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Sample records for agrobacterium-based transformation method

  1. Rapid deletion plasmid construction methods for protoplast and Agrobacterium based fungal transformation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing availability of genomic data and sophistication of analytical methodology in fungi has elevated the need for functional genomics tools in these organisms. Gene deletion is a critical tool for functional analysis. The targeted deletion of genes requires both a suitable method for the trans...

  2. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  3. Fourier transform interferometer alignment method.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Kenneth A; Naulleau, Patrick; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2002-08-01

    A rapid and convenient method has been developed to facilitate the alignment of the image-plane components of point-diffraction interferometers, including the phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer. In real time, the Fourier transform of the detected image is used to calculate a pseudoimage of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where thecritical alignment o f variousoptical components is performed. Reconstruction of the pseudoimage is similar to off-axis, Fourier transform holography. Intermediate steps in the alignment procedure are described. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global-contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier transform. Additional applications include the alignment of image-plane apertures in general optical systems, the rapid identification of patterned image-plane alignment marks, and the probing of important image-plane field properties. PMID:12153074

  4. An Operator Method for Evaluating Laplace Transforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanoue, B. G.; Yurekli, O.

    2005-01-01

    This note discusses a simple operator technique based on the differentiation and shifting properties of the Laplace transform to find Laplace transforms for various elementary functions. The method is simpler than known integration techniques to evaluate Laplace transforms.

  5. Development of an Agrobacterium-based transformation system for Rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 8.7 kb binary vector containing the 1.9 kb hygromycin B phosphortransferase (hyg) gene was constructed with promoter and terminator regions from the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate- dehydrogenase (gpd) gene of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3) at the 5'- and 3'- gene termini of hyg. Promot...

  6. Two Alternative Methods for Height Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin

    2008-03-01

    Geodesists have always been dealing with coordinate transformations. There exist various kinds of transformations, like three-dimensional (spatial datum) transformations, two-dimensional (horizontal datum) transformations and one-dimensional (eg, height) transformations. In this article we discuss height transformations. Height data is usually obtained by levelling. The problematic side of levelling is that this technique is very labour intensive and costly. Nowadays as well GPS measurements can be used, which are much faster and cheaper, but in order to use GPS measurements for height determination, we need a precise geoid model to transform GPS heights to heights above sea level. In this article two different approaches to this transformation are presented. At first, the affine transformation is discussed. The method is by nature linear, and employs the barycentric coordinates of the point, the height of which is going to be computed. Secondly, the method of fuzzy modelling is used. By these methods, the transformation surface is determined and the heights of desired points can be determined. As the input data, height information from the precise levelling campaign in Estonia is used. The computed values are tested against height information, gathered from the reference geoid model. The objectives of this research are acquiring insight into using alternative methods for height transformation as well as to statistically characterise the suitability of the proposed methods.

  7. [Hadamard transform spectrometer mixed pixels' unmixing method].

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Hu, Bing-Liang; Liu, Xue-Bin; Sun, Wei; Li, Li-Bo; Feng, Yu-Tao; Liu, Yong-Zheng

    2011-10-01

    Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer is a multi-channel digital transform spectrometer detection technology, this paper based on digital micromirror array device (DMD) of the Hadamard transform spectrometer working principle and instrument structure, obtained by the imaging sensor mixed pixel were analyzed, theory derived the solution of pixel aliasing hybrid method, simulation results show that the method is simple and effective to improve the accuracy of mixed pixel spectrum more than 10% recovery. PMID:22250574

  8. A dynamic transformation method for modal synthesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhar, E. J.; Stahle, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a condensation method for large discrete parameter vibration analysis of complex structures that greatly reduces truncation errors and provides accurate definition of modes in a selected frequency range. A dynamic transformation is obtained from the partitioned equations of motion that relates modes not explicity in the condensed solution to the retained modes at a selected system frequency. The generalized mass and stiffness matrices, obtained with existing modal synthesis methods, are reduced using this transformation and solved. Revised solutions are then obtained using new transformations at the calculated eigenvalues and are also used to assess the accuracy of the results. If all the modes of interest have not been obtained, the results are used to select a new set of retained coordinates and a new transformation frequency, and the procedure is repeated for another group of modes.

  9. Physical methods for genetic plant transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Gómez-Lim, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

    2012-09-01

    Production of transgenic plants is a routine process for many crop species. Transgenes are introduced into plants to confer novel traits such as improved nutritional qualities, tolerance to pollutants, resistance to pathogens and for studies of plant metabolism. Nowadays, it is possible to insert genes from plants evolutionary distant from the host plant, as well as from fungi, viruses, bacteria and even animals. Genetic transformation requires penetration of the transgene through the plant cell wall, facilitated by biological or physical methods. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art of the physical methods used for genetic plant transformation and to describe the basic physics behind them.

  10. Transformative Paradigm: Mixed Methods and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2007-01-01

    The intersection of mixed methods and social justice has implications for the role of the researcher and choices of specific paradigmatic perspectives. The transformative paradigm with its associated philosophical assumptions provides a framework for addressing inequality and injustice in society using culturally competent, mixed methods…

  11. Discrete fourier transform (DFT) analysis for applications using iterative transform methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    According to various embodiments, a method is provided for determining aberration data for an optical system. The method comprises collecting a data signal, and generating a pre-transformation algorithm. The data is pre-transformed by multiplying the data with the pre-transformation algorithm. A discrete Fourier transform of the pre-transformed data is performed in an iterative loop. The method further comprises back-transforming the data to generate aberration data.

  12. Ensemble transform sensitivity method for adaptive observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Xie, Yuanfu; Wang, Hongli; Chen, Dehui; Toth, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The Ensemble Transform (ET) method has been shown to be useful in providing guidance for adaptive observation deployment. It predicts forecast error variance reduction for each possible deployment using its corresponding transformation matrix in an ensemble subspace. In this paper, a new ET-based sensitivity (ETS) method, which calculates the gradient of forecast error variance reduction in terms of analysis error variance reduction, is proposed to specify regions for possible adaptive observations. ETS is a first order approximation of the ET; it requires just one calculation of a transformation matrix, increasing computational efficiency (60%-80% reduction in computational cost). An explicit mathematical formulation of the ETS gradient is derived and described. Both the ET and ETS methods are applied to the Hurricane Irene (2011) case and a heavy rainfall case for comparison. The numerical results imply that the sensitive areas estimated by the ETS and ET are similar. However, ETS is much more efficient, particularly when the resolution is higher and the number of ensemble members is larger.

  13. Parallel algorithms for the spectral transform method

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.T.; Worley, P.H.

    1994-04-01

    The spectral transform method is a standard numerical technique for solving partial differential equations on a sphere and is widely used in atmospheric circulation models. Recent research has identified several promising algorithms for implementing this method on massively parallel computers; however, no detailed comparison of the different algorithms has previously been attempted. In this paper, we describe these different parallel algorithms and report on computational experiments that we have conducted to evaluate their efficiency on parallel computers. The experiments used a testbed code that solves the nonlinear shallow water equations or a sphere; considerable care was taken to ensure that the experiments provide a fair comparison of the different algorithms and that the results are relevant to global models. We focus on hypercube- and mesh-connected multicomputers with cut-through routing, such as the Intel iPSC/860, DELTA, and Paragon, and the nCUBE/2, but also indicate how the results extend to other parallel computer architectures. The results of this study are relevant not only to the spectral transform method but also to multidimensional FFTs and other parallel transforms.

  14. Comparison of different transformation methods for Aspergillus giganteus.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Vera; Mueller, Dirk; Strowig, Till; Stahl, Ulf

    2003-08-01

    Four different transformation methods were tested and compared in an attempt to facilitate the genetic transformation of Aspergillus giganteus, the producer of an antifungal protein (AFP). The fungus was transformed to hygromycin B resistance, using the hph gene of Escherichia coli by protoplast transformation, electroporation, biolistic transformation, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Electroporation and biolistic transformation were found to be inappropriate for transforming A. giganteus, due to a low transformation yield. The conventional transformation technique based on protoplasts yielded up to 55 transformants in 10(8) protoplasts/microg DNA and was enhanced to 140-fold by A. tumefaciens-mediated transfer of its T-DNA. Here, the germination time prior to cocultivation and the fungus:bacterium ratio were found to alter the transformation efficiency. Southern blot analysis revealed that the A. giganteus transformants contained a randomly integrated single T-DNA copy, whereas multiple integration events were frequent in transformants obtained by the protoplast method. PMID:12756496

  15. Linear Transformation Method for Multinuclide Decay Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Yuan

    2010-12-29

    A linear transformation method for generic multinuclide decay calculations is presented together with its properties and implications. The method takes advantage of the linear form of the decay solution N(t) = F(t)N{sub 0}, where N(t) is a column vector that represents the numbers of atoms of the radioactive nuclides in the decay chain, N{sub 0} is the initial value vector of N(t), and F(t) is a lower triangular matrix whose time-dependent elements are independent of the initial values of the system.

  16. Apparatus and method for transforming living cells

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.

    2003-11-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for in vitro transformation of living cells. The apparatus, which is formed as a microelectromechanical device by surface micromachining, can be used to temporarily disrupt the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. Disruption of the integrity of the host cells (i.e. poration) can be performed mechanically or electrically, or by both while the host cells are contained within a flow channel. Mechanical poration is possible using a moveable member which has a pointed or serrated edge and which is driven by an electrostatic actuator to abrade, impact or penetrate the host cell. Electroporation is produced by generating a relatively high electric field across the host cell when the host cell is located in the flow channel between a pair of electrodes having a voltage applied therebetween.

  17. A Transfer Voltage Simulation Method for Generator Step Up Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funabashi, Toshihisa; Sugimoto, Toshirou; Ueda, Toshiaki; Ametani, Akihiro

    It has been found from measurements for 13 sets of GSU transformers that a transfer voltage of a generator step-up (GSU) transformer involves one dominant oscillation frequency. The frequency can be estimated from the inductance and capacitance values of the GSU transformer low-voltage-side. This observation has led to a new method for simulating a GSU transformer transfer voltage. The method is based on the EMTP TRANSFORMER model, but stray capacitances are added. The leakage inductance and the magnetizing resistance are modified using approximate curves for their frequency characteristics determined from the measured results. The new method is validated in comparison with the measured results.

  18. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  19. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  20. Performance analysis of image fusion methods in transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yoonsuk; Sharifahmadian, Ershad; Latifi, Shahram

    2013-05-01

    Image fusion involves merging two or more images in such a way as to retain the most desirable characteristics of each. There are various image fusion methods and they can be classified into three main categories: i) Spatial domain, ii) Transform domain, and iii) Statistical domain. We focus on the transform domain in this paper as spatial domain methods are primitive and statistical domain methods suffer from a significant increase of computational complexity. In the field of image fusion, performance analysis is important since the evaluation result gives valuable information which can be utilized in various applications, such as military, medical imaging, remote sensing, and so on. In this paper, we analyze and compare the performance of fusion methods based on four different transforms: i) wavelet transform, ii) curvelet transform, iii) contourlet transform and iv) nonsubsampled contourlet transform. Fusion framework and scheme are explained in detail, and two different sets of images are used in our experiments. Furthermore, various performance evaluation metrics are adopted to quantitatively analyze the fusion results. The comparison results show that the nonsubsampled contourlet transform method performs better than the other three methods. During the experiments, we also found out that the decomposition level of 3 showed the best fusion performance, and decomposition levels beyond level-3 did not significantly affect the fusion results.

  1. Transformer winding defects identification based on a high frequency method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florkowski, Marek; Furgał, Jakub

    2007-09-01

    The transformer diagnostic methods are systematically being improved and extended due to growing requirements for reliability of power systems in terms of uninterrupted power supply and avoidance of blackouts. Those methods are also driven by longer lifetime of transformers and demand for reduction of transmission and distribution costs. Hence, the detection of winding faults in transformers, both in exploitation or during transportation is an important aspect of power transformer failure prevention. The frequency response analysis method (FRA), more and more frequently used in electric power engineering, has been applied for investigations and signature analysis based on the admittance and transfer function. The paper presents a novel approach to the identification of typical transformer winding problems such as axial or radial movements or turn-to-turn faults. The proposed transfer function discrimination (TFD) criteria are based on the derived transfer function ratios, manifesting higher sensitivity.

  2. Hough transform method for track finding in center drift chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, K. A. Mohammad Kamal; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2016-01-01

    Hough transform is a global tracking method used which had been expected to be faster approach for tracking the circular pattern of electron moving in Center Drift Chamber (CDC), by transforming the point of hit into a circular curve. This paper present the implementation of hough transform method for the reconstruction of tracks in Center Drift Chamber (CDC) which have been generated by random number in C language programming. Result from implementation of this method shows higher peak of circle parameter value (xc,yc,rc) that indicate the similarity value of the parameter needed for circular track in CDC for charged particles in the region of CDC.

