMID:25174609

Goodman, Justin R; Chandna, Alka; Borch, Casey

2015-01-01

474

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

475

Ministry of Agriculture  

E-print Network

As Iran addresses the goal of self-sufficiency in the production of food and fiber products, sustainable agriculture is gaining interest within Extension and the Ministry of Agriculture as a means of achieving this goal. Dependence on pesticide and insecticide imports, compounded by a growing population, limited arable land, and high soil erosion, has led to the call for more appropriate agricultural practice. Little is known, however, about extension agents = perceptions regarding sustainable agriculture practices. A random sample of extension agents in the Khorasan Province was surveyed by mail. Agents perceived sustainable agriculture to mean lower chemical inputs, natural resource and environmental protection, effective and efficient agricultural production system, and reliance on organic matter. Agents also indicated a preference for sustainable agricultural practices. Younger and less experienced agents tended to prefer sustainable over traditional agriculture practices. Agents also indicated the need for more local research. Implications for these results are given and recommendations made.

Mohammad Chizari; Associate Professor; James R. Lindner; Extension Associate

476

Extension Agricola, (Agricultural Extension),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agricultural Extension Manual is a how-to manual covering techniques of extension work and community organization. It is written for extension workers. Also it promotes recommended agricultural practices, training of counterparts and a host of other r...

M. J. Gibbons, R. Schroeder

1987-01-01

477

Agricultural Outlook, May 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Agricultural Economy; Commodity Spotlight: Exports Boost Prospects for Fresh Sweet Cherries; World Agriculture and Trade: Chile: The Next NAFTA Partner; Environment and Resources: Precision Farming: Harnessing Technology; Farm Bill '95: The Farm...

N. Childs, L. Caplan, S. Rosen

1995-01-01

478

Limitations to Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pie chart showing the percentage of land without limitations to agriculture (11%) and the reasons that the other land is of limited agriculture usefulness. With a timeplot showing the (slight) increase in arable land over the period 1960-2000

Environment, Aaas A.

479

www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,  

E-print Network

, Extension Agriculture and Natural Resources agent, animal science, Augusta County, Virginia To maximize crop Ambler, poultry waste coordinator, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation Rick Heidel. The required calibration schedule for confined animal feeding operations holding a Virginia Pollution Abatement

Liskiewicz, Maciej

480

SFRSF: Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses sustainable agriculture in southern Florida. Issues include: land managers and farmers working together to support habitat restoration; providing the agricultural and hydrologic science and technology needed to sustain agricultural production and a quality environment; reducing phosphorus and restoring natural hydrology in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA); and Best Management Practices developed to address these issues. There are links provided for additional information on this topic.

481

Advances in farm animal transgenesis.  

PubMed

The first transgenic livestock were produced in 1985 by microinjection of foreign DNA into zygotic pronuclei. This was the method of choice for more than 20 years, but more efficient protocols are now available, including somatic cell nuclear transfer and lentiviral transgenesis. Typical applications include carcass composition, lactational performance and wool production, as well as enhanced disease resistance and reduced environmental impact. Transgenic farm animal production for biomedical applications has found broad acceptance. In 2006 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved commercialization of the first recombinant pharmaceutical protein, antithrombin, produced in the mammary gland of transgenic goats. As the genome sequencing projects for various farm animal species are completed, it has become feasible to perform precise genetic modifications employing the emerging tools of lentiviral vectors, small interfering ribonucleic acids, meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases and transposons. We anticipate that genetic modification of farm animals will be instrumental in meeting global challenges in agricultural production and will open new horizons in biomedicine. PMID:21601297

Kues, Wilfried A; Niemann, Heiner

2011-11-01

482

Information for Agricultural Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

Kaungamno, E. E.

483

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference Conference Information Join us to discuss the drivers of Missouri agricultural and bio-fuels markets and participate in a special review of international policy implications for Missouri agriculture. Registration Deadline To guarantee space availability, please register

Noble, James S.

484

European Commission Agriculture and  

E-print Network

European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32 (0) 2-2969909 Fax: +32 (0) 2-29211 33 E-mail: info@ec.europa.eu Web: https://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture

485

Agriculture KENNETH L. KOONCE  

E-print Network

COLLEGE OF Agriculture KENNETH L. KOONCE Dean M. E. GARRISON Associate Dean JACQUELINE M. MALLET BAKER Recruitment Coordinator 104 Agricultural Administration Building 225/578-2362 FAX 225/578-2526 Student Services 138 Agricultural Administration Building 225/578-2065 FAX 225/578-2526 The College

Harms, Kyle E.

