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The inhibition of bacterial growth by carbenicillin and cefotaxime was demonstrated using three different Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strains, LBA4404, C58 and EHA101. LBA4404 was the most sensitive strain to carbenicillin and cefotaxime. Significantly toxic effects were observed when tobacco leaf explants were grown on MS medium containing 250 ?g\\/ml carbenicillin and 1 ?g\\/ml 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The regeneration of tobacco shoots
We have sequenced the complete genome of the plant pathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4213, a derivative of the wild-type strain A. tumefaciens Ach5 and the ancestor of A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 used in genetic engineering. The genome consists of a circular chromosome and a linear chromosome, as well as a megaplasmid and a tumor-inducing plasmid.
Henkel, Christiaan V.; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Zhang, Xiaorong
Daucus carota hypocotyl sections were transformed withAgrobacteriumtumefaciensLBA4404 containing CaMV 35S promoter, ß-glucuronidase coding sequence and the nopaline synthase (Nos) poly adenylation sequences in Bin 19. Sliced sterile seedling hypocotyl segments were preincubated for 2 days, co-cultivated withAgrobacterium for an additional 2 days, and then transferred to medium containing 100ug\\/ml of kanamycin and 400ug\\/ml carbenicillin. In 6 weeks kanamycin
John C. Thomas; Mark J. Guiltinan; Silvia Bustos; Terry Thomas; Craig Nessler
Transient expression studies using blueberry leaf explants and monitored by ?-glucuronidase (GUS) assays indicated Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain EHA105 was more effective than LBA4404 or GV3101; and the use of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 ? M for inoculation and 6 days co-cultivation was optimum compared to 2, 4, 8, 10 or 12 days. Subsequently, explants of the cultivars Aurora, Bluecrop, Brigitta, and Legacy were
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vigna radiata L. Wilczek has been achieved. Hypocotyl and primary leaves excised from 2-day-old in-vitro grown seedlings produced transgenic calli on B5 basal medium supplemented with 5×10?6 M BAP, 2.5×10?6 M each of 2,4-D and NAA and 50 mg l?1 kanamycin after co-cultivation with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strains, LBA4404 (pTOK233), EHA105 (pBin9GusInt) and C58C1 (pIG121Hm) all containing ?-glucuronidase
Pawan K. Jaiwal; Ragini Kumari; S. Ignacimuthu; Ingo Potrykus; Christof Sautter
2 Abstract: Successful and stable protocol for Datura metel transformation via Agrobacterium was established. The transformation system was carried out using Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing GUS gene. Three types of explants (leaf, stem, and root) were used to test the effect of explant type on the transformation efficiency. Leaf explants produced the highest transformation rate 11.7% followed by
In this study, Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used in breeding industrial strains for the purpose of improving ?-transglucosidase production. Firstly, an efficient ATMT system for Asperillus niger was established by optimization of several influencing factors, in which transformation efficiency was improved up to 14-fold compared with the initial conditions. Furthermore, binary vector pBI-Glu containing an ?-transglucosidase expression cassette was constructed and transferred into AgrobacteriumtumefaciensLBA4404 in order to infect A. niger. By the efficient ATMT method, the gene for ?-transglucosidase, driven by strong promoter PglaA (the glucoamylase gene promoter), had a high expression level in A. niger A-8 (25.02 U/mL). The optimized ATMT system was found to be effective and suitable for A. niger, and should be a useful tool for studying the function of A. niger genes and for industrial breeding of this strain. PMID:24018680
Reproducible and highly efficient protocols for shoot regeneration and genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium have been established for safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404 with gus reporter gene and hygromycin (hpt gene) as plant selection marker was used as the plant transformation vector. Genetic transformation experiments were carried\\u000a out to evaluate the efficacy of various parameters such as genotype,
Transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were produced efficiently by inoculating different explants withAgrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring a binary vector pBM21 containinguidA (GUS) andnptll (neomycin phosphotransferase) genes. Genetic transformation frequency was found to be high with cotyledonary node explants\\u000a followed by 4 d cocultivation. This method required 3 days of precultivation period before cocultivation withAgrobacterium. A concentration of 75
Perumal Venkatachalam; Natesan Geetha; Narayanasamipillai Jayabalan; Saravanababu; Lakshmi Sita
Transient expression studies using blueberry leaf explants and monitored by beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assays indicated Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain EHA105 was more effective than LBA4404 or GV3101; and the use of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 microM for inoculation and 6 days co-cultivation was optimum compared to 2, 4, 8, 10 or 12 days. Subsequently, explants of the cultivars Aurora, Bluecrop, Brigitta, and Legacy were inoculated with strain EHA105 containing the binary vector pBISN1 with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and an intron-interrupted GUS gene directed by the chimeric super promoter (Aocs)3AmasPmas. Co-cultivation was for 6 days on modified woody plant medium (WPM) plus 100 microM AS. Explants were then placed on modified WPM supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) thidiazuron, 0.5 mg l(-1) alpha-naphthaleneacetic, 10 mg l(-1) kanamycin (Km), and 250 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. Selection for Km-resistant shoots was carried out in the dark for 2 weeks followed by culture in the light at 30 microE m(-2) s(-1) at 25 degrees C. After 12 weeks, selected shoots that were both Km resistant and GUS positive were obtained from 15.3% of the inoculated leaf explants of cultivar Aurora. Sixty-eight independent clones derived from such shoots all tested positive by the polymerase chain reaction using a nptII primer. Eight of eight among these 68 clones tested positive by Southern hybridization using a gusA gene derived probe. The transformation protocol also yielded Km-resistant, GUS-positive shoots that were also PCR positive at frequencies of 5.0% for Bluecrop, 10.0% for Brigitta and 5.6% for Legacy. PMID:15300402
Agrobacterium rhizogenes was used for efficient transformation of chrysanthemum. Two types of Agrobacterium, A. rhizogenes (A-13) and A. tumefaciens (LBA4404), which harbor pIG121-Hm, were employed for infection. In the A. rhizogenes-infected explants, hairy roots were not observed on any tested medium or culture condition. When explants were cultured on shoot induction medium, calli were formed at the cutting edge within
Masato Tsuro; Takashi Kubo; Yoshiaki Shizukawa; Tetsuyuki Takemoto; Koji Inaba
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation (AtMT) has become a common technique for DNA transformation of yeast and filamentous fungi. In this study, we first established a protocol of AtMT for the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum sansevieriae. Binary T-DNA vector containing the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene controlled by the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter and the trpC terminator was constructed with pCAMBIA0380 and used with three different strains LBA4404, GV3101, and GV2260 of A. tumefaciens. Transformants were most effectively obtained when GV2260 and C. sansevieriae Sa-1-2 were co-cultivated; there were about 320 transformants per 10(6) spores. When 1,048 transformants were inoculated on Sansevieria trifasciata, three transformants were found to have completely lost their pathogenicity and two transformants displayed reduced pathogenicity. All of the five transformants had a single copy of T-DNA in their genomes. The three pathogenicity-deficient transformants were subjected to thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and the reaction allowed us to amplify the sequences flanking the left and/or right borders. The flanking sequences of the two transformants, M154 and M875, showed no homology to any sequences in databases, but the sequences of M678 contained motifs of alpha-1,3-glucan synthase, suggesting that the gene might contribute to the pathogenicity of C. sansevieriae. This study describes a useful method for investigating pathogenicity genes in C. sansevieriae. PMID:22585286
Two cotton genotypes, Simian 3 (SM 3) and WC, were co-transformed using a mixture of four Agrobacteriumtumefaciens cultures of strain LBA4404, each carrying a plasmid harboring the following genes, Bt + sck (for Bacillus thuringenesis protein and modified Cowpea trypsin inhibitor), bar (for glufosinate), keratin, and fibroin. The frequency of callus induction, embryogenesis, and plant regeneration were notably different between the
Cotyledon explants of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L., cv. Amarillo Oro) seedlings were co-cultivated with disarmed Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404 that contained the binary vector plasmid pBI121.1. The T-DNA region of this binary vector contains the Nopaline synthase\\/neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) chimeric gene for kanamycin resistance and the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S\\/ß-glucuronidase (GUS) chimeric gene. After infection, the cotyledon pieces were
In order to better utilize insertional mutagenesis and functional genomics in Chinese cabbage, we have developed an improved\\u000a transformation system that more efficiently produces a large number of transgenic plants. Hypocotyl explants were inoculated\\u000a withAgrobacteriumtumefaciensLBA4404. This strain harbors tagging vector pRCV2, which contains a hygromycin-resistance gene, an ampicillin resistance\\u000a gene, and a bacterial replication origin within the T-DNA.
Mi-Kyung Lee; Hyoung-Seok Kim; Jung-Sun Kim; Sung-Hoon Kim; Young-Doo Park
An Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation method was developed for Salix matsudana Koidz. using mature seeds as starting material. Multiple shoots were induced directly from embryonic shoot apices of germinating seeds. Although thidiazuron, 6-benzylaminopurine and zeatin induced multiple shoot induction with high frequency, zeatin (4.5 ?M) was more effective for elongation of shoots and roots. The binary vector pCAMBIA1303, which contained neomycin phosphotransferase as a selectable marker gene and ?-glucuronidase as a reporter gene, was used for transformation. Factors affecting transformation efficiency were examined for optimization of the procedure. Up to 35 of 180 seeds regenerated kanamycin-resistant shoots under optimal transformation conditions as follows: seeds were precultured for 4 days, apices of embryonic shoots were removed and infected with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 grown to a cell density equivalent (OD600) of 0.6, and then the infected explants were cultivated at 21 °C for 4 days. Storage of seeds at -20 °C for as long as 3 years had no significant effect on the induction of kanamycin-resistant shoots. Using this method, transgenic plants were obtained within ?5 months with a transformation frequency of 7.2%. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that 36.4-93.8% of plants from all 13 tested kanamycin-resistant lines were PCR positive. Several 'escapes' were eliminated by a second round of selection. PCR, Southern blot and reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses of selected transgenic individuals 2 years after cutting propagation confirmed the successful generation of stable transformants. Our method, which minimizes the duration of axenic culture, may provide an alternative procedure for transformation of other recalcitrant Salix species. PMID:23771952
The use of two Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strains for transformation of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vesna was studied. Immature embryos, isolated 15 d after pollination, were co-cultivated with the super-binary LBA4404\\/pTOK233\\u000a and the binary AGL1\\/pDM805 vectors. While the transient GUS-intron expression was high (69.9 and 80.0 %), the number of plants\\u000a regenerated on selective media containing hygromycin or phosphinotricin did not
N. Miti?; R. Nikoli?; S. Ninkovi?; J. Miljuš-Djuki?; M. Neškovi?
Regeneration of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) shoots was achieved both by organogenesis and by embryogenesis. Shoots derived via organogenesis were easily rooted and most regenerated plants appeared phenotypically normal. Transgenic plants were obtained using the binary vector pKIWI110 in the avirulent Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404. Optimization of transformation protocols was rapidly achieved by monitoring early expression of the GUS (?-D-glucuronidase) reporter gene carried on pKIWI110. Transgenic plants expressed GUS and selectable marker genes for kanamycin resistance and chlorsulfuron resistance. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and Southern analysis provided molecular evidence for transformation. PMID:24221548
Background: Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a choice and effective drug for malaria treatment. Due to the low yield of artemisinin in plants, there is a need to enhance the production of artemisinin from A. annua and biotechnological technique may be one of the methods that can be used for the purpose. Aim: To study the transformation efficiency of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens in A. annua that could be applied to enhance the production of artemisinin by means of transgenic plants. Setting and Designs: The factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. annua were explored to optimize the transformation system, which included A. tumefaciens strain and effect of organosilicone surfactants. Three strains of A. tumefaciens, that is, LBA4404, GV1301, and AGL1 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1303 have been used for transformation. The evaluation was based on transient ?-glucuronidase (GUS). Materials and Methods: Plant cell cultures were inniatiated from the seeds of A. annua using the germination Murashige and Skoog medium. A. tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA were tranformed into the leaves of A.annua cultures from 2-week-old-seedling and 2-month-old-seedling for 15 min by vacuum infiltration. Transformation efficiency was determinated by measuring of blue area (GUS expression) on the whole leaves explant using ImageJ 1.43 software. Two organosilicon surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were used to improve the transformation efficiency. Results: The transformation frequency with AGL1 strain was higher than GV3101 and LBA4404 which were 70.91, 49.25, and 45.45%, respectively. Effect of organosilicone surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were tested on A. tumefaciens AGL1 and GV3101 for their level of transient expression, and on A. rhizogenes R1000 for its hairy root induction frequency. For AGL1, Silwet S-408 produced higher level of expression than Silwet L-77, were 2.3- and 1.3-fold, respectively. For GV3101, Silwet L-77 was still higher than Silwet S-408, were 1.5- and 1.4-fold, respectively. However, GV3101 produced higher levels of expression than AGL1. The area of GUS expression spots of AGL1, LBA4404, and GV3101 strains was 53.43%, 41.06%, and 30.51%, respectively. Conclusion: A. tumefaciens AGl1 strain was the most effective to be transformed in to A. annua than GV3101 and LBA4404 strain. Surfactant Silwet S-408 produced the highest efficiency of transformation.
A chimeric gene consisting of the promoter region of the nopaline synthase gene (Pnos) fused to the coding sequence of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat gene) of Tn9 was introduced by co-cultivation in tobacco protoplasts followed by selection with 10 ?g/ml chloramphenicol. The chloramphenicol-resistant plants derived from these selected calli were unable to transmit the CmR phenotype through pollen. A typically maternal inheritance pattern was observed. Southern blot analysis showed that the chimeric Pnos-cat gene was present in the chloroplasts of these resistant plants. Furthermore, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity was shown to be associated with the chloroplast fraction. These observations are the first proof that the Agrobacterium Ti-plasmid vectors can be used to introduce genes in chloroplasts. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzsch) is reported here for the first time. Internode stem explants of poinsettia cv. Millenium were transformed by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, strain LBA4404, harbouring virus-derived hairpin (hp) RNA gene constructs to induce RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV). Prior to transformation, an efficient somatic embryogenesis system was developed for poinsettia cv. Millenium in which about 75% of the explants produced somatic embryos. In 5 experiments utilizing 868 explants, 18 independent transgenic lines were generated. An average transformation frequency of 2.1% (range 1.2-3.5%) was revealed. Stable integration of transgenes into the poinsettia nuclear genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Both single- and multiple-copy transgene integration into the poinsettia genome were found among transformants. Transgenic poinsettia plants showing resistance to mechanical inoculation of PnMV were detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Northern blot analysis of low molecular weight RNA revealed that transgene-derived small interfering (si) RNA molecules were detected among the poinsettia transformants prior to inoculation. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology developed in the current study should facilitate improvement of this ornamental plant with enhanced disease resistance, quality improvement and desirable colour alteration. Because poinsettia is a non-food, non-feed plant and is not propagated through sexual reproduction, this is likely to be more acceptable even in areas where genetically modified crops are currently not cultivated. PMID:18327592
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzsch) is reported here for the first time. Internode stem explants of poinsettia cv. Millenium were transformed by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, strain LBA4404, harbouring virus-derived hairpin (hp) RNA gene constructs to induce RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV). Prior to transformation, an efficient somatic embryogenesis system was developed for poinsettia cv. Millenium in which about 75% of the explants produced somatic embryos. In 5 experiments utilizing 868 explants, 18 independent transgenic lines were generated. An average transformation frequency of 2.1% (range 1.2–3.5%) was revealed. Stable integration of transgenes into the poinsettia nuclear genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Both single- and multiple-copy transgene integration into the poinsettia genome were found among transformants. Transgenic poinsettia plants showing resistance to mechanical inoculation of PnMV were detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Northern blot analysis of low molecular weight RNA revealed that transgene-derived small interfering (si) RNA molecules were detected among the poinsettia transformants prior to inoculation. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology developed in the current study should facilitate improvement of this ornamental plant with enhanced disease resistance, quality improvement and desirable colour alteration. Because poinsettia is a non-food, non-feed plant and is not propagated through sexual reproduction, this is likely to be more acceptable even in areas where genetically modified crops are currently not cultivated.
Tumours were incited on leaf sections of Stylosanthes humilis, S. hamata, S. guianensis and S. scalra following infection by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. The suitability of 2 binary vectors (pGA472, BIN6) for gene transfer in S. humilis was tested and kanamycin-resistant tumour tissue was obtained from infected leaf pieces. The presence and expression of the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) gene in the plant cells was demonstrated by hybridization of the coding region of the NPT II gene of the transposon Tn5 to DNA and RNA of kanamycin resistant tumours and by detection of significant NPT II activity in tissue extracts. Tumours also produced teratomatous shoots expressing the NPT II gene, but these could not be rooted. PMID:24248653
Kalanchoë daigremontiana can be stably transformed using the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated T-DNA transfer method, as described here. Sterilized plant tissue is cocultivated with an A. tumefaciens suspension, transformants are selected and the shoots are grown in rooting medium and then in soil. Plant phenotypes can be examined approximately 3 mo after transfer of plants to soil. PMID:20147048
This paper demonstrated the relative bactericidal activity of photoirradiated (6W-UV Torch, ??>?340 nm and intensity?=?0.64 mW/cm(2)) P25-TiO2 nanoparticles, nanorods, and nanotubes for the killing of Gram-negative bacterium AgrobacteriumtumefaciensLBA4404 for the first time. TiO2 nanorod (anatase) with length of 70-100 nm and diameter of 10-12 nm, and TiO2 nanotube with length of 90-110 nm and diameter of 9-11 nm were prepared from P-25 Degussa TiO2 (size, 30-50 nm) by hydrothermal method and compared their biocidal activity both in aqueous slurry and thin films. The mode of bacterial cell decomposition was analyzed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), and K(+) ion leakage. The antimicrobial activity of photoirradiated TiO2 of different shapes was found to be in the order P25-TiO2?>?nanorod?>?nanotube which is reverse to their specific surface area as 54?79?176 m(2) g(-1), evidencing that the highest activity of P25-TiO2 nanoparticles is not due to surface area as their crystal structure and surface morphology are entirely different. TiO2 thin films always exhibited less photoactivity as compared to its aqueous suspension under similar conditions of cell viability test. The changes in the bacterial surface morphology by UV-irradiated P25-TiO2 nanoparticles was examined by TEM, oxidative degradation of cell components such as proteins, carbohydrates, phospholipids, nucleic acids by FT-IR spectral analysis, and K(+) ion leakage (2.5 ppm as compared to 0.4 ppm for control culture) as a measure of loss in cell membrane permeability. PMID:23608987
As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacteriumtumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. The complexity of Agrobacterium–plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely attributed to its evolved capabilities of precise recognition and response to plant-derived chemical signals. Agrobacterium perceives plant-derived signals to activate its virulence genes, which are responsible for transferring and integrating its Transferred DNA (T-DNA) from its Tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the plant nucleus. The expression of T-DNA in plant hosts leads to the production of a large amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinin (CK), and opines. IAA and CK stimulate plant growth, resulting in tumor formation. Agrobacterium utilizes opines as nutrient sources as well as signals in order to activate its quorum sensing (QS) to further promote virulence and opine metabolism. Intriguingly, Agrobacterium also recognizes plant-derived signals including ?-amino butyric acid and salicylic acid (SA) to activate quorum quenching that reduces the level of QS signals, thereby avoiding the elicitation of plant defense and preserving energy. In addition, Agrobacterium hijacks plant-derived signals including SA, IAA, and ethylene to down-regulate its virulence genes located on the Ti plasmid. Moreover, certain metabolites from corn (Zea mays) also inhibit the expression of Agrobacterium virulence genes. Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium–plant interactions.
Medicago\\u000a truncatula, barrel medic, is a forage crop that has been developed into a model legume. The development of new transformation methods is important for functional genomic studies in this species. Based on Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation of root explants, we developed an effective system for producing M. truncatula (genotype R108) transgenic plants. Among the four A. tumefaciens strains (AGL1, C58C1,
Cynthia Crane; Elane Wright; Richard A. Dixon; Zeng-Yu Wang
Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae invade roots of neighboring plants to rob them of water and nutrients. Triphysaria is facultative parasite that parasitizes a broad range of plant species including maize and Arabidopsis. In this paper we describe transient and stable transformation systems for Triphysaria\\u000a versicolor Fischer and C. Meyer. Agrobacterium\\u000a tumefaciens and Agrobacterium\\u000a rhizogenes were both able to transiently
Phosphatidylcholine (PC, lecithin) has long been considered a solely eukaryotic membrane lipid. Only a minority of all bacteria is able to synthesize PC. The plant-transforming bacterium Agrobacteriumtumefaciens encodes two potential PC forming enzymes, a phospholipid N-methyltransferase (PmtA) and a PC synthase (Pcs). We show that PC biosynthesis and tumour formation on Kalanchoë plants was impaired in the double mutant. The virulence defect was due to a complete lack of the type IV secretion machinery in the Agrobacterium PC mutant. Our results strongly suggest that PC in bacterial membranes is an important determinant for the establishment of host-microbe interactions. PMID:17010159
Phosphatidylcholine (PC), or lecithin, is the major phospholipid in eukaryotic membranes, whereas only 10% of all bacteria are predicted to synthesize PC. In Rhizobiaceae, including the phytopathogenic bacterium Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, PC is essential for the establishment of a successful host-microbe interaction. A. tumefaciens produces PC via two alternative pathways, the methylation pathway and the Pcs pathway. The responsible genes, pmtA (coding for a phospholipid N-methyltransferase) and pcs (coding for a PC synthase), are located on the circular chromosome of A. tumefaciens C58. Recombinant expression of pmtA and pcs in Escherichia coli revealed that the individual proteins carry out the annotated enzyme functions. Both genes and a putative ABC transporter operon downstream of PC are constitutively expressed in A. tumefaciens. The amount of PC in A. tumefaciens membranes reaches around 23% of total membrane lipids. We show that PC is distributed in both the inner and outer membranes. Loss of PC results in reduced motility and increased biofilm formation, two processes known to be involved in virulence. Our work documents the critical importance of membrane lipid homeostasis for diverse cellular processes in A. tumefaciens.
Klusener, Sonja; Aktas, Meriyem; Thormann, Kai M.; Wessel, Mirja; Narberhaus, Franz
Substantial improvement in peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. var. Black Mitcham) genetic transformation has been achieved so that the frequency of transgenic plants regenerated (percent\\u000a of leaf explants that produced transformed plants) was 20-fold greater than with the original protocol. Essential modifications\\u000a were made to conditions for Agrobacteriumtumefaciens co-cultivation that enhanced infection, and for selection of transformed cells and
X. Niu; X. Li; P. Veronese; R. A. Bressan; S. C. Weller; P. M. Hasegawa
Transformation and regeneration procedures for obtaining transgenic Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera plants are described. Regeneration frequencies were increasedby using silver nitrate and by adjusting the duration of exposure to 2,4-D. For transformation, Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain EHA101 containing a binary plasmid with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPT II) and the b-glucuronidase gene (GUS) was cocultivated with hypocotyl explants from the oilseed
Sharon E. Radke; Joann C. Turner; Daniel Facciotti
Homogenates of corn seedlings inhibit both growth of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens and induction of its Ti plasmid virulence (vir) genes by acetosyringone (AS). The heat-labile inhibitor has been identified as 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA), present in 2-week-old seedlings (B73) at a concentration of 1.5 mM or greater. A concentration of 0.3 mM DIMBOA is sufficient to block growth of A. tumefaciens completely for 220 hr. DIMBOA at 0.1 mM concentration completely inhibited vir gene induction by 100 microM AS and reduced growth rate by 50%. Thus, DIMBOA can be expected to have a significant effect on attempts to transform corn by using A. tumefaciens as a vector. Images
The genetic control and heritability of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens susceptibility was investigated using a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population of Brassica oleracea and the associated RFLP map. Preliminary studies were carried out by analysis of an 8 x 8 diallel, for which the parental lines were selected to include a range of susceptibilities to A. tumefaciens. The variation observed within the diallel was attributed to both additive and dominant gene effects, with additive gene effects being more important. A broad sense heritability value of 0.95 suggested that 95% of the observed variation was due to genetic effects, with just 5% attributed to non-genetic or environmental effects. A high narrow-sense heritability value of 0.79 suggested that 79% of this trait was controlled by additive gene effects and, therefore, the potential to introduce this trait into breeding material is high. Fifty-nine DH lines from the mapping population were screened for susceptibility towards A. tumefaciens. Variation in susceptibility was observed across the population. The results of the DH screen were entered into the mapping programme MAPQTL and a highly significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with susceptibility to A. tumefaciens was identified on linkage group 09. The use of substitution lines covering this region confirmed the location of this QTL. This work shows that susceptibility to A. tumefaciens is a heritable trait, and the transfer of susceptibility into resistant lines is demonstrated. These findings may help to overcome genotype restrictions to genetic transformation. PMID:14534750
Sparrow, P A C; Townsend, T M; Arthur, A E; Dale, P J; Irwin, J A
Galls were induced in six species of forage legumes following inoculation with wild-type strains of A. tumefaciens. The plant species was more influential than the bacterial strain in determining the type of tumour produced. Inoculation of Medicago sativa resulted in small, disorganised tumours. The three Trifolium species, T. repens, T. hybridum and T. pratense, formed galls which tended to produce roots and both Onobrychis viciifolia and Lotus corniculatus produced teratomatous galls. The shoots elongated in the latter species only. In L. corniculatus, tissues that were infected by five bacterial strains were capable of shoot regeneration when cultured on a hormone-free medium. The transformed nature of these shoots was confirmed by their failure to root, the production of callus from leaves cultured on hormone-free medium and the presence of opines. PMID:24247771
Here we characterize the first step in methionine biosynthesis in Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, an ?-proteobacterium. We explored the metA gene and its products and found several unique properties. Although the gene was annotated as a homoserine transsuccinylase, based upon sequence similarity to characterized homologs in other bacteria, including Escherichia coli, the enzyme uses acetyl-CoA as a substrate and therefore is functionally a transacetylase. Moreover, the protein is thermolabile and the gene is under regulation of heat shock transcriptional activator ?32. 3. The gene has a SAM-riboswitch, which shuts off transcription by ?-32 as well as by the vegetative ?-70. PMID:23085540
A genetic transformation system has been developed for callus cells of Crataegus\\u000a aronia using Agrobacterium\\u000a tumefaciens. Callus culture was established from internodal stem segments incubated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with\\u000a 5 mg l?1 Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 0.5 mg l?1 6-benzyladenine (BA). In order to optimize the callus culture system with respect to callus growth and coloration, different\\u000a types and concentrations
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens C58, the pathogenic bacteria that causes crown gall disease in plants, harbors one circular and one linear chromosome and two circular plasmids. The telomeres of its unusual linear chromosome are covalently closed hairpins. The circular and linear chromosomes co-segregate and are stably maintained in the organism. We have determined the sequence of the two ends of the linear chromosome thus completing the previously published genome sequence of A. tumefaciens C58. We found that the telomeres carry nearly identical 25-bp sequences at the hairpin ends that are related by dyad symmetry. We further showed that its Atu2523 gene encodes a protelomerase (resolvase) and that the purified enzyme can generate the linear chromosomal closed hairpin ends in a sequence-specific manner. Agrobacterium protelomerase, whose presence is apparently limited to biovar 1 strains, acts via a cleavage-and-religation mechanism by making a pair of transient staggered nicks invariably at 6-bp spacing as the reaction intermediate. The enzyme can be significantly shortened at both the N and C termini and still maintain its enzymatic activity. Although the full-length enzyme can uniquely bind to its product telomeres, the N-terminal truncations cannot. The target site can also be shortened from the native 50-bp inverted repeat to 26 bp; thus, the Agrobacterium hairpin-generating system represents the most compact activity of all hairpin linear chromosome- and plasmid-generating systems to date. The biochemical analyses of the protelomerase reactions further revealed that the tip of the hairpin telomere may be unusually polymorphically capable of accommodating any nucleotide.
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant.
The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was extended to a famous Javanica rice variety, Rojolele, that is cultivated in Indonesia now. Efficient callus induction from immature and mature seeds of Rojolele did not succeed by any previous method for any rice cultivar. In this study, the callus from mature seeds of Rojolele exhibited a compact and nodular appearance on C medium after the carbon source and medium pH was modified. Scutellum-derived calli from mature seeds were co-cultivated with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strains EHA101 or LBA4404 that carried plasmid pAFT14, which contained the genes for beta-glucuronidase (gus) and hygromycin resistance (hpt). Finally, the transformation efficiency of Rojolele variety using A. tumefaciens strain EHA101 (pAFT14) was improved to about 23%, similar to that of the Japonica rice variety Nipponbare. The seed fertility of transgenic Rojolele was more than 90%. The copy number of the transgene varied from one to three copies in the T(0) transgenic lines. Both the gus and the hpt genes were inherited and expressed in the progeny. PMID:15215580
Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with AgrobacteriumtumefaciensLBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi.
The study was conducted to standardize a protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.). Embryogenic calli, produced from one-year-old mature seeds of buffel grass, were used as target cells for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, harbouring pCAMBIA-1301 or pCAMBIA-2301, was used for co-cultivation with embryogenic calli from three genotypes (IG-3108, IG-9757 and IG-97101). Co-culturing of calli with Agrobacterium for 30 minutes, followed by co-cultivation with 0.1 mM acetosyringone for 3 days was found to be optimum for maximum transformation efficiency. Presence of acetosyringone during co-cultivation was found to be necessary for transformation. Transient GUS (beta-glucuronidase) gene expression was used to monitor T-DNA delivery into the target cells. Significant genotypic variations in response to transformation were observed among the tested genotypes. A very high frequency (63.3%) of GUS gene expression was obtained following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer into embryogenic calli. The standardized protocol would be useful for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of buffel grass with genes of agronomic importance. PMID:14617824
The presence of an active transport system for glucose-1-phosphate in Agrobacteriumtumefaciens was demonstrated from the following observations. (i) The bacterium could grow on a medium containing glucose-1-phosphate as carbon source; (ii) the entry of glucose-1-phosphate into the resting cells occurred against concentration gradient obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics; and (iii) the entry reaction was energy-dependent. The transport system for glucose-1-phosphate was formed inducibly by growing the organism on a glucose-1-phosphate or sucrose medium. From the inhibition and kinetics studies it was found that the transport system had a high specificity for glucose-1-phosphate with a high affinity, Km value of 4.5 × 10?6m at pH 8.2. The existence of glucose-1-phosphate binding factor was proved in the shock fluid which was prepared from the cells grown on both glucose-1-phosphate and sucrose media by osmotic shock.
A rapid Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation system for wheat was developed using freshly isolated immature embryos, precultured immature embryos, and embryogenic calli as explants. The explants were inoculated with a disarmed A. tumefaciens strain C58 (ABI) harboring the binary vector pMON18365 containing the [beta]-glucuronidase gene with an intron, and a selectable marker, the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene. Various factors were found to influence the transfer-DNA delivery efficiency, such as explant tissue and surfactants present in the inoculation medium. The inoculated immature embryos or embryogenic calli were selected on G418-containing media. Transgenic plants were regenerated from all three types of explants. The total time required from inoculation to the establishment of plants in soil was 2.5 to 3 months. So far, more than 100 transgenic events have been produced. Almost all transformants were morphologically normal. Stable integration, expression, and inheritance of the transgenes were confirmed by molecular and genetic analysis. One to five copies of the transgene were integrated into the wheat genome without rearrangement. Approximately 35% of the transgenic plants received a single copy of the transgenes based on Southern analysis of 26 events. Transgenes in T1 progeny segregated in a Mendelian fashion in most of the transgenic plants.
Cheng, M.; Fry, J. E.; Pang, S.; Zhou, H.; Hironaka, C. M.; Duncan, D. R.; Conner, T. W.; Wan, Y.
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens F2 is an efficient bioflocculant-producing bacterium. But the genes related to the metabolic pathway of bioflocculant biosynthesis in strain F2 are unknown. We present the draft genome of A. tumefaciens F2. It could provide further insight into the biosynthetic mechanism of polysaccharide-like bioflocculant in strain F2.
Transgenic peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) plants were obtained by using Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. The effects of the coculture period and of the Agrobacterium strain were tested. 10% transformed plants were regenerated by leaf disk culture after inoculation with strain EHA105MOG harbouring ?-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase II genes, with a coculture period of 5 days. Rooting of regenerated plants
F. Diemer; F. Jullien; O. Faure; S. Moja; M. Colson; E. Matthys-Rochon; J. C. Caissard
A modified protocol for theAgrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation of tobacco (Nicotina tabacum L.) leaf disks was developed for greater recovery of transgenic plants. Modifications include transformation ofAgrobacterium by a freeze-thaw procedure, initial cocultivation of leaf disks andAgrobacterium under vacuum, subsequent growth with nurse cells for one week, rooting of shoots in medium lacking carbenicillin, longer,\\u000a growth in rooting medium, and a
Mark D. Burow; Caryl A. Chlan; Partha Sen; Andreana Lisca; Norimoto Murai
Flax is considered as plant species susceptible to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. In this study, stability of flax transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes versus Agrobacteriumtumefaciens was tested by using combined selection for antibiotic resistance and visual selection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion\\u000a reporter targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Transformation with A. rhizogenes was stable for over 2 years, whereas transformation by
Juraj Bleho; Bohuš Obert; Tomáš Taká?; Beáta Petrovská; Claudia Heym; Diedrik Menzel; Jozef Šamaj
Two-to 4-month-old seedlings of nine pine species (Pinus eldarica Medw., Pinus elliottii Engelm., Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf., Pinus lambertiana Dougl., Pinus ponderosa Laws., Pinus radiata D. Don, Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus taeda L., Pinus virginiana Mill), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuaa menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and incense cedar (Libocedrus decurrens Torr.) were inoculated with five strains of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. Transformation occurred in all conifer species tested as determined by gall formation and opine production. The frequency of gall formation varied by host species, by bacterial strain, and was related to the age of the stem when inoculated. Galls were visible 8 to 12 weeks after inoculation and were small (often less than 2.5 millimeters in diameter). Fewer than half (230 of 502) of the galls originally formed on the trees were present after 1 year, and 26 of these grew to diameters greater than 2 centimeters. The majority of these larger galls (18 of 26) were found in P. radiata. Bacterial strain-specific opines were found in 67 of the 81 gall tissues sampled. PMID:16667394
Stomp, A M; Loopstra, C; Chilton, W S; Sederoff, R R; Moore, L W
Uronate dehydrogenase from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (AtUdh) belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and catalyzes the oxidation of d-galacturonic acid and d-glucuronic acid with NAD+ as a cofactor. We have determined the crystal structures of an apo-form of AtUdh, a ternary form in complex with NADH and product (substrate-soaked structure), and an inactive Y136A mutant in complex with NAD+. The crystal structures suggest AtUdh to be a homohexamer, which has also been observed to be the major form in solution. The monomer contains a Rossmann fold, essential for nucleotide binding and a common feature of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family enzymes. The ternary complex structure reveals a product, d-galactaro-1,5-lactone, which is bound above the nicotinamide ring. This product rearranges in solution to d-galactaro-1,4-lactone as verified by mass spectrometry analysis, which agrees with our previous NMR study. The crystal structure of the mutant with the catalytic residue Tyr-136 substituted with alanine shows changes in the position of Ile-74 and Ser-75. This probably altered the binding of the nicotinamide end of NAD+, which was not visible in the electron density map. The structures presented provide novel insights into cofactor and substrate binding and the reaction mechanism of AtUdh. This information can be applied to the design of efficient microbial conversion of d-galacturonic acid-based waste materials.
Seminal regulatory controls of microbial arsenite [As(III)] oxidation are described in this study. Transposon mutagenesis of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens identified genes essential for As(III) oxidation, including those coding for a two-component signal transduction pair. The transposon interrupted a response regulator gene (referred to as aoxR), which encodes an ntrC-like protein and is immediately downstream of a gene (aoxS) encoding a protein with primary structural features found in sensor histidine kinases. The structural genes for As(III) oxidase (aoxAB), a c-type cytochrome (cytc2), and molybdopterin biosynthesis (chlE) were downstream of aoxR. The mutant could not be complemented by aoxSR in trans but was complemented by a clone containing aoxS-aoxR-aoxA-aoxB-cytc2 and consistent with reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR experiments, which demonstrated these genes are cotranscribed as an operon. Expression of aoxAB was monitored by RT-PCR and found to be up-regulated by the addition of As(III) to cell cultures. Expression of aoxAB was also controlled in a fashion consistent with quorum sensing in that (i) expression of aoxAB was absent in As(III)-unexposed early-log-phase cells but was observed in As(III)-unexposed, late-log-phase cells and (ii) treating As(III)-unexposed, early-log-phase cells with ethyl acetate extracts of As(III)-unexposed, late-log-phase culture supernatants also resulted in aoxAB induction. Under inducing conditions, aoxS expression was readily observed in the wild-type strain but significantly reduced in the mutant, indicating that AoxR is autoregulatory and at least partially controls the expression of the aox operon. In summary, regulation of A. tumefaciens As(III) oxidation is complex, apparently being controlled by As(III) exposure, a two-component signal transduction system, and quorum sensing.
Kashyap, Des R.; Botero, Lina M.; Franck, William L.; Hassett, Daniel J.; McDermott, Timothy R.
Cordyceps militaris is an insect-born fungus with various biological and pharmacological activities. The mutant library of C. militaris was constructed by improved Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT), for the ultimate identification of genes involved in isolate degeneration during fruiting body production. Successful transformation of C. militaris JM4 by A. tumefaciens AGL-1 carrying vector pATMT1 was performed, with efficiency in the range of
Zhuangli Zheng; Chuanhua Huang; Li Cao; Cuihong Xie; Richou Han
To develop an efficient procedure for Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of carrot (Daucus carota L.) the effects of several factors were studied. Parameters which significantly affected the transformation frequency were the variety, the explant type, and the co-cultivation period. Under optimal conditions, using the A. tumefaciens C58C1 containing either pGSTRN943 or pGSGluc1 and 3 days of co-cultivation, the frequency of
Nathalie Pawlicki; Rajbir S. Sangwan; Brigitte S. Sangwan-Norreel
A system for the genetic transformation of rye by co-cultivation with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens is described. A total of 45 independent transgenic plants were regenerated with a transformation efficiency of 1 to % of the inoculated explants. The co-cultivation of Agrobacterium-strain AGL0, harboring plasmid pJFnptII and rye im-mature embryos in liquid medium allowed a high throughput and facilitated washing of the
We report on a novel transformation procedure for barley by Agrobacterium infection of in vitro cultured ovules. Ovules of the cultivar Golden Promise were isolated a few hours after pollination and infected with the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain AGL0 carrying the binary vector pVec8-GFP. The vector harboured a hygromycin resistance gene and the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. GFP-expressing embryos were
Inger Bćksted Holme; Henrik Brinch-Pedersen; Mette Lange; Preben Bach Holm
To facilitate functional genomics in the soybean pathogen Phomopsis longicolla, we developed a robust Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation system that yielded 150-250 transformants per 1×10(6) conidia of P. longicolla. This first report of P. longicolla transformation provides a useful tool for insertional mutagenesis in an increasingly important pathogen of soybean. PMID:23305924
Li, Shuxian; Ridenour, John B; Kim, Hun; Hirsch, Robert L; Rupe, John C; Bluhm, Burton H
This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation protocol for onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) which can be used year-round. It is based on Agrobacteriumtumefaciens as a vector, with three-week old callus, induced from mature zygotic embryos, as target tissue. For the development of the protocol a large number of parameters were studied. The expression of the
Si-Jun Zheng; Ludmila Khrustaleva; Betty Henken; Eri Sofiari; Evert Jacobsen; Chris Kik; Frans A. Krens
Genetic transformation was successfully established producing both transformed adventitious shoots and calli in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) by using cotyledons as explants. Cotyledons of five cultivars were co-cultivated with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying the pBIN19-sgfp, which contained a green fluorescent protein gene and the neomycin phosphotransferase gene. In order to increase transformation efficiency, sonication and ethylenedioxybis (ethylamine)-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) treatments were applied, which could produce physical wounds across the tissue and prevent plant defense reaction, respectively. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence was evaluated two weeks and five months after Agrobacterium inoculation as measures of transient and stable transformations, respectively. As a result, sonication significantly increased both transient and stable expression of GFP fluorescence, whereas EGTA treatment did not show a positive effect on either. Out of 18 regenerated plantlets obtained, one plant regenerated from ‘Agenosho Shinanashi’ showed stable GFP fluorescence. This plant was confirmed as a transformant by PCR and genomic Southern blotting. Three other transformed regenerated shoots by myb gene showed red color, which were derived from ‘Imamuraaki’ by the same transformation method. Transformation system in this study was shown to be reproducible since plural transformants were obtained.
The bacterium Agrobacteriumtumefaciens transforms eukaryotic hosts by transferring DNA to the recipient cell where it is integrated and expressed. Bacterial factors involved in this interkingdom gene transfer have been described, but less is known about host-cell factors. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model host, we devised a genetic screen to identify yeast mutants with altered transformation sensitivities. Twenty-four adenine auxotrophs were identified that exhibited supersensitivity to A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation when deprived of adenine. We extended these results to plants by showing that purine synthesis inhibitors cause supersensitivity to A. tumefaciens transformation in three plant species. The magnitude of this effect is large and does not depend on prior genetic manipulations of host cells. These data indicate the utility of yeast as a model for the transformation process and identify purine biosynthesis as a key determinant of transformation efficiency. These findings should increase the utility of A. tumefaciens in genetic engineering.
Roberts, Radclyffe L.; Metz, Matthew; Monks, Dave E.; Mullaney, Matthew Lockwood; Hall, Tyler; Nester, Eugene W.
Two groups independently sequenced the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens C58 genome in 2001. We report here consolidation of these sequences, updated annotation, and additional analysis of the evolutionary history of the linear chromosome, which is apparently limited to the biovar I group of Agrobacterium. PMID:23241979
Two groups independently sequenced the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens C58 genome in 2001. We report here consolidation of these sequences, updated annotation, and additional analysis of the evolutionary history of the linear chromosome, which is apparently limited to the biovar I group of Agrobacterium.
The effects of 30 type 1 and of 2 (ricin and volkensin) type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) on Escherichia coli and Agrobacteriumtumefaciens cell-free translation systems were compared with the effects on a rabbit reticulocyte translation system. The depurinating activity of RIPs on E. coli ribosomes was also evaluated. Only six type 1 RIPs inhibited endogenous mRNA-directed translational activity of E. coli lysates, with submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations. Four RIPs had similar activities on poly(U)-directed phenylalanine polymerization by E. coli ribosomes, and three RIPs inhibited poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis by A. tumefaciens ribosomes, with submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations. Images
Girbes, T; Barbieri, L; Ferreras, M; Arias, F J; Rojo, M A; Iglesias, R; Alegre, C; Escarmis, C; Stirpe, F
. Octopine induced the synthesis of 83, 76, 62, 58, 44, 42, 31, and 22 kDa proteins in Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strains harboring the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids pTiA6 and pTiAch5. Nopaline induced the synthesis of 83, 76, 62, 58, 56,\\u000a 44, 42, 31, and 22 kDa proteins in A. tumefaciens strains harboring the Ti plasmids pTiC58 and pTiT37. The molecular masses
Crown gall disease caused by the bacterium Agrobacteriumtumefaciens can cause significant economic loss in both commercial walnut orchards and in nursery operations in California. This results from the fact that, Paradox, one of the most popular walnut rootstocks in California, is extremely susceptible to A. tumefaciens infection and Crown Gall formation. By combining direct soil-DNA extraction with PCR amplification
An Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation system was developed for Artemisia annua L. Using this system a cDNA encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDS placed under a CaMV 35S promoter) was transferred into A. annua via A. tumefaciens strain LB4404. Leaf or leaf discs were used as explants to be infected with A. tumefaciens and an optimal concentration of 20 mg\\/l kanamycin was
Inducible T-strand mobilization from the Ti plasmid of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens to the genome of a plant host is mediated by the activation of a cascade of bacterial virulence genes. It is initiated when the bacterium senses the presence of a low molecular weight inducer secreted by the plant. Although many hydroxyphenylpropanoid and phenolic compounds can activate the virulence cascade, the only native inducers that have been identified to date are acetosyringone and hydroxyacetosyringone. A new inducer, the phenylpropanoid glucoside coniferin, has now been isolated from Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir). Agrobacterium strains that were more tumorigenic on gymnosperms were more effectively induced by coniferin. Images
We characterized five isolates of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens from naturally occurring galls on Chrysanthemum morifolium. The isolates are similar, possibly identical, members of a single strain of A. tumefaciens that we designate Chry5. The strain is a biotype I, as indicated by its response to both newly described and traditional biotype tests. Chry5 produces tumors on at least 10 plant species. It is unusual in its ability to form efficiently large tumors on soybean (Glycine max), a species normally refractory to transformation. Chry5 is unable to utilize octopine or mannopine as a carbon source. Although Chry5 can catabolize a single isomer each of nopaline and succinamopine, it differs from other known nopaline and succinamopine strains in its insensitivity to agrocin 84. This pattern of opine catabolism is unique among Agrobacterium strains examined to date. All five isolates of Chry5 contain at least two plasmids, one of which shares homology with pTiB6. Images
Transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was produced by two Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation methods. One used flowering stalk explants from mature plants; the other used hypocotyl and petiole explants from in vitro-grown seedlings. Several hundred transformants containing a Bacillus thuringiensis ?-endotoxin gene (CryIA(c)-type) and the neomycin phosphotransferase gene were recovered. Rooted transformants were obtained in as little as 3 months
The tzs gene, present in nopaline Ti plasmids, confers on Agrobacteriumtumefaciens the ability to produce the phytohormone, trans-zeatin (Regier and Morris (1982) Biochem Biophys Res Comm 104:1560–1566). This gene has now been cloned from the nopaline Ti plasmid pTiC58. It occurs outside the T-DNA in a region close to that associated with virulence functions. Sequence studies indicate that tzs
J. S. Beaty; G. K. Powell; L. Lica; D. A. Regier; E. M. S. MacDonald; N. G. Hommes; R. O. Morris
Mutants with Tn5 insertions in the vir region of the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens TiC58 plasmid are unable to form crown-gall tumors. Complementation tests of these vir region mutants were carried out by constructing merodiploids in a recombination-deficient strain. Each merodiploid possessed a mutant TiC58 plasmid and a recombinant plasmid containing either the homologous wild-type DNA region or the homologous region containing
Ronald C. Lundquist; Timothy J. Close; Clarence I. Kado
The concentration of GABA increases rapidly in wounded plant tissues, but the implication of this GABA pulse for plant–bacteria interactions is not known. Here we reveal that GABA stimulated the inactivation of the N-(3-oxooctanoyl)homoserine lactone (OC8-HSL) quorum-sensing signal (or “quormone”) by the Agrobacterium lactonase AttM. GABA induced the expression of the attKLM operon, which was correlated to a decrease in OC8-HSL concentration in Agrobacteriumtumefaciens cultures. The Agrobacterium GABA transporter Bra was required for this GABA-signaling pathway. Furthermore, transgenic tobacco plants with elevated GABA levels were less sensitive to A. tumefaciens C58 infection than were wild-type plants. These findings indicate that plant GABA may modulate quorum sensing in A. tumefaciens, thereby affecting its virulence on plants. Whereas GABA is an essential cell-to-cell signal in eukaryotes, here we provide evidence of GABA acting as a signal between eukaryotes and pathogenic bacteria. The GABA signal represents a potential target for the development of a strategy to control the virulence of bacterial pathogens.
Despite the importance of aloe in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, improvement of aloe (Aloe barbadensis Miller) by genetic engineering was seldom reported previously. In this study, regeneration and transformation conditions, including explant selection and surface sterilization, use of different Agrobacterium strains, and co-culture processing, are optimized. The use of 20.0% sodium hypochloride (25 min) for sterilization was less detrimental to
Congfen He; Jiaxing Zhang; Jie Chen; Xingguo Ye; Lipu Du; Yinmao Dong; Hua Zhao
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens is a facultative phytopathogen that causes crown gall disease. For successful plant transformation A. tumefaciens requires the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is produced via the methylation and the PC synthase (Pcs) pathways. The latter route is dependent on choline. Although choline uptake has been demonstrated in A. tumefaciens, the responsible transporter(s) remained elusive. In this study, we identified the first choline transport system in A. tumefaciens. The ABC-type choline transporter is encoded by the chromosomally located choXWV operon (ChoX, binding protein; ChoW, permease; and ChoV, ATPase). The Cho system is not critical for growth and PC synthesis. However, [14C]choline uptake is severely reduced in A. tumefaciens choX mutants. Recombinant ChoX is able to bind choline with high affinity (equilibrium dissociation constant [KD] of ?2 ?M). Since other quaternary amines are bound by ChoX with much lower affinities (acetylcholine, KD of ?80 ?M; betaine, KD of ?470 ?M), the ChoXWV system functions as a high-affinity transporter with a preference for choline. Two tryptophan residues (W40 and W87) located in the predicted ligand-binding pocket are essential for choline binding. The structural model of ChoX built on Sinorhizobium meliloti ChoX resembles the typical structure of substrate binding proteins with a so-called “Venus flytrap mechanism” of substrate binding.
Aktas, Meriyem; Jost, Kathinka A.; Fritz, Christiane; Narberhaus, Franz
Genetic engineering is a powerful tool for the improvement of plant traits. Despite reported successes in the plant kingdom, this technology has barely scratched the surface of the Melastomataceae family. Limited studies have led to some optimisation of parameters known to affect the transformation efficiency of these plants. The major finding of this study was to optimise the presence of selected enhancers [e.g., monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose), tyrosine, aluminium chloride (AICI3) and ascorbic acid] to improve the transformation efficiency of Tibouchina semidecandra. Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the disarmed plasmid pCAMBIA1304 was used to transform shoots and nodes of T. semidecandra. Different concentrations of the transformation enhancers were tested by using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. The results obtained were based on the percentage of GFP expression, which was observed 14 days post-transformation. A combination of 120 ?M galactose and 100 ?M tyrosine supplemented with 600 ?M AICI3 in the presence of 15 mg/l ascorbic acid gave the highest percentage of positive transformants for T. semidecandra shoots. Whereas 60 ?M galactose and 50 ?M tyrosine with 200 ?M AICI3 in the presence of 15 mg/l ascorbic acid was optimum for T. semidecandra nodes. The presence of the hygromycin phosphotransferase II (hptII) transgene in the genomic DNA of putative T. semidecandra transformants was verified by PCR amplification with specific primers.
Yong, Wilson Thau Lym; Henry, Erle Stanley; Abdullah, Janna Ong
In vitro binding experiments were carried out using (32)P-labeled cells of the virulent Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain B6 and Datura innoxia cells from suspension culture. Binding kinetics showed that adherence of bacteria to Datura cells increased gradually during the first 60 minutes and attained a maximum level within 120 minutes of incubation. Maximum binding occurred at pH 6.0. The presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) reduced binding slightly and EDTA had little effect at concentrations of 0.1 to 10 millimolar. The binding of bacteria to Datura cells was temperature-dependent. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Rhizobium japonicum, and Micrococcus lysodeikticus did not compete with virulent A. tumefaciens strain B6 for binding to Datura cells. The admixture of avirulent A. tumefaciens strain IIBNV6 enhanced adherence of virulent A. tumefaciens strain B6 to Datura cells. Octopine had no effect on the binding of virulent A. tumefaciens strain B6 to Datura cells, but 10 millimolar canavanine was inhibitory. Arginine enhanced the adherence of the bacteria at concentrations higher than 0.1 millimolar. Incubation with DNase, RNase, and lipase did not affect the binding, but protease stimulated the adherence of bacteria to Datura cells. Concanavaline A and soybean lectin had little effect whereas lecithin and lysolecithin enhanced binding slightly. Poly-l-lysine markedly stimulated the bacteria-plant cell adherence. Cells from suspension cultures of pea, vetch, and soybean had a 2- to 3-fold higher binding capacity than Datura cells, whereas cells from wheat, corn, rice, and sorghum had a considerably lower affinity for binding with virulent A. tumefaciens strain B6. Bacterial adherence to plant cells was confirmed by autoradiography and electron microscopy. Autoradiographic analysis showed that bacteria were associated with the cell wall, and that often binding of bacteria was localized. Electron micrographs clearly illustrated a tight association of virulent A. tumefaciens strain B6 cells to the Datura cell wall. PMID:16660732
The ?-Proteobacterium Agrobacteriumtumefaciens has proteins homologous to known regulators that govern cell division and development in Caulobacter crescentus, many of which are also conserved among diverse ?-Proteobacteria. In light of recent work demonstrating similarity between the division cycle of C. crescentus and that of A. tumefaciens, the functional conservation for this presumptive control pathway was examined. In C. crescentus the CtrA response regulator serves as the master regulator of cell cycle progression and cell division. CtrA activity is controlled by an integrated pair of multi-component phosphorelays: PleC/DivJ-DivK and CckA-ChpT-CtrA. Although several of the conserved orthologues appear to be essential in A. tumefaciens, deletions in pleC or divK were isolated and resulted in cell division defects, diminished swimming motility, and a decrease in biofilm formation. A. tumefaciens also has two additional pleC/divJ homologue sensor kinases called pdhS1 and pdhS2, absent in C. crescentus. Deletion of pdhS1 phenocopied the ?pleC and ?divK mutants. Cells lacking pdhS2 morphologically resembled wild-type bacteria, but were decreased in swimming motility and elevated for biofilm formation, suggesting that pdhS2 may serve to regulate the motile to non-motile switch in A. tumefaciens. Genetic analysis suggests that the PleC/DivJ-DivK and CckA-ChpT-CtrA phosphorelays in A. tumefaciens are vertically-integrated, as in C. crescentus. A gain-of-function mutation in CckA (Y674D) was identified as a spontaneous suppressor of the ?pleC motility phenotype. Thus, although the core architecture of the A. tumefaciens pathway resembles that of C. crescentus there are specific differences including additional regulators, divergent pathway architecture, and distinct target functions.
Despite the importance of aloe in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, improvement of aloe (Aloe barbadensis Miller) by genetic engineering was seldom reported previously. In this study, regeneration and transformation conditions, including explant selection and surface sterilization, use of different Agrobacterium strains, and co-culture processing, are optimized. The use of 20.0% sodium hypochloride (25 min) for sterilization was less detrimental to the health of explant than 0.1% mercuric chloride (10 min). Regeneration frequency from stems was much higher than that from leaves or sheaths. Explants were infected by Agrobacterium (30 min) in liquid co-cultural medium, and this was followed by three days co-culture on sterile filter papers with light for 10 h per day at 24 degrees C. Histochemical data demonstrated that the transient expression of GUS gene in the stem explants of aloe infected with Agrobacterium strains EHA105 and C58C1 was 80.0% and 30.0%, respectively, suggesting the higher sensitivity of the explants to EHA105 than to C58C1. Infected tissues were selected using G418 (10.0-25.0 mg/L) to generate transformants. Sixty-seven G418 resistant plantlets were generated from the infected explants. Southern blotting, PCR, and ELISA analyses indicated that the alien gene were successfully transferred into aloe and was expressed in the transgenic plants. This newly established transformation system could be used for the genetic improvement of aloe. PMID:18155617
He, Congfen; Zhang, Jiaxing; Chen, Jie; Ye, Xingguo; Du, Lipu; Dong, Yinmao; Zhao, Hua
Agrobacterium species are capable of interkingdom gene transfer between bacteria and plants. The genome of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens consists of a circular and a linear chromosome, the At-plasmid and the Ti-plasmid, which harbors bacterial virulence genes required for tumor formation in plants. Little is known about promoter sequences and the small RNA (sRNA) repertoire of this and other ?-proteobacteria. We used a differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) approach to map transcriptional start sites of 388 annotated genes and operons. In addition, a total number of 228 sRNAs was revealed from all four Agrobacterium replicons. Twenty-two of these were confirmed by independent RNA gel blot analysis and several sRNAs were differentially expressed in response to growth media, growth phase, temperature or pH. One sRNA from the Ti-plasmid was massively induced under virulence conditions. The presence of 76 cis-antisense sRNAs, two of them on the reverse strand of virulence genes, suggests considerable antisense transcription in Agrobacterium. The information gained from this study provides a valuable reservoir for an in-depth understanding of sRNA-mediated regulation of the complex physiology and infection process of Agrobacterium.
Wilms, Ina; Overloper, Aaron; Nowrousian, Minou; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Narberhaus, Franz
The production yield of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) from the sucrose consumed by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens KCCM 10413 decreased, and high levels of exopolysaccharide (EPS) accumulated after switching from batch culture to fed-batch\\u000a culture. Therefore, we examined the effect of sucrose concentration on the fermentation profile by A. tumefaciens. In the continuous fed-batch culture with the sucrose concentration maintained constantly at 10,
Transformants of maize inbred A188 were efficiently produced from immature embryos cocultivated with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens that carried "super-binary" vectors. Frequencies of transformation (independent transgenic plants/embryos) were between 5% and 30%. Almost all transformants were normal in morphology, and more than 70% were fertile. Stable integration, expression, and inheritance of the transgenes were confirmed by molecular and genetic analysis. Between one and three copies of the transgenes were integrated with little rearrangement, and the boundaries of T-DNA were similar to those in transgenic dicotyledons and rice. F1 hybrids between A188 and five other inbreds were transformed at low frequencies. PMID:9630983
A modified Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation method was established for the construction of mutants with improved copper tolerance and accumulation\\u000a capability in Trichoderma reesei. One transformant, AT01, exhibited the highest copper accumulation capability. With copper at 0.7 mM, AT01 removed 13 mg\\u000a copper\\/g biomass (removal rate of 96%), whereas the wild-type strain removed only 6 mg copper\\/g biomass (removal rate of 50%).\\u000a Optimal conditions
Thirteen strains of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens isolated from grapevine tumors in northern China were surveyed. These strains varied in their host range properties, although all were tumorigenic on grapevines. Twelve of these strains belonged to Agrobacterium sp. biotype 3, and 11 strains resulted in the synthesis of the opine octopine in tumor tissue. Interestingly, one strain resulted in accumulation of arginine, a previously unrecognized opine, in tumor tissue. Although DNA in most of these strains showed homology to the previously characterized transferred DNA and vir loci, some virulent strains showed little or no homology to these loci. Thus, some of these strains represent widely divergent examples of Agrobacterium sp. The DNA in most strains exhibited little or no homology to a wide-host-range virA locus but did show strong homology to a limited-host-range virA locus. This finding further supports the idea that Agrobacterium strains associated with grapevines may have a specific virA locus. Images
Cordyceps militaris is an insect-born fungus with various biological and pharmacological activities. The mutant library of C. militaris was constructed by improved Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT), for the ultimate identification of genes involved in isolate degeneration during fruiting body production. Successful transformation of C. militaris JM4 by A. tumefaciens AGL-1 carrying vector pATMT1 was performed, with efficiency in the range of 30-600 transformants per 1×10(5) conidia. Acetosyringone (AS) supplement in C. militaris ATMT was not necessary during either precultivation or cocultivation. The transformation procedure was optimised based on the ratios between donor A. tumefaciens and recipient conidia, and pH value of cocultivation media. The integration of the hyg gene into C. militaris genome was determined by PCR and Southern blot analysis, suggesting that 67-88% resulting transformants in cultivation conditions with or without AS were inserted by T-DNA and 55-80% were single-copy. Special mutants with altered phenotypes and growth potentials were characterised. The efficient TAIL-PCR approach was established for identifying T-DNA flanking sequences from C. militaris mutants. The successful construction of the mutant library indicated the usefulness of this approach for functional genetic analysis in this important fungus. PMID:21354533
The Hfq protein mediates gene regulation by small RNAs (sRNAs) in about 50% of all bacteria. Depending on the species, phenotypic defects of an hfq mutant range from mild to severe. Here, we document that the purified Hfq protein of the plant pathogen and natural genetic engineer Agrobacteriumtumefaciens binds to the previously described sRNA AbcR1 and its target mRNA atu2422, which codes for the substrate binding protein of an ABC transporter taking up proline and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Several other ABC transporter components were overproduced in an hfq mutant compared to their levels in the parental strain, suggesting that Hfq plays a major role in controlling the uptake systems and metabolic versatility of A. tumefaciens. The hfq mutant showed delayed growth, altered cell morphology, and reduced motility. Although the DNA-transferring type IV secretion system was produced, tumor formation by the mutant strain was attenuated, demonstrating an important contribution of Hfq to plant transformation by A. tumefaciens.
The bacterial pathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens produces the quorum-sensing (QS) signal 3-oxo-octanoylhomoserine lactone (OC8HSL) for controlling horizontal transfer of its tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid that carries both the T-DNA and the virulence genes. Over-accumulation of OC8HSL also increases severity of plant symptoms (number of emerging tumors at infection site) by an unknown mechanism. A. tumefaciens strain C58 expresses two lactonases, AttM (BlcC) and AiiB, that cleave OC8HSL and are potential modulators of QS. Recent data highlight the direct contribution of lactonases AttM and AiiB in the control of OC8HSL level and QS-regulated functions such as conjugation of Ti plasmid and seriousness of plant symptoms. Expression of the two lactonases is regulated by different plant signals. A working model of QS in the course of the A. tumefaciens-plant host interaction is proposed and discussed.
Crown gall caused by Agrobacterium vitis and A. tumefaciens occurs in grape growing areas worldwide. Infected vines can harbor both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains and remain symptomless until the vines are injured (Burr and Katz 1983, 1984). Injury can cause galls which interfere with the function of the vascular system of the plant and reduce its vigor and productivity. To
Binary Ti plasmid vector systems consist of two plasmids in Agrobacterium, where one plasmid contains the DNA that can be transferred to plant cells and the other contains the virulence (vir) genes which are necessary for the DNA transfer but are not themselves stably transferred. We have constructed two nononcogenic vectors (pARC4 and pARC8) based on the binary Ti plasmid
Robert B. Simpson; Albert Spielmann; Linda Margossian; Thomas D. McKnight
Infections of dicotyledonous plants by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens result in the formation of crown gall tumors. Attachment of the bacteria to plant host cells is required for tumor formation. Human vitronectin and antivitronectin antibodies both inhibited the binding of A. tumefaciens to carrot cells. Wild-type bacteria are able to bind radioactive vitronectin; nonattaching mutants showed a reduction in the ability to bind vitronectin. The binding of biotype 1 A. tumefaciens to carrot cells or to radioactive vitronectin was not affected by high ionic strength. Detergent extraction of carrot cells removed the receptor to which the bacteria bind. The extract was found to contain a vitronectin-like protein. These results suggest that A. tumefaciens utilizes a vitronectin-like protein on the plant cell surface as the receptor for its initial attachment to host cells. Images
Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.
Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)
This study focused on the natural crown gall infections occurring in a Leuce poplar nursery. Soil effects on crown gall frequency were detected, indicating that contamination was due to a resident Agrobacteriumtumefaciens population, which was present before seedling plantation. The crown gall frequency on poplar progenies varied from 3 to 67%, indicating the feasibility of improvement in crown gall resistance. Of 129 tumor isolates, 128 were pathogenic. These isolates were of biotype 1 or 2. Biochemical, serological, and antibiotic resistance typing results concurred, indicating the presence of four biotype 1 and two biotype 2 resident subpopulations. No significant change was noticed in the relative proportions of subpopulations from one year to another. Pathogenic subpopulations both in vitro and in planta were susceptible to Kerr K84 (P. B. New and A. Kerr, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 90:172-179, 1972). In addition, no serological cross-reactions were found to occur between K84 and the pathogenic subpopulations.
Nesme, Xavier; Michel, Marie-France; Digat, Bernard
This study focused on the natural crown gall infections occurring in a Leuce poplar nursery. Soil effects on crown gall frequency were detected, indicating that contamination was due to a resident Agrobacteriumtumefaciens population, which was present before seedling plantation. The crown gall frequency on poplar progenies varied from 3 to 67%, indicating the feasibility of improvement in crown gall resistance. Of 129 tumor isolates, 128 were pathogenic. These isolates were of biotype 1 or 2. Biochemical, serological, and antibiotic resistance typing results concurred, indicating the presence of four biotype 1 and two biotype 2 resident subpopulations. No significant change was noticed in the relative proportions of subpopulations from one year to another. Pathogenic subpopulations both in vitro and in planta were susceptible to Kerr K84 (P. B. New and A. Kerr, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 90:172-179, 1972). In addition, no serological cross-reactions were found to occur between K84 and the pathogenic subpopulations. PMID:16347314
The key amino acid residues that influence the function of the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens iron response regulator protein (Irr(At) ) were investigated. Several Irr(At) mutant proteins containing substitutions in amino acids corresponding to candidate metal- and haem-binding sites were constructed. The ability of the mutant proteins to repress the promoter of the membrane bound ferritin (mbfA) gene was investigated using a promoter-lacZ fusion assay. A single mutation at residue H94 significantly decreased the repressive activity of Irr(At) . Multiple mutation analysis revealed the importance of H45, H65, the HHH motif (H92, H93 and H94) and H127 for the repressor function of Irr(At) . H94 is essential for the iron responsiveness of Irr(At) . Furthermore, the Irr(At) mutant proteins showed differential abilities to complement the H(2) O(2) -hyper-resistant phenotype of an irr mutant. PMID:22817265
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system was assessed for conducting insertional mutagenesis in Penicillium digitatum, a major fungal pathogen infecting post-harvest citrus fruits. A transformation efficiency of up to 60 transformants per 106 conidia was achieved by this system. The integration of the hph gene into the fungal genome was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing. These transformants tested were also shown to be mitotically stable. Southern blot analysis of 14 randomly selected transformants showed that the hph gene was randomly integrated as single copy into the fungal genome of P. digitatum. Thus, we conclude that ATMT of P. digitatum could be used as an alternatively practical genetic tool for conducting insertional mutagenesis in P. digitatum to study functional genomics.
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the caus-ative agents of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and are amenable to genetic manipulations, making them important models of pathogenic fungi. To improve the efficiency of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT) in C. neoformans, we optimized various co-cultivation conditions including incubation time and temperature, and bacteria to yeast ratio. ATMT was also applied to both serotypes (B and C) of C. gattii. Transformation efficiency by ATMT in C. neoformans was comparable to either electroporation or biolistic transformation and gave superior efficiencies in serotypes B and C, but unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenine auxotrophy did not increase ATMT efficiency in C. neoformans or C. gattii. All transformants tested were stable, with a majority containing only a single T-DNA insertion; however, homologous recombination was not observed. Additionally, we isolated adenine auxotrophs containing a single T-DNA insertion in the ADE2 gene for representative serotype B and C strains. PMID:16260158
McClelland, Carol M; Chang, Yun C; Kwon-Chung, K J
ABSTRACT The synthesis of peptidoglycan (PG) in bacteria is a crucial process controlling cell shape and vitality. In contrast to bacteria such as Escherichia coli that grow by dispersed lateral insertion of PG, little is known of the processes that direct polar PG synthesis in other bacteria such as the Rhizobiales. To better understand polar growth in the Rhizobiales Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, we first surveyed its genome to identify homologs of (~70) well-known PG synthesis components. Since most of the canonical cell elongation components are absent from A. tumefaciens, we made fluorescent protein fusions to other putative PG synthesis components to assay their subcellular localization patterns. The cell division scaffolds FtsZ and FtsA, PBP1a, and a Rhizobiales- and Rhodobacterales-specific l,d-transpeptidase (LDT) all associate with the elongating cell pole. All four proteins also localize to the septum during cell division. Examination of the dimensions of growing cells revealed that new cell compartments gradually increase in width as they grow in length. This increase in cell width is coincident with an expanded region of LDT-mediated PG synthesis activity, as measured directly through incorporation of exogenous d-amino acids. Thus, unipolar growth in the Rhizobiales is surprisingly dynamic and represents a significant departure from the canonical growth mechanism of E. coli and other well-studied bacilli.
Cameron, Todd A.; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zupan, John R.; Zik, Justin J.
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation is a powerful tool for reverse genetics and functional genomic analysis in a wide variety of plants and fungi. Tuber spp. are ecologically important and gastronomically prized fungi (“truffles”) with a cryptic life cycle, a subterranean habitat and a symbiotic, but also facultative saprophytic lifestyle. The genome of a representative member of this group of fungi has recently been sequenced. However, because of their poor genetic tractability, including transformation, truffles have so far eluded in-depth functional genomic investigations. Here we report that A. tumefaciens can infect Tuber borchii mycelia, thereby conveying its transfer DNA with the production of stably integrated transformants. We constructed two new binary plasmids (pABr1 and pABr3) and tested them as improved transformation vectors using the green fluorescent protein as reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as selection marker. Transformants were stable for at least 12 months of in vitro culture propagation and, as revealed by TAIL- PCR analysis, integration sites appear to be heterogeneous, with a preference for repeat element-containing genome sites.
Background The type II clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/ CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is a novel molecular tool for site-specific genome modification. The CRISPR-Cas9 system was recently introduced into plants by transient or stable transformation. Findings Here, we report gene targeting in rice via the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated CRISPR-Cas9 system. Three 20-nt CRISPR RNAs were designed to pair with diverse sites followed by the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) of the rice herbicide resistance gene BEL. After integrating the single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and Cas9 cassette in a single binary vector, transgenic rice plants harboring sgRNA:Cas9 were generated by A. tumefaciens-mediated stable transformation. By analyzing the targeting site on the genome of corresponding transgenic plants, the mutations were determined. The mutagenesis efficiency was varied from ~2% to ~16%. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis revealed that the biallelic mutated transgenic plant was sensitive to bentazon. Conclusions Our results indicate that the agricultural trait could be purposely modified by sgRNA:Cas9-induced gene targeting. CRISPR-Cas9 system could be exploited as a powerful tool for trait improvements in crop breeding.
The synthesis of periplasmic beta(1-2)glucan is required for crown gall tumor formation by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens and for effective nodulation of alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti. The exoC (pscA) gene is required for this synthesis by both bacteria as well as for the synthesis of capsular polysaccharide and normal lipopolysaccharide. We tested the possibility that the pleiotropic ExoC phenotype is due to a defect in the synthesis of an intermediate common to several polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. Cytoplasmic extracts from wild-type A. tumefaciens and from exoC mutants of A. tumefaciens containing a cloned wild-type exoC gene synthesized in vitro UDP-glucose from glucose, glucose 1-phosphate, and glucose 6-phosphate. Extracts from exoC mutants synthesized UDP-glucose from glucose 1-phosphate but not from glucose or glucose 6-phosphate. Membranes from exoC mutant cells synthesized beta(1-2)glucan in vitro when exogenous UDP-glucose was added and contained the 235-kilodalton protein, which has been shown to carry out this synthesis in wild-type cells. We conclude that the inability of exoC mutants to synthesize beta(1-2)glucan is due to a deficiency in the activity of the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (EC 184.108.40.206), which in wild-type bacteria converts glucose 6-phosphate to glucose 1-phosphate, an intermediate in the synthesis of UDP-glucose. This interpretation can account for all of the deficiencies in polysaccharide synthesis which have been observed in these mutants. Images FIG. 2
Uttaro, A D; Cangelosi, G A; Geremia, R A; Nester, E W; Ugalde, R A
The Erwinia uredovora crtB, crtE, crtI, and crtY genes required for beta-carotene biosynthesis were introduced by conjugal transfer into an ethanol-producing bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis, and a phytopathogenic bacterium, Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, in which no carotenoid is synthesized. The transconjugants of Z. mobilis and A. tumefaciens carrying these genes appeared as yellow colonies and produced 220 and 350 micrograms of beta-carotene per g of dry weight, respectively, in the stationary phase in liquid culture. Images
Glycolipids are mainly found in phototrophic organisms (like plants and cyanobacteria), in Gram-positive bacteria, and a few other bacterial phyla. Besides the function as bulk membrane lipids, they often play a role under phosphate deprivation as surrogates for phospholipids. The Gram-negative Agrobacteriumtumefaciens accumulates four different glycolipids under phosphate deficiency, including digalactosyl diacylglycerol and glucosylgalactosyl diacylglycerol synthesized by a processive glycosyltransferase. The other two glycolipids have now been identified by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as monoglucosyl diacylglycerol and glucuronosyl diacylglycerol. These two lipids are synthesized by a single promiscuous glycosyltransferase encoded by the ORF atu2297, with UDP-glucose or UDP-glucuronic acid as sugar donors. The transfer of sugars differing in their chemistry is a novel feature not observed before for lipid glycosyltransferases. Furthermore, this enzyme is the first glucuronosyl diacylglycerol synthase isolated. Deletion mutants of Agrobacterium lacking monoglucosyl diacylglycerol and glucuronosyl diacylglycerol or all glycolipids are not impaired in growth or virulence during infection of tobacco leaf discs. Our data suggest that the four glycolipids and the nonphospholipid diacylglyceryl trimethylhomoserine can mutually replace each other during phosphate deprivation. This redundancy of different nonphospholipids may represent an adaptation mechanism to enhance the competitiveness in nature. PMID:24558041
Semeniuk, Adrian; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Duda, Katarzyna; Hölzl, Georg
Background As a valuable medicinal plant, Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) produces many terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), such as vindoline, ajamlicine, serpentine, catharanthine, vinblastine and vincristine et al. Some of them are important components of drugs treating cancer and hypertension. However, the yields of these TIAs are low in wild-type plants, and the total chemical synthesis is impractical in large scale due to high-cost and their complicated structures. The recent development of metabolic engineering strategy offers a promising solution. In order to improve the production of TIAs in C. roseus, the establishment of an efficient genetic transformation method is required. Results To develop a genetic transformation method for C. roseus, Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain EHA105 was employed which harbors a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 containing a report ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and a selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (NTPII). The influential factors were investigated systematically and the optimal transformation condition was achieved using hypocotyls as explants, including the sonication treatment of 10?min with 80?W, A. tumefaciens infection of 30?min and co-cultivation of 2 d in 1/2 MS medium containing 100??M acetosyringone. With a series of selection in callus, shoot and root inducing kanamycin-containing resistance media, we successfully obtained stable transgenic regeneration plants. The expression of GUS gene was confirmed by histochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and genomic southern blot analysis. To prove the efficiency of the established genetic transformation system, the rate-limiting gene in TIAs biosynthetic pathway, DAT, which encodes deacetylvindoline-4-O-acetyltransferase, was transferred into C. roseus using this established system and 9 independent transgenic plants were obtained. The results of metabolite analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that overexpression of DAT increased the yield of vindoline in transgenic plants. Conclusions In the present study, we report an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for C. roseus plants with 11% of transformation frequency. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the establishment of A. tumefaciens mediated transformation and regeneration of C. roseus. More importantly, the C. roseus transformation system developed in this work was confirmed in the successful transformation of C. roseus using a key gene DAT involved in TIAs biosynthetic pathway resulting in the higher accumulation of vindoline in transgenic plants.
The binding characteristics of two octopine-catabolizing pseudomonads, Pseudomonas fluorescens B99A and E175D, which were isolated from crown galls, have been examined. The binding of strain B99A to potato disks was very weak, followed a Freundlich isotherm, and was temperature and pH independent. Strain E175D displayed strong attachment and followed a Langmuir isotherm. Despite these fundamental differences in binding characteristics, when each strain was placed in competitive binding assays with either Agrobacteriumtumefaciens B6 or A. tumefaciens ATCC 15955, the number of bound pseudomonad cells decreased compared with those obtained in independent trials. Furthermore, the binding of A. tumefaciens cells was increased. In prebinding experiments, in which the potato disks were bound with the pseudomonads before exposure to the agrobacteria, the number of bound pseudomonad cells again decreased. This implies that increased desorption was occurring. In these prebinding studies, the numbers of bound A. tumefaciens ATCC 15955 increased, but the number of bound A. tumefaciens B6 remained the same. The mechanism for this observed synergism on the binding of agrobacterial cells and the depression in bound pseudomonad cells is believed to be alterations in the electrostatic or ionic charges on the plant and bacterial cell surfaces. The synergistic effect on A. tumefaciens undermines the use of these pseudomonads as potential biocontrol agents for crown gall. PMID:16348291
Transformation of Nicotiana tabacum leaf explants was attempted with Escherichia coli as a DNA donor either alone or in combination with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. We constructed E. coli donor strains harboring either the promiscuous IncP-type or IncN-type conjugal transfer system and second plasmids containing the respec- tive origins of transfer and plant-selectable markers. Neither of these conjugation systems was able to
We report the biochemical characterization of a novel haloalkane dehalogenase, DatA, isolated from the plant pathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens C58. DatA possesses a peculiar pair of halide-stabilizing residues, Asn-Tyr, which have not been reported to play this role in other known haloalkane dehalogenases. DatA has a number of other unique characteristics, including substrate-dependent and cooperative kinetics, a dimeric structure, and excellent enantioselectivity toward racemic mixtures of chiral brominated alkanes and esters.
This report describes the disarming of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens Chry5, a strain highly tumorigenic on soybean. Disarming was achieved by removing an approximately 16.5-kb segment of the\\u000a 285-kb Ti plasmid pTiChry5, including approximately 4 kb of the oncogenic T-DNA and an extended region right of the T-DNA,\\u000a and replacing it with a gene for carbenicillin resistance, through homologous recombination. The deletion
R. S. Torisky; L. Kovacs; S. Avdiushko; J. D. Newman; A. G. Hunt; G. B. Collins
Transgenic plantlets with a retarding effect on post-harvest yellowing in broccoli have been generated via Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation of cytokinin synthesizing ipt (isopentenyltransferase) gene. The ipt gene is constructed under the control of senescence-associated gene promoters from Arabidopsis in the forms of pSG529(+) and pSG766A, which were the gifts from Dr R.M. Amasino at University of Wisconsin, Madison. Evidence of
Long-Fang O. Chen; Jia-Yuan Hwang; Yee-Yung Charng; Chi-Wen Sun; Shang-Fa Yang
For regulatory issues and research purposes it would be desirable to have the ability to segregate transgenes in co-transformed maize. We have developed a highly efficient system to segregate transgenes in maize that was co-transformed using an Agrobacteriumtumefaciens 2 T-DNA binary system. Three vector treatments were compared in this study; (1) a 2 T-DNA vector, where the selectable marker
Michael Miller; Laura Tagliani; Ning Wang; Benjamin Berka; Dennis Bidney; Zuo-Yu Zhao
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens C58 and its derivatives give rise to spontaneous mutants resistant to tetracycline at a high frequency. We observed that a mutation affecting a tRNA processing function significantly affected the emergence of such mutants, suggesting that C58 contained a positively acting gene conferring resistance to tetracycline. A cosmid clone conferring resistance to tetracycline in Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium was isolated from a genomic bank of one such mutant. Subcloning, transposon mutagenesis, and DNA sequence analysis revealed that this DNA fragment contained two divergently transcribed genes, tetA and tetR, encoding products that were very similar to proteins of the Tet(A) class of tetracycline resistance systems. In the clone from this mutant, tetR was disrupted by an IS426. The homologous region from wild-type NT1 contained an intact tetR gene and did not confer resistance to tetracycline. Hybridization analysis showed that of 22 members of the genus Agrobacterium surveyed, only strains C58 and T37 contained the tet determinant. Moreover, only these two strains mutated to resistance to this antibiotic. Unlike other Tet(A) systems, neither tetracycline nor a series of its derivatives induced the expression of this tet gene unit. Other polycyclic compounds, including many of plant origin, also did not induce this tet gene system. The divergent promoter region of this tet system contained a single inverted repeat element identical to one such operator repeat in the promoter region of the tet determinant from the IncP1? R plasmid RP4. TetR repressor proteins from the Agrobacterium tet system and from RP4 interacted with the heterologous operators. While the repressive effect of the TetR protein from strain C58 (TetRC58) on the tetA gene from strain RP4 (tetARP4) was not relieved by tetracycline, repression of tetAC58 by TetRRP4 was lifted by this antibiotic.
Photolyases and cryptochromes are evolutionarily related flavoproteins with distinct functions. While photolyases can repair UV-induced DNA lesions in a light-dependent manner, cryptochromes regulate growth, development and the circadian clock in plants and animals. Here we report about two photolyase-related proteins, named PhrA and PhrB, found in the phytopathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. PhrA belongs to the class III cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyases, the sister class of plant cryptochromes, while PhrB belongs to a new class represented in at least 350 bacterial organisms. Both proteins contain flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a primary catalytic cofactor, which is photoreduceable by blue light. Spectral analysis of PhrA confirmed the presence of 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) as antenna cofactor. PhrB comprises also an additional chromophore, absorbing in the short wavelength region but its spectrum is distinct from known antenna cofactors in other photolyases. Homology modeling suggests that PhrB contains an Fe-S cluster as cofactor which was confirmed by elemental analysis and EPR spectroscopy. According to protein sequence alignments the classical tryptophan photoreduction pathway is present in PhrA but absent in PhrB. Although PhrB is clearly distinguished from other photolyases including PhrA it is, like PhrA, required for in vivo photoreactivation. Moreover, PhrA can repair UV-induced DNA lesions in vitro. Thus, A. tumefaciens contains two photolyase homologs of which PhrB represents the first member of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) that contains an iron-sulfur cluster.
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread protein secretion system found in many Gram-negative bacteria. T6SSs are highly regulated by various regulatory systems at multiple levels, including post-translational regulation via threonine (Thr) phosphorylation. The Ser/Thr protein kinase PpkA is responsible for this Thr phosphorylation regulation, and the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain-containing Fha-family protein is the sole T6SS phosphorylation substrate identified to date. Here we discovered that TssL, the T6SS inner-membrane core component, is phosphorylated and the phosphorylated TssL (p-TssL) activates type VI subassembly and secretion in a plant pathogenic bacterium, Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. Combining genetic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that TssL is phosphorylated at Thr 14 in a PpkA-dependent manner. Further analysis revealed that the PpkA kinase activity is responsible for the Thr 14 phosphorylation, which is critical for the secretion of the T6SS hallmark protein Hcp and the putative toxin effector Atu4347. TssL phosphorylation is not required for the formation of the TssM-TssL inner-membrane complex but is critical for TssM conformational change and binding to Hcp and Atu4347. Importantly, Fha specifically interacts with phosphothreonine of TssL via its pThr-binding motif in vivo and in vitro and this interaction is crucial for TssL interaction with Hcp and Atu4347 and activation of type VI secretion. In contrast, pThr-binding ability of Fha is dispensable for TssM structural transition. In conclusion, we discover a novel Thr phosphorylation event, in which PpkA phosphorylates TssL to activate type VI secretion via its direct binding to Fha in A. tumefaciens. A model depicting an ordered TssL phosphorylation-induced T6SS assembly pathway is proposed. PMID:24626341
In the present work, we report a novel class of glutathione transferases (GSTs) originated from the pathogenic soil bacterium Agrobacteriumtumefaciens C58, with structural and catalytic properties not observed previously in prokaryotic and eukaryotic GST isoenzymes. A GST-like sequence from A. tumefaciens C58 (Atu3701) with low similarity to other characterized GST family of enzymes was identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to a distinct GST class not previously described and restricted only in soil bacteria, called the Eta class (H). This enzyme (designated as AtuGSTH1-1) was cloned and expressed in E. coli and its structural and catalytic properties were investigated. Functional analysis showed that AtuGSTH1-1 exhibits significant transferase activity against the common substrates aryl halides, as well as very high peroxidase activity towards organic hydroperoxides. The crystal structure of AtuGSTH1-1 was determined at 1.4 Ĺ resolution in complex with S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione (Nb-GSH). Although AtuGSTH1-1 adopts the canonical GST fold, sequence and structural characteristics distinct from previously characterized GSTs were identified. The absence of the classic catalytic essential residues (Tyr, Ser, Cys) distinguishes AtuGSTH1-1 from all other cytosolic GSTs of known structure and function. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that instead of the classic catalytic residues, an Arg residue (Arg34), an electron-sharing network, and a bridge of a network of water molecules may form the basis of the catalytic mechanism. Comparative sequence analysis, structural information, and site-directed mutagenesis in combination with kinetic analysis showed that Phe22, Ser25, and Arg187 are additional important residues for the enzyme's catalytic efficiency and specificity.
Skopelitou, Katholiki; Dhavala, Prathusha; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.; Labrou, Nikolaos E.
The VirB11 ATPase is a putative component of the transport machinery responsible for directing the export of nucleoprotein particles (T complexes) across the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens envelope to susceptible plant cells. Fractionation and membrane treatment studies showed that approximately 30% of VirB11 partitioned as soluble protein, whereas the remaining protein was only partially solubilized with urea from cytoplasmic membranes of wild-type strain A348 as well as a Ti-plasmidless strain expressing virB11 from an IncP replicon. Mutations in virB11 affecting protein function were mapped near the amino terminus (Q6L, P13L, and E25G), just upstream of a region encoding a Walker A nucleotide-binding site (F154H;L155M), and within the Walker A motif (P170L, K175Q, and delta GKT174-176). The K175Q and delta GKT174-176 mutant proteins partitioned almost exclusively with the cytoplasmic membrane, suggesting that an activity associated with nucleotide binding could modulate the affinity of VirB11 for the cytoplasmic membrane. The virB11F154H;L155M allele was transdominant over wild-type virB11 in a merodiploid assay, providing strong evidence that at least one form of VirB11 functions as a homo- or heteromultimer. An allele with a deletion of the first half of the gene, virB11 delta1-156, was transdominant in a merodiploid assay, indicating that the C-terminal half of VirB11 contains a protein interaction domain. Products of both virB11 delta1-156 and virB11 delta158-343, which synthesizes the N-terminal half of VirB11, associated tightly with the A. tumefaciens membrane, suggesting that both halves of VirB11 contain membrane interaction determinants.
The protocatechuate branch of the beta-ketoadipate pathway comprises the last six enzymatic steps in the catabolism of diverse phenolic compounds to citric acid cycle intermediates. In this paper, the regulation and tight supraoperonic clustering of the protocatechuate (pca) genes from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens A348 are elucidated. A previous study found that the pcaD gene is controlled by an adjacent regulatory gene, pcaQ, which encodes an activator. The activator responded to beta-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate and was shown to control the synthesis of at least three genes (pcaD and pcaHG). In this work, eight genes required for the catabolism of protocatechuate were localized within a 13.5-kb SalI region of DNA. Isolation and characterization of transposon Tn5 mutant strains facilitated the localization of pca genes. Five structural genes were found to respond to the tricarboxylic acid and to be contiguous in an operon transcribed in the order pcaDCHGB. These genes encode enzymes beta-ketoadipate enol-lactone hydrolase, gamma-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase, protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (pcaHG), and beta-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme, respectively. Approximately 4 kb from the pcaD gene are the pcaIJ genes, which encode beta-ketoadipate succinyl-coenzyme A transferase for the next-to-last step of the pathway. The pcaIJ genes are transcribed divergently from the pcaDCHGB operon and are expressed in response to beta-ketoadipate. The pattern of induction of pca genes by beta-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate and beta-ketoadipate in A. tumefaciens is similar to that observed in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and is distinct from induction patterns for the genes from other microbial groups.
The effectiveness of Agrobacterium radiobacter K84, 0341, and a K84 non-agrocin-producing mutant (K84 Agr) in biological control of crown gall on rootstocks of stone fruit trees was determined in three experiments. In experiment 1, K84 and 0341 controlled crown gall on plum plants in soil inoculated with two strains of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens resistant to agrocin 84. In experiment 2, K84 controlled crown gall on peach plants in soils inoculated with strains of A. tumefaciens sensitive or resistant to agrocin 84 or with a mixture of both. However, the effectiveness of K84 was higher against the sensitive strain than against the resistant strain. There was a residual effect of K84 from one year to another in soil inoculated with the sensitive strains. In experiment 3, K84 and K84 Agr controlled crown gall on plum and peach plants in soils inoculated with strains of A. tumefaciens sensitive or resistant to agrocin 84. The control afforded by K84 was higher than that provided by K84 Agr against the sensitive strain but was similar against the resistant strain. PMID:16347881
López, M M; Gorris, M T; Salcedo, C I; Montojo, A M; Miró, M
Two-to 4-month-old seedlings of nine pine species (Pinus eldarica Medw., Pinus elliottii Engelm., Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf., Pinus lambertiana Dougl., Pinus ponderosa Laws., Pinus radiata D. Don, Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus taeda L., Pinus virginiana Mill), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuaa menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and incense cedar (Libocedrus decurrens Torr.) were inoculated with five strains of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. Transformation occurred in all conifer species tested as determined by gall formation and opine production. The frequency of gall formation varied by host species, by bacterial strain, and was related to the age of the stem when inoculated. Galls were visible 8 to 12 weeks after inoculation and were small (often less than 2.5 millimeters in diameter). Fewer than half (230 of 502) of the galls originally formed on the trees were present after 1 year, and 26 of these grew to diameters greater than 2 centimeters. The majority of these larger galls (18 of 26) were found in P. radiata. Bacterial strain-specific opines were found in 67 of the 81 gall tissues sampled. Images Figure 1
Stomp, Anne-Marie; Loopstra, Carol; Chilton, W. Scott; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Moore, Larry W.
In order to detect proteins that may be produced in crown gall tumors as a result of expression of incorporated Agrobacteriumtumefaciens Ti plasmid DNA (T-DNA), we have isolated mRNA complementary to T-DNA and translated this in a protein-synthesizing system derived from wheat germ. mRNA prepared from cultured E1 tumor from Nicotiana tabacum hybridized with HindIII fragment 1 sequences of T-DNA immobilized on cellulose nitrate filters. Two proteins of 30,000 and 16,500 Mr were produced when this selected RNA was released and translated. Other tumor lines from N. tabacum were investigated, and a protein of slightly less than 30,000 Mr was encoded by HindIII fragment 1 sequences of 15955/01 tumor. No products were observed for 15955/1 tumor line, which differs from E1/B6-806 and 15955/01 in that it does not produce octopine. mRNA species of each of the tumor lines hybridized to Bst I fragment 8 sequences of T-DNA and produced a common protein of 15,000 Mr. Because this protein is derived from the region of the T-DNA that is conserved in octopine- and nopaline-type crown gall tumors, it may play a role in oncogenicity. Images
McPherson, Joan C.; Nester, Eugene W.; Gordon, Milton P.
Rhizobium loti strains NZP2037 and NZP2213 were each found to contain a single large plasmid: pRlo2037a (240 MDal) and pRlo2213a (120 MDal), respectively. Plasmid DNA present in crude cell lysates of each strain and purified pRlo2037a DNA did not hybridize with pID1, a recombinant plasmid containing part of the nitrogen fixation (nif) region of R. meliloti, indicating that nif genes were not present on these plasmids. The transposon Tn5 was inserted into pRlo2037a and this plasmid was then transferred into R. leguminosarum, R. meliloti and Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. All transconjugants failed to nodulate Lotus pedunculatus, suggesting that the ability to nodulate this legume was also not carried on pRlo2037a. Transfer of pRlo2037a to R. loti strain NZP2213 did not alter the Nod+ Fix- phenotype of this strain for L. pedunculatus. Determinants for flavolan resistance, believed to be necessary for effective nodulation of L. pedunculatus, were not carried on pRlo2037a. These data suggest that nodulation, nitrogen fixation and flavolan resistance genes are not present on the large plasmid in R. loti strain NZP2037. PMID:6313860
Alginate, a major component of the cell wall matrix in brown seaweeds, is degraded by alginate lyases through a ?-elimination reaction. Almost all alginate lyases act endolytically on substrate, thereby yielding unsaturated oligouronic acids having 4-deoxy-l-erythro-hex-4-enepyranosyluronic acid at the nonreducing end. In contrast, Agrobacteriumtumefaciens alginate lyase Atu3025, a member of polysaccharide lyase family 15, acts on alginate polysaccharides and oligosaccharides exolytically and releases unsaturated monosaccharides from the substrate terminal. The crystal structures of Atu3025 and its inactive mutant in complex with alginate trisaccharide (H531A/?GGG) were determined at 2.10- and 2.99-? resolutions with final R-factors of 18.3 and 19.9%, respectively, by x-ray crystallography. The enzyme is comprised of an ?/?-barrel + anti-parallel ?-sheet as a basic scaffold, and its structural fold has not been seen in alginate lyases analyzed thus far. The structural analysis of H531A/?GGG and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis studies proposed the enzyme reaction mechanism, with His311 and Tyr365 as the catalytic base and acid, respectively. Two structural determinants, i.e. a short ?-helix in the central ?/?-barrel domain and a conformational change at the interface between the central and C-terminal domains, are essential for the exolytic mode of action. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on the structure of the family 15 enzyme.
Transposon Tn5-B22 mutagenesis was used to identify genetic determinants required for arsenite [As(III)] oxidation in an Agrobacteriumtumefaciens soil isolate, strain 5A. In one mutant, the transposon interrupted modB, which codes for the permease component of a high-affinity molybdate transporter. In a second mutant, the transposon insertion occurred in mrpB, which is part of a seven-gene operon encoding an Mrp-type Na+:H+ antiporter complex. Complementation experiments with mod and mrp operons PCR cloned from the genome-sequenced A. tumefaciens strain C58 resulted in complementation back to an As(III)-oxidizing phenotype, confirming that these genes encode activities essential for As(III) oxidation in this strain of A. tumefaciens. As expected, the mrp mutant was extremely sensitive to NaCl and LiCl, indicating that the Mrp complex in A. tumefaciens is involved in Na+ circulation across the membrane. Gene expression studies (lacZ reporter and reverse transcriptase PCR experiments) failed to show evidence of transcriptional regulation of the mrp operon in response to As(III) exposure, whereas expression of the mod operon was found to be up-regulated by As(III) exposure. In each mutant, the loss of As(III)-oxidizing capacity resulted in conversion to an arsenate [As(V)]-reducing phenotype. Neither mutant was more sensitive to As(III) than the parental strain.
Kashyap, Des R.; Botero, Lina M.; Lehr, Corinne; Hassett, Daniel J.; McDermott, Timothy R.
Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a major pathogen of many different crop cultures, including cashew nut plants. This paper describes an efficient Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system for the successful delivery of T-DNA, transferring the genes of green fluorescent protein (gfp) and hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) to L. theobromae. When the fungal pycnidiospores were co-cultured with A. tumefaciens harboring the binary vector with hph-gfp gene, hygromycin-resistant fungus only developed with acetosyringone supplementation. The cashew plants inoculated with the fungus expressing GFP revealed characteristic pathogen colonization by epifluorescence microscopy. Intense and bright green hyphae were observed for transformants in all extensions of mycelium cultures. The penetration of parenchyma cells near to the inoculation site, beneath the epicuticle surface, was observed prior to 25 dpi. Penetration was followed by the development of hyphae within invaded host cells. These findings provide a rapid and reproducible ATMT method for L. theobromae transformation. PMID:24634294
Muniz, C R; da Silva, G F; Souza, M T; Freire, F C O; Kema, G H J; Guedes, M I F
In this article, we report the isolation of plant protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) genes and the isolation of herbicide-tolerant mutants. Subsequently, an Arabidopsis double mutant (Y426M + S305L) was used to develop a selectable marker system for Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays) and to obtain multiple events tolerant to the PPO family of herbicides. Maize transformants were produced via butafenacil selection using a flexible light regime to increase selection pressure. Butafenacil selection per se did not change transgene copy number distribution relative to other selectable marker systems, but the most tolerant events identified in the greenhouse were more likely to contain multiple copies of the introduced mutant PPO gene. To date, more than 2,500 independent transgenic maize events have been produced using butafenacil selection. The high frequency of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation via PPO selection enabled us to obtain single-copy transgenic maize lines tolerant to field levels of butafenacil.
Li, Xianggan; Volrath, Sandy L.; Nicholl, David B.G.; Chilcott, Charles E.; Johnson, Marie A.; Ward, Eric R.; Law, Marcus D.
An efficient Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation method was successfully established for a newly isolated Taxol-producing fungus, Ozonium sp EFY21. A specific hygromycin B resistance expression vector, pCAMBIA1304'AN7-1, was constructed for fungal transformation. Key factors affecting transformation efficiency were thoroughly investigated and optimized. PCR amplification and Southern hybridization were used to verify the transformation events. This study should pave the way for future genetic modification studies of Ozonium sp EFY21. PMID:24065647
Liu, L; Wei, Y M; Zhou, X W; Lin, J; Sun, X F; Tang, K X
Azospirillum lipoferum 4B harbors five cryptic plasmids. Several suicide plasmids were used to transfer Tn5-Mob to A. lipoferum 4B. Tn5-Mob insertion mutations of this strain could be obtained at frequencies of 10(-8)-10(-7) per recipient cell. One hundred Tn5-Mob A. lipoferum 4B mutants were used in bacterial matings with a plasmid-free Agrobacteriumtumefaciens recipient strain. This is the first report of mobilization, transfer, and replication of an Azospirillum plasmid in Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. One transconjugant was found which had lost an indigenous plasmid. PMID:2852995
The VirB8 protein of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens is essential for DNA transfer to plants. VirB8, a 237-residue polypeptide, is an integral membrane protein with a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain. It interacts with two transport pore proteins, VirB9 and VirB10, in addition to itself. To study the role of these interactions in DNA transfer and to identify essential amino acids of VirB8, we introduced random mutations in virB8 by the mutagenic PCR method. The putative mutants were tested for VirB8 function by the ability to complement a virB8 deletion mutant in tumor formation assays. After multiple rounds of screening 13 mutants that failed to complement the virB8 deletion mutation were identified. Analysis of the mutant strains by DNA sequence analysis, Western blot assays, and reconstruction of new point mutations led to the identification of five amino acid residues that are essential for VirB8 function. The substitution of glycine-78 to serine, serine-87 to leucine, alanine-100 to valine, arginine-107 to proline or alanine, and threonine-192 to methionine led to the loss of VirB8 activity. When introduced into the wild-type strain, virB8(S87L) partially suppressed the tumor forming ability of the wild-type protein. Analysis of protein-protein interaction by the yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that VirB8(R107P) is defective in interactions with both VirB9 and VirB10. A second mutant VirB8(S87L) is defective in interaction with VirB9. PMID:11371528
The Agrobacteriumtumefaciens VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) mediates the transfer of single-stranded DNA and protein virulence factors into plant cells, and also determines the assembly of the T-pilus, which is believed to play a role in host recognition. The T-pilus is composed of the major component VirB2 and the minor component VirB5. Using immuno-electron microscopy we detected the major component VirB2 along the entire length of detached T-pili, but not on cell-bound T-pili or on the cell surface. In contrast, the minor T-pilus component VirB5 was detected on the tips of cell-bound T-pili as well as on the ends of detached T-pili and on the cell surface. To gain further insights into the role of VirB5 we introduced changes at its C terminus. C-terminal deletions of up to four amino acids and alanine replacements did not abolish T-pilus formation and incorporation of the VirB5 variants at the tip, although they did impact the length of T-pili. Also, these changes differentially affected the ability of the T4SS to transfer DNA into plant and bacterial recipients, suggesting differential effects on host-cell specificity. The data presented here suggest that VirB5 localizes at the T-pilus tip, and provide novel insights into its role during the type IV secretion process. PMID:17975085
An efficient method for the production of transgenic papaya was developed via Sonication Assisted Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation (SAAT) of somatic embryos. The plasmid pGA482G was modified to contain gene PTi-Epj-TL-PLDMV with CP coding sequence of PLDMV Japan strain and chimeric gene PTi-NP-YKT with multiple CP coding sequences from PRSV Taiwan strain, PRSV Hawaii strain and PRSV Thailand strain, respectively. Disarmed Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying the binary plasmid pGA482G with the CP genes and nptII gene was used to transform embryo calli of papaya variety Sunset to produce transgenic papaya plants. The experiment was focused on the screening of effective transformation method. The engineered Agrobacterium grown overnight was diluted with an infection media of high osmotic pressure (1/2 MS medium contain 6% sucrose and 1% glucose, pH 5.7) and adjusted to optical density OD600nm = 0.15-0.20, embryonic calli were immerged in it for 30 min and treated with 5 s, 15 s, and 20 s sonication respectively during the infection. Results indicated that 15 s sonication treatment improved the transformation efficiency dramatically. After 15 s sonication treatment on embryo calli loaded in 15 ml sterile plastic tubes, 21 putative transgenic lines were produced from 80 pieces embryonic calli (26.3%) transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPG] and 8 putative transgenic lines was produced from 48 pieces embryonic calli (16.7%) transferred by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPB], while only a single line came out of 64 pieces embryonic calli (1.6%) transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPG] and none from 25 pieces embryonic calli transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPB] in the non-treatment control. Results also showed that the best concentration of selection antibiotic was 120 mg/L kanamycin. A total of 42 resistant shoots were produced from 421 pieces of original embryonic calli in 9 months. The presence of the CP genes in the transgenic plants and their integration into the papaya genome were confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization respectively. PMID:15323420
The conjugative transfer of Agrobacterium plasmids is controlled by a quorum-sensing system consisting of TraR and its acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL) ligand. The acyl-HSL is essential for the TraR-mediated activation of the Ti plasmid Tra genes. Strains A6 and C58 of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens produce a lactonase, BlcC (AttM), that can degrade the quormone, leading some to conclude that the enzyme quenches
Single transgene copy, vector backbone-free transgenic crop plants are highly desired for functional genomics and many biotechnological\\u000a applications. We demonstrate that binary vectors that use a replication origin derived from the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (oriRi) increase the frequency of single copy, backbone-free transgenic plants in Agrobacteriumtumefaciens mediated transformation of soybean, canola, and corn, compared to RK2-derived binary
Xudong Ye; Edward J. Williams; Junjiang Shen; Susan Johnson; Brenda Lowe; Sharon Radke; Steve Strickland; James A. Esser; Michael W. Petersen; Larry A. Gilbertson
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many Proteobacteria to target effectors/toxins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. We report that Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, a soil bacterium that triggers tumorigenesis in plants, produces a family of type VI DNase effectors (Tde) that are distinct from previously known polymorphic toxins and nucleases. Tde exhibits an antibacterial DNase activity that relies on a conserved HxxD motif and can be counteracted by a cognate immunity protein, Tdi. In vitro, A. tumefaciens T6SS could kill Escherichia coli but triggered a lethal counterattack by Pseudomonas aeruginosa upon injection of the Tde toxins. However, in an in planta coinfection assay, A. tumefaciens used Tde effectors to attack both siblings cells and P. aeruginosa to ultimately gain a competitive advantage. Such acquired T6SS-dependent fitness in vivo and conservation of Tde-Tdi couples in bacteria highlights a widespread antibacterial weapon beneficial for niche colonization. PMID:24981331
Cellulose fibrils play a role in attachment of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens to its plant host. While the genes for cellulose biosynthesis in the bacterium have been identified, little is known concerning the regulation of the process. The signal molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been linked to the regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in many bacterial species, including A. tumefaciens. In this study, we identified two putative diguanylate cyclase genes, celR (atu1297) and atu1060, that influence production of cellulose in A. tumefaciens. Overexpression of either gene resulted in increased cellulose production, while deletion of celR, but not atu1060, resulted in decreased cellulose biosynthesis. celR overexpression also affected other phenotypes, including biofilm formation, formation of a polar adhesion structure, plant surface attachment, and virulence, suggesting that the gene plays a role in regulating these processes. Analysis of celR and ?cel mutants allowed differentiation between phenotypes associated with cellulose production, such as biofilm formation, and phenotypes probably resulting from c-di-GMP signaling, which include polar adhesion, attachment to plant tissue, and virulence. Phylogenetic comparisons suggest that species containing both celR and celA, which encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, adapted the CelR protein to regulate cellulose production while those that lack celA use CelR, called PleD, to regulate specific processes associated with polar localization and cell division.
Barnhart, D. Michael; Su, Shengchang; Baccaro, Brenna E.; Banta, Lois M.
Developing maize (Zea mays) endosperms can be excised from the maternal tissues and undergo tissue/cell-type differentiation under in vitro conditions. We have developed a method to transform in vitro-grown endosperms using Agrobacteriumtumefaciens and standard binary vectors. We show that both aleurone and starchy endosperm cells can be successfully transformed using a short cocultivation with A. tumefaciens cells. The highest transformation rates were obtained with the A. tumefaciens EHA101 strain and the pTF101.1 binary vector. The percentage of aleurone cells transformed following this method varied between 10% and 22% whereas up to the eighth layer of starchy endosperm cells underneath the aleurone layer showed transformed cells. Cultured endosperms undergo normal cell type (aleurone and starchy endosperm) differentiation and storage protein accumulation, making them suitable for cell biology and biochemical studies. In addition, transgenic cultured endosperms are able to express and accumulate epitope-tagged storage proteins that can be isolated for biochemical assays or used for immunolabeling techniques.
Reyes, Francisca C.; Sun, Beimeng; Guo, Hena; Gruis, Darren (Fred); Otegui, Marisa S.
Summary The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many Proteobacteria to target effectors/toxins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. We report that Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, a soil bacterium that triggers tumorigenesis in plants, produces a family of type VI DNase effectors (Tde) that are distinct from previously known polymorphic toxins and nucleases. Tde exhibits an antibacterial DNase activity that relies on a conserved HxxD motif and can be counteracted by a cognate immunity protein, Tdi. In vitro, A. tumefaciens T6SS could kill Escherichia coli but triggered a lethal counterattack by Pseudomonas aeruginosa upon injection of the Tde toxins. However, in an in planta coinfection assay, A. tumefaciens used Tde effectors to attack both siblings cells and P. aeruginosa to ultimately gain a competitive advantage. Such acquired T6SS-dependent fitness in vivo and conservation of Tde-Tdi couples in bacteria highlights a widespread antibacterial weapon beneficial for niche colonization.
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens is a unique plant pathogenic bacterium renowned for its ability to transform plants. The integration of transferred DNA (T-DNA) and the formation of complex insertions in the genome of transgenic plants during A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that complex extrachromosomal T-DNA structures form in A. tumefaciens-infected plants immediately after infection. Furthermore, these extrachromosomal complex DNA molecules can circularize in planta. We recovered circular T-DNA molecules (T-circles) using a novel plasmid-rescue method. Sequencing analysis of the T-circles revealed patterns similar to the insertion patterns commonly found in transgenic plants. The patterns include illegitimate DNA end joining, T-DNA truncations, T-DNA repeats, binary vector sequences, and other unknown “filler” sequences. Our data suggest that prior to T-DNA integration, a transferred single-stranded T-DNA is converted into a double-stranded form. We propose that termini of linear double-stranded T-DNAs are recognized and repaired by the plant’s DNA double-strand break-repair machinery. This can lead to circularization, integration, or the formation of extrachromosomal complex T-DNA structures that subsequently may integrate.
Singer, Kamy; Shiboleth, Yoel M.; Li, Jianming; Tzfira, Tzvi
Many bacteria colonize surfaces and transition to a sessile mode of growth. The plant pathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens produces a unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) adhesin at single cell poles that contact surfaces. Here we report that elevated levels of the intracellular signal cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) lead to surface-contact-independent UPP production and a red colony phenotype due to production of UPP and the exopolysaccharide cellulose, when A.?tumefaciens is incubated with the polysaccharide stain Congo Red. Transposon mutations with elevated Congo Red staining identified presumptive UPP-negative regulators, mutants for which were hyperadherent, producing UPP irrespective of surface contact. Multiple independent mutations were obtained in visN and visR, activators of flagellar motility in A.?tumefaciens, now found to inhibit UPP and cellulose production. Expression analysis in a visR mutant and isolation of suppressor mutations, identified three diguanylate cyclases inhibited by VisR. Null mutations for two of these genes decrease attachment and UPP production, but do not alter cellular c-di-GMP levels. However, analysis of catalytic site mutants revealed their GGDEF motifs are required to increase UPP production and surface attachment. Mutations in a specific presumptive c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase also elevate UPP production and attachment, consistent with c-di-GMP activation of surface-dependent adhesin deployment. PMID:23829710
Xu, Jing; Kim, Jinwoo; Koestler, Benjamin J; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Waters, Christopher M; Fuqua, Clay
Cellulose fibrils play a role in attachment of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens to its plant host. While the genes for cellulose biosynthesis in the bacterium have been identified, little is known concerning the regulation of the process. The signal molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been linked to the regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in many bacterial species, including A. tumefaciens. In this study, we identified two putative diguanylate cyclase genes, celR (atu1297) and atu1060, that influence production of cellulose in A. tumefaciens. Overexpression of either gene resulted in increased cellulose production, while deletion of celR, but not atu1060, resulted in decreased cellulose biosynthesis. celR overexpression also affected other phenotypes, including biofilm formation, formation of a polar adhesion structure, plant surface attachment, and virulence, suggesting that the gene plays a role in regulating these processes. Analysis of celR and ?cel mutants allowed differentiation between phenotypes associated with cellulose production, such as biofilm formation, and phenotypes probably resulting from c-di-GMP signaling, which include polar adhesion, attachment to plant tissue, and virulence. Phylogenetic comparisons suggest that species containing both celR and celA, which encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, adapted the CelR protein to regulate cellulose production while those that lack celA use CelR, called PleD, to regulate specific processes associated with polar localization and cell division. PMID:24038703
Barnhart, D Michael; Su, Shengchang; Baccaro, Brenna E; Banta, Lois M; Farrand, Stephen K
A comprehensive evaluation of 13 plant essential oils namely: caraway, chenopodium, cinnamon, clove, eucalyptus, garlic, geranium, lemon, matrecary, peppermint, rose, rosemary and thyme and 14 of their monoterpenoidal constituents: borneol, camphor, carvacrol, carveol, carvone (R and S), chlorothymol, cineol, cinnamaldehyde, citronellol, eugenol, geraneol, menthol, and thymol was investigated for their antibacterial activity against the two phytopathogenic bacteria, Agrobacteriumtumefaciens and
Saad Rashad El-Zemity; Mohamed Aly Radwan; Shady Abd El-Monam Mohamed; Shebl Mohamed Sherby
This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacteriumtumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus sources: callus induced from both apical and non-apical root segments of in vitro plantlets, true garlic seeds
Si-Jun Zheng; Betty Henken; Yul Kyun Ahn; Frans A. Krens; Chris Kik
Cotyledons of cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Poinsett 76) were co-cultivated with disarmed Agrobacterium strain C58Z707. The Agrobacterium strain contained the Agrobacterium-derived binary vector plasmid pGA482, its T-DNA region contains a plant expressible bacterial derived neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) gene which upon transfer, genome integration, and expression in plant tissues confers resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. After growth
Binary Ti plasmid vector systems consist of two plasmids in Agrobacterium, where one plasmid contains the DNA that can be transferred to plant cells and the other contains the virulence (vir) genes which are necessary for the DNA transfer but are not themselves stably transferred. We have constructed two nononcogenic vectors (pARC4 and pARC8) based on the binary Ti plasmid system of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens for plant transformation. Each vector contains the left and right termini sequences from pTiT37. These sequences, which determine the extent of DNA transferred to plant cells, flank unique restriction enzyme sites and a marker gene that functions in the plant (nopaline synthase in pARC4 or neomycin phosphotransferase in pARC8). After construction in vitro, the vectors can be conjugatively transferred from E. coli to any of several Agrobacterium strains containing vir genes. Using A. rhizogenes strain A4 containing the resident Ri plasmid plus a vector with the nopaline synthase marker, we found that up to 50% of the hairy roots resulting from the infection of alfalfa or tomato synthesized nopaline. Thus, vector DNA encoding an unselected marker was frequently co-transferred with Ri plasmid DNA to an alfalfa or a tomato cell. In contrast, the frequency of co-transfer to soybean cells was difficult to estimate because we encountered a high background of non-transformed roots using this species. Up to five copies of the vector DNA between the termini sequences were faithfully transferred and maintained in most cases suggesting that the termini sequences and the vir genes from the Ri and Ti plasmids are functionally equivalent. PMID:24307418
Simpson, R B; Spielmann, A; Margossian, L; McKnight, T D
Ustilago scitaminea is the causal agent of sugar-cane smut disease. There is, however, no genetic transformation method for it. Here we report the development of an efficient mutagenesis method based on Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation. To improve transformation efficiency, a range of conditions, including the codon-usage preference of the selection marker gene, promoters and the culture conditions for transformation were optimized. A strong promoter to drive marker gene expression, optimized codon usage of selection marker gene, controlled water content and pH of co-culture medium were critical factors affecting transformation efficiency. Our findings provide a useful tool for genetic analysis of this important plant pathogen. PMID:24563317
Sun, Longhua; Yan, Meixin; Ding, Zhaojian; Liu, Yanbin; Du, Minge; Xi, Pinggen; Liao, Jinling; Ji, Lianghui; Jiang, Zide
The VirD2 protein of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens was shown to pilot T-DNA during its transfer to the plant cell nucleus. We analyze here its participation in the integration of T-DNA by using a virD2 mutant. This mutation reduces the efficiency of T-DNA transfer, but the efficiency of integration of T-DNA per se is unaffected. Southern and sequence analyses of integration events obtained with the mutated VirD2 protein revealed an aberrant pattern of integration. These results indicate that the wild-type VirD2 protein participates in ligation of the 5'-end of the T-strand to plant DNA and that this ligation step is not rate limiting for T-DNA integration. Images
Tinland, B; Schoumacher, F; Gloeckler, V; Bravo-Angel, A M; Hohn, B
The soil bacterium Agrobacteriumtumefaciens can incite tumors in many dicotyledonous plants by transferring a portion (T-DNA) of its Ti plasmid into susceptible plant cells. The T-DNA is flanked by border sequences that serve as recognition sites for specific cleavage by an endonuclease that comprises two virD-encoded proteins (VirD1 and VirD2). After cleavage, both double-stranded, nicked T-DNA molecules and single-stranded T-DNA molecules (T strands) were present. We have determined that a protein is tightly associated with, and probably covalently attached to, the 5' end of the T strands. Analysis of deletion derivatives in Escherichia coli, immunoprecipitation, and a procedure combining immunoblot and nucleic acid hybridization data identified this protein as the gene product of virD2. Images
The cryptic plasmid (pAT) of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens was not required for virulence or attachment to plant surfaces. However, mutations in the attC and attG genes located on pAT caused the bacteria to become avirulent and non-attaching on tomato, carrot, and Bryophyllum daigremontiana. This was the case whether the mutation was in the copy of the genes located on pAT or whether it was carried in a second copy of the attA-G operon located on a plasmid in cells that contained a wild-type copy of pAT. Thus attC and attG mutations are dominant negative mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations block attachment and virulence is unknown. PMID:18388996
Glycogen and starch, the major storage carbohydrate in most living organisms, result mainly from the action of starch or glycogen synthases (SS or GS, respectively, EC 220.127.116.11). SSIII from Arabidopsis thaliana is an SS isoform with a particular modular organization: the C-terminal highly conserved glycosyltransferase domain is preceded by a unique specific region (SSIII-SD) which contains three in tandem starch binding domains (SBDs, named D1, D2 and D3) characteristic of polysaccharide degrading enzymes. N-terminal SBDs have a probed regulatory role in SSIII activity, showing starch binding ability and modulating the catalytic properties of the enzyme. On the other hand, GS from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens has a simple primary structure organization, characterized only by the highly conserved glycosyltransferase domain and lacking SBDs. To further investigate the functional role of A. thaliana SSIII-SD, three chimeric proteins were constructed combining the SBDs from A. thaliana with the GS from A. tumefaciens. Recombinant proteins were expressed in and purified to homogeneity from Escherichia coli cells in order to be kinetically characterized. Furthermore, we tested the ability to restore in vivo glycogen biosynthesis in transformed E. coli glgA(-) cells, deficient in GS. Results show that the D3-GS chimeric enzyme showed increased capacity of glycogen synthesis in vivo with minor changes in its kinetics parameters compared to GS. PMID:23796574
Martín, Mariana; Wayllace, Nahuel Z; Valdez, Hugo A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Busi, María V
VirB9 and VirB7 are essential components of the putative VirB membrane channel required for transfer of the T-complex from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens into plants. In this report, we present a biochemical analysis of their interaction and cellular localization. A comparison of relative electrophoretic mobilities under nonreducing and reducing conditions suggested that they form thiol-sensitive complexes with other proteins. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified one complex as a heterodimer of VirB9 and VirB7 covalently linked by a disulfide bond, as well as VirB7 homodimers and monomers. Immunoprecipitation with VirB9-specific antiserum isolated the heterodimeric VirB9-VirB7 complex. Incubation with reducing agent split the complex into its constituent VirB9 and VirB7, which further confirmed linkage via cysteine residues. The interaction between VirB9 and VirB7 also was observed in the yeast two-hybrid system. Membrane attachment of VirB9-VirB7 may be conferred by lipoprotein modification, since labeling with [3H]palmitic acid in A. tumefaciens verified that VirB7 is a lipoprotein associated with VirB9. VirB9 and VirB7 showed equal distribution between inner and outer membranes, in accord with their proposed association with the transmembrane VirB complex.
We report the nucleotide sequences of iaaM and iaaH, the genetic determinants for, respectively, tryptophan 2-monooxygenase and indoleacetamide hydrolase, the enzymes that catalyze the conversion of L-tryptophan to indoleacetic acid in the tumor-forming bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi. The sequence analysis indicates that the iaaM locus contains an open reading frame encoding 557 amino acids that would comprise a protein with a molecular weight of 61,783; the iaaH locus contains an open reading frame of 455 amino acids that would comprise a protein with a molecular weight of 48,515. Significant amino acid sequence homology was found between the predicted sequence of the tryptophan monooxygenase of P. savastanoi and the deduced product of the T-DNA tms-1 gene of the octopine-type plasmid pTiA6NC from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. Strong homology was found in the 25 amino acid sequence in the putative FAD-binding region of tryptophan monooxygenase. Homology was also found in the amino acid sequences representing the central regions of the putative products of iaaH and tms-2 T-DNA. The results suggest a strong similarity in the pathways for indoleacetic acid synthesis encoded by genes in P. savastanoi and in A. tumefaciens T-DNA. Images
Histidine kinases serve as critical environmental sensing modules, and despite their designation as simple two-component modules, their functional roles are remarkably diverse. In Agrobacteriumtumefaciens pathogenesis, VirA serves with VirG as the initiating sensor/transcriptional activator for inter-kingdom gene transfer and transformation of higher plants. Through responses to three separate signal inputs, low pH, sugars, and phenols, A. tumefaciens commits to pathogenesis in virtually all flowering plants. However, how these three signals are integrated to regulate the response and why these signals might be diagnostic for susceptible cells across such a broad host-range remains poorly understood. Using a homology model of the VirA linker region, we provide evidence for coordinated long-range transmission of inputs perceived both outside and inside the cell through the creation of targeted VirA truncations. Further, our evidence is consistent with signal inputs weakening associations between VirA domains to position the active site histidine for phosphate transfer. This mechanism requires long-range regulation of inter-domain stability and the transmission of input signals through a common integrating domain for VirA signal transduction.
Lin, Yi-Han; Pierce, B. Daniel; Fang, Fang; Wise, Arlene; Binns, Andrew N.; Lynn, David G.
The VirB4 ATPase of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, a putative component of the T-complex transport apparatus, associates with the cytoplasmic membrane independently of other products of the Ti plasmid. VirB4 was resistant to extraction from membranes of wild-type strain A348 or a Ti-plasmidless strain expressing virB4 from an IncP replicon. To evaluate the membrane topology of VirB4, a nested deletion method was used to generate a high frequency of random fusions between virB4 and 'phoA, which encodes a periplasmically active alkaline phosphatase (AP) deleted of its signal sequence. VirB4::PhoA hybrid proteins exhibiting AP activity in Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens had junction sites that mapped to two regions, between residues 58 and 84 (region 1) and between residues 450 and 514 (region 2). Conversely, VirB4::beta-galactosidase hybrid proteins with junction sites mapping to regions 1 and 2 exhibited low beta-galactosidase activities and hybrid proteins with junction sites elsewhere exhibited high beta-galactosidase activities. Enzymatically active VirB5::PhoA hybrid proteins had junction sites that were distributed throughout the length of the protein. Proteinase K treatment of A. tumefaciens spheroplasts resulted in the disappearance of the 87-kDa VirB4 protein and the concomitant appearance of two immunoreactive species of approximately 35 and approximately 45 kDa. Taken together, our data support a model in which VirB4 is topologically configured as an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with two periplasmic domains.
Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is an extremely complex and evolved process involving genetic determinants of both the bacteria and the host plant cells. However, the mechanism of the determinants remains obscure, especially in some cereal crops such as wheat, which is recalcitrant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were analyzed in wheat callus cells co-cultured with Agrobacterium by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS). A set of 4,889 DEGs and 90 DEPs were identified, respectively. Most of them are related to metabolism, chromatin assembly or disassembly and immune defense. After comparative analysis, 24 of the 90 DEPs were detected in RNA-seq and proteomics datasets simultaneously. In addition, real-time RT-PCR experiments were performed to check the differential expression of the 24 genes, and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq data. According to gene ontology (GO) analysis, we found that a big part of these differentially expressed genes were related to the process of stress or immunity response. Several putative determinants and candidate effectors responsive to Agrobacterium mediated transformation of wheat cells were discussed. We speculate that some of these genes are possibly related to Agrobacterium infection. Our results will help to understand the interaction between Agrobacterium and host cells, and may facilitate developing efficient transformation strategies in cereal crops.
Zhou, Xiaohong; Wang, Ke; Lv, Dongwen; Wu, Chengjun; Li, Jiarui; Zhao, Pei; Lin, Zhishan; Du, Lipu; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo
virB11, one of the 11 genes of the virB operon, is absolutely required for transport of T-DNA from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens into plant cells. Previous studies reported that VirB11 is an ATPase with autophosphorylation activity and localizes to the inner membrane even though the protein does not contain the consensus N-terminal export sequence. In this report, we show that VirB11 localizes to the inner membrane even in the absence of other tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid-encoded proteins. To facilitate the further characterization of VirB11, we purified this protein from the soluble fraction of an Escherichia coli extract by fusing VirB11 to the maltose-binding protein. The maltose-binding protein-VirB11 fusion was able to complement a virB11 deletion mutant of A. tumefaciens for tumor formation and also localized properly to the inner membrane of A. tumefaciens. The 72-kDa protein, purified from E. coli, exhibited no autophosphorylation, ATPase activity, or ATP-binding activity. To study the importance of the Walker nucleotide-binding site present in VirB11, mutations were generated to replace the conserved lysine residue with either alanine or arginine. Expression of the virB11K175A mutant gene resulted in an avirulent phenotype, and expression of the virB11K175R mutant gene gave rise to an attenuated virulence phenotype. Both mutant proteins were present at levels three to four times higher than that of VirB11 in the wild-type strain. The mutant genes did not exhibit a transdominant phenotype on tumor formation in bacteria that were expressing wild-type virB11. The mutant proteins also localized properly to the inner membrane of A. tumefaciens, but the VirB11K175R protein appeared to be unstable after lysis of the cells.
We investigated the effects of salicylic acid (SA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) on crown gall disease caused by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. Nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with SA showed decreased susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection. Exogenous application of SA to Agrobacterium cultures decreased its growth, virulence, and attachment to plant cells. Using Agrobacterium whole-genome microarrays, we characterized the direct effects of SA on bacterial gene expression and showed that SA inhibits induction of virulence (vir) genes and the repABC operon, and differentially regulates the expression of many other sets of genes. Using virus-induced gene silencing, we further demonstrate that plant genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signaling are important determinants for Agrobacterium infectivity on plants. Silencing of ICS (isochorismate synthase), NPR1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related gene 1), and SABP2 (SA-binding protein 2) in N. benthamiana enhanced Agrobacterium infection. Moreover, plants treated with benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid, a potent inducer of SAR, showed reduced disease symptoms. Our data suggest that SA and SAR both play a major role in retarding Agrobacterium infectivity.
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens causes crown gall disease by transferring oncogenic, single-stranded DNA (T strand), covalently attached to the VirD2 protein, across the bacterial envelope into plant cells where its ex- pression results in tumor formation. The single-stranded DNA binding protein VirE2 is also transferred into the plant cell, though the location at which VirE2 interacts with the T strand is still
Hairy root cultures of grapevine were obtained from plantlets co-inoculated by virulent Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains and\\u000a disarmed A. tumefaciens strains harbouring the binary vectors pKHG4 and pKVHG 2+. These plasmids contain the nptII, hpt and\\u000a gus genes and differ for the presence of the gene encoding for the grapevine chrome mosaic virus coat protein. For the cultivar\\u000a ‘Gravesac’, 72% of
; The 6b gene in the T-DNA region of the Ti plasmids of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens and A. vitis is able to generate shooty calli in phytohormone-free culture of leaf sections of tobacco transformed with 6b. In the present study, we report characteristic morphological abnormalities of the leaves of transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis that express 6b from pTiAKE10 (AK-6b), and altered
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens transfers single-stranded DNAs (T strands) into plant cells. VirE1 and VirE2, which is a single-stranded DNA binding protein, are important for tumorigenesis. We show that T strands and VirE2 can enter plant cells independently and that export of VirE2, but not of T strands, depends on VirE1. PMID:8576060
Functional chvA and chvB genes are required for attachment of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens to plant cells, an early step in crown gall tumor formation. Strains defective in these loci do not secrete normal amounts of cyclic beta-1,2-glucan. Whereas chvB is required for beta-1,2-glucan synthesis, the role of chvA in glucan synthesis or export has not been clearly defined. We found that cultures of chvA mutants contained as much neutral beta-1,2-glucan in the cell pellets as did the wild type, with no detectable accumulation of glucan in the culture supernatant. The cytoplasm of chvA mutant cells contained over three times more soluble beta-1,2-glucan than did the cytoplasm of the wild-type parent. Unlike the wild type, chvA mutants contained no detectable periplasmic glucan. The amino acid sequence of chvA is highly homologous to the sequences of bacterial and eucaryotic export proteins, as observed previously in the case of ndvA, a rhizobial homolog of chvA. Strong sequence homology within this family of export proteins is concentrated in the carboxy-terminal portions of the proteins, but placement of consensus ATP-binding sites, internal signal sequences, and hydrophobic domains are conserved over their entire lengths. These data suggest a model for beta-1,2-glucan synthesis in A. tumefaciens in which glucan is synthesized inside the inner membrane with the participation of ChvB and transported across the inner membrane with the participation of ChvA.
Cangelosi, G A; Martinetti, G; Leigh, J A; Lee, C C; Theines, C; Nester, E W
Nicotine is a main alkaloid in tobacco and is also the primary toxic compound in tobacco wastes. It can be degraded by bacteria via either pyridine pathway or pyrrolidine pathway. Previously, a fused pathway of the pyridine pathway and the pyrrolidine pathway was proposed for nicotine degradation by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens S33, in which 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP) is a key intermediate connecting the two pathways. We report here the purification and properties of an NADH-dependent HSP hydroxylase from A. tumefaciens S33. The 90-kDa homodimeric flavoprotein catalyzed the oxidative decarboxylation of HSP to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine (2,5-DHP) in the presence of NADH and FAD at pH 8.0 at a specific rate of about 18.8±1.85 µmol min?1 mg protein?1. Its gene was identified by searching the N-terminal amino acid residues of the purified protein against the genome draft of the bacterium. It encodes a protein composed of 391 amino acids with 62% identity to HSP hydroxylase (HspB) from Pseudomonas putida S16, which degrades nicotine via the pyrrolidine pathway. Considering the application potential of 2,5-DHP in agriculture and medicine, we developed a route to transform HSP into 2,5-DHP with recombinant HSP hydroxylase and an NADH-regenerating system (formate, NAD+ and formate dehydrogenase), via which around 0.53±0.03 mM 2,5-DHP was produced from 0.76±0.01 mM HSP with a molar conversion as 69.7%. This study presents the biochemical properties of the key enzyme HSP hydroxylase which is involved in the fused nicotine degradation pathway of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways and a new green route to biochemically synthesize functionalized 2,5-DHP.
The plant-growth-promoting bacterium Agrobacteriumtumefaciens CCNWGS0286, isolated from the nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing in zinc-lead mine tailings, both displayed high metal resistance and enhanced the growth of Robinia plants in a metal-contaminated environment. Our goal was to determine whether bacterial metal resistance or the capacity to produce phytohormones had a larger impact on the growth of host plants under zinc stress. Eight zinc-sensitive mutants and one zinc-sensitive mutant with reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production were obtained by transposon mutagenesis. Analysis of the genome sequence and of transcription via reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) combined with transposon gene disruptions revealed that ZntA-4200 and the transcriptional regulator ZntR1 played important roles in the zinc homeostasis of A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286. In addition, interruption of a putative oligoketide cyclase/lipid transport protein reduced IAA synthesis and also showed reduced zinc and cadmium resistance but had no influence on copper resistance. In greenhouse studies, R. pseudoacacia inoculated with A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286 displayed a significant increase in biomass production over that without inoculation, even in a zinc-contaminated environment. Interestingly, the differences in plant biomass improvement among A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286, A. tumefaciens C58, and zinc-sensitive mutants 12-2 (zntA::Tn5) and 15-6 (low IAA production) revealed that phytohormones, rather than genes encoding zinc resistance determinants, were the dominant factor in enhancing plant growth in contaminated soil.
Hao, Xiuli; Xie, Pin; Johnstone, Laurel; Miller, Susan J.
Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of a tetraploid “tetrazyg” citrus rootstock selection ‘Orange #16’ [Nova mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)+Hirado Buntan pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck)]×[Cleopatra mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco)+Argentine trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.)] was performed. Juvenile epicotyl segments were transformed with a construct containing a bifunctional egfp–nptII fusion gene under the control of an enhanced double CaMV 35S promoter. Our
The first transgenic peppermint (Mentha×piperita L. cultivar Black Mitcham) plants have been obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation by cocultivation with morphogenically responsive leaf explants. Basal leaf explants with petioles,\\u000a from leaves closest to the apex of in-vitro-culture-maintained shoots (5 cm), exhibited optimal shoot organogenetic responsiveness\\u000a on medium supplemented with thidiazuron (8.4 µm). Shoot formation occurred at sites of excision on the
X. Niu; K. Lin; P. M. Hasegawa; R. A. Bressan; S. C. Weller
Mutations at the cytokinin biosynthesis locus (tmr) of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens usually result in strains that induce tumors exhibiting the rooty phenotype associated with high auxin-to-cytokinin ratios. However, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Havana 425) leaf disc explants responded to tmr- mutant strain A356 by producing rapidly growing, unorganized tumors, indicating that these lines can grow in a cytokinin-independent fashion despite the absence of a functional tmr gene. Several methods have been used to characterize the physiological and cellular basis of this phenotype. The results indicate that tmr- tumors have a physiologically distinct mechanism for cytokinin-independent growth in comparison to tumors induced by wild-type bacteria. The cytokinin-independent phenotype of the tmr- transformants appears to be cell autonomous in nature: only the transformed cells and their progeny were capable of cytokinin-independent growth. Specifically, the tmr- tumors did not accumulate cytokinin, and clonal analysis indicated the tmr- transformed cells were not capable of stimulating the growth of neighboring nontransformed cells. Finally, the cytokinin-independent phenotype of the tmr- transformants was shown to be cold sensitive, whereas the wild-type tumors exhibited a cold-resistant cytokinin-independent phenotype. Potential mechanisms for this novel form of cytokinin-independent growth, including the role of the dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucosides found in both tumor types, are discussed. PMID:8058843
A gene encoding halohydrin dehalogenase (HHDH) from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens CCTCC M 87071 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. To increase activity and stability of HHDH, 14 amino acid residues around the active site and substrate-binding pocket based on the structural analysis and molecular docking were selected as targets for site-directed mutagenesis. The studies showed that the mutant HHDH (Mut-HHDH) enzyme had a more accessible substrate-binding pocket than the wild-type HHDH (Wt-HHDH). Molecular docking revealed that the distance between the substrate and active site was closer in mutant which improved the catalytic activity. The expressed Wt-HHDH and Mut-HHDH were purified and characterized using 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) as substrates. The specific activity of the mutant was enhanced 26-fold and the value of k cat was 18.4-fold as compared to the Wt-HHDH, respectively. The Mut-HHDH showed threefold extension of half-life at 45 °C than that of Wt-HHDH. Therefore it is possible to add 1,3-DCP concentration up to 100 mM and epichlorohydrin (ECH) was produced at a relatively high conversion and yield (59.6 %) using Mut-HHDH as catalyst. This Mut-HHDH could be a potential candidate for the upscale production of ECH. PMID:24777710
Mutations at the cytokinin biosynthesis locus (tmr) of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens usually result in strains that induce tumors exhibiting the rooty phenotype associated with high auxin-to-cytokinin ratios. However, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Havana 425) leaf disc explants responded to tmr- mutant strain A356 by producing rapidly growing, unorganized tumors, indicating that these lines can grow in a cytokinin-independent fashion despite the absence of a functional tmr gene. Several methods have been used to characterize the physiological and cellular basis of this phenotype. The results indicate that tmr- tumors have a physiologically distinct mechanism for cytokinin-independent growth in comparison to tumors induced by wild-type bacteria. The cytokinin-independent phenotype of the tmr- transformants appears to be cell autonomous in nature: only the transformed cells and their progeny were capable of cytokinin-independent growth. Specifically, the tmr- tumors did not accumulate cytokinin, and clonal analysis indicated the tmr- transformed cells were not capable of stimulating the growth of neighboring nontransformed cells. Finally, the cytokinin-independent phenotype of the tmr- transformants was shown to be cold sensitive, whereas the wild-type tumors exhibited a cold-resistant cytokinin-independent phenotype. Potential mechanisms for this novel form of cytokinin-independent growth, including the role of the dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucosides found in both tumor types, are discussed.
We have determined the complete primary structure (13 637 bp) of the TL-region of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens octopine plasmid pTiAch5 . This sequence comprises two small direct repeats which flank the TL-region at each extremity and are involved in the transfer and/or integration of this DNA segment in plants. TL-DNA specifies eight open-reading frames corresponding to experimentally identified transcripts in crown gall tumor tissue. The eight coding regions are not interrupted by intervening sequences and are separated from each other by AT-rich regions. Potential transcriptional control signals upstream of the 5' and 3' ends of all the transcribed regions resemble typical eukaryotic signals: (i) transcriptional initiation signals ('TATA' or Goldberg- Hogness box) are present upstream to the presumed translational start codons; (ii) ' CCAAT ' sequences are present upstream of the proposed 'TATA' box; (iii) polyadenylation signals are present in the 3'-untranslated regions. Furthermore, no Shine-Dalgarno sequences are present upstream of the presumed translational start codons.
Gielen, J; De Beuckeleer, M; Seurinck, J; Deboeck, F; De Greve, H; Lemmers, M; Van Montagu, M; Schell, J
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens is a broad host range plant pathogen that combinatorially recognizes diverse host molecules including phenolics, low pH, and aldose monosaccharides to activate its pathogenic pathways. Chromosomal virulence gene E (chvE) encodes a periplasmic-binding protein that binds several neutral sugars and sugar acids, and subsequently interacts with the VirA/VirG regulatory system to stimulate virulence (vir) gene expression. Here, a combination of genetics, X-ray crystallography, and isothermal calorimetry reveals how ChvE binds the different monosaccharides and also shows that binding of sugar acids is pH dependent. Moreover, the potency of a sugar for vir gene expression is modulated by a transport system that also relies on ChvE. These two circuits tune the overall system to respond to sugar concentrations encountered in vivo. Finally, using chvE mutants with restricted sugar specificities, we show that there is host variation in regard to the types of sugars that are limiting for vir induction.
Hu, Xiaozhen; Zhao, Jinlei; DeGrado, William F.; Binns, Andrew N.
High field Mössbauer spectroscopy has been used to characterize the [4Fe-4S] 2 +cluster of the protein PhrB from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens which belongs to the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) and which biological function has previously been shown to be DNA repair. Mössbauer spectra taken of the as prepared protein reveal ? = 0. 42 mms - 1, and ? E Q = 1. 26 mms - 1as well as an asymmetry parameter of ? = 0. 8. These parameters are characteristic for a ferredoxin-type [4Fe-4S] 2 +cluster. In order to investigate whether this cluster is involved in DNA-repair the protein has also been studied in its photoactivated state during DNA binding. The so obtained data sets exhibit essentially the same Mössbauer parameters as those of the non-activated PhrB. This indicates that during DNA repair the [4Fe-4S] 2 +cluster of PhrB has no significant amounts of transition states which have conformational changes compared to the resting state of the protein and which have life times of several seconds or longer.
Bauer, T. O.; Graf, D.; Lamparter, T.; Schünemann, V.
Hybridization analysis using theRhizobium meliloti nitrogen fixation genefixN as a probe revealed the presence of a homologous DNA region in the phytopathogenic bacteriumAgrobacteriumtumefaciens. Hybridization signals were also detected with total DNAs ofRhizobium leguminosarum bv.phaseoli, Rhodobacter capsulatus andEscherichia coli, but not those ofXanthomonas campestris pv.campestris andPseudomonas putida. The hybridizing fragment fromA. tumefaciens was cloned and sequenced. The predicted gene product
A. Schlüter; S. Rüberg; M. Krämer; S. Weidner; U. B. Priefer
In Agrobacteriumtumefaciens A348, control of five genes for catabolism of the phenolic compound protocatechuate to beta-ketoadipate is exerted by the gene pcaQ. The product of pcaQ is a transcriptional activator which is distinct from regulators of the beta-ketoadipate pathway characterized in other bacterial groups. An investigation of whether pcaQ is present and conserved in related Rhizobium species employed Southern hybridization and an agrobacterial pcaD::LacZ promoter probe plasmid. These studies revealed that homologs of the activator are widespread among members of the family Rhizobiaceae, being present in Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium fredii, Rhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium etli, and Rhizobium tropici.
Chromatin was extracted from healthy, avirulent Agrobacteriumtumefaciens inoculated, and crown-gall tumor Vicia faba internodes of the same age. Chromatin from crown-gall tissue produced 5 times more RNA per 100 micrograms of DNA than chromatin from the healthy tissue. When template availability was compared using chromatin with saturating amounts of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, chromatin from crown-gall tissue had 36% more available template than the controls. In addition, when gamma-(32)P-ATP was incorporated into the RNA synthesizing reaction mixture, with saturating amounts of E. coli RNA polymerase, there were twice as many RNA chain starts in tumor as in control tissue. PMID:16658564
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens can grow anaerobically via denitrification. To learn more about how cells regulate production of nitrite and nitric oxide, experiments were carried out to identify proteins involved in regulating expression and activity of nitrite and nitric oxide reductase. Transcription of NnrR, required for expression of these two reductases, was found to be under control of FnrN. Insertional inactivation of the response regulator actR significantly reduced nirK expression and Nir activity but not nnrR expression. Purified ActR bound to the nirK promoter but not the nor or nnrR promoter. A putative ActR binding site was identified in the nirK promoter region using mutational analysis and an in vitro binding assay. A nirK promoter containing mutations preventing the binding of ActR showed delayed expression but eventually reached about 65% of the activity of an equivalent wild-type promoter lacZ fusion. Truncation of the nirK promoter revealed that truncation up to and within the ActR binding site reduced expression, but fragments lacking the ActR binding site and retaining the NnrR binding site showed expression as high as or higher than the full-length fragment. Additional experiments revealed that expression of paz, encoding the copper protein pseudoazurin, was highly reduced in the actR or fnrN mutants and that ActR binds to the paz promoter. Inactivation of paz reduced Nir activity by 55%. These results help explain why Nir activity is very low in the actR mutant even though a nirK promoter with mutations in the ActR binding site showed significant expression.
Baek, Seung-Hun; Hartsock, Angela; Shapleigh, James P.
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens can grow anaerobically via denitrification. To learn more about how cells regulate production of nitrite and nitric oxide, experiments were carried out to identify proteins involved in regulating expression and activity of nitrite and nitric oxide reductase. Transcription of NnrR, required for expression of these two reductases, was found to be under control of FnrN. Insertional inactivation of the response regulator actR significantly reduced nirK expression and Nir activity but not nnrR expression. Purified ActR bound to the nirK promoter but not the nor or nnrR promoter. A putative ActR binding site was identified in the nirK promoter region using mutational analysis and an in vitro binding assay. A nirK promoter containing mutations preventing the binding of ActR showed delayed expression but eventually reached about 65% of the activity of an equivalent wild-type promoter lacZ fusion. Truncation of the nirK promoter revealed that truncation up to and within the ActR binding site reduced expression, but fragments lacking the ActR binding site and retaining the NnrR binding site showed expression as high as or higher than the full-length fragment. Additional experiments revealed that expression of paz, encoding the copper protein pseudoazurin, was highly reduced in the actR or fnrN mutants and that ActR binds to the paz promoter. Inactivation of paz reduced Nir activity by 55%. These results help explain why Nir activity is very low in the actR mutant even though a nirK promoter with mutations in the ActR binding site showed significant expression. PMID:17981975
Baek, Seung-Hun; Hartsock, Angela; Shapleigh, James P
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens wild-type strains have a unique quorum-sensing (QS)-dependent Ti plasmid conjugative transfer phenotype in which QS signaling is activated by corresponding conjugative opine inducers. Strain K588, with a nopaline-type chromosomal background harboring an octopine-type Ti plasmid, however, is a spontaneous mutant displaying a constitutive phenotype in QS. In this study, we show that a single amino acid mutation (L54P) in the QS antiactivator TraM encoded by the traM gene of Ti plasmid is responsible for the constitutive phenotype of strain K588. Introduction of the L54P point mutation to the TraM of wild-type strain A6 by allelic replacement, however, failed to generate the expected constitutive phenotype in this octopine-type strain. Intriguingly, the QS-constitutive phenotype appeared when the pTiA6 carrying the mutated traM was placed in the chromosomal background of the nopaline-type strain C58C1RS, suggesting an unknown inhibitory factor(s) encoded by the chromosomal background of strain A6 but not by C58C1RS. Low-stringency Southern blotting analysis showed that strain A6, but not strain C58 and its derivatives, contains a second traM homologue. The homologue, designated traM2, has 64% and 65% identities with traM at the DNA and peptide levels, respectively. Similar to TraM, TraM2 is a potent antiactivator that functions by blocking TraR, the QS activator, from specific binding to the tra gene promoters. Deletion of traM2 in strain A6 harboring the mutated traM confers a constitutive QS phenotype. The results demonstrate that the QS system in strain A6 is subjected to the dual control of TraM and TraM2.
A protocol for producing transgenic radish (Raphanus sativus) was obtained by using both ultrasonic and vacuum infiltration assisted, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 contained the binary vector pBI121-LEA (late embyogenesis abundant), which carried a Group 3 LEA gene, from Brassica napus. Among six combinations, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assisted by a combination of 5-min sonication with 5-min vacuum infiltration resulted in the highest transformation frequency. The existence, integration and expression of transferred LEA gene in transgenic T(1) plants were confirmed by PCR, genomic Southern and Western blot analysis. Transgenic radish demonstrated better growth performance than non-transformed control plants under osmotic and salt stress conditions. Accumulation of Group 3 LEA protein in the vegetative tissue of transgenic radish conferred increased tolerance to water deficit and salt stress. PMID:15843933
Park, Byong-Jin; Liu, Zaochang; Kanno, Akira; Kameya, Toshiaki
The occ and noc regions of pTiAch5 (octopine) and pTiC58 (nopaline) Ti plasmids are responsible for the catabolic utilization of octopine and nopaline in Agrobacterium spp. The first enzymatic step is the oxidative cleavage into L-arginine and pyruvate or 2-ketoglutarate, respectively, by membrane-bound opine oxidases requiring two polypeptides (subunits B and A) for function. The DNA sequences showed that the subunits of pTiAch5 and pTiC58 are related, but none of the proteins revealed significant similarities to the biosynthetic enzymes expressed in transformed plant cells. The four proteins had no extensive overall similarity to other proteins, but the 35 N-terminal amino acids contained motifs found in many enzymes utilizing flavin adenine dinucleotide, flavin mononucleotide, or NAD(P)+ as cofactors. However, the activities were completely independent of added cofactors, and the nature of the electron acceptor remained unclear. Membrane solubilization led to complete loss of enzyme activity. The nopaline oxidase accepted nopaline and octopine (Vmax ratio, 5:1) with similar Km values (1.1 mM). The octopine oxidase had high activity with octopine (Km = 1 mM) and barely detectable activity with nopaline. The subunits from the occ and the noc regions were exchangeable. The combinations ooxB-noxA and noxB-ooxA both produced active enzymes which oxidized octopine and nopaline at similar rates, suggesting that both subunits contributed to the substrate specificity. These experiments also showed that the formation of functional enzyme required close proximity of the subunit genes on the same plasmid and that even a reversal of the gene order (A-B instead of B-A) led to reduced activity. Images
Small high-yielding binary Ti vectors of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens were constructed to increase the cloning efficiency and plasmid yield in Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens for transformation of higher plants. We reduced the size of the binary vector backbone to 4566bp with ColE1 replicon (715bp) for E. coli and VS1 replicon (2654bp) for A. tumefaciens, a bacterial kanamycin resistance gene (999bp), and the T-DNA region (152bp). The binary Ti vectors with the truncated VS1 replicon were stably maintained with more than 98% efficiency in A. tumefaciens without antibiotic selection for 4 days of successive transfers. The transcriptional direction of VS1 replicon can be the same as that of ColE1 replicon (co-directional transcription), or opposite (head-on transcription) as in the case of widely used vectors (pPZP or pCambia). New binary vectors with co-directional transcription yielded in E. coli up to four-fold higher transformation frequency than those with the head-on transcription. In A. tumefaciens the effect of co-directional transcription is still positive in up to 1.8-fold higher transformation frequency than that of head-on transcription. Transformation frequencies of new vectors are over six-fold higher than those of pCambia vector in A. tumefaciens. DNA yields of new vectors were three to five-fold greater than pCambia in E. coli. The proper functions of the new T-DNA borders and new plant selection marker genes were confirmed after A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of tobacco leaf discs, resulting in virtually all treated leaf discs transformed and induced calli. Genetic analysis of kanamycin resistance trait among the progeny showed that the kanamycin resistance and sensitivity traits were segregated into the 3:1 ratio, indicating that the kanamycin resistance genes were integrated stably into a locus or closely linked loci of the nuclear chromosomal DNA of the primary transgenic tobacco plants and inherited to the second generation. PMID:22404832
An early step in crown gall tumor formation involves the attachment of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens to host plant cells. A. tumefaciens C58::A205 (C58 attR) is a Tn3HoHo1 insertion mutant that was found to be avirulent on Bryophyllum daigremontiana and unable to attach to carrot suspension cells. The mutation mapped to an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 247 amino acids which has significant homology to transacetylases from many bacteria. Biochemical analysis of polysaccharide extracts from wild-type strain C58 and the C58::A205 mutant showed that the latter was deficient in the production of a cell-associated polysaccharide. Anion-exchange chromatography followed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed that the polysaccharide produced by strain C58 was an acetylated, acidic polysaccharide and that the polysaccharide preparation contained three sugars: glucose, glucosamine, and an unidentified deoxy-sugar. Application of the polysaccharide preparation from strain C58 to carrot suspension cells prior to inoculation with the bacteria effectively inhibited attachment of the bacteria to the carrot cells, whereas an identical preparation from strain C58::A205 had no inhibitory effect and did not contain the acidic polysaccharide. Similarly, preincubation of Arabidopsis thaliana root segments with the polysaccharide prevented attachment of strain C58 to that plant. This indicates that the acidic polysaccharide may play a role in the attachment of A. tumefaciens to host soma plant cells.
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens transfers the T-DNA portion of its Ti plasmid to the nuclear genome of plant cells. Upon cocultivation of A. tumefaciens A348 with regenerating tobacco leaf protoplasts, six distinct single-stranded T-DNA molecules (T strands) were generated in addition to double-stranded T-DNA border cleavages which we have previously reported (K. Veluthambi, R.K. Jayaswal, and S.B. Gelvin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:1881-1885, 1987). The T region of an octopine-type Ti plasmid has four border repeats delimiting three T-DNA regions defined as T left (TL), T center (TC), and T right (TR). The six T strands generated upon induction corresponded to the TL, TC, TR, TL + TC, TC + TR, and TL + TC + TR regions, suggesting that the initiation and termination of T-strand synthesis can occur at each of the four borders. Most TL + TC + TR T-strand molecules corresponded to the top T-DNA strand, whereas the other five T strands corresponded to the bottom T-DNA strand. Generation of T strands required the virA, virG, and virD operons. Extra copies of vir genes, harbored on cosmids within derivatives of A. tumefaciens A348, enhanced production of T strands. The presence of right and left border repeats in their native orientation is important for the generation of full-length T strands. When a right border repeat was placed in the opposite orientation, single-stranded T-DNA molecules that corresponded to the top strand were generated. Deletion of overdrive, a sequence that flanks right border repeats and functions as a T-DNA transmission enhancer, reduced the level of T-strand generation. Induction of A. tumefaciens cells by regenerating tobacco protoplasts increased the copy number of the Ti plasmid relative to the bacterial chromosome. Images
The production of cellulose fibrils is involved in the attachment of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens to its plant host. Consistent with previous studies, we reported recently that a putative diguanylate cyclase, celR, is required for synthesis of this polymer in A. tumefaciens. In this study, the effects of celR and other components of the regulatory pathway of cellulose production were explored. Mutational analysis of celR demonstrated that the cyclase requires the catalytic GGEEF motif, as well as the conserved aspartate residue of a CheY-like receiver domain, for stimulating cellulose production. Moreover, a site-directed mutation within the PilZ domain of CelA, the catalytic subunit of the cellulose synthase complex, greatly reduced cellulose production. In addition, deletion of divK, the first gene of the divK-celR operon, also reduced cellulose production. This requirement for divK was alleviated by expression of a constitutively active form of CelR, suggesting that DivK acts upstream of CelR activation. Based on bacterial two-hybrid assays, CelR homodimerizes but does not interact with DivK. The mutation in divK additionally affected cell morphology, and this effect was complementable by a wild-type copy of the gene, but not by the constitutively active allele of celR. These results support the hypothesis that CelR is a bona fide c-di-GMP synthase and that the nucleotide signal produced by this enzyme activates CelA via the PilZ domain. Our studies also suggest that the DivK/CelR signaling pathway in Agrobacterium regulates cellulose production independent of cell cycle checkpoint systems that are controlled by divK. PMID:24443526
Barnhart, D Michael; Su, Shengchang; Farrand, Stephen K
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens VirC2 stimulates processing of single-stranded T-DNA that is translocated into plants to induce tumor formation, but how VirC2 functions is unclear. Here, we report the 1.7-A X-ray crystal structure of its trypsin-resistant C-terminal domain, VirC2(82-202), which reveals a form of the ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) DNA-binding fold contained within a single polypeptide chain. DNA-binding assays and mutagenesis indicate that VirC2 uses this RHH fold to bind double-stranded DNA but not single-stranded DNA. Mutations that severely affect VirC2 DNA binding are highly deleterious for both T-DNA transfer into yeast and the virulence of A. tumefaciens in different plants including Nicotiana glauca and Kalanchoe daigremontiana. These data suggest that VirC2 enhances T-DNA transfer and virulence through DNA binding with its RHH fold. The RHH fold of VirC2 is the first crystal structure representing a group of predicted RHH proteins that facilitate endonucleolytic processing of DNA for horizontal gene transfer. PMID:19482939
Lu, Jun; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Glover, J N Mark
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens can adhere to plant tissues and abiotic surfaces and forms biofilms. Cell surface appendages called pili play an important role in adhesion and biofilm formation in diverse bacterial systems. The A. tumefaciens C58 genome sequence revealed the presence of the ctpABCDEFGHI genes (cluster of type IV pili; Atu0216 to Atu0224), homologous to tad-type pilus systems from several bacteria, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Caulobacter crescentus. These systems fall into the type IVb pilus group, which can function in bacterial adhesion. Transmission electron microscopy of A. tumefaciens revealed the presence of filaments, significantly thinner than flagella and often bundled, associated with cell surfaces and shed into the external milieu. In-frame deletion mutations of all of the ctp genes, with the exception of ctpF, resulted in nonpiliated derivatives. Mutations in ctpA (a pilin homologue), ctpB, and ctpG decreased early attachment and biofilm formation. The adherence of the ctpA mutant could be restored by ectopic expression of the paralogous pilA gene. The ?ctpA ?pilA double pilin mutant displayed a diminished biovolume and lower biofilm height than the wild type under flowing conditions. Surprisingly, however, the ctpCD, ctpE, ctpF, ctpH, and ctpI mutants formed normal biofilms and showed enhanced reversible attachment. In-frame deletion of the ctpA pilin gene in the ctpCD, ctpE, ctpF, ctpH, and ctpI mutants caused the same attachment-deficient phenotype as the ctpA single mutant. Collectively, these findings indicate that the ctp locus is involved in pilus assembly and that nonpiliated mutants, which retain the CtpA pilin, are proficient in attachment and adherence. PMID:24914181
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens membrane-bound ferritin (MbfA) is a member of the erythrin (Er)-vacuolar iron transport family. The MbfA protein has an Er or ferritin-like domain at its N terminus and has been predicted to have five transmembrane segments in its C-terminal region. Analysis of protein localization using PhoA and LacZ reporter proteins supported the view that the N-terminal di-iron site is located in the cytoplasm whilst the C-terminal end faces the periplasm. An A. tumefaciens mbfA mutant strain had 1.5-fold higher total iron content than the WT strain. Furthermore, multi-copy expression of mbfA reduced total iron content two- and threefold in WT and mbfA mutant backgrounds, respectively. These results suggest that MbfA may function as an iron exporter rather than an iron storage protein. The mbfA mutant showed 10-fold increased sensitivity to the iron-activated antibiotic streptonigrin, implying that the mutant had increased accumulation of intracellular free iron. Growth of the mbfA mutant was reduced in the presence of high iron under acidic conditions. The expression of mbfA was induced highly in cells grown in iron-replete medium at pH 5.5, further supporting the view that mbfA is involved in the response to iron under acidic conditions. A. tumefaciens MbfA may play a protective role against increased free iron in the cytoplasm through iron binding and export, thus preventing iron-induced toxicity via the Fenton reaction. PMID:24600024
Conjugal transfer of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens Ti plasmids is regulated by quorum sensing via TraR and its cognate autoinducer, N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. We isolated four Tn5-induced mutants of A. tumefaciens C58 deficient in TraR-mediated activation of tra genes on pTiC58?accR. These mutations also affected the growth of the bacterium but had no detectable influence on the expression of two tester gene systems that are not regulated by quorum sensing. In all four mutants Tn5 was inserted in a chromosomal open reading frame (ORF) coding for a product showing high similarity to RNase D, coded for by rnd of Escherichia coli, an RNase known to be involved in tRNA processing. The wild-type allele of the rnd homolog cloned from C58 restored the two phenotypes to each mutant. Several ORFs, including a homolog of cya2, surround A. tumefaciens rnd, but none of these genes exerted a detectable effect on the expression of the tra reporter. In the mutant, traR was expressed from the Ti plasmid at a level about twofold lower than that in NT1. The expression of tra, but not the growth rate, was partially restored by increasing the copy number of traR or by disrupting traM, a Ti plasmid gene coding for an antiactivator specific for TraR. The mutation in rnd also slightly reduced expression of two tested vir genes but had no detectable effect on tumor induction by this mutant. Our data suggest that the defect in tra gene induction in the mutants results from lowered levels of TraR. In turn, production of sufficient amounts of TraR apparently is sensitive to a cellular function requiring RNase D.
We have studied the effect of a change in the endogenous hormone equilibria on the competence of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells to defend themselves against the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Calluses from cvs 'Davis' and 'Red River', respectively resistant and susceptible to Fusarium and transgenic for an auxin- or cytokinin-synthesizing gene from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, were used. The integration of Agrobacterium hormone-related genes into susceptible cv 'Red River' can bring the activation of defense processes to a stable competence as assessed by the inhibition of mycelial growth in dual culture and gem-tube elongation of Fusarium conidia, the determination of callose contents, peroxidase induction and ion leakage in the presence of fusaric acid. This is particularly true when the transformation results in a change of phytohormone equilibria towards an higher cytokin in concentration. On the contrary, in resistant cv 'Davis' the inhibition of both fungal growth in dual culture and conidia germination is higher when the hormone balance is modified in favour of the auxins. No significant effect was observed for ion leakage and peroxidase induction, probably because of a constitutive overproduction of cytokinins in 'Davis' cells. PMID:24185887
Storti, E; Bogani, P; Bettini, P; Bittini, P; Guardiola, M L; Pellegrini, M G; Inzé, D; Buiatti, M
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens BlcR represses transcription of the blcABC operon, which is involved in metabolism of ?-butyrolactone, and this repression is alleviated by succinate semialdehyde (SSA). BlcR exists as a homodimer, and the blcABC promoter DNA contains two BlcR-binding sites (IR1 and IR2) that correspond to two BlcR dimers. In this study, we established an in vivo system to examine the SSA-responsive control of BlcR transcriptional regulation. The endogenous blcR, encoded in the pAtC58 plasmid of A. tumefaciens C58, was not optimal for investigating the effect of SSA on BlcR repression, probably due to the SSA degradation mediated by the pAt-encoded blcABC. We therefore introduced blcR (and the blcABC promoter DNA, separately) exogenously into a strain of C58 cured of pAtC58 (and pTiC58). We applied this system to interrogate BlcR–DNA interactions and to test predictions from our prior structural and biochemical studies. This in vivo analysis confirmed the previously mapped SSA-binding site and supported a model by which DNA coordinates formation of a BlcR tetramer. In addition, we identified a specific lysine residue (K59) as an important determinant for DNA binding. Moreover, based on isothermal titration calorimetry analysis, we found IR1 to play the dominant role in binding to BlcR, relative to IR2. Together, these in vivo results expand the biochemical findings and provide new mechanistic insights into BlcR–DNA interactions.
Biodegradation tests according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development standard 301F (manometric respirometry test) with technical iminodisuccinate (IDS) revealed ready biodegradability for all stereoisomers of IDS. The IDS-degrading strain Agrobacteriumtumefaciens BY6 was isolated from activated sludge. The strain was able to grow on each IDS isomer as well as on Fe2+-, Mg2+-, and Ca2+-IDS complexes as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In contrast, biodegradation of and growth on Mn2+-IDS were rather scant and very slow on Cu2+-IDS. Growth and turnover experiments with A. tumefaciens BY6 indicated that the isomer R,S-IDS is the preferred substrate. The IDS-degrading enzyme system isolated from this organism consists of an IDS-epimerase and a C-N lyase. The C-N lyase is stereospecific for the cleavage of R,S-IDS, generating d-aspartic acid and fumaric acid. The decisive enzyme for S,S-IDS and R,R-IDS degradation is the epimerase. It transforms S,S-IDS and R,R-IDS into R,S-IDS. Both enzymes do not require any cofactors. The two enzymes were purified and characterized, and the N-termini were sequenced. The purified lyase and also the epimerase catalyzed the transformation of alkaline earth metal-IDS complexes, while heavy metal-IDS complexes were transformed rather slowly or not at all. The observed mechanism for the complete mineralization of all IDS isomers involving an epimerase offers an interesting possibility of funneling all stereoisomers into a catabolic pathway initiated by a stereoselective lyase.
Upon Agrobacteriumtumefaciens infection of a host plant, Tumor morphology root (Tmr) a bacterial adenosine phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (IPT), creates a metabolic bypass in the plastid for direct synthesis of trans-zeatin (tZ) with 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate as the prenyl donor. To understand the biological importance of Tmr function for gall formation, we compared Tmr and Trans-zeatin secretion (Tzs) another agrobacterial IPT that functions within the bacterial cell. Although there is no significant difference in their substrate specificities in vitro, ectopic overexpression of Tzs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in the accumulation of comparable amounts of tZ- and N6-(?2-isopentenyl)adenine (iP)-type cytokinins, whereas overexpression of Tmr resulted exclusively in the accumulation of tZ-type cytokinins. Ectopic expression of Tzs in plant cells yields only small amounts of the polypeptide in plastid-enriched fractions. Obligatory localization of Tzs into Arabidopsis plastid stroma by translational fusions with ferredoxin transit peptide (TP-Tzs) increased the accumulation of both tZ- and iP-type cytokinins. Replacement of tmr on the Ti plasmid with tzs, TP-tzs, or an Arabidopsis plastidic IPT induced the formation of smaller galls than wild-type A. tumefaciens, and they were accompanied by the accumulation of iP-type cytokinins. Tmr is thus specialized for plastid localization and preferential usage of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate in vivo and is important for efficient gall formation.
Leaf discs of grapevine cv. Seyval blanc originating from in vitro cultures were transformed with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pGJ42 carrying genes for chitinase and RIP (ribosome-inactivating protein) in an attempt to improve fungal resistance. The gene for neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) was used as the selectable marker gene. The explants were cocultivated for 2 days with recombinant Agrobacteria
Fertile transgenic plants of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cv. TMV-2 expressing tobacco chitinase and neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) genes were generated using an Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (LBA4404\\/pBI121-pBTex)-mediated transformation system. A tissue culture-independent method wherein embryo in the mature seed is inoculated and reared into single plant transformant was used for transformation. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA isolated from T0 transformants
Soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivar NARC-4 was transformed with constructs carrying rolA, rolB, or rolC genes, each under the control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 70S promoter. Cotyledonary nodes of soybean seeds were infected\\u000a with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying one of the three rol genes, along with nptII in the plasmid pLBR. The efficiency of the transformation varied slightly
Muhammad Zia; Bushra Mirza; Salman Akbar Malik; Muhammad Fayyaz Chaudhary
The eleven predicted gene products of the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens virB operon are believed to form a transmembrane pore complex through which T-DNA export occurs. The VirB10 protein is required for virulence and is a component of an aggregate associated with the membrane fraction of A. tumefaciens. Removal of the putative membrane-spanning domain (amino acids 22 through 55) disrupts the membrane topology of VirB10 (J. E. Ward, E. M. Dale, E. W. Nester, and A. N. Binns, J. Bacteriol. 172:5200-5210, 1990). Deletion of the sequences encoding amino acids 22 to 55 abolishes the ability of plasmid-borne virB10 to complement a null mutation in the virB10 gene, suggesting that the proper topology of VirB10 in the membrane may indeed play a crucial role in T-DNA transfer to the plant cell. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis indicated that the observed loss of virulence could not be attributed to a decrease in the steady-state levels of the mutant VirB10 protein. Although the deletion of the single transmembrane domain would be expected to perturb membrane association, VirB10 delta 22-55 was found exclusively in the membrane fraction. Urea extraction studies suggested that this membrane localization might be the result of a peripheral membrane association; however, the mutant protein was found in both inner and outer membrane fractions separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Both wild-type VirB10 and wild-type VirB9 were only partially removed from the membranes by extraction with 1% Triton X-100, while VirB5 and VirB8 were Triton X-100 soluble. VirB11 was stripped from the membranes by 6 M urea but not by a more mild salt extraction. The fractionation patterns of VirB9, VirB10, and VirB11 were not dependent on each other or on VirB8 or VirD4. The observed tight association of VirB9, VirB10, and VirB11 with the membrane fraction support the notion that these proteins may exist as components of multiprotein pore complexes, perhaps spanning both the inner and outer membranes of Agrobacterium cells. PMID:7665464
Finberg, K E; Muth, T R; Young, S P; Maken, J B; Heitritter, S M; Binns, A N; Banta, L M
The eleven predicted gene products of the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens virB operon are believed to form a transmembrane pore complex through which T-DNA export occurs. The VirB10 protein is required for virulence and is a component of an aggregate associated with the membrane fraction of A. tumefaciens. Removal of the putative membrane-spanning domain (amino acids 22 through 55) disrupts the membrane topology of VirB10 (J. E. Ward, E. M. Dale, E. W. Nester, and A. N. Binns, J. Bacteriol. 172:5200-5210, 1990). Deletion of the sequences encoding amino acids 22 to 55 abolishes the ability of plasmid-borne virB10 to complement a null mutation in the virB10 gene, suggesting that the proper topology of VirB10 in the membrane may indeed play a crucial role in T-DNA transfer to the plant cell. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis indicated that the observed loss of virulence could not be attributed to a decrease in the steady-state levels of the mutant VirB10 protein. Although the deletion of the single transmembrane domain would be expected to perturb membrane association, VirB10 delta 22-55 was found exclusively in the membrane fraction. Urea extraction studies suggested that this membrane localization might be the result of a peripheral membrane association; however, the mutant protein was found in both inner and outer membrane fractions separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Both wild-type VirB10 and wild-type VirB9 were only partially removed from the membranes by extraction with 1% Triton X-100, while VirB5 and VirB8 were Triton X-100 soluble. VirB11 was stripped from the membranes by 6 M urea but not by a more mild salt extraction. The fractionation patterns of VirB9, VirB10, and VirB11 were not dependent on each other or on VirB8 or VirD4. The observed tight association of VirB9, VirB10, and VirB11 with the membrane fraction support the notion that these proteins may exist as components of multiprotein pore complexes, perhaps spanning both the inner and outer membranes of Agrobacterium cells.
Finberg, K E; Muth, T R; Young, S P; Maken, J B; Heitritter, S M; Binns, A N; Banta, L M
The conjugative transfer of Agrobacterium plasmids is controlled by a quorum-sensing system consisting of TraR and its acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL) ligand. The acyl-HSL is essential for the TraR-mediated activation of the Ti plasmid Tra genes. Strains A6 and C58 of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens produce a lactonase, BlcC (AttM), that can degrade the quormone, leading some to conclude that the enzyme quenches the quorum-sensing system. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of the mutation, induction, or mutational derepression of blcC on the accumulation of acyl-HSL and on the conjugative competence of strain C58. The induction of blc resulted in an 8- to 10-fold decrease in levels of extracellular acyl-HSL but in only a twofold decrease in intracellular quormone levels, a measure of the amount of active intracellular TraR. The induction or mutational derepression of blc as well as a null mutation in blcC had no significant effect on the induction of or continued transfer of pTiC58 from donors in any stage of growth, including stationary phase. In matings performed in developing tumors, wild-type C58 transferred the Ti plasmid to recipients, yielding transconjugants by 14 to 21 days following infection. blcC-null donors yielded transconjugants 1 week earlier, but by the following week, transconjugants were recovered at numbers indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Donors mutationally derepressed for blcC yielded transconjugants in planta at numbers 10-fold lower than those for the wild type at weeks 2 and 3, but by week 4, the two donors showed no difference in recoverable transconjugants. We conclude that BlcC has no biologically significant effect on Ti plasmid transfer or its regulatory system. PMID:19011037
KEY MESSAGE : We developed an efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method using an Ac/Ds transposon tagging construct for F. vesca and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to identify its transformants for strawberry functional genomics. Genomic resources for Rosaceae species are now readily available, including the Fragaria vesca genome, EST sequences, markers, linkage maps, and physical maps. The Rosaceae Genomic Executive Committee has promoted strawberry as a translational genomics model due to its unique biological features and transformability for fruit trait improvement. Our overall research goal is to use functional genomic and metabolic approaches to pursue high throughput gene discovery in the diploid woodland strawberry. F. vesca offers several advantages of a fleshy fruit typical of most fruit crops, short life cycle (seed to seed in 12-16 weeks), small genome size (206 Mbb/C), small plant size, self-compatibility, and many seeds per plant. We have developed an efficient Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated strawberry transformation method using kanamycin selection, and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to efficiently identify transgenic strawberry plants. Using our kanamycin transformation method, we were able to produce up to 98 independent kanamycin resistant insertional mutant lines using a T-DNA construct carrying an Ac/Ds transposon Launchpad system from a single transformation experiment involving inoculation of 22 leaf explants of F. vesca accession 551572 within approx. 11 weeks (from inoculation to soil). Transgenic plants with 1-2 copies of a transgene were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Using our paromomycin spray assay, transgenic F. vesca plants were rapidly identified within 10 days after spraying. PMID:23160638
Pantazis, Christopher J; Fisk, Sarah; Mills, Kerri; Flinn, Barry S; Shulaev, Vladimir; Veilleux, Richard E; Dan, Yinghui
The 11 VirB proteins from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens are predicted to form a membrane-bound complex that mediates the movement of DNA from the bacterium into plant cells. The studies reported here on the possible VirB protein interactions in such a complex demonstrate that VirB9 and VirB10 can each form high-molecular-weight complexes after treatment with a chemical cross-linker. Analysis of nonpolar virB mutants showed that the formation of the VirB10 complexes does not occur in a virB9 mutant and that VirB9 and VirB10 are not components of the same cross-linked complex. VirB9, when stabilized by the concurrent expression of VirB7, was shown to be sufficient to permit VirB10 to cross-link into its usual high-molecular-weight forms in the absence of other Vir proteins. Randomly introduced single point mutations in virB9 resulted in Agrobacterium strains with severely attenuated virulence. Although some of the mutants contained wild-type levels of VirB9 and displayed an unaltered VirB9 cross-linking pattern, VirB10 cross-linking was drastically reduced. We conclude that specific amino acid residues in VirB9 are necessary for interaction with VirB10 resulting in the capacity of VirB10 to participate in high-molecular-weight complexes that can be visualized by chemical cross-linking.
The conjugative transfer of Agrobacterium plasmids is controlled by a quorum-sensing system consisting of TraR and its acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL) ligand. The acyl-HSL is essential for the TraR-mediated activation of the Ti plasmid Tra genes. Strains A6 and C58 of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens produce a lactonase, BlcC (AttM), that can degrade the quormone, leading some to conclude that the enzyme quenches the quorum-sensing system. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of the mutation, induction, or mutational derepression of blcC on the accumulation of acyl-HSL and on the conjugative competence of strain C58. The induction of blc resulted in an 8- to 10-fold decrease in levels of extracellular acyl-HSL but in only a twofold decrease in intracellular quormone levels, a measure of the amount of active intracellular TraR. The induction or mutational derepression of blc as well as a null mutation in blcC had no significant effect on the induction of or continued transfer of pTiC58 from donors in any stage of growth, including stationary phase. In matings performed in developing tumors, wild-type C58 transferred the Ti plasmid to recipients, yielding transconjugants by 14 to 21 days following infection. blcC-null donors yielded transconjugants 1 week earlier, but by the following week, transconjugants were recovered at numbers indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Donors mutationally derepressed for blcC yielded transconjugants in planta at numbers 10-fold lower than those for the wild type at weeks 2 and 3, but by week 4, the two donors showed no difference in recoverable transconjugants. We conclude that BlcC has no biologically significant effect on Ti plasmid transfer or its regulatory system.