  3. Method and Application of Hadamard Transform Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, John Michael

    A new electrooptic shutter based mask had been developed and characterized for Hadamard encoding spectrometric applications. The mask is based upon a radically new implementation of liquid crystal technology using liquid crystal materials dispersed in a polymer matrix. The mask has several advantages compared to the previous state of the art. The mask contains 255 electrically switchable encoding elements to roughly double the spatial resolution. It exhibits improved On -Off contrast and has increased optical throughput when compared to prior art. A simple and inexpensive spectrometer that used the mask was designed, constructed, and characterized. The spectrometer uses a linear variable spectral filter to form the spectrum. This innovation results in an extremely simple optical design that is suitable for high light level experiments such as absorption. Light leakage limits the design to absorption determinations on samples of optical density of one or less. A special nature of the Hadamard encoded spectrum was discovered. Quantitative spectral information can be extracted from the encoded spectrum directly. The necessity to use the Hadamard transform can be circumvented. Instead, factor based regression techniques are used to form calibrations using the encodement data directly. Examples are given for quantitation of a single component in a mixture by Raman spectrometry and for two components in a mixture by absorption spectrometry. This technique promises to provide a powerful tool for using Hadamard encoded spectrometers for quantitative analysis.

  4. A method for genetic transformation of nonprotoplasted Streptococcus lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, M E; Nicholson, M A

    1987-01-01

    Plasmid transformation of whole cells of Streptococcus lactis LM0230 was demonstrated. The procedure required polyethylene glycol and incubation in hypertonic media, but did not require enzymatic cell wall digestion. Conditions were optimized, yielding 5 X 10(5) transformants per micrograms of pSA3 DNA. Variables tested for effect on transformation efficiency included molecular weight, concentration, and pH of polyethylene glycol; cell density; plating media; DNA concentration; heat shock; and incubation of cells in hypertonic buffer. DNAs transformed included pSA3, pVA856, pTV1, and c2 phi. Transformation from DNA-DNA ligation mixes, with DNA not purified through density gradients, and with previously frozen cells was also achieved. The method described here for transformation of nonprotoplasted cells of LM0230 is unique, and to date has not been applied successfully to other lactic acid bacteria. Images PMID:3116931

  5. Anisotropy minimization via least squares method for transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Mateus A F C; Gabrielli, Lucas H; Spadoti, Danilo H

    2014-07-28

    In this work the least squares method is used to reduce anisotropy in transformation optics technique. To apply the least squares method a power series is added on the coordinate transformation functions. The series coefficients were calculated to reduce the deviations in Cauchy-Riemann equations, which, when satisfied, result in both conformal transformations and isotropic media. We also present a mathematical treatment for the special case of transformation optics to design waveguides. To demonstrate the proposed technique a waveguide with a 30° of bend and with a 50% of increase in its output width was designed. The results show that our technique is simultaneously straightforward to be implement and effective in reducing the anisotropy of the transformation for an extremely low value close to zero. PMID:25089468

  6. Direct Linear Transformation Method for Three-Dimensional Cinematography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The ability of Direct Linear Transformation Method for three-dimensional cinematography to locate points in space was shown to meet the accuracy requirements associated with research on human movement. (JD)

  7. Data transformation methods for multiplexed assays

    DOEpatents

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2013-07-23

    Methods to improve the performance of an array assay are described. A correlation between fluorescence intensity-related parameters and negative control values of the assay is determined. The parameters are then adjusted as a function of the correlation. As a result, sensitivity of the assay is improved without changes in its specificity.

  8. Cell Phones Transform a Science Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    A science methods instructor intentionally encouraged cell phone use for class work to discover how cell phones can be used as research tools to enhance the content and engage the students. The anecdotal evidence suggested that students who used their smartphones as research tools experienced the science content and pedagogical information…

  9. A method for encapsulating high voltage power transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    Voltage breakdowns become a major concern in reducing the size of high-voltage power converter transformers. Even the smallest of voids can provide a path for corona discharge which can cause a dielectric breakdown leading to a transformer failure. A method of encapsulating small high voltage transformers has been developed. The method virtually eliminates voids in the impregnation material, provides an exceptional dielectric between windings and provides a mechanically rugged package. The encapsulation material is a CTBN modified mica filled epoxy. The method requires heat/vacuum to impregnate the coil and heat/pressure to cure the encapsulant. The transformer package utilizes a Diallyl Phthalate (DAP) contact assembly in which a coated core/coil assembly is mounted and soldered. This assembly is then loaded into an RTV mold and the encapsulation process begins.

  10. A method for encapsulating high voltage power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Robert O.

    Voltage breakdowns become a major concern in reducing the size of high-voltage power converter transformers. Even the smallest of voids can provide a path for corona discharge which can cause a dielectric breakdown leading to a transformer failure. A method of encapsulating small high voltage transformers has been developed. The method virtually eliminates voids in the impregnation material, provides an exceptional dielectric between windings and provides a mechanically rugged package. The encapsulation material is a carboxyl terminated butadiene nitril (CTBN) modified mica filled epoxy. The method requires heat/vacuum to impregnate the coil and heat/pressure to cure the encapsulant. The transformer package utilizes a diallyl phthalate (DAP) contact assembly in which a coated core/coil assembly is mounted and soldered. This assembly is then loaded into an RTV mold and the encapsulation process begins.

  11. Analytical method for space-fractional telegraph equation by homotopy perturbation transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Amit

    2016-06-01

    The object of the present article is to study spacefractional telegraph equation by fractional Homotopy perturbation transform method (FHPTM). The homotopy perturbation transform method is an innovative adjustment in Laplace transform algorithm. Three test examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  12. Transforming han: a correlational method for psychology and religion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Whachul

    2015-06-01

    Han is a destructive feeling in Korea. Although Korea accomplished significant exterior growth, Korean society is still experiencing the dark aspects of transforming han as evidenced by having the highest suicide rate in Asia. Some reasons for this may be the fragmentation between North and South Korea. If we can transform han then it can become constructive. I was challenged to think of possibilities for transforming han internally; this brings me to the correlational method through psychological and religious interpretation. This study is to challenge and encourage many han-ridden people in Korean society. Through the psychological and religious understanding of han, people suffering can positively transform their han. They can relate to han more subjectively, and this means the han-ridden psyche has an innate sacredness of potential to transform. PMID:25252804

  13. Transformation of Morinda citrifolia via simple mature seed imbibition method.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J; Ahmad, S; Roslan, H A

    2013-12-15

    Morinda citrifolia, is a valuable medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic properties and extensive transformation study on this plant has yet been known. Present study was conducted to establish a simple and reliable transformation protocol for M. citrifolia utilising Agrobacterium tumefaciens via direct seed exposure. In this study, the seeds were processed by tips clipping and dried and subsequently incubated in inoculation medium. Four different parameters during the incubation such as incubation period, bacterial density, temperature and binary vectors harbouring beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (pBI121 and pGSA1131), were tested to examine its effect on transformation efficiency. The leaves from the treated and germinated seedlings were analysed via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), histochemical assay of the GUS gene and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Results of the study showed that Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 with optical density of 1.0 and 2 h incubation period were optimum for M. citrifolia transformation. It was found that various co-cultivation temperatures tested and type of vector used did not affect the transformation efficiency. The highest transformation efficiency for M. citrifolia direct seed transformation harbouring pBI121 and pGSA1131 was determined to be 96.8% with 2 h co-cultivation treatment and 80.4% when using bacterial density of 1.0, respectively. The transformation method can be applied for future characterization study of M. citrifolia. PMID:24517006

  14. Spindle extraction method for ISAR image based on Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xia; Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xu, Gaogui

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a method of spindle extraction of target in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image is proposed which depends on Radon Transform. Firstly, utilizing Radon Transform to detect all straight lines which are collinear with these line segments in image. Then, using Sobel operator to detect image contour. Finally, finding all intersections of each straight line and image contour, the two intersections which have maximum distance between them is the two ends of this line segment and the longest line segment of all line segments is spindle of target. According to the proposed spindle extraction method, one hundred simulated ISAR images which are respectively rotated 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees in counterclockwise are used to do experiment and the proposed method and the detection results are more close to the real spindle of target than the method based on Hough Transform .

  15. Transformation ray method: controlling high frequency elastic waves (L).

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Gengkai; Hu, Jin

    2012-10-01

    Elastic ray theory is a high frequency asymptotic approximation of solution of elastodynamic equation, and is widely used in seismology. In this paper, the form invariance under a general spatial mapping and high frequency wave control have been examined by transformation method. It is showed that with the constraint of major and minor symmetry of the transformed elastic tensor, the eikonal equation keeps its form under a general mapping, however, the transport equation loses its form except for conformal mapping. Therefore, the elastic ray path can be controlled in an exact manner by a transformation method, whereas energy distribution along the ray is only approximately controlled. An elastic rotator based on ray tracing method is also provided to illustrate the method and to access the approximation. PMID:23039561

  16. A new image fusion method based on curvelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Binbin; Yang, Xiushun; Qi, Dening; Li, Congli; Lu, Wei

    2010-02-01

    A new image fusion method based on Multiscale Geometric Analysis (MGA), which uses the improved fusion rules, is put forward in this paper. Firstly, the input low-level-light image and infrared image are decomposed by Curvelet transform, which is realized by Unequally-Spaced Fast Fourier Transforms. Secondly, the decomposed coefficients in different scales and directions are fused by corresponding fusion rules. At last, the fusion image is acquired by recomposing the fused coefficients. The simulation results show that this method performs better than the conventional wavelet method both in the subjective vision aspect and the objective estimation indices.

  17. Glass bead transformation method for gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive and reproducible transformation method was developed for Gram-positive bacteria. It was based on agitation of bacterial protoplasts with glass beads in the presence of DNA and polyethylene glycol. By using this method, introduction of pGK12 into protoplasts of several strains of Gram-positive bacteria was achieved. PMID:24031442

  18. Use of the Transformative Framework in Mixed Methods Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetman, David; Badiee, Manijeh; Creswell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    A concern exists that mixed methods studies do not contain advocacy stances. Preliminary evidence suggests that this is not the case, but to address this issue in more depth the authors examined 13 mixed methods studies that contained an advocacy, transformative lens. Such a lens consisted of incorporating intent to advocate for an improvement in…

  19. Transforming Mean and Osculating Elements Using Numerical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    Mean element propagation of perturbed two body orbits has as its mathematical basis averaging theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. Averaged mean elements define the long-term evolution characteristics of an orbit. Using averaging theory, a near identity transformation can be found that transforms the mean elements back to the osculating elements that contain short period terms in addition to the secular and long period mean elements. The ability to perform the conversion is necessary so that orbit design conducted in mean elements can be converted back into osculating results. In the present work, this near identity transformation is found using the Fast Fourier Transform. An efficient method is found that is capable of recovering the osculating elements to first order

  20. Transforming Mean and Osculating Elements Using Numerical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Todd A.

    2015-03-01

    Mean element propagation of perturbed two body orbits has as its mathematical basis the averaging theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. Mean elements define an orbit's long-term evolution characteristics consisting of both secular and long-period effects. Using averaging theory, a near-identity transformation can be found that transforms between the mean elements and their osculating counterparts that augment the mean elements with short period effects. The ability to perform the conversion is necessary so that orbit design conducted in either mean elements or osculating can be effectively converted between each element type. In the present work, the near-identity transformation is found using the Fast Fourier Transform. An efficient method is found that is capable of recovering the mean or osculating elements to first-order.

  1. Physical methods for genetic transformation of fungi and yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Gómez-Lim, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

    2014-06-01

    The production of transgenic fungi is a routine process. Currently, it is possible to insert genes from other fungi, viruses, bacteria and even animals, albeit with low efficiency, into the genomes of a number of fungal species. Genetic transformation requires the penetration of the transgene through the fungal cell wall, a process that can be facilitated by biological or physical methods. Novel methodologies for the efficient introduction of specific genes and stronger promoters are needed to increase production levels. A possible solution to this problem is the recently discovered shock-wave-mediated transformation. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art of the physical methods used for genetic fungi transformation and to describe some of the basic physics and molecular biology behind them.

  2. Analysis of Tibet NM Data with Wavelet Transform Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y. Q.; Lu, H.; Hu H. B.; Tan, Y. H.; Zhang, J. L.; Le, G. M.; Labaciren; Meng, X. R.; Yuan, A. F.; Miyasaka, H.; Shimoda, S.; Yamada, Sakamoto, E.; Munakata, K.; Yuda, T.; Tibet NM Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The China-Japan coop erative Tibet neutron monitor(90.53°E,30.11° N,4300 m a.s.l.)b egan to work in October 1998.Now we have about 4 years data covering the 23rd solar maximum period.This is a work on correlative study of solar activity and cosmic ray intensity(CRI) by means of wavelet transform method,which is more sensitive to detect sharp variation points of CRI than Fourier transform method,these points represent modulation to cosmic rays of solar activities,esp ecially CME, which is thought as the main source of geomagnetic storm. After analysis,we find that CRI can provide some precursory imformation of CME.So CRI data can predict geomagnetic storm by wavelet transform analysis.