486

Growing Hawaii's agriculture industry,  

E-print Network

Program Overview Growing Hawaii's agriculture industry, one business at a time Website: http-3547 agincubator@ctahr.hawaii.edu Grow Your Business If you are looking to start an agriculture-related business with our program · Positively impact the agriculture industry in Hawaii with their success

487

AGRICULTURAL SPRING 2005  

E-print Network

to insert the genes into economically important agricultural crop plants. The history of Michigan State University, the pioneer land-grant institution, is closely tied to the history of agriculture and naturalMICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION SPRING 2005 VOL. 23 NO. 1 Plant Breeding and Genetics

488

2, 485518, 2006 Agricultural  

E-print Network

the agricultural potential of the land. Growing populations and more intensive land use, both for agriculture and livestock, have led to changes in the structure of vegetation, hydrology, and land quality. Over impacted sustainability of agriculture and the ability of the land to support its popula- tions. In much

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

489

Fostering Agriculture Environmental Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is important to any society, but its activity often has negative impact in the environment. We propose a game, implemented in the on-line virtual world platform Open-Simulator, that gives the opportunity to players to experience the potential effects of agriculture in the environment. The game was built with the purpose of promoting the awareness of agriculture issues, such as,

Rui Prada; Daniel Dias; Helmut Prendinger; Arturo Nakasone

2010-01-01

490

Dutch Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…

Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.

491

Biotechnology and Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

Kenney, Martin

492

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION Curriculum Checksheet  

E-print Network

\\ AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION Curriculum Checksheet 123 Credits This checksheet describes the curricular requirements for both the Bachelor of Science degree in Agricultural Education with a concentration in "Teaching" and for the teacher licensing program in agricultural education. The courses listed are courses

Rutledge, Steven

493

African Americans and Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

Morgan, Joan

2000-01-01

494

Drainage and Agricultural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the role of drainage as aninstrument for agricultural and rural development andthe related drainage development forces and processes.Five specific roles of drainage are distinguished:foodproduction, agricultural intensification anddiversification, sustainable irrigated land use, ruraldevelopment and environmental protection. Specialattention is given to the drainage development needsof the developing countries. It is argued that whileat early stages of agricultural development, drainagedevelopment

Lambert K. Smedema; Safwat Abdel-Dayem; Walter J. Ochs

2000-01-01

495

Animal cloning: problems and prospects.  

PubMed

An efficient animal cloning technology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation. Nuclear cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer (NT). However, at present it is an inefficient process: in cattle, only around 6% of the embryos transferred to the reproductive tracts of recipient cows result in healthy, longterm surviving clones. Of concern are the high losses throughout gestation, during birth and in the post-natal period through to adulthood. Many of the pregnancy losses relate to failure of the placenta to develop and function correctly. Placental dysfunction may also have an adverse influence on postnatal health. These anomalies are probably due to incorrect epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following NT, leading to inappropriate patterns of gene expression during the development of clones. Whilst some physiological tests on surviving clones suggest normality, other reports indicate a variety of post-natal clone-associated abnormalities. This variability in outcome may reflect species-specific and/or cloning methodological differences. Importantly, to date it appears that these clone-associated phenotypes are not transmitted to offspring following sexual reproduction. This indicates that they represent epigenetic errors, rather than genetic errors, which are corrected during gametogenesis. Whilst this needs confirmation at the molecular level, it provides initial confidence in the first application of NT in agriculture, namely, the production of small numbers of cloned sires from genetically elite bulls, for natural mating, to effectively disseminate genetic gain. In addition to the animal welfare concerns with the technology, the underlying health of the animals and the consequential effect on food safety are critical aspects that require investigation to gain regulatory and consumer acceptance. Future improvements in animal cloning will largely arise from a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms of reprogramming. PMID:16110893

Wells, D N

2005-04-01

496

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment GEN General Agriculture  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment GEN General Agriculture KEY: # = new course * = course IN AGRICULTURE. (3) Anintroductorycourserequiringcriticalanalysisofthemajorsocial. Prereq: Students enrolled in the College of Agriculture; freshmen only in fall semesters and transfers

MacAdam, Keith

497

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEC Agricultural Economics  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEC Agricultural Economics KEY: # = new course THE ECONOMICS OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE. (3 of agriculture in both a national and international dimension. Students who have completed ECO 201

MacAdam, Keith

498

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment SAG Sustainable Agriculture  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment SAG Sustainable Agriculture KEY: # = new course INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. (3) Broad introduction to the environmental, economic and cultural agriculture are discussed along with pertinent soil, crop and livestock management practices. Relationships

MacAdam, Keith

499

Agricultural Pallet Bins S T  

E-print Network

ASABE is a professional and technical organization, of members worldwide, who are dedicated to advancement of engineering applicable to agricultural, food, and biological systems. ASABE Standards are consensus documents developed and adopted by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers to meet standardization needs within the scope of the Society; principally agricultural field equipment, farmstead equipment, structures, soil and water resource management, turf and landscape equipment, forest engineering, food and process engineering, electric power applications, plant and animal environment, and waste management. NOTE: ASABE Standards, Engineering Practices, and Data are informational and advisory only. Their use by anyone engaged in industry or trade is entirely voluntary. The ASABE assumes no responsibility for results attributable to the application of ASABE Standards, Engineering Practices, and Data. Conformity does not ensure compliance with applicable ordinances, laws and regulations. Prospective users are responsible for protecting themselves against liability for infringement of patents. ASABE Standards, Engineering Practices, and Data initially approved prior to the society name change in July of 2005 are designated as ‘ASAE’, regardless of the revision approval date. Newly developed Standards, Engineering Practices and Data approved after July of 2005 are designated as ‘ASABE’. Standards designated as ‘ANSI ’ are American National Standards as are all ISO adoptions published by ASABE.

unknown authors

500

Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon