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1

Animal husbandry and experimental design.  

PubMed

If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment. PMID:25541541

Nevalainen, Timo

2014-01-01

2

Sheep Are Not Goats Basic animal husbandry  

E-print Network

Sheep Are Not Goats Basic animal husbandry education for sheep owners January 15, 22, 29://www.events.unh.edu/RegistrationForm.pm?event_id=17229 Class I - January 15, 2015: Basic information about raising sheep in New Hampshire; behavior, ease and the sheep in mind. Class II - January 22, 2015: Nutrition and Health: Feeding your sheep and adding pasture

New Hampshire, University of

3

Zinc fate in animal husbandry systems.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) is considered in animal production systems as both an essential nutrient and a possible pollutant. While it is generally supplemented at low levels in animal diets, with less than 200 mg kg(-1) in complete feeds, it is under scrutiny due to potential accumulation in the environment. This explains why international regulations limit maximum supplementation levels in animal feeds in a stricter way. This article gives an overview of the current knowledge on the fate of zinc in animal production systems, from animal diets to animal wastes. Some analytical methods can be used for the quantification and qualification of Zn chemical forms: X-ray crystallography, electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, separation techniques, hyphenated techniques… Analysis of chelated forms issued from complex matrices, like hydrolysed proteins, remains difficult, and the speciation of Zn in diluted carriers (premix and feed) is a challenge. Our understanding of Zn absorption has made progress with recent research on ZnT/Zip families and metallothioneins. However, fine-tuned approaches towards the nutritional and metabolic interactions for Zn supplementation in farm conditions still require further studies. The speciation of zinc in pig manure and poultry litter has been a priority as monogastric animals are usually raised under intensive conditions and fed with high quantities of trace minerals, leading to high animal density and elevated quantities of zinc from animal wastes. PMID:25209575

Romeo, A; Vacchina, V; Legros, S; Doelsch, E

2014-11-01

4

Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

5

Strengthening Agricultural Education in Africa: The Approach of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attainment of sustainable food security in sub-Saharan Africa requires the efforts of a large cadre of well-trained agricultural resource specialists familiar with the constraints and perspectives of smallhold farmers and experienced in interdisciplinary problem-solving. The Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry (FORUM) was initiated in 1992 by The Rockefeller Foundation to stabilize Faculties of Agriculture in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Uganda

Bharati K. Patel; Paul L. Woomer

2000-01-01

6

Antibiotic alternatives: the substitution of antibiotics in animal husbandry?  

PubMed Central

It is a common practice for decades to use of sub-therapeutic dose of antibiotics in food-animal feeds to prevent animals from diseases and to improve production performance in modern animal husbandry. In the meantime, concerns over the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the unreasonable use of antibiotics and an appearance of less novelty antibiotics have prompted efforts to develop so-called alternatives to antibiotics. Whether or not the alternatives could really replace antibiotics remains a controversial issue. This review summarizes recent development and perspectives of alternatives to antibiotics. The mechanism of actions, applications, and prospectives of the alternatives such as immunity modulating agents, bacteriophages and their lysins, antimicrobial peptides, pro-, pre-, and synbiotics, plant extracts, inhibitors targeting pathogenicity (bacterial quorum sensing, biofilm, and virulence), and feeding enzymes are thoroughly discussed. Lastly, the feasibility of alternatives to antibiotics is deeply analyzed. It is hard to conclude that the alternatives might substitute antibiotics in veterinary medicine in the foreseeable future. At the present time, prudent use of antibiotics and the establishment of scientific monitoring systems are the best and fastest way to limit the adverse effects of the abuse of antibiotics and to ensure the safety of animal-derived food and environment. PMID:24860564

Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Dai, Menghong; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

2014-01-01

7

[Inspection of laboratory animal breeding and husbandry/experiments on animals, examples].  

PubMed

In Berlin, the authorization and inspection of experiments on animals and of facilities for laboratory animal breeding and husbandry are carried out by the same authority. According to Section 16 (1) sentence one no. 3 Tierschutzgesetz (German animal protection act), there are presently 1200 procedures registered and 68 facilities approved to breed and keep vertebrates for experiments (according to Section 11 (1) sentence one no. 1 Tierschutzgesetz). In 2006, the use of 300,903 vertebrates was reported. There are 38 animal welfare officers in the twenty major scientific facilities who are in charge of in-house supervision. The authority visits the facilities where experiments take place at regular intervals to observe and supervise their operations. On request, the facilities must send the records from the experiments to the authority for examination (according to Section 9 a Tierschutzgesetz). With the annual laboratory animal report, the authority can verify the number of authorised laboratory animals. By checking the scientific publications the authority can compare them with the authorised animal experiments. Facilities for laboratory animal breeding and husbandry are continuously supervised. Offences against the animal protection act are prosecuted. When there are deficiencies in animal welfare, the authority sets a deadline to correct the defects. If the deficiency still exists after the expiry of the term, the authority imposes a penalty payment or initiates legal proceedings. The important role of the animal welfare officers (Section 8 a Tierschutzgesetz) is apparent. The majority of supervisions show that there are deficiencies. This indicates that more emphasis must be put on prevention. The facilities must provide better support and resources for the animal welfare officers. Furthermore, the scientists must be more receptive to the animal welfare officers in their role as advisers. Continuous and adequate training is imperative to the goal of maintaining sufficient in-house supervision and to keep the animals from suffering. If in-house supervision works well, the State's role in regulating animal experiments can be reduced. PMID:18500148

Ratsch, H

2008-04-01

8

Genomic interplay in bacterial communities: implications for growth promoting practices in animal husbandry  

PubMed Central

The discovery of antibiotics heralded the start of a “Golden Age” in the history of medicine. Over the years, the use of antibiotics extended beyond medical practice into animal husbandry, aquaculture and agriculture. Now, however, we face the worldwide threat of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to all existing major classes of antibiotic, reflecting the possibility of an end to the antibiotic era. The seriousness of the threat is underscored by the severely limited production of new classes of antibiotics. Evolution of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics results from the inherent genetic capability that bacteria have to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, under antibiotic selection pressures, bacteria have acquired resistance to all classes of antibiotics, sometimes very shortly after their introduction. Arguably, the evolution and rapid dissemination of multiple drug resistant genes en-masse across microbial pathogens is one of the most serious threats to human health. In this context, effective surveillance strategies to track the development of resistance to multiple antibiotics are vital to managing global infection control. These surveillance strategies are necessary for not only human health but also for animal health, aquaculture and plant production. Shortfalls in the present surveillance strategies need to be identified. Raising awareness of the genetic events that promote co-selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobials is an important prerequisite to the design and implementation of molecular surveillance strategies. In this review we will discuss how lateral gene transfer (LGT), driven by the use of low-dose antibiotics in animal husbandry, has likely played a significant role in the evolution of multiple drug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative bacteria and has complicated molecular surveillance strategies adopted for predicting imminent resistance threats. PMID:25161648

Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; McKinnon, Jessica; Wyrsch, Ethan; Hammond, Jeffrey M.; Charles, Ian G.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

2014-01-01

9

Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Rö?ler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

10

Animal husbandry practices in rural Bangladesh: potential risk factors for antimicrobial drug resistance and emerging diseases.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial drug administration to household livestock may put humans and animals at risk for acquisition of antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogens. To describe animal husbandry practices, including animal healthcare-seeking and antimicrobial drug use in rural Bangladesh, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with key informants, including female household members (n = 79), village doctors (n = 10), and pharmaceutical representatives, veterinarians, and government officials (n = 27), and performed observations at animal health clinics (n = 3). Prevalent animal husbandry practices that may put persons at risk for acquisition of pathogens included shared housing and water for animals and humans, antimicrobial drug use for humans and animals, and crowding. Household members reported seeking human and animal healthcare from unlicensed village doctors rather than formal-sector healthcare providers and cited cost and convenience as reasons. Five times more per household was spent on animal than on human healthcare. Strengthening animal and human disease surveillance systems should be continued. Interventions are recommended to provide vulnerable populations with a means of protecting their livelihood and health. PMID:24062478

Roess, Amira A; Winch, Peter J; Ali, Nabeel A; Akhter, Afsana; Afroz, Dilara; El Arifeen, Shams; Darmstadt, Gary L; Baqui, Abdullah H

2013-11-01

11

Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Potential Risk Factors for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance and Emerging Diseases  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial drug administration to household livestock may put humans and animals at risk for acquisition of antimicrobial drug–resistant pathogens. To describe animal husbandry practices, including animal healthcare-seeking and antimicrobial drug use in rural Bangladesh, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with key informants, including female household members (n = 79), village doctors (n = 10), and pharmaceutical representatives, veterinarians, and government officials (n = 27), and performed observations at animal health clinics (n = 3). Prevalent animal husbandry practices that may put persons at risk for acquisition of pathogens included shared housing and water for animals and humans, antimicrobial drug use for humans and animals, and crowding. Household members reported seeking human and animal healthcare from unlicensed village doctors rather than formal-sector healthcare providers and cited cost and convenience as reasons. Five times more per household was spent on animal than on human healthcare. Strengthening animal and human disease surveillance systems should be continued. Interventions are recommended to provide vulnerable populations with a means of protecting their livelihood and health. PMID:24062478

Roess, Amira A.; Winch, Peter J.; Ali, Nabeel A.; Akhter, Afsana; Afroz, Dilara; El Arifeen, Shams; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Baqui, Abdullah H.

2013-01-01

12

Annual meeting keynote address: Animal agriculture and emerging social ethics for animals.  

PubMed

Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy. A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past three decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. This point can be illustrated with numerous examples across all areas of animal use. These examples reflect society's moral concern having outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform. The meaning of this ethical movement for animal agriculture is examined. Animal agriculture should explore ways to replace the animal husbandry lost to industrialization. PMID:15032454

Rollin, B E

2004-03-01

13

Aquatic toxicity of four veterinary drugs commonly applied in fish farming and animal husbandry.  

PubMed

Doramectin (DOR), metronidazole (MET), florfenicol (FLO), and oxytetracycline (OXT) are among the most widely used veterinary drugs in animal husbandry or in aquaculture. Contamination of the environment by these pharmaceuticals has given cause for concern in recent years. Even though their toxicity has been thoroughly analyzed, knowledge of their ecotoxicity is still limited. We investigated their aquatic toxicity using tests with marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustaceans (Daphnia magna). All the ecotoxicological tests were supported by chemical analyses to confirm the exposure concentrations of the pharmaceuticals used in the toxicity experiments, since deviations from the nominal concentration can result in underestimation of biological effects. It was found that OXT and FLO have a stronger adverse effect on duckweed (EC50=3.26 and 2.96mgL(-1) respectively) and green algae (EC50=40.4 and 18.0mgL(-1)) than on bacteria (EC50=108 and 29.4mgL(-1)) and crustaceans (EC50=114 and 337mgL(-1)), whereas MET did not exhibit any adverse effect in the tested concentration range. For DOR a very low EC50 of 6.37×10(-5)mgL(-1) towards D. magna was determined, which is five orders of magnitude lower than values known for the toxic reference compound K2Cr2O7. Our data show the strong influence of certain veterinary drugs on aquatic organisms and contribute to a sound assessment of the environmental hazards posed by commonly used pharmaceuticals. PMID:23689096

Ko?odziejska, Marta; Maszkowska, Joanna; Bia?k-Bieli?ska, Anna; Steudte, Stephanie; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

2013-08-01

14

A C?As lyase for degradation of environmental organoarsenical herbicides and animal husbandry growth promoters  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is the most widespread environmental toxin. Substantial amounts of pentavalent organoarsenicals have been used as herbicides, such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA), and as growth enhancers for animal husbandry, such as roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) [Rox(V)]. These undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. We previously demonstrated a two-step pathway of degradation of MSMA to As(III) by microbial communities involving sequential reduction to methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)] by one bacterial species and demethylation from MAs(III) to As(III) by another. In this study, the gene responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was identified from an environmental MAs(III)-demethylating isolate, Bacillus sp. MD1. This gene, termed arsenic inducible gene (arsI), is in an arsenic resistance (ars) operon and encodes a nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenase with C?As lyase activity. Heterologous expression of ArsI conferred MAs(III)-demethylating activity and MAs(III) resistance to an arsenic-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli, demonstrating that MAs(III) demethylation is a detoxification process. Purified ArsI catalyzes Fe2+-dependent MAs(III) demethylation. In addition, ArsI cleaves the C?As bond in trivalent roxarsone and other aromatic arsenicals. ArsI homologs are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and we propose that ArsI-catalyzed organoarsenical degradation has a significant impact on the arsenic biogeocycle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular mechanism for organoarsenic degradation by a C?As lyase. PMID:24821808

Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rosen, Barry P.

2014-01-01

15

Determination of antibiotic consumption index for animal originated foods produced in animal husbandry in Iran, 2010  

PubMed Central

The public health concerns over the long-term exposure to antibiotics have risen in different parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibiotic consumption pattern in livestock and poultry and to estimate the quantity of antibiotic active ingredient (mg) consumed per unit weight (Kg) of red meat, milk and egg production in Iran in 2010. A cross-sectional study was designed in charmahal - bakhtiary province-Iran. A questioner has been developed by naming 110 types of antibiotics. Twenty two veterinary clinicians and three livestock pharmaceutical distributor companies were included in the survey to determine the antibiotic prescription and distribution pattern in the farms. Veterinary organization of Iran supplied the information of the total antibiotic consumption in different dosage forms. National and international data on the livestock and poultry production were obtained from the relevant official web sites. Tetracycline class of antibiotics was the most common types of antibacterial prescribed and sold to both livestock and poultry farms. Amino glycoside, penicillin and macrolide in the cattle farms and furofenocole in broiler farms were the second most used groups of antibiotics. The quantity of antibiotic active ingredients consumed per unit weight of animal-originated food products was counted as 107.4 mg/kg for both milk and red meat and 249.5 mg/kg for broiler meat and egg. Totally, it was estimated that 133 mg antibiotic substances was used per kg of milk, meat and egg produced in 2010. In comparison to available data for other countries, consumption of antibiotics in livestock and poultry in Iran is higher than developed countries with an exception of South Korea. The findings of the present study could be alarming for the legislative authorities in food security and safety. More clear evaluation should be carried out as well as implementation of national monitoring and inspective programs in order to reach an added safety regarding animal-originated foods. PMID:24468281

2014-01-01

16

Determination of antibiotic consumption index for animal originated foods produced in animal husbandry in Iran, 2010.  

PubMed

The public health concerns over the long-term exposure to antibiotics have risen in different parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibiotic consumption pattern in livestock and poultry and to estimate the quantity of antibiotic active ingredient (mg) consumed per unit weight (Kg) of red meat, milk and egg production in Iran in 2010. A cross-sectional study was designed in charmahal - bakhtiary province-Iran. A questioner has been developed by naming 110 types of antibiotics. Twenty two veterinary clinicians and three livestock pharmaceutical distributor companies were included in the survey to determine the antibiotic prescription and distribution pattern in the farms. Veterinary organization of Iran supplied the information of the total antibiotic consumption in different dosage forms. National and international data on the livestock and poultry production were obtained from the relevant official web sites. Tetracycline class of antibiotics was the most common types of antibacterial prescribed and sold to both livestock and poultry farms. Amino glycoside, penicillin and macrolide in the cattle farms and furofenocole in broiler farms were the second most used groups of antibiotics. The quantity of antibiotic active ingredients consumed per unit weight of animal-originated food products was counted as 107.4 mg/kg for both milk and red meat and 249.5 mg/kg for broiler meat and egg. Totally, it was estimated that 133 mg antibiotic substances was used per kg of milk, meat and egg produced in 2010. In comparison to available data for other countries, consumption of antibiotics in livestock and poultry in Iran is higher than developed countries with an exception of South Korea. The findings of the present study could be alarming for the legislative authorities in food security and safety. More clear evaluation should be carried out as well as implementation of national monitoring and inspective programs in order to reach an added safety regarding animal-originated foods. PMID:24468281

Aalipour, Fathollah; Mirlohi, Maryam; Jalali, Mohammd

2014-01-01

17

Diet and Animal Husbandry of the Preclassic Maya at Cuello, Belize: Isotopic and Zooarchaeological Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of the Preclassic Maya at Cuello, Belize was studied by means of carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements on human and animal bones from the site, as well as on modern animals from the region. The average ?13C value for Preclassic human bone collagen was ?12.9±0.9‰ (n=28) and for tooth enamel apatite it was ?8.7±2.3‰ (n=33); the average ?13N

Nikolaas Merwe; Robert Tykot; Norman Hammond; Kim Oakberg

18

Effects of the Chernobyl accident on animal husbandry and production, from a Swedish perspective  

SciTech Connect

About 20% of the Swedish land area was considerably contaminated by radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. However, less than 10% of the arable land was contaminated. The heavy contamination was closely correlated with the amount of rain received during the first days of May 1986. Immediate restrictions on grazing limited the early uptake of contaminants in animal products. Changes in management of animals, especially sheep, goats, and reindeer in the contaminated areas have effectively reduced the transfer of radionuclides to human beings. One important factor was the possibility of obtaining uncontaminated feeds from unaffected parts of the country. The direct costs during the first 2 years after the accident were approximately +10 million for analyses and +90 million for compensation to farmers for condemned products (milk, mutton, and reindeer meat) and reimbursement for purchase of uncontaminated feeds from other parts of the country.

Jones, B.E.

1989-04-01

19

Ferret care and husbandry.  

PubMed

Convivial and playful, the ferret has cohabited with humans for hundreds of years. Maintenance of this mustelid's health and quality of life is paramount for the endurance of the human-animal bond. This review article for veterinary care givers, veterinarians, and staff, encompasses discussions on: husbandry, clinical techniques, prevalent diseases, history taking, physical examination, vaccination, and pain recognition. This article also enables the veterinary community to contribute to the care and welfare of ferret patients by offering facts to distinguish these animals from dogs and cats. PMID:15145388

Bixler, Heather; Ellis, Christine

2004-05-01

20

Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

21

Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Basic Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, part of a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, is built around specimens of agricultural writing in Spanish. The manual contains 12 lessons on general agriculture, sugar production, grain production, geography, forestry, animal husbandry, soy bean production, agricultural

Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

22

Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in slaughtered animals in south-eastern Lake Chad area in relation to husbandry practices and seasonal water levels  

PubMed Central

Background Fasciolosis has been described in sub-Saharan Africa in many accounts, but the latest reports from Chad are from the 1970s. Mobile pastoralists perceive liver parasites as a significant problem and think that proximity to Lake Chad can lead to infection. This study aimed to assess the importance of liver fluke infections in mobile pastoralists’ livestock in the south-eastern Lake Chad region. In 2011, all animals presented at three slaughter slabs near Gredaya in the south-eastern Lake Chad area were examined for infection with Fasciola spp. during routine meat inspections. Results This study included 616 goats, 132 sheep and 130 cattle. The prevalence of adult Fasciola gigantica was 68% (CI 60-76%) in cattle, 12% (CI 10-16%) in goats and 23% (CI 16-30%) in sheep. From all infected animals (n?=?200), 53% (n?=?106) were classified as lightly infected with 1-10 parasites, 18% (n =36) as moderately infected with 11-100 parasites and 29% (n?=?58) as heavily infected with more than 100 parasites per animal. Animals grazing close to the shores of Lake Chad had a much higher risk of infection (prevalence =38%; n?=?329) than animals not feeding at the lake (n?=?353), with only one goat being positive (prevalence?=?0.28%). The ethnic group of the owner was a strong determinant for the risk of infection. Ethnic group likely served as a proxy for husbandry practices. Geospatial distribution showed that animals originating from areas close to the lake were more likely to be infected with F. gigantica than those from more distant areas. Conclusions Livestock belonging to ethnic groups which traditionally stay near surface water, and which were reported to feed near Lake Chad, have a high risk of infection with F. gigantica. Pastoralist perception of fasciolosis as a priority health problem was confirmed. Regular preventive and post-exposure treatment is recommended for animals grazing near the lake. However, further economic analysis is needed. PMID:24708774

2014-01-01

23

Snake care and husbandry.  

PubMed

The snake has long been a contradictory species; you either love them or hate them. In the United States, these reptiles are popular pets. There is also a significant amount of energy placed into developing captive breeding programs to produce different color morphs for many species. In some cases, such as the ball pythons (Pythonregius), these color morphs can sell for 20,000 dollars to 30,000 dollars each. In comparison to domestic mammals, snakes are long-lived. It is not uncommon for corn snakes (Elaphe guttata guttata) to live for 15 to 25 years and for ball pythons to live 35 to 45 years. Because of the longevity and value of these animals, more snakes are being presented to the veterinarian to manage medical and surgical problems,as well as for routine medical care. Veterinary personnel working with snakes should familiarize themselves with the specific husbandry and medical requirements of these animals so that they can make informed decisions regarding their management. PMID:15145397

Mitchell, Mark A

2004-05-01

24

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment ASC Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

, reproduction, genetic and behavior of domestic animals. ASC 102 APPLICATIONS OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. (3College of Agriculture, Food and Environment ASC Animal Sciences KEY: # = new course * = course ANIMAL BIOLOGY. (3) The first in a sequence of two courses providing an introduction to the subject

MacAdam, Keith

25

Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.  

PubMed

While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems. PMID:25458705

Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo

2014-12-01

26

Ethical obligations of veterinarians and animal scientists in animal agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is patent that society is evolving an ethic for the treatment of animals which goes well beyond the standard prohibitions against cruelty. This new ethic for animals takes the consensus ethic for the treatment of humans in society and extends it,mutatis mutandis, to the treatment of animals. Though this ethic has been applied first to research animals, its extension

Bernard E. Rollin

1989-01-01

27

The role of land-based strategies in rural livelihoods: The contribution of arable production, animal husbandry and natural resource harvesting in communal areas in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of South Africa's rural population resides in the former homelands. Although cash from urban and government sources is the mainstay of the rural economy in many areas, the multiple and diverse livelihood base of rural households is not widely recognised. This diversity includes the land-based strategies of arable farming, livestock husbandry and consumption and trade in natural resources.

Charlie Shackleton; Sheona Shackleton; Ben Cousins

2001-01-01

28

Amphibian biology and husbandry.  

PubMed

Extant amphibians comprise three lineages-- salamanders (Urodela or Caudata), frogs and toads (Anura), and caecilians (Gymnophiona, Apoda, or Caecilia)--which contain more than 6,000 species. Fewer than a dozen species of amphibians are commonly maintained in laboratory colonies, and the husbandry requirements for the vast majority of amphibians are poorly known. For these species, a review of basic characteristics of amphibian biology supplemented by inferences drawn from the morphological and physiological characteristics of the species in question provides a basis for decisions about housing and feeding. Amphibians are ectotherms, and their skin is permeable to water, ions, and respiratory gases. Most species are secretive and, in many cases, nocturnal. The essential characteristics of their environment include appropriate levels of humidity, temperature, and lighting as well as retreat sites. Terrestrial and arboreal species require moist substrates, water dishes, and high relative humidity. Because temperature requirements for most species are poorly known, it is advisable to use a temperature mosaic that will allow an animal to find an appropriate temperature within its cage. Photoperiod may affect physiology and behavior (especially reproduction and hibernation), and although the importance of ultraviolet light for calcium metabolism by amphibians is not yet known, ecological observations suggest that it might be important for some species of frogs. Some amphibians are territorial, and some use olfactory cues to mark their territory and to recognize other individuals of their species. All amphibians are carnivorous as adults, and the feeding response of many species is elicited by the movement of prey. Diets should include a mixture of prey species, and it may be advisable to load prey with vitamins and minerals. PMID:17592184

Pough, F Harvey

2007-01-01

29

Analysis on Features of Agricultural Structure Change and Agricultural Competitiveness in Hubei Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output data of crop farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery in the Hubei Statistical Yearbook-2009 is used to analyze the features of agricultural structure change in Hubei Province since 1983; according to the relevant data in Hubei Statistical Yearbook and China Statistical Yearbook in 2005 and 2009, and adopting the shift-share analysis model, the difference in agricultural economic growth

Jin-hua Tang; Jian-yong Lin

2010-01-01

30

Urban agriculture in Belém, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing one's own food is an important survival strategy, so it shouldn't be surprising that many urbanites produce food, even in congested cities. Urban agriculture concerns such farming as animal husbandry, the growing of fruit trees, crops of basic grains and horticulture, which coexist in the city with tree crops, and the raising of rabbits, poultry, or other stock.With regard

Isabel Madaleno

2000-01-01

31

Humic Acid Substances in Animal Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic acids (HA), a class of compounds resulting from decomposition of organic matter, particularly plants are natural constituents of drinking water, soil and lignite. It inhibit bacterial and fungal growth, thus decrease levels of mycotoxins in feed. Stress management, immune system, anti-inflamatory activity, antiviral properties as well as prevention of intestinal diseases, mainly diarrhoea in humans and animals are described

A. Schuhmacher

2005-01-01

32

Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

2000-04-12

33

Guidelines for Sheep and Goat Husbandry.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (Guide) is considered the standard for reference when protocols are developed for using agricultural animals in agricultural research or teaching. The Animal Welfare Act (CFR, 1992) regulates the use of agr...

34

Review of ammonia emission factors for United States animal agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emissions from agricultural industries are a significant source of atmospheric reactive nitrogen, which can lead to negative environmental consequences such as ecosystem change and formation of fine particulate. While a number of emission factors (EFs) have been proposed for developing ammonia emissions inventories for the US, most are based on European research with little discussion of their applicability to US production systems. Recently developed ammonia EFs from literature for animal feeding operations (AFOs), including production facilities for beef and dairy cattle, swine, and poultry, are presented. Tentative EFs for US animal agriculture are suggested until further research can be conducted. Currently, there is a dearth of EFs developed specifically for agricultural production practices in the US.

Faulkner, W. B.; Shaw, B. W.

35

Analgesia for Surgical Husbandry Procedures in Sheep and Other Livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Surgical husbandry procedures in livestock are invariably associated with pain and stress, yet are traditionally performed without analgesia. Concern for the welfare of animals undergoing these procedures is contributing to major conflicts between farmers and animal advocacy organisations with important negative trade implications. Whilst the ultimate long term solution is to breed animals that do not require these procedures,

Meredith L Sheil

36

Moving GIS Research Indoors: Spatiotemporal Analysis of Agricultural Animals  

PubMed Central

A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare. PMID:25098421

Daigle, Courtney L.; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A.; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M.

2014-01-01

37

Mitigation of Nitrogen Emissions from Animal Agriculture in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 70% of the utilized agricultural area (187 Mha) in the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU-27) is used for animal production. In addition, a considerable amount of animal feed is imported. Dairy and beef cattle, pigs, and poultry are the dominant animal species. Total livestock density is highest in the Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Denmark and some regions in France, Germany and Italy. The mean nitrogen (N) retention in animal products in EU-27 in 2005 was 20% for milk, 8% for beef, 25% for pork, 38% for poultry and 28% for egg production. This indicates that dairy cows excreted on average 80% of the N intake, beef cattle 92%, pigs 75%, poultry 62% and layers 72%. There was a large variation in N retention between countries. Animal manures and nitrogen (N) fertilizers are main sources of N emissions. In 2005, mean N excretion by animals ranged from less than 25 kg per ha per year in Bulgaria to nearly 250 kg per ha in The Netherlands. On average 25% of the total amount of N excreted was lost as ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere, though with a considerable variation between countries. About 10% was lost as NH3-N from housing systems, 9% from manure application to land, 4% from manure storage and treatment facilities, and 3% from grazing. Nitrogen leaching was in the same order of magnitude. Animal production also had a considerable share in the total emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere (range 5-25%). Especially dairy cattle and beef cattle contribute to the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. Considerable efforts are being made to decrease N emissions from agriculture in EU-27. Good agricultural practices and mandatory emission mitigation measures are enforced through EU environmental policies, including Nitrates Directive, National Emissions Ceiling Directive, and Water Framework Directive. Some countries have succeeded to decrease the NH3 emissions to air and N leaching losses to groundwater and surface waters by more than 50%. However, other countries are less successful, and in general there is a delay in the implementation of effective emission mitigation measures in practice. Most effective measures include (i) Improving animal performance, i.e., increasing productivity and feed conversion of the animals, (ii) Improving manure management, using proper manure collection and low-emission manure storage and application techniques, and (iii) Balanced fertilization, i.e. applying manure and fertilizer N in the right ways, times and amounts. There is now a wealth of information about improving the recycling of manure nutrients effectively in crop production through proper implementation of management and technological measures. Some of this information is derived from experiments, some from practice. Our scenario analyses use information from experiments and practice and indicate that N emissions in EU-27 can decreased further by 25 to 50%, depending on N species and country. In conclusion, decreasing N emissions from animal production requires an integral whole-farming systems approach. The weakest part of the whole chain of activities in a farming system should be cured first. A coherent package of three types of measures provide the best result, i.e., improving animal performance, improving manure management and balanced fertilization.

Oenema, O.

2011-12-01

38

USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Awards Application 2012  

E-print Network

USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease authorization. Proposals that involve or utilize research animals, biohazards, human subjects, or Veterinary have been obtained. II. USDA Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Award In addition to research

Stephens, Graeme L.

39

Job Title:Animal Caretaker (Biocontainment) -Recent Graduates Department:Department Of Agriculture  

E-print Network

/or changes in behavior or appearance of animals; balances animal diets; takes and records temperaturesJob Title:Animal Caretaker (Biocontainment) - Recent Graduates Department:Department Of Agriculture graduates to perform Animal Caretaker (Biocontainment) duties for the National Animal Disease Center, Animal

Behmer, Spencer T.

40

Isotopic reconstruction of human diet and animal husbandry practices during the Classical-Hellenistic, imperial, and Byzantine periods at Sagalassos, Turkey.  

PubMed

An isotopic reconstruction of human dietary patterns and livestock management practices (herding, grazing, foddering, etc.) is presented here from the sites of Düzen Tepe and Sagalassos in southwestern Turkey. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined from bone collagen extracted from humans (n = 49) and animals (n = 454) from five distinct time periods: Classical-Hellenistic (400-200 BC), Early to Middle Imperial (25 BC-300 AD), Late Imperial (300-450 AD), Early Byzantine (450-600 AD), and Middle Byzantine (800-1200 AD). The humans had protein sources that were based on C(3) plants and terrestrial animals. During the Classical-Hellenistic period, all of the domestic animals had ?(13) C and ?(15) N signatures that clustered together; evidence that the animals were herded in the same area or kept in enclosures and fed on similar foods. The diachronic analysis of the isotopic trends in the dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats highlighted subtle but distinct variations in these animals. The ?(13) C values of the dogs and cattle increased (reflecting C(4) plant consumption) during the Imperial and Byzantine periods, but the pigs and the goats displayed little change and a constant C(3) plant-based diet. The sheep had a variable ?(13) C pattern reflecting periods of greater and lesser consumption of C(4) plants in the diet. In addition, the ?(15) N values of the dogs, pigs, cattle, and sheep increase substantially from the Classical-Hellenistic to the Imperial periods reflecting a possible increase in protein consumption, but the goats showed a decrease. Finally, these isotopic results are discussed in the context of zooarcheological, archeobotanical, and trace element evidence. PMID:22729657

Fuller, Benjamin T; De Cupere, Bea; Marinova, Elena; Van Neer, Wim; Waelkens, Marc; Richards, Michael P

2012-10-01

41

Validation of a quantitative method using liquid chromatography coupled to multiple mass spectrometry for thiouracil in feedstuffs used in animal husbandry.  

PubMed

The use of thyreostatic drugs, like thiouracil (TU), in animal production has been banned for over three decades by the European Union, due to potential teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of its residues upon human consumption. Besides, thyreostats induce water retention in livestock, causing fallacious weight gain and deterioration of meat quality. Development of more competent analytical methods gave rise to sporadic TU detection in urine of untreated animals, questioning the actual synthetic origin TU. Research showed that TU can be formed upon digestion of Brassicaceae feeds in vivo and in vitro, which called for a means of differentiation between endogenous formation of TU and illicit administration. Therefore, in the present study, a routinely applicable liquid chromatography (LC) ion trap multiple mass spectrometry (MS(2)) method for TU analysis in animal feeds was optimised and validated, according to CD 2002/657/EC. A fractional factorial Plackett-Burman design was used to optimise the extraction procedure for TU from Brassicaceae and non-Brassicaceae feeds. This resulted in the discrimination of five influential factors (amount of feed, myrosinase, pH 7 buffer, 3-iodobenzyl bromide and elution solvent), for which the most optimal conditions were perfected. The limit of quantification for TU amounted 0.5 ng g(-1). The individual recoveries for TU ranged between 90.9 and 99.7 %. Good results for repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility (RSD%) were observed, i.e. ?6.0 and ?5.2 %, respectively, for TU. Excellent linearity was proven based on determination coefficient (R (2)???0.99) and lack-of-fit test (F test, ??=?0.05). Subsequently, a selection of feeds sampled during European national monitoring campaigns were evaluated with the present method showing concentrations ranging from 0.32 to 20.60 ng g(-1), demonstrating the relevance of the method in the analysis of TU from animal feeds. PMID:25424180

Kiebooms, Julie A L; Wauters, Jella; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn

2014-11-26

42

RSPCA/AHVLA meeting on: Welfare of agricultural animals in research  

E-print Network

RSPCA/AHVLA meeting on: Welfare of agricultural animals in research ­ cattle, goats, pigs and sheep: Research.Animals@rspca.org.uk #12;Discussion topics could include the following: Is there a need for a UK network to enable those using and caring for agricultural animals in research and testing to exchange

Spoel, Steven

43

Zooarchaeology, Improvement and the British Agricultural Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to revisit the debate concerning the nature and timing of the British Agricultural Revolution. Specifically, it considers how zooarchaeological evidence can be employed to investigate later-medieval and post-medieval “improvements” in animal husbandry. Previous studies of animal bone assemblages have indicated that the size of many domestic species in England increases from the fifteenth century—an observation that has

Richard Thomas

2005-01-01

44

Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste  

SciTech Connect

The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report formed the basis for much of the subsequent work under the grant. An explanation of the process is presented as well as the completed work on the four tasks.

Gabriel Miller

2009-03-25

45

ON THE MOVE! The New Jersey Department of Agriculture Division of Animal Health and Animal Health Di-  

E-print Network

ON THE MOVE! The New Jersey Department of Agriculture Division of Animal Health and Animal Health of livestock in New Jersey. The division tracks information about emerging diseases around the world that may of livestock, poultry, fish, and wildlife. The laboratory serves New Jersey's companion animal owners

Delgado, Mauricio

46

We and they: Animal welfare in the era of advanced agricultural biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses central moral issues raised by the applications of advanced biotechnology to animal agriculture and introduces the major ethical concepts and principles of animal bioethics. It is argued that biotechnology enables human beings to transform animals according to human needs, which blurs the boundary between humans and non-human animals in moral and biological sense. The more humans change

A. K. Pascalev

2006-01-01

47

Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech  

E-print Network

Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems the main air quality concern related to agricultural animal production. However, ammonia emissions from that cover ammonia emissions in the United States were adopted in 1997. These regulations will have a signifi

Liskiewicz, Maciej

48

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service APHIS 8135008 January 2004  

E-print Network

United States Department of Agriculture · Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service PEST ALERT.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) confiscated more than arriving international travelers who may consume the snails as meat or folk medicine, or wish to keep them

Watson, Craig A.

49

Global linkages in animal agriculture: new opportunities for United States agricultural universities.  

PubMed

Today's rapidly changing world offers new opportunities for Departments of Animal Science that wish to expand their international activity. Seeking a relevant role in the definition of sustainable agriculture, internationalizing courses and curricula for all students, supporting private sector enterprises at home and abroad (export promotion), maintaining collaboration with former students, and providing better information to our farmers and citizens about world conditions: these are some of the challenges now facing us. A survey of heads of departments of animal science at universities in the United States revealed that of 64 respondents, almost all report significant international activities. However, only 20% are satisfied with their present activity level, and 80% intend to seek an expanded international role. The expected benefits from international activity most often mentioned were a broadened faculty experience and a better capacity to prepare students for the 21st century. Anticipated problems are related to faculty and departmental recognition, faculty career trajectories, and continuity of work assignments. On balance, respondents overwhelmingly believe that expected benefits outweigh possible problems. Eighty percent of respondents reported a generally supportive attitude from their administration, but 75% indicated that the department itself needs to provide leadership in the search for new international linkages. PMID:8791213

Johnson, W L

1996-06-01

50

Water Quality Signal of Animal Agriculture at USGS Monitoring Stations is Related to Animal Confinement and/or Farm Size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US animal agriculture has undergone major structural changes over the past two decades, with the total number of livestock producers declining dramatically and the average size of the remaining operations increasing substantially. The result has been a pronounced trend towards greater spatial concentration and confinement of livestock. The change raises important questions about the water quality effects of animal agriculture in regions where livestock waste production has become more intensive but recovery, handling, and application of animal wastes to cropland more systematized. In previous research, we developed three separate national-level SPARROW models of surface water contaminants (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria). Based on USGS monitoring and ancillary data from more than 400 US stream and river basins, the models include point and nonpoint sources of contaminants, land-to-water transport factors, and in-stream loss processes; parameter estimation is by non-linear regression. In this study we report on a pattern in the statistical results for the three models: The source coefficients (quantity of contaminant delivered to streams per unit of contaminant input) for unconfined animals are consistently larger and more statistically significant than those for confined animals. The implicit meaning is that something associated with waste management on large farms and/or animal confinement (e.g. retention period, recovery of manure for application to crops and subsequent crop uptake, and/or better waste treatment) reduces the average water quality signal of this scale of animal agriculture (per unit of manure input) to barely detectable at downstream monitoring stations, while the water quality signal from unconfined animal agriculture is more clear. The county-level data for confined and unconfined manure inputs (defined primarily by farm size) are from the USDA, and are spatially distributed in the model GIS by 1-km land use data. To date, our analytical probing of the results has not identified a viable alternative to the implicit conclusion.

Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

2007-12-01

51

Growth and development symposium: Fetal programming in animal agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fetal programming is the ability to improve animal production and well-being by altering the maternal environment and holds enormous challenges and great opportunities for researchers and the animal industry. A symposium was held to provide an overview of current knowledge of fetal programming in re...

52

Forages for Grazing Animal Health AGRICULTURE IN 2008  

E-print Network

for the enhancement of animal health through natural and ge- netically modified (GM) compounds produced by forage; and isoflavones to mimic estrogenic activity. Genetic transformation of forage plants to express novel bio-active proteins also has potential to impact animal health issues. One exciting possibility is the genetic

53

COMMUNITIES, ANIMAL AGRICULTURE AND AIR POLLUTION: POLICY ISSUES AND OPTIONS FOR THE FUTURE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. The many products of animal agriculture are important to American consumers - of that there can be no question. Effective demand for meat and other animal products increases with income and is often used as an indicator of economic improvement for a population. Livestock production is a visible aspect of farming, and people appreciate farming for the various ways

Lawrence W. Libby

54

Persistence and transport of pathogens from animal agriculture in soil and water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a chapter in the book An Introduction to Manure Pathogens, Manure Management and Regulation, it focuses on zoonotic pathogens from animal agriculture and their persistence and transport in soil and water. The combination of increased animal production and subsequent increased quantities of waste...

55

[Water requirements, water supply and thermoregulation in small ruminants in pasture-based husbandry systems].  

PubMed

Water is an essential source of life and is available to animals as free water, water content of feed, film water (e. g. dew) and metabolic water. The water requirements of small ruminants are influenced by the type of feed, climate, stage of production, type and length of the fleece or hair coat, husbandry factors and the general health of the animal. Differences in water metabolism, drinking behaviour and the efficiency of temperature regulation are further influenced by species, breed, production type, husbandry system, acclimatisation and adaptation. Small ruminants have been, and are still predominantly kept in extensive husbandry systems. They are therefore genetically and phenotypically well adapted to these conditions and possess a range of physiological and behavioural mechanisms to deal with adverse and suboptimal weather conditions. Regarding animal welfare, there is considerable debate in the discussion and assessment of what constitutes a sufficient water supply for small ruminants under different husbandry conditions, often involving differences between theoretical demands and practical experience. This publication reviews and summarises the current literature regarding water requirements, water metabolism and thermoregulatory mechanisms of small ruminants to provide the basis for an informed assessment of extensive husbandry systems in terms of compliance with animal-welfare requirements. PMID:25634729

Spengler, D; Strobel, H; Axt, H; Voigt, K

2015-02-17

56

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences epartment of Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

Rural Development Agency will provide a feasibility study for methane digesters on dairies to cow Disneyland Barns in South Dakota; lots of animals in one place. The new thing in dairy housing cow maybe less than our present tunnel barns, but obviously not less than our traditional

Watson, Craig A.

57

A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal Products  

SciTech Connect

Transfer factors are used in radiological risk assessments to estimate the amount of radioactivity that could be present in a food crop or organism based on the calculated concentration in the source medium (i.e., soil or animal feed). By calculating the concentration in the food, the total intake can be estimated and a dose calculated as a result of the annual intake. This report compiles transfer factors for radiological risk assessments, using common food products, including meats, eggs, and plants. Transfer factors used were most often selected from recommended values listed by national or international organizations for use in radiological food chain transport calculations. Several methods of estimation and extrapolation were used for radionuclides not listed in the primary information sources. Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables.

Staven, Lissa H.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rhoads, Kathleen; Strenge, Dennis L.

2003-06-02

58

Incorporating Behavioral Enrichment into Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of human education has helped in recognizing the needs for humane animal care. Animal welfare became a topic focusing on the morality of human actions (or the lack thereof) when it comes to proper animal care. As a result, institutions started to recognize they had an ethical and legal obligation to research and provide for the needs of

Hilda Tresz

59

COMPARATIVE DIVERSITY OF FECAL BACTERIA IN AGRICULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE TARGETS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING  

EPA Science Inventory

Animals of agricultural significance contribute a large percentage of fecal pollution to waterways via runoff contamination. The premise of microbial source tracking is to utilize fecal bacteria to identify target populations which are directly correlated to specific animal feces...

60

Primitive agriculture in a social amoeba.  

PubMed

Agriculture has been a large part of the ecological success of humans. A handful of animals, notably the fungus-growing ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, have advanced agriculture that involves dispersal and seeding of food propagules, cultivation of the crop and sustainable harvesting. More primitive examples, which could be called husbandry because they involve fewer adaptations, include marine snails farming intertidal fungi and damselfish farming algae. Recent work has shown that microorganisms are surprisingly like animals in having sophisticated behaviours such as cooperation, communication and recognition, as well as many kinds of symbiosis. Here we show that the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a primitive farming symbiosis that includes dispersal and prudent harvesting of the crop. About one-third of wild-collected clones engage in husbandry of bacteria. Instead of consuming all bacteria in their patch, they stop feeding early and incorporate bacteria into their fruiting bodies. They then carry bacteria during spore dispersal and can seed a new food crop, which is a major advantage if edible bacteria are lacking at the new site. However, if they arrive at sites already containing appropriate bacteria, the costs of early feeding cessation are not compensated for, which may account for the dichotomous nature of this farming symbiosis. The striking convergent evolution between bacterial husbandry in social amoebas and fungus farming in social insects makes sense because multigenerational benefits of farming go to already established kin groups. PMID:21248849

Brock, Debra A; Douglas, Tracy E; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

2011-01-20

61

Commentary on domestic animals in agricultural and biomedical research: An endangered enterprise  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite the long and successful history of research on agriculturally relevant domestic animals, basic and translational research using domestic species is becoming increasingly threatened due to budgetary erosion. This funding decline is well documented in a recent article by Ireland et al., publis...

62

Specialty Animal Production Curriculum Guide for Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness. Curriculum Development. Bulletin No. 1806.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was developed to aid vocational agriculture/agribusiness teachers in Louisiana in improving their instruction and to provide students with the opportunity to obtain skills and knowledge in the production of nontraditional specialty animals. The guide covers the techniques of production, management, care, and marketing of…

University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.

63

Selected examples of dispersal of arthropods associated with agricultural crop and animal production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic importance of arthropods in agricultural production systems and the possibilities of using dispersal behavior to develop and manipulate control are examined. Examples of long and short distance dispersal of economic insect pests and beneficial species from cool season host reservoirs and overwintering sites are presented. Significant dispersal of these species often occurring during crop and animal production is discussed.

Henneberry, T. J.

1979-01-01

64

An Unremembered Diversity: Mixed Husbandry and the American Grasslands  

PubMed Central

The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought about a dramatic rise in global crop yields. But, as most observers acknowledge, this has come at a considerable cost to biodiversity. Plant breeding, synthetic fertilizers, and mechanization steadily narrowed the number of crop varieties commercially available to farmers and promoted fencerow-to-fencerow monocultures. Many historians trace the origins of this style of industrialized agriculture to the last great plow-up of the Great Plains in the 1920s. In the literature, farms in the plains are often described metaphorically as wheat factories, degrading successive landscapes. While in many ways these farms were a departure from earlier forms of husbandry in the American experience, monocultures were quite rare during the early transformation of the plains. Analysis of a large representative sample, based on manuscript agricultural censuses and involving twenty-five townships across the state of Kansas, demonstrates that diverse production reached even the most challenging of plains landscapes. PMID:19839113

SYLVESTER, KENNETH; CUNFER, GEOFF

2009-01-01

65

An unremembered diversity: mixed husbandry and the American grasslands.  

PubMed

The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought about a dramatic rise in global crop yields. But, as most observers acknowledge, this has come at a considerable cost to biodiversity. Plant breeding, synthetic fertilizers, and mechanization steadily narrowed the number of crop varieties commercially available to farmers and promoted fencerow-to-fencerow monocultures. Many historians trace the origins of this style of industrialized agriculture to the last great plow-up of the Great Plains in the 1920s. In the literature, farms in the plains are often described metaphorically as wheat factories, degrading successive landscapes. While in many ways these farms were a departure from earlier forms of husbandry in the American experience, monocultures were quite rare during the early transformation of the plains. Analysis of a large representative sample, based on manuscript agricultural censuses and involving twenty-five townships across the state of Kansas, demonstrates that diverse production reached even the most challenging of plains landscapes. PMID:19839113

Sylvester, Kenneth; Cunfer, Geoff

2009-01-01

66

STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATING HUSBANDRY, GENETICS, GEOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC DATA FOR SUSTAINABLE CONSERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ECONOGENE project is among the first to yield complementary data on population and evolutionary genetics, on animal husbandry practices, from GIS and including socio- economics over a large geographic scale. Integrating this information poses special challenges in livestock conservation because such data have rarely been combined previously and data are both quantitatively and qualitatively diverse. Here, we will

Michael W. Bruford; P. Ajmone Marsan; R. Negrini; E. Milanesi; M. Pellecchia; G. Canali; M. Abo-Shehada; P. Baret; A. Fadlaoui; G. Juma; T. Perez; R. Caloz; S. Joost; A. Carta; T. Sechi; M. Cicogna; P. Crepaldi; F. Fornarelli; S. Giovenzana; M. Marti; P. Dobi; A. Hoda; S. Dunner; J. Canon; P. García-Atance; G. D'Urso; S. Bordonaro; D. Marletta; M. A. A. El-Barody; G. Erhardt; C. Peter; K. Gutscher; S. Lipsky; O. Ertugrul; L. Fesus; A. Istvan; A. Georgoudis; K. Karetsou; G. Kliambas; G. Hewitt; S. Dalamitra; M. Taylor; L. Wiskin; C. Ligda; R. Niznikowski; Ewa Strzelec; D. Popielarczyk; J. A. Lenstra; I. J. Nijman; L. M. Van Cann; G. Obexer-Ruff; M.-L. Glowatzki; F. Pilla; A. Angiolillo; E. Pietrolà; P. Taberlet; G. Luikart; A. Beja-Pereira; P. England; J. Roosen; M. Bertaglia; R. Scarpa; S. Jones; I. Togan; M. Trommetter; A. Valentini; L. Pariset; I. Cappuccio; A. Vlaic

67

Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry, and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has placed online this entire (1996) textbook entitled Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry, and Conservation. Edited by David Ellis, George Gee, and Claire Mirande, the textbook contains thirteen chapters by the world's leading crane experts, covering general biology, husbandry, behavior, artificial insemination, pest management, and conservation, among other topics. In addition to the text, numerous illustrations capture the majesty of these birds. Chapters may be downloaded separately, or browsed online. For anyone interested in cranes and their conservation, this resource is definitely required reading.

Ellis, David H.

68

Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.  

PubMed

The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleologyTeleology , which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos Telos , and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very genetic engineering which creates this dilemma to ablate consciousness in such animal models, thereby escaping a moral impasse. PMID:24496650

Rollin, Bernard E

2015-01-01

69

Arsenic pollution of agricultural soils by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).  

PubMed

Animal wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can cause soil arsenic pollution due to the widespread use of organoarsenic feed additives. This study investigated the arsenic pollution of surface soils in a typical CAFO zone, in comparison with that of agricultural soils in the Pearl River Delta, China. The mean soil arsenic contents in the CAFO zone were elevated compared to those in the local background and agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta region. Chemical speciation analysis showed that the soils in the CAFO zone were clearly contaminated by the organoarsenic feed additive, p-arsanilic acid (ASA). Transformation of ASA to inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in the surface soils was also observed. Although the potential ecological risk posed by the arsenic in the surface soils was relatively low in the CAFO zone, continuous discharge of organoarsenic feed additives could cause accumulation of arsenic and thus deserves significant attention. PMID:25036941

Liu, Xueping; Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Hu, Erdan; Xie, Xiande; Wang, Lingling; Cheng, Hefa

2015-01-01

70

Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance in an animal-based agriculture river system.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance within an animal-based agriculture river system. The study area consisted of a 1,345 ha upper part of Pinhal catchment. A total of 384 samples were collected in four years of monitoring. Salmonella was isolated from 241 samples (62.7%), resulting in 324 isolates. The highest number of Salmonella sp. occurred in samples associated with sites with high stoking density animal unit per hectare. It was possible to demonstrate the variability of serovars in the study area: 30 different serovars were found and at least 11 per monitoring site. Thirty-three potentially related isolates were genotyped by PFGE, one major clone was observed in serovar Typhimurium, which occurred in animal feces (swine and bovine), and different sites and samplings proving the cross-contamination and persistence of this specific clone. Among 180 isolates submitted to an antimicrobial susceptibility test, 50.5% were susceptible to all 21 antimicrobials tested and 54 different profiles were found. In the current study, 49.5% of the tested isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and multi-resistance occurred in 18% of isolates. Results indicate a close interaction between animal-based agriculture, Salmonella, and antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24317171

Palhares, Julio Cesar Pascale; Kich, Jalusa D; Bessa, Marjo C; Biesus, Luiza L; Berno, Lais G; Triques, Nelise J

2014-02-15

71

Prairie dog care and husbandry.  

PubMed

The species of prairie dog most commonly found in the pet trade is the black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus ludovicianus. These prairie dogs are active, playful, and strong rodents that can make wonderful, affectionate pets when they are properly socialized and given attention. However, with a life span of 8 to 12 years, prairie dogs require a lot of care and a long-term commitment. Prairie dogs live in colonies; thus, they are highly social animals. Potential owners should understand a prairie dog's need for attention before adopting one. PMID:15145390

Pilny, Anthony A; Hess, Laurie

2004-05-01

72

The presence and management of contaminants in non-certified, agriculturally sourced food items used as enrichment for laboratory animals.  