  3. Physical methods for genetic transformation of fungi and yeast.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Gómez-Lim, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M

    2014-06-01

    The production of transgenic fungi is a routine process. Currently, it is possible to insert genes from other fungi, viruses, bacteria and even animals, albeit with low efficiency, into the genomes of a number of fungal species. Genetic transformation requires the penetration of the transgene through the fungal cell wall, a process that can be facilitated by biological or physical methods. Novel methodologies for the efficient introduction of specific genes and stronger promoters are needed to increase production levels. A possible solution to this problem is the recently discovered shock-wave-mediated transformation. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art of the physical methods used for genetic fungi transformation and to describe some of the basic physics and molecular biology behind them. PMID:24507729

  4. Approximate method for controlling solid elastic waves by transformation media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Chang, Zheng; Hu, Gengkai

    2011-11-01

    By idealizing a general mapping as a series of local affine ones, we derive approximately transformed material parameters necessary to control solid elastic waves within classical elasticity theory. The transformed elastic moduli are symmetric, and can be used with Navier's equation to manipulate elastic waves. It is shown numerically that the method can provide a powerful tool to control elastic waves in solids in case of high frequency or small material gradient. Potential applications can be anticipated in nondestructive testing, structure impact protection, petroleum exploration, and seismology.

  5. Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.

  6. Frequency-dependent FDTD methods using Z transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Dennis M.

    1992-01-01

    While the frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain, or (FD)2TD, method can correctly calculate EM propagation through media whose dielectric properties are frequency-dependent, more elaborate applications lead to greater (FD)2TD complexity. Z-transform theory is presently used to develop the mathematical bases of the (FD)2TD method, simultaneously obtaining a clearer formulation and allowing researchers to draw on the existing literature of systems analysis and signal-processing.

  7. A Secret Image Sharing Method Using Integer Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chin-Pan; Li, Ching-Chung

    2007-12-01

    A new image sharing method, based on the reversible integer-to-integer (ITI) wavelet transform and Shamir's [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] threshold scheme is presented, that provides highly compact shadows for real-time progressive transmission. This method, working in the wavelet domain, processes the transform coefficients in each subband, divides each of the resulting combination coefficients into [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] shadows, and allows recovery of the complete secret image by using any [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] or more shadows [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. We take advantages of properties of the wavelet transform multiresolution representation, such as coefficient magnitude decay and excellent energy compaction, to design combination procedures for the transform coefficients and processing sequences in wavelet subbands such that small shadows for real-time progressive transmission are obtained. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method yields small shadow images and has the capabilities of real-time progressive transmission and perfect reconstruction of secret images.

  8. A dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method for power transformers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wensheng; Bai, Cuifen; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified. PMID:25685841

  9. The gridding method for image reconstruction by Fourier transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Schomberg, H.; Timmer, J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper explores a computational method for reconstructing an n-dimensional signal f from a sampled version of its Fourier transform {cflx f}. The method involves a window function {cflx w} and proceeds in three steps. First, the convolution {cflx g} = {cflx w} * {cflx f} is computed numerically on a Cartesian grid, using the available samples of {cflx f}. Then, g = wf is computed via the inverse discrete Fourier transform, and finally f is obtained as g/w. Due to the smoothing effect of the convolution, evaluating {cflx w} * {cflx f} is much less error prone than merely interpolating {cflx f}. The method was originally devised for image reconstruction in radio astronomy, but is actually applicable to a broad range of reconstructive imaging methods, including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In particular, it provides a fast and accurate alternative to the filtered backprojection. The basic method has several variants with other applications, such as the equidistant resampling of arbitrarily sampled signals or the fast computation of the Radon (Hough) transform.

  10. A transformation method for constrained-function minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, S. K.

    1975-01-01

    A direct method for constrained-function minimization is discussed. The method involves the construction of an appropriate function mapping all of one finite dimensional space onto the region defined by the constraints. Functions which produce such a transformation are constructed for a variety of constraint regions including, for example, those arising from linear and quadratic inequalities and equalities. In addition, the computational performance of this method is studied in the situation where the Davidon-Fletcher-Powell algorithm is used to solve the resulting unconstrained problem. Good performance is demonstrated for 19 test problems by achieving rapid convergence to a solution from several widely separated starting points.

  11. Comparison of Fourier transform methods for calculating MTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaVeigne, Joseph D.; Burks, Stephen D.; Nehring, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Fourier transform methods common in infrared spectroscopy were applied to the problem of calculating the modulation transfer function (MTF) from a system's measured line spread function (LSF). Algorithms, including apodization and phase correction, are discussed in their application to remove unwanted noise from the higher frequency portion of the MTF curve. In general, these methods were found to significantly improve the calculated MTF. Apodization reduces the proportion of noise by discarding areas of the LSF where there is no appreciable signal. Phase correction significantly reduces the rectification of noise that occurs when the MTF is calculated by taking the power spectrum of the complex optical transfer function (OTF).

  12. Measurement matrix optimization method based on matrix orthogonal similarity transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    Optimization of the measurement matrix is one of the important research aspects of compressive sensing theory. A measurement matrix optimization method is presented based on the orthogonal similarity transformation of the information operator's Gram matrix. In terms of the fact that the information operator's Gram matrix is a singular symmetric matrix, a simplified orthogonal similarity transformation is deduced, and thus the simplified diagonal matrix that is orthogonally similar to it is obtained. Then an approximation of the Gram matrix is obtained by letting all the nonzero diagonal entries of the simplified diagonal matrix equal their average value. Thus an optimized measurement matrix can be acquired according to its relationship with the information operator. Results of experiments show that the optimized measurement matrix compared to the random measurement matrix is less coherent with dictionaries. The relative signal recovery error also declines when the proposed measurement matrix is utilized.

  13. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations.

    PubMed

    Amon, Miha; Jager, Franc

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT) of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping), thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT) ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB). As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3) classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The KLT and LPT

  14. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT) of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping), thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT) ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB). As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3) classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The KLT and LPT

  15. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

    1997-08-26

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

  16. Universal calculation formula and calibration method in Fourier transform profilometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Yongfu; Li Sikun; Cheng Haobo; Su Xianyu; Zhang Qican

    2010-12-01

    We propose a universal calculation formula of Fourier transform profilometry and give a strict theoretical analysis about the phase-height mapping relation. As the request on the experimental setup of the universal calculation formula is unconfined, the projector and the camera can be located arbitrarily to get better fringe information, which makes the operation flexible. The phase-height calibration method under the universal condition is proposed, which can avoid measuring the system parameters directly. It makes the system easy to manipulate and improves the measurement velocity. A computer simulation and experiment are conducted to verify its validity. The calculation formula and calibration method have been applied to measure an object of 22.00 mm maximal height. The relative error of the measurement result is only 0.59%. The experimental results prove that the three-dimensional shape of tested objects can be reconstructed exactly by using the calculation formula and calibration method, and the system has better universality.

  17. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  18. Zoom synchrosqueezing transform and iterative demodulation: Methods with application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongrui; Xi, Songtao; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin

    2016-05-01

    Synchrosqueezing is a powerful time-frequency analysis tool for signals with time-varying frequency. However, as it is based on the continuous wavelet transform, its time-frequency representation (TFR) has better time but worse frequency resolution in higher frequency region, while worse time but better frequency resolution in lower frequency region. It makes the synchrosqueezing difficult to accurately estimate IFs with highly oscillating rate but small fluctuation amplitude. To address this issue, a zoom synchrosqueezing transform (ZST) is proposed to generate both excellent time and frequency resolution in a specific frequency region and analyze the mono-component signal in the particular frequency region to obtain accurate IF estimation results. For multi-component signals with nonlinear and close IFs, a ZST based dual iterative demodulation method is proposed, with the inner iteration to gradually refine and accurately extract a concerned mono-component, and the outer iteration to extract all mono-components gradually to alleviate the interference between individual components. Then satisfactory energy concentrated TFRs and accurate IF estimation results of mono-components can be obtained by the proposed ZST. The TFR of the multi-component signal can be gained by superposing the TFRs of all mono-components. The effectiveness of the proposed methods was validated using both simulated signals and a rub-impact signal collected from an engineering machine unit.

  19. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods

    PubMed Central

    Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students’ acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students’ personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students’ potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369

  20. Linear transformation method to control flexural waves in thin plates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongquan; Ma, Zhaoyang; Su, Xianyue

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the linear transformation method (LTM) to control flexural waves propagating in thin plates is presented. Unlike earlier studies, only a small number of homogeneous materials with no requirement of in-plane forces or pre-stress are needed, which tremendously simplifies the implementation of devices for flexural waves. An invisibility cloak with homogeneous materials is studied to confirm the validity of the present approach, and to show its imperfection due to impedance mismatch at interfaces. Required materials can be further simplified as layered isotropic materials using the effective medium theory. Finally, the LTM can be extended to the case of flexural waves propagating in anisotropic thin plates. The present method opens a promising avenue toward the realization of advanced structured shields and other devices. PMID:27586744

  1. Optimal PMU placement using topology transformation method in power systems.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nadia H A; Zobaa, Ahmed F

    2016-09-01

    Optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement involves the process of minimizing the number of PMUs needed while ensuring the entire power system completely observable. A power system is identified observable when the voltages of all buses in the power system are known. This paper proposes selection rules for topology transformation method that involves a merging process of zero-injection bus with one of its neighbors. The result from the merging process is influenced by the selection of bus selected to merge with the zero-injection bus. The proposed method will determine the best candidate bus to merge with zero-injection bus according to the three rules created in order to determine the minimum number of PMUs required for full observability of the power system. In addition, this paper also considered the case of power flow measurements. The problem is formulated as integer linear programming (ILP). The simulation for the proposed method is tested by using MATLAB for different IEEE bus systems. The explanation of the proposed method is demonstrated by using IEEE 14-bus system. The results obtained in this paper proved the effectiveness of the proposed method since the number of PMUs obtained is comparable with other available techniques. PMID:27489729

  2. Novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform method of synthetic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, T.M.; Albano, R.K.

    1993-08-01

    We have developed a one-dimensional theory and a computer model for synthetically imaging scenes using a novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform technique. Our method probes a scene using two interfering beams of slightly different frequency. These beams form a moving fringe pattern which scans the scene and resonates with any spatial frequency components having the same spatial frequency as the scanning fringe pattern. A simple, non-imaging detector above the scene observes any scattered radiation from the scene falling onto it. If a resonance occurs between the scanning fringe pattern and the scene, then the scattered radiation will be modulated at the difference frequency between the two probing beams. By changing the spatial period of the fringe pattern and then measuring the amplitude and phase of the modulated radiation that is scattered from the scene, the Fourier amplitudes and phases of the different spatial frequency components making up the scene can be measured. A synthetic image of the scene being probed can be generated from this Fourier amplitude and phase data by taking the inverse Fourier transform of this information. This technique could be used to image objects using light, ultrasonic, or other electromagnetic or acoustic waves.

  3. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  4. A modified Monte Carlo 'local importance function transform' method

    SciTech Connect

    Keady, K. P.; Larsen, E. W.

    2013-07-01

    The Local Importance Function Transform (LIFT) method uses an approximation of the contribution transport problem to bias a forward Monte-Carlo (MC) source-detector simulation [1-3]. Local (cell-based) biasing parameters are calculated from an inexpensive deterministic adjoint solution and used to modify the physics of the forward transport simulation. In this research, we have developed a new expression for the LIFT biasing parameter, which depends on a cell-average adjoint current to scalar flux (J{sup *}/{phi}{sup *}) ratio. This biasing parameter differs significantly from the original expression, which uses adjoint cell-edge scalar fluxes to construct a finite difference estimate of the flux derivative; the resulting biasing parameters exhibit spikes in magnitude at material discontinuities, causing the original LIFT method to lose efficiency in problems with high spatial heterogeneity. The new J{sup *}/{phi}{sup *} expression, while more expensive to obtain, generates biasing parameters that vary smoothly across the spatial domain. The result is an improvement in simulation efficiency. A representative test problem has been developed and analyzed to demonstrate the advantage of the updated biasing parameter expression with regards to solution figure of merit (FOM). For reference, the two variants of the LIFT method are compared to a similar variance reduction method developed by Depinay [4, 5], as well as MC with deterministic adjoint weight windows (WW). (authors)

  5. Method and Appartus for Calibrating a Linear Variable Differential Transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Pokrywka, Robert J.

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  6. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    DOEpatents

    Pokrywka, Robert J.

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  7. A study of geometric phase topology using Fourier transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samlan, C. T.; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-07-01

    Topological aspect of the geometric phase (GP) due to pure polarization projection is studied using the 2D Fourier transform (2D-FT) method. Projection of orthogonal polarization state results in a phase singularity in the 2D parameter space of ellipticity and orientation of polarization ellipse. Projection of its surrounding states results in an accumulation of GP in different amount that form a spiral structure. A half wave plate–quarter wave plate combination is used to generate different polarization states which are projected using a polarizer. The accumulated phase for each orientation of the wave plate is extracted from 2D-FT of the interferogram, obtained by interfering it with a reference beam in a Mach–Zehnder like interferometer.

  8. TRANSFORMER

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  9. Evolute-based Hough transform method for characterization of ellipsoids.