The effect of a large number of Tn3 insertions in the vir region of the Ti plasmid pTiA6NC on the virulence of Agrobacterium was determined. The Vir- insertions were mapped in three of the five loci that have been defined previously. Merodiploid Rec- strains carrying one insertion mutation on the Ti plasmid and another insertion mutation (or the homologous wild-type
The 6b gene in the T-DNA from Agrobacterium has oncogenic activity in plant cells, inducing tumor formation, the phy- tohormone-independent division of cells, and alterations in leaf morphology. The product of the 6b gene appears to promote some aspects of the proliferation of plant cells, but the molecular mechanism of its action remains unknown. We report here that the 6b
We evaluated the usefulness and robustness of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) as a high-throughput transformation tool for pathogenicity gene discovery in the filamentous phytopathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction allowed us to amplify the left border (LB) flanking sequence in 135 of 400 transformants analysed, and indicated a high level of preservation of the T-DNA LB. In addition, T-DNA preferentially integrated as a single copy in gene-rich regions of the fungal genome, with a probable bias towards intergenic and/or regulatory regions. A total of 53 transformants out of 1388 (3.8%) showed reproducible pathogenicity defects when inoculated on cotyledons of Brassica napus, with diverse altered phenotypes. Co-segregation of the altered phenotype with the T-DNA integration was observed for 6 of 12 transformants crossed. If extrapolated to the whole collection, this indicates that 1.9% of the collection actually corresponds to tagged pathogenicity mutants. The preferential insertion into gene-rich regions along with the high ratio of tagged mutants renders ATMT a tool of choice for large-scale gene discovery in L. maculans. PMID:16979359
Four filamentous ascomycetes, Leptosphaeria maculans, L. biglobosa, Oculimacula yallundae and O. acuformis, were transformed via Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation with the genes encoding DsRed and GFP. Using vectors pCAMDsRed and pCAMBgfp, either germinated conidia of Leptosphaeria spp. and O. yallundae or physically fragmented cultures of Oculimacula spp. were transformed. In vitro, the expression of the two reporter proteins in mycelium of both Oculimacula and both Leptosphaeria species was sufficient to distinguish each species in co-inoculated cultures. In planta, transformants of L. maculans or L. biglobosa expressing DsRed or GFP could be observed together in leaves of Brassica napus. Either reporter protein could be used to view the colonization of leaf petioles by both Leptosphaeria spp. and growth in the xylem vessels could be clearly observed. With the generation of these transformants, further studies on interactions between pathogen species involved in disease complexes on various host species and between opposite mating types of the same species are now possible. PMID:16243451
Ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as "Achromobacter sp." or CDC group Vd has been isolated from water, hospital environment (antiseptic solutions, dialysis fluids ... ). O. anthropi is a Gram negative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxydase positive and non-fermentative bacteria with a strong urease activity. The susceptibility of 13 strains of O. anthropi was determined by agar diffusion method and compared to those of type strains of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The MICs of 20 antimicrobial agents confirmed the distinct phenotype susceptibility of O. anthropi. All the strains of O. anthropi are sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin, colistin, sulphonamides and rifampicin and resistant to ampicillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, mezlocillin, cefuroxime, cefamandol, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazon, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, aztreonam, streptomycin, kanamycin, pipemidic acid, chloramphenicol, erythromicin, pristinamycin, trimethoprim and fosfomycin. O. anthropi is implicated in nosocomial infections. O. anthropi was the species with the greatest resistance to beta-lactamins. PMID:7567111
When male and female individuals of a dioecious species Mercurialis annua L. were inoculated with the same strain of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (15,955), the corresponding tumor tissues of each sex clearly differed in their endogenous cytokinin content; only the male tumors had a morphogenetic feminizing effect on male flowers. In male tumor tissues, zeatin (Z) in higher quantity than ribosyl-zeatin (RZ) became the major metabolite in contrast with the general situation for crown-galls; the female tumor tissues were characterized by an increase of total endogenous cytokinins and by the appearance of some specific metabolites such as a methyl-thio-Z and several glycosylated Z derivatives that had not been detected in healthy apices. In both male and female tumor tissues, the cis form of RZ, present in healthy apices as 30% of trans-RZ form, was no longer detectable. Quantitative and qualitative differences characterize male and female tumor tissues (host genes expression) but since differences also appeared between healthy male and female apices and their corresponding tumor tissues (TDNA gene expression), it can be tentatively concluded that a complex interaction between host cytokinin genes and those of TDNA control the endogenous metabolism of tumor tissues. Images Fig. 1
Guerin, B.; Kahlem, G.; Teller, G.; Durand, Bernard
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (EHA-105 harboring pCAMBIA 1304)-mediated transgenic plant production via direct regeneration from leaf and elite somaclones generation through indirect regeneration in Stevia rebaudiana is reported. Optimum direct regeneration frequency along with highest transformation frequency was found on MS?+?1 mg/l BAP?+?1 mg/l NAA, while indirect regeneration from callus was obtained on MS?+?1 mg/l BAP?+?2 mg/l NAA. Successful transfer of GUS-positive (GUS assay and PCR-based confirmation) transgenic as well as four somaclones up to glasshouse acclimatization has been achieved. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) profiling of transgenic and somaclonal plants showed a total of 113 bands, out of which 49 were monomorphic (43.36 %) and 64 were polymorphic (56.64 %). Transgenic plant was found to be closer to mother plant, while on the basis of steviol, stevioside, and rebaudioside A profile, somaclone S2 was found to be the best and showed maximum variability in ISSR profiling. PMID:24154495
Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Ur Rahman, Laiq; Shanker, Karuna; Singh, Manju
The acc region, subcloned from pTiC58 of classical nopaline and agrocinopine A and B Agrobacteriumtumefaciens C58, allowed agrobacteria to grow using agrocinopine B as the sole source of carbon and energy. acc is approximately 6 kb in size. It consists of at least five genes, accA through accE, as defined by complementation analysis using subcloned fragments and transposon insertion mutations of acc carried on different plasmids within the same cell. All five regions are required for agrocin 84 sensitivity, and at least four are required for agrocinopine and agrocin 84 uptake. The complementation results are consistent with the hypothesis that each of the five regions is separately transcribed. Maxicell experiments showed that the first of these genes, accA, encodes a 60-kDa protein. Analysis of osmotic shock fractions showed this protein to be located in the periplasm. The DNA sequence of the accA region revealed an open reading frame encoding a predicted polypeptide of 59,147 Da. The amino acid sequence encoded by this open reading frame is similar to the periplasmic binding proteins OppA and DppA of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium and OppA of Bacillus subtilis. Images
Hayman, G T; Beck von Bodman, S; Kim, H; Jiang, P; Farrand, S K
Summary TraR of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens is a LuxR-type transcription factor that regulates genes required for replication and conjugation of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. TraR binds the pheromone 3-oxo-octanoylhomoserine lactone (OOHL) and requires this molecule for folding into a protease-resistant, soluble conformation. Even after binding to OOHL, TraR is degraded at readily detectable rates. Here we show that the N-terminal domain of TraR, which binds OOHL, is more resistant to degradation than the full length protein, suggesting that sites on the C-terminal DNA binding domain (TraR(171-234)) enhance protein turnover. A fusion between GFP and TraR-(171-234) was poorly fluorescent, and truncations of this fusion protein allowed us to identify residues in this domain that contribute to protein degradation. TraR activity was previously shown to be inhibited by the antiactivator TraM. These proteins form 2:2 complexes that fail to bind DNA sequences. Here we show that TraM sharply decreased the accumulation of TraR in whole cells, indicating that TraM facilitates proteolysis of TraR. The TraM component of these complexes is spared from proteolysis, and could therefore act catalytically.
Costa, Esther D.; Chai, Yunrong; Winans, Stephen C.
The thu operon (thuEFGKAB) in Sinorhizobium meliloti codes for transport and utilization functions of the disaccharide trehalose. Sequenced genomes of members of the Rhizobiaceae reveal that some rhizobia and Agrobacterium possess the entire thu operon in similar organizations and that Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 lacks the transport (thuEFGK) genes. In this study, we show that this operon is dedicated to the transport and assimilation of maltitol and isomers of sucrose (leucrose, palatinose, and trehalulose) in addition to trehalulose, not only in S. meliloti but also in Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. By using genetic complementation, we show that the thuAB genes of S. meliloti, M. loti, and A. tumefaciens are functionally equivalent. Further, we provide both genetic and biochemical evidence to show that these bacteria assimilate these disaccharides by converting them to their respective 3-keto derivatives and that the thuAB genes code for this ketodisaccharide-forming enzyme(s). Formation of 3-ketotrehalose in real time in live S. meliloti is shown through Raman spectroscopy. The presence of an additional ketodisaccharide-forming pathway(s) in A. tumefaciens is also indicated. To our knowledge, this is the first report to identify the genes that code for the conversion of disaccharides to their 3-ketodisaccharide derivatives in any organism.
Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Avetisyan, Anna; Hansen, Espen; Svenson, Johan; Huser, Thomas; Bhuvaneswari, T. V.
The thu operon (thuEFGKAB) in Sinorhizobium meliloti codes for transport and utilization functions of the disaccharide trehalose. Sequenced genomes of members of the Rhizobiaceae reveal that some rhizobia and Agrobacterium possess the entire thu operon in similar organizations and that Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 lacks the transport (thuEFGK) genes. In this study, we show that this operon is dedicated to the transport and assimilation of maltitol and isomers of sucrose (leucrose, palatinose, and trehalulose) in addition to trehalulose, not only in S. meliloti but also in Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. By using genetic complementation, we show that the thuAB genes of S. meliloti, M. loti, and A. tumefaciens are functionally equivalent. Further, we provide both genetic and biochemical evidence to show that these bacteria assimilate these disaccharides by converting them to their respective 3-keto derivatives and that the thuAB genes code for this ketodisaccharide-forming enzyme(s). Formation of 3-ketotrehalose in real time in live S. meliloti is shown through Raman spectroscopy. The presence of an additional ketodisaccharide-forming pathway(s) in A. tumefaciens is also indicated. To our knowledge, this is the first report to identify the genes that code for the conversion of disaccharides to their 3-ketodisaccharide derivatives in any organism. PMID:23772075
Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Avetisyan, Anna; Hansen, Espen; Svenson, Johan; Huser, Thomas; Jensen, John Beck; Bhuvaneswari, T V
Products of the approximately 9.5-kb virB operon are proposed to direct the export of T-DNA/protein complexes across the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens envelope en route to plant cells. The presence of conserved nucleoside triphosphate (NTP)-binding domains in VirB4 and VirB11 suggests that one or both proteins couple energy, via NTP hydrolysis, to T-complex transport. To assess the importance of VirB4 for virulence, a nonpolar virB4 null mutation was introduced into the pTiA6NC plasmid of strain A348. The 2.37-kb virB4 coding sequence was deleted precisely by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis in vitro. The resulting delta virB4 mutation was exchanged for the wild-type allele by two sequential recombination events with the counterselectable Bacillus subtilis sacB gene. Two derivatives, A348 delta B4.4 and A348 delta B4.5, sustained a nonpolar deletion of the wild-type virB4 allele, as judged by Southern blot hybridization and immunoblot analyses with antibodies specific for VirB4, VirB5, VirB10, and VirB11. Transcription of wild-type virB4 from the lac promoter restored virulence to the nonpolar null mutants on a variety of dicotyledonous species, establishing virB4 as an essential virulence gene. A substitution of glutamine for Lys-439 and a deletion of Gly-438, Lys-439, and Thr-440 within the glycine-rich NTP-binding domain (Gly-Pro-Iso-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Thr) abolished complementation of A348 delta B4.4 or A348 delta B4.5, demonstrating that an intact NTP-binding domain is critical for VirB4 function. Merodiploids expressing both the mutant and wild-type virB4 alleles exhibited lower virulence than A348, suggesting that VirB4, a cytoplasmic membrane protein, may contribute as a homo- or heteromultimer to A. tumefaciens virulence. Images
The ability of Agrobacetrium tumefaciens to perform balanced transitions from aerobic to anaerobic respiration was studied by monitoring oxygen depletion, transcription of nirK and norB, and the concentrations of nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide in stirred batch cultures with different initial oxygen, nitrate or nitrite concentrations. Nitrate concentrations (0.2-2 mM) did not affect oxygen depletion, nor the oxygen concentration at which denitrification was initiated (1-2 microM). Nitrite (0.2-2 mM), on the other hand, retarded the oxygen depletion as it reached approximately 20 microM, and caused initiation of active denitrification as oxygen concentrations reached 10-17 microM. Unbalanced transitions occurred in treatments with high cell densities (i.e. with rapid transition from oxic to anoxic conditions), seen as NO accumulation to muM concentrations and impeded nitrous oxide production. This phenomenon was most severe in nitrite treatments, and reduced the cells' ability to respire oxygen during subsequent oxic conditions. Transcripts of norB were only detectable during the period with active denitrification. In contrast, nirK transcripts were detected at low levels both before and after this period. The results demonstrate that the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is a regulatory challenge, with implications for survival and emission of trace gases from denitrifying bacteria. PMID:18312398
Bergaust, Linda; Shapleigh, James; Frostegĺrd, Asa; Bakken, Lars
Co-transformation of Oryza sativa L. var. Pusa Basmati1 was done using an Agrobacterium\\u000a tumefaciens strain harbouring a single-copy cointegrate vector and a multi-copy binary vector in the same cell. The T-DNA of the cointegrate\\u000a vector pGV2260::pSSJ1 carried the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) and ?-glucuronidase (gus) genes. The binary vector pCam-chi11, without a plant selectable marker gene, harboured the rice chitinase (chi11)
We have established Catharanthus roseus hairy root cultures transgenic for the rol ABC genes from T(L)-DNA of the agropine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. The rol ABC hairy root lines exhibit a wild-type hairy root syndrome in terms of growth and morphology on solid medium. However, they differ from wild-type hairy root lines in that they more frequently have excellent adaptability to liquid medium and do not appear to form calli during cultivation. Moreover, they do not produce detectable levels of mannopine and agropine which, in contrast, are often synthesized abundantly in wild-type hairy root lines. The absence of these opines does not appear to cause the rol ABC lines to have higher levels of terpenoid indole alkaloids than wild-type hairy root lines. Unlike wild-type lines, rol ABC lines produce very similar levels of total alkaloids despite wide variations in individual alkaloid contents. This work demonstrates that the three genes rol ABC are sufficient to induce high-quality hairy roots in Catharanthus roseus. PMID:16261632
Hong, Seung-Beom; Peebles, Christie A M; Shanks, Jacqueline V; San, Ka-Yiu; Gibson, Susan I
The vir-type IV secretion system of Agrobacterium is assembled from 12 proteins encoded by the virB operon and virD4. VirB1 is one of the least-studied proteins encoded by the virB operon. Its N terminus is a lytic transglycosylase. The C-terminal third of the protein, VirB1*, is cleaved from VirB1 and secreted to the outside of the bacterial cell, suggesting an additional function. We show that both nopaline and octopine strains produce abundant amounts of VirB1* and perform detailed studies on nopaline VirB1*. Both domains are required for wild-type virulence. We show here that the nopaline type VirB1* is essential for the formation of the T pilus, a subassembly of the vir-T4SS composed of processed and cyclized VirB2 (major subunit) and VirB5 (minor subunit). A nopaline virB1 deletion strain does not produce T pili. Complementation with full-length VirB1 or C-terminal VirB1*, but not the N-terminal lytic transglycosylase domain, restores T pili containing VirB2 and VirB5. T-pilus preparations also contain extracellular VirB1*. Protein-protein interactions between VirB1* and VirB2 and VirB5 were detected in the yeast two-hybrid assay. We propose that VirB1 is a bifunctional protein required for virT4SS assembly. The N-terminal lytic transglycosylase domain provides localized lysis of the peptidoglycan cell wall to allow insertion of the T4SS. The C-terminal VirB1* promotes T-pilus assembly through protein-protein interactions with T-pilus subunits. PMID:17631630
Ti plasmids of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens are conjugal elements whose transfer is induced by certain opines secreted from crown galls. On transmissible plasmids, DNA transfer initiates within a cis-acting site, the origin of conjugal transfer, or oriT. We have localized an oriT on the A. tumefaciens plasmid pTiC58 to a region containing the conjugal transfer loci traI and traII and acc, which is the locus encoding catabolism of the two conjugal opines, agrocinopines A and B. The smallest functional oriT clone, a 65-bp BamHI-ApaI fragment in the recombinant plasmid pDCBA60-11, mapped within the traII locus. The nucleotide sequence for a 665-bp KpnI-EcoRI fragment with oriT activity was determined. DNA sequence alignments showed identities between the pTiC58 oriT and the transfer origins of RSF1010, pTF1, and RK2/RP4 and with the pTiC58 T-region borders. The RSF1010-like sequence on pTiC58 is located in the smallest active oriT clone of pTiC58, while the sequence showing identities with the oriT regions of RK2/RP4 and with T-region borders maps outside this region. Despite their sequence similarities, pTiC58 oriT clones were not mobilized by RP4; nor could vectors containing the RK2/RP4 oriT region or the oriT-mob region from RSF1010 be mobilized by pTiC58. In contrast, other Ti plasmids and a conjugally active Agrobacterium opine catabolic plasmid, pAtK84b, efficiently mobilized pTiC58 oriT clones. In addition, the RSF1010 derivative, pDSK519, was mobilized at moderate frequencies by an Agrobacterium strain harboring only the cryptic plasmid pAtC58 and at very low frequencies by an Agrobacterium host that does not contain any detectable plasmids.
Plumbago zeylanica is a unique model for studying flowering plant gametogenesis, heterospermy, and preferential fertilization, yet understanding the control of related molecular mechanisms is impossible without efficient and reproducible regeneration and stable genetic transformation. We found three key factors for enhancing successful regeneration: (1) tissue source of explants, (2) combination and concentration of growth regulators, and (3) culture conditions. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration was achieved using hypocotyl segments cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with BA 2.0 mg/l, NAA 0.75 mg/l, adenine 50 mg/l and 10% (v/v) coconut milk under subdued light at 25+/-2 degrees C; under these conditions, each hypocotyl segment produced over 30 shoots, arising primarily through direct organogenesis after 3 weeks of culture. Regenerated shoots rooted easily on half-strength basal MS medium and were successfully established in the greenhouse. Using this tissue culture protocol, reporter gene GUS under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into P. zeylanica cells of petiole, cotyledon and hypocotyl with A. tumefaciens strains AGL1 and LBA4404. Transient expression was observed in all recipient tissues. Stable transgenic calli originating from petiole were obtained. PMID:16470412
Wei, Xiaoping; Gou, Xiaoping; Yuan, Tong; Russell, Scott D
The author offers laboratory procedures for experiments using the bacterium, Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, which causes crown gall disease in a large number of plants. Three different approaches to growing a culture are given. (SA)
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens is a Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease by transferring and integrating its transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the host genome. We characterized the chromosomally encoded alpha-crystallin-type small heat-shock protein (?-Hsp) HspL, which was induced by the virulence (vir) gene inducer acetosyringone (AS). The transcription of hspL but not three other ?-Hsp genes (hspC, hspAT1, hspAT2) was upregulated by AS. Further expression analysis in various vir mutants suggested that AS-induced hspL transcription is not directly activated by the VirG response regulator but rather depends on the expression of VirG-activated virB genes encoding components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS). Among the 11 virB genes encoded by the virB operon, HspL protein levels were reduced in strains with deletions of virB6, virB8 or virB11. VirB protein accumulation but not virB transcription levels were reduced in an hspL deletion mutant early after AS induction, implying that HspL may affect the stability of individual VirB proteins or of the T4S complex directly or indirectly. Tumorigenesis efficiency and the VirB/D4-mediated conjugal transfer of an IncQ plasmid RSF1010 derivative between A. tumefaciens strains were reduced in the absence of HspL. In conclusion, increased HspL abundance is triggered in response to certain VirB protein(s) and plays a role in optimal VirB protein accumulation, VirB/D4-mediated DNA transfer and tumorigenesis.
The present study establishes a regeneration protocol and optimizes conditions for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the tetraploid emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccum. Regeneration from mature and immature embryos was accomplished as a two-step process involving callus induction in the presence of 2,4-D followed by regeneration on a 2,4-D free, cytokinin-containing medium (RM1). Higher concentrations of 2,4-D (4 mg/l) though conducive for callusing (89.39% in mature embryos and 96% in immature embryos) proved detrimental for further regeneration. At lower 2,4-D (1 mg/ml) although callusing was suboptimal, (56.8% and 84% from mature and immature embryos, respectively) the regeneration response was the highest on RM1 medium (64.4% and 56.6% from mature and immature embryos, respectively). Overall, the regeneration response of immature embryos was lower than the mature embryos by 10-12%. Due to the ease of availability of mature embryos the mature embryo-derived calli were chosen as the target tissue for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in the two Indian varieties DDK1001 and DDK1009. Histochemical GUS expression revealed the suitability of the mature embryo-derived calli for such investigations. Of the CaMV35S and Act1 promoters employed, the monocot promoter Act1 displayed higher GUS gene activity in the mature embryo derived calli when co-cultivated with LBA4404 (pBI101::Act1). PMID:13677634
During genetic transformation of plant cells by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, 11 VirB proteins and VirD4 are proposed to form a transmembrane bridge to transfer a DNA-protein complex (T-complex) into the plant cytoplasm. In this study, the localization of the first product of the virB operon, VirB1, was studied in detail. While full-length VirB1 localized mostly to the inner membrane, an immunoreactive VirB1 product was found as soluble processed form, designated VirB1*. Equal amounts of VirB1* could be detected in concentrated culture supernatants versus associated with the cell. VirB1* was purified from the supernatant of vir-induced cells by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Q-Sepharose chromatography. Sequence analysis of the N terminus of VirB1* localized the processing site after amino acid 172 of VirB1. Cell-associated VirB1* was partly removed by vortexing, suggesting a loose association with the cell or active secretion. However, cross-linking and coimmunoprecipitation showed a close association of cell-bound VirB1* with the VirB9-VirB7 heterodimer, a membrane-associated component of the T-complex transfer machinery. Homologies of the N-terminal part of VirB1 to bacterial transglycosylases suggest that it may assist T-complex transfer by local lysis of the bacterial cell wall, whereas the exposed localization of the C-terminal processing product VirB1* predicts direct interaction with the plant. Thus, VirB1 may be a bifunctional protein where both parts have different functions in T-complex transfer from Agrobacterium to plant cells.
Somatic embryos were induced directly from immature cotyledons of the genotype of chickpea ICC 4918 (annigiri) on B5 medium supplemented with 2,4,5-T or 2,4-D in combination with BA or KN. Successful transformation was achieved via somatic embryogenesis using Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404, carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) gene as the selectable marker and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter gene. Histochemical staining for GUS expression was observed as primary evidence for transformation. PMID:8979515
The virD locus of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens Ti plasmid pTiA6 was sequenced. Computer analysis of the sequence indicated five possible open reading frames (ORFs) within this locus. Two additional ORFs were identified distal to this locus. However, only two polypeptides of apparent molecular masses 16 and 56 kilodaltons, the products of ORFs 1 and 2, were detected in Escherichia coli, both in vivo and in an in vitro coupled transcription-translation system. The virD locus was cloned in expression vector pKK223.3 under control of a tac promoter and introduced into an E. coli strain harboring mini-Ti plasmid pAL1050. When induced with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside, the virD gene products exhibited double-stranded T-DNA border-specific endonuclease activity. Deletion analysis demonstrated that this activity is encoded within the 5'-proximal 1.7-kilobase-pair portion of the virD locus that carries ORF 1 and most of ORF 2. Neither ORF 1 nor ORF 2 independently showed endonuclease activity; complementation studies indicated that the products of ORFs 1 and 2 together have this activity. The expression of this 1.7-kilobase-pair region of the virD locus caused double-stranded cleavage of the T-DNA at or near the borders and generated single-stranded T-DNA molecules with approximately equal frequencies in E. coli. Images
Jayaswal, R K; Veluthambi, K; Gelvin, S B; Slightom, J L
The transferred DNA (T-DNA) is transported from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens to the nucleus and is stably integrated into the genome of many plant species. It has been proposed that the VirD2 protein, tightly attached to the T-DNA, pilots the T-DNA into the plant cell nucleus and that it is involved in integration. Using agroinfection and beta-glucuronidase expression as two different very sensitive transient assays for T-DNA transfer, together with assays for stable integration, we have shown that the C-terminal half of the VirD2 protein and the VirD3 protein are not involved in T-DNA integration. However, the bipartite nuclear localization signal, which is located within the C terminus of the VirD2 protein and which has previously been shown to be able to target a foreign protein into the plant cell nucleus, was shown to be required for efficient T-DNA transfer. virD4 mutants were shown by agroinfection to be completely inactive in T-DNA transfer. Images
Koukolikova-Nicola, Z; Raineri, D; Stephens, K; Ramos, C; Tinland, B; Nester, E W; Hohn, B
Essential steps in the uptake and catabolism of the plant tumor metabolites nopaline and octopine in Agrobacterium spp. are performed by proteins encoded in the nopaline catabolic (noc) and octopine catabolic (occ) regions of Ti plasmids. We investigated the opine activation of the genes by using (i) promoter studies of Agrobacterium spp. and (ii) analysis of the promoter interaction with the regulatory proteins NocR (noc) and OccR (occ). The noc region contained two nopaline-induced promoters (Pi1[noc] and Pi2[noc]) and one autogenously regulated promoter (Pr [control of NocR expression]). Pi2 and Pr overlapped and were divergently oriented (Pi2 [noc]). DNA binding studies and DNase I footprints indicated that NocR bound specifically to single binding sites in Pi1[noc] and Pi2/Pr[noc] and that Pi2 and Pr were regulated from the same binding site. The binding was independent of the inducer nopaline, and nopaline caused small changes in the footprint. The promoters in the noc and occ regions shared sequence motif and contained the sequence T-N11-A, which is characteristic for LysR-type-regulated promoters. The occ region contained one octopine-induced and one autogenously regulated promoter (Pi/Pr[occ]) in the same arrangement as Pi2/Pr[noc] in the noc region. Promoter deletions indicated that sequences flanking the OccR binding site determined the extent of induction, although they did not bind OccR. The promoter bound OccR in the absence and presence of octopine. The opine caused a change in the mobility of the DNA-protein complex with the complete promoter. The resected fragments did not reveal this opine-induced shift, and it was also not detectable with the DNA-NocR complexes with the two promoters of the noc region. Images
We crossed a male-sterile, Agrobacterium-transformed Nicotiana tabacum plant that contains a silent, hypermethylated T-DNA ipt oncogene with a normal tobacco plant and found that the methylated state of the ipt gene was stably inherited through meiosis in the offspring. However, when tissues of these plants were placed in cell culture, the ipt gene was spontaneously reactivated in a very small fraction of the cells; if 5-azacytidine was added to the culture medium, ipt gene reactivation occurred at high frequency. We analyzed the pattern of DNA methylation in a region spanning the ipt gene in a line that does not express the ipt gene, in five derivatives of this line that reexpressed the ipt gene either spontaneously or after 5-azacytidine treatment, and in tissues of a sibling of this line that reexpressed ipt spontaneously. We found that the ipt locus was highly methylated in the unexpressed state but that spontaneous or 5-azacytidine-induced reexpression always resulted in extensive demethylation of a region including 5' upstream, coding, and 3' downstream regions of the ipt gene. The role of DNA methylation in gene regulation in this system is discussed. Images
Plant transformation efficiency depends on the ability of the transgene to successfully interact with plant host factors. Our previous work and the work of others showed that manipulation of the activity of host factors allows for increased frequency of transformation. Recently we reported that exposure of tobacco plants to increased concentrations of ammonium nitrate increases the frequency of both homologous recombination and plant transgenesis. Here we tested the influence of KCl and salts of rare earth elements, Ce and La on the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. We found that exposure to KCl, CeCl(3) and LaCl(3) leads to an increase in recombination frequency in Arabidopsis and tobacco. Plants grown in the presence of CeCl(3) and LaCl(3) had higher biomass, longer roots and greater root number. Analysis of transformation efficiency showed that exposure of tobacco plants to 50 mM KCl resulted in ~6.0-fold increase in the number of regenerated calli and transgenic plants as compared to control plants. Exposure to various concentrations of CeCl(3) showed a maximum increase of ~3.0-fold in both the number of calli and transgenic plants. Segregation analysis showed that exposure to KCl and cerium (III) chloride leads to more frequent integrations of the transgene at a single locus. Analysis of transgene intactness showed better preservation of right T-DNA border during transgene integration. Our data suggest that KCl and CeCl(3) can be effectively used to improve quantity and quality of transgene integrations. PMID:21132499
We transformed three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes by using A. rhizogenes or a mixture of A. rhizogenes and A. tumefaciens. Inoculations of potato stem segments were performed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes AM8703 containing two independent plasmids: the wild-type Ri-plasmid, pRI1855, and the binary vector plasmid, pBI121. In mixed inoculation experiments, Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA1334 (pRI1855) and Agrobacteriumtumefaciens AM8706 containing the
R. G. F. Visser; E. Jacobsen; B. Witholt; W. J. Feenstra
Physical association with host plant tissue is a prerequisite to Agrobacteriumtumefaciens infection and subsequent disease. Mechanisms of tissue adherence have been extensively studied in mammalian pathogens, but\\u000a less so in plant-associated bacteria. Cells of A. tumefaciens often attach to plant tissue by a single pole. In the appropriate environment, these attached bacteria eventually develop\\u000a into multicellular assemblies called biofilms,
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens VirB proteins assemble a type IV secretion apparatus and a T-pilus for secretion of DNA and proteins into plant cells. The pilin-like protein VirB3, a membrane protein of unknown topology, is required for the assembly of the T-pilus and for T-DNA secretion. Using PhoA and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as periplasmic and cytoplasmic reporters, respectively, we demonstrate that VirB3 contains two membrane-spanning domains and that both the N and C termini of the protein reside in the cytoplasm. Fusion proteins with GFP at the N or C terminus of VirB3 were fluorescent and, like VirB3, localized to a cell pole. Biochemical fractionation studies demonstrated that VirB3 proteins encoded by three Ti plasmids, the octopine Ti plasmid pTiA6NC, the supervirulent plasmid pTiBo542, and the nopaline Ti plasmid pTiC58, are inner membrane proteins and that VirB4 has no effect on membrane localization of pTiA6NC-encoded VirB3 (pTiA6NC VirB3). The pTiA6NC and pTiBo542 VirB2 pilins, like VirB3, localized to the inner membrane. The pTiC58 VirB4 protein was earlier found to be essential for stabilization of VirB3. Stabilization of pTiA6NC VirB3 requires not only VirB4 but also two additional VirB proteins, VirB7 and VirB8. A binary interaction between VirB3 and VirB4/VirB7/VirB8 is not sufficient for VirB3 stabilization. We hypothesize that bacteria use selective proteolysis as a mechanism to prevent assembly of unproductive precursor complexes under conditions that do not favor assembly of large macromolecular structures. PMID:20348257
Graft unions of nursery stock of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) collected in Japan yielded pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Agrobacterium. On the basis of classical diagnostic tests, a sequence analysis, and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method previously\\u000a reported, the pathogenic strain was identified as Agrobacteriumtumefaciens biovar 3, whereas the nonpathogenic strains were assigned to Agrobacterium radiobacter biovar 3.
A transformation system for selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees using Agrobacteriumtumefaciens has been established. Embryos obtained from recurrent proliferating embryogenic masses were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA105, LBA4404 or AGL1 harbouring the plasmid pBINUbiGUSint [carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (uidA) genes]. The highest transformation efficiency (4%) was obtained when freshly isolated explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1. Evidence of stable transgene integration was obtained by PCR for the nptII and uidA genes, Southern blotting and expression of the uidA gene. The transgenic embryos were germinated and successfully transferred to soil. PMID:15185122
Alvarez, R; Alonso, P; Cortizo, M; Celestino, C; Hernández, I; Toribio, M; Ordás, R J
A biovar 3-specific primer set Ab3-F3\\/Ab3-R4 was designed based on the comparison of sequences of the 16S rDNA region of agrobacteria and related rhizobia for rapid identification of Agrobacterium biovar 3 strains. A 570-bp 16S rDNA fragment was amplified from cell lysates of Agrobacterium biovar 3 strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Ab3-F3\\/Ab3-R4 primers. Discrimination of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens biovar
Summary The Agrobacterium vacuum infiltration method has made it possible to transform Arabidopsis thaliana without plant tissue culture or regeneration. In the present study, this method was evaluated and a substantially modified trans- formation method was developed. The labor-intensive vacuum infiltration process was eliminated in favor of simple dipping of developing floral tissues into a solution containing Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, 5%
Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation has become a powerful tool for studying gene function and root biology due to its quick and simple\\u000a methodology. This transformation method is particularly suitable for those plants, including legumes, whose transformation\\u000a using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been challenging. Although there are some reports on A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation of legumes to produce ‘composite’ plants, conditions influencing A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation of soybean [Glycine
By identifying antibiotics that eliminated Agrobacteriumtumefaciens with the least phytotoxic effects, we were able to select appropriate A. tumefaciens strains for a more efficient transformation of seasonal Fragaria vesca and everbearing F. v. semperflorens. An efficient and reproducible method of shoot regeneration from leaf discs was developed with optimal shoot regeneration obtained on medium supplemented with 0.25 mg l-1
M. Alsheikh; H.-P. Suso; M. Robson; N. Battey; A. Wetten
A procedure for increased efficiency of production of transgenic citrus plants was developed by extending the exposure of the explants to the selection agent and by grafting in vitro the regenerated shoot apices onto seedling rootstocks. Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) stem segments from in vitro grown seedlings were cocultivated with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens EHA
Leandro Pena; Magdalena Cervera; José Juárez; Carmen Ortega; José A. Pina; Nuria Durán-Vila; Luis Navarro
In planta Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using vacuum infiltration results in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana without the use of sterile conditions or plant regeneration. Plants are grown in pots, in standard potting mix. Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, carrying an appropriate plant transformation vector, is suspended in an infiltration medium that contains, at a minimum, sucrose and the surfactant Silwet L-77. Flower buds are immersed in the suspension of A. tumefaciens. The application of a vacuum drives the bacteria into the intercellular air spaces. A portion of the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid known as the T-DNA region, which has been engineered to carry a selectable marker, becomes integrated into the plant genomic DNA. Plants are allowed to set seed. Seeds are germinated in selective conditions to recover transformants. PMID:16739579
Agrobacterium species are plant-associated relatives of the rhizobia. Several species cause plant diseases such as crown gall and hairy root, although there are also avirulent species. A. tumefaciens is the most intensively studied species and causes crown gall, a neoplastic disease that occurs on a variety of plants. Virulence is specified by large plasmids, and in the case of A. tumefaciens this is called the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid. During pathogenesis virulent agrobacteria copy a segment of the Ti plasmid and transfer it to the plant, where it subsequently integrates into the plant genome, and expresses genes that result in the disease symptoms. A. tumefaciens has been used extensively as a plant genetic engineering tool and is also a model microorganism that has been well studied for host-microbe associations, horizontal gene transfer, cell-cell communication, and biofilm formation. This unit describes standard protocols for simple phenotypic characterizations of A. tumefaciens.
Radiorespirometric and enzyme analyses were used to reveal the glucose-catabolizing mechanisms functioning in single strains of seven presumed Agrobacterium species. The Entner-Doudoroff and pentose cycle pathways functioned in A. radiobacter, A. tumefaciens, A. rubi, and A. rhizogenes. Whereas both catabolic pathways were utilized to an almost equal degree in the A. radiobacter and A. tumefaciens strains, use of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway predominated in the A. rubi and A. rhizogenes strains. A. stellulatum catabolized glucose almost solely through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. In A. pseudotsugae and A. gypsophilae, glucose was metabolized mainly through the Emden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway; the pentose phosphate pathway was also utilized.
Arthur, Larry O.; Nakamura, Lawrence K.; Julian, Grant St.; Bulla, Lee A.
Maize may be transformed very efficiently using Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated methods. The most critical factor in the transformation protocol is the co-cultivation of healthy immature embryos of the correct developmental stage with A. tumefaciens; the embryos should be collected only from vigorous plants grown in well-conditioned glasshouses. With the protocol described here, approximately 50% of immature embryos from the inbred line A188 and 15% from inbred lines A634, H99 and W117 will produce transformants. About half of the transformed plants are expected to carry one or two copies of the transgenes, which are inherited by the progeny in a mendelian fashion. More than 90% of transformants are expected to be normal in morphology. The protocol takes about 3 months from the start of co-cultivation to the planting of transformants into pots. PMID:17585302
Inoculation of carrot discs and Lotus corniculatus plantlets with mixtures of different Agrobacterium rhizogenes or of A. rhizogenes and A. tumefaciens or with Agrobacterium strains harboring both an Ri and a modified Ti plasmid resulted in frequent multiple (pluribacterial) transformation of cells, as revealed by the mixed opine-type of hairy roots arising from them. Multiple transformation may account for the
Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is the mostimportant tree species in US commerce and has much to gain through geneticengineering. This species can be transformed using particle bombardment andAgrobacterium; however, the regeneration of plants fromtransgenic tissues has been difficult and the recovery of transgenic plants hasbeen rare. A shoot-based and genotype-independent transformation methodemploying Agrobacteriumtumefaciens was used to facilitaterecovery of
Jean H. Gould; Yuanxiang Zhou; Veeraragavan Padmanabhan; Maria E. Magallanes-Cedeno; Ronald J. Newton
A method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hybrid poplar (Populus alba x P. grandidentata cv. ‘Crandon’) suspension cultures and regeneration of transformed plants is described. Transformants were recovered when suspension cultures were inoculated with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens at a density of 107 colony-forming units ml-1, cocultivated for 48 h, and plated to cellulose acetate filters on Woody Plant Medium containing 4.5 µM
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of higher plants is a well-known and powerful tool for transgene delivery to plant cells. In the present work, we studied whether Agrobacterium can transfer genetic information to animal (sea urchin) embryos. Sea urchin embryos were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strains carrying binary vectors containing the nptII marker gene and agrobacterial rolC and rolB oncogenes. Bacterial plasmid T-DNA-sea urchin DNA junction sites were identified in the genome of these embryos, thus indicating successful transformation. The nptII and both rol genes were expressed in the transformed embryos. The processes of transgene integration and transgene expression were suppressed when Agrobacteria contained mutated virA, virB or virG genes, suggesting that Agrobacterium transforms sea urchin cells by a mechanism similar to that which mediates T-DNA transfer to plants. Some of the embryos co-cultivated with Agrobacterium developed teratoma-like structures. The ability of Agrobacterium strains to trigger formation of teratoma-like structures was diminished when they contained the mutated vir genes. In summary, our results demonstrate that Agrobacterium is able to transform animal (sea urchin) embryonic cells, thus indicating a potential of this natural system for gene delivery to animal hosts. We also discuss the possibility of horizontal gene transfer from Agrobacterium to marine invertebrates. PMID:16892273
Bulgakov, Victor P; Kiselev, Konstantin V; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Gontcharov, Andrey A; Odintsova, Nelly A
Plasmid pCAMBIA 1301-choA was transformed into Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599 and A. tumefaciens strain EHA 105 for mungbean transformation. Cotyledons from different ages of mungbean seedlings were inoculated with both bacteria. The two-day-old cotyledons that were co-cultured with hairy root bacteria showed higher ability to produce branched roots than the others. An average of 10 branched roots was formed on
Potjamarn SURANINPONG; Sontichai CHANPRAME; Hyeon-JE CHO; Jack M. WIDHOLM; Aree WARANYUWAT
Transgenic pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) plants were obtained in the progeny of plants infiltrated by an Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain carrying a gene for resistance to the herbicide phosphinotricin (Basta). Genetic analysis demonstrates the transmission of the herbicide resistant trait to the progeny. Molecular analyses show that the transgene was inserted in the plant genome and expressed. This work
Cao Ming Qing; Liu Fan; Yao Lei; David Bouchez; Colette Tourneur; Li Yan; Christophe Robaglia
Lavandin (Lavandula x Emeric ex Loiseleur) is an aromatic plant, the essential oil of which is widely used in the perfume, cosmetic, flavouring and pharmaceutical industries. The qualitative or quantitative modification of its terpenes-containing essential oil by genetic engineering could have important scientific and commercial applications. In this study, we report the first Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated gene transfer into lavandin. The
Summary DNA transfer fromAgrobacteriumtumefaciens, a soil bacterium, to the non-host graminaceous monocotyledonous plantZea mays, was analysed using the recently developed technique of agroinfection. Agroinfection ofZ. mays with maize streak virus using strains ofA. tumefaciens carrying mutations in the pTiC58 virulence region showed an almost absolute dependence on the products of the bacterialvirC genes. In contrast, agroinfection of the control hostBrassica
Nigel Grimsley; Barbara Hohn; Cynthia Ramos; Clarence Kado; Peter Rogowsky
The first step in Agrobacteriumtumefaciens infection of plants is the establishment of cell-cell contact between the two partners. However, failure to establish such contact makes many plants and explants recalcitrant to A. tumefaciens infection. Tea is one such example where even the popular inducer, acetosyringone failed to facilitate A. tumefaciens infection due to the presence of high amounts of bactericidal/bacteriostatic polyphenols. Quinones are formed as a result of polyphenols oxidation. They cause tissue browning and necrosis during the process of transformation, and in turn prevent A. tumefaciens infection. Compounds such as polyphenol adsorbents, i.e., polyvinylpyrrolidone and charcoal, and antioxidants like cysteine and ascorbic acid were screened to overcome tissue browning. Although these compounds enhanced the growth of A. tumefaciens, these failed to facilitate the infection of the leaves of either Kangra Jat, Tocklai Variety-1, UPASI-9, UPASI-10, and Stock-449 cultivars of tea. On the contrary, the presence of filter sterilized L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid in the co-cultivation medium facilitated successful A. tumefaciens infection of recalcitrant tea leaves. L-Glutamine and glutamic acid form harmless adducts by binding to quinones. Therefore, their presence in the co-cultivation medium allowed the tea leaves to remain living and appealing to the infecting A. tumefaciens. Successful A. tumefaciens infection of tea leaves was confirmed by positive signals in GUS assay, PCR, and Dot blot. PMID:23712792
Adventitious shoots formed on the proximal cut edges of different cotyledonary explants of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai; cvs. Sweet Gem and Gold Medal] cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium with 1 mgl-1 6-benzyladenine (BA). Light (16-h photoperiod, about 7 Wm-2 cool-white fluorescent lamps) was essential for shoot formation. To obtain transformed plants, cotyledonary explants of Sweet
Pil S. Choi; Wong Y. Soh; Youn S. Kim; Ook J. Yoo; Jang R. Liu
Poplar is a model system for the regeneration and genetic transformation of woody plants. To shorten the time required for studies of transgenic poplar, efforts have been made to optimize transformation methods that use Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. In this study, an Agrobacterium infective suspension was treated at 4 °C for at least 10 h before infecting explants. By transforming the Populus hybrid clone “Nanlin895” (Populus deltoides × P. euramericana) with Agrobacterium harboring the PBI121:CarNAC6 binary vector, we showed that the transformation efficiency was improved significantly by multiple independent factors, including an Agrobacterium infective suspension with an OD600 of 0.7, an Agrobacterium infection for 120 min, an Agrobacterium infective suspension at a pH of 5.0, an acetosyringone concentration of 200 µM, a cocultivation at 28 °C, a cocultivation for 72 h and a sucrose concentration of 30 g/L in the cocultivation medium. We also showed that preculture of wounded leaf explants for two days increased the regeneration rate. The integration of the desired gene into transgenic poplars was detected using selective medium containing kanamycin, followed by southern blot analysis. The expression of the transgene in the transgenic lines was confirmed by northern blot analysis.
Two PCR primer pairs, based on the virD2 and ipt genes, detected a wide variety of pathogenic Agrobacterium strains. The endonuclease domain of VirD2 protein, which cleaves transferred DNA (T-DNA) border sequences, is highly conserved; primer oligonucleotides specific for the endonuclease portion of virD2 detected all pathogenic strains of Agrobacterium tested. PCR primers corresponding to conserved sequences in ipt, the T-DNA-borne cytokinin synthesis gene, detected only Agrobacteriumtumefaciens and distinguished it from Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The virD2 and ipt primer pairs did not interfere with each other when included in the same PCR amplification, and this permitted simultaneous detection of both genes in a single reaction. One nonpathogenic Agrobacterium radiobacter strain contained virD2 but not ipt; we speculate that this strain arose from a pathogenic progenitor through a deletion in the T-DNA. The virD2 primer pair appears to be universal for all pathogenic Agrobacterium species; used together, the primer sets reported here should allow unambiguous identification of Ti plasmid DNA in bacteria isolated from soil and plants.
Poplar is a model system for the regeneration and genetic transformation of woody plants. To shorten the time required for studies of transgenic poplar, efforts have been made to optimize transformation methods that use Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. In this study, an Agrobacterium infective suspension was treated at 4 °C for at least 10 h before infecting explants. By transforming the Populus hybrid clone "Nanlin895" (Populus deltoides × P. euramericana) with Agrobacterium harboring the PBI121:CarNAC6 binary vector, we showed that the transformation efficiency was improved significantly by multiple independent factors, including an Agrobacterium infective suspension with an OD600 of 0.7, an Agrobacterium infection for 120 min, an Agrobacterium infective suspension at a pH of 5.0, an acetosyringone concentration of 200 µM, a cocultivation at 28 °C, a cocultivation for 72 h and a sucrose concentration of 30 g/L in the cocultivation medium. We also showed that preculture of wounded leaf explants for two days increased the regeneration rate. The integration of the desired gene into transgenic poplars was detected using selective medium containing kanamycin, followed by southern blot analysis. The expression of the transgene in the transgenic lines was confirmed by northern blot analysis. PMID:24933641
Highly efficient genetic transformation protocols and the regeneration of transgenic plants of Sugraone and Crimson Seedless\\u000a grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were achieved from embryogenic calli co-cultured with low Agrobacteriumtumefaciens densities. The sensitivity of embryogenic cultures to kanamycin, as well as the effect of Agrobacterium strains, C58(pMP90) or EHA105, and the bacterial concentration (0.06 or 0.2 at Optical Density OD600)
Antonio-José López-Pérez; Leonardo Velasco; María Pazos-Navarro; Mercedes Dabauza
In an attempt to develop a system for producing transformed plants from explants ofDendranthema grandiflora, the susceptibility of the cultivar Super White to various wild-type strains ofAgrobacteriumtumefaciens andA. rhizogenes was investigated. Tumour formation was not a reliable indicator of the ability of a related disarmed strain to mediate transformation. Following inoculation of explants with disarmedAgrobacterium strains, a number of
J. M. Lowe; M. R. Davey; J. B. Power; K. S. Blundy
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens binds to the surfaces of inanimate objects, plants, and fungi. These bacteria are excellent colonizers of root surfaces. In addition, they also bind to soil particles and to the surface of artificial or man-made substances, such as polyesters and plastics. The mechanisms of attachment to these different surfaces have not been completely elucidated. At least two types of binding have been described unipolarpolysaccharide-dependent polar attachment and unipolar polysaccharide-independent attachment (both polar and lateral). The genes encoding the enzymes for the production of the former are located on the circular chromosome, while the genes involved in the latter have not been identified. The expression of both of these types of attachment is regulated in response to environmental signals. However, the signals to which they respond differ so that the two types of attachment are not necessarily expressed coordinately.