PubMed

One enrichment strategy for laboratory animals is the provision of food variety and foraging opportunities. Fresh agricultural items, including produce or packaged human food items, provide variation in palatability, texture and complexity and can therefore be used as enrichment for lab animals. But concerns are often raised that these food items might sometimes carry contaminants that could affect research subjects and confound experimental results. The author discusses the potential for agriculturally sourced foods used as enrichment for lab animals to be contaminated with mycotoxins, microorganisms and pesticide residues and the effects these contaminants might have on lab animals. He also suggests strategies for reducing the risk of contamination. PMID:25602396

Cooper, Dale M

2015-01-20

73

GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations.  

PubMed

In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away from a GE evaluation process that currently focuses only on risk assessment and identifying ever diminishing marginal hazards, to a regulatory approach that more objectively evaluates and communicates the likely impact of approving a new GE plant or animal on agricultural production systems. PMID:24066781

Van Eenennaam, Alison L

2013-01-01

74

GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations  

PubMed Central

In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away from a GE evaluation process that currently focuses only on risk assessment and identifying ever diminishing marginal hazards, to a regulatory approach that more objectively evaluates and communicates the likely impact of approving a new GE plant or animal on agricultural production systems. PMID:24066781

2013-01-01

75

Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.

Emo, Kenneth Roy

76

Nitrogen Gaseous Emission from Animal Based Agriculture: Effect of Soil Physical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture has been implicated as an important source of atmospheric nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions. In dairy areas the main source of N is due to the spreading of animal waste on the agricultural land. Fifty to eighty percent of the excreted N from animals occurs in urine with the varying proportion depending on the diet. The main goal of the research was to quantify ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from urine-treated soils and to relate these results to urinary N-transformation processes in soil. We studied effects of soil texture, air filled porosity, and rate of air exchange. Series of laboratory experiments were carried out in aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions in which synthetic urine was mixed with either fine and coarse sand. Ammonia and nitrous oxide were measured at the time intervals of 20 minutes up to 6 hours. The air flow rate ranged from zero to 2000 ml/min. As expected, most ammonia volatilized during the first hours of the experiment and was well correlated with moisture loss by evaporation. Ammonia volatilization and evaporation rates were greater for coarse rather than fine sand. Consequently the total nitrous oxide emission was higher for the fine sand because more ammonium was available for nitrification and subsequent denitrification. Under no air flow conditions, the input of denitrification to total nitrous oxide production was higher in the fine sand than in the coarse sand at the same moisture content. In all experiments, the most nitrous oxide was emitted within two ranges of oxidation-reduction potential: -50-50 with denitrification-dominant conditions and 250-400 mV with nitrification-dominant conditions.

Singurindy, O.; Molodovskaya, M.; Giri, S. K.; Richards, B. K.; Steenhuis, T. S.

2005-12-01

77

Feeding habit of goats in the scavenging system of Bangladesh Dept of General Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh  

E-print Network

Feeding habit of goats in the scavenging system of Bangladesh MR Alam Dept of General Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh In the mixed farming system goats are reared mostly by the landless farmers to supplement their income. Feeding of goats depend on systems

Boyer, Edmond

78

Biosafety of the application of biogenic nanometal powders in husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of iron and copper nanopowders (particle size of 20–40 nm) were investigated on rabbits of 1 month age and heifers of 6 months. For introduction of nanometals into the animal's ration, the mixed fodder was treated with the nanometal powder suspension in such a way: 0.08 mg of nanoiron per kg of animal's body weight and 0.04 mg kg?1 for nanocopper. The weight gain of the heifers who received nanoiron and nanocopper after 8 months was 22.4 and 10.7% higher than that of the control, respectively. For the rabbits who received nano Fe and Cu after 3 months, the weight gain was 11.7 and 7.3% compared to the control, respectively. Under the action of metal nanopowders morphological indices of blood were changed in comparison with the control: after 8 months the quantity of erythrocytes increased by 19.6%, hemoglobin by 17.1% and leukocytes by 7.6%. There was a realignment in leukocytic formula: the quantity of lymphocytes increased by 9% compared to the control. Biogenic metals in superdispersive state were able to stimulate immune, enzymatic and humoral systems of the animal's organism, promoting metabolism. Adding Co and Cu metal nanopowders to the bull-calves’ fodder rations increased content of Ca by 31.8 and 0%, Fe by 38.8 and 37.5%, K by 19.2 and 15.3%, Mg by 17.6 and 23.5%, Mn by 9.8 and 45% and Na by 20.5 and 8.8%, respectively, compared to control. Metal nanopowders improved the quality indices and meat productivity of black–white bull-calves, expressed in intensive growth of muscle, tissue and more nutritious meat. The conducted veterinary–sanitary expertise showed that the supplements based on iron, cobalt and copper nanopowders can be used as safe bioactive supplements in animal husbandry.

Anatolievna Nazarova, Anna; Dmitrievna Polischuk, Svetlana; Anatolievna Stepanova, Irina; Ivanovich Churilov, Gennady; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Buu Ngo, Quoc

2014-03-01

79

Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria  

PubMed Central

Microbial Resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, in part because of inappropriate use of antibiotics in human medicine but also because of practices in the agricultural industry. Intensive animal production involves giving livestock animals large quantities of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent infection. These uses promote the selection of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. The resistant bacteria from agricultural environments may be transmitted to humans, in whom they cause disease that cannot be treated by conventional antibiotics. The author reviews trends in antibiotic use in animal husbandry and agriculture in general. The development of resistance is described, along with the genetic mechanisms that create resistance and facilitate its spread among bacterial species. Particular aspects of resistance in bacterial species common to both the human population and the agrifood industry are emphasized. Control measures that might reverse the current trends are highlighted. PMID:9835883

Khachatourians, G G

1998-01-01

80

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Mrs. Unsworth

2005-03-31

81

John Buckley, Animal Technician  

Cancer.gov

John Buckley is an animal technician who provides murine expertise to the entire Pediatric Oncology Branch. John is well versed in the breeding and husbandry of mice as well as a variety of surgical techniques. John’s expertise and teaching serves as a vital resource for the conduct of animal studies in the Immunology Section.

82

Bioethics Symposium: The ethical food movement: What does it mean for the role of science and scientists in current debates about animal agriculture?  

PubMed

Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions on key issues pertaining to animal agriculture is also discussed. PMID:22573840

Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S

2012-05-01

83

Phototransformation rates and mechanisms for synthetic hormone growth promoters used in animal agriculture.  

PubMed

Trenbolone acetate, melengestrol acetate, and zeranol are synthetic hormones extensively used as growth promoters in animal agriculture, yet despite occurrence in water and soil little is known about their environmental fate. Here, we establish the time scales and mechanisms by which these synthetic growth promoters and their metabolites (SGPMs) undergo phototransformation in sunlit surface waters. The families of trenbolone acetate (including 17?-trenbolone, 17?-trenbolone, and trendione) and melengestrol acetate (including melengestrol) readily undergo direct photolysis, exhibiting half-lives between ?0.25 and 1 h in both natural and simulated sunlight that were largely insensitive to solution variables (e.g., pH, temperature, and cosolutes). Direct photolysis yielded products that not only are more photostable but also maintain their steroidal ring structure and therefore may retain some biological activity. In contrast, zeranol, ?-zearalanol, and zearalanone only exhibited reactivity in irradiated solutions of model humic and fulvic acids, and rates of indirect photolysis increased steadily from pH 7 to 9. Use of selective probe and quencher compounds suggest hydroxyl radical and triplet state dissolved organic matter are responsible for zeranol family decay at neutral pH, although singlet oxygen contributes modestly in more alkaline waters. This observed pH-dependence appears to result from photooxidants reacting primarily with the monodeprotonated form of zeranol (pK(a) values of 8.44 and 11.42). This investigation provides the first characterization of the fate of this emerging pollutant class in sunlit surface waters and prioritizes future efforts on the identity, fate, and biological impact of their more persistent phototransformation products. PMID:23163486

Qu, Shen; Kolodziej, Edward P; Cwiertny, David M

2012-12-18

84

A universal method for measuring functional activity of complement in humans, laboratory, domestic, and agricultural animals, amphibians, and birds.  

PubMed

A new universal method for measuring activity of the serum complement system in humans, laboratory, domestic, agricultural animals, birds and amphibians is based on automated evaluation of the mortality of ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis under the effect of the complement system. In contrast to the hemolytic method, measured activity of the complement shows no erroneously high results caused by reactive lysis in febrile patients. The method can be used for studies of the complement system in humans and animals without species-specific adaptation. PMID:24952500

Kuleshina, O N; Kozlov, L V; Cheremnykh, E G

2014-06-01

85

Animal Order Submission Schedule 20142015 Holiday Season  

E-print Network

Animal Order Submission Schedule 20142015 Holiday Season No Animal Deliveries or Animal, December 18 by noon Wed, January 7 ULAR husbandry staff will continue to provide animal care during campus closures; however, there will be no animal deliveries over Thanksgiving or during winter break

Rose, Michael R.

86

Effects of Structural Changes in US Animal Agriculture on Fecal Bacterial Contamination of Streams: Comparison of Confined and Unconfined Livestock Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US animal agriculture has undergone major structural changes over the past two decades. Although the total size of the national livestock population (when measured in animal units) has remained relatively unchanged over the period, the number of livestock producers has declined dramatically, and the average size of the remaining operations has increased substantially. A related change has been a pronounced trend towards greater confinement and spatial concentration of farm animals. These changes raise important questions about the water quality effects of animal agriculture. Fewer, larger operations and increased animal confinement might be expected to spatially focus the discharge of manure-related contaminants and result in a smaller number of more heavily impacted watersheds in high production areas. But at a less simplistic level, assessing the overall national effects of the restructuring of animal agriculture requires a spatially detailed analysis covering a wide range of watershed scales. In this study, we use an empirical (SPARROW) model of fluvial fecal coliform bacteria loads to compare the effects of confined and unconfined farm animal populations on levels of fecal contamination in US streams and rivers. The model was calibrated with monitoring data from 341 stream and river monitoring stations distributed among the nation's 48 conterminous states. Bacteria monitoring records cover the period 1978 to 1995. The model accounts for six categories of fecal coliform sources: municipal point sources, urban runoff, forest land, shrublands/wetlands, confined animal agriculture, and unconfined animal agriculture. Bacterial inputs from agricultural sources for the study period are based on data from the Agricultural Statistics Service and the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Model output (fecal coliform loads and concentrations) is produced for 62,000 stream locations.

Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

2004-12-01

87

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

88

Selected References and Aids for Teaching Animal Science to Students of Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resource guide for animal science education is divided into six subject areas: general animal science, beef, dairy, poultry, sheep, and swine. Within each of these areas, the guide provides bibliographic and availability data for relevant materials in the following forms: bulletins and circulars; textbooks; films, filmstrips, and slides; and…

Miller, Larry E.

89

Research, values and ethics in organic agriculture - examples from sustainability, precaution, nature quality and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural systems are characterised by involving both natural and social systems. Organic farming, in particular, has developed as part of a wider organic movement incorporating producers, manufacturers and consumers. The organic movement is based on explicit rules as well as broader formulated principles and goals for farming and manufacturing, which are connected to underlying values and perceptions of the relationship

Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe; Erik Steen Kristensen

2000-01-01

90

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

91

A case study of Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.  

PubMed

The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations. PMID:22610959

Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M

2013-01-01

92

Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.  

PubMed

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C

2012-01-01

93

Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty  

PubMed Central

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C.

2012-01-01

94

Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem. III. Epidemiological investigations of Trichinella spiralis in resident wild and feral animals.  

PubMed

As part of a larger epidemiological study examining the transmission of Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem, resident wild and feral animals were trapped to determine the extent of their involvement in the natural, on-farm cycling of the parasite among swine. During a 21-mo-study, seven of 15 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), one of three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two of two feral domestic cats and a raccoon (Procyon lotor) were found to be infected, while five shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and 18 deer mice (Peromyscus spp.) were uninfected. Most of the former hosts probably became infected by scavenging dead infected swine or rats (Rattus norvegicus). However, infections obtained through predation of living rats, particularly with regard to the cats, cannot be excluded. Our observations do not suggest that there was transmission of T. spiralis from the wild animals to swine. Therefore, transmission of T. spiralis appeared to occur only from the farm's swine and rats to the associated wild and feral animals. PMID:3193554

Leiby, D A; Schad, G A; Duffy, C H; Murrell, K D

1988-10-01

95

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Christopher Griffith

96

Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production  

PubMed Central

Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

2014-01-01

97

This pest risk analysis was conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal  

E-print Network

the importation and domestic spread of Phytophthora ramorum Werres, de Cock, & Man in’t Veld, 2001. This pathogen is the subject of USDA Emergency Regulations due to its threat to agricultural, horticultural, and natural ecosystems in the United States. The analysis focused on 1) the risks associated with the importation of plants (including plants in APHIS-approved growing media and bare-root plants) and plant products (wood, lumber, chips, bark and other wood products, and greenery) that are hosts of P. ramorum; 2) the risks associated with the domestic movement of the pathogen through plants, plant products, soil, other growing media, compost, and water; and 3) mitigation measures to prevent the movement and spread of P. ramorum to non-infested areas in the United States. Diseases caused by an unknown species of Phytophthora were first observed in Europe on nursery stock in 1993 and in California forests on Quercus spp. and Lithocarpus densiflorus in 1995, but the pathogen, P. ramorum, was not formally described until 2001. Since initial reports and detections, P. ramorum has expanded its geographic distribution in forested areas of California and Oregon and has been detected in hundreds of nurseries in Europe and North America. The pathogen continues to be detected on new hosts and in nurseries outside of

Ramorum Leaf Blight; Ramorum Dieback; Gary L. Cave, Ph.D.; Betsy R, Ph.D.; Plant Pathologist; Scott C. Redlin, Ph.D.; Plant Pathologist; Plant Protection

98

Studies on the toxicity of biuret to animals  

E-print Network

Agrioultural Experiment Station. The author expresses his sincere appreciation to the follosingX Dr. H. 0. Kunkel, Associate Professor, Biochemistry and Mutrition and Animal Husbandry, fox his guidance and super vision in planning the proJect, interpreting... the data, and prepaxation of the manuscxipt, J. K. Higgs, Professor of Animal Husbandry, fox' his advice and suggestions in planning end executing the pro]ect and in preparation of the theology Dx ~ R Ro Shrodey Associate Professox of Oenetice...

Berry, William T

2012-06-07

99

Agricultural Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

100

Project CHOICE: #170. A Career Education Unit for Grades 1 and 2. We Work with Animals. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Career Cluster).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit on working with animals is part of the Agriculture and Biological Studies Career Cluster included in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education). The units are designed to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking first and second…

Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

101

Relative exposure to swine animal feeding operations and childhood asthma prevalence in an agricultural cohort.  

PubMed

Large swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) have become the model of livestock production throughout the United States. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an increase in adverse respiratory symptoms among workers at AFOs. However, the impact on communities surrounding these facilities is still being investigated. We evaluated the association between relative environmental exposure to AFOs and the prevalence of prescribed medication for wheeze and/or childhood asthma in rural Iowa. Demographic and health information on 565 children aged 0-17 was obtained from a previous population-based cohort study while data on the AFOs were collected from publically available tax records. We created a metric of each child's relative environmental exposure to swine CAFOs which incorporated the size of the AFO as well as distance and wind direction. We determined the association between self-reported prescription medication for wheeze and/or self-reported physician diagnosed asthma and relative exposure while controlling for recognized risk factors using correlated logistic regression. The prevalence of childhood asthma in the cohort was 11.0% while 22.7% of children had been previously prescribed medication for wheeze or had a lifetime asthma diagnosis. Children with a larger relative environmental exposure to AFOs had a significantly increased odds of both outcomes (OR=1.51, p=0.014 asthma; OR=1.38, p=0.023 asthma or medication for wheeze). When stratified into exposure quartiles a linear trend was observed with asthma or medication for wheeze as the dependent variable but not with asthma alone. This study is the first to investigate children's cumulative relative exposure to smaller AFOs and adds to the growing volume of literature supporting a link between proximity to swine AFOs and adverse respiratory health. PMID:23332647

Pavilonis, Brian T; Sanderson, Wayne T; Merchant, James A

2013-04-01

102

Relative exposure to swine animal feeding operations and childhood asthma prevalence in an agricultural cohort  

PubMed Central

Large swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) have become the model of livestock production throughout the United States. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an increase in adverse respiratory symptoms among workers at AFOs. However, the impact on communities surrounding these facilities is still being investigated. We evaluated the association between relative environmental exposure to AFOs and the prevalence of prescribed medication for wheeze and/or childhood asthma in rural Iowa. Demographic and health information on 565 children aged 0 to 17 was obtained from a previous population-based cohort study while data on the AFOs was collected from publically available tax records. We created a metric ofeach child’s relative environmental exposure to swine CAFOs which incorporated the size of the AFO as well as distance and wind direction. We determined the association between self-reported prescription medication for wheeze and/or self-reported physician diagnosed asthmaand relative exposure while controlling for recognized risk factors using correlated logistic regression. The prevalence of childhood asthma in the cohort was 11.0% while 22.7% of children had been previously prescribed medication for wheeze or had a lifetime asthma diagnosis. Children with a larger relative environmental exposure to AFOs had a significantly increased odds of both outcomes (OR=1.51, p=0.014 asthma; OR=1.38, p=0.023 asthma or medication for wheeze). When stratified into exposure quartiles a linear trend was observed with asthma or medication for wheezeas the dependent variable but not with asthma alone. This study is the first to investigate children’s cumulative relative exposure to smaller AFOs and adds to the growing volume of literature supporting a link between proximity to swine AFOs and adverse respiratory health. PMID:23332647

Pavilonis, Brian T.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Merchant, James A.

2014-01-01

103

Evolutionary demography of agricultural expansion in preindustrial northern Finland.  

PubMed

A shift from nomadic foraging to sedentary agriculture was a major turning point in human evolutionary history, increasing our population size and eventually leading to the development of modern societies. We however lack understanding of the changes in life histories that contributed to the increased population growth rate of agriculturalists, because comparable individual-based reproductive records of sympatric populations of agriculturalists and foragers are rarely found. Here, we compared key life-history traits and population growth rate using comprehensive data from the seventieth to nineteenth century Northern Finland: indigenous Sami were nomadic hunter-fishers and reindeer herders, whereas sympatric agricultural Finns relied predominantly on animal husbandry. We found that agriculture-based families had higher lifetime fecundity, faster birth spacing and lower maternal mortality. Furthermore, agricultural Finns had 6.2% higher annual population growth rate than traditional Sami, which was accounted by differences between the subsistence modes in age-specific fecundity but not in mortality. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the most detailed demonstration yet of the demographic changes and evolutionary benefits that resulted from agricultural revolution. PMID:25232134

Helle, Samuli; Brommer, Jon E; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi; Enbuske, Matti; Jokela, Jukka

2014-11-01

104

THE APPLICATION OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND THE HUMANE CARE OF FARM ANIMALS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Humane care is best defined as maintaining husbandry procedures in keeping with the traits which are species-specific to the animal farmed. It must be evaluated in relation to the ethogram of the species, and not to anthropomorphic human feelings about animal care. If humane care is pursued, some compatability may be found between what the animal behavior scien- tists

R. Kilgour

2010-01-01

105

COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES  

E-print Network

1.E.4 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE for Husbandry, wire lids, food, water, and bedding and enrichment items must be sterilized (autoclaved or irradiated listed above must first be placed in cages and autoclaved prior to being introduced in the SPF facility

Krovi, Venkat

106

Animal welfare concepts in India: Perceptions and reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India the concept of Animal Welfare is quite different from the concept of Animal Husbandry. There is paucity of precise information on the animal welfare activities being carried out in practice as compared to policy documents prepared by governmental and non-governmental organizations. During the past 10 years Animal Welfare Societies have been established to take up a number of

Ashok Rathore

107

Husbandry and veterinary aspects of the bearded dragon ( pogona spp.) in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate husbandry and management are fundamental to the health of the Bearded Dragon (Pogona spp.) in captivity. This article discusses the application of the important parameters of lizard husbandry as part of a clinical examination of the different species of Bearded Dragon found in Australia.

Michael James Cannon

2003-01-01

108

Integrated Agricultural Systems Workgroup  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Integrated Agricultural Systems Workgroup is conducting research to developing principles of sustainable integrated agricultural systems. The Integrated Agriculture Systems (IAS) workgroup hosts producer focused workshops to examine crop and animal production practices. At each workshop, several...

109

Increasing incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome could be associated with livestock husbandry in Changchun, Northeastern China  

PubMed Central

Background Since the end of the 1990s, the incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been increasing dramatically in Changchun, northeastern China. However, it is unknown which, and how, underlying risk factors have been involved in the reemergence of the disease. Methods Data on HFRS cases at the county scale were collected from 1998 to 2012. Data on livestock husbandry including the numbers of large animals (cattle, horses, donkeys and mules), sheep, and deer, and on climatic and land cover variables were also collected. Epidemiological features, including the spatial, temporal and human patterns of disease were characterized. The potential factors related to spatial heterogeneity and temporal trends were analyzed using standard and time-series Poisson regression analysis, respectively. Results Annual incidence varied among the 10 counties. Shuangyang County in southeastern Changchun had the highest number of cases (1,525 cases; 35.9% of all cases), but its population only accounted for 5.6% of the total population. Based on seasonal pattern in HFRS incidence, two epidemic phases were identified. One was a single epidemic peak at the end of each year from 1988 to 1997 and the other consisted of dual epidemic peaks at both the end and the beginning of each year from 1998 to the end of the study period. HFRS incidence was higher in males compared to females, and most of the HFRS cases occurred in peasant populations. The results of the Poisson regression analysis indicated that the spatial distribution and the increasing incidence of HFRS were significantly associated with livestock husbandry and climate factors, particularly with deer cultivation. Conclusions Our results indicate that the re-emergence of HFRS in Changchun has been accompanied by changing seasonal patterns over the past 25 years. Integrated measures focusing on areas related to local livestock husbandry could be helpful for the prevention and control of HFRS. PMID:24894341

2014-01-01

110

Harnessing: Technologies for Sustainable Reindeer Husbandry in the Arctic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To accelerate the development of sustainable reindeer husbandry under the lead of indigenous reindeer herders, it is critical to empower reindeer herders with the best available technologies and to promote a new kind of science where traditional knowledge is fully integrated into the scientific management of the natural environment in the Arctic. This is particularly true given the dramatic environmental, climatic, economic, social and industrial changes, which have taken place across the Arctic in recent years, all of which have had serious impacts on the reindeer herding communities of the North. The Anar Declaration, adopted by the 2d World Reindeer Herders Congress (WRHC), in Inari, Finland, June 2001drew guidelines for the development of a sustainable reindeer husbandry based on reindeer peoples values and goals. The declaration calls for the reindeer herding peoples to be given the possibilities to develop and influence the management of the reindeer industry and its natural environment because of their knowledge and traditional practices. At the same time, Arctic scientists from many institutions and governments are carrying out increasingly highly technical reindeer related research activities. It is important that the technologies and results of these activities be more commonly co-produced with the reindeer herder community and/or made more readily available to the reindeer peoples for comparison with traditional knowledge for improved herd management. This paper describes a project in which reindeer herders and scientists are utilizing technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing knowledge. The project, Reindeer Mapper, is creating an information management and knowledge sharing system, which will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. The paper describes some of the technologies which comprise the system including an intranet system to enable the team members to work together and share information electronically, remote sensing data for monitoring environmental parameters important to reindeer husbandry (e.g. SAR, Landsat), acquisition of ground-based measurements, and the GIS-based information management and knowledge sharing system.

Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein

2004-01-01

111

Astyanax transgenesis and husbandry: how cavefish enters the laboratory.  

PubMed

Astyanax mexicanus, a teleost fish comprising both sighted river-dwelling and blind cave-dwelling morphs, is becoming increasingly used in the field of developmental and evolutionary biology. Thus, new experimental and technological tools are needed on this emerging fish model by the expanding scientific community. Here, we describe Astyanax husbandry and egg spawning habits, a prerequisite to the successful establishment of Astyanax transgenic lines. We then compare two different transgenesis methods on both surface and cave Astyanax. Both meganuclease (I-SceI)- and transposase (Tol2)-mediated transgenesis are equivalently efficient, resulting in ?40% mosaic transgenic fish in F0. Furthermore, the transmission rate was analyzed in F1 in the case of the I-SceI method and was found to be 16%. Finally, the transgene was found stable up the F3 generation, demonstrating the feasibility of generating stable transgenic lines in Astyanax and opening a wide range of possibilities for this fish model. PMID:25004161

Elipot, Yannick; Legendre, Laurent; Père, Stéphane; Sohm, Frédéric; Rétaux, Sylvie

2014-08-01

112

76 FR 61227 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...encephalitis virus primarily affects horses and pigs and is transmitted via a mosquito bite...virus to transmit to any new animals. Pigs represent an amplifying host, but modern pig husbandry practices in the U.S....

2011-10-03

113

Introduction to working safely with large animals in containment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript examines biosafety challenges posed when conducting work with animals and zoonotic pathogens. It provides solutions for working with animals in a manner that promotes both safe and responsible research. Good safety and animal husbandry are essential for good science. Best practices w...

114

Assessing health in agriculture - towards a common research framework for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems.  

PubMed

In agriculture and food systems, health-related research includes a vast diversity of topics. Nutritional, toxicological, pharmacological, epidemiological, behavioural, sociological, economic and political methods are used to study health in the five domains of soils, plants, livestock, humans and ecosystems. An idea developed in the early founding days of organic agriculture stated that the health of all domains is one and indivisible. Here we show that recent research reveals the existence and complex nature of such health links among domains. However, studies of health aspects in agriculture are often separated by disciplinary boundaries. This restrains the understanding of health in agricultural systems. Therefore we explore the opportunities and limitations of bringing perspectives together from the different domains. We review current approaches to define and assess health in agricultural contexts, comparing the state of the art of commonly used approaches and bringing together the presently disconnected debates in soil science, plant science, veterinary science and human medicine. Based on a qualitative literature analysis, we suggest that many health criteria fall into two paradigms: (1) the Growth Paradigm, where terms are primarily oriented towards continued growth; (2) the Boundary Paradigm, where terms focus on maintaining or coming back to a status quo, recognising system boundaries. Scientific health assessments in agricultural and food systems need to be explicit in terms of their position on the continuum between Growth Paradigm and Boundary Paradigm. Finally, we identify areas and concepts for a future direction of health assessment and research in agricultural and food systems. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24777948

Vieweger, Anja; Döring, Thomas F

2015-02-01

115

What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

2007-01-01

116

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect...

2012-01-01

117

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect...

2011-01-01

118

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect...

2013-01-01

119

COLLABORATIVE ANIMAL SCIENCE RESEARCH: IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURE AND TRADE POLICIES ON CROSS-BORDER RANGELAND RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In sharing a common boundary, Mexico and the United States also shares common landscapes and an agricultural economy that is inextricably linked. Due to the high degree of connectedness between these countries, factors that affect one country also affect the other, either directly or indirectly. Cur...

120

All farming operations that land apply manure or agricultural process wastewater, whether they generate the manure or import it from another operation, must have a written Manure Management Plan. All farming operations that include an Animal Concentra-  

E-print Network

All farming operations that land apply manure or agricultural process wastewater, whether farming operations that include an Animal Concentra- tion Area (ACA) or pasture must have a written Manure Management Plan. For farms not defined as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) or Concentrated

Guiltinan, Mark

121

STRESS IN FARM ANIMALS: A NEED FOR REEVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In animal husbandry, stress has usually been conceived as a reflex reaction that occurs ineluctably when animals are exposed to adverse environmental conditions, and which is the cause of many unfavorable consequences, ranging from discomfort to death. The inade- quacy of this view is apparent from the new concepts that have been developed from research aimed at understanding the

Robert Dantzer; Pierre Morrnede

2010-01-01

122

Intriguing links between animal behavior and anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this review is to examine the literature on possible animal models for anorexia nervosa. Method: The literature was searched using MedLine, PSYCHLIT, and CAB Abstracts using search items that included body composition, thin sow syndrome, and halo- thane gene. In addition, key workers in the field of animal husbandry and body composition were sent earlier drafts

Janet L. Treasure; John B. Owen

1997-01-01

123

RESEARCH OF ANIMAL DISEASE INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON GIS  

E-print Network

monitor and predict disease, as well as to support the disease prevention decision making, in order and FMD diseases as well as other kind of animal diseases have caused disastrous result by disease-occurring disease with regional feature, and the animal husbandry and veterinary health institutions are all closely

Boyer, Edmond

124

DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO CONVERT GREEN AND ANIMAL WASTES TO A USEFUL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT WITH POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE FUEL USE  

EPA Science Inventory

Initially, we thought that we would shred the green waste to use as a binder for the animal manure to produce a material useful as a fuel or soil amendment. Our first experiments in mixing the materials revealed that manure was, instead, better used as a binder for the green w...

125

Developing forage based rations for lactating buffaloes Department of Animal Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar, 125 004 Haryana, India  

E-print Network

Developing forage based rations for lactating buffaloes MA Akbar Department of Animal Nutrition but its crude protein content, and its intake by the buffaloes are low which could be overcome by mixing on nutrients utilization and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Twelve Murrah buffaloes were randomly divided

Boyer, Edmond

126

An Overview of the Design, Construction, and Operational Management of the US Department of Agriculture National Centers for Animal Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

World-wide interest and demand for high containment, biosecure facilities for veterinary medicine and animal health research is increasing. This demand has been spurred on in part by the recent emergence of potential zoonotic pathogens such as Avian Influenza, West Nile Virus, and Tuberculosis, amo...

127

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2014-01-01

128

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2012-01-01

129

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2013-01-01

130

Definition of yearly emission factor of dust and greenhouse gases through continuous measurements in swine husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of this study was to develop an accurate estimation method to evaluate the contribution of the various compartments of swine husbandry to dust and GHG (greenhouse gases, CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O) emission into the atmosphere during one year of observation. A weaning, a gestation, a farrowing and a fattening room in an intensive pig house were observed in three different periods (Autumn-Winter, Springtime and Summer, monitoring at least 60% of each period (20% at the beginning, in the middle and at the end) of each cycle). During monitoring, live weight, average live weight gain, number of animals and its variation, type of feed and feeding time were taken into account to evaluate their influence on PM 10, or the fraction of suspended particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 ?m [Emission Inventory Guidebook, 2007. B1100 Particle Emissions from Animal Husbandry Activities. Available from: (accessed October 2008)] and to define GHG emission. The selected piggery had a ventilation control system using a free running impeller to monitor continuously real-time environmental and management parameters with an accuracy of 5%. PM 10 concentration was monitored by a sampler (Haz Dust EPAM 5000), either continuously or through traditional gravimetric technique, and the mean value of dust amount collected on the membranes was utilized as a correction factor to be applied to continuously collected data. PM 10 concentration amount incoming from inlets was removed from PM 10 emission calculation, to estimate the real contribution of pig house dust pollution into atmosphere. Mean yearly emission factor of PM 10 was measured in 2 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.09 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 2.59 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 1.23 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. The highest PM 10 concentration and emission per LU was recorded in the fattening compartment while the lowest value was recorded in the farrowing room. CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O concentrations were continuously measured in the exhaust ducts using an infrared photoacoustic detector IPD (Brüel & Kjaer, Multi-gas Monitor Type 1302, Multipoint Sampler and Doser Type 1303) sampling data every 15 min, for the 60% of the cycles. Yearly emission factor for CO 2 was measured in 5997 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 1278 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 13,636 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 8851 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. Yearly emission factor for CH 4 was measured in 24.57 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 4.68 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 189.82 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 132.12 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. Yearly emission factor for N 2O was measured in 3.62 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.66 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 3.26 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 2.72 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room.

Costa, Annamaria; Guarino, Marcella

131

Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.  

PubMed

To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

2014-08-01

132

Chemtrails And Vaccines What You Didn't Know About Vaccines And Human Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-17-5 In 1946, future pharmaceutical czar George Merck reported to the US Secretary of War, that he'd managed to weaponise the toxin extracted from the Brucella bacterium and to isolate it into an indestructible crystalline form using only the DNA particles. Aerial spraying of the crystals via chemtrails was deployed on Chinese and Korean populations during the Korean War. Many

Mark Owen

133

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND DISEASE Reference: Biol. Bull. 195: 223-225. (October, 1998)  

E-print Network

Laboratory Culture Techniques for the European Cuttlefish Sepia officim-dis Janice S. Hanley, Nadav Shashar Resources Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02.543) The cuttlefish-scale re- circulating seawater systems. Recently, cuttlefish were brought to the Marine Resources Center

Hanlon, Roger T.

134

[Studies of the decontamination of the sewage from animal husbandry farms].  

PubMed

Investigations revealed that under the conditions prevailing in the districts of Sofia and .pernik Ascaris suum and Trichocephalus suis eggs remained viable at the conventional storage of liquid manure on the large farms for about a year, and Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum sp. eggs--for 2 to 3 months. The methods of electrocoagulation and electroflotation could be employed with success in the cleansing and rendering harmless of the sewage waters after the preliminary treatment with calcium hydroxide. In terms of stabilizing the process, enhancing the cleansing effect and harmlessness, and lowering the use of electrical energy better results are obtainable with the use of pulsating current and constant current perdiodically changing its polarity. PMID:919336

Bratanov, V; Penchev, P; Dinev, P

1977-01-01

135

42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...appropriate by the Facility Veterinarian and is considered beneficial for chimpanzee...sanctuary must perform a viral panel and serology for the various chronic hepatitis viruses and HIV. (9) Additional tests or...

2014-10-01

136

Biological and Agricultural Studies on Application of Discharge Plasma and Electromagnetic Fields 5. Effects of High Electric Fields on Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biological effects of extremely low frequency electric fields on animals are reviewed with emphasis on studies of the nervous system, behavior, endocrinology, and blood chemistry. First, this paper provides a histrical overview of studies on the electric field effects initiated in Russia and the United States mainly regarding electric utility workers in high voltage substations and transmission lines. Then, the possible mechanisms of electric field effects are explained using the functions of surface electric fields and induced currents in biological objects. The real mechanisms have not yet been identified. The thresholds of electric field perception levels for rats, baboons, and humans are introduced and compared. The experimental results concerning the depression of melatonin secretion in rats exposed to electric fields are described.

Isaka, Katsuo

137

MINIMISE CALF DIARRHOEA BY GOOD HUSBANDRY: TREAT SICK CALVES BY FLUID THERAPY  

E-print Network

MINIMISE CALF DIARRHOEA BY GOOD HUSBANDRY: TREAT SICK CALVES BY FLUID THERAPY H.J. GREENE hour of life to boost its immunity while minimising infection rates by regular thorough cleaning laboratory tests. Results of a treatment trial indicated that oral glucose-glycine electro- lyte solution

Boyer, Edmond

138

Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, V.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

2009-01-01

139

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2012-01-01

140

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2013-01-01

141

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2014-01-01

142

Health-risk behaviors in agriculture and related factors, southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Human behavior plays a central role in the maintenance of health and the prevention of diseases. This study aimed to determine the risky behaviors of farm operators selected from a province of Turkey's southeastern Anatolian region, as well as the factors related to risky behaviors. In this cross-sectional analysis, 380 farm operators were enrolled through simple random selection method, and the response rate was 85%. Health-risk behavior was measured using the Control List of Occupational Risks in Agriculture. Of 323 farm operators, 85.4% were male. The prevalence of risky behaviors related to measures of environmental risks were higher in animal husbandry, transportation, transportation and maintenance of machinery, pesticide application, child protection, thermal stress, and psychosocial factors in the work place. Education, age, duration of work, and size of agricultural area were associated with risky behaviors in a multiple linear regression (P < .05). Findings showed that a certified training program and a behavior surveillance system for agriculture should be developed. PMID:25275402

Yavuz, Hasret; Simsek, Zeynep; Akbaba, Muhsin

2014-01-01

143

Ants farm subterranean aphids mostly in single clone groups - an example of prudent husbandry for carbohydrates and proteins?  

PubMed Central

Background Mutualistic interactions are wide-spread but the mechanisms underlying their evolutionary stability and ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Cultivation mutualisms in which hosts consume symbionts occur in phylogenetically diverse groups, but often have symbiont monocultures for each host. This is consistent with the prediction that symbionts should avoid coexistence with other strains so that host services continue to benefit relatives, but it is less clear whether hosts should always favor monocultures and what mechanisms they might have to manipulate symbiont diversity. Few mutualisms have been studied in sufficient genetic detail to address these issues, so we decided to characterize symbiont diversity in the complex mutualism between multiple root aphid species and Lasius flavus ants. After showing elsewhere that three of these aphid species have low dispersal and mostly if not exclusively asexual reproduction, we here investigate aphid diversity within and between ant nest mounds. Results The three focal species (Geoica utricularia, Forda marginata and Tetraneura ulmi) had considerable clonal diversity at the population level. Yet more than half of the ant mounds contained just a single aphid species, a significantly higher percentage than expected from a random distribution. Over 60% of these single-species mounds had a single aphid clone, and clones tended to persist across subsequent years. Whenever multiple species/clones co-occurred in the same mound, they were spatially separated with more than 95% of the aphid chambers containing individuals of a single clone. Conclusions L. flavus “husbandry” is characterized by low aphid “livestock” diversity per colony, especially at the nest-chamber level, but it lacks the exclusive monocultures known from other cultivation mutualisms. The ants appear to eat most of the early instar aphids, so that adult aphids are unlikely to face limited phloem resources and scramble competition with other aphids. We suggest that such culling of carbohydrate-providing symbionts for protein ingestion may maintain maximal host yield per aphid while also benefitting the domesticated aphids as long as their clone-mates reproduce successfully. The cost-benefit logic of this type of polyculture husbandry has striking analogies with human farming practices based on slaughtering young animals for meat to maximize milk-production by a carefully regulated adult livestock population. PMID:22747564

2012-01-01

144

Identifying and preventing pain during and after surgery in farm animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain research in farm animals has focused on routine husbandry procedures such as dehorning; much less known about the pain associated with the other surgeries such as those required for displaced abomasum and caesarean delivery. We review the literature on pain in farm animals due to non-routine procedures including laporatomy, caesarean sections, ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy, displaced abomasums, cannulations, vasectomy and

Kristen A. Walker; Todd F. Duffield; Daniel M. Weary

145

Beneficial effect of lantibiotic nisin in rabbit husbandry.  

PubMed

Nisin is a bacteriocin marketed as Nisaplin. The aim of our work was to test its in vivo effect in a rabbit model; its effect on phagocytic activity (PA) and morphometry has not so far been studied. Post-weaning rabbits (48), 5 weeks old (both sexes, Hycole breed), were divided into the experimental (E) and the control groups (C), 24 animals in each. They were fed a commercial diet with access to water ad libitum. Rabbits in E had nisin additionally administered to their drinking water (500 IU-20 ?g per animal/day) for 28 days. The experiment lasted 42 days. On day 28, significant decrease in coagulase-positive (CoPS) staphylococci and coliforms was noted (p < 0.01) in faeces of group E compared with C. Pseudomonads and clostridiae were also significantly reduced (p < 0.001; p < 0.05) and slight decrease was also in CoNS and enterococci. On day 42, coliforms were still significantly reduced (p < 0.001) in faeces; slight decrease in CoPS and pseudomonads was noted. In the caecum, significant decrease in pseudomonads (p < 0.05) was noted on day 28; slight decrease in coliforms. In the appendix slight decrease in coliforms, pseudomonads was obtained on both days. PA was increased significantly in E on days 28, 42 (p < 0.001). Biochemical parameters were not influenced; nor were volatile fatty acids or lactic acid in the chymus. Nisin application did not evoke oxidative stress. In group E, an increase in average body weight gain (about 9.4 %) was noted. The villus height/crypt depth ratio was not influenced; that is, resorption surface and functionality of mucosa were not influenced. PMID:24676766

Lauková, Andrea; Chrastinová, Lubica; Plachá, Iveta; Kandri?áková, Anna; Szabóová, Renáta; Strompfová, Viola; Chrenková, Mária; Cobanová, Klaudia; Zit?an, Rudolf

2014-03-01

146

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma well-being of our communities and the counties in which they are located. Oklahoma State University Resources Oklahoma State University #12;Farm Operations · 86,600 farms; 4th in the nation · Average age

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

147

Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Transformation in a Reindeer Husbandry Area in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Östlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

2012-02-01

148

Forest fragmentation and landscape transformation in a reindeer husbandry area in Sweden.  

PubMed

Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry. PMID:22102063

Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Ostlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

2012-02-01

149

Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure.  

PubMed

Abstract Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in countries, where goats are frequently reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitive host of this parasite) elevates such concern. To date, there has been little attention to either the prevalence or genotypic characteristics of T. gondii isolates in young ruminant food animals in Europe. Here, we estimated the prevalence of T. gondii goat-kids raised in backyards and slaughtered for human consumption during the Easter season. We collected 181 paired samples of sera and diaphragm. Serum samples were analyzed by ELISA for antibodies against T. gondii, and muscle tissues by PCR to detect T. gondii DNA. 32 diaphragm samples were also bioassayed in mice, and the isolates were genotyped using microsatellite markers.The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in goat-kids was 33.1% (60/181; 95%CI: 26.3-40.5%), and T. gondii DNA was found in 6.1% (11/181; 95% CI 3.1-10.6) of the diaphragm samples. We isolated the parasite from 2 out of 32 goat-kids, and the T. gondii strains belonged to genotype II. The results showed that one-third of three-month old goats may be infected with T. gondii, and their consumption during Easter (as barbecue) may seriously compromise food safety as a result. PMID:25003793

Pastiu, Anamaria; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Györke, Adriana; Suteu, Ovidiu; Balea, Anamaria; Kalmar, Zsuzsa; Rosenthal, Benjamin Martin; Domsa, Cristian; Cozma, Vasile

2014-07-01

150

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

151

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

152

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

153

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

154

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

155

9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

156

9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

157

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

158

9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

159

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

160

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

161

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

162

[Regionalisation of Germany by data of agricultural structures].  

PubMed

In order to simplify the design of representative studies in animal populations the structural differences of animal husbandry (cattle, pigs and laying hens) in Germany were characterised. Several regions were defined and thus districts identified which are typical for the respective region and can be regarded as representatives for the whole region. Data on animal husbandry as well as human population per district originated from the Federal Statistical Office and were linked to the geometric data of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy. By this, data of "livestock units/square kilometre area" and "farms/square kilometre area" per district were calculated using methods of the spatial statistics Global Moran's Index, Anselin Local Moran's Index and Getis-Ord Gi*. With the help of these analyses six clusters could be identified which resulted in four large (Middle, Northwest, East, and South) and one smaller region (Northern Upper-Rhine) respecting the federal state borders. These regions differed significantly regarding animal and farm densities. The selection of typical districts was carried out with the help of the respective animal and farm data of the species pigs, dairy cattle and laying hens. The means of the selected districts (three to six per region) were within the 60%- and the 80%-percentile of at least two of the analysed variables. Concerning the region Northern Upper-Rhine no representative district was selected. This presented regionalisation including representative districts can be used for the design of scientific studies that are associated with animal husbandry in Germany. PMID:22372325

Merle, Roswitha; Busse, Marc; Rechter, Galina; Meer, Uwe

2012-01-01

163

Heavy metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in soil and water bodies impacted by agriculture and aquaculture  

PubMed Central

The use of antibiotic agents as growth promoters was banned in animal husbandry to prevent the selection and spread of antibiotic resistance. However, in addition to antibiotic agents, heavy metals used in animal farming and aquaculture might promote the spread of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. To investigate which heavy metals are likely to co-select for antibiotic resistance in soil and water, the available data on heavy metal pollution, heavy metal toxicity, heavy metal tolerance, and co-selection mechanisms was reviewed. Additionally, the risk of metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in the environment was assessed based on heavy metal concentrations that potentially induce this co-selection process. Analyses of the data indicate that agricultural and aquacultural practices represent major sources of soil and water contamination with moderately to highly toxic metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). If those metals reach the environment and accumulate to critical concentrations they can trigger co-selection of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, co-selection mechanisms for these heavy metals and clinically as well as veterinary relevant antibiotics have been described. Therefore, studies investigating co-selection in environments impacted by agriculture and aquaculture should focus on Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn as selecting heavy metals. Nevertheless, the respective environmental background has to be taken into account. PMID:23248620

Seiler, Claudia; Berendonk, Thomas U.

2012-01-01

164

Stable isotopes and dietary adaptations in humans and animals at pre-pottery Neolithic Nevalli Cori, southeast Anatolia.  

PubMed

Human and animal bones from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B site of Nevali Cori (southeast Anatolia) were analyzed with regard to stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in bone collagen, and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in bone carbonate. The reconstruction of the vertebrate food web at this site revealed that humans may have faced difficulties with meat procurement, since their stable-isotope ratios reflect a largely herbivorous diet. This is in contrast with the preceding Pre-Pottery Neolithic A contexts and late Neolithic sites in the Fertile Crescent, where humans are located at the top of the food chain. Conceivably, Nevali Cori represents a community in the transition from a hunting and gathering subsistence to an economy with agriculture and animal husbandry, since domesticated einkorn and sheep, pigs, and probably also goats are in evidence at the site. In the second half of the 9th millennium calibrated (cal.) BC, however, the contribution of stock on the hoof to the human diet still seems modest. Animals kept under cultural control obviously had a dietary spectrum different from their free-ranging relatives. We conclude that these animals had been deliberately nourished by their owners, whereby the overall low delta(15)N-signatures in both humans and livestock might result from the consumption of protein-rich pulses. PMID:16596597

Lösch, Sandra; Grupe, Gisela; Peters, Joris

2006-10-01

165

Space Technologies for Enhancing the Resilience and Sustainability of Indigenous Reindeer Husbandry in the Russian Arctic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To adapt successfully to the major changes - climate, environment, economic, social and industrial - which have taken place across the Arctic. in recent years, indigenous communities such as reindeer herders must become increasingly empowered with the best available technologies to add to their storehouse of traditional knowledge. Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters critical to the characterization of pasture quality and migratory routes, such as vegetation distribution, snow cover, infrastructure development, and pasture damages due to fires. This paper describes a series of remote sensing capabilities, which are useful to reindeer husbandry, and gives the results of the first year of a project, "Reindeer Mapper", which is a remote sensing and GIs-based system to bring together space technologies with indigenous knowledge for sustainable reindeer husbandry in the Russian Arctic. In this project, reindeer herders and scientists are joining together to utilize technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing space-based and indigenous knowledge in the Russian Arctic. The "Reindeer Mapper" system will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. This paper describes some of the technologies which comprise the system including an intranet system to enable to the team members to work together and share information electronically, remote sensing data for monitoring environmental parameters important to reindeer husbandry (e.g., SAR, Landsat, AVHRR, MODIS), indigenous knowledge about important environmental parameters, acquisition of ground- based measurements, and the integration of all useful data sets for more informed decision-making.

Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris S.; Sleptsov, Yuri A.; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathlesen, Svein D.

2005-01-01

166

Short-term Care of White-tailed Deer Fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) in a Conventional Laboratory Animal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory animal medicine professionals are often required to develop husbandry practices for species not com- monly considered for use as laboratory animals. Although protocols exist for management of captive white-tailed deer in an outdoor facility, it was necessary to modify those procedures to house fawns in an indoor facility. Four abandoned fawns were acquired through a cooperative effort with the

LON V. KENDALL; MARY J. KENNETT; RICHARD E. FISH

1998-01-01

167

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2008-06-18

168

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed. SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Joergensen, 1994) in which systems are modeled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Danuso, Francesco (University of Udine) [University of Udine

2008-06-18

169

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

ScienceCinema

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2010-01-08

170

Proper care, husbandry, and breeding guidelines for the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata.  

PubMed

The zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata castanotis is a songbird commonly used in the laboratory, particularly for studies of vocal learning, neurobiology, and physiology. Within the laboratory, it is important to adopt careful husbandry practices that allow for normal development of the birds. For example, their song is a learned trait, passed culturally from adult males to juveniles, and thus its learning can be influenced by the health and social conditions of the birds present in the laboratory. Here we present guidelines for the successful maintenance and breeding of captive zebra finches. PMID:25342067

Olson, Christopher R; Wirthlin, Morgan; Lovell, Peter V; Mello, Claudio V

2014-12-01

171

Montana State University College of Agriculture/Agricultural Experiment Station  

E-print Network

Montana State University College of Agriculture/Agricultural Experiment Station Department rev. 4/03 1 Animal & Range Sciences College of Agriculture Role & Scope Revised April 2003 #12;Montana ROLE AND SCOPE NATURE OF THE INSTITUTION Montana State University-Bozeman is a comprehensive state

Maxwell, Bruce D.

172

Animal leptospirosis.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a global disease of animalsAnimals , which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosisDiagnosis , treatmentTreatment , controlControl and surveillanceSurveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

Ellis, William A

2015-01-01

173

Purdue Agriculture Annual Statistical Report  

E-print Network

Security, and Economic Security in the 21st Century. Our researchers are working to increase, and metabolomics, as well as in precision farming, agricultural mechanization, food science, nutrition, animalPurdue Agriculture Research Works Annual Statistical Report 2005-2006 Purdue AGrICuLTure Read

174

Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

175

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2014-01-01

176

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2011-01-01

177

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2013-01-01

178

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2011-01-01

179

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2012-01-01

180

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2012-01-01

181

7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is...

2013-01-01

182

7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information... § 1230.18 Porcine animal. Porcine animal...

2014-01-01

183

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

184

Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society  

PubMed Central

Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models. PMID:20579432

Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

2010-01-01

185

Introduction Agriculture/Agricultural Science  

E-print Network

38 Introduction Guide Entrance Life Career Inquiries Agriculture/Agricultural Science Mission and goal of the Graduate School of Agricultural Science The mission of agricultural science organization which aims to realize this agricultural ideal, the Graduate School of Agricultural Science's basic

Banbara, Mutsunori

186

Professor of Animal Science Meat Science  

E-print Network

Professor of Animal Science Meat Science B.S., Animal Science, Oklahoma State University - Livestock, Meat & Wool Evaluation Animal Science 363 - Meat Technology Animal Science 351G - Agricultural Animals of the World State Meat Specialist Microbiology of Confined Animal Feeding Operations along

Johnson, Eric E.

187

Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.  

PubMed

Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks. PMID:23560798

Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

2013-10-01

188

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

189

Impacts of trypanosomiasis on African agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

African animal trypanosomiasis constrains agricultural production in areas of Africa that hold the continent's greatest potential for expanded agricultural production. Compared to animals kept in trypanosomiasis free areas, animals kept in areas of moderate risk of trypanosomiasis have lower calving rates, lower milk yields, higher rates of calf mortality, and require more frequent treatment with preventive and curative doses of

Brent M. Swallow

190

Assessing habitat quality of farm-dwelling house sparrows in different agricultural landscapes.  

PubMed

Having historically been abundant throughout Europe, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) has in recent decades suffered severe population declines in many urban and rural areas. The decline in rural environments is believed to be caused by agricultural intensification, which has resulted in landscape simplification. We used giving-up densities (GUDs) of house sparrows feeding in artificial food patches placed in farmlands of southern Sweden to determine habitat quality during the breeding season at two different spatial scales: the landscape and the patch scale. At the landscape scale, GUDs were lower on farms in homogeneous landscapes dominated by crop production compared to more heterogeneous landscapes with mixed farming or animal husbandry. At the patch level, feeding patches with a higher predation risk (caused by fitting a wall to the patch to obstruct vigilance) had higher GUDs. In addition, GUDs were positively related to population size, which strongly implies that GUDs reflect habitat quality. However, the increase followed different patterns in homogeneous and heterogeneous landscapes, indicating differing population limiting mechanisms in these two environments. We found no effect of the interaction between patch type and landscape type, suggesting that predation risk was similar in both landscape types. Thus, our study suggests that simplified landscapes constitute a poorer feeding environment for house sparrows during breeding, that the population-regulating mechanisms in the landscapes differ, but that predation risk is the same across the landscape types. PMID:22037991

von Post, Maria; Borgström, Pernilla; Smith, Henrik G; Olsson, Ola

2012-04-01

191

75 FR 17555 - Department of Agriculture Civil Monetary Penalties Adjustment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Parts 1 and 3 Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 205...the Secretary, Agricultural Marketing Service, Grain Inspection...apply to any CMP under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the...agencies are: (1) Agricultural Marketing Service; (2) Animal...

2010-04-07

192

Agriculture Education Curriculum Grades 6-12 (BS)  

E-print Network

Agriculture Education Curriculum Grades 6-12 (BS) Freshman Year English (GER) English 101, 102..................................................... 3 Agricultural Science 209,211..............................3 Animal Science 111...................................................3 Agricultural Business 220................................... 3 Content Electives

Selmic, Sandra

193

Saskatchewan Agricultural  

E-print Network

Saskatchewan Agricultural Hall of Fame College of Agriculture and Bioresources Inductees 2014 Edition #12;"SALUTE TO SASKATCHEWAN FARM LEADERS" Photos courtesy of the Saskatchewan Agriculture Hall Williams 1941- Lorne Alan Babiuk 1946- #12;"SALUTE TO SASKATCHEWAN FARM LEADERS" Photos courtesy

Peak, Derek

194

Agricultural lung diseases.  

PubMed Central

Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

2000-01-01

195

Data and animal management software for large-scale phenotype screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis program at the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) uses MouseTRACS\\u000a to analyze phenotype screens and manage animal husbandry. MouseTRACS is a Web-based laboratory informatics system that electronically\\u000a records and organizes mouse colony operations, prints cage cards, tracks inventory, manages requests, and reports Institutional\\u000a Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocol usage. For

Keith A. Ching; Michael P. Cooke; Lisa M. Tarantino; Hilmar Lapp

2006-01-01

196

Agricultural biosecurity.  

PubMed

The prevention and control of new pest and disease introductions is an agricultural challenge which is attracting growing public interest. This interest is in part driven by an impression that the threat is increasing, but there has been little analysis of the changing rates of biosecurity threat, and existing evidence is equivocal. Traditional biosecurity systems for animals and plants differ substantially but are beginning to converge. Bio-economic modelling of risk will be a valuable tool in guiding the allocation of limited resources for biosecurity. The future of prevention and management systems will be strongly influenced by new technology and the growing role of the private sector. Overall, today's biosecurity systems are challenged by changing national priorities regarding trade, by new concerns about environmental effects of biological invasions and by the question 'who pays?'. Tomorrow's systems may need to be quite different to be effective. We suggest three changes: an integration of plant and animal biosecurity around a common, proactive, risk-based approach; a greater focus on international cooperation to deal with threats at source; and a commitment to refocus biosecurity on building resilience to invasion into agroecosystems rather than building walls around them. PMID:17761470

Waage, J K; Mumford, J D

2008-02-27

197

The globalisation of farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

Fraser, D

2014-04-01

198

Broken bones in domestic fowls: Effect of husbandry system and stunning method in end?of?lay hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effects of age at sexual maturity, age at culling, and stunning frequency and current on the incidence of broken bones were examined in end?of?lay hens. In addition comparisons were made between 4 different egg?laying breeds, and between battery, perchery and free range husbandry systems.2. High frequency stunning (1500 Hz) caused a reduction in the incidence of broken bones

N. G. Gregory; L. J. Wilkins; S. D. Eleperuma; A. J. Ballantyne; N. D. Overfield

1990-01-01

199

Influence of husbandry systems on physiological stress reactions of captive brown brocket ( Mazama gouazoubira ) and marsh deer ( Blastocerus dichotomus )—noninvasive analysis of fecal cortisol metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study addresses the relationship of different husbandry systems to fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) concentrations\\u000a in captive brown brocket deer and marsh deer in order to ascertain a less stressful captive condition for these species. Thus,\\u000a three pairs from both species were submitted to three different husbandry systems (10 days per system), and fecal samples\\u000a were collected in the last

Maurício Durante Christofoletti; Ricardo José Garcia Pereira; José Maurício Barbanti Duarte

2010-01-01

200

Animal welfare and the intensive production of bovine meat.  

PubMed

After a brief review of the legal framework of animal protection applicable to cattle--including Council of Europe and European Union legislation, as well as French law--the main features of husbandry systems used in the intensive husbandry of veal calves and young cattle are analysed. For veal calves, the standards proposed at the European level do not take into account major differences in the age, weight and quality of veal produced by different Member States. In the case of red meat, the production of baby beef in intensive units leads to some behavioural anomalies, which could be remedied within economic restrictions compatible with the interests of producers and consumers. PMID:8173104

Morisse, J P; Cotte, J P; Huonnic, D

1994-03-01

201

Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

2004-12-01

202

Understanding Your Community's Agriculture  

E-print Network

, such as dairy and beef farms, often have large acreage to produce animal feed. Farms that specialize in field, such as mushroom, horticulture (flowers and trees), poultry, and modern swine farms, purchase much of the agricultural materials or feed they need and use modern buildings that provide the environmental control

Kaye, Jason P.

203

Biofuels and Agriculture  

E-print Network

. They include ethanol and biodiesel (a vegetable oil product) made from agricultural crops and residues, forest vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, as well as animal fats, and recycled cooking greases can be chemically Diesel designed his prototype engine to run on peanut oil? Raw materials for making biofuels, now

Pawlowski, Wojtek

204

The novel use of waste animal bone from New Zealand agricultural sources as a feedstock for forming plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on biomedical implant materials.  

PubMed

This study presents the feasibility of using animal bone-derived hydroxyapatite (HAP) as feedstock powders for plasma spraying. Bovine, cervine and ovine bone from abattoirs was boiled in a pressure cooker to remove blood, fat and adhering meat tissue. The bone was then placed in a muffler furnace, pyrolyzed at approximately 1000 degrees C to remove collagen and resid-ual organics, cooled and subsequently ground to a powder then digested in nitric acid. Sodium hydroxide was added to the digest to reprecipitate the HAP. Ageing of the precipitate followed by filtration, extensive washing and drying produced the white powder used as the feedstock. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the powder to be poorly crystalline HAP with low-level carbonate. Out of several batches of the sieved powders, one batch was plasma sprayed to produce adherent HAP coatings; therefore, demonstrating that animal bone-derived HAP powders can be seri-ously considered as a feedstock powder, subject to the powder being processed for the correct rheological characteristics for easy flowing within the plasma spray flow lines. The phase composition of the successful plasma sprayed HAP coatings on both stainless steel and titanium were found by XRD to be mainly HAP with minor contributions from á -tricalcium phosphate, tetra-calcium phosphate and CaO; therefore, demonstrating that feedstock decomposition on its passage through the plasma spray torch was insignificant under the conditions employed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of the coatings indicated that their morphology featured the classical heterogeneous and splat-like appearance expected of plasma sprayed coatings. Young's modulus and Vicker's microhardness tests conducted on the coatings revealed values in the range, respectively, 22-87 GPa and 166-287 (HV200 ) indicating high strength plasma spray HAP coatings had been produced from the feedstock powder. PMID:20803443

Mucalo, M R; Foster, D L; Wielage, B; Steinhaeuser, S; Mucha, H; Knighton, D; Kirby, J

2004-01-01

205

Modifications to husbandry and housing conditions of laboratory rodents for improved well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a change to be considered enriching, the change must enhance animal welfare and improve biological functioning of the animals. A review of the literature shows that a consensus on the definition of changes constituting \\

Abigail L. Smith; Dorcas J. Corrow

2005-01-01

206

9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards...maintained separately. Such animals may be maintained in compatible...exhibits aggressive or vicious behavior. (c) Methods and...

2012-01-01

207

9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards...maintained separately. Such animals may be maintained in compatible...exhibits aggressive or vicious behavior. (c) Methods and...

2013-01-01

208

9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards...maintained separately. Such animals may be maintained in compatible...exhibits aggressive or vicious behavior. (c) Methods and...

2014-01-01

209

Welfare implications of invasive piglet husbandry procedures, methods of alleviation and alternatives: a review.  

PubMed

Abstract Iron administration, teeth clipping, tail docking and castration are common invasive husbandry procedures performed on piglets on commercial farms, generally within the first week of life. These procedures are performed to prevent potential health and welfare problems of piglets and/or the sow, or, with respect to castration, to enhance meat quality. The objectives of this review were firstly, to provide the rationale and scientific evidence for performing these procedures, secondly, to describe the welfare implications of these procedures, and lastly, to describe mitigation strategies or alternatives that can be used to eliminate or reduce the pain caused by these procedures. Administering supplementary iron is necessary to prevent anaemia in piglets and the procedure has a low welfare impact. The stated benefits of teeth clipping to prevent udder lesions do not appear to outweigh the risk from injury and infection in piglets following the procedure. Tail docking reduces the prevalence of tail biting, but does not eliminate this behaviour and the practice of tail docking can cause acute pain. Castration is primarily performed to reduce the occurrence of boar taint, but alternatives are now available that negate the need to perform this procedure. Teeth clipping, tail docking and castration all cause behavioural and physiological changes indicative of acute pain and can have potentially long-term negative consequences such as causing abscesses, lesions and the formation of neuromas. Therefore effective pain mitigation strategies (e.g. analgesia, local or general anaesthesia) that markedly alleviate the pain caused by these procedures are necessary to improve the welfare of piglets. Alternatively, if management practices are available that eliminate the need for performing these procedures altogether, then they should be adopted. PMID:25204203

Sutherland, Ma

2015-01-01

210

INFLUENCES GNTIQUES ET ENVIRONNEMENTALES SUR LES MCANISMES DE DFENSE  

E-print Network

are described. Selection is based on performance testing of young kids. By the testing the animals are injected and environmental aspects of the immune response C.C. OOSTERLEE Department of Animal Husbandry, Agricultural be immunosuppressive. In modern animal husbandry practice.such factors exist and can influence disease resistance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

212

POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT Assistant Professor in Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

programs in areas such as animal immunology, lactation, growth, or behavior. The Department enjoys housingPOSITION ANNOUNCEMENT Assistant Professor in Animal Sciences Department of Animal and Food Sciences College of Agriculture, Food, and Environment Lexington, Kentucky The Department of Animal and Food

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

213

48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Contractor shall acquire animals used in research and development...Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National...National Research Council (NRC...the Agricultural Research Service, USDA...the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

2012-10-01

214

48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Contractor shall acquire animals used in research and development...Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National...National Research Council (NRC...the Agricultural Research Service, USDA...the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

2014-10-01

215

48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Contractor shall acquire animals used in research and development...Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National...National Research Council (NRC...the Agricultural Research Service, USDA...the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

2011-10-01

216

48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contractor shall acquire animals used in research and development...Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National...National Research Council (NRC...the Agricultural Research Service, USDA...the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

2013-10-01

217

Adapting to extreme climates: raising animals in hot and arid ecosystems in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an analysis of adaptation to extreme climate changes using the Australian animal husbandry data. The paper finds that farmers have adapted to a hot and arid climate regime through animal husbandry. The number of sheep vastly increases into arid ecosystems while the number of beef cattle does not decline in high temperatures. In the future climate system in which Australia becomes hotter and more arid, we predict that farmers will increase by large percentages the numbers of beef cattle and/or sheep owned in order to adapt to a highly unfavorable climate condition, especially into the arid ecosystems. This paper shows how humanity has adapted to climate extremes taking into account changing ecosystems.

Seo, S. Niggol

2014-07-01

218

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

219

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

2012-06-26

220

Managing the Interactions Between Plants and Animals in Marine Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a China has long been known for manure-based integrated multiple species fish farming technology. Commonly known as “polyculture,”\\u000a this traditional Chinese system is practiced in pond aquaculture where several fish species are reared together, creating\\u000a a multi-output production structure. For example, polyculture of carps with animal and plant husbandry is based on the efficient\\u000a utilization of organic manures in the ponds.

Daniel Robledo; Yolanda Freile-PelegrÍn

221

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation  

E-print Network

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior to animators. We propose a framework for achieving the intricacy of animal motion and behavior evident, and behavior of individual animals, as well as the patterns of social behavior evident in groups of animals

Toronto, University of

222

Determination of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site in an intensively managed agricultural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition have been found to affect the primary productivity and species composition of most terrestrial ecosystems. Highly vulnerable ecosystems such as nutrient-poor bogs are expected to respond to increasing N input rates with a decrease in plant species diversity. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog and one of only very few remaining protected peatland areas in Northwestern Germany - is surrounded by highly fertilised agricultural land and intensive livestock production. We quantified the annual deposition of atmospheric N over a period of two years. Dry deposition rates of different N species and their reactants were calculated from day and night-time concentrations measured by a KAPS denuder filter system. Dry N deposition amounted to 10.9 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (year 1) and 10.5 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (year 2). More than 80% of total deposited N was attributed to ammonia (NH3). A strong seasonality in NH3 concentrations and depositions could be observed. Day and night-time concentrations and depositions, however, did not differ significantly. Total N deposition including bulk N deposition resulted in about 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results suggest that the intensive agricultural land management of surrounding areas and strongly emitting animal husbandry lead to N inputs into the protected peatland area that exceed the ecosystem's specific critical load up to fivefold. This gives rise to the assumption that a further shift in plant species composition with a subsequent alteration of the local hydrological regime can be expected.

Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Grünhage, Ludger; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

2014-11-01

223

ANIMAL COGNITION Animal cognition  

E-print Network

Ns&feature=player_embedded#at=74 Animal cognition? Does the dog know what she is talking about? Video #12;Imitation in quail Demonstrator Observer Pecking Stepping Akins & Zentall, 1996, J Comp Psychol, 110, 316-320. #12;Imitation in quail: Results #12;http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/susan_savage_rumbaugh_on_apes_that_write

Cooper, Brenton G.

224

Animism inside Japanese animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animism and the Nature-friendly ideology are something like the air that exists naturally for the Japanese. The common values such as a sacredness of the Nature and the sweetness of the Nature for human beings also work as important themes in today\\

Hayao Miyazaki; Mikyung Bak

225

Visible Earth: Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of Visible Earth, which is hosted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and contains a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. The agriculture section contains images pertaining to aquaculture, crop and plant yields, irrigation, reclamation, soil moisture, and more. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

2006-12-23

226

Visible Earth: Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of Visible Earth, which is hosted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and contains a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. The agriculture section contains images pertaining to aquaculture, crop and plant yields, irrigation, reclamation, soil moisture, and more. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

227

Entomophagy and space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

228

Science, Medicine, and Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher's Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher's Association.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2004-01-01

229

Intake of ²³?U and ²³²Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area.  

PubMed

The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides ²³²Th, ²³?U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of ²³?U and ²³²Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6-15.5 and 2.0-5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of ²³?U and ²³²Th were 2.0 ?g d?¹ (25 mBq d?¹) and 3.4 ?g d?¹ (14 mBq d?¹) is comparable with reported range 0.5-5.0 ?g d?¹ and 0.15-3.5 ?g d?¹ respectively for the Asian population. PMID:22036151

Jha, S K; Gothankar, S; Iongwai, P S; Kharbuli, B; War, S A; Puranik, V D

2012-01-01

230

29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry or lumbering operations) performed...

2011-07-01

231

n. ISBN Title Subject 1 9780444519245 Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science Agricultural and Biological Sciences  

E-print Network

n. ISBN Title Subject 1 9780444519245 Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science Agricultural and Biological Sciences 2 9780080453378 Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 9780122270505 Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 9780123739629

Malerba, Donato

232

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2010-04-01

233

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2012-04-01

234

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2014-04-01

235

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2011-04-01

236

26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land...agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on...

2013-04-01

237

Purdue extension CAFOsConcentrated Animal Feeding OperationsConcentrated Animal Feeding Operations  

E-print Network

Purdue extension ID-366 CAFOsConcentrated Animal Feeding OperationsConcentrated Animal FeedingSSuES Janet ayres AgriculturalEconomics This publication is one title in the Concentrated Animal Feeding; CAFOs and Community Conflict: Understanding Conflict between Individuals CAFOsConcentrated Animal

238

Purdue extension CAFOsConcentrated Animal Feeding OperationsConcentrated Animal Feeding Operations  

E-print Network

Purdue extension ID-365 CAFOsConcentrated Animal Feeding OperationsConcentrated Animal Feeding AgriculturalEconomics This publication is one title in the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations series; CAFOs and Community Conflict: Understanding Community Conflict CAFOsConcentrated Animal Feeding

239

High Prevalence and Increased Severity of Pathology of Bovine Tuberculosis in Holsteins Compared to Zebu Breeds under Field Cattle Husbandry in Central Ethiopia?  

PubMed Central

A comparative study on the prevalence and pathology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 5,424 cattle (2,578 zebus, 1,921 crosses, and 925 Holsteins), which were kept on pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia, using a comparative intradermal tuberculin test, postmortem examination, and bacteriology. The overall prevalence of bovine TB was 13.5%; prevalence was higher in Holsteins than either zebus (22.2% versus 11.6%, ?2 = 61.8; P < 0.001) or crosses (22.2% versus 11.9%, ?2 = 50.7; P < 0.001). Moreover, the severity of pathology in Holsteins (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM], 6.84 ± 0.79) was significantly higher (P = 0.018) than the severity of pathology in zebus (5.21 ± 0.30). In addition, the risk of TB in Holsteins was more than twice (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.89, 2.85) that in zebus. Animals between 5 and 9 years of age were at higher (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.80, 3.12) risk of bovine TB than those 2 years of age or below. A significant difference (?2 = 351; P < 0.001) in the occurrence of TB lesions in lymph nodes was recorded; the mesenteric lymph node (mean pathology score ± SEM, 1.95 ± 0.08) was most severely affected, followed by the retropharyngeal (0.80 ± 0.05) and caudal mediastinal (0.8 ± 0.06) lymph nodes. Fifty-six percent (n = 145) of the animals with gross TB lesions were culture positive; the lowest culture positivity was recorded in the skin lesions (27.3%) and the lesions of the mesenteric lymph node (31.5%). Both the skin test response and the postmortem findings suggested a higher susceptibility to bovine TB in Holsteins than zebus under identical field husbandry conditions (on pasture). In the light of increased numbers of Holstein cattle introduced into this area to raise milk production to satisfy the needs of Addis Ababa's growing population, these findings highlight the need for a control program in these herds. PMID:17761523

Ameni, Gobena; Aseffa, Abraham; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen; Hewinson, Glyn; Vordermeier, Martin

2007-01-01

240

Fig Culture in the Gulf Coast Region of Texas.  

E-print Network

. Scoates, A. E., Agricultural Engineering J. H. Knox, M. S.. Animal Husbandry A. K. Mackey. M. S., Animal Husbandry A. L. Darn&", M. A.. Dairy Husbandry "rl STATION STAFF+ Administration : Veterinary Science: A. B. Conner. M. S., Director *M. Francis... nitrate of soda 2 pounds superphosphate 7% ounces muriate of potash 12% pounds hydrated lime .------. 2849 3109 3164 2426 I 1582 2004 1732 1864 2144 2424 2323 2223 1983 I I 2216 2557 2448 2145 1737 1561 1292 1363 1230 2423 2445...

Stansel, R. H. (Roy Harrison); Wyche, R. H. (Robert Henry)

1932-01-01

241

9 CFR 3.34 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.34 [Reserved] Transportation Standards...

2010-01-01

242

9 CFR 3.32 - Employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.32 Employees. A sufficient number of employees shall...

2010-01-01

243

Identifying, examining, and validating a description of the agriculture industry  

E-print Network

a sense of how the animal and plant related system is part of agriculture (Frick, Birkenholz, & Machtmes, 1995a), the population at large rarely understands the implications of how life sciences, sales and distribution services, research... definition of agriculture is true, contemporary agriculture is also inclusive of other practices and systems that more broadly define what the new agricultural industries represent. Stated broadly, plants and animals, including soil cultivation, livestock...

Romero, Edward Wayne

2009-05-15

244

Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate ... pants when you are in areas with venomous snakes If an animal bites you, clean the wound ...

245

Computer Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 320. (ART 320) (FST 320) Computer Animation (3) Prerequisite: CSC 220 (ART 220) (FST 220) or permission of instructor. Basic principles of animation using 3-D computer-generated animation and basic processes for animating synthetic objects through structured exercises. Principles of designing and producing 3-D computer-generated animation through the creation of advanced motion studies. Projects focus on developing higher-level skills in model building, animation and color, and lighting.

Patterson, Eric

2003-04-21

246

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

247

Contract Requirements for Events Involving the Use of Animals at Michigan State University Facilities  

E-print Network

for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. MSU has establishedContract Requirements for Events Involving the Use of Animals at Michigan State University of humans and animals and is committed to the core value of humane care and use of all animals. Animal

248

29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing...

2013-07-01

249

29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing...

2014-07-01

250

29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing...

2012-07-01

251

MANAGING WATERBORNE PATHOGENS ASSOCIATED WITH CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pathogenic microorganisms of fecal origin are the leading cause of river and stream impairments in the United States. Runoff from agricultural operations, particularly animal agricultural, can be a major contributor of fecal microbial pollution in a watershed. Several management...

252

Effect of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme with reference to biocontrol strategies.  

PubMed

A study was carried out at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, to assess the impact of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding and identify indigenous biocontrol agents with potential for controlling mosquito breeding in the scheme. The study established a close relationship between the schedule of the farming practices (particularly the flooding phase) and mosquito breeding. Two groups of agents, entomopathogenic bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) and larvivorous fish, were identified. Laboratory evaluation of the agents produced encouraging results. The bacterial isolates showed broad-spectrum larvicidal potency against Anopheles, Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae and 2 of the fish species, Tilapia zilli and Oreochromis niloticus, demonstrated a strong predation for a mosquito larval diet. To facilitate their use in effective biocontrol strategies, the agents would require further evaluation under field conditions. PMID:8096871

Asimeng, E J; Mutinga, M J

1993-03-01

253

Agricultural Geophysics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

254

Agricultural Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... on injuries associated with agriculture, as well as pesticide exposure, pulmonary disease, musculoskeletal disorders, hearing loss, and stress. ... Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & ... Injury Surveillance NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z ...

255

7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture...Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the...

2010-01-01

256

7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture...Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the...

2011-01-01

257

AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY  

E-print Network

) (ms I) (ms J) Corn 2.8 3.0 2.09 0.60 0.20 crop Deciduous 23.0 5.5 0.90 0.42 0.15 forest Coniferous 16AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY ELSEVIER Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 68 (1994)201 212 Modelling the effect of mean pressure gradient on the mean flow within forests Xuhui Lee *'a, Roger H. Shaw

Lee, Xuhui

258

[Thoughts on the complex relationship between medicine and animals: a death prayer for a loyal cat].  

PubMed

From its basis in the writings of the philosopher Peter Singer and the bioethical shortcomings of animal experimentation and animal husbandry, the animal rights movement has evolved into an important societal movement critical of animal experimentation in biomedical research. A lack of dialogue and transparency, an absence of understanding and an unreasonable radicalization of different positions regarding animal experimentation has frequently resulted in an adversarial relationship between some members of the scientific community and societal groups aggressively protecting animal rights. In response to this problem, both the bioethical regulations pertaining to biomedical experimentation with animals and the powers of animal care committees (IACUCs) have been strengthened. Careful analysis of the relevance of animal models to human conditions, replacement of these models with non-animal models when possible, adequate re-examination of existing knowledge before undertaking new experimental projects involving animals, and the improvement of methods to avoid animal stress and pain have further strengthened the bioethical basis of animal experimentation. To improve the ethical integrity of research conducted with animals, it is also necessary to increase the editorial scrutiny of the bioethical standards of potentially publishable research utilizing animals. Of note is also the recent use of animals in alternative animal associated therapies (AAT) to ameliorate several medical conditions. Education of the biomedical community, including students and professionals, and of societal groups concerned about this issue as well as directness and continuous dialogue among all the stakeholders are essential to insure the wellbeing of animals and the ethical integrity of biomedical research. PMID:24718472

Cabello C, Felipe

2013-11-01

259

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks;

2004-02-05

260

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

261

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

262

Anime perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional hand-drawn animation, the perspective view is not geometrically correct, unlike 3DCG. However, this perspective, which we may call anime perspective, is more natural for human eyes, especially for children. In this article, we present two anime perspective projection methods for seamlessly merging 3D models and traditional 2D animation. One is a view dependent deformer, Anime-Pers deformer, which offers

Yosuke Katsura; Ken Anjyo

2007-01-01

263

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What animals abandon their offspring? Find out this and more as you explore reproduction in the animal world. Did you know that all animals must reproduce to survive? In this project you will be learning some interesting facts about reproduction in animals. After you have some background information you will have a chance to select 3 animals and complete a chart on reproduction. TASK: Day 1 ...

Mrs. Joggerst

2008-03-30

264

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

Museum of Science, Boston

2005-01-01

265

Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

Agriculture is a source for three primary greenhouse gases (GHGs): CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O. It can also be a sink for CO(2) through C sequestration into biomass products and soil organic matter. We summarized the literature on GHG emissions and C sequestration, providing a perspective on how agriculture can reduce its GHG burden and how it can help to mitigate GHG emissions through conservation measures. Impacts of agricultural practices and systems on GHG emission are reviewed and potential trade-offs among potential mitigation options are discussed. Conservation practices that help prevent soil erosion, may also sequester soil C and enhance CH(4) consumption. Managing N to match crop needs can reduce N(2)O emission and avoid adverse impacts on water quality. Manipulating animal diet and manure management can reduce CH(4) and N(2)O emission from animal agriculture. All segments of agriculture have management options that can reduce agriculture's environmental footprint. PMID:17706849

Johnson, Jane M-F; Franzluebbers, Alan J; Weyers, Sharon Lachnicht; Reicosky, Donald C

2007-11-01

266

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES  

E-print Network

engineering, crop production, medicinal plants, animal and plant diseases, genetically modified organisms nutrition, crop production, natural resources, plant pathology, sustainable agriculture, and integrated pest, sensory evaluation and cereal science. Service contracts involved crop production, dairy stock improvement

Shihadeh, Alan

267

The immunology of domestic animals: its present and future.  