    PubMed

    Kaytanli, B; Valentine, M T

    2013-03-01

    We propose a novel and algorithmically simple Hough transform method that exploits the geometric properties of ellipses to enable the robust determination of the ellipse position and properties. We make use of the unique features of the evolute created by Hough voting along the gradient vectors of a two-dimensional image to determine the ellipse centre, orientation and aspect ratio. A second one-dimensional voting is performed on the minor axis to uniquely determine the ellipse size. This reduction of search space substantially simplifies the algorithmic complexity. To demonstrate the accuracy of our method, we present analysis of single and multiple ellipsoidal particles, including polydisperse and imperfect ellipsoids, in both simulated images and electron micrographs. Given its mathematical simplicity, ease of implementation and reasonable algorithmic completion time, we anticipate that the proposed method will be broadly useful for image processing of ellipsoidal particles, including their detection and tracking for studies of colloidal suspensions, and for applications to drug delivery and microrheology. PMID:23301634

  10. Method of Estimating Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Ray, Chandra S.; Day, Delbert E.

    2006-01-01

    A method is proposed for estimating the critical cooling rate and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve from isothermal TTT data of glasses. The critical cooling rates and CCT curves for a group of lithium disilicate glasses containing different amounts of Pt as nucleating agent estimated through this method are compared with the experimentally measured values. By analysis of the experimental and calculated data of the lithium disilicate glasses, a simple relationship between the crystallized amount in the glasses during continuous cooling, X, and the temperature of undercooling, (Delta)T, was found to be X = AR(sup-4)exp(B (Delta)T), where (Delta)T is the temperature difference between the theoretical melting point of the glass composition and the temperature in discussion, R is the cooling rate, and A and B are constants. The relation between the amount of crystallisation during continuous cooling and isothermal hold can be expressed as (X(sub cT)/X(sub iT) = (4/B)(sup 4) (Delta)T(sup -4), where X(sub cT) stands for the crystallised amount in a glass during continuous cooling for a time t when the temperature comes to T, and X(sub iT) is the crystallised amount during isothermal hold at temperature T for a time t.

  11. Category's analysis and operational project capacity method of transformation in design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obednina, S. V.; Bystrova, T. Y.

    2015-10-01

    The method of transformation is attracting widespread interest in fields such contemporary design. However, in theory of design little attention has been paid to a categorical status of the term "transformation". This paper presents the conceptual analysis of transformation based on the theory of form employed in the influential essays by Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. In the present work the transformation as a method of shaping design has been explored as well as potential application of this term in design has been demonstrated.

  12. Transformation Methods for Using Combination of Remotely Sensed Data and Cadastral Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dönmez, Ş. Ö.; Tunc, A.

    2016-06-01

    In order to examine using cadastral maps as base maps for aerial orthophotos, two different 2D transformation methods were applied between various coordinate systems. Study area was chosen from Kagithane district in Istanbul. The used data is an orthophoto (30 cm spatial resolution), and cadastral map (1:1000) taken from land office, containing the same region. Transformation methods are chosen as; 1st Order Polynomial Transformation and Helmert 2D Transformation within this study. The test points, used to determine the coefficients between the datums, were 26 common traverse points and the check points, used to compare the transformed coordinates to reliable true coordinates, were 10 common block corners. The transformation methods were applied using Matlab software. After applying the methods, residuals were calculated and compared between each transformation method in order to use cadastral maps as reliable vector data.

  13. Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data

    DOEpatents

    Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent

    2010-11-23

    Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.

  14. Apparatus and methods for continuous beam fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.

    2002-01-01

    A continuous beam Fourier transform mass spectrometer in which a sample of ions to be analyzed is trapped in a trapping field, and the ions in the range of the mass-to-charge ratios to be analyzed are excited at their characteristic frequencies of motion by a continuous excitation signal. The excited ions in resonant motions generate real or image currents continuously which can be detected and processed to provide a mass spectrum.

  15. An improved method for the enzymatic transformation of nucleosides into 5'-monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Barai, Vladimir N; Kvach, Sergei V; Zinchenko, Anatoli I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2004-12-01

    An improved method to transform nucleosides into 5'-monophosphates using nucleoside phosphotransferase from Erwinia herbicola is reported. The method is based on the shift in the equilibrium state of the reaction to the formation of desired product due to its precipitation by Zn2+. Under optimal conditions, the extent of nucleoside transformations into nucleoside-5'-monophosphates were 41-91% (mol). PMID:15672226

  16. A Unified Method of Finding Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. [and] An Inversion Method for Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. Integral Transforms and Series Expansions. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 324 and 325.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, C. A.

    This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…

  17. A method of real-time fault diagnosis for power transformers based on vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Kaixing; Huang, Hai; Zhou, Jianping; Shen, Yimin; Li, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel probability-based classification model is proposed for real-time fault detection of power transformers. First, the transformer vibration principle is introduced, and two effective feature extraction techniques are presented. Next, the details of the classification model based on support vector machine (SVM) are shown. The model also includes a binary decision tree (BDT) which divides transformers into different classes according to health state. The trained model produces posterior probabilities of membership to each predefined class for a tested vibration sample. During the experiments, the vibrations of transformers under different conditions are acquired, and the corresponding feature vectors are used to train the SVM classifiers. The effectiveness of this model is illustrated experimentally on typical in-service transformers. The consistency between the results of the proposed model and the actual condition of the test transformers indicates that the model can be used as a reliable method for transformer fault detection.

  18. On the Inclusion of Difference Equation Problems and Z Transform Methods in Sophomore Differential Equation Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoye, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, I started covering difference equations and z transform methods in my introductory differential equations course. This allowed my students to extend the "classical" methods for (ordinary differential equation) ODE's to discrete time problems arising in many applications.

  19. A multistage differential transformation method for approximate solution of Hantavirus infection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökdoğan, Ahmet; Merdan, Mehmet; Yildirim, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is presented a reliable algorithm based on the standard differential transformation method (DTM), which is called the multi-stage differential transformation method (MsDTM) for solving Hantavirus infection model. The results obtanied by using MsDTM are compared to those obtained by using the Runge-Kutta method (R-K-method). The proposed technique is a hopeful tool to solving for a long time intervals in this kind of systems.

  20. Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis methods in biomedical signal applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Feng; Zhu, Jin-De

    2012-03-01

    Hilbert-Huang transformation, wavelet transformation, and Fourier transformation are the principal time-frequency analysis methods. These transformations can be used to discuss the frequency characteristics of linear and stationary signals, the time-frequency features of linear and non-stationary signals, the time-frequency features of non-linear and non-stationary signals, respectively. The Hilbert-Huang transformation is a combination of empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert spectral analysis. The empirical mode decomposition uses the characteristics of signals to adaptively decompose them to several intrinsic mode functions. Hilbert transforms are then used to transform the intrinsic mode functions into instantaneous frequencies, to obtain the signal's time-frequency-energy distributions and features. Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis can be applied to natural physical signals such as earthquake waves, winds, ocean acoustic signals, mechanical diagnosis signals, and biomedical signals. In previous studies, we examined Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis of the electroencephalogram FPI signals of clinical alcoholics, and 'sharp I' wave-based Hilbert-Huang transformation time-frequency features. In this paper, we discuss the application of Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis to biomedical signals, such as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram signals, electrogastrogram recordings, and speech signals. PMID:22558835

  1. Cell classification by moments and continuous wavelet transform methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Fan, Yuan; Udpa, Lalita; Ayres, Virginia M

    2007-01-01

    Image processing techniques are bringing new insights to biomedical research. The automatic recognition and classification of biomedical objects can enhance work efficiency while identifying new inter-relationships among biological features. In this work, a simple rule-based decision tree classifier is developed to classify typical features of mixed cell types investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A combination of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and moment-based features are extracted from the AFM data to represent that shape information of different cellular objects at multiple resolution levels. The features are shown to be invariant under operations of translation, rotation, and scaling. The features are then used in a simple rule-based classifier to discriminate between anucleate versus nucleate cell types or to distinguish cells from a fibrous environment such as a tissue scaffold or stint. Since each feature has clear physical meaning, the decision rule of this tree classifier is simple, which makes it very suitable for online processing. Experimental results on AFM data confirm that the performance of this classifier is robust and reliable. PMID:17722546

  2. Design of piezoelectric transformer for DC/DC converter with stochastic optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasic, Dejan; Vido, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectric transformers were adopted in recent year due to their many inherent advantages such as safety, no EMI problem, low housing profile, and high power density, etc. The characteristics of the piezoelectric transformers are well known when the load impedance is a pure resistor. However, when piezoelectric transformers are used in AC/DC or DC/DC converters, there are non-linear electronic circuits connected before and after the transformer. Consequently, the output load is variable and due to the output capacitance of the transformer the optimal working point change. This paper starts from modeling a piezoelectric transformer connected to a full wave rectifier in order to discuss the design constraints and configuration of the transformer. The optimization method adopted here use the MOPSO algorithm (Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization). We start with the formulation of the objective function and constraints; then the results give different sizes of the transformer and the characteristics. In other word, this method is looking for a best size of the transformer for optimal efficiency condition that is suitable for variable load. Furthermore, the size and the efficiency are found to be a trade-off. This paper proposes the completed design procedure to find the minimum size of PT in need. The completed design procedure is discussed by a given specification. The PT derived from the proposed design procedure can guarantee both good efficiency and enough range for load variation.

  3. Transforming student's discourse as a method of teaching science inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, David

    2005-07-01

    A qualitative case study on the instructional practice of one secondary science teacher addresses the persistent reluctance of many science teachers to integrate the cultural resources and social practices of professional science communities into the science content they teach. The literature has shown that teachers' hesitation to implement a social and locally situated learning strategy curtails students' ability to draw upon the language of science necessary to co-construct and shape authentic science inquiry and in particular appropriate argument schemes. The study hypothesized that a teacher's dialogic facilitation of a particular social context and instructional practices enhances a students' ability to express verbally the claims and warrants that rise from evidence taken from their inquiries of natural phenomena. The study also tracks students' use of the Key Words and Ideas of this science curriculum for the purpose of assessing the degree of students' assimilation of these terms into their speech and written expressions of inquiry. The theoretical framework is Vygotskian (1978) and the analysis of the qualitative data is founded on Toulmin (1958), Walton (1996), Jimenez-Alexandre et al. (2000) and Shavelson (1996). The dialogic structure of this teacher's facilitation of student's science knowledge is shown to utilize students' presumptive statements to hone their construction of inductive or deductive arguments. This instructional practice may represent teacher-student activity within the zone of proximal development and supports Vygotsky's notion that a knowledgeable other is instrumental in transforming student's spontaneous talk into scientific speech. The tracking of the curriculum's Key Words and Ideas into students' speech and writing indicated that this teachers' ability to facilitate students' presumptuous reasoning into logic statements did not necessarily guarantee that they could post strong written expressions of this verbal know-how in

  4. Using generalized Cayley transformations within an inexact rational Krylov sequence method.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, R. B.; Meerbergen, K.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Utrecht Univ.

    1999-01-01

    The rational Krylov sequence (RKS) method is a generalization of Arnoldi's method. It constructs an orthogonal reduction of a matrix pencil into an upper Hessenberg pencil. The RKS method is useful when the matrix pencil may be efficiently factored. This article considers approximately solving the resulting linear systems with iterative methods. We show that a Cayley transformation leads to a more efficient and robust eigensolver than the usual shift-invert transformation when the linear systems are solved inexactly within the RKS method. A relationship with the recently introduced Jacobi--Davidson method is also established.

  5. Solution of the Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation by the Laplace Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S. H.; Eyring, H.

    1971-01-01

    The time-dependent Schrödinger equation for two quite general types of perturbation has been solved by introducing the Laplace transforms to eliminate the time variable. The resulting time-independent differential equation can then be solved by the perturbation method, the variation method, the variation-perturbation method, and other methods. PMID:16591898

  6. METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL EMISSIONS FROM INCINERATION AND CAPACITOR AND TRANSFORMER FILLING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Described are methods to measure the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from the stacks of municipal waste, industrial waste, and sewage sludge incinerators and from capacitor and transformer filling plants. The PCB emissions from the incineration plants are collected by im...

  7. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we…

  8. Two-dimensional cylindrical thermal cloak designed by implicit transformation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xuebo; Lin, Guochang; Wang, Youshan

    2016-07-01

    As a new-type technology of heat management, thermal metamaterials have attracted more and more attentions recently and thermal cloak is a typical case. Thermal conductivity of thermal cloak designed by coordinate transformation method is usually featured by inhomogeneity, anisotropy and local singularity. Explicit transformation method, which is commonly used to design thermal cloak with the coordinate transformation known in advance, has insufficient flexibility, making it hard to proactively reduce the difficulty of device fabrication. In this work, we designed the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) cylindrical thermal cloak using the implicit transformation method without knowledge of the coordinate transformation in advance. With two classes of generation functions taken into consideration, this study adopted full-wave simulations to analyze the thermal cloaking performances of designed thermal cloaks. Material distributions and simulation results showed that the implicit transformation method has high flexibility. The form of coordinate transformation not only influences the homogeneity and anisotropy but also directly influences the thermal cloaking performance. An improved layered structure for 2D cylindrical thermal cloak was put forward based on the generation function g(r) = r15, which reduces the number of the kinds of constituent materials while guaranteeing good thermal cloaking performance. This work provides a beneficial guidance for reducing the fabrication difficulty of thermal cloak.