A protocol was developed for establishing embryogenic suspension cultures from in vitro-grown, thin shoot-tip sections of\\u000a the banana cultivar Rasthali. The best medium for callus induction was an MS-based medium supplemented with 2?mg\\/l 2,4-D and\\u000a 0.2?mg\\/l zeatin. The callus was transferred to liquid medium to establish embryogenic cell suspensions. These cultures were\\u000a subsequently used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The Agrobacteriumtumefaciens
T. R. Ganapathi; N. S. Higgs; P. J. Balint-Kurti; C. J. Arntzen; G. D. May; J. M. Van Eck
A procedure for producing transgenic Chinese cabbage plants by inoculating cotyledonary explants with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying a binary vector pIG121Hm, which contains kanamycin-resistance and hygromycin-resistance genes and\\u000a the GUS reporter gene, is described. Infection was most effective (highest infection frequency) when explants were infected\\u000a with Agrobacterium for 15?min and co-cultivated for 3 days in co-cultivation medium at pH?5.2
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens and related Agrobacterium species have been known as plant pathogens since the beginning of the 20th century. However, only in the past two decades has the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer DNA to plant cells been harnessed for the purposes of plant genetic engineering. Since the initial reports in the early 1980s using Agrobacterium to generate transgenic plants, scientists have attempted to improve this “natural genetic engineer” for biotechnology purposes. Some of these modifications have resulted in extending the host range of the bacterium to economically important crop species. However, in most instances, major improvements involved alterations in plant tissue culture transformation and regeneration conditions rather than manipulation of bacterial or host genes. Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is a highly complex and evolved process involving genetic determinants of both the bacterium and the host plant cell. In this article, I review some of the basic biology concerned with Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Knowledge of fundamental biological principles embracing both the host and the pathogen have been and will continue to be key to extending the utility of Agrobacterium for genetic engineering purposes.
Exudates of dicotyledonous plants contain specific phenolic signal molecules, such as acetosyringone, which serve as potent inducers for the expression of the virulence (vir) regulon of the phytopathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. This induction activates the Agrobacterium T-DNA transfer process to initiate the genetic transformation of target plant cells. Wounded and metabolically active plant cells are particularly susceptible to Agrobacterium infection, and these cells specifically produce vir-inducing molecules. Most monocotyledonous, as opposed to dicotyledonous, species are resistant to Agrobacterium transformation. One hypothesis for this resistance is that nonsusceptible monocotyledonous cells fail to produce vir signal molecules and, thus, are not recognized by Agrobacterium as transformation targets. Here we demonstrate that monocotyledonous cells make such molecules, and, furthermore, we purify the inducer produced by a Triticum monococcum suspension culture that is resistant to Agrobacterium infection. This molecule is shown to correspond to ethyl ferulate [C12H14O4; 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester], to be more active for vir induction at low concentrations than acetosyringone, and to be produced in quantities giving significant levels of induction. Thus, at least for the wheat cell line used in this study, monocotyledonous resistance to Agrobacterium transformation must result from a block to a step of the T-DNA transfer process subsequent to vir induction. PMID:11607083
Exudates of dicotyledonous plants contain specific phenolic signal molecules, such as acetosyringone, which serve as potent inducers for the expression of the virulence (vir) regulon of the phytopathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. This induction activates the Agrobacterium T-DNA transfer process to initiate the genetic transformation of target plant cells. Wounded and metabolically active plant cells are particularly susceptible to Agrobacterium infection, and these cells specifically produce vir-inducing molecules. Most monocotyledonous, as opposed to dicotyledonous, species are resistant to Agrobacterium transformation. One hypothesis for this resistance is that nonsusceptible monocotyledonous cells fail to produce vir signal molecules and, thus, are not recognized by Agrobacterium as transformation targets. Here we demonstrate that monocotyledonous cells make such molecules, and, furthermore, we purify the inducer produced by a Triticum monococcum suspension culture that is resistant to Agrobacterium infection. This molecule is shown to correspond to ethyl ferulate [C12H14O4; 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester], to be more active for vir induction at low concentrations than acetosyringone, and to be produced in quantities giving significant levels of induction. Thus, at least for the wheat cell line used in this study, monocotyledonous resistance to Agrobacterium transformation must result from a block to a step of the T-DNA transfer process subsequent to vir induction. Images
A chimaeric gene has been constructed that expresses ß-D-glucuronidase (GUS) in transformed plant tissues, but not in bacterial cells. This gene has proved extremely useful for monitoring transformation during the period immediately following gene transfer from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. GUS expression was detectable 2 days after inoculation, peaked at 3–4 days and then declined; if selection was imposed expression increased again
The dwarf pomegranate (Punica granatum L. var. nana) is a dwarf ornamental plant that has the potential to be the model plant of perennial fruit trees because it bears fruits\\u000a within 1 year of seedling. We established an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the dwarf pomegranate. Adventitious shoots regenerated from leaf segments were inoculated\\u000a with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the binary
The method described involves an initial incubation of wheat immature embryos in a liquid culture of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain is engineered to contain a binary vector with a gene of interest and a selectable marker gene placed between the T-DNA borders; the T-DNA is the region transferred to the plant cells, thus harnessing the bacterium's natural ability to deliver specific DNA into host cells. Following the initial inoculation with the Agrobacterium, the embryos are co-cultivated for several days after which the Agrobacterium is selectively destroyed using an antibiotic. Tissue culture of the embryos on plant media with a correct balance of hormones allows embryogenic callus formation followed by regeneration of plantlets, and in the later stages of tissue culture a selectable marker (herbicide) is included to minimize the incidence of non-transformed plants. This protocol has been used successfully to generate transformed plants of a wide range of wheat varieties, both spring and winter bread wheats (T. aestivum L.) and durum wheats (T. turgidum L.). PMID:24243208
Mycorrhizal ascomycetes are ecologically and commercially important fungi that have proved impervious to genetic transformation so far. We report here on the successful transient transformation of Tuber borchii, an ectomycorrhizal ascomycete that colonizes a variety of trees and produces highly prized hypogeous fruitbodies known as “truffles”. A hypervirulent Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain bearing the binary plasmid pBGgHg was used for transformation.
Benedetto Grimaldi; Michiel A. de Raaf; Patrizia Filetici; Simone Ottonello; Paola Ballario
A “plant gene vector cassette” to be used in combination with various Escherichia coli gene-cloning vectors was constructed. This cassette contains a replication and mobilization unit which allows it to be maintained and to be transferred back and forth between E. coli and Agrobacteriumtumefaciens hosts provided these hosts contain plasmid RK2 replication and mobilization helper functions. The cassette also
Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro?PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1?2 pro?GUS/ A. tumefaciensLBA4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.
Leaf discs of C. intybus were inoculated with an Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain harboring a neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene for kanamycin resistance and a mutant acetolactate synthase gene (csr1-1) from Arabidopsis thaliana conferring resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides. A regeneration medium was optimized which permitted an efficient shoot regeneration from leaf discs. Transgenic shoots were selected on rooting medium containing 100 mg\\/l
The crown gall teratoma tumor line BT37, incited by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain T37, has been found to contain part of the tumor-inducing plasmid, pTi T37, of the inciting strain. This foreign DNA segment, called T-DNA, is maintained at several copies per diploid tumor cell. We have examined subcellular DNA fractions from this tumor line in an effort to determine whether
Mary-Dell Chilton; Randall K. Saiki; Narendra Yadav; Milton P. Gordon; Francis Quetier
Fertile transgenic plants of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cv. TMV-2 expressing tobacco chitinase and neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) genes were generated using an Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (LBA4404/pBI121-pBTex)-mediated transformation system. A tissue culture-independent method wherein embryo in the mature seed is inoculated and reared into single plant transformant was used for transformation. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA isolated from T(0) transformants and progeny plants (T(1)) demonstrated that the transgenes are stably integrated in the genome of transgenic peanut plants and inherited by the offspring. The expression of the heterologous chitinase gene driven by CaMV 35S promoter led to a high level of activity in some of the transgenic plants. Small-scale field tests indicated increased ability of these plants to resist the fungal pathogen Cercospora arachidicola (the causal organism of the leaf spot or Tikka disease of peanut), which is an important peanut pathogen. These results suggest that a heterologous chitinase gene was functional in peanut and expressed in healthy plants. The study also shows that peanut plants containing transgenically increased activity of chitinase were resistant to attack by the fungal pathogen C. arachidicola to different degrees. The strategy employed may be useful for the control of other fungal diseases of the crop. PMID:11297785
SUMMARY Agrobacteriumtumefaciens tumorigenesis is initiated by the horizontal transfer of a suite of oncogenes that alter hormone synthesis and sensitivity in infected plant cells. Transgenic plants silenced for the iaaM and ipt oncogenes are highly recalcitrant to tumorigenesis, and present a unique resource to elucidate fundamental questions related to Agrobacterium biology and post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). The oncogene-silenced transgenic tomato line 01/6 was used to characterize A. tumefaciens growth in planta and to screen for iaaM and ipt sequence variants. Even in the absence of macroscopic and microscopic indications of tumorigenesis, A. tumefaciens is capable of long-term survival in the hypocotyl tissues of the 01/6 line. A. tumefaciens growth, however, is significantly reduced in the 01/6 line, with populations decreased by 96% relative to wild-type at 52 days post-inoculation. In addition, the 01/6 line displayed suppression of tumorigenesis against all 35 tested strains of A. tumefaciens. High target homology is an absolute requirement of PTGS, therefore this result suggests that regions of the iaaM and ipt oncogenes are very highly conserved across most A. tumefaciens strains. Finally, graft transmissibility of oncogene silencing was assessed by grafting various non-silenced tomato genotypes on to the 01/6 line. Phenotypic and molecular evidence (tumorigenesis and absence of small interfering RNAs, respectively) suggest that oncogene silencing is not graft-transmissible, at least to wild-type and antisense iaaM-over-expressing genotypes. PMID:20569363
Escobar, M A; Civerolo, E L; Polito, V S; Pinney, K A; Dandekar, A M
For many pathogenic bacteria surface attachment is a required first step during host interactions. Attachment can proceed to invasion of host tissue or cells or to establishment of a multicellular bacterial community known as a biofilm. The transition from a unicellular, often motile, state to a sessile, multicellular, biofilm-associated state is one of the most important developmental decisions for bacteria. Agrobacteriumtumefaciens genetically transforms plant cells by transfer and integration of a segment of plasmid-encoded transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the host genome, and has also been a valuable tool for plant geneticists. A. tumefaciens attaches to and forms a complex biofilm on a variety of biotic and abiotic substrates in vitro. Although rarely studied in situ, it is hypothesized that the biofilm state plays an important functional role in the ecology of this organism. Surface attachment, motility, and cell division are coordinated through a complex regulatory network that imparts an unexpected asymmetry to the A. tumefaciens life cycle. In this review, we describe the mechanisms by which A. tumefaciens associates with surfaces, and regulation of this process. We focus on the transition between flagellar-based motility and surface attachment, and on the composition, production, and secretion of multiple extracellular components that contribute to the biofilm matrix. Biofilm formation by A. tumefaciens is linked with virulence both mechanistically and through shared regulatory molecules. We detail our current understanding of these and other regulatory schemes, as well as the internal and external (environmental) cues mediating development of the biofilm state, including the second messenger cyclic-di-GMP, nutrient levels, and the role of the plant host in influencing attachment and biofilm formation. A. tumefaciens is an important model system contributing to our understanding of developmental transitions, bacterial cell biology, and biofilm formation. PMID:24834068
For many pathogenic bacteria surface attachment is a required first step during host interactions. Attachment can proceed to invasion of host tissue or cells or to establishment of a multicellular bacterial community known as a biofilm. The transition from a unicellular, often motile, state to a sessile, multicellular, biofilm-associated state is one of the most important developmental decisions for bacteria. Agrobacteriumtumefaciens genetically transforms plant cells by transfer and integration of a segment of plasmid-encoded transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the host genome, and has also been a valuable tool for plant geneticists. A. tumefaciens attaches to and forms a complex biofilm on a variety of biotic and abiotic substrates in vitro. Although rarely studied in situ, it is hypothesized that the biofilm state plays an important functional role in the ecology of this organism. Surface attachment, motility, and cell division are coordinated through a complex regulatory network that imparts an unexpected asymmetry to the A. tumefaciens life cycle. In this review, we describe the mechanisms by which A. tumefaciens associates with surfaces, and regulation of this process. We focus on the transition between flagellar-based motility and surface attachment, and on the composition, production, and secretion of multiple extracellular components that contribute to the biofilm matrix. Biofilm formation by A. tumefaciens is linked with virulence both mechanistically and through shared regulatory molecules. We detail our current understanding of these and other regulatory schemes, as well as the internal and external (environmental) cues mediating development of the biofilm state, including the second messenger cyclic-di-GMP, nutrient levels, and the role of the plant host in influencing attachment and biofilm formation. A. tumefaciens is an important model system contributing to our understanding of developmental transitions, bacterial cell biology, and biofilm formation.
A system for the production of transgenic plants was developed for the Oriental hybrid lily, Lilium cv. Acapulco, by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Filament-derived calli were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain EHA101/pIG121Hm, which harbored a binary vector carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase II, hygromycin phosphotransferase, and intron-containing beta-glucuronidase genes in the T-DNA region. Six hygromycin-resistant (Hyg(r)) culture lines were obtained from 200 calli by scratching them with sandpaper prior to inoculation and using NH(4)NO(3)-free medium for co-cultivation and a hygromycin-containing regeneration medium for selection. Hyg(r) culture lines regenerated shoots, which developed into plantlets following transfer to a plant growth regulator-free medium. All of these plantlets were verified to be transgenic by GUS histochemical assay and inverse PCR analysis. PMID:14685763
Hoshi, Y; Kondo, M; Mori, S; Adachi, Y; Nakano, M; Kobayashi, H
Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 is an effective, commercially applied, biological control agent for the plant disease crown gall, yet little is known about the survival and dissemination of K84. To trace K84 in the environment, spontaneous antibiotic-resistant mutants were used. Growth rates and phenotypes of streptomycin- or rifampin-resistant K84 were similar to those of the parental K84, except the rifampin-resistant mutant produced less agrocin 84 as determined by bioassay. K84 and a strain of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens established populations averaging 10(5) CFU/g in the rhizosphere of cherry and persisted on roots for 2 years. K84 established rhizosphere populations between 10(4) and 10(6) CFU/g on cherry, ryegrass, and 11 other herbaceous plants. Populations of K84 declined substantially in fallow soil or water over a 16-week period. K84 was detected in the rhizosphere of ryegrass located up to 40 cm from an inoculum source, indicating lateral dissemination of K84 in soil. In gall tissue on cherry, K84 established populations of 10(5) CFU/g, about 10- to 100-fold less than that of the pathogen. These data demonstrate that K84 persists for up to 2 years in a field environment as a rhizosphere inhabitant or in association with crown gall tissue.
An ultrasensitive bioassay system for the detection of N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) was constructed in Agrobacteriumtumefaciens by using the T7 expression system to overproduce the AHL receptor TraR. This strain detected many diverse AHLs, some at extremely low concentrations. We used this strain to detect for the first time AHLs made by Mesorhizobium huakuii, which symbiotically fixes nitrogen in association with the legume Astragalus sinicus, a source of green manure throughout eastern Asia.
Zhu, Jun; Chai, Yunrong; Zhong, Zengtao; Li, Shunpeng; Winans, Stephen C.
To improve the transformation efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mediated by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, we explored the possibility of employing the basal portion of wheat seedling (shoot apical meristem) as the explants. Three genotypes of wheat were transformed by A. tumefaciens carrying beta-1, 3-glucanase gene. After vernalization, the seeds to be transformed were germinated. When these seedlings grew up to 2 approximately 5 cm, their coleoptile and half of the cotyledon were cut out, and the basal portions were infected by A. tumefaciens. A total 27 T(0) transgenic plants were obtained, and the average transformation efficiency was as high as 9.82%. Evident segregation occurred in some of the T(1) plants, as was indicated by PCR and Southern blotting analysis. Investigation of the T(2) plants revealed that some transformed plants had higher resistance to powdery mildew than the controls. Northern blotting revealed that beta-1, 3-glucanase gene was normally expressed in the T(2) plants, which showed an increased resistance to powdery mildew. The results above indicate that the exogenous gene has been successfully integrated into the genome of wheat, transmitted and expressed in the transgenic progeny. From all the results above, it can be concluded that Agrobacterium inoculum to the basal portion of wheat seedling is a highly efficient and dependable transformation method. It can be developed into a practicable method for transfer of target gene into wheat. PMID:16773333
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens is capable of transferring and integrating an oncogenic T-DNA (transferred DNA) from its tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into dicotyledonous plants. This transfer requires that the virulence genes (vir regulon) be induced by plant signals such as acetosyringone in an acidic environment. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signal molecule in regulating plant defense against pathogens. However, how SA influences Agrobacterium and its interactions with plants is poorly understood. Here we show that SA can directly shut down the expression of the vir regulon. SA specifically inhibited the expression of the Agrobacterium virA/G two-component regulatory system that tightly controls the expression of the vir regulon including the repABC operon on the Ti plasmid. We provide evidence suggesting that SA attenuates the function of the VirA kinase domain. Independent of its effect on the vir regulon, SA up-regulated the attKLM operon, which functions in degrading the bacterial quormone N-acylhomoserine lactone. Plants defective in SA accumulation were more susceptible to Agrobacterium infection, whereas plants overproducing SA were relatively recalcitrant to tumor formation. Our results illustrate that SA, besides its well known function in regulating plant defense, can also interfere directly with several aspects of the Agrobacterium infection process.
Yuan, Ze-Chun; Edlind, Merritt P.; Liu, Pu; Saenkham, Panatda; Banta, Lois M.; Wise, Arlene A.; Ronzone, Erik; Binns, Andrew N.; Kerr, Kathleen; Nester, Eugene W.
It is commonly accepted that the plant pathogens Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, acting via their T-DNA oncogenes, disturb hormone metabolism or hormone perception pathways in plants, thereby attaining their aim of successful pathogenesis. In this work, we summarize recent data on the A. rhizogenes rolC and rolB oncogenes in comparison to the A. tumefaciens 6b oncogene with respect to their effects on the physiology of transformed cells. The newly discovered functions of the rol genes include the modulation of secondary metabolism, the modulation of levels of intracellular ROS and stress resistance of transformed cells, changed sucrose metabolism, and the inhibition of programmed cell death. We show that the rol genes do not have suppressive effects on plant innate immunity; rather, these genes activate plant defense reactions. The existence of not only the hormone-related mechanism of pathogenicity but also the defense-related mechanism of pathogenicity during plant-Agrobacterium interactions is suggested. PMID:23576052
Bulgakov, Victor P; Shkryl, Yuri N; Veremeichik, Galina N; Gorpenchenko, Tatiana Y; Vereshchagina, Yuliya V
The value of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens for plant molecular biologists cannot be appreciated enough. This soil-borne pathogen has the unique capability to transfer DNA (T-DNA) into plant systems. Gene transfer involves both bacterial and host factors, and it is the orchestration of these factors that determines the success of transformation. Some plant species readily accept integration of foreign DNA, while others are recalcitrant. The timing and intensity of the microbially activated host defense repertoire sets the switch to “yes” or “no.” This repertoire is comprised of the specific induction of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), defense gene expression, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hormonal adjustments. Agrobacteriumtumefaciens abuses components of the host immunity system it mimics plant protein functions and manipulates hormone levels to bypass or override plant defenses. A better understanding of the ongoing molecular battle between agrobacteria and attacked hosts paves the way toward developing transformation protocols for recalcitrant plant species. This review highlights recent findings in agrobacterial transformation research conducted in diverse plant species. Efficiency-limiting factors, both of plant and bacterial origin, are summarized and discussed in a thought-provoking manner.
Transferred DNA (T-DNA) transfer from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens into eukaryotic cells is the only known example of interkingdom DNA transfer. T-DNA is a single-stranded segment of Agrobacterium's tumor-inducing plasmid that enters the plant cell as a complex with the bacterial virulence proteins VirD2 and VirE2. The VirE2 protein is highly induced on contact of A. tumefaciens with a plant host and has been reported to act in late steps of transfer. One of its previously demonstrated functions is binding to the single-stranded (ss) T-DNA and protecting it from degradation. Recent experiments suggest other functions of the protein. A combination of planar lipid bilayer experiments, vesicle swelling assays, and DNA transport experiments demonstrated that VirE2 can insert itself into artificial membranes and form channels. These channels are voltage gated, anion selective, and single-stranded DNA-specific and can facilitate the efficient transport of single-stranded DNA through membranes. These experiments demonstrate a VirE2 function as a transmembrane DNA transporter, which could have applications in gene delivery systems.
Dumas, Fabrice; Duckely, Myriam; Pelczar, Pawel; Van Gelder, Patrick; Hohn, Barbara
The floral-dip method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis allows efficient plant transformation without need for tissue culture. To facilitate use with other plant species, we investigated the mechanisms that underlie this method. In manual outcrossing experiments, application of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens to pollen donor plants did not produce any transformed progeny, whereas application of Agrobacterium to pollen recipient plants yielded transformants at a rate of 0.48%. Agrobacterium strains with T-DNA carrying gusA (encoding ?-glucuronidase [GUS]) under the control of 35S, LAT52, or ACT11 promoters revealed delivery of GUS activity to developing ovules, whereas no GUS staining of pollen or pollen tubes was observed. Transformants derived from the same seed pod contained independent T-DNA integration events. In Arabidopsis flowers, the gynoecium develops as an open, vase-like structure that fuses to form closed locules roughly 3 d prior to anthesis. In correlation with this fact, we found that the timing of Agrobacterium infection was critical. Transformants were obtained and GUS staining of ovules and embryo sacs was observed only if the Agrobacterium were applied 5 d or more prior to anthesis. A 6-fold higher rate of transformation was obtained with a CRABS-CLAW mutant that maintains an open gynoecium. Our results suggest that ovules are the site of productive transformation in the floral-dip method, and further suggest that Agrobacterium must be delivered to the interior of the developing gynoecium prior to locule closure if efficient transformation is to be achieved.
Desfeux, Christine; Clough, Steven J.; Bent, Andrew F.
Background Shigellosis is a leading cause of diarrhea in many developing countries and although the disease can be controlled and managed with antibiotics, the constant emergence of resistant species requiring ever newer antibacterial drugs make development of an effective vaccine necessary. The bacteria are highly contagious and since immunity to Shigella is serotype-specific a multi-serotype vaccine is required for adequate protection. Proteins encoded by Shigella invasion plasmid, which are part of the Type Three Secretion System (TTSS) of this bacteria, are good candidate as vaccine targets since they are both immunogenic and conserved between different Shigella species. The advent of molecular farming, which is a low cost system, has opened up new venues for production of recombinant proteins. In view of the difficulties encountered in expressing IpaB in Escherichia coli (E. coli), the feasibility of the expression of this protein in tobacco has been investigated. Methods The ipaB gene was cloned in place of the Hygromycin gene in pCambia1304 containing GFP as a reporter gene. The vector was then transferred into competent Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strain LBA4404 which was used for agro-infiltration of Nicotiana tobaccum (N. tobaccum) leaves. Transformation was confirmed by expression of GFP. The gene was also cloned in pBAD/geneIII A and transformed E. coli host containing the construct was induced using different amounts of L-arabinose as inducer. Expression of IpaB gene by both hosts was determined by Western blotting using anti-IpaB monoclonal antibody. Results The data obtained showed that IpaB was expressed in plant leaves but expression in E. coli was not detectable. Conclusion This study showed that N. tobaccum is capable of expressing this protein without its specific chaperon and in levels detectable by Western blotting.
An Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-based transformation procedure was developed for the desiccation tolerant species Lindernia brevidens. Leaf explants were infected with A. tumefaciens strain GV3101 harbouring a binary vector that carried the hygromycin resistance gene and an eGFP reporter gene under the control of a native dehydration responsive LEA promoter (Lb2745pro). PCR analysis of the selected hygromycin-resistant plants revealed that the transformation rates were high (14/14) and seeds were obtained from 13/14 of the transgenic lines. A combination of RNA gel blot and microscopic analyses demonstrated that eGFP expression was induced upon dehydration and ABA treatment. Comparison with existing procedures used to transform the well studied resurrection plant and close relative, Craterostigma plantagineum, revealed that the transformation process is both rapid and leads to the production of viable seed thus making L. brevidens a candidate species for functional genomics approaches to determine the genetic basis of desiccation tolerance. PMID:17497152
Smith-Espinoza, Claudia; Bartels, Dorothea; Phillips, Jonathan
An optimised Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer protocol was developed in order to obtain watermelon transgenic plants [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.]. Transformation efficiencies ranged from 2.8% to 5.3%, depending on the cultivar. The method was applied to obtain genetically engineered watermelon plants expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene related to salt tolerance. In order to enhance its constitutive expression in plants, the HAL1 gene was cloned in a pBiN19 plasmid under control of the 35S promoter with a double enhancer sequence from the cauliflower mosaic virus and the RNA4 leader sequence of the alfalfa mosaic virus. This vector was introduced into Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404 for further inoculation of watermelon half-cotyledon explants. The introduction of both the neomycin phosphotransferase II and HAL1 genes was assessed in primary transformants (TG1) by polymerase chain reaction analysis and Southern hybridisation. The expression of the HAL1 gene was determined by Northern analysis, and the diploid level of transgenic plants was confirmed by flow cytometry. The presence of the selectable marker gene in the expected Mendelian ratios was demonstrated in TG2 progenies. The TG2 kanamycin-resistant plantlets elongated better and produced new roots and leaves in culture media supplemented with NaCl compared with the control. Salt tolerance was confirmed in a semi-hydroponic system (EC=6 dS m(-1)) on the basis of the higher growth performance of homozygous TG3 lines with respect to their respective azygous control lines without the transgene. The halotolerance observed confirmed the inheritance of the trait and supports the potential usefulness of the HAL1 gene of S. cerevisiae as a molecular tool for genetic engineering of salt-stress protection in other crop species. PMID:12783167
Ellul, P; Ríos, G; Atarés, A; Roig, L A; Serrano, R; Moreno, V
Genes can be transferred horizontally between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in nature. The best-studied examples occur between Agrobacterium rhizogenes and certain Nicotiana spp. To investigate possible additional cases of horizontal gene transfer in nature between Agrobacterium and plants, a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based approach was employed to screen 127 plant species, belonging to 38 families of Dicotyledones, for the presence of oncogenes homologous to the transfer DNA fragments (T-DNA) from both A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes. Among all of the analyzed plant species, we found that only Linaria vulgaris contained sequences homologous to the T-DNA of A. rhizogenes. All screened L. vulgaris plants from various parts of Russia contained the same homologous sequences, including rolB, rolC, ORF13, ORF14, and mis genes. The same opine gene is found in the species of Nicotiana which contain genes of A. rhizogenes. In L. vulgaris, there are two copies of T-DNA organized as a single tandem imperfect direct repeat. The plant DNA sequence of the site of integration shows similarity to a retrotransposon. This site is most likely silent, suggesting that the T-DNA is not expressed. Attempts to demonstrate expression of the T-DNA genes were negative. Our study indicates that the frequency of gene transfer and fixation in the germline from Agrobacterium to plant hosts is rare in the natural environment. PMID:23134518
Matveeva, Tatiana V; Bogomaz, Denis I; Pavlova, Olga A; Nester, Eugene W; Lutova, Ludmila A
Genetically transformed plants of Cymbidium were regenerated after cocultivating protocorm-like bodies (PLB) with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain EHA101 (pIG121Hm) that harbored genes for beta-glucuronidase (gus), hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII). PLB of three genotypes maintained in liquid new Dogashima medium (NDM), were subjected to transformation experiments. The PLB inoculated with Agrobacterium produced secondary PLB, 4 weeks after transfer onto 2.5 g L(-1) gellan gum-solidified NDM containing 10 g L(-1) sucrose, 20 mg L(-1) hygromycin and 40 mg L(-1) meropenem. Transformation efficiency was affected by genotype and the presence of acetosyringone during cocultivation. The highest transformation efficiency was obtained when PLB from the genotype L4 were infected and cocultivated with Agrobacterium on medium containing 100 muM acetosyringone. Transformation of the hygromycin-resistant plantlets regenerated from different sites of inoculated PLB was confirmed by histochemical GUS assay, PCR analysis and Southern blot hybridization. PMID:17205333
The Ti plasmid sequences (T-DNA) from the octopine-producing crown gall tumor A6S/2 were isolated by molecular cloning, using the bacteriophage ? vector Charon 4A. Analysis of the cloned DNA segments indicates that the Ti plasmid sequences are covalently joined to plant nuclear DNA. These data demonstrate that genetic recombination between a eukaryote and a prokaryote can occur as a natural phenomenon. Images
Thomashow, M. F.; Nutter, R.; Postle, K.; Chilton, M.-D.; Blattner, F. R.; Powell, A.; Gordon, M. P.; Nester, E. W.
D-Aldohexopyranoside:cytochrome c oxidoreductase (ACO) was strongly induced by cellobiose, alpha-methylglucoside, beta-methylglucoside, kojibiose, and sophorose. Induction was rapid, and ACO was readily detectable within 10 min after addition of cellobiose as inducer. Although not measurable for 30 to 40 min after addition of inducer, once started, the rate of induction with alpha-methylglucoside equaled or even exceeded that obtained with cellobiose. Induction by sucrose, maltose, alpha-alpha-trehalose, melibiose, and lactose was weak. In general, the active ACO inducers were poor glycosidase inducers; the converse also appeared to be true. Although ACO induction was not repressed by D-glucose, it was repressed by succinate, malate, and fumarate.
A new type oxidation at C3 in the glycosyl group of reducing disaccharides and bionic acids has been described by Bernaerts and De Ley (1958, 1960, 1961). A method to purify the enzyme which catalyses the oxydation of lactose to 4-0-\\/3-3-keto-o-galactoside-o-glucose, has been partially worked out and is the object of the present communication. This enzyme is most probably localized
The transmembrane sensor protein VirA activates VirG in response to high levels of acetosyringone (AS). In order to respond to low levels of AS, VirA requires the periplasmic sugar-binding protein ChvE and monosaccharides released from plant wound sites. To better understand how VirA senses these inducers, the C58 virA gene was randomly mutagenized, and 14 mutants defective in vir gene induction and containing mutations which mapped to the input domain of VirA were isolated. Six mutants had single missense mutatiions in three widely separated areas of the periplasmic domain. Eight mutants had mutations in or near an amphipathic helix, TM1, or TM2. Four of the mutations in the periplasmic domain, when introduced into the corresponding A6 virA sequence, caused a specific defect in the vir gene response to glucose. This suggests that most of the periplasmic domain is required for the interaction with, or response to, ChvE. Three of the mutations from outside the periplasmic domain, one from each transmembrane domain and one from the amphiphathic helix, were made in A6 virA. These mutants were defective in the vir gene response to AS. These mutations did not affect the stability or topology of VirA or prevent dimerization; therefore, they may interfere with detection of AS or transmission of the signals to the kinase domain. Characterization of C58 chvE mutants revealed that, unlike A6 VirA, C58 VirA requires ChvE for activation of the vir genes.
Doty, S L; Yu, M C; Lundin, J I; Heath, J D; Nester, E W
The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements.
Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu
This transformation and regeneration protocol provides an integral framework for the genetic improvement of Fraxinus profunda (pumpkin ash) for future development of plants resistant to the emerald ash borer. Using mature hypocotyls as the initial explants, an Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system was successfully developed for pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda). This transformation protocol is an invaluable tool to combat the highly aggressive, non-native emerald ash borer (EAB), which has the potential to eliminate native Fraxinus spp. from the natural landscape. Hypocotyls were successfully transformed with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the pq35GR vector, containing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as well as a fusion gene between neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and gusA. Hypocotyls were cultured for 7 days on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 22.2 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA), 4.5 ?M thidiazuron (TDZ), 50 mg L(-1) adenine hemisulfate (AS), and 10 % coconut water (CW) prior to transformation. Hypocotyls were transformed using 90 s sonication plus 10 min vacuum infiltration after Agrobacterium was exposed to 100 ?M acetosyringone for 1 h. Adventitious shoots were regenerated on MS medium with 22.2 ?M BA, 4.5 ?M TDZ, 50 mg L(-1) AS, 10 % CW, 400 mg L(-1) timentin, and 20 mg L(-1) kanamycin. Timentin at 400 and 20 mg L(-1) kanamycin were most effective at controlling Agrobacterium growth and selecting for transformed cells, respectively. The presence of nptII, GUS (?-glucuronidase), and EGFP in transformed plants was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while the expression of EGFP was also confirmed through fluorescent microscopy and reverse transcription-PCR. This transformation protocol provides an integral foundation for future genetic modifications of F. profunda to provide resistance to EAB. PMID:24493252
Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in North America owing to its high biomass production, perennial nature and ability to fix nitrogen. Feruloyl esterase (EC 18.104.22.168) hydrolyzes ester linkages in plant cell walls and has the potential to further improve alfalfa as biomass for biofuel production. Results In this study, faeB [GenBank:AJ309807] was synthesized at GenScript and sub-cloned into a novel pEACH vector containing different signaling peptides to target type B ferulic acid esterase (FAEB) proteins to the apoplast, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole. Four constructs harboring faeB were transiently expressed in Nicotiana leaves, with FAEB accumulating at high levels in all target sites, except chloroplast. Stable transformed lines of alfalfa were subsequently obtained using Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (LBA4404). Out of 136 transgenic plants regenerated, 18 independent lines exhibited FAEB activity. Subsequent in vitro digestibility and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of FAEB-expressing lines showed that they possessed modified cell wall morphology and composition with a reduction in ester linkages and elevated lignin content. Consequently, they were more recalcitrant to digestion by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Interestingly, delignification by alkaline peroxide treatment followed by exposure to a commercial cellulase mixture resulted in higher glucose release from transgenic lines as compared to the control line. Conclusion Modifying cell wall crosslinking has the potential to lower recalcitrance of holocellulose, but also exhibited unintended consequences on alfalfa cell wall digestibility due to elevated lignin content. The combination of efficient delignification treatment (alkaline peroxide) and transgenic esterase activity complement each other towards efficient and effective digestion of transgenic lines.
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, a bacterial plant pathogen, when transformed with plasmid constructs containing greater than unit length DNA of tomato leaf curl geminivirus accumulates viral replicative form DNAs indistinguishable from those produced in infected plants. The accumulation of the viral DNA species depends on the presence of two origins of replication in the DNA constructs and is drastically reduced by introducing mutations into the viral replication-associated protein (Rep or C1) ORF, indicating that an active viral replication process is occurring in the bacterial cell. The accumulation of these viral DNA species is not affected by mutations or deletions in the other viral open reading frames. The observation that geminivirus DNA replication functions are supported by the bacterial cellular machinery provides evidence for the theory that these circular single-stranded DNA viruses have evolved from prokaryotic episomal replicons. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6
The occurrence of a hitherto unknown pathway involving the action of two enzymes, a nitrile hydratase and an amidase for the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid was discovered in phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacteriumtumefaciens and in leguminous bacteria Rhizobium. The nitrile hydratase acting on indole-3-acetonitrile was purified to homogeneity through only two steps from the cell-free extract of A. tumefaciens. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme estimated by HPLC was about 102 kDa, and the enzyme consisted of four subunits identical in molecular mass. The enzyme exhibited a broad absorption spectrum in the visible range with absorption maxima at 408 nm and 705 nm, and it contained cobalt and iron. The enzyme stoichiometrically catalyzed the hydration of indole-3-acetonitrile into indole-3-acetamide with a specific activity of 13.7 mol per min per mg and a Km of 7.9 microM. Images Fig. 1
Kobayashi, M; Suzuki, T; Fujita, T; Masuda, M; Shimizu, S
Agrobacterium sp. H13-3, formerly known as Rhizobium lupini H13-3, is a soil bacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Lupinus luteus. The isolate has been established as a model system for studying novel features of flagellum structure, motility and chemotaxis within the family Rhizobiaceae. The complete genome sequence of Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 has been established and the genome structure and phylogenetic assignment of the organism was analysed. For de novo sequencing of the Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 genome, a combined strategy comprising 454-pyrosequencing on the Genome Sequencer FLX platform and PCR-based amplicon sequencing for gap closure was applied. The finished genome consists of three replicons and comprises 5,573,770 bases. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the isolate could be assigned to the genus Agrobacterium biovar I and represents a genomic species G1 strain within this biovariety. The highly conserved circular chromosome (2.82 Mb) of Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 mainly encodes housekeeping functions characteristic for an aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium. Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 is a motile bacterium driven by the rotation of several complex flagella. Its behaviour towards external stimuli is regulated by a large chemotaxis regulon and a total of 17 chemoreceptors. Comparable to the genome of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens C58, Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 possesses a linear chromosome (2.15 Mb) that is related to its reference replicon and features chromosomal and plasmid-like properties. The accessory plasmid pAspH13-3a (0.6 Mb) is only distantly related to the plasmid pAtC58 of A. tumefaciens C58 and shows a mosaic structure. A tumor-inducing Ti-plasmid is missing in the sequenced strain H13-3 indicating that it is a non-virulent isolate. PMID:21329740
The nopaline-type Ti plasmid T37 of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens carries two distinct genes that encode enzymes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis. In this report, we show that the level of expression of one of these genes was increased dramatically by culture conditions that increased the expression of Ti plasmid virulence genes, including coculture with plant cells or treatment with acetosyringone, a plant phenolic compound. When this nopaline-type Ti plasmid gene was introduced into Agrobacterium strains containing an octopine-type Ti plasmid, similar induction of expression by culture conditions was observed, and analysis of virulence region mutants demonstrated that this induction was under the control of the virA and virG regulatory loci. We further show that induction was strongly pH dependent in octopine strains but, under the conditions examined, pH independent in nopaline strains. Images
Mycorrhizal ascomycetes are ecologically and commercially important fungi that have proved impervious to genetic transformation so far. We report here on the successful transient transformation of Tuber borchii, an ectomycorrhizal ascomycete that colonizes a variety of trees and produces highly prized hypogeous fruitbodies known as "truffles". A hypervirulent Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain bearing the binary plasmid pBGgHg was used for transformation. The genes for hygromycin resistance and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), both under the control of vector-borne promoters, were employed as selection markers. Patches of dark and fluorescent hyphae were observed upon fluorescence microscopic examination of hygromycin-resistant mycelia. The presence of EGFP was confirmed by both confocal microscopy and PCR analysis. The lack in the transformed mycelia of the DNA coding for kanamicin resistance (a trait encoded by a vector-borne gene located outside of the T-DNA region) indicates that Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer correctly occurred in T. borchii. PMID:15868150
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated plant transformation, a unique example of interkingdom gene transfer, has been widely adopted for the generation of transgenic plants. In vitro synthesized transferred DNA (T-DNA) complexes comprising single-stranded DNA and Agrobacterium virulence proteins VirD2 and VirE2, essential for plant transformation, were used to stably transfect HeLa cells. Both proteins positively influenced efficiency and precision of transgene integration by increasing overall transformation rates and by promoting full-length single-copy integration events. These findings demonstrate that the virulence proteins are sufficient for the integration of a T-DNA into a eukaryotic genome in the absence of other bacterial or plant factors. Synthetic T-DNA complexes are therefore unique protein:DNA delivery vectors with potential applications in the field of mammalian transgenesis.
Pelczar, Pawel; Kalck, Veronique; Gomez, Divina; Hohn, Barbara
Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation involves a complex interaction between the bacterium and the host plant. Relatively little is known about the role plant genes and proteins play in this process. We previously identified an Arabidopsis mutant, rat4, that is resistant to Agrobacterium transformation. We show here that rat4 contains a T-DNA insertion into the 3?-untranslated region of the cellulose synthase-like gene CSLA9. CSLA9 transcripts are greatly reduced in the rat4 mutant. Genetic complementation of rat4 with wild-type genomic copies of the CSLA9 gene restores both transformation competence and the wild-type level of CSLA9 transcripts. The CSLA9 promoter shows a distinct pattern of expression in Arabidopsis plants. In particular, the promoter is active in the elongation zone of roots, the root tissue that we previously showed is most susceptible to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Disruption of the CSLA9 gene in the rat4 mutant results in reduced numbers and rate of growth of lateral roots and reduced ability of the roots to bind A. tumefaciens cells under certain conditions. No major differences in the linkage structure of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides could be traced to the defective CSLA9 gene.
Zhu, Yanmin; Nam, Jaesung; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Matthysse, Ann G.; Gelvin, Stanton B.
Hypsizygus marmoreus is one of the major edible mushrooms in East Asia. As no efficient transformation method, the molecular and genetics studies were hindered. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene of H. marmoreus was isolated and its promoter was used to drive the hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in H. marmoreus. Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was successfully applied in H. marmoreus. The transformation parameters were optimized, and it was found that co-cultivation of bacteria with protoplast at a ratio of 1000:1 at a temperature of 26°C in medium containing 0.3mM acetosyringone resulted in the highest transformation efficiency for Agrobacterium strain. Besides, three plasmids, each carrying a different promoter (from H. marmoreus, Ganoderma lucidum and Lentinula edodes) driving the expression of an antibiotic resistance marker, were also tested. The construct carrying the H. marmoreus gpd promoter produced more transformants than other constructs. Our analysis showed that over 85% of the transformants tested remained mitotically stable even after five successive rounds of subculturing. Putative transformants were analyzed for the presence of hph gene by PCR and Southern blot. Meanwhile, the expression of EGFP in H. marmoreus transformants was detected by fluorescence imaging. This ATMT system increases the transformation efficiency of H. marmoreus and may represent a useful tool for molecular genetic studies in this mushroom species. PMID:24612605
Zhang, Jin Jing; Shi, Liang; Chen, Hui; Sun, Yun Qi; Zhao, Ming Wen; Ren, Ang; Chen, Ming Jie; Wang, Hong; Feng, Zhi Yong
Higher eukaryotes sense microbes through perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The flagellin receptor FLS2 represents so far the only known pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis plants detect a variety of PAMPs including specific epitopes of the bacterial proteins flagellin and EF-Tu. Here, we show that flagellin and EF-Tu activate a common set of signalling events and defence responses, but without clear additive or synergistic effects. Treatment with either PAMP results in increased receptor sites for both PAMPs, a finding employed in a reverse-genetic approach to identify the receptor kinase EFR as the EF-Tu receptor. Transient expression of EFR in Nicotiana benthamiana results in formation of specific binding sites for EF-Tu, and responsiveness to this PAMP. Arabidopsis efr mutants show a higher frequency of T-DNA transformation by the bacterium Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, revealing a role for EF-Tu perception in restricting this plant pathogen. These results demonstrate that EFR is the receptor for EF-Tu and that plant defence responses induced by PAMPs like EF-Tu reduce transformation by Agrobacterium.