PubMed

Veterinary immunology, defined as the immunology of domestic and wild animals having economical or sentimental value to man, provides both practical knowledge that is useful to animal husbandry, and new insights into fundamental immunology. Defining new immunologically based diagnostic tools and immunotherapeutic approaches, including vaccine strategies, obviously still represents important applied objectives. Resistance of domestic animals to disease might also be improved through genetic selection of animals for immunological traits. New contributions to fundamental immunology will arise from so-called 'Immunological opportunities in farm animals' (M. Parkhouse) such as: the ileal Peyer's patch of large animals as an accessible model for studying B cell differentiation; the significance of a high number of gamma delta T cells in ungulates and of double positive CD4+ CD8+ T cells; the possible manipulation of the immune system at a regional level in the living animal by cannulating lymphatic vessels; the use of spontaneous immunodeficiency or autoimmune diseases of animals as models for human clinical research. The fulfillment of these objectives benefits from the flow of information and communications among immunologists working on domestic animals. In addition to national specialized groups, the Veterinary Immunology Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies (VIC-IUIS) was created to facilitate communication on veterinary immunology; to establish 'official' links between veterinary immunology and the rest of the immunologists' community; and to support the organization of international workshops on domestic animal immunological reagents. PMID:8988844

Charley, B

1996-11-01

268

The Comparative Value of Cottonseed Hulls and Hay as Roughages for Growing Dairy Heifers.  

E-print Network

, B. S., Soil Surveyor L. E. Brooks, B. S.. Horticulturist R. M. Marshall. B. S.. Soil Surveyor Range Animal Husbandry : Bota-y : J. M. Jones. A. M., Chief V. L. Cory, M. S.. Acting Chief B. L. Warwick. Ph. D., Breeding Investiga. S. E. Wolff, M. S... and Finance W. R. Horlacher, Ph. D., Genetics D. Scoates. A. E., Agricultural Engineering d. H. Knox. M. S., Animal Husbandry A. K. Markey. M. S., Animal Husbandry %. L. Darnell, M. A., Dairy Husbandry *Dean School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of May 1. 1932...

Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephos)

1932-01-01

269

Lime and Phosphoric Acid Requirements for Chicks.  

E-print Network

. H. Bean, B. S.;Soil Surveyor L. E. Brooks, B. S., Horticulturist R. M. Marshall, B. S., Soil Surveyor Range Animal Husbandry : Botany: d M. Joaes, A. M., Chief V. L. Cory, M. S., Acting Chief B. L. Warwick. Ph. D., Breeding Investa. S. E. Wolff.... Lee, Ph. D., Marketing and Finance W. R. Horlacher, Ph. D., Genetics D. Scoates, A. E., Agricultural Engineering J. H. Knox, M. S., Animal Husbandry A. K. Mackey, M. S., Animal Husbandry A. L. Darndl, M. A., Dairy Husbandry *Dean School...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

1932-01-01

270

Immunization of Sheep and Goats Against Soremouth (Contagious Ecthyma).  

E-print Network

. Huckabee. B. S.. Soil Surveyor I. C. Mowery, B. S.. Soil Surveyor J.-M. Jones. A. M. Chief Botany : B. L. Warwick. Ph. D.. Breeding Investisa. V. L. Cory, M. S., Acting Chief S. P Davis, Wool and Mohair Swine Husbandry: J. H. Jones, B. S., Animal..... "Genetics S. W. Bilsing, Ph. D.. Entomolony J. H. Knox. M. S.. Animal Husbandry D. Scoates. A. E.. Agricultural Ensriflering A. L. Darnell. M. A.. Dairy Husbandry A. K. Mackey. M. S., Animal Husbandry R. 0. Berry. B. S., B?oloay R. G. Reeves. Ph. D...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1935-01-01

271

Animal Science Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library, along with the USDA and the American Society of Animal Science are collaborators on this website of animal science images. The images, animations, and videos, which also have accompanying text, are intended for classroom and educational outreach. Additionally, the site also encourages the public to submit their own images relevant to animal science, and it also fully explains the process of selection, the criteria the image must meet to be suitable for classroom and educational outreach, and the copyright and use information for each submission. On the left side of the page are the categories of animals and topics included on the website. Some of the links include "Dairy Cattle", "Companion Animals", "Horses", "Poultry", "Genetics", "Reproduction", and "Nutrition". Although some of the categories have fewer images than others, such as Companion Animals, others such as "Nutrition" and "Horses" have over 100 images. For categories that do have images, the visitor can choose to view subcategories, or just view all the images in the category. Once you've chosen an image to view, you will initially see a thumbnail and a description of the image. If you click on "Image Details" at the bottom of each description, you will be privy to details such as the date created, image rights, how many times downloaded, and how many times viewed. Conveniently, you can download the image in different file and dimensional sizes to suit your needs.

2009-06-11

272

Agribusiness Management. The Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials in agribusiness management for the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum were designed for use in the following areas: Animal Science; Plant Science; Agricultural Mechanics; and Natural Resources and Aquaculture. Each unit of this competency-based guide contains title of unit, unit length, grade level, objectives, teacher…

EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

273

Study Guide for TCT in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was specifically designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in agriculture. The agriculture test was developed by the National Evaluation Systems, Inc. and educators in Georgia. The test covers 13 subareas: (1) plant science; (2) crop management; (3) animal science; (4) livestock and…

Sailors, Robert A.

274

Agricultural Education--Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation presents over 950 resumes of instructional materials in agricultural education, which have appeared quarterly in "Abstracts of Instructional Materials in Vocational and Technical Education" (AIM), Fall 1967 through Fall 1971. Resumes cover a broad range of fields and occupations, such as agribusiness, agronomy, animal and plant…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

275

Air pollution effects on agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial expansion and increasing urbanization have caused the spread of phytotoxic air pollutants to agricultural production areas especially in Eastern United States and Southern California. Needed are (a) better data to quantify the effects of pollutants on the yield and quality of crops as well as their effects on animals; (b) better dose-response information for single pollutants and pollutant mixtures

Heggestad

1977-01-01

276

Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account.

M. S. Alam; M. R. Alam; K. K. Islam

277

Agricultural Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made the Agricultural Outlook publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Agricultural Outlook, the monthly short and long term commodity outlook publication, long available via the USDA Economics and Statistics system at Cornell University's Mann Library, (discussed in the September 15, 1995 issue of the Scout Report) is now available with graphics and charts. Selected archives of the publication are available and articles can be downloaded individually. About the only drawback to this terrific addition to ERS's electronic holdings is that the separate statistical section that accompanies AO (over 20 pages of tables), is not available at this time. This is particularly unfortunate, as these tables are one of the most valuable aspects of the publication.

1996-01-01

278

Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes and Antibiotic Residues in Wastewater and Soil Adjacent to Swine Feedlots: Potential Transfer to Agricultural Lands  

PubMed Central

Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics in swine feed could cause accelerated emergence of antibiotic resistance genes, and agricultural application of swine waste could spread antibiotic resistance genes to the surrounding environment. Objectives: We investigated the distribution of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes from swine feedlots and their surrounding environment. Methods: We used a culture-independent method to identify PMQR genes and estimate their levels in wastewater from seven swine feedlot operations and corresponding wastewater-irrigated farm fields. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones in wastewater and soil samples were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The predominant PMQR genes in both the wastewater and soil samples were qnrD, qepA, and oqxB, whereas qnrS and oqxA were present only in wastewater samples. Absolute concentrations of all PMQR genes combined ranged from 1.66 × 107 to 4.06 × 108 copies/mL in wastewater and 4.06 × 106 to 9.52 × 107 copies/g in soil. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones ranged from 4.57 to 321 ng/mL in wastewater and below detection limit to 23.4 ng/g in soil. Significant correlations were found between the relative abundance of PMQR genes and (fluoro)quinolone concentrations (r = 0.71, p = 0.005) and the relative abundance of PMQR genes in paired wastewater and agricultural soil samples (r = 0.91, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Swine feedlot wastewater may be a source of PMQR genes that could facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in animal husbandry environments using a culture-independent method. PMID:22569244

Li, Juan; Wang, Thanh; Shao, Bing; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Shaochen

2012-01-01

279

Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

280

Farm Animals  

MedlinePLUS

... Animals Share Compartir Farm animals including cows, sheep, pigs, chickens and goats, can pass diseases to people. ... failure due to E. coli O157:H7 infection. Pigs can carry the bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica (yer-SIN- ...

281

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

282

Quadruped Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation

Ljiljana Skrba; Lionel Reveret; Franck Hétroy; Marie-Paule Cani; Carol O'Sullivan

2008-01-01

283

Animal Scent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior. Learners will create five or six scent blocks by rubbing wood blocks with different kitchen spices, foods, or animal scents. Then, learners let their pets investigate each block separately. Carefully observed behaviors are recorded for interpretation. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Animal Scent.

2012-05-09

284

Animal Behaviour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

Dr. Paul McGreevey

2010-01-01

285

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt

286

Water Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do animals adapt to their environments? Use the chart Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos record what you learn for each animal in the chart. The first animal you will learn about is a bottlenose dolphin. Watch Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos Learn about Wild Bills. Watch wild bill video ...

Beardsley, Ms.

2011-10-26

287

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.

288

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

FARQUHAR, R.N.

289

Pennsylvania Agricultural  

E-print Network

to minimize accelerated soil loss on fields with less than 25% plant cover or crop residue and within 100 feet, and $2 Billion from crops. There are more than 63,000 farms, and 98% are family owned. Agriculture has the soil and making the most of all their natural resources. There are rules, laws and regulations

Guiltinan, Mark

290

Agricultural Bioterrorism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article warns that agricultural bioterrorism can be as devastating as other forms of terrorism because it: cripples the economy of a nation, can destroy the livelihood of many people puts food supply at risk, perhaps for a long time, and may not be detected before it reaches difficult-to-control levels.

Radford G. Davis (Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine;)

2001-10-01

291

1 UW-Madison Animal Program Review Worksheet 2013 UW-Madison Animal Care and Use Program Review Worksheet: Spring 2013  

E-print Network

1 UW-Madison Animal Program Review Worksheet 2013 UW-Madison Animal Care and Use Program Review Worksheet: Spring 2013 (based on Defining the Animal Care and Use Program, Lab Animal 34(10) 41-44, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals 8th ed., and Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals

292

Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

2005-01-01

293

University Students' Perceptions of Issues Related to Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Telephone interviews with 390 of 400 college students revealed an overall favorable impression of food safety and agriculture's impact on the economy and environment. Males were more positive about animal welfare and production agriculture. Gender, college major, and hometown were related to attitudes about agriculture issues. (SK)

Terry, Robert, Jr.; Lawver, David E.

1995-01-01

294

Energy input–output analysis in Turkish agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to determine the energy use in the Turkish agricultural sector for the period of 1975–2000. In the study, the inputs in the calculation of energy use in agriculture include both human and animal labor, machinery, electricity, diesel oil, fertilizers, seeds, and 36 agricultural commodities were included in the output total. Energy values were calculated

Burhan Ozkan; Handan Akcaoz; Cemal Fert

2004-01-01

295

CHALLENGES IN INCREASING WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irrigated agriculture is a vital component of total agriculture and supplies many of the fruits, vegetables, and cereal foods consumed by humans; the grains fed to animals that are used as human food; and the feed to sustain animals for work in many parts of the world. World-wide irrigation was pra...

296

Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China  

PubMed Central

Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3?-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

297

Digestibility by Sheep of the Constituents of the Nitrogen-Free Extract of Feeds.  

E-print Network

, SC. D:, Chief **W ?' CARTER B S Chief , Hortlculturzst E.'H.'TEMPLIANIMAL HUSBANDRY: T. C. REITCH i3. S. koil Surveyor J. M. JONES, A. M., Chief A. H. BEAN, B. S., koil Surueyor . B. L. WARWICK, Ph. D., Breeding... Engineering J. H. KNOX, M. S., Animal Husbandry A. K. MACKEY, M. S., Antmal Husbandry *Dean School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of November 1, 1930. **In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture. The sugars, starch, and other constituents of feeding...

Fraps, , George Stronach

1930-01-01

298

Office of the Vice President for Research UGA IACUC Policy for Satellite Animal Facilities and  

E-print Network

Office of the Vice President for Research UGA IACUC Policy for Satellite Animal Facilities Animals or the FASS Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching. In general: · The room should have

Arnold, Jonathan

299

Effects of husbandry parameters on the life-history traits of the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis: effects of temperature, photoperiod, and population density  

PubMed Central

These experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis. The overall objective of the program is to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations of this species in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this article, we focus on the effects of photoperiod, temperature, and population density on adult fecundity and juvenile growth. Increasing photoperiod from 12 to 16 h of light per day had no effect on adult fecundity or egg hatching and relatively minor effects on juvenile growth and development. Rearing snails at temperatures between 22°C and 28°C did not influence the rates of egg production or egg clutch size. However, the rates of growth and development (of eggs and juveniles) increased with increasing temperature in this range, and when temperatures were reduced to 22°C egg-hatching success was impaired. Juvenile growth and development were more sensitive to rearing density than adult fecundity traits. On the basis of the present results, we conclude that rearing individuals of M. cornuarietis at a temperature of 25°C, a photoperiod of 12L:12D, and a density of <0.8 snails L?1 (with lower densities for juvenile snails) should provide favorable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations of this species. PMID:19009043

Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; Pounds, Nadine; File-Emperador, Sharon; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

2006-01-01

300

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

301

Undergraduate Teaching in the Animal Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of a conference which reviewed the content of undergraduate animal science curricula, content of courses in the animal sciences, and methods and materials used in undergraduate teaching in the animal sciences are presented in this bulletin. These individual papers are included: Trends in Animal Agriculture and the Future of…

Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

302

Optimized axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) husbandry, breeding, metamorphosis, transgenesis and tamoxifen-mediated recombination.  

PubMed

The axolotl (Mexican salamander, Ambystoma mexicanum) has become a very useful model organism for studying limb and spinal cord regeneration because of its high regenerative capacity. Here we present a protocol for successfully mating and breeding axolotls in the laboratory throughout the year, for metamorphosing axolotls by a single i.p. injection and for axolotl transgenesis using I-SceI meganuclease and the mini Tol2 transposon system. Tol2-mediated transgenesis provides different features and advantages compared with I-SceI-mediated transgenesis, and it can result in more than 30% of animals expressing the transgene throughout their bodies so that they can be directly used for experimentation. By using Tol2-mediated transgenesis, experiments can be performed within weeks (e.g., 5-6 weeks for obtaining 2-3-cm-long larvae) without the need to establish germline transgenic lines (which take 12-18 months). In addition, we describe here tamoxifen-induced Cre-mediated recombination in transgenic axolotls. PMID:24504478

Khattak, Shahryar; Murawala, Prayag; Andreas, Heino; Kappert, Verena; Schuez, Maritta; Sandoval-Guzmán, Tatiana; Crawford, Karen; Tanaka, Elly M

2014-03-01

303

Anaerobic oxidation of methane in grassland soils used for cattle husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the importance of anaerobic methane oxidation has been reported for marine ecosystems, the role of this process in soils is still questionable. Grasslands used as pastures for cattle-overwintering show an increase in anaerobic soil micro-sites caused by animal treading and excrement deposition. Therefore anaerobic potential methane oxidation activity of severely impacted soil from a cattle winter pasture was investigated in an incubation experiment under anaerobic conditions using 13C-labeled methane. We were able to detect a high microbial activity utilizing CH4 as nutrient source shown by the respiration of 13CO2. Measurements of possible terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane were carried out. Soil sulfate concentrations were too low to explain the oxidation of the amount of methane added, but enough nitrate and iron(III) were detected. However, only nitrate was consumed during the experiment. 13C-PLFA analyses clearly showed the utilization of CH4 as nutrient source mainly by organisms harbouring 16:1?7 PLFAs. These lipids were found in Gram-negative microorganisms and anaerobes. The fact that these lipids are also typical for type I methanotrophs, known as aerobic methane oxidizers, might indicate a link between aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation.

Bannert, A.; Bogen, C.; Esperschütz, J.; Koubová, A.; Buegger, F.; Fischer, D.; Radl, V.; Fuß, R.; Chro?áková, A.; Elhottová, D.; Šimek, M.; Schloter, M.

2012-04-01

304

Vocational Agriculture II Curriculum Guide, 10th Grade. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education: Basic Core Curriculum II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This basic core curriculum for vocational agriculture education contains 35 units of instruction in five content areas: agricultural chemicals (1 unit), leadership (2 units), farm management (5 units), plant and soil science (10 units), animal science (8 units), and farm mechanics (9 units). Each unit follows a typical format that includes…

Pittsburg State Univ., KS. Kansas Vocational Curriculum and Research Center.

305

Water Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

John Kyrk

306

Animation Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides physics tutorials and other resources for animation artists and professionals working in the animation industry. There are three tutorials covering topics related to the graphical representation of linear and accelerated motion, rotations, and center of mass. The presentation is non-mathematical and focuses on the consequences of the laws of physics. The web site also provides other physics references for animators and has started a wiki for community building.

Garcia, Alejandro

2009-04-02

307

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

308

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

309

Animal Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter discusses challenges and practical approaches to animal fMRI with respect to anesthetic regimens, conscious animal\\u000a studies, activation paradigms, optimal pulse sequence selection, and the rigor required for drug discovery applications. Examples\\u000a on the use of animal fMRI to support drug discovery are presented. The examples illustrate (1) technical development and qualification\\u000a of a quantitative assay for pain, (2)

Donald Williams; Alexandre Coimbra; Fuqiang Zhao

310

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2013-01-01

311

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2012-01-01

312

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2011-01-01

313

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2013-01-01

314

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2014-01-01

315

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2010-01-01

316

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2010-01-01

317

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2012-01-01

318

7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...assessments on domestic porcine animals. 1230.111 Section 1230...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall be remitted to...

2011-01-01

319

7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products...AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork...

2014-01-01

320

Physics Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you would like a taste of classical mechanics in an animated form, this website is right up your alley. This site from the physics department at the University of Toronto offers up over 100 helpful animations that cover quantum mechanics, vectors, waves, relativity, and optics. Visitors can scroll through the topical headings to look for items of interest and should note the entire website is searchable as well. There are some great topical animations here, such as one on fluid mechanics that involves a theoretical dropping of a ball from the CN Tower in Toronto. Animations have also been translated into Catalan, Spanish, and Basque.

321

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animal’s reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

322

Animal cytomegaloviruses.  

PubMed Central

Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

Staczek, J

1990-01-01

323

Animal Omnibus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed with children in mind, the Animal Omnibus site is "a list of web sources indexed by the name of the animal." Users search by animal name to get returns in the form of hyperlinked resource lists. The resource lists contain sites ranging from simple color photographs of individual species to sites steeped in scientific classification to publicly targeted zoo sites. Animal Omnibus may also be browsed by generic name within each taxonomic category (amphibians, arthropods, birds, dinosaurs, fish, mammals, mollusks, and reptiles). Although depth of content varies widely, this unique and diverse collection of information types is at once unpredictable and refreshing.

324

Teaching Biology Using Agriculture as the Context: Perceptions of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of 531 students in a course using animal agriculture to teach biology, 90% felt it helped them understand the relationship between science and agriculture and the importance of agriculture. Nearly 90% disagreed with statements that animals should not be used for food and that farmers are not concerned about the environment. (Contains 18…

Balschweid, Mark A.

2002-01-01

325

USDA: Animal Welfare Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA's Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) was mandated by the Animal Welfare Act, and the website contains everything from current animal issues to workshops for those in industries that utilize animals to licensing forms. Specifically, the AWIC is designed "to regulate and improve care of animals in research, testing, teaching, and exhibition." The site includes the proposed government rules about animal welfare that are in their public comment period, and how and where to submit your comment. Visitors can click on "In The News" to see all the animal-related rules that are in their public comment period. If visitors want to learn about the origins of veterinary medicine, they can click on "Companion Animals" on the left side of the homepage to find a link to "Veterinary History Resources at the National Agricultural Library". Finally, AWIC provides very important information and resources on alternatives to animal testing, under "Alternatives," on the left side of the homepage. Here visitors will find links to websites that explain the principles of alternatives to animal testing, as well as several papers from conferences that address the issue.

2008-01-01

326

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture  

E-print Network

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture ­ Livestock, Crops and Land Use Report from a multidisciplinary research platform. Phase I (2009 ­ 2012) #12;Future Agriculture ­ Livestock Waldenström Utgivningsår: 2012, Uppsala Utgivare: SLU, Framtidens lantbruk/Future Agriculture Layout: Pelle

327

Excelsior Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

Steinkamp, Mary J.

2001-01-01

328

GPS Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2008-09-12

329

Kindergarten Animation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

Hinshaw, Craig

2012-01-01

330

``Animal Intelligence''  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a review of my monograph on ``Animal Intelligence,'' in a recent number of NATURE, Mr. Lloyd Morgan credits me with upholding the theory that we have sensations caused by outgoing currents which innervate muscles, and with depending on that theory in some of my own statements about the nature of animals' consciousness. A careless and ambiguous sentence of mine

Edward L. Thorndike

1898-01-01

331

Science Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by AntÃÂónio CidadÃÂão.

332

The Ecologist's View of Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides insights on the controversial issue of animal rights. Four factors are considered: (1) animals' rights; (2) research; (3) hunting and fishing; and (4) agriculture. Contends that it is imperative that the public knows all the facts before casting their vote on the issue. (ZWH)

Howard, Walter E.

1994-01-01

333

Perspectives on Indiana Animal Industries 2007 toAnimal Industries 2007 to  

E-print Network

Economics Purdue University #12;Department of Agricultural Economics Purdue University #12;Animal Protein Capita Supplies: 2006 2007 100 Chicken 102 104 20062007 =100 Chicken Turkey Beef 98 100 102 Pork 94 96

334

Assembling a geospatial database of tsetse-transmitted animal trypanosomosis for Africa  

PubMed Central

Background African animal trypanosomosis (AAT), or nagana, is widespread within the tsetse-infested belt of sub-Saharan Africa. Although a wealth of information on its occurrence and prevalence is available in the literature, synthesized and harmonized data at the regional and continental scales are lacking. To fill this gap the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) launched the Atlas of tsetse and AAT, jointly implemented with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the framework of the Programme Against African Trypanosomosis (PAAT). Methods The Atlas aims to build and regularly update a geospatial database of tsetse species occurrence and AAT at the continental level. The present paper focuses on the methodology to assemble a dynamic database of AAT, which hinges on herd-level prevalence data as estimated using various diagnostic techniques. A range of ancillary information items is also included (e.g. trypanosome species, survey period, species and breed of animals, husbandry system, etc.). Input data were initially identified through a literature review. Results Preliminary results are presented for Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda in East Africa: 122 papers were identified and analyzed, which contained field data collected from January 1990 to December 2013. Information on AAT was extracted and recorded for 348 distinct geographic locations. The presented distribution maps exemplify the range of outputs that can be directly generated from the AAT database. Conclusions Activities are ongoing to map the distribution of AAT in all affected countries and to develop the tsetse component of the Atlas. The presented methodology is also being transferred to partners in affected countries, with a view to developing capacity and strengthening data management, harmonization and sharing. In the future, geospatial modelling will enable predictions to be made within and beyond the range of AAT field observations. This variety of information layers will inform decisions on the most appropriate, site-specific strategies for intervention against AAT. Data on the occurrence of human-infective trypanosomes in non-human hosts will also provide valuable information for sleeping sickness control and elimination. PMID:24447638

2014-01-01

335

Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-12-04

336

for a Minor in International Agriculture Academic Programs in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences  

E-print Network

3204*: International Agriculture Development and Trade - 3 credits ____________ CSES 3444: World Crops and Cropping Systems ­ 3 credits Select a minimum of three semester hours from the following: ____________ APSC 1454: Introduction to Animal and Poultry Science - 3 credits ____________ APSC 1464: Animal and Poultry

Liskiewicz, Maciej

337

Comparing Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you complete this WebQuest I would like you to think about the story that you are going to be writing. You may choose to write a true animal story. This would be like the news article about the cat and the dog that we read in class. Or you may chose to write a pretend story about a pretend animal. This will be like the folktale we read about the frogs finding their music. Look for ideas and stories that you may want to write your story on. It is okay to change your mind, but you must write a story about an animal. Webquest Introduction: Think about something that you may want to write your story about. Ask yourself: -Do I want to write a true story? -Do I want to write a pretend story? -What kinds of animals ...

Ms. Broadhead

2007-12-05

338

Animal Bytes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This browsable database is designed to help learners quickly find information about some of the creatures found in the animal kingdom. Most species' records include scientific classification, basic physical traits, fun facts, and conservation/ecological value.

2012-01-01

339

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

340

Camera Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

341

Animate Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in the United Kingdom, the Animate Projects site is designed to "explore the relationship between art and animation, and the place of animation and its concepts in contemporary art practice." With support from the Arts Council England and Channel 4, they have created this delightful site featuring over 100 films that "explore ideas around animation." On the homepage, visitors can view a rotating selection of these projects, and they are also encouraged to click on the "Films" section to browse through films dating back to 1991. Moving on, visitors can click on the "Events" section to learn about relevant screenings around Britain, lectures, and workshops. Cineastes will want to delve into the "Writing" area, which includes critical responses to some of the works which can be viewed elsewhere on the site. To get a taste of the offerings here, first-time users may wish to view "Amnesia" by Cordelia Swann or Alex Schady's work, "Everything Must Go".

342

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING frequently observed in your columns accounts of remarkable instances of reasoning power in animals, I am tempted to send you the following notes, which may perhaps be not without interest to the readers of NATURE.