  9. Advantages of Analytical Transformations in Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, M S; Brooks III, E D; Daffin, F

    2004-12-13

    Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport typically attempt to solve an integral by directly sampling analog or weighted particles, which are treated as physical entities. Improvements to the methods involve better sampling, probability games or physical intuition about the problem. We show that significant improvements can be achieved by recasting the equations with an analytical transform to solve for new, non-physical entities or fields. This paper looks at one such transform, the difference formulation for thermal photon transport, showing a significant advantage for Monte Carlo solution of the equations for time dependent transport. Other related areas are discussed that may also realize significant benefits from similar analytical transformations.

  10. Rapid DNA transformation in Salmonella Typhimurium by the hydrogel exposure method.

    PubMed

    Elabed, Hamouda; Hamza, Rim; Bakhrouf, Amina; Gaddour, Kamel

    2016-07-01

    Even with advances in molecular cloning and DNA transformation, new or alternative methods that permit DNA penetration in Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium are required in order to use this pathogen in biotechnological or medical applications. In this work, an adapted protocol of bacterial transformation with plasmid DNA based on the "Yoshida effect" was applied and optimized on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 reference strain. The plasmid transference based on the use of sepiolite as acicular materials to promote cell piercing via friction forces produced by spreading on the surface of a hydrogel. The transforming mixture containing sepiolite nanofibers, bacterial cells to be transformed and plasmid DNA were plated directly on selective medium containing 2% agar. In order to improve the procedure, three variables were tested and the transformation of Salmonella cells was accomplished using plasmids pUC19 and pBR322. Using the optimized protocol on Salmonella LT2 strain, the efficiency was about 10(5) transformed cells per 10(9) subjected to transformation with 0.2μg plasmid DNA. In summary, the procedure is fast, offers opportune efficiency and promises to become one of the widely used transformation methods in laboratories. PMID:27154729

  11. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-01-01

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203

  12. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-01-01

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203

  13. FFT-enhanced IHS transform method for fusing high-resolution satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Y.; Ehlers, M.; Usery, E.L.; Madden, M.

    2007-01-01

    Existing image fusion techniques such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) transform and principal components analysis (PCA) methods may not be optimal for fusing the new generation commercial high-resolution satellite images such as Ikonos and QuickBird. One problem is color distortion in the fused image, which causes visual changes as well as spectral differences between the original and fused images. In this paper, a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-enhanced IHS method is developed for fusing new generation high-resolution satellite images. This method combines a standard IHS transform with FFT filtering of both the panchromatic image and the intensity component of the original multispectral image. Ikonos and QuickBird data are used to assess the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method. Experimental results indicate that the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method may improve upon the standard IHS transform and the PCA methods in preserving spectral and spatial information. ?? 2006 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).

  14. Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library

    SciTech Connect

    Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie

    2015-06-02

    The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.

  15. A method to analyze molecular tagging velocimetry data using the Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, R.; McManamen, B.; Bowersox, R. D. W.; North, S. W.

    2015-10-01

    The development of a method to analyze molecular tagging velocimetry data based on the Hough transform is presented. This method, based on line fitting, parameterizes the grid lines "written" into a flowfield. Initial proof-of-principle illustration of this method was performed to obtain two-component velocity measurements in the wake of a cylinder in a Mach 4.6 flow, using a data set derived from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The Hough transform is attractive for molecular tagging velocimetry applications since it is capable of discriminating spurious features that can have a biasing effect in the fitting process. Assessment of the precision and accuracy of the method were also performed to show the dependence on analysis window size and signal-to-noise levels. The accuracy of this Hough transform-based method to quantify intersection displacements was determined to be comparable to cross-correlation methods. The employed line parameterization avoids the assumption of linearity in the vicinity of each intersection, which is important in the limit of drastic grid deformations resulting from large velocity gradients common in high-speed flow applications. This Hough transform method has the potential to enable the direct and spatially accurate measurement of local vorticity, which is important in applications involving turbulent flowfields. Finally, two-component velocity determinations using the Hough transform from experimentally obtained images are presented, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed analysis method.

  16. A method to analyze molecular tagging velocimetry data using the Hough transform.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, R; McManamen, B; Bowersox, R D W; North, S W

    2015-10-01

    The development of a method to analyze molecular tagging velocimetry data based on the Hough transform is presented. This method, based on line fitting, parameterizes the grid lines "written" into a flowfield. Initial proof-of-principle illustration of this method was performed to obtain two-component velocity measurements in the wake of a cylinder in a Mach 4.6 flow, using a data set derived from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The Hough transform is attractive for molecular tagging velocimetry applications since it is capable of discriminating spurious features that can have a biasing effect in the fitting process. Assessment of the precision and accuracy of the method were also performed to show the dependence on analysis window size and signal-to-noise levels. The accuracy of this Hough transform-based method to quantify intersection displacements was determined to be comparable to cross-correlation methods. The employed line parameterization avoids the assumption of linearity in the vicinity of each intersection, which is important in the limit of drastic grid deformations resulting from large velocity gradients common in high-speed flow applications. This Hough transform method has the potential to enable the direct and spatially accurate measurement of local vorticity, which is important in applications involving turbulent flowfields. Finally, two-component velocity determinations using the Hough transform from experimentally obtained images are presented, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed analysis method. PMID:26520983

  17. Refined Fourier-transform method of analysis of full two-dimensional digitized interferograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovrić, Davorin; Vučić, Zlatko; Gladić, Jadranko; Demoli, Nazif; Mitrović, Slobodan; Milas, Mirko

    2003-03-01

    A refined Fourier-transform method of analysis of interference patterns is presented. The refinements include a method of automatic background subtraction and a way of treating the problem of heterodyning. The method proves particularly useful for analysis of long sequences of interferograms.

  18. Spectral residual method of saliency detection based on the two-dimensional fractional Fourier transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jiangxue; Qi, Lin; Wang, Yaxing

    2015-12-01

    As one of classic methods of frequency domain based saliency detection, Spectral residual (SR) method has shown several advantages. However, it usually produces higher saliency values at object edges instead of generating maps that uniformly cover the whole object, which results from failing to exploit all the spatial frequency content of the original image. The Two-Dimensional Fractional Fourier transform (2D-FRFT) is a generalized form of the traditional Fourier Transform (FT) which can abstract more meaningful information of the image under certain conditions. Based on this property, we propose a new method which detects the salient region based on 2D-FRFT domain. Moreover, we also use Hough transform detection and a band-pass filter to refine the saliency map. We conduct experiments on a common used dataset: MSRA. The proposed method is compared with several other saliency detection methods and shown to achieve superior result.

  19. Comparison of short-time Fourier transform and Eigenvector MUSIC methods using discrete wavelet transform for diagnosis of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Latifoğlu, Fatma; Kara, Sadik; Imal, Erkan

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, a more effective use of Doppler techniques is presented for the purpose of diagnosing atherosclerosis in its early stages using the carotid artery Doppler signals. The power spectral density (PSD) graphics are obtained by applying the short-time Fourier transform (STFT)-Welch and the Eigenvector MUSIC methods to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of Doppler signals. The PSDs for the fourth approximation component (A4) of both methods estimated that the patients with atherosclerosis in its early phase had lower maximum frequency components. On the other hand, the healthy subjects had higher maximum frequency components. The area under the curve (AUC), which belongs to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the frequency level of the maximum PSDs of the A4 approximation obtained from the STFT modeling, is computed as 0.97. The AUC for the MUSIC modeling is computed as 0.996. The AUC belonging to the ROC curve for the higher maximum frequency component is computed as 0.87. The AUC belonging to the ROC curve for the test parameter of the frequency level of the maximum PSDs derived from the MUSIC modeling is determined to be 0.882. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish between the healthy people and the patients with atherosclerosis by using the frequency level of the maximum PSDs for the A4 approximation. Furthermore, it is concluded that the power of Eigenvector-MUSIC method in terms of the resolution of the high frequencies is better than that of the STFT methods. PMID:19408452

  20. Canonical Lie-transform method in Hamiltonian gyrokinetics: a new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolini, Piero; Tessarotto, Massimo

    2005-05-16

    The well-known gyrokinetic problem regards the perturbative expansion related to the dynamics of a charged particle subject to fast gyration motion due to the presence of a strong magnetic field. Although a variety of approaches have been formulated in the past to this well known problem, surprisingly a purely canonical approach based on Lie transform methods is still missing. This paper aims to fill in this gap and provide at the same time new insight in Lie-transform approaches.

  1. A Simple and Non-Invasive Method for Nuclear Transformation of Intact-walled Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sora; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Uk; Huh, Yun Suk; Kim, Geun-Joong; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Genetic engineering in microalgae is gaining attraction but nuclear transformation methods available so far are either inefficient or require special equipment. In this study, we employ positively charged nanoparticles, 3-aminopropyl-functionalized magnesium phyllosilicate (aminoclay, approximate unit cell composition of [H2N(CH2)3]8Si8Mg6O12(OH)4), for nuclear transformation into eukaryotic microalgae. TEM and EDX analysis of the process of transformation reveals that aminoclay coats negatively-charged DNA biomolecules and forms a self-assembled hybrid nanostructure. Subsequently, when this nanostructure is mixed with microalgal cells and plated onto selective agar plates with high friction force, cell wall is disrupted facilitating delivery of plasmid DNA into the cell and ultimately to the nucleus. This method is not only simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic to cells but also provides efficient transformation (5.03×102 transformants/µg DNA), second only to electroporation which needs advanced instrumentation. We present optimized parameters for efficient transformation including pre-treatment, friction force, concentration of foreign DNA/aminoclay, and plasticity of agar plates. It is also confirmed the successful integration and stable expression of foreign gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through molecular methods. PMID:24988123

  2. [Research on spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer data processing method].

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Xiangli, Bin; Lü, Qun-Bo; Zhou, Jin-Song; Jing, Juan-Juan; Cui, Yan

    2010-03-01

    Fourier transform imaging spectrometer is a new technic, and has been developed very rapidly in nearly ten years. The data catched by Fourier transform imaging spectrometer is indirect data, can not be used by user, and need to be processed by various approaches, including data pretreatment, apodization, phase correction, FFT, and spectral radicalization calibration. No paper so far has been found roundly to introduce this method. In the present paper, the author will give an effective method to process the interfering data to spectral data, and with this method we can obtain good result. PMID:20496726

  3. In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2014-03-01

    Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro∷PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1α2 pro∷GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

  4. A simple bacterial transformation method using magnesium- and calcium-aminoclays.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyoung-An; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Jin-Young; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Han, Hyo-Kyung; Kim, Geun-Joong

    2013-11-01

    An efficient and user-friendly bacterial transformation method by simple spreading cells with aminoclays was demonstrated. Compared to the reported transformation approaches using DNA adsorption or wrapping onto (in)organic fibers, the spontaneously generated clay-coated DNA suprastructures by mixing DNA with aminoclay resulted in transformants in both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive cells (Streptococcus mutans). Notably, the wild type S. mutans showed comparable transformation efficiency to that of the E. coli host for recombinant DNA cloning. This is a potentially promising result because other trials such as heat-shock, electroporation, and treatment with sepiolite for introducing DNA into the wild type S. mutans failed. Under defined conditions, the transformation efficiency of E. coli XL1-Blue and S. mutans exhibited ~2 × 10(5) and ~6 × 10(3)CFU/μg of plasmid DNA using magnesium-aminoclay. In contrast, transformation efficiency was higher in S. mutans than that in E. coli XL1-Blue for calcium-aminoclay. It was also confirmed that each plasmid transformed into E. coli and S. mutans was stably maintained and that they expressed the inserted gene encoding the green fluorescent protein during prolonged growth of up to 80 generations. PMID:23911572

  5. [Comparison of correction methods for nonlinear optic path difference of reflecting rotating Fourier transform spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Jing, Juan-Juan; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xiangli, Bin; Lü, Qun-Bo; Wei, Ru-Yi

    2010-06-01

    The principle of reflecting rotating Fourier transform spectrometer was introduced in the present paper. The nonlinear problem of optical path difference (OPD) of rotating Fourier transform spectrometer universally exists, produced by the rotation of rotating mirror. The nonlinear OPD will lead to fictitious recovery spectrum, so it is necessary to compensate the nonlinear OPD. Three methods of correction for the nonlinear OPD were described and compared in this paper, namely NUFFT method, OPD replace method and interferograms fitting method. The result indicates that NUFFT was the best method for the compensation of nonlinear OPD, OPD replace method was better, its precision was almost the same as NUFFT method, and their relative error are superior to 0.13%, but the computation efficiency of OPD replace method is slower than NUFFT method, while the precision and computation efficiency of interferograms fitting method are not so satisfied, because the interferograms are rapid fluctuant especially around the zero optical path difference, so it is unsuitable for polynomial fitting, and because this method needs piecewise fitting, its computation efficiency is the slowest, thus the NUFFT method is the most suited method for the nonlinear OPD compensation of reflecting rotating Fourier transform spectrometer. PMID:20707175

  6. A Fruiting Body Tissue Method for Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Stone, Michelle; Schlagnhaufer, Carl; Romaine, C. Peter

    2000-01-01

    We describe a modified Agrobacterium-mediated method for the efficient transformation of Agaricus bisporus. Salient features of this procedure include cocultivation of Agrobacterium and fruiting body gill tissue and use of a vector with a homologous promoter. This method offers new prospects for the genetic manipulation of this commercially important mushroom species. PMID:11010906

  7. Knowledge Transmission versus Social Transformation: A Critical Analysis of Purpose in Elementary Social Studies Methods Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Brandon M.; Suh, Yonghee; Scott, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate the extent to which 9 elementary social studies methods textbooks present the purpose of teaching and learning social studies. Using Stanley's three perspectives of teaching social studies for knowledge transmission, method of intelligence, and social transformation; we analyze how these texts prepare…

  8. A new Sumudu transform iterative method for time-fractional Cauchy reaction-diffusion equation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangle; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new Sumudu transform iterative method is established and successfully applied to find the approximate analytical solutions for time-fractional Cauchy reaction-diffusion equations. The approach is easy to implement and understand. The numerical results show that the proposed method is very simple and efficient. PMID:27386314

  9. Chemometric Analysis of Multicomponent Biodegradable Plastics by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry: The R-Matrix Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new chemometric method based on absorbance ratios from Fourier transform infrared spectra was devised to analyze multicomponent biodegradable plastics. The method uses the BeerLambert law to directly compute individual component concentrations and weight losses before and after biodegradation of c...