Future genetic improvement of sugarcane depends, in part, on the ability to produce high-yielding transgenic cultivars with improved traits such as herbicide and insect resistance. Here, transgenic sugarcane plants generated by different transformation methods were assessed for field performance over 3 years. Agrobacterium-mediated (Agro) transgenic events (35) were produced using four different Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strains, while biolistic (Biol) transgenic events (48) were produced using either minimal linearized DNA (LDNA) transgene cassettes with 5', 3' or blunt ends or whole circular plasmid (PDNA) vectors containing the same transgenes. A combined analysis showed a reduction in growth and cane yield in Biol, Agro as well as untransformed tissue culture (TC) events, compared with the parent clone (PC) Q117 (no transformation or tissue culture) in the plant, first ratoon and second ratoon crops. However, when individual events were analysed separately, yields of some transgenic events from both Agro and Biol were comparable to PC, suggesting that either transformation method can produce commercially suitable clones. Interestingly, a greater percentage of Biol transformants were similar to PC for growth and yield than Agro clones. Crop ratoonability and sugar yield components (Brix%, Pol%, and commercial cane sugar (CCS)) were unaffected by transformation or tissue culture. Transgene expression remained stable over different crop cycles and increased with plant maturity. Transgene copy number did not influence transgene expression, and both transformation methods produced low transgene copy number events. No consistent pattern of genetic changes was detected in the test population using three DNA fingerprinting techniques. PMID:24330327
Concatenated sequence analysis with 16S rRNA, rpoB and fusA genes identified a bacterial strain (IRBG74) isolated from root nodules of the aquatic legume Sesbania cannabina as a close relative of the plant pathogen Rhizobium radiobacter (syn. Agrobacteriumtumefaciens). However, DNA:DNA hybridization with R. radiobacter, R. rubi, R. vitis and R. huautlense gave only 44%, 5%, 8% and 8% similarity respectively, suggesting that IRBG74 is potentially a new species. Additionally, it contained no vir genes and lacked tumour-forming ability, but harboured a sym-plasmid containing nifH and nodA genes similar to those in other Sesbania symbionts. Indeed, IRBG74 effectively nodulated S. cannabina and seven other Sesbania spp. that nodulate with Ensifer (Sinorhizobium)/Rhizobium strains with similar nodA genes to IRBG74, but not species that nodulate with Azorhizobium or Mesorhizobium. Light and electron microscopy revealed that IRBG74 infected Sesbania spp. via lateral root junctions under flooded conditions, but via root hairs under non-flooded conditions. Thus, IRBG74 is the first confirmed legume-nodulating symbiont from the Rhizobium (Agrobacterium) clade. Cross-inoculation studies with various Sesbania symbionts showed that S. cannabina could form fully effective symbioses with strains in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer, only ineffective ones with Azorhizobium strains, and either partially effective (Mesorhizobium huakii) or ineffective (Mesorhizobium plurifarium) symbioses with Mesorhizobium. These data are discussed in terms of the molecular phylogeny of Sesbania and its symbionts. PMID:19555380
Cummings, Stephen P; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Vinuesa, Pablo; Farruggia, Frank T; Andrews, Mitchell; Humphry, David; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Nelson, Andrew; Orr, Caroline; Pettitt, Deborah; Shah, Gopit R; Santos, Scott R; Krishnan, Hari B; Odee, David; Moreira, Fatima M S; Sprent, Janet I; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K
The tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is used as a perennial fodder because of its fast-growing foliage, which is high in protein content. The use of leucaena as a fodder is however restricted due to the presence of the toxin mimosine. Improvements in the nutritional contents as well as other agronomic traits of leucaena can be accomplished through genetic transformation. The objective of this research was to develop a transformation protocol for leucaena using phosphinothricin resistance as the plant selectable marker. Explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos infected with the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain C58C1 containing the binary plasmid pCAMBIA3201 produced four putative transformed leucaena plants. Transformation was con- firmed by PCR, RT-PCR, Southern blot, Western analyses, GUS-specific enzyme activity and herbicide leaf spraying assay. A transformation efficiency of 2% was established using this protocol.
Background Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-based transient assays have become a common tool for answering questions related to protein localization and gene expression in a cellular context. The use of these assays assumes that the transiently transformed cells are observed under relatively authentic physiological conditions and maintain ‘normal’ sub-cellular behaviour. Although this premise is widely accepted, the question of whether cellular organization and organelle morphology is altered in Agrobacterium-infiltrated cells has not been examined in detail. The first indications of an altered sub-cellular environment came from our observation that a common laboratory strain, GV3101(pMP90), caused a drastic increase in stromule frequency. Stromules, or ‘stroma-filled-tubules’ emanate from the surface of plastids and are sensitive to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. Starting from this observation, the goal of our experiments was to further characterize the changes to the cell resulting from short-term bacterial infestation, and to identify the factor responsible for eliciting these changes. Results Using a protocol typical of transient assays we evaluated the impact of GV3101(pMP90) infiltration on chloroplast behaviour and morphology in Nicotiana benthamiana. Our experiments confirmed that GV3101(pMP90) consistently induces stromules and alters plastid position relative to the nucleus. These effects were found to be the result of strain-dependant secretion of cytokinin and its accumulation in the plant tissue. Bacterial production of the hormone was found to be dependant on the presence of a trans-zeatin synthase gene (tzs) located on the Ti plasmid of GV3101(pMP90). Bacteria-derived cytokinins were also correlated with changes to both soluble sugar level and starch accumulation. Conclusion Although we have chosen to focus on how transient Agrobacterium infestation alters plastid based parameters, these changes to the morphology and position of a single organelle, combined with the measured increases in sugar and starch content, suggest global changes to cell physiology. This indicates that cells visualized during transient assays may not be as ‘normal’ as was previously assumed. Our results suggest that the impact of the bacteria can be minimized by choosing Agrobacterium strains devoid of the tzs gene, but that the alterations to sub-cellular organization and cell carbohydrate status cannot be completely avoided using this strategy.
A citrate synthase (CS) deletion mutant of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens C58 is highly attenuated in virulence. The identity of the mutant was initially determined from its amino acid sequence, which is 68% identical to Escherichia coli and 77% identical to Brucella melitensis. The mutant lost all CS enzymatic activity, and a cloned CS gene complemented a CS mutation in Sinorhizobium. The CS mutation resulted in a 10-fold reduction in vir gene expression, which likely accounts for the attenuated virulence. When a plasmid containing a constitutive virG [virG(Con)] locus was introduced into this mutant, the level of vir gene induction was restored to nearly wild-type level. Further, the virG(Con)-complemented CS mutant strain induced tumors that were similar in size and number to those induced by the parental strain. The CS mutation resulted in only a minor reduction in growth rate in a glucose-salts medium. Both the CS mutant and the virG(Con)-complemented CS strain displayed similar growth deficiencies in a glucose-salts medium, indicating that the reduced growth rate of the CS mutant could not be responsible for the attenuated virulence. A search of the genome of A. tumefaciens C58 revealed four proteins, encoded on different replicons, with conserved CS motifs. However, only the locus that when mutated resulted in an attenuated phenotype has CS activity. Mutations in the other three loci did not result in attenuated virulence and any loss of CS activity, and none were able to complement the CS mutation in Sinorhizobium. The function of these loci remains unknown.
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens is a plant pathogen that is widely used in plant transformation. As the process of transgenesis includes the delivery of single-stranded T-DNA molecule, we hypothesized that transformation rate may negatively correlate with the efficiency of the RNA-silencing machinery. Using mutants compromised in either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional gene-silencing pathways, two inhibitors of stable transformation were revealed-AGO2 and NRPD1a. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation experiment has shown that NRPD1, a subunit of Pol IV, directly interacts with Agrobacterium T-DNA in planta. Using the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique, we demonstrated that the transient down-regulation of the expression of either AGO2 or NRPD1a genes in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis, leads to an increase in transformation rate. We observed a 6.0- and 3.5-fold increase in transformation rate upon transient downregulation of either AGO2 or NRPD1a genes, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the increase in the plant transformation rate via VIGS-mediated transient down-regulation of the components of epigenetic machinery in reproductive tissue. PMID:24472037
The Arabidopsis thaliana histone H2A-1 is important for Agrobacteriumtumefaciens–mediated plant transformation. Mutation of HTA1, the gene encoding histone H2A-1, results in decreased T-DNA integration into the genome of Arabidopsis roots, whereas overexpression of HTA1 increases transformation frequency. To understand the mechanism by which HTA1 enhances transformation, we investigated the effects of overexpression of numerous Arabidopsis histones on transformation and transgene expression. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing cDNAs encoding histone H2A (HTA), histone H4 (HFO), and histone H3-11 (HTR11) displayed increased transformation susceptibility, whereas histone H2B (HTB) and most histone H3 (HTR) cDNAs did not increase transformation. A parallel increase in transient gene expression was observed when histone HTA, HFO, or HTR11 overexpression constructs were cotransfected with double- or single-stranded forms of a gusA gene into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts. However, these cDNAs did not increase expression of a previously integrated transgene. We identified the N-terminal 39 amino acids of H2A-1 as sufficient to increase transient transgene expression in plants. After transfection, transgene DNA accumulates more rapidly in the presence of HTA1 than with a control construction. Our results suggest that certain histones enhance transgene expression, protect incoming transgene DNA during the initial stages of transformation, and subsequently increase the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.
Tenea, Gabriela N.; Spantzel, Joerg; Lee, Lan-Ying; Zhu, Yanmin; Lin, Kui; Johnson, Susan J.; Gelvin, Stanton B.
An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.
The soil- and rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum (genomospecies G8 of the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens species complex) is known to have species-specific genes involved in ferulic acid degradation. Here, we characterized, by genetic and analytical means, intermediates of degradation as feruloyl coenzyme A (feruloyl-CoA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-hydroxypropionyl-CoA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-ketopropionyl-CoA, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. The genes atu1416, atu1417, and atu1420 have been experimentally shown to be necessary for the degradation of ferulic acid. Moreover, the genes atu1415 and atu1421 have been experimentally demonstrated to be essential for this degradation and are proposed to encode a phenylhydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydrogenase and a 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-ketopropionic acid (HMPKP)-CoA ?-keto-thiolase, respectively. We thus demonstrated that the A. fabrum hydroxycinnamic degradation pathway is an original coenzyme A-dependent ?-oxidative deacetylation that could also transform p-coumaric and caffeic acids. Finally, we showed that this pathway enables the metabolism of toxic compounds from plants and their use for growth, likely providing the species an ecological advantage in hydroxycinnamic-rich environments, such as plant roots or decaying plant materials. PMID:24657856
Understanding of the intracellular molecular machinery that is responsible for the complex collective behavior of multicellular populations is an exigent problem of modern biology. Quorum sensing, which allows bacteria to activate genetic programs cooperatively, provides an instructive and tractable example illuminating the causal relationships between the molecular organization of gene networks and the complex phenotypes they control. In this work we—to our knowledge for the first time—present a detailed model of the population-wide transition to quorum sensing using the example of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. We construct a model describing the Ti plasmid quorum-sensing gene network and demonstrate that it behaves as an “on–off” gene expression switch that is robust to molecular noise and that activates the plasmid conjugation program in response to the increase in autoinducer concentration. This intracellular model is then incorporated into an agent-based stochastic population model that also describes bacterial motion, cell division, and chemical communication. Simulating the transition to quorum sensing in a liquid medium and biofilm, we explain the experimentally observed gradual manifestation of the quorum-sensing phenotype by showing that the transition of individual model cells into the “on” state is spread stochastically over a broad range of autoinducer concentrations. At the same time, the population-averaged values of critical autoinducer concentration and the threshold population density are shown to be robust to variability between individual cells, predictable and specific to particular growth conditions. Our modeling approach connects intracellular and population scales of the quorum-sensing phenomenon and provides plausible answers to the long-standing questions regarding the ecological and evolutionary significance of the phenomenon. Thus, we demonstrate that the transition to quorum sensing requires a much higher threshold cell density in liquid medium than in biofilm, and on this basis we hypothesize that in Agrobacterium quorum sensing serves as the detector of biofilm formation.
Goryachev, Andrew B; Toh, Da-Jun; Wee, Keng Boon; Lee, Travis; Zhang, Hai-Bao; Zhang, Lian-Hui
An efficient transformation protocol was developed for vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) using protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) derived from shoot tips as explants. Of the ten media tested, Murashige and Skoog (MS)\\u000a medium containing 0.45 ?M thidiazuron (TDZ) produced maximum PLBs per shoot tip. Genetic fidelity of PLB-derived plantlets\\u000a was confirmed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using 23 random primers. PLBs were co-cultured
Plant transformation efficiency depends on the ability of the transgene to successfully interact with plant host factors.\\u000a Our previous work and the work of others showed that manipulation of the activity of host factors allows for increased frequency\\u000a of transformation. Recently we reported that exposure of tobacco plants to increased concentrations of ammonium nitrate increases\\u000a the frequency of both homologous
Phialophora gregata f. sp. adzukicola, a causal agent of brown stem rot in adzuki beans, produces phytotoxic compounds: gregatins A, B, C, D, and E. Gregatins\\u000a A, C, and D cause wilting and vascular browning in adzuki beans, which resemble the disease symptoms. Thus, gregatins are\\u000a considered to be involved in pathogenicity. However, molecular analyses have not been conducted, and
Potential contamination of animal-derived collagen with pathogens has led to the demand for safe recombinant sources of this complex molecule. In continuation of our previous work [Ruggiero et al. (2000) FEBS Lett. 469, 132–136], here we show that it is possible to produce recombinant hydroxylated homotrimeric collagen in tobacco plants that are co-transformed with a human type I collagen and
C Merle; S Perret; T Lacour; V Jonval; S Hudaverdian; R Garrone; F Ruggiero; M Theisen
Bacterial type IV secretion system (T4SS) belongs to a growing class of evolutionarily conserved transporters that translocate DNA and proteins into a wide variety of organisms including bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Archetypal is the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS that transfers oncogenic T-DNA to various eukaryotic cells, which is transferred as a nucleoprotein T-complex with VirD2 as the pilot protein. As a derivative of plasmid conjugation systems, the VirB/D4 T4SS can also transfer certain mobilizable plasmids and bacterial proteins like VirE2 and VirF, although it is unknown how the membrane-bound T4SS recruits different transfer substrates. Here, we show that a cytoplasmic VirD2-binding protein (VBP) is involved in the recruitment of the T-complex to the energizing components of the T4SS, including VirD4, VirB4, and VirB11. VBP is also important for the recruitment of a conjugative plasmid to a different transfer system independent of VirB/D4. These data indicate that VBP functions as a previously unrecognized recruiting protein that helps couple nucleoprotein substrates to the appropriate transport sites for conjugative DNA transfers. VBP has three functionally redundant homologs, and similar homologs can be found in different bacterial genomes, suggesting a previously uncharacterized class of proteins involved in conjugative DNA transfers. PMID:18056647
Bacterial type IV secretion system (T4SS) belongs to a growing class of evolutionarily conserved transporters that translocate DNA and proteins into a wide variety of organisms including bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Archetypal is the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS that transfers oncogenic T-DNA to various eukaryotic cells, which is transferred as a nucleoprotein T-complex with VirD2 as the pilot protein. As a derivative of plasmid conjugation systems, the VirB/D4 T4SS can also transfer certain mobilizable plasmids and bacterial proteins like VirE2 and VirF, although it is unknown how the membrane-bound T4SS recruits different transfer substrates. Here, we show that a cytoplasmic VirD2-binding protein (VBP) is involved in the recruitment of the T-complex to the energizing components of the T4SS, including VirD4, VirB4, and VirB11. VBP is also important for the recruitment of a conjugative plasmid to a different transfer system independent of VirB/D4. These data indicate that VBP functions as a previously unrecognized recruiting protein that helps couple nucleoprotein substrates to the appropriate transport sites for conjugative DNA transfers. VBP has three functionally redundant homologs, and similar homologs can be found in different bacterial genomes, suggesting a previously uncharacterized class of proteins involved in conjugative DNA transfers.
Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation combined with a visual selection for green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been applied effectively in carrot (Daucus carota L.) transformation. Carrot root discs were inoculated with A4, A4T, LBA1334 and LBA9402 strains, all bearing gfp gene in pBIN-m-gfp5-ER. The results indicate that transformed adventitious roots can be visually selected solely based on GFP fluorescence with a very high accuracy. The method requires no selection agents like antibiotics or herbicides and enables a reduction of labour and time necessary for tissue culture. Moreover, individual transformants can be easily excised from the host tissue and cultured separately. All of the 12 used carrot cultivars produced transformed adventitious roots and the frequency of discs producing GFP expressing adventitious roots varied from 13 to 85%. The highest transformation rate was found for A4T and LBA1334 strains possessing chromosomal background of A. tumefaciens C58. The results encourage that visual selection of transformed, fluorescing adventitious roots can be highly effective and applied routinely for the production of carrot transgenic plants. PMID:16247612
Protein 6b, encoded by T-DNA from the pathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, stimulates the plant hormone–independent division of cells in culture in vitro and induces aberrant cell growth and the ectopic expression of various genes, including genes related to cell division and meristem-related class 1 KNOX homeobox genes, in 6b-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants. Protein 6b is found in nuclei and binds to several plant nuclear proteins. Here, we report that 6b binds specifically to histone H3 in vitro but not to other core histones. Analysis by bimolecular fluorescence complementation revealed an interaction in vivo between 6b and histone H3. We recovered 6b from a chromatin fraction from 6b-expressing plant cells. A supercoiling assay and digestion with micrococcal nuclease indicated that 6b acts as a histone chaperone with the ability to mediate formation of nucleosomes in vitro. Mutant 6b, lacking the C-terminal region that is required for cell division–stimulating activity and interaction with histone H3, was deficient in histone chaperone activity. Our results suggest a relationship between alterations in nucleosome structure and the expression of growth-regulating genes on the one hand and the induction of aberrant cell proliferation on the other.
Tumor formation in Vitis species and hybrids, incited by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens, was altered by chemical, physical, developmental, and genetic variables. Knowledge of the effect of these variables was used to develop a stringent in vitro assay system to select parents for a study of genetic factors that modulate tumor formation. Tumor formation was reduced by short day preconditioning of assay plants and by inoculation of the morphological apex of isolated stem segments. Pretreatment of plants with auxin or cytokinin altered specificity in various combinations of strains and host genotypes. All Vitis species and hybrids formed tumors in response to strains designated as limited host range, but some displayed a necrotic reaction (cell death at and below site of inoculation) or a null response (same as the response to inoculation with an avirulent strain) to strains designated as wide host range (VC Knauf, CG Panagopoulos, EW Nester  Phytopathology 72: 1545-1549). Screens of F1 progeny, derived from crosses of null, necrotic, and tumor-producing phenotypes, demonstrated that the null and the necrotic phenotypes were modulated by dominant and recessive host genes. The extent of cellular necrosis in the necrotic phenotype was modified by the morphological location of the inoculation site, by the presence of buds on the host stem, and by deletion of the tryptophane monooxygenase locus gene of the Ti-plasmid. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3
A method is described for producing genetically transformed plants from explants of three scentedPelargonium spp. Transgenic hairy root lines were developed fromPelargonium spp leaf explants and microcuttings after inoculation withAgrobacterium rhizogenes strains derived from the agropine A4 strain. Hairy root lines grew prolifically on growth regulator-free medium. Transgenic\\u000a shoots were regenerated from hairy roots and the plants have been successfully
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widely distributed in pathogenic Proteobacteria. Sequence and structural analysis of T6SS reveals a resemblance to the T4 bacteriophage tail, in which an outer sheath structure contracts an internal tube for injecting nucleic acid into bacterial cells. However, the molecular details of how this phage tail-like T6SS structure is assembled in vivo and executed for exoprotein or effector secretion remain largely unknown. Here, we used a systematic approach to identify T6SS machinery and secreted components and investigate the interaction among the putative sheath and tube components of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. We showed that 14 T6SS components play essential roles in the secretion of the T6SS hallmark exoprotein Hcp. In addition, we discovered a novel T6SS exoprotein, Atu4347, that is dispensable for Hcp secretion. Interestingly, Atu4347 and the putative tube components, Hcp and VgrG, are mainly localized in the cytoplasm but also detected on the bacterial surface. Atu4342 (TssB) and Atu4341 (TssC41) interact with and stabilize each other, which suggests that they are functional orthologs of the sheath components TssB (VipA) and TssC (VipB), respectively. Importantly, TssB interacts directly with the three exoproteins (Hcp, VgrG, and Atu4347), in which Hcp also interacts directly with VgrG-1 on co-purification from Escherichia coli. Further co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown assays revealed these subcomplex(es) in A. tumefaciens and thereby support T6SS functioning as a contractile phage tail-like structure.
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widely distributed in pathogenic Proteobacteria. Sequence and structural analysis of T6SS reveals a resemblance to the T4 bacteriophage tail, in which an outer sheath structure contracts an internal tube for injecting nucleic acid into bacterial cells. However, the molecular details of how this phage tail-like T6SS structure is assembled in vivo and executed for exoprotein or effector secretion remain largely unknown. Here, we used a systematic approach to identify T6SS machinery and secreted components and investigate the interaction among the putative sheath and tube components of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens. We showed that 14 T6SS components play essential roles in the secretion of the T6SS hallmark exoprotein Hcp. In addition, we discovered a novel T6SS exoprotein, Atu4347, that is dispensable for Hcp secretion. Interestingly, Atu4347 and the putative tube components, Hcp and VgrG, are mainly localized in the cytoplasm but also detected on the bacterial surface. Atu4342 (TssB) and Atu4341 (TssC41) interact with and stabilize each other, which suggests that they are functional orthologs of the sheath components TssB (VipA) and TssC (VipB), respectively. Importantly, TssB interacts directly with the three exoproteins (Hcp, VgrG, and Atu4347), in which Hcp also interacts directly with VgrG-1 on co-purification from Escherichia coli. Further co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown assays revealed these subcomplex(es) in A. tumefaciens and thereby support T6SS functioning as a contractile phage tail-like structure. PMID:23861778
The Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) is the only bacterial secretion system known to translocate both DNA and protein substrates. The VirB/D4 system from Agrobacteriumtumefaciens is a typical T4SS. It facilitates the bacteria to translocate the VirD2-T-DNA complex to the host cell cytoplasm. In addition to protein-DNA complexes, the VirB/D4 system is also involved in the translocation of several effector proteins, including VirE2, VirE3 and VirF into the host cell cytoplasm. These effector proteins aid in the proper integration of the translocated DNA into the host genome. The VirD2-binding protein (VBP) is a key cytoplasmic protein that recruits the VirD2-T-DNA complex to the VirD4-coupling protein (VirD4 CP) of the VirB/D4 T4SS apparatus. Here, we report the crystal structure and associated functional studies of the C-terminal domain of VBP. This domain mainly consists of ?-helices, and the two monomers of the asymmetric unit form a tight dimer. The structural analysis of this domain confirms the presence of a HEPN (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding) fold. Biophysical studies show that VBP is a dimer in solution and that the HEPN domain is the dimerization domain. Based on structural and mutagenesis analyses, we show that substitution of key residues at the interface disrupts the dimerization of both the HEPN domain and full-length VBP. In addition, pull-down analyses show that only dimeric VBP can interact with VirD2 and VirD4 CP. Finally, we show that only Agrobacterium harboring dimeric full-length VBP can induce tumors in plants. This study sheds light on the structural basis of the substrate recruiting function of VBP in the T4SS pathway of A. tumefaciens and in other pathogenic bacteria employing similar systems. PMID:24626239
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most important cultivated crop next to potato, worldwide. Tomato serves as an important source of antioxidants in human diet. Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum cause early blight and vascular wilt of tomato, respectively, resulting in severe crop losses. The foremost objective of the present study was to generate transgenic tomato plants with rolB gene and evaluate its effect on plant morphology, nutritional contents, yield and resistance against fungal infection. Tomato cv. Rio Grande was transformed via Agrobacteriumtumefaciens harbouring rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. rolB. Biochemical analyses showed considerable improvement in nutritional quality of transgenic tomato fruits as indicated by 62% increase in lycopene content, 225% in ascorbic acid content, 58% in total phenolics and 26% in free radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, rolB gene significantly improved the defence response of leaves of transgenic plants against two pathogenic fungal strains A. solani and F. oxysporum. Contrarily, transformed plants exhibited altered morphology and reduced fruit yield. In conclusion, rolB gene from A. rhizogenes can be used to generate transgenic tomato with increased nutritional contents of fruits as well as improved foliar tolerance against fungal pathogens.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most important cultivated crop next to potato, worldwide. Tomato serves as an important source of antioxidants in human diet. Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum cause early blight and vascular wilt of tomato, respectively, resulting in severe crop losses. The foremost objective of the present study was to generate transgenic tomato plants with rolB gene and evaluate its effect on plant morphology, nutritional contents, yield and resistance against fungal infection. Tomato cv. Rio Grande was transformed via Agrobacteriumtumefaciens harbouring rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. rolB. Biochemical analyses showed considerable improvement in nutritional quality of transgenic tomato fruits as indicated by 62% increase in lycopene content, 225% in ascorbic acid content, 58% in total phenolics and 26% in free radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, rolB gene significantly improved the defence response of leaves of transgenic plants against two pathogenic fungal strains A. solani and F. oxysporum. Contrarily, transformed plants exhibited altered morphology and reduced fruit yield. In conclusion, rolB gene from A. rhizogenes can be used to generate transgenic tomato with increased nutritional contents of fruits as well as improved foliar tolerance against fungal pathogens. PMID:24817272
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease by transferring transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the plant genome. The translocation process is mediated by the type IV secretion system (T4SS) consisting of the VirD4 coupling protein and 11 VirB proteins (VirB1 to VirB11). All VirB proteins are required for the production of T-pilus, which consists of processed VirB2 (T-pilin) and VirB5 as major and minor subunits, respectively. VirB2 is an essential component of T4SS, but the roles of VirB2 and the assembled T-pilus in Agrobacterium virulence and the T-DNA transfer process remain unknown. Here, we generated 34 VirB2 amino acid substitution variants to study the functions of VirB2 involved in VirB2 stability, extracellular VirB2/T-pilus production and virulence of A. tumefaciens. From the capacity for extracellular VirB2 production (ExB2+ or ExB2?) and tumorigenesis on tomato stems (Vir+ or Vir?), the mutants could be classified into three groups: ExB2?/Vir?, ExB2?/Vir+, and ExB2+/Vir+. We also confirmed by electron microscopy that five ExB2?/Vir+ mutants exhibited a wild-type level of virulence with their deficiency in T-pilus formation. Interestingly, although the five T-pilus?/Vir+ uncoupling mutants retained a wild-type level of tumorigenesis efficiency on tomato stems and/or potato tuber discs, their transient transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings was highly attenuated. In conclusion, we have provided evidence for a role of T-pilus in Agrobacterium transformation process and have identified the domains and amino acid residues critical for VirB2 stability, T-pilus biogenesis, tumorigenesis, and transient transformation efficiency.
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation of cotton embryogenic calli (EC) was enhanced by choosing appropriate EC and improving efficiency of coculture, selection cultivation, and plant regeneration. The binary vector pBI121 (containing a neomycin phosphotransferase II gene npt-II as a selection marker and a uidA gene as a reporter gene) was used to research transformation efficiency. After 48 h cocultivation, the number of ?-glucuronidase (GUS)-positive calli characterized by yellow, loose, and fine-grained EC was twofold greater than that of gray, brown, and coarse granule EC. It indicated that the efficiency of transient transformation was affected by EC morphology. Transient transformation efficiency also was improved by cocultivation on the medium by adding 50 mg/L acetosyringone at 19°C for 48 h. Subculturing EC on the selection medium with low cell density increased the production of kanamycin-resistant (Km-R) calli lines. From an original 0.3 g EC, an average of 20 Km-R calli lines were obtained from a selection dish, and the GUS-positive rate of Km-R clones was 81.97%. A large number of normal plants were rapidly regenerated on the differentiation medium with dehydration treatments, and the GUS-positive rate of regeneration plants was about 72.6%. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of GUS-positive plantlets revealed a 100% positive detection rate for neomycin phosphotransferase II gene and gus gene. Southern blot of transgenic plants regenerated from different Km-R calli lines demonstrated that the target gene, mostly with the low copy number, was integrated into the cotton genome. PMID:22351014
Plant viral vectors delivered by Agrobacterium are the basis of several manufacturing processes that are currently in use for producing a wide range of proteins for multiple applications, including vaccine antigens, antibodies, protein nanoparticles such as virus-like particles (VLPs), and other protein and protein-RNA scaffolds. Viral vectors delivered by agrobacterial T-DNA transfer (magnifection) have also become important tools in research. In recent years, essential advances have been made both in the development of second-generation vectors designed using the 'deconstructed virus' approach, as well as in the development of upstream manufacturing processes that are robust and fully scalable. The strategy relies on Agrobacterium as a vector to deliver DNA copies of one or more viral RNA/DNA replicons; the bacteria are delivered into leaves by vacuum infiltration, and the viral machinery takes over from the point of T-DNA transfer to the plant cell nucleus, driving massive RNA and protein production and, if required, cell-to-cell spread of the replicons. Among the most often used viral backbones are those of the RNA viruses Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Potato virus X (PVX) and Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), and the DNA geminivirus Bean yellow dwarf virus. Prototypes of industrial processes that provide for high yield, rapid scale up and fast manufacturing cycles have been designed, and several GMP-compliant and GMP-certified manufacturing facilities are in place. These efforts have been successful as evidenced by the fact that several antibodies and vaccine antigens produced by magnifection are currently in clinical development. PMID:23949286
An efficient procedure for obtaining transgenicBrassica napus plants usingAgrobacterium binary vectors is described. The target tissue for the transformation is the cut end of cotyledonary petioles. These tissues, when cultured with their lamina intact, show a regeneration frequency of more than 80%. The cells of this cut surface, which undergo organogenesis, are very susceptible to topical infection byAgrobacterium. The cocultivation
Maurice M. Moloney; Janis M. Walker; Kiran K. Sharma
Genetic transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium represents a unique case of trans-kingdom DNA transfer. During this process, Agrobacterium exports its transferred (T) DNA and several virulence (Vir) proteins into the host cell, within which T-DNA nuclear import is mediated by VirD2 (ref. 3) and VirE2 (ref. 4) and their host cell interactors AtKAP-alpha and VIP1 (ref. 6), whereas its
The hairy roots and crown galls of Salvia miltiorrhiza were obtained by infecting plant with A. rhizogenes (strain 15834, LBA 9402) and A. tumefaciens (strain C58). The transformed plants were regenerated light and transplanted form cultural medium into soil successfully. The plants transformed by A. rhizogenes have characteristics of short stems and develop hairy roots, those and trans formed by A. tumefaciens grow vigorously featuring, longer stems and well developed roots. Both biomass production and tanshenone content are higher than the original plant. PMID:11038957
Roots of marigold (Tagetes patula L.) accumulate thiophenes, heterocyclic sulfurous compounds with strong biocidal activity. In detached roots cultured in vitro, the thiophene content was 5 ?mol·(g fresh weight)(-1) which is 25-times higher than in roots attached to the plant. In roots derived from tissues transformed by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens and A. rhizogenes, the morphology and thiophene content varied with the bacterial strain used. Transformation stimulated the elongation of the root tips and the formation of lateral roots but lowered the thiophene level to 20-50% relative to the concentration in untransformed detached roots. A negative correlation was found between the number of laterals in a root system and the thiophene content. Extensive branching and a decrease in thiophene accumulation was evoked in untransformed roots by indole-3-acetic acid (1-10 ?mol·l(-1)) added to the medium. Within the roots, the highest thiophene concentrations were found in the tips. The results indicate that auxin directly or indirectly plays a role in the regulation of the thiophene level in root tips. PMID:24201420
Croes, A F; van den Berg, A J; Bosveld, M; Breteler, H; Wullems, G J
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain C58 can transform plant cells to produce and secrete the sugar-phosphate conjugate opines agrocinopines A and B. The bacterium then moves in response to the opines and utilizes them as exclusive sources of carbon, energy, and phosphate via the functions encoded by the acc operon. These privileged opine-involved activities contribute to the formation of agrobacterial niches in the environment. We found that the expression of the acc operon is induced by agrocinopines and also by limitation of phosphate. The main promoter is present in front of the first gene, accR, which codes for a repressor. This operon structure enables efficient repression when opine levels are low. The promoter contains two putative operators, one overlapping the -10 sequence and the other in the further upstream from it; two partly overlapped putative pho boxes between the two operators; and two consecutive transcription start sites. DNA fragments containing either of the operators bound purified repressor AccR in the absence of agrocinopines but not in the presence of the opines, demonstrating the on-off switch of the promoter. Induction of the acc operon can occur under low-phosphate conditions in the absence of agrocinopines and further increases when the opines also are present. Such opine-phosphate dual regulatory system of the operon may ensure maximum utilization of agrocinopines when available and thereby increase the chances of agrobacterial survival in the highly competitive environment with limited general food sources. PMID:18344359
Kim, H Stanley; Yi, Hyojeong; Myung, Jaehee; Piper, Kevin R; Farrand, Stephen K
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain C58 can transform plant cells to produce and secrete the sugar-phosphate conjugate opines agrocinopines A and B. The bacterium then moves in response to the opines and utilizes them as exclusive sources of carbon, energy, and phosphate via the functions encoded by the acc operon. These privileged opine-involved activities contribute to the formation of agrobacterial niches in the environment. We found that the expression of the acc operon is induced by agrocinopines and also by limitation of phosphate. The main promoter is present in front of the first gene, accR, which codes for a repressor. This operon structure enables efficient repression when opine levels are low. The promoter contains two putative operators, one overlapping the ?10 sequence and the other in the further upstream from it; two partly overlapped putative pho boxes between the two operators; and two consecutive transcription start sites. DNA fragments containing either of the operators bound purified repressor AccR in the absence of agrocinopines but not in the presence of the opines, demonstrating the on-off switch of the promoter. Induction of the acc operon can occur under low-phosphate conditions in the absence of agrocinopines and further increases when the opines also are present. Such opine-phosphate dual regulatory system of the operon may ensure maximum utilization of agrocinopines when available and thereby increase the chances of agrobacterial survival in the highly competitive environment with limited general food sources.
Kim, H. Stanley; Yi, Hyojeong; Myung, Jaehee; Piper, Kevin R.; Farrand, Stephen K.
Interviewee: Robert Horsch DNAi Location:Manipulation>Techniques>transferring & storing>interviews What is agrobacterium? Robert Horsch talks about the parasitic nature of agrobacterium and the effect it has on the host plant.
Genetic modification of plant cells by Agrobacterium is the only known natural example of DNA transport between kingdoms. While the bacterial factors involved in Agrobacterium infection have been relatively well characterized, studies of their host cellular partners are just beginning. Here, we describe the plant cell factors that might participate in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and discuss their possible roles in
Rice chitinase (chi11) and tobacco osmotin (ap24) genes, which cause disruption of fungal cell wall and cell membrane, respectively, were stacked in transgenic rice to develop resistance against the sheath blight disease. The homozygous marker-free transgenic rice line CoT23 which harboured the rice chi11 transgene was sequentially re-transformed with a second transgene ap24 by co-transformation using an Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain harbouring a single-copy cointegrate vector pGV2260::pSSJ1 and a multi-copy binary vector pBin19?nptII-ap24 in the same cell. pGV2260::pSSJ1 T-DNA carried the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) and ?-glucuronidase (gus) genes. pBin19?nptII-ap24 T-DNA harboured the tobacco osmotin (ap24) gene. Co-transformation of the gene of interest (ap24) with the selectable marker gene (SMG, hph) occurred in 12 out of 18 T(0) plants (67%). Segregation of hph from ap24 was accomplished in the T(1) generation in one (line 11) of the four analysed co-transformed plants. The presence of ap24 and chi11 transgenes and the absence of the hph gene in the SMG-eliminated T(1) plants of the line 11 were confirmed by DNA blot analyses. The SMG-free transgenic plants of the line 11 harboured a single copy of the ap24 gene. Homozygous, SMG-free T(2) plants of the transgenic line 11 harboured stacked transgenes, chi11 and ap24. Northern blot analysis of the SMG-free plants revealed constitutive expression of chi11 and ap24. The transgenic plants with stacked transgenes displayed high levels of resistance against Rhizoctonia solani. Thus, we demonstrate the development of transgene-stacked and marker-free transgenic rice by sequential Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation with the same SMG. PMID:21327387
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens infects its plant hosts by a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer. This capability has led to its widespread use in artificial genetic transformation. In addition to DNA, the bacterium delivers an abundant ssDNA binding protein, VirE2, whose roles in the host include protection from cytoplasmic nucleases and adaptation for nuclear import. In Agrobacterium, VirE2 is bound to its acidic chaperone VirE1. When expressed in vitro in the absence of VirE1, VirE2 is prone to oligomerization and forms disordered filamentous aggregates. These filaments adopt an ordered solenoidal form in the presence of ssDNA, which was characterized previously by electron microscopy and three-dimensional image processing. VirE2 coexpressed in vitro with VirE1 forms a soluble heterodimer. VirE1 thus prevents VirE2 oligomerization and competes with its binding to ssDNA. We present here a crystal structure of VirE2 in complex with VirE1, showing that VirE2 is composed of two independent domains presenting a novel fold, joined by a flexible linker. Electrostatic interactions with VirE1 cement the two domains of VirE2 into a locked form. Comparison with the electron microscopy structure indicates that the VirE2 domains adopt different relative orientations. We suggest that the flexible linker between the domains enables VirE2 to accommodate its different binding partners. PMID:18678909
Within about 10 days after inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, the vascular bundles of storage root disks of turnip or radish developed small outgrowths with numerous root hairs. Thereafter, adventitious roots (hairy roots) emerged extensively from these outgrowths. The hairy roots which emerged fully supported the growth of host plants, though they lacked geotropism. An excised hairy root could be subcultured
The regulatory activity of a 826 bp DNA fragment located upstream of the pTiBo542 TL-DNA gene 6b coding region was analysed in transgenic tobacco, using ß-glucuronidase (gus) as a reporter gene. The region was shown to drive organ-specific, wound- and auxin-inducible expression of the reporter, the effect being dependent on the type and concentration of auxin.
Irina L. Bagyan; Ekaterina V. Revenkova; Galina E. Pozmogova; Alexander S. Kraev; Konstantin G. Skryabin
Numerous secondary metabolites have been isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, but the roles of these compounds as virulence factors in disease development are poorly understood. We targeted for disruption by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation a putative nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NPS) gene, MaNPS1. Four of six gene disruption mutants identified were examined further. Chemical analyses showed the presence of serinocyclins, cyclic heptapeptides, in the extracts of conidia of control strains, whereas the compounds were undetectable in ?Manps1 mutants treated identically or in other developmental stages, suggesting that MaNPS1 encodes a serinocyclin synthetase. Production of the cyclic depsipeptide destruxins, M. anisopliae metabolites also predicted to be synthesized by an NPS, was similar in ?Manps1 mutant and control strains, indicating that MaNPS1 does not contribute to destruxin biosynthesis. Surprisingly, a MaNPS1 fragment detected DNA polymorphisms that correlated with relative destruxin levels produced in vitro, and MaNPS1 was expressed concurrently with in vitro destruxin production. ?Manps1 mutants exhibited in vitro development and responses to external stresses comparable to control strains. No detectable differences in pathogenicity of the ?Manps1 mutants were observed in bioassays against beet armyworm and Colorado potato beetle in comparison to control strains. This is the first report of targeted disruption of a secondary metabolite gene in M. anisopliae, which revealed a novel cyclic peptide spore factor.
Moon, Yong-Sun; Donzelli, Bruno G. G.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; McLane, Heather; Griggs, Mike H.; Cooke, Peter; Vandenberg, John D.; Gibson, Donna M.; Churchill, Alice C. L.
Sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) tremendously improves the efficiency of Agrobacterium infection by introducing large numbers of microwounds into the target plant tissue. Using immature cotyledons of soybean\\u000a as explants, we evaluated the effects of the following parameters on transient ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity: cultivars, binary vectors, optical density of Agrobacterium during infection, duration of sonication treatment, co-culture conditions, length of explant
E. R. Santarém; H. N. Trick; J. S. Essig; J. J. Finer
Protocols for genetic transformation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Sol. ex Aiton) embryogenic tissues were developed using the Agrobacterium C58pMP90\\/pPCV6NFGUS. This is the first report of Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA integration in P. pinaster confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The omission of casein hydrolysate from culture medium during cocultivation and subsequent subculture was crucial to control Agrobacterium growth. Two different transformation protocols
Susana Tereso; Célia Miguel; Kurt Zoglauer; Carolina Valle-Piquera; M. Margarida Oliveira
Surface-sterilized leaf disks of horse-radish (Armoracia lapathifolia) were immersed in a suspension of Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring the root-inducing plasmid (pRi) and cultured on a solid medium. Within about 10 days after inoculation, adventitious roots (hairy roots) emerged from the leaf disks. No roots emerged from the uninoculated leaf disks. The excised hairy roots grew vigorously in the dark and exhibited
...pathogenic strains of Agrobacterium spp. Bacteriocins are peptides that are produced by certain bacteria, and are known to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. In accordance with 40 CFR 155.57, a registration review decision is the Agency's...
Interviewee: Robert Horsch DNAi Location:Manipulation>Techniques>transferring & storing>interviews Bacterial transfer Robert Horsch talks about agrobacterium as a ready-made delivery system for getting foreign DNA into plants.
Strain K84 of Agrobacterium (formerly called A. radiobacter) has been a successful biocontrol agent of crown gall disease for almost 30 years all over the world. In spite of its demonstrated efficiency, the most important risk of failure when using strain K84 is the possibility of transfer of plasmid pAgK84 to pathogenic Agrobacterium strains. pAgK84 codifies production of and immunity
Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599 (pRi2659), a causative agent of hairy root disease, effectively induces hairy root formation in a variety of\\u000a plant species, including numerous soybean (Glycine max) cultivars. Because Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of soybean remains challenging and labor intensive, K599 appeared a suitable progenitor for new agrobacteria\\u000a strains for plant transformation. In this paper, we report the disarming and sequencing
S. Luke Mankin; D. Steven Hill; Paula M. Olhoft; Effie Toren; Allan R. Wenck; Lawrence Nea; Liqun Xing; Jeffrey A. Brown; Huihua Fu; Lesley Ireland; Hongmei Jia; Helke Hillebrand; Todd Jones; Hee-Sook Song
Transient selection involving the bar gene and non-conditional negative selection against stable T-DNA integration through the use of the Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) transcriptional activator protein gene (TrAP) were used in a novel co-transformation strategy to generate selectable marker gene (SMG)-eliminated transgenic tobacco plants in the T(0) generation itself. Two compatible binary plasmids, pCam-bar-TrAP-gus harbouring bar as an SMG and the MYMV TrAP gene as a non-conditional negative selectable marker, and pGA472 with the nptII gene as an unselected experimental gene of interest (GOI) were placed in the Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain EHA105 and used for co-transformation. Transient selection with 5 mg l(-1) phosphinothricin (PPT) for 2-4 weeks and subsequent establishment in a PPT-minus medium yielded 114 plants from 200 leaf discs. The unselected nptII gene was detected by Southern blot analysis in 13 plants, revealing a co-transformation efficiency of 11.5%. Five of these plants harboured only the nptII gene (GOI) and not the bar gene (SMG). Thus, SMG elimination was achieved in the T(0) generation itself in 4.4% (5/114) of plants, which were transiently selected for 2-4 weeks on PPT. MYMV TrAP, a non-conditional negative selectable marker, effectively reduced the recovery of plants with stable integration of the SMG (bar). PMID:20204372
The genera Agrobacterium, Allorhizobium, and Rhizobium belong to the family Rhizobiaceae. However, the placement of a phytopathogenic group of bacteria, the genus Agrobacterium, among the nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the unclear position of Rhizobium galegae have caused controversy in previous taxonomic studies. To resolve uncertainties in the taxonomy and nomenclature within this family, the phylogenetic relationships of generic members of Rhizobiaceae were studied, but with particular emphasis on the taxa included in Agrobacterium and the "R. galegae complex" (R. galegae and related taxa), using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of six protein-coding housekeeping genes among 114 rhizobial and agrobacterial taxa. The results showed that R. galegae, R. vignae, R. huautlense, and R. alkalisoli formed a separate clade that clearly represented a new genus, for which the name Neorhizobium is proposed. Agrobacterium was shown to represent a separate cluster of mainly pathogenic taxa of the family Rhizobiaceae. A. vitis grouped with Allorhizobium, distinct from Agrobacterium, and should be reclassified as Allorhizobium vitis, whereas Rhizobium rhizogenes was considered to be the proper name for former Agrobacterium rhizogenes. This phylogenetic study further indicated that the taxonomic status of several taxa could be resolved by the creation of more novel genera. PMID:24581678
Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is an important fruit for human consumption. However, this plant species is one of the most recalcitrant to genetic transformation. The lack of an efficient in vitro system limits the development of a reproducible genetic transformation protocol for Oriental melon. In this study, an efficient transgenic production method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using cotyledon explants of Oriental melon was developed. Cotyledon explants were pre-cultivated for two days in the dark, and the optimal conditions for transformation of melon were determined to be a bacteria concentration of OD600 0.6, inoculation for 30 min, and two days of co-cultivation. Transgenic melon plants were produced from kanamycin-resistant shoots. A total of 11 independent transgenic plants were regenerated with a transformation efficiency of 0.8% of the inoculated explants. The transgenic plants were phenotypically normal and fully fertile, which might be a consequence of the co-cultivation time. PMID:24841654
Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low (<10%) transformation efficiencies. Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance) as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase) gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.