R. J. Harvey Gibson

1884-01-01

343

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

344

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

345

Image analysis for estimating the weight of live animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many components of animal production have been automated. For example weighing feeding identification and yield recording on cattle pigs poultry and fish. However some of these tasks still require a considerable degree of human input and more effective automation could lead to better husbandry. For example if the weight of pigs could be monitored more often without increasing labour input then this information could be used to measure growth rates and control fat level allowing accurate prediction of market dates and optimum carcass quality to be achieved with improved welfare at minimum cost. Some aspects of animal production have defied automation. For example attending to the well being of housed animals is the preserve of the expert stockman. He gathers visual data about the animals in his charge (in more plain words goes and looks at their condition and behaviour) and processes this data to draw conclusions and take actions. Automatically collecting data on well being implies that the animals are not disturbed from their normal environment otherwise false conclusions will be drawn. Computer image analysis could provide the data required without the need to disturb the animals. This paper describes new work at the Institute of Engineering Research which uses image analysis to estimate the weight of pigs as a starting point for the wider range of applications which have been identified. In particular a technique has been developed to

Schofield, C. P.; Marchant, John A.

1991-02-01

346

Agricultural diseases on the move early in the third millennium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With few exceptions, the diseases that present the greatest risk to food animal production have been largely similar throughout the modern era of veterinary medicine. The current trend of ever - increasing globalization of trade of animals and animal products ensures that agricultural diseases will ...

347

29 CFR 780.103 - “Agriculture” as defined by the Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry or lumbering operations) performed by a...

2013-07-01

348

Department of Agriculture  

MedlinePLUS

... Growth EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research MARKETING AND TRADE ... land management, sustainable land management... Research, Education and Economics U.S. food and fibers system, library, statistics, research, ...

349

Agricultural Leadership, Education, & Communications  

E-print Network

Agricultural Leadership, Education, & Communications ALEC 102 Fall 2006 Course Title: Critical Issues in Agricultural Leadership and Education Credit: 1 Hour Instructors: Ms. Summer Felton; 119A! This introductory course is designed for students entering in the Agricultural Leadership & Development degree

350

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference Conference Information This conference will discuss the drivers of Missouri agricultural and bio-fuel markets and the implications for Missouri farmsDr.JonHagler, DirectoroftheMissouriDepartment ofAgriculture. · Outlookpresentationsderivedfrom thelatestbaselineresultsof

Noble, James S.

351

Evolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a tour of the history of the universe, the solar system, and Earth. Moving the slider allows viewers to progress from the Big Bang, almost 14 billion years ago, to the beginnings of life on Earth in the Proterozoic era, through the age of the dinosaurs and finally to the time of Homo sapiens. When the slider stops moving, animations and text appear, highlighting important events. Other animations accompany the time scale and show the movements of the continents, the advance and retreat of the polar ice caps, and changes in the oxygen content of the atmosphere. The length of the timeline helps reinforce the idea of the immense age of the universe. A French translation is available.

John Kyrk

352

Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.  

PubMed

Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities. PMID:25000778

Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

2014-04-01

353

Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

354

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agriculture in the Classroom is a grassroots program coordinated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). This site contains state information about agriculture, a kids page with games and information, agriculture science project topics, lesson plans for agriculture and geography, quizzes to test agriculture literacy and links for more information. The goal of this program is to help students gain a greater awareness of the role of agriculture in the economy and society, so that they may become citizens who support wise agricultural policies. The program is carried out in each state, according to state needs and interests, by individuals representing farm organizations, agribusiness, education and government.

355

Groundwater Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash and QuickTime animations related to groundwater. They contrast the permeability of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, as well as the speed of groundwater movement in rivers, lakes, and aquifers. They also outline the hydrologic cycle, discussing infiltration, percolation, and the water table, exhibit groundwater overdraft and the resulting formation of a cone of depression, and show how groundwater entering fractured bedrock can become superheated and pushed to the surface, erupting as a geyser. The animations can be paused and rewound to stress important points. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

356

Animal models.  

PubMed

Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

2012-01-01

357

Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

358

Call for Proposals John Lee Pratt Animal Nutrition Program  

E-print Network

Call for Proposals John Lee Pratt Animal Nutrition Program College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Virginia Tech Background The John Lee Pratt Endowment, established to support animal nutrition research nutrition programs. In an effort to better meet the original goals of the Endowment in enhancing animal

Liskiewicz, Maciej

359

Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Animals Approved by UGA IACUC May 22, 2007  

E-print Network

animals used in research and instruction. 1. United States Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training. 2. Regulations of the Animal Welfare for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching." (FASS Guide) Animal use solely

Arnold, Jonathan

360

Anime News  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: They say a picture is worth a thousand words. So, if there is no picture for a news story, just make something up! This is the premise a Hong Kong-based computer animation company has based its success on. No video footage...

Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

2011-06-15

361

Transgenic Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

Jaenisch, Rudolf

1988-01-01

362

Curriculum Animation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

Gose, Michael D.

2004-01-01

363

Shorelines Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation will help you to learn all about shorelines! You will learn how waves affect the coast, the sources of sediment, and how humans interfere in the whole scheme. There is also a model to learn more about groins, seawalls, and breakwater.

2002-01-01

364

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As NATURE frequently contains notices of intelligence in animals, I have ventured to send you the inclosed note from the Reading local paper, as containing a remarkable fact regarding intelligence in a blind horse. The writer, Mr. Gostage, is quite trustworthy, and I have taken pains to verify the truth of his statements.

Joseph Stevens; S. Gostage

1883-01-01

365

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE columns of NATURE have sometimes been open to statements illustrating the practical sagacity of animals of the lower classes. Allow me to place before you the history of an occurrence which appears to prove the power of organisation in the common house-mouse.

G. A. B

1883-01-01

366

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEVERAL remarkable instances of intelligence in animals have been given in recent numbers of NATURE. Possibly the following instance of reasoning power in an elephant may not be without interest:-Some years ago I was ascending the lower part of the Darjeeling Hill Road, in the Himalaya Mountains, from Terai. At a certain part of the road, where we met a

F. R. Mallet

1883-01-01

367

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH the terms ``ass'' and, at any rate in Germany, ``ox'' (Ochs) are very generally applied to stupid persons, those who have observed the bovine and asinine genera know that this is an injustice to those animals; and the following instances of particular intelligence displayed by two of the thus maligned beasts seem worth recording.

L. C. Hurt

1902-01-01

368

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE following notes of facts observed in New Zealand may be thought of interest; in some way they may serve to illustrate Mr. Romanes' work on ``Animal Intelligence'' : they are submitted without making an attempt to distinguish where they may overlap the fine line between instinct and intelligence. Cases which may show apparent intelligence or the reverse are recorded

T. H. Potts

1884-01-01

369

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN an excellent paper on ``Animal Intelligence'' (NATURE, vol. xxvi. p. 523), Mr. C. Lloyd Morgan says that ``The brute has to be contented with the experience he inherits or individually acquires. Man, through language spoken or written, profits by the experience of his fellows. Even the most savage tribe has traditions extending back to the father's father. May there

Fritz Mueller; S. GOSTAGE

1883-01-01

370

Animals Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site from BioMedia (1) is a fascinating look (no pun intended) at the eyes of other animals. Various images of eyeballs link to essays that explain such questions as how animals can see underwater and how many times the eye independently evolved in the animal kingdom. The next site (2) is based on a PBS Nova documentary about nocturnal animals. Visitors can click on an image of an eye to learn more about the animal that uses it to see in the dark. The San Diego Natural History Museum provides the kid-friendly Web site, which does a terrific job of explaining the anatomy and function of different types of eyes (3). The next site, provided by Tufts University, offers photos of how squirrels, sharks, turtles, and bees might see the world compared with human vision (4). Andrew Giger, a neuroscientist working on bee vision at the Australian National University, wrote the program B-EYE for his research. Visitors to his Web site (5) can see what a selection of grey-scale images might look like from a bee's perspective. The next site (6) is provided by about.com, offering a detailed article about bird vision. Similarly, the next Web site from the North American Hunting Retriever Association contains an extensive review of an article that appeared in the Journal of the Veterinary Medical Association about dog vision (7). Finally, the last site is a page from Micscape - the online monthly magazine of Microscopy UK - showing how the eyes of various mollusks look under the microscope (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

371

FirstName LastName Department College Address email phone Tracy Boyer Agricultural Economics Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources 321 Ag Hall tracy.boyer@okstate.edu 405-744-6169  

E-print Network

Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources 321 Ag Hall tracy.boyer@okstate.edu 405-744-6169 Ulrich Melcher Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources 246 Noble Research Center ulrich.melcher@okstate.edu 405-744-6210 Deb Vanoverbeke Animal Science Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources 104D Animal

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

372

Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

Bandettini, Peter A.

373

Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

374

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

375

environment and agriculture  

E-print Network

environment and agriculture environmentagriculture.curtin.edu.au Bachelor of Science - majorS in agriculture, environmental Biology or coaStal Zone management Science and engineering #12;t he department of environment and agriculture caters for students who are passionate about agriculture, biology, conserving

376

Animated Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

2002-01-01

377

Geoscience Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation that shows Earth's orbit around the sun and the tilt of Earth's axis relative to the sun in each month of the orbit. Students can move the cursor to a given month to see the position of Earth in its orbit at that time of year or can run a full animation of the yearly orbit. If one clicks on "Show Earth Profile" at the bottom, right corner of the resource, a small box pops up in the lower, right corner that shows the position of the Earth's axis in relation to the sun's rays at various points in the orbit. As such, it shows how the sun's rays directly strike different places on Earth during the orbit because of Earth's tilt. Accompanying text also points out number of daylight hours at the equator and at each pole during each solstice and equinox.

378

Animation Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online magazine is all about animation and features regular articles, reviews of films and books, and profiles about people in the industry and tutorials. Articles in the current issue address topics such as "the impact of new technology on performance and the future roles of technology, new and old" and international perspectives on Bridging the Cultural Divide in Digital Entertainment. The tutorials cover topics such as how to make 3-D characters come to life and making molds. The Special Features articles report on gaming, production, technology and voice acting. Past issues are also available and can be searched by key word or sorted by category. Numerous other links are listed for more information on animation, resources for education, and listings of upcoming events and contests.

379

Animal Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The focus of this Science NetLinks lesson is threefold. First, to expose students to the fact that all species have a capacity for communication. Second, to enlighten students to the fact that communication abilities range from very simple to extremely complex, depending upon the species. Third, to realize that communication is influenced by a species' genetic makeup, its environment, and the numerous ways by which animals and humans respond to and adapt to their surroundings.

Science Netlinks

2003-09-09

380

Animal cellulases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Previous dogma has maintained that cellulose, ingested by xylophagous or herbivorous animals, is digested by cellulolytic\\u000a symbiotes. The first evidence in conflict with this contention involved the demonstration of cellulolytic activities in symbiote-free\\u000a secreting organs (e.g., the salivary glands of termites) or defaunated guts. Following these demonstrations, possible endogenous\\u000a cellulase components were purified from several cellulose-digesting invertebrates, but this

H. Watanabe; G. Tokuda

2001-01-01

381

Agriculture: access to technology limited.  

PubMed

From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737

1997-01-01

382

Agricultural Statistics 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1998 issue of this annual United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service compendium is available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) from the Agricultural Statistics site. Its fifteen chapters consist of time series tables covering all aspects of the US agricultural economy, including crops, livestock, farm income and expenses, price-support, and fertilizer and pesticides. Time series and geographic coverage vary. The site also contains national and state tables and an archive of Agricultural Statistics back to 1994.

383

Does accreditation by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) ensure greater compliance with animal welfare laws?  

PubMed

Accreditation of nonhuman animal research facilities by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) is widely considered the "gold standard" of commitment to the well being of nonhuman animals used in research. AAALAC-accredited facilities receive preferential treatment from funding agencies and are viewed favorably by the general public. Thus, it bears investigating how well these facilities comply with U.S. animal research regulations. In this study, the incidences of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) at AAALAC-accredited facilities were evaluated and compared to those at nonaccredited institutions during a period of 2 years. The analysis revealed that AAALAC-accredited facilities were frequently cited for AWA noncompliance items (NCIs). Controlling for the number of animals at each facility, AAALAC-accredited sites had significantly more AWA NCIs on average compared with nonaccredited sites. AAALAC-accredited sites also had more NCIs related to improper veterinary care, personnel qualifications, and animal husbandry. These results demonstrate that AAALAC accreditation does not improve compliance with regulations governing the treatment of animals in laboratories. PMID:25174609

Goodman, Justin R; Chandna, Alka; Borch, Casey

2015-01-01

384

Kid's Science Page at the National Agricultural Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture hosts this site for kids, providing "lists of children's books and articles on specific agricultural subjects, science fair projects and supplies, careers and biographies of leading scientists, and 'learn by doing' 4-H youth projects." Five main sections introduce kids to some of the building blocks of modern agriculture: Animals, Environment, Food & Nutrition, General Science, and Plants. A series of educational materials and links to other resources fill out the site.

385

BOOK: Development and Uses of Biofortified Agricultural Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New strategies and techniques have recently been proposed and developed regarding the “functional foods and animal feeds” or biofortified agricultural products. It is foreseeable that the novel research endeavors in this research field will create a global demand for biofortified agricultural produc...

386

Research careers for microbiologists in the USDA Agricultural Research Service  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) employees microbiologists in a wide variety of diverse positions. This includes work involving animal health, infectious diseases and food safety. Various agencies within the USDA are responsible for monit...

387

Agricultural Biotechnology Technician. National Voluntary Occupational Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The skill standards in this document were developed as a result of meetings between representatives of the agricultural industry and educational institutions to determine the skills and educational preparation required of an agricultural biotechnology technician, verified by technicians working in laboratories, greenhouses, animal facilities, and…

National Future Farmers of America Foundation, Madison, WI.

388

University of Connecticut Ratcliffe Hicks School of Agriculture  

E-print Network

· Pre-Physician's Assistant · Pre-Veterinary Science · Resource Economics · Turfgrass and Soil Science of Agriculture (RHSA) 2-year A.A.S. degree program · Agriculture and Natural Resources · Allied Health Sciences · Animal Science · Diagnostic Genetic Sciences · Dietetics · Environmental Science · Environmental Studies

Alpay, S. Pamir

389

Nitrogen – climate interactions in US agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture in the United States cycles large quantities of nitrogen (N) to produce food, fuel and fiber and is a major source of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment. Nitrogen lost from cropping systems and animal operations moves to waterways, groundwater, and the atmosphere. Changes i...

390

Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 2 of 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in three major areas: (1) Animal Science, (2) Supervised Training Programs--Farm Business Management, and (3) Career Selection/Public Relations. Typical of the sixteen units included in the first…

Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

391

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES  

E-print Network

production and protection, animal and plant diseases, genetically modified organisms, fertigation, humanFACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES ANNUAL REPORT OF SPONSORED RESEARCH PROJECTS AND SERVICE and Food Sciences hosted 14 international-, 7 LNCSR-, and 16 URB/IBSAR-funded projects and 8 service

Shihadeh, Alan

392

Agriculture: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course this learning module introduces the student to some of the major trends associated with agriculture and its impact upon cultural evolution and complexity. The first section of the module describes major innovations such as animal power, irrigation and the…

Kassebaum, Peter

393

Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions deals with various aspects of  

E-print Network

Bio III Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions SS 2014 The module Animal-Plant is taught: · Lecture: o Animal-plant interactions, e.g. mutualistic interactions (pollination, floral (herbivory and plant defensive substances) are introduced using various examples (ant-plant interactions

Pfeifer, Holger

394

College of Agriculture College of Agriculture Guide  

E-print Network

......................................................................................................................21 f) System for Accountability and Management (SAM.........................................................................................36 b) Purdue Agriculture Development Office.......................................................................................42 c) Office of Technology Commercialization (OTC

395

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

396

Animal Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

397

Agricultural exposures and stroke mortality in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Exposures associated with common agricultural activities may increase risk of stroke. The authors evaluated associations between self-reported agricultural activities including pesticide use and handling of crops and stroke mortality among 51,603 male pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Vital status was obtained through 2008. Stroke mortality was defined by underlying or contributing cause of death (ICD-9 430–438, ICD-10 I60-I69). Information regarding lifetime pesticide use, working with crops or animals, engagement in other agricultural activities, and potential confounders was self-reported at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models, with age as the time scale, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for state of residence, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Median follow-up time was 13 years, during which 308 stroke deaths occurred. No measure of overall or specific pesticide use was positively associated with mortality due to stroke. Stroke mortality was inversely associated with handling hay, grain, or silage at least once each year as reported at enrollment (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98). There was no evidence of an association between pesticide use and stroke mortality. The inverse association between handling of hays and grains and stroke mortality may be due to (1) those engaging in such activities being healthier than those who did not or (2) exposure to some biological agent present in hays and grains. Further investigation of incident stroke, rather than stroke mortality, as well as stroke subtypes are needed to determine the full role of agricultural exposures and stroke. PMID:24028665

Rinsky, Jessica L.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Blair, Aaron; He, Ka; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Chen, Honglei

2013-01-01

398

9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...the absence of an inspector shall not be used for human food. [35 FR 15569, Oct. 3, 1970, as amended at...

2011-01-01

399

9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...the absence of an inspector shall not be used for human food. [35 FR 15569, Oct. 3, 1970, as amended at...

2010-01-01

400

The animal health foresight project.  

PubMed

The Animal Health Foresight Project was co-sponsored by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). This study is the most recent of a series of four international workshops of the International Working Group on Animal Disposal Alternatives (IWADA), created to determine alternative options for effective disease control without mass animal destruction. The study employed foresight technology to stimulate new thinking using the future perspective tools of challenge questions and scenario development. A total of 43 Canadian and American participants from industry, academia, the public and government made their contributions over the duration of four meetings. The group developed and analysed eight pictures of possible futures. Ten conclusions were formulated. Fundamental to these conclusions was the recognition of a need for a conceptual change to the management of animal health, a new paradigm. This paradigm was a policy change to the management of risks rather than disease elimination, a change in the roles for the establishment of policy and a convergence of animal health and public health. The new paradigm was incorporated into a hierarchy of decision-making options, out of which five principles for alternatives to mass animal destruction were identified. PMID:20411514

Willis, Norman G

2007-01-01

401

Agriculture and nutrition at village level, Underexploited village resources.  

PubMed

Developing country villages contain plants, animals and technologies whose extraordinary potentials are poorly appreciated by scientists. Examples of nutritious village crops that are still largely undeveloped and unappreciated outside their traditional villages are the winged bean, amaranths and the tepary bean. Tropical tree legumes, such as leucaena, grow fast and fix nitrogen and--although barely studied by foresters--are promising sources for village firewood and lumber. There are several animals with great promise for use in villages. The water buffalo is a gentle, productive village resource, neglected by the cow used by Indonesian villagers and unknown elsewhere in the tropics. And Papua New Guinea's new village farms for crocodiles and butterflies graphically demonstrate that wildlife husbandry can be valuable for remote rural areas, despite its neglect by animal science. Among exceptionally useful village technologies, an example is the amazingly efficient cooking system used on the small Indonesian islands of Roti and Sumba, which has so far been described only in Captain Cook's journals. PMID:6106942

Vietmeyer, N D

1980-07-28

402

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

403

Character Animation Animation is a big topic  

E-print Network

Character Animation 1 #12;Overview · Animation is a big topic · We will concentrate on character animation as is used in many games today ­ humans, animals, monsters, robots, etc. #12;Character is called a pose ­ the state of a skeleton at a particular time of animation #12;Regular layout 2 (no arcade

Stephenson, Ben

404

The Core Historical Literature of Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly valuable research Website provides "a core electronic collection of agricultural texts published between the early nineteenth century and the middle to late twentieth century." Currently, the site holds 846 monographs comprising over 315,766 pages covering subjects such as "agricultural economics, agricultural engineering, animal science, crops and their protection, food science, forestry, human nutrition, rural sociology, and soil science." The archive can be searched or browsed with results giving access to a complete bibliographic citation in hypertext as well as the online version of the document. Users can access the document by page number from its individual table of contents. Each text also provides simple, Boolean, or proximity searches for researchers looking for specific references and topics. The authors claim that "United States history cannot fully be understood without studying its rural life and agricultural heritage," and even a quick browse through the variety of titles in this collection appears to substantiate this claim.

2007-11-20

405

Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

1993-01-01

406

Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

407

1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

408

Animal welfare: an animal science approach.  

PubMed

Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

2013-12-01

409

Board on Agriculture & Natural Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the early 1900s, the Board on Agriculture & Natural Resources has served the United States as a unit of the National Research Council. BANR's work largely revolves around providing expert advice on "issues of food and fiber production and related matters of natural resource development, including forestry, fisheries, wildlife and land and water use." On the organization's website, visitors can learn about the events it sponsors (such as conferences and meetings), its reports, ongoing projects, and its well-known Animal Nutrition Program. The report section is well-developed and visitors can view recent works dealing with genetically engineered organisms and the nutrient requirements of nonhuman primates. Cat or dog lovers will definitely want to take a look at Petdoor, which serves as a guide for pet owners who would like information on specific nutrient needs for their animal.

410

Husbandry Factors and the Resumption of Luteal Activity in Open and Zero-Grazed Dairy Cows in Urban and Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Contents The study investigated the influence of selected husbandry factors on interval to resumption of post-partum cyclicity among dairy cows in urban and peri-urban Kampala. A prospective study of 85 day post-partum period of 59 dairy cows in open (n = 38) and zero grazing (n = 21) systems was conducted on 24 farms. Cows of parity 1–6 were recruited starting 15–30 days post-partum. Progesterone (P4) content in milk taken at 10–12 day intervals was analysed using ELISA. The cow P4 profiles were classified into ‘normal’ (< 56 days), ‘delayed’ (> 56 days), ‘ceased’ or ‘prolonged’ (if started < 56 days but with abnormal P4 displays) resumption of luteal activity and tested for association with husbandry and cow factors. Of the 59 cows, luteal activity in 81.4% resumed normally and in 18.6%, delayed. Only 23.7% maintained regular luteal activity, while the others had ceased (10.2%), prolonged (37.3%) or unclear luteal activity (20.3%). There were no differences between open and zero-grazed cows. Milk production was higher (p < 0.05) in zero than open grazing, in urban than peri-urban and in cows fed on brew waste (p < 0.001) compared with mill products and banana peels. Results suggest that luteal activity resumes normally in a majority of cows, although only a minority experienced continued normal cyclicity once ovulation had occurred, in the two farming systems irrespective of feed supplements or water, and that supplementing with brew waste is beneficial for milk production. PMID:24930481

Kanyima, BM; Båge, R; Owiny, DO; Ntallaris, T; Lindahl, J; Magnusson, U; Nassuna-Musoke, MG

2014-01-01

411

Strategies for Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

1989-01-01

412

Limitations to Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pie chart showing the percentage of land without limitations to agriculture (11%) and the reasons that the other land is of limited agriculture usefulness. With a timeplot showing the (slight) increase in arable land over the period 1960-2000

AAAS Atlas of Population and Environment

413

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

414

Agricultural Awareness Activities and Their Integration into the Curriculum as Perceived by Elementary Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from 281 of 689 elementary teachers indicated they had positive perceptions of the agriculture industry and integration of agriculture into the curriculum. Over 80% used agriculture activities, especially the study of animals, plants, food, nutrition, environment, wildlife, and insects. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

Knobloch, Neil A.; Martin, Robert A.

2000-01-01

415

Purdue University is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access institution. Agricultural Research Programs  

E-print Network

Competitiveness ­ Improving crop and animal agriculture and enhancing the productivity of farms; policies; supply farming and value-added opportunities · Food processing · Agricultural/trade policy and foreign marketPurdue University is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access institution. Agricultural Research Programs

416

Minnesota Department of Education Agricultural Education Program Descriptions 01.0000-01.9095  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a brief compilation of descriptions of agricultural education programs linked to Career and Technical Education (CTE) initiative in Minnesota. Agriculture Exploration courses focus on the animal sciences, plant sciences, natural resource sciences, agricultural business and marketing, and leadership development. Agribusiness…

Minnesota Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

417

Agricultural Education in the Zaire: An Essay in the Methodology of Analysis and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research done in 1970-71 in 9 secondary agricultural schools in Zaire was to generate a system for analyzing agricultural education. For this purpose, how the agricultural school relates to the 4 main currents in sociology--the sociology of organization, of education, of occupation, and of "rural animation"--is considered.…

de Failly, D.

418

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEC Agricultural Economics  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEC Agricultural Economics KEY: # = new course THE ECONOMICS OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE. (3 of agriculture in both a national and international dimension. Students who have completed ECO 201

MacAdam, Keith

419

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment SAG Sustainable Agriculture  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment SAG Sustainable Agriculture KEY: # = new course INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. (3) Broad introduction to the environmental, economic and cultural agriculture are discussed along with pertinent soil, crop and livestock management practices. Relationships

MacAdam, Keith

420

SFRSF: Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses sustainable agriculture in southern Florida. Issues include: land managers and farmers working together to support habitat restoration; providing the agricultural and hydrologic science and technology needed to sustain agricultural production and a quality environment; reducing phosphorus and restoring natural hydrology in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA); and Best Management Practices developed to address these issues. There are links provided for additional information on this topic.