  10. Comparative analysis of direct and "step-by-step" Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silenko, A. Ya.

    2013-08-01

    Relativistic methods for the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation of the "step-by-step" type already at the first step give an expression for the Hamilton operator not coinciding with the exact result determined by the Eriksen method. The methods agree for the zeroth and first orders in the Planck constant terms but do not agree for the second and higher-order terms. We analyze the benefits and drawbacks of various methods and establish their applicability boundaries.

  11. A depth estimation method based on geometric transformation for stereo light microscope.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengli; Yu, Mei; Wang, Yigang; Jiang, Gangyi

    2014-01-01

    Stereo light microscopes (SLM) with narrow vision and shallow depth of field are widely used in micro-domain research. In this paper, we propose a depth estimation method of micro objects based on geometric transformation. By analyzing the optical imaging geometry, the definition of geometric transformation distance is given and the depth-distance relation express is obtained. The parameters of geometric transformation and express are calibrated with calibration board images captured in aid of precise motorized stage. The depth of micro object can be estimated by calculating the geometric transformation distance. The proposed depth-distance relation express is verified using an experiment in which the depth map of an Olanzapine tablet surface is reconstructed. PMID:25226979

  12. A direct method to transform between expansions in the configuration state function and Slater determinant bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jeppe

    2014-07-01

    A novel algorithm is introduced for the transformation of wave functions between the bases of Slater determinants (SD) and configuration state functions (CSF) in the genealogical coupling scheme. By modifying the expansion coefficients as each electron is spin-coupled, rather than performing a single many-electron transformation, the large transformation matrix that plagues previous approaches is avoided and the required number of operations is drastically reduced. As an example of the efficiency of the algorithm, the transformation for a configuration with 30 unpaired electrons and singlet spin is discussed. For this case, the 10 × 106 coefficients in the CSF basis is obtained from the 150 × 106 coefficients in the SD basis in 1 min, which should be compared with the seven years that the previously employed method is estimated to require.

  13. A direct method to transform between expansions in the configuration state function and Slater determinant bases

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Jeppe

    2014-07-21

    A novel algorithm is introduced for the transformation of wave functions between the bases of Slater determinants (SD) and configuration state functions (CSF) in the genealogical coupling scheme. By modifying the expansion coefficients as each electron is spin-coupled, rather than performing a single many-electron transformation, the large transformation matrix that plagues previous approaches is avoided and the required number of operations is drastically reduced. As an example of the efficiency of the algorithm, the transformation for a configuration with 30 unpaired electrons and singlet spin is discussed. For this case, the 10 × 10{sup 6} coefficients in the CSF basis is obtained from the 150 × 10{sup 6} coefficients in the SD basis in 1 min, which should be compared with the seven years that the previously employed method is estimated to require.

  14. A direct method to transform between expansions in the configuration state function and Slater determinant bases.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jeppe

    2014-07-21

    A novel algorithm is introduced for the transformation of wave functions between the bases of Slater determinants (SD) and configuration state functions (CSF) in the genealogical coupling scheme. By modifying the expansion coefficients as each electron is spin-coupled, rather than performing a single many-electron transformation, the large transformation matrix that plagues previous approaches is avoided and the required number of operations is drastically reduced. As an example of the efficiency of the algorithm, the transformation for a configuration with 30 unpaired electrons and singlet spin is discussed. For this case, the 10 × 10(6) coefficients in the CSF basis is obtained from the 150 × 10(6) coefficients in the SD basis in 1 min, which should be compared with the seven years that the previously employed method is estimated to require. PMID:25053306

  15. Comparison study of EMG signals compression by methods transform using vector quantization, SPIHT and arithmetic coding.

    PubMed

    Ntsama, Eloundou Pascal; Colince, Welba; Ele, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we make a comparative study for a new approach compression between discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). We seek the transform proper to vector quantization to compress the EMG signals. To do this, we initially associated vector quantization and DCT, then vector quantization and DWT. The coding phase is made by the SPIHT coding (set partitioning in hierarchical trees coding) associated with the arithmetic coding. The method is demonstrated and evaluated on actual EMG data. Objective performance evaluations metrics are presented: compression factor, percentage root mean square difference and signal to noise ratio. The results show that method based on the DWT is more efficient than the method based on the DCT. PMID:27104132

  16. Multi-point radiometric calibration method based on complex spectrum of Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qian; Wang, Guangping; Wu, Jingli; Li, Junwei

    2014-11-01

    As the impact of the instrument internal error, external interference and other factors, the interferogram measured by Fourier transform spectrometer is asymmetric, result in the complex outcome after Fourier transform. Currently, most radiometric calibration method used for Fourier transform spectrometer is usually based on real spectrums, which is converted from the above complex spectrum by calculating magnitude value or make the phase correction first. Proceed from error sources and mechanisms of the Fourier transform spectrometer, we propose a multi-point radiometric calibration method based on complex spectral data to improve the processing efficiency and accuracy, which is obtained by the original interferogram via Fourier transform. We solving the instrument response function include linear gain and offset by complex spectrum above to calculate complex spectral radiance. Compared with the traditional method based on real spectrum, the present efficient method does not limited to real spectrum and the phase correction is not required. In this paper, we use BOMEM's MR304 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and the DCN1000N3 blackbody made by HGH Infrared Systems to carry out the radiation calibration experiment in laboratory. The results show that, the amplitude of complex radiance spectrum obtained by this method has a high consistency with the theoretical value, while the extra imaginary spectrum is similar with the difference between results and theoretical value in absolute value and trends. It proved that, this multi-point radiometric calibration method by using the amplitude of complex spectral data is highly reliable; meanwhile, the imaginary spectrum can reflect the calibration error very well and offer a new technical approach for accuracy evaluation research.

  17. A method based on IHS cylindrical transform model for quality assessment of image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaokun; Jia, Yonghong

    2005-10-01

    Image fusion technique has been widely applied to remote sensing image analysis and processing, and methods for quality assessment of image fusion in remote sensing have also become the research issues at home and abroad. Traditional assessment methods combine calculation of quantitative indexes and visual interpretation to compare fused images quantificationally and qualitatively. However, in the existing assessment methods, there are two defects: on one hand, most imdexes lack the theoretic support to compare different fusion methods. On the hand, there is not a uniform preference for most of the quantitative assessment indexes when they are applied to estimate the fusion effects. That is, the spatial resolution and spectral feature could not be analyzed synchronously by these indexes and there is not a general method to unify the spatial and spectral feature assessment. So in this paper, on the basis of the approximate general model of four traditional fusion methods, including Intensity Hue Saturation(IHS) triangle transform fusion, High Pass Filter(HPF) fusion, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) fusion, Wavelet Transform(WT) fusion, a correlation coefficient assessment method based on IHS cylindrical transform is proposed. By experiments, this method can not only get the evaluation results of spatial and spectral features on the basis of uniform preference, but also can acquire the comparison between fusion image sources and fused images, and acquire differences among fusion methods. Compared with the traditional assessment methods, the new methods is more intuitionistic, and in accord with subjective estimation.

  18. Performance comparison of ISAR imaging method based on time frequency transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chunjian; Guo, Chenjiang; Xu, Jiadong

    2013-03-01

    Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) can image the moving target, especially the target in the air, so it is important in the air defence and missile defence system. Time-frequency Transform was applied to ISAR imaging process widely. Several time frequency transforms were introduced. Noise jamming methods were analysed, and when these noise jamming were added to the echo of the ISAR receiver, the image can become blur even can't to be identify. But the effect is different to the different time frequency analysis. The results of simulation experiment show the Performance Comparison of the method.

  19. Use of ultrasonic array method for positioning multiple partial discharge sources in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Tao, Junhan; Wang, Yongqiang; Geng, Jianghai; Cheng, Shuyi; Lü, Fangcheng

    2014-08-01

    Fast and accurate positioning of partial discharge (PD) sources in transformer oil is very important for the safe, stable operation of power systems because it allows timely elimination of insulation faults. There is usually more than one PD source once an insulation fault occurs in the transformer oil. This study, which has both theoretical and practical significance, proposes a method of identifying multiple PD sources in the transformer oil. The method combines the two-sided correlation transformation algorithm in the broadband signal focusing and the modified Gerschgorin disk estimator. The method of classification of multiple signals is used to determine the directions of arrival of signals from multiple PD sources. The ultrasonic array positioning method is based on the multi-platform direction finding and the global optimization searching. Both the 4 × 4 square planar ultrasonic sensor array and the ultrasonic array detection platform are built to test the method of identifying and positioning multiple PD sources. The obtained results verify the validity and the engineering practicability of this method. PMID:25173293

  20. Use of ultrasonic array method for positioning multiple partial discharge sources in transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qing; Tao, Junhan; Wang, Yongqiang; Geng, Jianghai; Cheng, Shuyi; Lü, Fangcheng

    2014-08-01

    Fast and accurate positioning of partial discharge (PD) sources in transformer oil is very important for the safe, stable operation of power systems because it allows timely elimination of insulation faults. There is usually more than one PD source once an insulation fault occurs in the transformer oil. This study, which has both theoretical and practical significance, proposes a method of identifying multiple PD sources in the transformer oil. The method combines the two-sided correlation transformation algorithm in the broadband signal focusing and the modified Gerschgorin disk estimator. The method of classification of multiple signals is used to determine the directions of arrival of signals from multiple PD sources. The ultrasonic array positioning method is based on the multi-platform direction finding and the global optimization searching. Both the 4 × 4 square planar ultrasonic sensor array and the ultrasonic array detection platform are built to test the method of identifying and positioning multiple PD sources. The obtained results verify the validity and the engineering practicability of this method.

  1. Research of on-line monitoring method for insulation condition of power transformer bushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiuyun; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Yao, Junda

    2016-01-01

    The power transformer is the key equipment of the power system; its insulation condition will directly influence the security and reliability of the power system. Thus, the on-line monitoring of power transformer is urgently required in order to guarantee the normal operation of the power system. Moreover, the dielectric loss factor is a significant parameter reflecting the condition of transformer bushing, so the on-line measurement of dielectric loss factor is really important. In this paper, the phase-to-phase comparison method is selected as the on-line monitoring method based on the overall analysis and discussion of the existing on-line monitoring methods. At first, the harmonic analysis method is utilized to calculate the dielectric loss of each phase of the three-phase transformer bushing, and then the differences of dielectric loss between every two phases are calculated and analyzed. So the insulation condition of each bushing could be achieved based on the careful analysis of different phase-to-phase dielectric loss. The simulation results of phase-to-phase comparison method are carried out in this paper, and the validity is verified. At last, this method is utilized in an actual equipment of on-line monitoring.