Bartlett, Joanne G; Alves, Silvia C; Smedley, Mark; Snape, John W; Harwood, Wendy A
The combined expression of the rol A, B and C loci of Agrobacterium rhizogens Ri-plasmids establishes, in transgenic tobacco plants, a pathological state called hairy-root syndrome. However, when expressed separately they provoke distinct developmental abnormalities characteristic for each rol gene. Moreover, changes in their mode of expression obtained by replacing the promoters of the rol B and C genes with the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter elicit new and distinct developmental patterns. These results indicate that the different rol gene products have either different targets, or have a qualitatively different effect on the same target. The target(s) must be involved in the control of plant development. Although each of the three rol genes are independently able to promote root formation in tobacco, efficient root initiation and growth is best achieved through the combined activities of more than a single rol gene. Models explaining the biological effects of A. rhizogenes-derived TL-DNA genes are discussed. Images
Bacteria capable of metabolizing highly explosive and vasodilatory glycerol trinitrate (GTN) were isolated under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions from soil, river water, and activated sewage sludge. One of these strains (from sewage sludge) chosen for further study was identified as Agrobacterium radiobacter subgroup B. A combination of high-pressure liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the culture medium during the growth of A. radiobacter on basal salts-glycerol-GTN medium showed the sequential conversion of GTN to glycerol dinitrates and glycerol mononitrates. Isomeric glycerol 1,2-dinitrate and glycerol 1,3-dinitrate were produced simultaneously and concomitantly with the disappearance of GTN, with significant regioselectivity for the production of the 1,3-dinitrate. Dinitrates were further degraded to glycerol 1- and 2-mononitrates, but mononitrates were not biodegraded. Cells were also capable of metabolizing pentaerythritol tetranitrate, probably to its trinitrate and dinitrate analogs. Extracts of broth-grown cells contained an enzyme which in the presence of added NADH converted GTN stoichiometrically to nitrite and the mixture of glycerol dinitrates. The specific activity of this enzyme was increased 160-fold by growth on GTN as the sole source of nitrogen.
Populations of agrobacteria in excess of 105 CFU/g were recovered from 12 soil and root samples obtained from the Allison Savanna, Minn., a natural oak savanna and tallgrass prairie which has never been disturbed agriculturally. Of 126 strains picked randomly from selective media, 54 were identified as Agrobacterium spp. Biovar 2 strains predominated (35 of 54), but these strains were distributed into three phenotypically distinct subgroups. Of the remaining Agrobacterium strains, four were biovar 1-2, one was biovar 1, and none were biovar 3. The last 14 Agrobacterium strains formed a homogeneous group which differed biochemically from the hitherto reported biovars. Opine utilization (coded for by genes on the tumor-inducing plasmid in pathogenic Agrobacterium spp.) by these agrobacteria was limited to two biovar 2 strains. In contrast, 10 nonfluorescent gram-negative strains utilized either nopaline or octopine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. There may be a need to reexamine the source and role of opines in the terrestrial environment because (i) all of these opine utilizers were isolated from an environment free of crown gall, the only known terrestrial source of opines, and (ii) 83% of the opine utilizers were not Agrobacterium spp. Images
Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into commercial indica rice varieties by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic rice plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in various transgenic rice lines. Transgenes NPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Homozygous transgenic rice lines expressing BjNPR1 protein displayed enhanced resistance to rice blast, sheath blight and bacterial leaf blight diseases. Rice transformants with higher levels of NPR1 revealed notable increases in plant height, panicle length, flag-leaf length, number of seeds/panicle and seed yield/plant as compared to the untransformed plants. The overall results amply demonstrate the profound impact of BjNPR1 in imparting resistance against major pathogens of rice. The multipotent BjNPR1, as such, seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants with durable resistance against various pathogens. PMID:23664883
We collected 111 Agrobacterium isolates from galls of various origins (most of them from France) and analyzed both their plasmid-borne and chromosome-encoded traits. Phenotypic analysis of these strains allowed their classification in three phena which exactly matched the delineation of biovars 1, 2, and 3. A fourth phenon was identified which comprises three atypical strains. The phenotypic analysis has also allowed us to identify 12 additional characteristics which could be used to identify the three biovars of Agrobacterium. Our results also suggest that biovar 1 and 2 represent distinct species. Analysis of plasmid-borne traits confirmed that tartrate utilization is a common feature of biovar 3 strains (now named Agrobacterium vitis) and of Agrobacterium grapevine strains in general. Among pathogenic strains of Agrobacterium, several exhibited unusual opine synthesis and degradation patterns, and one strain of biovar 3 induced tumors containing vitopine and a novel opine-like molecule derived from putrescine. We have named this compound ridéopine.
T-DNA nuclear import is a central event in genetic transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium. This event is thought to be mediated by two bacterial proteins, VirD2 and VirE2, which are associated with the transported T-DNA molecule. While VirD2 is imported into the nuclei of plant, animal and yeast cells, nuclear uptake of VirE2 occurs most efficiently in plant cells. To understand better the mechanism of VirE2 action, a cellular interactor of VirE2 was identified and its encoding gene cloned from Arabidopsis. The identified plant protein, designated VIP1, specifically bound VirE2 and allowed its nuclear import in non-plant systems. In plants, VIP1 was required for VirE2 nuclear import and Agrobacterium tumorigenicity, participating in early stages of T-DNA expression.
Internode explants ofin vitro plants ofForsythia x intermedia “Spring Glory” were transformed with thegus andnpt II genes after inoculation with theA. tumefaciens strain EHA 101 harbouring the plasmid pFAJ3000. Shoot organogenesis took place from callused edges of explants. The first transformed buds were detected 4 to 6 weeks after transfer on regeneration medium, containing 25 mg\\/l kanamycin as selective agent.
Carlo Rosati; Alain Cadic; Jean-Pierre Renou; Michel Duron
The legume forage Alhagi pseudoalhagi was transformed by the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 using cotyledon and hypocotyl segments as infection materials. Plant regeneration was achieved from sterile calluses derived from hairy roots, which occurred at or near the infection sites. The hairy root regenerants were characterized by normal leaf morphology and stem growth but a shallow and more extensive root
Yu Mei WANG; Jiang Bo WANG; Da LUO; Jing Fen JIA; Jia Jingfen
The presented study established Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) for the production of transgenic Vanda Kasem's Delight Tom Boykin (VKD) orchid. Several parameters such as PLB size, immersion period, level of wounding, Agrobacterium density, cocultivation period, and concentration of acetosyringone were tested and quantified using gusA gene expression to optimize the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of VKD's PLBs. Based on the results, 3-4?mm PLBs wounded by scalpel and immersed for 30 minutes in Agrobacterium suspension of 0.8 unit at A600nm produced the highest GUS expression. Furthermore, cocultivating infected PLBs for 4 days in the dark on Vacin and Went cocultivation medium containing 200?𝜇M acetosyringone enhanced the GUS expression. PCR analysis of the putative transformants selected in the presence of 250?mg/L cefotaxime and 30?mg/L geneticin proved the presence of wheatwin1, wheatwin2, and nptII genes.
Gnasekaran, Pavallekoodi; James Antony, Jessica Jeyanthi; Uddain, Jasim; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.
Algal-based recombinant protein production has gained immense interest in recent years. The development of algal expression system was earlier hindered due to the lack of efficient and cost-effective transformation techniques capable of heterologous gene integration and expression. The recent development of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is expected to be the ideal solution for these problems. We have developed an efficient protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Pre-treatment of Agrobacterium in TAP induction medium (pH 5.2) containing 100 ?M acetosyringone and 1 mM glycine betaine and infection of Chlamydomonas with the induced Agrobacterium greatly improved transformation frequency. This protocol was found to double the number of transgenic events on selection media compared to that of previous reports. PCR was used successfully to amplify fragments of the hpt and GUS genes from transformed cells, while Southern blot confirmed the integration of GUS gene into the genome of C. reinhardtii. RT-PCR, Northern blot and GUS histochemical analyses confirm GUS gene expression in the transgenic cell lines of Chlamydomonas. This protocol provides a quick, efficient, economical and high-frequency transformation method for microalgae. PMID:24198218
Pratheesh, P T; Vineetha, M; Kurup, G Muraleedhara
An improved protocol for efficient Agro- bacterium-mediated transformation of grapevine (Vitis sp.) was developed through modification of cocultivation and subsequent washing procedures. It was determined that Agrobacterium-infected somatic embryos (SE) cocultivated on filter paper exhibited less browning and significantly higher transient GFP and GUS expression than those cultured on agar- solidified medium. Furthermore, such SE, when subjected to a prolonged
Zhijian T. Li; Ć S. A. Dhekney; Ć M. Dutt; D. J. Gray
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) is the most widely used method to generate transgenic cassava plants. However, this approach has proven to be time-consuming and can lead to changes in the morphology and quality of FEC, influencing regeneration capacity and plant health. Here we present a comprehensive, reliable and improved protocol, taking approximately 6 months, that optimizes Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of FEC from cassava model cultivar TMS60444. We cocultivate the FEC with Agrobacterium directly on the propagation medium and adopt the extensive use of plastic mesh for easy and frequent transfer of material to new media. This minimizes stress to the FEC cultures and permits a finely balanced control of nutrients, hormones and antibiotics. A stepwise increase in antibiotic concentration for selection is also used after cocultivation with Agrobacterium to mature the transformed FEC before regeneration. The detailed information given here for each step should enable successful implementation of this technology in other laboratories, including those being established in developing countries where cassava is a staple crop. PMID:20010938
Bull, S E; Owiti, J A; Niklaus, M; Beeching, J R; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H
‘Hairy root’ cultures of Beta vulgaris and Nicotiana rustica were established after roots were induced on plants following infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The transformed cultures of B. vulgaris and N. rustica synthesised their characteristic secondary products, the betalain pigments and nicotine alkaloids respectively, at levels comparable with those of in vivo roots from the same variety. Betalains were entirely retained
J. D. Hamill; A. J. Parr; R. J. Robins; M. J. C. Rhodes
The family Rhizobiaceae contains plant-associated bacteria with critical roles in ecology and agriculture. Within this family, many Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium strains are nitrogen-fixing plant mutualists, while many strains designated as Agrobacterium are plant pathogens. These contrasting lifestyles are primarily dependent on the transmissible plasmids each strain harbors. Members of the Rhizobiaceae also have diverse genome architectures that include single chromosomes,
Steven C. Slater; Barry S. Goldman; Brad Goodner; Joao C. Setubal; Stephen K. Farrand; Eugene W. Nester; Thomas J. Burr; Lois Banta; Allan W. Dickerman; Ian Paulsen; Leon Otten; Garret Suen; Roy Welch; Nalvo F. Almeida; Frank Arnold; Oliver T. Burton; Zijin Du; Adam Ewing; Eric Godsy; Sara Heisel; Kathryn L. Houmiel; Jinal Jhaveri; Jing Lu; Nancy M. Miller; Stacie Norton; Qiang Chen; Waranyoo Phoolcharoen; Victoria Ohlin; Dan Ondrusek; Nicole Pride; Shawn L. Stricklin; Jian Sun; Cathy Wheeler; Lindsey Wilson; Huijun Zhu; Derek W. Wood
Cultured hairy root lines resulting from infection by Agrobacterium rhizogenes are known for approximately thirty plant species. We extend this range by establishing forty original dicotyledonous hairy root lines with A. rhizogenes strain A4. Hairy roots have been cultured for at least 2–6 years on Murashige & Skoog medium. Some hairy root cultures such as Anagallis arvensis and Antirrhinum majus
This protocol is used to induce transgenic roots on soybean to study the function of genes required in biological processes of the root. Young seedlings with unfolded cotyledons are infected at the cotyledonary node and\\/or hypocotyl with Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying the gene construct to be tested and the infection sites are kept in an environment of high humidity. When the
Attila Kereszt; Dongxue Li; Arief Indrasumunar; Cuc DT Nguyen; Sureeporn Nontachaiyapoom; Mark Kinkema; Peter M Gresshoff
Data presented herein provides a rapid and efficient method for Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation of Arnebia hispidissima for hairy root cultures as well as for enhancing Shikonin production. Etiolated explants viz. shoot tip, nodal, leaf and\\u000a internodal segments were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes for induction of hairy root. Among the various explants employed, leaf explant showed maximum 70.7% response followed
Development of efficient methods to transfer large DNA fragments into plants will greatly facilitate the map-based cloning of genes. The recently developed BIBAC and TAC vectors have shown potential to deliver large DNA fragments into plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Here we report that BIBAC and TAC clones containing potato genomic DNA fragments larger than 100 kb are not stable in Agrobacterium.
J. Song; J. M. Bradeen; S. K. Naess; J. P. Helgeson; J. Jiang
Four antioxidants including glycine betaine, glutathione, lipoic acid, and polyvinylpyrrolidone were evaluated to improve\\u000a transformation efficiency of Mexican lime, a precocious but recalcitrant citrus cultivar to Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Lipoic acid substantially improved the transformation efficiency of Mexican lime by aiding in callus\\u000a development and improving shoot growth from cut ends of epicotyl segments co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. Glycine betaine was
Genetic transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tu- mefaciens represents a unique case of trans-kingdom sex re- quiring the involvement of both bacterial virulence proteins and plant-encoded proteins. We have developed in planta and leaf-disk assays in Nicotiana benthamiana for identifying plant genes involved in Agrobacterium-mediated plant trans- formation using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a genomics tool. VIGS was
Ajith Anand; Zarir Vaghchhipawala; Choong-Min Ryu; Li Kang; Keri Wang; Olga del-Pozo; Gregory B. Martin; Kirankumar S. Mysore
We developed an asexual reproductive plant, Kalanchoe pinnata, as a new bioreactor for plant-based molecular farming using a newly developed transformation method. Leaf crenate margins were pin-pricked to infect the plant with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 and vacuum infiltration was also applied to introduce the target gene into the plants. Subsequently, the young mother leaf produced new clones at the leaf crenate margins without the need for time- and labor-consuming tissue culture procedures. The average transformation rates were approximately 77 and 84% for pin-prickling and vacuum-infiltration methods, respectively. To functionally characterize an introduced target protein, a nucleic acid hydrolyzing recombinant 3D8 scFv was selected and the plant based 3D8 scFv proteins were purified and analyzed. Based on abzyme analysis, the purified protein expressed with this system had catalytic activity and exhibited all of properties of the protein produced in an E. coli system. This result suggested that vegetatively reproductive K. pinnata can be a novel and potent bioreactor for bio-pharmaceutical proteins. PMID:19688214
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439
Hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes grow faster, and are considered as genetically stable. These hairy roots can be used as an interesting material for the production of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical value. Salidroside has been identified as the major compounds from the roots of Rhodiola sachalinensis A. BOR. Here, we provide an update that adds new perspectives on the prospects and challenges of producing Salidroside from hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogene in Rhodiola sachalinensis A. BOR. For high salidroside production, the optimal concentration for precursor (Tyrosol, Tyrosine, and Phenylalanine) and elicitor (Aspergillus niger, Coriolus versicolor, and Ganoderma lucidum) was added in the LB liquid medium, respectively. The addition of elicitor in the liquid MS medium and the utilization of precursor from chemical feeding enhanced biomass accumulation and salidroside production. The optimal concentration for elicitor and precursor in the liquid medium was 0.05 mg/l and 1 mmol/l, respectively. PMID:17329834
Agrobacterium-mediated transformations ensure elevated amounts of secondary metabolite accumulation with genetic and biosynthetic stability. In the present study, Alpinia galanga rich in bioactive compounds was genetically transformed using different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes viz. LBA 9402, A(4), 532, 2364 and PRTGus. Even though a higher growth rate was obtained with the LBA 9402 strain, maximum acetoxychavicol acetate accumulation (ACA) was seen in the PRTGus transformant. PRTGus root line has shown 10.1 fold higher ACA content in comparison to the control roots. The lowest ACA production was shown by the A(4) transformant (4.9 fold). The quantification of ACA in the transformed roots was carried out by using HPLC, which was found to be in the order of PRTGus > LBA 9402 > 2364 > 532 > A(4). The fast growth rate of hairy roots, genetic stability and their ability to synthesize more than one metabolite offer a promising system for the production of valuable secondary metabolites. PMID:22798163
A highly efficient and convenient method for the Agrobacterium rhizogenes-dependent production of transformed roots of Saponaria vaccaria L. (Caryophyllaceae) is described. The parameters tested and optimized include S. vaccaria cultivar, explant type, Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain and culture conditions. For cotransformation using additional recombinant T-DNA-containing A. rhizogenes strains, use of neomycin phosphotransferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein genes as selectable markers were tested alone and in combination. Optimal results, yielding a minimum of one transformed root per explant, were obtained using the cultivar Pink Beauty, the A. rhizogenes strain LBA9402 and internode explants precultured on a phytohormone mixture. Selection of cotransformed roots by observation of enhanced green fluorescent protein fluorescence alone was highly effective and convenient. PMID:17516073
Schmidt, Janice F; Moore, Maria D; Pelcher, Lawrence E; Covello, Patrick S
The organophosphate-degrading enzyme from Agrobacterium radiobacter (OpdA) is a highly efficient catalyst for the degradation of pesticides and some nerve agents such as sarin. OpdA requires\\u000a two metal ions for catalytic activity, and hydrolysis is initiated by a nucleophilic hydroxide that is bound to one of these\\u000a metal ions. The precise location of this nucleophile has been contentious, with both
Fernanda Ely; Kieran S. Hadler; Nataša Miti?; Lawrence R. Gahan; David L. Ollis; Nicholas M. Plugis; Marie T. Russo; James A. Larrabee; Gerhard Schenk
Hairy roots of snapdragon (Antirrhinum ma-jus L.: Scrophulariaceae) induced by a wild-type strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes were cultured on media containing various concentrations of a phosphinothricin-based herbicide, bialaphos, or plant growth\\u000a regulators (PGRs). Adventitious shoot regeneration from hairy roots was observed with a low frequency (10%) on half-strength\\u000a Murashige and Skoog medium. Addition of ?-naphthalene-acetic acid in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine,
The carotenoid composition of the astaxanthin-producing bacterium Agrobacterium aurantiacum was analysed under different culture conditions. Ten kinds of carotenoids, ?-carotene, echinenone, ?-cryptoxanthin, 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, 3?-hydroxyechinenone, zeaxanthin, adonirubin, adonixanthin and astaxanthin, were identified by HPLC and spectroscopical techniques. A. aurantiacum synthesized astaxanthin from ?-carotene through two hydroxylation steps at C-3 and 3?, and oxidation steps at C-4 and 4?. The order
Hairy roots were obtained after infection of Artemisia absinthium shoots with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 1855 and LBA 9402. The susceptibility to hairy root transformation varied between plant genotypes and bacterial strains.\\u000a Hairy roots showed macroscopic differences from control root cultures. Southern blot hybridization confirmed the integration\\u000a of T-DNA from both p1855 and pBin19, while polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated the
S. Nin; A. Bennici; G. Roselli; D. Mariotti; S. Schiff; R. Magherini
An efficient Agrobacterium–mediated method for transformation, regeneration and screening of Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera (synonym to B. campestris) was developed. For transformation of B. rapa subsp. oleifera, 5-d-old cotyledons were co-cultivated for 2 d with Agrobacteria (strain AGL1) harbouring a binary vector carrying a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP). For regeneration, cultivation of explants in Murashige–Skoog-based media supplemented with 2 mg
Tony Wahlroos; Petri Susi; Lidia Tylkina; Svetlana Malyshenko; Svetlana Zvereva; Timo Korpela
We investigated the influence of inorganic phosphate concentration on the production of curdlan by Agrobacterium species. A two-step culture method was employed where cells were first cultured, followed by curdlan production under nitrogen-limiting\\u000a conditions. In the curdlan production step, cells did not grow but metabolized sugar into curdlan. Shake-flask experiments\\u000a showed that the optimal phosphate concentration for curdlan production was
Hairy root cultures of Atropa belladonna L. were established by infection either with Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 or MAFF 03-01724, and transgenic plants were obtained from both hairy root cultures. Doubly transformed roots were induced by re-infection of the leaf segments of transgenic Atropa belladonna plants (A. rhizogenes 15834) with MAFF 03-01724. Shoots and viviparous leaves were regenerated from the
Mondher Jaziri; Kayo Yoshimatsu; Jacques Homčs; Koichiro Shimomura
Axenic root tissue cultures were established from primary hairy roots induced on carrot and potato by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834. cDNA made towards poly-A+ RNA isolated from these tissues, hybridized with a limited number of well-defined fragments of the plasmid DNA present in the inciting A. rhizogenes strain. These data therefore demonstrate that at least part of the rootinducing (Ri)
Lothar Willmitzer; José Sanchez-Serrano; Ellen Buschfeld; Jeff Schell
Transgenic Mexican lime [Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swing] plants were regenerated from tissues transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4, containing the wild-type plasmid pRiA4 and the binary vector pESC4 with nos-npt II and cab-gus genes. Transgenic shoots were generated by two different approaches. The first approach used internodal stem segments cocultured\\u000a with A. rhizogenes. These were placed onto regeneration medium containing
A nonpathogenic strain of Agrobacterium vitis VAR03-1 was tested as a biological control agent against crown gall of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). A mixture of the nonpathogenic strain VAR03-1 and a tumorigenic strain G-Ag-27 of A. vitis at cell ratios of 1?:?1, 3?:?1, 9?:?1, and 99?:?1 significantly inhibited gall formation and size on stems of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Strain
Summary. Research into the genetic basis of the ecological sophistication of plants is hampered by the availability of transformable\\u000a systems with a wealth of well-described ecological interactions. We present an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the model ecological expression system, Nicotiana attenuata, a native tobacco that occupies the post-fire niche in the Great Basin Desert of North America. We describe a
Tamara Krügel; Michelle Lim; Klaus Gase; Rayko Halitschke; Ian T. Baldwin
Summary A method for the production of hairy roots of Aconitum heterophyllum wall. is reported for the first time. Embryogenic callus cultures were successfully transformed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains viz. LBA 9402, LBA 9360, and A4 for the induction of hairy roots. The transgenic nature of hairy roots was confirmed\\u000a by mannopine assay using paper electrophoresis. Best growth of transformed roots
Inoculation of leaf sections of tobacco, Duboisia hybrid and Datura metel Solanaceae plants with A4 strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, induced transformed roots with the capacity to produce putrescine-derived alkaloids. In general, the hairy roots obtained showed two morphologies: typical hairy roots with high capacity to produce alkaloids and callus-like roots with faster growth capacity and lower alkaloid production. The aux1
E. Moyano; S. Fornalé; J. Palazón; R. M. Cusidó; M. Bonfill; C. Morales; M. T. Pińol
The genus Agrobacterium includes phytopathogenic bacteria that induce the development of root crown galls and/or aerial galls at the base of the stem or hairy roots on more than 600 species of plants belonging to 90 dicotyledonous families and non-pathogenic species. These bacteria being natural soil inhabitants are particularly difficult to eradicate, which is a problem in nurseries where more than 80% of infections occur. Since early detection is crucial to avoid the inadvertent spread of the disease, the aim of this work was to develop sensitive and precise identification techniques by using a set of semi-selective and differential culture media in combination with a specific PCR to amplify a partial sequence derived from the virC operon, as well as a multiplex PCR on the basis of 23SrDNA sequences, and biological assays to identify and differentiate species and biovars of Agrobacterium obtained either from soil, water or plant samples. The combination of the different assays allowed us to reduce the number of false positive and negative results from bacteria isolated from any of the three types of samples. Therefore, the combination of multiplex PCR, specific PCR, isolations in semi-selective D1, D1-M and YEM-RCT media combined with bioassays on cut leaves of Kalanchoe and seedlings of California Wonder pepper cultivar constitute an accurate tool to detect species and biovars of Agrobacterium for diagnostic purposes. PMID:22274826
Micropropagated shoots of three forest tree species, poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba), wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) and walnut (Juglans nigra x J. regia), were inoculated each with six different wild-type Agrobacterium strains. Poplar and wild cherry developed tumors that grew hormone-independently, whereas on walnut, gall formation was weak. On poplar and wild cherry, tumors induced by nopaline strains developed spontaneously shoots that had a normal phenotype and did not carry oncogenic T-DNA. From these observations, we have established a co-inoculation method to transform plants, using poplar as an experimental model. The method is based on inoculation of stem internodes with an Agrobacterium suspension containing both an oncogenic strain that induces shoot differentiation and a disarmed strain that provides the suitable genes in a binary vector. We used the vector pBI121 carrying neo (kanamycin resistance) and uidA (beta-glucuronidase) genes to facilitate early selection and screening. Poplar plants derived from kanamycin-resistant shoots that did not carry oncogenic T-DNA, were shown to contain and to express neo and uidA genes. These results suggest that wild-type Agrobacterium strains that induce shoot formation directly from tumors can be used as a general tool for gene transfer, avoiding difficult regeneration procedures. PMID:1653060
Brasileiro, A C; Leplé, J C; Muzzin, J; Ounnoughi, D; Michel, M F; Jouanin, L
Background Transient gene expression via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer offers a simple and fast method to analyze transgene functions. Although Arabidopsis is the most-studied model plant with powerful genetic and genomic resources, achieving highly efficient and consistent transient expression for gene function analysis in Arabidopsis remains challenging. Results We developed a highly efficient and robust Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system, named AGROBEST (Agrobacterium-mediated enhanced seedling transformation), which achieves versatile analysis of diverse gene functions in intact Arabidopsis seedlings. Using ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assay, we show that the use of a specific disarmed Agrobacterium strain with vir gene pre-induction resulted in homogenous GUS staining in cotyledons of young Arabidopsis seedlings. Optimization with AB salts in plant culture medium buffered with acidic pH 5.5 during Agrobacterium infection greatly enhanced the transient expression levels, which were significantly higher than with two existing methods. Importantly, the optimized method conferred 100% infected seedlings with highly increased transient expression in shoots and also transformation events in roots of ~70% infected seedlings in both the immune receptor mutant efr-1 and wild-type Col-0 seedlings. Finally, we demonstrated the versatile applicability of the method for examining transcription factor action and circadian reporter-gene regulation as well as protein subcellular localization and protein–protein interactions in physiological contexts. Conclusions AGROBEST is a simple, fast, reliable, and robust transient expression system enabling high transient expression and transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings. Demonstration of the proof-of-concept experiments elevates the transient expression technology to the level of functional studies in Arabidopsis seedlings in addition to previous applications in fluorescent protein localization and protein–protein interaction studies. In addition, AGROBEST offers a new way to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer.
Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.
Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)
Ecology and biodiversity studies of Agrobacterium spp. require tools such as selective media and DNA probes. Tellurite was tested as a selective agent and a supplement of previously described media for agrobacteria. The known biodiversity within the genus was taken into account when the selectivity of K2TeO3 was analyzed and its potential for isolating Agrobacterium spp. directly from soil was evaluated. A K2TeO3 concentration of 60 ppm was found to favor the growth of agrobacteria and restrict the development of other bacteria. Morphotypic analyses were used to define agrobacterial colony types, which were readily distinguished from other colonies. The typical agrobacterial morphotype allowed direct determination of the densities of agrobacterial populations from various environments on K2TeO3-amended medium. The bona fide agrobacterium colonies growing on media amended with K2TeO3 were confirmed to be Agrobacterium colonies by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes. Specific 16S rDNA probes were designed for Agrobacterium biovar 1 and related species (Agrobacterium rubi and Agrobacterium fici) and for Agrobacterium biovar 2. Specific pathogenic probes from different Ti plasmid regions were used to determine the pathogenic status of agrobacterial colonies. Various morphotype colonies from bulk soil suspensions were characterized by colony blot hybridization with 16S rDNA and pathogenic probes. All the Agrobacterium-like colonies obtained from soil suspensions on amended media were found to be bona fide agrobacteria. Direct colony counting of agrobacterial populations could be done. We found 103 to 104 agrobacteria · g of dry soil?1 in a silt loam bulk soil cultivated with maize. All of the strains isolated were nonpathogenic bona fide Agrobacterium biovar 1 strains.
The legume forage Alhagi pseudoalhagi was transformed by the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 using cotyledon and hypocotyl segments as infection materials. Regenerated plants were achieved from sterile calli derived from hairy roots, which occurred at or near the infection sites. The regenerated plants from hairy root were characterized by normal leaf morphology and stem growth but a shallow and more extensive root system than normal plants. Opine synthesis, PCR and Southern blot confirmed that T-DNA had been integrated into the A. pseudoalhagi genome. Acetosyringone (AS) was found to be vital for successful transformation of A. pseudoalhagi. PMID:11787773
Tools that allow for rapid, accurate and inexpensive assembly of multi-component combinatorial libraries of DNA for transformation into plants will accelerate the progress of synthetic biology research. Recent innovations in molecular cloning methods has vastly expanded the repertoire with which plant biologists can engineer a transgene. Here we describe a new set of binary vectors for use in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation that utilizes the Golden-Gate Cloning approach. Our optimized protocol facilitates the rapid and inexpensive generation of multi-component transgenes for later introduction into plants.
This protocol is used to induce transgenic roots on soybean to study the function of genes required in biological processes of the root. Young seedlings with unfolded cotyledons are infected at the cotyledonary node and/or hypocotyl with Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying the gene construct to be tested and the infection sites are kept in an environment of high humidity. When the emerged hairy roots can support the plants, the main roots are removed and the transgenic roots can be tested. Using this method, almost 100% of the infected plants form hairy roots within 1 month from the start of the experiments. PMID:17446894
Kereszt, Attila; Li, Dongxue; Indrasumunar, Arief; Nguyen, Cuc D T; Nontachaiyapoom, Sureeporn; Kinkema, Mark; Gresshoff, Peter M
The number of stable discriminant biochemical characters is limited in the genera Alcaligenes and Agrobacterium, whose species are consequently difficult to distinguish from one another by conventional tests. Moreover, genomic studies have recently drastically modified the nomenclature of these genera; for example, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans was transferred to the genus Achromobacter in 1998. Twenty-five strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans, three strains of an Agrobacterium sp., five strains of an Alcaligenes sp., and four unnamed strains belonging to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention group IVc-2 were examined. These strains were characterized by conventional tests, including biochemical tests. The assimilation of 99 carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids was studied by using Biotype-100 strips, and rRNA gene restriction patterns were obtained with the automated Riboprinter microbial characterization system after cleavage of total DNA with EcoRI or PstI restriction endonuclease. This polyphasic approach allowed the two subspecies of A. xylosoxidans to be clearly separated. Relationships between five strains and the Ralstonia paucula type strain were demonstrated. Likewise, three strains were found to be related to the Ochrobactrum anthropi type strain. We showed that substrate assimilation tests and automated ribotyping provide a simple, rapid, and reliable means of identifying A. xylosoxidans subspecies and that these two methods can be used as alternative methods to characterize unidentified strains rapidly when discriminant biochemical characters are missing.
Transformed rhizoclones were developed from Agrobacterium-treated explants of the medicinally important twinning legume Clitoria ternatea L. Several key factors influencing transformation events were optimized. A4T was the most infectious among the strains employed. Internode segments were more responsive than leaves, outdoor-grown explants preferred to those from in vitro cultures. High frequency transformation, resulting in up to 85.8% rhizogenesis, was attained using pre-pricked internodal explants for immersion (10 min) in Agrobacterium rhizogenes suspension grown overnight with acetosyringone (100 ?M) to an OD(660) ? 0.6, diluted to a density of 10(9) cells ml(-1), followed by 5-day co-cultivation. Roots were individually cultured in MS0 supplemented with the bacteriostatic antibiotic cefotaxime (500 ?g ml(-1)). Rhizoclones were renewed through successive subcultures in MS0 under diffused illumination. The T ( L )-DNA rolB and rolC ORF were detected in rhizoclones through PCR amplification. The T ( R )-DNA gene encoding mannopine synthase (man2) was revealed by positive amplification and opine gene expression substantiated by agropine and mannopine biosynthesis in all selected transformed rhizoclones. The implication of such findings is discussed on the context of utilization of such genetically transformed root cultures towards sustainable production of medicinally useful phytocompounds, besides providing a means for plant conservation. PMID:22806869
Swain, S S; Sahu, L; Pal, A; Barik, D P; Pradhan, C; Chand, P K
The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system is the most commonly used method in soybean transformation. Screening of soybean genotypes favorable for Agrobacterium-infection and tissue regeneration is the most important step to establish an efficient genetic transformation system. In this study, twenty soybean genotypes that originated from different soybean production regions in China were screened for transient infection, regeneration capacity, and stable transgenic efficiency. Three genotypes, Yuechun 04-5, Yuechun 03-3, and Tianlong 1, showed comparable stable transgenic efficiencies with that of the previously reported American genotypes Williams 82 and Jack in our experimental system. For the Tianlong 1, the average stable transformation efficiency is 4.59%, higher than that of control genotypes (Jack and Williams 82), which is enough for further genomic research and genetic engineering. While polymerase chain reaction (PCR), LibertyLink strips, and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) staining assays were used to detect the insertion and expression of the transgene, leaves painted with 135 mg/L Basta could efficiently identify the transformants.
Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain LBA9402 was used to transformPinus halepensis embryos, seedlings and shoots. Mature embryos exhibited susceptibility to the agrobacterium as monitored by ?-glucurortidase (GUS) expression, with more than 85% showing considerable transient GUS expression in the radicle. GUS expression was also observed in cotyledons, but at a lower rate of about 24% of the embryos (1-5 spots/embryo). Stable transformation was evidenced by the regeneration of GUS-expressing roots and calli from infectedP. halepensis seedlings. Inoculum injections into intact seedling hypocotyls induced callus and root formation at the wound sites in 64% of the seedlings. Dipping seedling cuttings in a bacterial suspension resulted in adventitious root formation in 7I% of the seedling cuttings, all of which expressed GUS activity. Adventitious shoots, that were induced on 2.5-year-old seedlings by pruning and spraying with 6-benzylaminopurine, were infected by injecting of bacterial suspension into their basal side. Two months later, adventitious roots and root primordia regenerated in 74% and 40% of 2- and 5-month-old shoots, respectively. Non-transformed shoots, either without or with auxin application, failed to form roots. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses confirmed theuidA-transgenic nature of the root and callus, as well as the presence ofrolC androlB genes in roots from infectedP. halepensis seedlings. PMID:24178648
The two auxin biosynthesis genes, aux1 and aux2 of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4, are located on opposite DNA strands with a short integenic region (394 bp) between their coding sequences. A functional analysis of this divergent promoter is presented. The transcription initiation sites of the two aux genes were determined and regions important for promoter activity were identified by deletion
When Agrobacterium was used to transform Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts and Arabidopsis thaliana roots and seedlings, a large number of plants were found in which not only the T-region defined by the border repeat sequences but the entire binary vector was integrated, as determined by both PCR and Southern analysis techniques. N. plumbaginifolia protoplast co-cultivation experiments yielded 3 out of 5
Allan Wenck; Mihály Czakó; Ivan Kanevski; László Márton
We have developed an efficient transformation system for Tylophora indica, an important medicinal plant in India, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA9402 and A4 to infect excised leaf and stem explants and intact shoots at different sites. The induction of callus and transformed roots was dependent on the bacterial strain, explant type and inoculation site used. Transformed roots were induced only
Kuntal Narayan Chaudhuri; Biswajit Ghosh; David Tepfer; Sumita Jha
Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3delta6.9.12) is nutritional and important polyunsaturated fatty acid in human and animal diets. GLA play an important role in hormone regulation and fatty acid metabolization. Furthermore it is also the biological precursor of a group of molecules, including prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes. Vast majority of oilseed crops do not produce GLA, but linoleic acid (LA, C18:2delta9.12) as its substrate. GLA is only produced by a small number of oilseed plants such as evening promrose ( Oenotheera spp.), borage (Borago officinalis) and etc. delta6-fatty acid desaturase (D6D) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of GLA. It can convert from linoleic acid to linolenic acid. To produce GLA in tobacco, plant expression vector was first constructed. To facilitate preparation of plant expression constructs, flanking Xba I and Bgl II restriction enzyme sites were added to the coding region of clone pTMICL6 by PCR amplification. pTMICL6 contains delta6-fatty acid desaturase gene cloned from Mortierella isabellina which is an oil-producing fugus. The PCR product was purified and subcloned into the plant expression vector pGA643 to generate the recombinant vector pGAMICL6 which contains the ORF of the D6D gene of Mortierella isabellina, together with regulatory elements consisting of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase (nos) termination sequence. The plasmid pGAMICL6 was transformed into Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strain LBA4404 by method of freeze thawing of liquid nitrogen. Transformants were selected by plating on YEB medium plates containing kanamycin and streptomycin and grown overnight at 28 degrees C, then transformants were further identified by PCR. The positive transformant containing the plant expression vector pGAMICL6 was transformed into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) via Agrobacterium infection. Transgenic plants were selected on 100 microg/mL kanamycin. Plants were maintained in axionic culture under controlled conditions. Total nucleic acids were extracted and purified from anti-kanamycin transgenic tobacco and were analysed by PCR. 48 out of 80 transgenic plants were positive, in other words, transformation efficiency is 60% . This shows that Mortierella isabellina D6D gene is transformed into tobacco. Genomic DNA from PCR positive transgenic tobacco plants was digested with Hind III restriction enzyme and fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Southern blotting was performed with strandard procedures for vacuum transfer of nucleic acids to nylon membrane. The probe was delta6-fatty acid desaturase gene from M. isabellina, which was labeled with DIG-dUTP via random-primed labeling. Hybridization and immumological detection were carried out the kit of DIG detection. The result shows single hybridizing bands in each of the transgenic tobacco plants DNA, but no hybridization was observed to non-transgenic tobacco. This indicates that delta6-fatty acid desaturase gene is integrated into the genome of transgenic tobacco. To provide further evidence that the introduction of the M. isabellina cDNA into the tobacco genome was responsible for the novel desaturation products, total RNA was isolated from GLA-positive transgenic tobacco plants via both PCR and Southern blotting and separated by electrophoresis through 1% formaldehyde agarose gel. Northern blotting including probe labeling, hybridization and detection was the same as Southern blotting in operation approach. A positive hybridization signal of identical mobility was obtained from RNA isolated from the transgenic tobacco plants, but not from the control tobacco plant. At last, total fatty acids extracted from the positive transgenic tobacco were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) of methyl esters to confirm the transgenic tobacco containing a functional delta6-fatty acid desaturase gene. The result shows that two peaks were observed in the chromatogram of FAMes. GLA and octadecatetraenoic acid (OTA, C18:4delta22.214.171.124) respectively have 19.7% and 3.5% of the total fatty
Several Agrobacterium strains isolated from the same forest nursery from 1982 to 1988 were compared by serological, biochemical, and DNA-DNA hybridization methods. Similarities among strains belonging to biovar 2 were observed by indirect immunofluorescence, whereas biovar 1 strains showed serological heterogeneity. Electrophoretic analysis of bacterial envelope-associated proteins showed that few bands appeared in the strains belonging to biovar 1, whereas many proteins appeared in the case of biovar 2 strains. Chromosomal DNA was analyzed with six random C58 chromosomal fragments. None of the six probes hybridized to the DNA of the two biovar 2 strains. One of the probes gave the same hybridization pattern with all biovar 1 strains, whereas the other probes yielded different patterns. The vir regions were closely related in the different pathogenic strains. The T-DNA and replication regions were less conserved and showed some variations among the strains. Images
Michel, Marie-France; Brasileiro, Ana Cristina Miranda; Depierreux, Christiane; Otten, Leon; Delmotte, Francis; Jouanin, Lise
Several Agrobacterium strains isolated from the same forest nursery from 1982 to 1988 were compared by serological, biochemical, and DNA-DNA hybridization methods. Similarities among strains belonging to biovar 2 were observed by indirect immunofluorescence, whereas biovar 1 strains showed serological heterogeneity. Electrophoretic analysis of bacterial envelope-associated proteins showed that few bands appeared in the strains belonging to biovar 1, whereas many proteins appeared in the case of biovar 2 strains. Chromosomal DNA was analyzed with six random C58 chromosomal fragments. None of the six probes hybridized to the DNA of the two biovar 2 strains. One of the probes gave the same hybridization pattern with all biovar 1 strains, whereas the other probes yielded different patterns. The vir regions were closely related in the different pathogenic strains. The T-DNA and replication regions were less conserved and showed some variations among the strains. PMID:16348358
Michel, M F; Brasileiro, A C; Depierreux, C; Otten, L; Delmotte, F; Jouanin, L
Salicortin, a natural product abundant in most members of the Salicaceae family, is a mechanism-based inactivator of Agrobacterium faecalis beta-glucosidase. Inactivation is delayed in the presence of competitive inhibitors, thereby demonstrating the requirement for an enzyme-bound salicortin before inactivation. Product studies suggest that inactivation proceeds via a quinone methide intermediate formed by the fragmentation of the aglycone of salicortin while it is bound to the enzyme. Tryptic digest and HPLC/MS studies confirm the role of quinone methide attack and also show that the enzyme undergoes multiple modifications. In addition, when the inactivation was run in the presence of a mutant inactive form of the enzyme, HPLC/MS analyses clearly showed no modification of the mutant enzyme, demonstrating that the quinone methide does not exist in free solution and suggesting that inactivation is active-site directed.
Zhu, J; Withers, S G; Reichardt, P B; Treadwell, E; Clausen, T P
Production of the commercially available polysaccharide curdlan by Agrobacterium sp. strain ECP-1, isolated as a mutant strain from ATCC 31749, on a medium containing a hydrolysate of the plant prairie cordgrass with selected ammonium phosphate concentrations was investigated for a period of 144 h. Although several ammonium phosphate concentrations supported curdlan production by the strain, the optimal concentration after 120 or 144 h was 3.3 mmol·L?ą. Only ammonium phosphate concentrations of 1.1 or 8.7 mmol·L?ą failed to support curdlan production by the strain after 120 or 144 h. Biomass production by strain ECP-1 on the hydrolysate-containing medium after 120 or 144 h was comparable, independent of the ammonium phosphate concentration present. The curdlan yield from the cordgrass hydrolysate indicated that the grass was an effective plant biomass substrate for polysaccharide production. PMID:24392926
Soil samples collected from a fallow field which had not been cultivated for 5 years harbored a population of Agrobacterium spp. estimated at 3 × 107 CFU/g. Characterization of 72 strains selected from four different is