2006-12-23

421

Biofuels from Agricultural Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuels are liquid fuels which can be produced from agricultural biomass. Agriculture-based biofuels include bioethanol, biodiesel, biomethanol, methane, and bio-oil components. Various agricultural residues, such as grain dust, crop residues, and fruit tree residues, are available as the sources of agricultural energy. Bio-energy from biomass, both residues and energy crops, can be converted into modern energy carriers. Bioethanol is derived

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

422

West Virginia University 1 Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources,  

E-print Network

and Nutritional Sciences; Design and Merchandising; Forestry and Natural Resources; Plant and Soil Sciences a baccalaureate degree, plus a college-wide pre-major (Pre-Agriculture, Forestry, and Consumer Sciences's section on the following pages. Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences · Animal and Nutritional

Mohaghegh, Shahab

423

West Virginia University 1 Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources,  

E-print Network

Offered Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences · Master of Science in Animal and Nutritional Sciences · Master of Science in Reproductive Physiology · Doctor of Philosophy in Agricultural Sciences · Doctor of Philosophy in Reproductive Physiology Division of Design and Merchandising · Master of Science in Design

Mohaghegh, Shahab

424

How "Animal Spirits" Wrecked the Housing Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Real-estate markets are almost as volatile as stock markets. Prices of agricultural land, of commercial real estate, and of homes and condominiums have gone through a series of huge bubbles, as if people never learned from the previous ones. Such events--in particular the recent housing bubble--are driven by what John Maynard Keynes called animal

Akerlof, George A.; Shiller, Robert J.

2009-01-01

425

Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article is about how transgenic animals, i.e., engineered to carry genes from other species, have the potential to improve human welfare in: agriculture, such as larger sheep that grow more wool, medicine, such as cows that produce insulin in their milk, andindustry, such as goats that produce spider silk for materials production.

Endang Tri Margawati (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia;)

2003-01-01

426

Biotechnology and Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

Kenney, Martin

427

Agricultural Structures, Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

428

International Programs in Agriculture  

E-print Network

International Programs in Agriculture MessagefromtheDirector­ Staying Ahead of Globalization and more prosperous place for all. Fortunately, Purdue International Programs in Agriculture (IPIA) has natural disasters caution us to remember the power of nature. The United Nations Food and Agriculture

429

Growing Hawaii's agriculture industry,  

E-print Network

Program Overview Growing Hawaii's agriculture industry, one business at a time Website: http-3547 agincubator@ctahr.hawaii.edu Grow Your Business If you are looking to start an agriculture-related business with our program · Positively impact the agriculture industry in Hawaii with their success

430

Division of Agriculture,  

E-print Network

DAFVM Division of Agriculture, Forestry, and Veterinary M e d i c i n e Visit us online at www to the Mississippi State University Division of Agriculture, Forestry, and Veterinary Medicine. Discrimination based-3-14) Mississippi State University's Division of Agriculture, Forestry, and Veterinary Medicine, or DAFVM

Ray, David

431

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference Conference Information Join us to discuss the drivers of Missouri agricultural and bio-fuels markets and participate in a special review of international policy implications for Missouri agriculture. Registration Deadline To guarantee space availability, please register

Noble, James S.

432

European Commission Agriculture and  

E-print Network

European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32 (0) 2-2969909 Fax: +32 (0) 2-29211 33 E-mail: info@ec.europa.eu Web: https://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture

433

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

434

Dairy livestock methane remediation and global warming.  

PubMed

One of the major greenhouse gases is the methane released from ruminants. Greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural portion of the economy may benefit from biologically based remediation strategies, including potential use of probiotics in animal husbandry. A broad range of disciplines (including climatologists, microbiologists, biochemists, physical chemists, agricultural economists) can assist in biological strategies to reduce agricultural methane emissions. PMID:20112056

Nusbaum, Neil J

2010-10-01

435

Session Title Climate Smart Agriculture  

E-print Network

Session Title Climate Smart Agriculture Session Date Khosla (moderator) Professor, Soil and Crop Sciences College of Agricultural Climate Smart Agriculture is a multi-disciplinary approach to practice agriculture

Barnes, Elizabeth A.

436

Montana State University 1 College of Agriculture  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 College of Agriculture Graduate Programs Available Agricultural Education Program (http:// catalog.montana.edu/graduate/agriculture/agricultural- education) · M.S. in Agricultural Education (http://catalog.montana.edu/graduate/ agriculture/agricultural-education) Department

Lawrence, Rick L.

437

[Risks due to chemical agents in agriculture].  

PubMed

After a few notices about the contribution that chemistry has given for the development of the agriculture in this last century, we give a short description, with a classification supposition, of the main chemical agents used in the agricultural field, for the development and the defence of animal productions and crop-farming. Then, we present national statistical information about the use of chemical means of agrarian interest. We give also a short description of risks caused by chemical agents in agricolture (with hygienic implications concerning consumers also) prefiguring, in conclusion, some hypoteses for the substitution of the chemical mean with alternative techniques and methods. PMID:755403

Robiony, D

1978-01-01

438

Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

1977-01-01

439

Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

440

How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.  

PubMed Central

The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

2002-01-01

441

Character Animation Tool \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Character animation toolkits are very essential tools for animators in computer graphics world. These tools can make the work of animators extremely easy. Each tool can be applied to different body parts of character or the whole character. The tool that is described in this paper helps animators for creating character hand's animation. Hands of character in animation play one

Hikmat Abdoollayev; Eunmi Choi; Dugki Min

2008-01-01

442

NEED AND METHODS OF GENE CONSERVATION IN ANIMAL BREEDING (*)  

E-print Network

NEED AND METHODS OF GENE CONSERVATION IN ANIMAL BREEDING (*) K. MAIJALA Agricultural Research Centre, Department of Animal Breeding, Tikkurila, Finland SUMMARY The problem of gene losses of present breeding methods on the genetic variability (both selection and random drift); 3)changing demand

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

Ethical Issues Concerning Animal Research Outside the Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unique ethical issues can be associated with research out- side the customary laboratory setting. Protocols involving wild animals must consider that any infringement on the wild nature of the species can be disruptive and may involve pain, fear, anxiety, and frustration, all of which constitute ethical harm that must be balanced with anticipated benefit. Agricultural and companion animal research, however,

Lilly-Marlene Russow; Peter Theran

2003-01-01

444

The use of GMOs (genetically modified organisms): agricultural biotechnology or agricultural biopolitics?  

PubMed

Agricultural biotechnologies embrace a large array of conventional and modern technologies, spanning from composting organic by-products of agriculture to innovative improvement of quality traits of about twenty out of the mostly cultivated plants. In EU a rather restrictive legislative framework has been installed for GMOs, requiring a risk assessment disproportionate with respect to conventional agriculture and organic farming products. The latter are far from being proved safe for human and animal health, and for the environment. Biotechnology of GMOs has been overtaken by biopolitics. On one side there are biotechnological challenges to be tackled, on another side there is plenty of ground for biopolitical decisions about GMOs. Perhaps the era of harsh confrontation could be fruitfully replaced by sensible cooperation, in order to get a sustainable agricultural development. PMID:17987558

Nuti, Marco; Felici, Cristiana; Agnolucci, Monica

2007-01-01

445

Two on Urban Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As various organizations and think-tanks continue to develop programmatic strategies to improve the welfare of the world's poor, one intriguing idea that has met with marked success is the incorporation of agriculture into the very fabric of urban areas. One such organization is the International Development Research Centre (based in Canada), and its Cities Feeding People program. At the website, visitors can learn about the centre's research agenda, read various working papers and online books on the subject of urban agriculture (such as the recently released, Urban Agriculture Policy Briefs for Local Governments in Latin America), and read news updates. In that same vein, and found at the second link, is the Georgia Center for Urban Agriculture which is also committed "to promoting environmental stewardship and the delivery of science-based information." Here visitors can learn more about urban agriculture, read about creating and maintaining a successful urban agriculture, and the organization of the Center.

446

The Caribbean Animal and Plant Information Network.  

PubMed

The Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) is presently implementing a four-year project in the Caribbean region to establish a regional information network on animal and plant health--the Caribbean Animal and Plant Health Information Network (CARAPHIN). CARAPHIN's immediate goal is to give the participating countries the technical capability to process and analyze the phyto- and zoo-sanitary information that they generate, share this information within the region, and use it as an effective instrument for decision making for agricultural development and trade. Sharing of information is further facilitated through the periodic regional and hemispheric meetings organized by IICA, by the Inter-American Animal Health Commission, and by the Technical Advisory Committee on Plant Protection. The Veterinary and Plant Protection Services of the region have expressed interest in the continuation of CARAPHIN as a permanent mechanism for agricultural health information management in the Caribbean. This motivated IICA to seek financing for a second phase of CARAPHIN, which will be executed from 1992 through 1996. Phase II of the project will seek to ensure the continuing application of the techniques and methodologies acquired by the agricultural health services of the different countries, and the functioning of the disease/pest information systems at the regional level. This will be achieved through technical assistance, continuing education, publications, provision of useful databases, and transfer of the project to a regional institution. PMID:1626887

Dugas, R; Bernardo, T M

1992-06-16

447

Capture, transport, and husbandry of elephant sharks (Callorhinchus milii) adults, eggs, and hatchlings for research and display.  

PubMed

Elephant sharks (Callorhinchus milii) have the slowest evolving genome of all vertebrates and are an interesting model species for evolution research and a prized display animal. However, their deep water habitat, short breeding season, fragility, and susceptibility to stress-induced mortality have made them difficult animals to capture, keep in captivity, and obtain fertilized eggs from. Gravid females were captured by rod and reel from Western Port Bay, Australia and transferred to a 40?000?L closed aquaculture system to lay their eggs before being released. The water quality parameters, averaged over three seasons of 4-6 weeks (mean?±?standard deviation) were: 16.8°C?±?2.31, salinity 37.1?±?2.9?g/L, ammonia 0.137?±?0.2?mg/L, nitrite levels 0.89?±?0.9?mg/L, nitrate 66.8?±?45.6?mg/L, pH 7.8?±?0.18, dissolved oxygen levels 93.6?±?5.3%, ORP 307?±?63.3?mV. Eggs were incubated in purpose-built egg cages and embryos hatched after 143.6 days?±?1.3 at 16.9?±?0.9°C of incubation. These procedures led to no adult mortality in the last 2 years and 620 eggs with known deposition date were collected over 4 years, of which 81.5% (±4.8) were viable. Collection of abundant embryological material with known deposition date is of paramount importance for evolutionary developmental research. We attribute this success to excellent water quality, maximum reduction of stress during capture, transport, handling, and captive care. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25400285

Boisvert, Catherine A; Martins, Camila Leite; Edmunds, Alison Grace; Cocks, Julian; Currie, Peter

2014-11-14

448

Agricultural aviation research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

Chevalier, H. L. (compiler); Bouse, L. F. (compiler)

1977-01-01

449

Agriculture Fact Book 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture Office of Communications has recently released the latest version (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) of its Agriculture Fact Book (discussed in the May 17, 1996 Scout Report). It is a compendium of thousands of facts presented in thumbnail essay, chart, table, and map formats that discuss the various aspects of US agriculture. The AFB answers questions about what Americans eat and what it costs, the structure of agriculture, and rural America, among others. Users can also find detailed organizational information about the Department. The AFB is a well-known reference tool for librarians, journalists, and subject specialists alike.

450

Agriculture Fact Book 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) has recently released the _Agricultural Fact Book 1996_ . Provided by the USDA Office of Communications, it offers basic facts about many aspects of U.S. agriculture, including the U.S. farm sector, the structure of U.S. agriculture, and rural America. It contains short entries and brief statistical breakdowns, and is meant to be used as a ready reference tool for journalists, librarians, farm special interest groups, and the general public. The publication is available only in Adobe Acrobat .pdf format. Pointers to the Adobe Acrobat download site are available from the publication.

1996-01-01

451

Fulbrighters Agricultural scientists  

E-print Network

with research and education. A Fulbright award gives students and scholars the benefit of conducting worldFulbrighters are... Agricultural scientists Anthropologists Archeologists Architects Art historians

452

Animal Source Foods to Improve Micronutrient Nutrition in Developing Countries Solutions Exist for Constraints to Household Production and Retention of Animal Food Products1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews constraints to household level animal source food production in developing countries and suggests solutions to some of these constraints. These constraints include land, labor, money, feed quality, water, disease, animal genetics, roles for animals beyond food production, grazing techniques and an understanding of the entire agricultural system at the household level. Better understanding of farming systems and

Dan L. Brown

453

Wisconsin Agriculture Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics  

E-print Network

Wisconsin Agriculture 2012 STATUS OF Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics · Status­Extension College of Agricultural & Life Sciences UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MADISON #12;#12;Status of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2012 An annual report by the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, UW

Radeloff, Volker C.

454

ANIMAL NUTRITION. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNITS, ANIMAL NUTRITION, FEED CHARACTERISTICS, VITAMINS, MINERALS. FINAL REPORT NUMBER 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE ANIMAL NUTRITION PRACTICES WERE IDENTIFIED BY EXAMINATION OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. UTILIZING THIS INFORMATION, THE AUTHOR INVOLVED 16 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL USE OF A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS. INSTRUCTIONAL RESULTS WERE NOT AVAILABLE AT THE…

LONG, GILBERT A.

455

The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

2012-01-01

456

High-impact animal health research conducted at the USDA's National Animal Disease Center  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commissioned by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in December 1961, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center (NADC) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in November 2011. Over these 50 years, the NADC established itself amon...

457

Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

Christensen, Christian M.

458

Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service  

MedlinePLUS

... 31:38 AM MST USDA Notes Progress on Swine Enteric Coronavirus Diseases Since Federal Order Dec 18, ... Comment on Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Feral Swine Damage Management Dec 11, 2014 7:12:03 ...

459

Ethical, Social, Environmental and Economic Issues in Animal Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India’s population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world’s bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic

P. C. Kesavan; M. S. Swaminathan

460

[Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

Tal, H

2013-10-01

461

Application of gene expression studies in livestock production systems: a European perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of sustainable agriculture and animal husbandry, understanding animal physiology remains a major challenge inthe breeding andproduction of livestock, especially todevelop animal farming systems that respond to the new and diversified consumer demand. Physiological processes depend on the expression of many genes acting in concert. Considerable effort hasbeenexpendedinrecent years on examiningthe mechanisms controllinggeneexpression and their regulation by biological

I. Cassar-MalekA; B. PicardA; C. Bernard; J.-F. Hocquette

2008-01-01

462

Invasive species in agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

463

Ecological Models: Agricultural Models  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The agricultural research community is faced with a wide array of complex problems to solve. Continued population increases in developing countries require increased agricultural production, while agroecosystems are being stressed and negatively impacted by greater use of water and agrochemicals. F...

464

Theme: Urban Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

1990-01-01

465

Agriculture in the Midwest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

466

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

467

Agriculture Power and Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

Rogers, Tom

468

AGRICULTURAL SPRING 2005  

E-print Network

. The MSU Plant Transformation Center (PTC), one of nine such centers around the country, is helping to ease to insert the genes into economically important agricultural crop plants. The history of Michigan StateMICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION SPRING 2005 VOL. 23 NO. 1 Plant Breeding and Genetics

469

Publications Agricultural Economics  

E-print Network

. (2012). Economics of IPM Decisions. Stored Product Protection (1- 9). Manhattan, KS: Kansas State (1-11). Manhattan, KS: Kansas State. http://entomology.k-state.edu/doc/finished- chapters/s156-ch-27 of Food and Agriculture­ Conservation Effects Assessment Project. How to Build Better Agricultural

470

Agriculture in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture in the United States has been successful in terms of productivity, assets, and employment. Maintaining our agriculture, however, is becoming more cosily in terms of declining resources and offsite environmental damage. Some of the very technology enhancing productivity is part of the cause. Over half the energy costs to produce U.S. crops are for fertilizers and fuel for farm

Raymond P. Poincelot

1990-01-01

471

AGRICULTURAL REPORT FEBRUARY 2008  

E-print Network

allowed the development and sale of livestock insurance products. Like crop insurance, these programsPURDUE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS REPORT FEBRUARY 2008 he Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 of the insurance policy and its availability. This article provides a general description of the LRP-Swine policy

472

Summer Agricultural Program Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher educators and state supervisors were surveyed to determine their perceptions of philosophically ideal agricultural education summer program activities. A random sample of teacher educators was selected from the directory of the American Association for Agricultural Education, and a random sample of state supervisors was selected from a…

Swan, Michael K.

473

Game Animals of Colorado.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game animals typical of Colorado. Discussions in both English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game animals, individual game species, and introduced species of game animals. (RE)

Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

474

Digital character performance animation  

E-print Network

This research is an analysis of past and present acting methods and techniques applicable to animation. Literature research and interviews with animators influence the development of guidelines explaining the process that prepares an animator...

Gonzalez, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

475

[Hunting and animal protection].  

PubMed

In the Federal Republic of Germany the handling of animals during hunting is governed more by the animal protection law than by the corresponding hunting law. Points of the animal protection law which directly affect hunting are (1) the release of wild animals, (2) the training and examination of animals concerning attacking other animals, (3) the setting of animals on other animals, and (4) the killing of vertebrates. Guiding principles for killing wild animals during hunting according to the animal protection law are formulated and discussed in relation to the traditional German understanding of hunting ethics. It can be expected that hunting will increasingly become a topic of public discussion on animal protection, in which the ethics of hunting in relation to the wild animal will be dominant. PMID:8486093

Herling, A W

1993-04-01

476

Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

477

National Agricultural Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are regular online agricultural libraries, and then there is the National Agricultural Library (NAL), with more working papers, fact sheets, and farm updates than ears of corn in a corncrib. This digital library, produced by the United States Department of Agriculture will be quite a boon to agriculture scholars, extension agents, and farmers alike. Designed to assist those who are unable to make a personal visit, the Library's website allows users to browse documents by subject (such as marketing and trade or livestock) and also ask actual librarians questions, via the site. Visitors will definitely want to look at the NAL Special Collections area, which features a number of rare agricultural books and guides, and the very nice pomological watercolor collection, which features images of apples, grapes, and pears.

478

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

479

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

480

Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths  

PubMed Central

Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

Sz?cs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.

2012-01-01

481

Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

2005-01-01

482

Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.  

PubMed

Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade. PMID:25000777

Molomo, M; Mumba, T

2014-04-01

483

Animal production systems in the industrialised world.  

PubMed

The production of food from animal origin is relatively stable in the industrialised world. However, animal production systems are changing dramatically with respect to location, herd size and specialisation. Increased pressure from a critical public is moving animal-based production towards systems such as organic production and loose-housing systems which allow the animals to better express normal behaviour. The focus on food safety promotes systems with a high degree of biosecurity, often associated with an increase in herd size and self-containment. The globalisation of agricultural trade and increased competition also favours an increase in herd size and specialisation. These trends also lead to regions with livestock-dense areas, giving rise to environmental concerns. Therefore, good farming practice regulations and systems to provide a higher level of transparency, such as quality risk management programmes, are being developed. PMID:17094692

Sørensen, J T; Edwards, S; Noordhuizen, J; Gunnarsson, S

2006-08-01

484

NATIONAL AGRICULTURE SAFETY DATABASE (NASD)  

EPA Science Inventory

NASD is a national central repository of agricultural health, safety, and injury prevention materials for the agricultural community and especially for agricultural safety specialists. The mission of the NASD project is: to provide a national information resource for the dissemin...

485

Oregon Agriculture and the Economy  

E-print Network

Oregon Agriculture and the Economy: An Update Oregon State University Extension Service Rural Analyst Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics Oregon State University #12;Contents ...........................................................................................................................................12 Agricultural Support Services, Wholesale Trade, Transportation and Warehousing, Retail Trade

Tullos, Desiree

486

Recent evidence of animal exploitation in the Axumite epoch, 1st-5th centuries AD.  

PubMed

This study reports evidence of animal exploitation during the Axumite era based on a survey of architectural features, rock art and artefacts recovered from the archaeological site at Axum, northern Ethiopia. Animals and agricultural tools were identified from materials not previously examined. Pottery, rock art and animal remains revealed a range of zoological species. Agricultural implements and sacrificial vessels also provided indirect evidence of animal exploitation. It is concluded that, in addition to plough-based agriculture, the hunting of large wild animals, such as elephants and lions, and the exploitation of domestic cattle, small ruminants and poultry were part of the Axumite subsistence regime. Although it is difficult to reconstruct an overall subsistence pattern based on this study alone, the physical and biological evidence suggests that the Axumites practised combined cultivation and animal herding. Further investigation is required to study the types and breeds of animals and their distribution in time and space. PMID:14998309

Tefera, M

2004-02-01

487

The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems  

PubMed Central

Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter–gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods by agricultural and forager communities in 22 countries of Asia and Africa (36 studies) is 90–100 species per location. Aggregate country estimates can reach 300–800 species (e.g. India, Ethiopia, Kenya). The mean use of wild species is 120 per community for indigenous communities in both industrialized and developing countries. Many of these wild foods are actively managed, suggesting there is a false dichotomy around ideas of the agricultural and the wild: hunter–gatherers and foragers farm and manage their environments, and cultivators use many wild plants and animals. Yet, provision of and access to these sources of food may be declining as natural habitats come under increasing pressure from development, conservation-exclusions and agricultural expansion. Despite their value, wild foods are excluded from official statistics on economic values of natural resources. It is clear that wild plants and animals continue to form a significant proportion of the global food basket, and while a variety of social and ecological drivers are acting to reduce wild food use, their importance may be set to grow as pressures on agricultural productivity increase. PMID:20713393

Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules

2010-01-01

488

[Occupational dermatitis in the agriculture-food industry environment].  

PubMed

The agricultural and food professions are those that touch agriculture, but also the restoration, the kitchens, and the employees of slaughterhouses. Various occupational skin diseases touch these salaried employees or craftsmen: eczemas or contact hives with plants or meats and fleshes of animals and all chemical substances that are added: pesticides, food additives and various preservatives. Irritation contact dermatitis or real skin burns are observed with housekeeping products imposed by the sanitary norms, increasingly powerful, but as increasingly caustic. Infectious illnesses transmitted from the animal to the man are sometimes observed especially among the breeders and employees of slaughterhouses. PMID:12385154

Tripodi, Dominique; Géraut, Christian

2002-09-01

489

University of Nevada, Las Vegas Policy on Laboratory Animal Care and Use  

E-print Network

guidance for the humane use and treatment of animals used in research, teaching and testing with the Secretary of Agriculture as a single "research facility" in accordance with the Federal Animal Welfare Act research in which animals are utilized. The policy is applicable whether the research is student

Hemmers, Oliver

490

High-Tech Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, created by ATETV and presented by WGBH, takes a look at agricultural technology as a career choice. This video provides a basic overview of the field and its growing importance. In the video, several students give their opinions of an agricultural technology program, and instructors discuss how they feel the field will only grow in the future. This video is helpful for anyone looking to get into a more technical area of agriculture. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 2:46.

491

Animal Thinking An Introduction  

E-print Network

into the proximate causes of animal behavior, awareness grew of the importance of taking a species1 Animal Thinking An Introduction Randolf Menzel and Julia Fischer The topic of this Strüngmann Forum--animal thinking--was not formulated as a question--"Do animals think?--but rather as a statement

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

492

Physics for Animation Artists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

2011-01-01

493

Carotenoids in Marine Animals  

PubMed Central

Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

Maoka, Takashi

2011-01-01

494

Carotenoids in marine animals.  

PubMed

Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

Maoka, Takashi

2011-01-01

495

Dairy animal welfare. Introduction.  

PubMed

Organizations devoted to proper animal care have focused the attention of society on humane animal treatment. In recent years, some groups have raised questions as to what constitutes proper animal care on the farm and in the research laboratory. Philosophical questions about animal rights have been raised. Several groups are active in the animal welfare, animal rights arena and they vary widely in their objectives and methods of operation. Many of these groups are well-funded. Some resort to civil disobedience to achieve their ends. Farm animal commodity groups, animal-oriented research agencies, and animal-related industry groups have become increasingly aware of the public interest in animal welfare and are organizing programs and groups to better understand and educate the public on the issues. PMID:3448117

Blosser, T H

1987-12-01

496

Zooprophylaxis or zoopotentiation: the outcome of introducing animals on vector transmission is highly dependent on the mosquito mortality while searching  

PubMed Central

Background Zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to animals, may reduce transmission of diseases such as malaria. However, as the number of animals increases, improved availability of blood meals may increase mosquito survival, thereby countering the impact of diverting feeds. Methods Computer simulation was used to examine the effects of animals on the transmission of human diseases by mosquitoes. Three scenarios were modelled: (1) endemic transmission, where the animals cannot be infected, eg. malaria; (2) epidemic transmission, where the animals cannot be infected but humans remain susceptible, e.g. malaria; (3) epidemic disease, where both humans and animals can be infected, but develop sterile immunity, eg. Japanese encephalitis B. For each, the passive impact of animals as well as the use of animals as bait to attract mosquitoes to insecticide was examined. The computer programmes are available from the author. A teaching model accompanies this article. Results For endemic and epidemic malaria with significant searching-associated vector mortality, changing animal numbers and accessibility had little impact. Changing the accessibility of the humans had a much greater effect. For diseases with an animal amplification cycle, the most critical factor was the proximity of the animals to the mosquito breeding sites. Conclusion Estimates of searching-associated vector mortality are essential before the effects of changing animal husbandry practices can be predicted. With realistic values of searching-associated vector mortality rates, zooprophylaxis may be ineffective. However, use of animals as bait to attract mosquitoes to insecticide is predicted to be a promising strategy. PMID:14565850

Saul, Allan

2003-01-01

497

Animal Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Animal Information Database is an educational Web site from SeaWorld/Busch Gardens. The site contains a wide variety of information about many animals including fun facts, biological classification, habitat, and news about specific animals at the Sea World/Busch Gardens parks. A fun part of the site is the Animal Sounds Library where visitors can listen to the interesting sounds made by a number of animals.

2002-01-01

498

Animals in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

White, Angela

1988-01-01

499

United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service  

E-print Network

United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service The USDA, Agricultural by the Agricultural Research Service, USDA. Please send CV and inquires to Dr. Bruce Dien, USDA/ARS Bioenergy Research Unit, Peoria, IL 61604, or by e-mail (Bruce.Dien@ars.usda.gov). USDA/ARS is an equal opportunity

Weiblen, George D

500

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEN Agricultural Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEN Agricultural Engineering KEY: # = new course of engineering systems, earthwork computations, and introduction to boundary surveys for Agriculture students in the College of Agriculture and/or consent of instructor. AEN 220 FARM TRACTORS AND ENGINES. (3) Principles

MacAdam, Keith