  2. Research on electrocardiogram baseline wandering correction based on wavelet transform, QRS barycenter fitting, and regional method.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinzhong; Yan, Hong; Li, Yanjun; Mu, Kaiyu

    2010-09-01

    Baseline wandering in electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the biggest interferences in visualization and computerized detection of waveforms (especially ST-segment) based on threshold decision. A new method based on wavelet transform, QRS barycenter fitting and regional method was proposed in this paper. Firstly, wavelet transform as a coarse correction was used to remove the baseline wandering, whose frequency bands were non-overlapping with that of ST-segment. Secondly, QRS barycenter fitting was applied as a detailed correction. The third, the regional method was used to transfer baseline to zero. Finally, the method in this paper was proved to perform better than filtering and function fitting methods in baseline wandering correction after the long-term ST database (LTST) verification. In addition, the proposed method is simple and easy to carry out, and in current use. PMID:20882381

  3. An effective numerical method to solve a class of nonlinear singular boundary value problems using improved differential transform method.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lie-Jun; Zhou, Cai-Lian; Xu, Song

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an effective numerical method is developed to solve a class of singular boundary value problems arising in various physical models by using the improved differential transform method (IDTM). The IDTM applies the Adomian polynomials to handle the differential transforms of the nonlinearities arising in the given differential equation. The relation between the Adomian polynomials of those nonlinear functions and the coefficients of unknown truncated series solution is given by a simple formula, through which one can easily deduce the approximate solution which takes the form of a convergent series. An upper bound for the estimation of approximate error is presented. Several physical problems are discussed as illustrative examples to testify the validity and applicability of the proposed method. Comparisons are made between the present method and the other existing methods. PMID:27462514

  4. Development of Method for Remaining Life Assessment of Oil-Immersed Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Tetsuro; Nakahara, Yasuo; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Urabe, Noboru; Itoh, Masayoshi

    This paper presents a method for remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformers using analyzable structured neural networks. Remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformer is very important. Furfural method is conventionally used for such an assessment. In the furfural method, the average degree of polymerization is determined by considering the nonlinear correlation between the furfural and average degree of polymerization. The remaining life is estimated by considering the average degree of polymerization. However, a range of estimates of the remaining life is obtained when the furfural method is used, making accurate estimation difficult. The proposed method can be used to estimate the remaining life of an oil-immersed transformer accurately; this method involves analyzable structured neural networks and ensemble method. In the proposed method, not only furfural but also oil temperature, operational status, cooling type, etc., are considered. Since various factors are considered as input variables and a nonlinear model, i.e., artificial neural networks are used, accurate estimation of the remaining life has been realized. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical simulation using actual measured data.

  5. Introduction to the Restoration of Astrophysical Images by Multiscale Transforms and Bayesian Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijaoui, A.

    2013-03-01

    The image restoration is today an important part of the astrophysical data analysis. The denoising and the deblurring can be efficiently performed using multiscale transforms. The multiresolution analysis constitutes the fundamental pillar for these transforms. The discrete wavelet transform is introduced from the theory of the approximation by translated functions. The continuous wavelet transform carries out a generalization of multiscale representations from translated and dilated wavelets. The à trous algorithm furnishes its discrete redundant transform. The image denoising is first considered without any hypothesis on the signal distribution, on the basis of the a contrario detection. Different softening functions are introduced. The introduction of a regularization constraint may improve the results. The application of Bayesian methods leads to an automated adaptation of the softening function to the signal distribution. The MAP principle leads to the basis pursuit, a sparse decomposition on redundant dictionaries. Nevertheless the posterior expectation minimizes, scale per scale, the quadratic error. The proposed deconvolution algorithm is based on a coupling of the wavelet denoising with an iterative inversion algorithm. The different methods are illustrated by numerical experiments on a simulated image similar to images of the deep sky. A white Gaussian stationary noise was added with three levels. In the conclusion different important connected problems are tackled.

  6. Comparisons between real and complex Gauss wavelet transform methods of three-dimensional shape reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luopeng; Dan, Youquan; Wang, Qingyuan

    2015-10-01

    The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) introduces an expandable spatial and frequency window which can overcome the inferiority of localization characteristic in Fourier transform and windowed Fourier transform. The CWT method is widely applied in the non-stationary signal analysis field including optical 3D shape reconstruction with remarkable performance. In optical 3D surface measurement, the performance of CWT for optical fringe pattern phase reconstruction usually depends on the choice of wavelet function. A large kind of wavelet functions of CWT, such as Mexican Hat wavelet, Morlet wavelet, DOG wavelet, Gabor wavelet and so on, can be generated from Gauss wavelet function. However, so far, application of the Gauss wavelet transform (GWT) method (i.e. CWT with Gauss wavelet function) in optical profilometry is few reported. In this paper, the method using GWT for optical fringe pattern phase reconstruction is presented first and the comparisons between real and complex GWT methods are discussed in detail. The examples of numerical simulations are also given and analyzed. The results show that both the real GWT method along with a Hilbert transform and the complex GWT method can realize three-dimensional surface reconstruction; and the performance of reconstruction generally depends on the frequency domain appearance of Gauss wavelet functions. For the case of optical fringe pattern of large phase variation with position, the performance of real GWT is better than that of complex one due to complex Gauss series wavelets existing frequency sidelobes. Finally, the experiments are carried out and the experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  7. The unified transform method for the Sasa–Satsuma equation on the half-line

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Fan, Engui

    2013-01-01

    We implement the unified transform method to the initial-boundary value (IBV) problem of the Sasa–Satsuma equation on the half line. In addition to presenting the basic Riemann–Hilbert formalism, which linearizes this IBV problem, we also analyse the associated general Dirichlet to Neumann map using the so-called global relation. PMID:24204181

  8. Problems and Possibilities of Web-Based Instruction: Transforming Social Studies Methods and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Karen L.; Stern, Barbara Slater

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on the use of Web-based instruction in social studies methods courses. They examine in what ways Web-based instruction transforms both teaching and learning and explore the problems and possibilities involved with electronic classrooms, including Web-supported instruction. Their study is classroom…

  9. The unified transform method for the Sasa-Satsuma equation on the half-line.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Fan, Engui

    2013-11-01

    We implement the unified transform method to the initial-boundary value (IBV) problem of the Sasa-Satsuma equation on the half line. In addition to presenting the basic Riemann-Hilbert formalism, which linearizes this IBV problem, we also analyse the associated general Dirichlet to Neumann map using the so-called global relation. PMID:24204181

  10. A gyrokinetic continuum code based on the numerical Lie transform (NLT) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lei; Xu, Yingfeng; Xiao, Xiaotao; Dai, Zongliang; Wang, Shaojie

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we report a novel gyrokinetic simulation method named numerical Lie transform (NLT), which depends on a new physical model derived from the I-transform theory. In this model, the perturbed motion of a particle is decoupled from the unperturbed motion. Due to this property, the unperturbed orbit can be computed in advance and saved as numerical tables for real-time computation. A 4D tensor B-spline interpolation module is developed and applied with the semi-Lagrangian scheme to avoid operator splitting. The NLT code is verified by the Rosenbluth-Hinton test and the linear ITG Cyclone test.

  11. Study on identifying deciduous forest by the method of feature space transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuexia; Wu, Pengfei

    2009-10-01

    The thematic remotely sensed information extraction is always one of puzzling nuts which the remote sensing science faces, so many remote sensing scientists devotes diligently to this domain research. The methods of thematic information extraction include two kinds of the visual interpretation and the computer interpretation, the developing direction of which is intellectualization and comprehensive modularization. The paper tries to develop the intelligent extraction method of feature space transformation for the deciduous forest thematic information extraction in Changping district of Beijing city. The whole Chinese-Brazil resources satellite images received in 2005 are used to extract the deciduous forest coverage area by feature space transformation method and linear spectral decomposing method, and the result from remote sensing is similar to woodland resource census data by Chinese forestry bureau in 2004.

  12. The Application of Continuous Wavelet Transform Based Foreground Subtraction Method in 21 cm Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Junhua; Xu, Haiguang; Wang, Jingying; An, Tao; Chen, Wen

    2013-08-01

    We propose a continuous wavelet transform based non-parametric foreground subtraction method for the detection of redshifted 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization. This method works based on the assumption that the foreground spectra are smooth in frequency domain, while the 21 cm signal spectrum is full of saw-tooth-like structures, thus their characteristic scales are significantly different. We can distinguish them in the wavelet coefficient space easily and perform the foreground subtraction. Compared with the traditional spectral fitting based method, our method is more tolerant to complex foregrounds. Furthermore, we also find that when the instrument has uncorrected response error, our method can also work significantly better than the spectral fitting based method. Our method can obtain similar results with the Wp smoothing method, which is also a non-parametric method, but our method consumes much less computing time.

  13. THE APPLICATION OF CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM BASED FOREGROUND SUBTRACTION METHOD IN 21 cm SKY SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Junhua; Xu Haiguang; Wang Jingying; Chen Wen; An Tao

    2013-08-10

    We propose a continuous wavelet transform based non-parametric foreground subtraction method for the detection of redshifted 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization. This method works based on the assumption that the foreground spectra are smooth in frequency domain, while the 21 cm signal spectrum is full of saw-tooth-like structures, thus their characteristic scales are significantly different. We can distinguish them in the wavelet coefficient space easily and perform the foreground subtraction. Compared with the traditional spectral fitting based method, our method is more tolerant to complex foregrounds. Furthermore, we also find that when the instrument has uncorrected response error, our method can also work significantly better than the spectral fitting based method. Our method can obtain similar results with the Wp smoothing method, which is also a non-parametric method, but our method consumes much less computing time.

  14. A rapid and efficient electroporation method for transformation of Halomonas sp. O-1.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua R; Lundgren, Benjamin R; Grzeskowiak, Brian R; Mizuno, Kouhei; Nomura, Christopher T

    2016-10-01

    Halomonas sp. O-1 is a halophilic bacterium with a high potential for industrial application due to its natural ability to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) using seawater-based media. However, a major barrier preventing industrial scale implementation of this organism is a lack of molecular methodologies capable of readily transforming members of the Halomonas genus. Currently, the only reliable method used for introducing DNA into Halomonas spp. is bacterial conjugation, a somewhat tedious and time-consuming technique compared to electroporation-based methodologies. Here we describe a rapid and reproducible method for the electroporation of Halomonas sp. O-1 with plasmid DNA. Electrocompetent cells were generated by growing Halomonas sp. O-1 in a yeast extract-tryptone medium with a final salinity of 3.5%, pH of 7.5, followed by several washes using 300mM sucrose. Results show that plasmids containing chloramphenicol (Cm(R)) and gentamicin (Gm(R)) resistance cassettes are suitable antibiotic selection markers for transformation and yields of 10(4) transformants per μg of DNA were obtained. This method is simple to perform and the materials used are readily available in most research labs. Additionally, this plasmid-based transformation procedure has the potential to be adapted for a number of applications including the creation of recombinant stains and the generation of deletion mutants of Halomonas spp. PMID:27542998

  15. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  16. Transformation-cost time-series method for analyzing irregularly sampled data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozken, Ibrahim; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Marwan, Norbert; Bagci, G. Baris; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Irregular sampling of data sets is one of the challenges often encountered in time-series analysis, since traditional methods cannot be applied and the frequently used interpolation approach can corrupt the data and bias the subsequence analysis. Here we present the TrAnsformation-Cost Time-Series (TACTS) method, which allows us to analyze irregularly sampled data sets without degenerating the quality of the data set. Instead of using interpolation we consider time-series segments and determine how close they are to each other by determining the cost needed to transform one segment into the following one. Using a limited set of operations—with associated costs—to transform the time series segments, we determine a new time series, that is our transformation-cost time series. This cost time series is regularly sampled and can be analyzed using standard methods. While our main interest is the analysis of paleoclimate data, we develop our method using numerical examples like the logistic map and the Rössler oscillator. The numerical data allows us to test the stability of our method against noise and for different irregular samplings. In addition we provide guidance on how to choose the associated costs based on the time series at hand. The usefulness of the TACTS method is demonstrated using speleothem data from the Secret Cave in Borneo that is a good proxy for paleoclimatic variability in the monsoon activity around the maritime continent.

  17. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the originalmore » Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO₂, and compared to previous calculations.« less

  18. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO₂, and compared to previous calculations.

  19. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths, and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore, the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO{sub 2}, and compared to previous calculations.

  20. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation method for the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  1. Development of an Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation Method for the Sensitive Plant Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  2. New approach application of data transformation in mean centering of ratio spectra method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Mahmoud M.; Nejem, R.'afat M.; Van Staden, Raluca Ioana Stefan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y.

    2015-05-01

    Most of mean centering (MCR) methods are designed to be used with data sets whose values have a normal or nearly normal distribution. The errors associated with the values are also assumed to be independent and random. If the data are skewed, the results obtained may be doubtful. Most of the time, it was assumed a normal distribution and if a confidence interval includes a negative value, it was cut off at zero. However, it is possible to transform the data so that at least an approximately normal distribution is attained. Taking the logarithm of each data point is one transformation frequently used. As a result, the geometric mean is deliberated a better measure of central tendency than the arithmetic mean. The developed MCR method using the geometric mean has been successfully applied to the analysis of a ternary mixture of aspirin (ASP), atorvastatin (ATOR) and clopidogrel (CLOP) as a model. The results obtained were statistically compared with reported HPLC method.

  3. An automatic recognition method of pointer instrument based on improved Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li; Fang, Tian; Gao, Xiaoyu

    2015-10-01

    For the automatic recognition of pointer instrument, the method for the automatic recognition of pointer instrument based on improved Hough Transform was proposed in this paper. The automatic recognition of pointer instrument is applied to all kinds of lighting conditions, but the accuracy of it binaryzation will be influenced when the light is too strong or too dark. Therefore, the improved Ostu method was suggested to realize recognition for adaptive thresholding of pointer instrument under all kinds of lighting conditions. On the basis of dial image characteristics, Otsu method is used to get the value of maximum between-cluster variance and initial threshold than analyze its maximum between-cluster variance value to determine the light and shade of the image. When the images are too bright or too dark, the smaller pixels should be given up and then calculate the initial threshold by Otsu method again and again until the best binaryzation image was obtained. Hence, transform the pointer straight line of the binaryzation image to Hough parameter space through improved Hough Transform to determine the position of the pointer straight line by searching the maximum value of arrays of the same angle. Finally, according to angle method, the pointer reading was obtained by the linear relationship for the initial scale and angle of the pointer instrument. Results show that the improved Otsu method make pointer instrument possible to obtained the accuracy binaryzation image even though the light is too bright or too dark , which improves the adaptability of pointer instrument to automatic recognize the light under different conditions. For the pressure gauges with range of 60MPa, the relative error identification reached to 0.005 when use the improved Hough Transform Algorithm.

  4. Method to eliminate flux linkage DC component in load transformer for static transfer switch.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; Mao, Chengxiong; Lu, Jiming; Wang, Dan; Tian, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2 ~ 30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method. PMID:25133255

  5. Method to Eliminate Flux Linkage DC Component in Load Transformer for Static Transfer Switch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2~30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method. PMID:25133255

  6. A new stationary gridline artifact suppression method based on the 2D discrete wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Hui; Tong, Dan; Dong Bao, Xu; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In digital x-ray radiography, an antiscatter grid is inserted between the patient and the image receptor to reduce scattered radiation. If the antiscatter grid is used in a stationary way, gridline artifacts will appear in the final image. In most of the gridline removal image processing methods, the useful information with spatial frequencies close to that of the gridline is usually lost or degraded. In this study, a new stationary gridline suppression method is designed to preserve more of the useful information. Methods: The method is as follows. The input image is first recursively decomposed into several smaller subimages using a multiscale 2D discrete wavelet transform. The decomposition process stops when the gridline signal is found to be greater than a threshold in one or several of these subimages using a gridline detection module. An automatic Gaussian band-stop filter is then applied to the detected subimages to remove the gridline signal. Finally, the restored image is achieved using the corresponding 2D inverse discrete wavelet transform. Results: The processed images show that the proposed method can remove the gridline signal efficiently while maintaining the image details. The spectra of a 1D Fourier transform of the processed images demonstrate that, compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method has better information preservation after the removal of the gridline artifacts. Additionally, the performance speed is relatively high. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method can preserve more information within an acceptable execution time.

  7. High-capacity method for hiding data in the discrete cosine transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazanfari, Kazem; Safabakhsh, Reza

    2013-10-01

    Steganography is the art and science of hiding data in different media such as texts, audios, images, and videos. Data hiding techniques are generally divided into two groups: spatial and frequency domain techniques. Spatial domain methods generally have low security and, as a result, are less attractive to researchers. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is the most common transform domain used in steganography and JPEG compression. Since a large number of the DCT coefficients of JPEG images are zero, the capacity of DCT domain-based steganography methods is not very high. We present a high-capacity method for hiding messages in the DCT domain. We describe the method in two classes where the receiver has and where the receiver does not have the cover image. In each class, we consider three cases for each coefficient. By considering n coefficients, there are 3n different situations. The method embeds ⌊log2 3n⌋ bits in these n coefficients. We show that the maximum reachable capacity by our method is 58% higher than the other general steganography methods. Experimental results show that the histogram-based steganalysis methods cannot detect the stego images produced by the proposed method while the capacity is increased significantly.

  8. Shock-induced phase transformations in gallium single crystals by atomistic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadau, Kai; Cherne, Frank J.; Ravelo, Ramon; Germann, Timothy C.

    2013-10-01

    Utilizing a modified embedded atom method potential, we performed large-scale classical molecular dynamics simulations (with up to 50 million atoms) to investigate the response of Ga single crystals to shock compression along the three major orientations of the orthorhombic A11 ground state, i.e., [001], [010], and [100]. For weak shocks with particle velocity up<300 m/s, these defect-free single crystals respond elastically, but for stronger shocks, they undergo a structural phase transformation and then (for even stronger shocks) melt. For intermediate shock strengths (300m/stransformation wave. The transformed region consists of a mixed phase, with stripes of the product phase embedded into the uniaxially compressed parent phase, with the ratio of product to parent phase increasing with increasing shock strength, much like in martensitic phase transformations. Upon shock release from the free surface at the end of the sample, the transformation is reversed, leaving only some defects behind, which makes it difficult to experimentally investigate the structural transformation in shock-recovered samples. We investigated the structure produced by the shock and found it to be similar to the β phase of Ga which is obtained by supercooling from the liquid state. However, the product phase shows only half the period along [100] in the calculated diffraction pattern. Further investigation showed that this is due to a different stacking sequence in this direction, namely ABCD instead of AB for the β phase.

  9. Face transformation with harmonic models by the finite-volume method with delaunay triangulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Cai; Chiang, John Y; Suen, Ching Y

    2010-12-01

    To carry out face transformation, this paper presents new numerical algorithms, which consist of two parts, namely, the harmonic models for changes of face characteristics and the splitting techniques for grayness transition. The main method in this paper is a combination of the finite-volume method (FVM) with Delaunay triangulation to solve the Laplace equations in the harmonic transformation of face images. The advantages of the FVM with Delaunay triangulation are given as follows: 1) easy to formulate the linear algebraic equations; 2) good in retaining the pertinent geometric and physical need; and 3) less central processing unit time needed. Numerical and graphical experiments have been conducted for the face transformation from a female (woman) to a male (man), and vice versa. The computed sequential errors are O(N⁻³/²), where N² is the division number of a pixel into subpixels. These computed errors coincide with the analysis on the splitting-shooting method (SSM) with piecewise constant interpolation in the previous paper of Li and Bai. In computation, the average absolute errors of restored pixel grayness can be smaller than 2 out of 256 grayness levels. The FVM is as simple as the finite-difference method (FDM) and as flexible as the finite-element method (FEM). Hence, the FVM is particularly useful when dealing with large face images with a huge number of pixels in shape distortion. The numerical transformation of face images in this paper can be used not only in pattern recognition but also in resampling, image morphing, and computer animation. PMID:20363682

  10. Periodic nonlinear Fourier transform for fiber-optic communications, Part I: theory and numerical methods.

    PubMed

    Kamalian, Morteza; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we introduce the periodic nonlinear Fourier transform (PNFT) method as an alternative and efficacious tool for compensation of the nonlinear transmission effects in optical fiber links. In the Part I, we introduce the algorithmic platform of the technique, describing in details the direct and inverse PNFT operations, also known as the inverse scattering transform for periodic (in time variable) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). We pay a special attention to explaining the potential advantages of the PNFT-based processing over the previously studied nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) based methods. Further, we elucidate the issue of the numerical PNFT computation: we compare the performance of four known numerical methods applicable for the calculation of nonlinear spectral data (the direct PNFT), in particular, taking the main spectrum (utilized further in Part II for the modulation and transmission) associated with some simple example waveforms as the quality indicator for each method. We show that the Ablowitz-Ladik discretization approach for the direct PNFT provides the best performance in terms of the accuracy and computational time consumption. PMID:27505799

  11. Single image orthogonal fringe technique for resolution enhancement of the Fourier transform fringe analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, Paulo J.; Vaz, Mário A. P.

    2013-03-01

    Gradient range and spatial resolution in Fourier Transform Profilometry depend on the size of the filter window in reciprocal space. The proposed methods to date for the elimination of the fundamental frequency and enlargement of the filter window are either too computationally complex or depend on the possibility of using two frames, thus disabling the method's ability to cope with dynamic situations and subjecting the results to possible intensity changes between the two frame acquisitions. This article describes a simple method for using a single crossed fringe pattern to accomplish that objective, greatly improving the previously reported technique, whilst retaining its main advantages.

  12. Application of Classical and Lie Transform Methods to Zonal Perturbation in the Artificial Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Juan, J. F.; San-Martin, M.; Perez, I.; Lopez-Ochoa, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    A scalable second-order analytical orbit propagator program is being carried out. This analytical orbit propagator combines modern perturbation methods, based on the canonical frame of the Lie transform, and classical perturbation methods in function of orbit types or the requirements needed for a space mission, such as catalog maintenance operations, long period evolution, and so on. As a first step on the validation of part of our orbit propagator, in this work we only consider the perturbation produced by zonal harmonic coefficients in the Earth's gravity potential, so that it is possible to analyze the behaviour of the perturbation methods involved in the corresponding analytical theories.

  13. A method for the analysis of respiratory sinus arrhythmia using continuous wavelet transforms.

    PubMed

    Cnockaert, Laurence; Migeotte, Pierre-François; Daubigny, Lise; Prisk, G Kim; Grenez, Francis; Sá, Rui Carlos

    2008-05-01

    A continuous wavelet transform-based method is presented to study the nonstationary strength and phase delay of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). The RSA is the cyclic variation of instantaneous heart rate at the breathing frequency. In studies of cardio-respiratory interaction during sleep, paced breathing or postural changes, low respiratory frequencies, and fast changes can occur. Comparison on synthetic data presented here shows that the proposed method outperforms traditional short-time Fourier-transform analysis in these conditions. On the one hand, wavelet analysis presents a sufficient frequency-resolution to handle low respiratory frequencies, for which time frames should be long in Fourier-based analysis. On the other hand, it is able to track fast variations of the signals in both amplitude and phase for which time frames should be short in Fourier-based analysis. PMID:18440911

  14. Time resolved optical methods for investigation of phase transformations in materials exposed to nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martan, J.; Semmar, N.; Cibulka, O.

    2011-06-01

    Infrared (IR) radiometry and time resolved reflectivity (TRR) methods can be used for investigation of laser pulse effects on materials in nanosecond time scale. The methods in combination are capable to quantify object temperature and detect phase transformations in the solid state, melting and plasma formation from vapour. Measurements with different laser pulse energy densities provide threshold of the transformation. The melt duration can be also determined. The experimental system is described. It contains KrF excimer laser with homogenizer and variable attenuator, fast IR detector for radiometry, continuous probing laser with Si photodiode for reflectivity measurement and UV detector for pump laser pulse reflection measurement. The system was applied to investigation of responses to laser light of silicon and different pure metals and alloys. The range of energy densities used was 1-5500 mJ.cm-2 and measurements were done with temporal resolution of 6 ns for radiometry and 1 ns for reflectivity.

  15. Robust two-dimensional weighted and unweighted phase unwrapping that uses fast transforms and iterative methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiglia, D.C.; Romero, L.A. )

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) phase unwrapping continues to find applications in a wide variety of scientific and engineering areas including optical and microwave interferometry, adaptive optics, compensated imaging, and synthetic-aperture-radar phase correction, and image processing. We have developed a robust method (not based on any path-following scheme) for unwrapping 2D phase principal values (in a least-squares sense) by using fast cosine transforms. If the 2D phase values are associated with a 2D weighting, the fast transforms can still be used in iterative methods for solving the weighted unwrapping problem. Weighted unwrapping can be used to isolate inconsistent regions (i.e., phase shear) in an elegant fashion.

  16. A Novel Medical Freehand Sketch 3D Model Retrieval Method by Dimensionality Reduction and Feature Vector Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Zhang; Sheng, Kang Bao

    2016-01-01

    To assist physicians to quickly find the required 3D model from the mass medical model, we propose a novel retrieval method, called DRFVT, which combines the characteristics of dimensionality reduction (DR) and feature vector transformation (FVT) method. The DR method reduces the dimensionality of feature vector; only the top M low frequency Discrete Fourier Transform coefficients are retained. The FVT method does the transformation of the original feature vector and generates a new feature vector to solve the problem of noise sensitivity. The experiment results demonstrate that the DRFVT method achieves more effective and efficient retrieval results than other proposed methods. PMID:27293478

  17. [Application of optimized parameters SVM based on photoacoustic spectroscopy method in fault diagnosis of power transformer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-xin; Cheng, Zhi-feng; Xu, Zheng-ping; Bai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problems such as complex operation, consumption for the carrier gas and long test period in traditional power transformer fault diagnosis approach based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA), this paper proposes a new method which is detecting 5 types of characteristic gas content in transformer oil such as CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6 and H2 based on photoacoustic Spectroscopy and C2H2/C2H4, CH4/H2, C2H4/C2H6 three-ratios data are calculated. The support vector machine model was constructed using cross validation method under five support vector machine functions and four kernel functions, heuristic algorithms were used in parameter optimization for penalty factor c and g, which to establish the best SVM model for the highest fault diagnosis accuracy and the fast computing speed. Particles swarm optimization and genetic algorithm two types of heuristic algorithms were comparative studied in this paper for accuracy and speed in optimization. The simulation result shows that SVM model composed of C-SVC, RBF kernel functions and genetic algorithm obtain 97. 5% accuracy in test sample set and 98. 333 3% accuracy in train sample set, and genetic algorithm was about two times faster than particles swarm optimization in computing speed. The methods described in this paper has many advantages such as simple operation, non-contact measurement, no consumption for the carrier gas, long test period, high stability and sensitivity, the result shows that the methods described in this paper can instead of the traditional transformer fault diagnosis by gas chromatography and meets the actual project needs in transformer fault diagnosis. PMID:25993810

  18. Reduced-rank approximations to the far-field transform in the gridded fast multipole method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesford, Andrew J.; Waag, Robert C.

    2011-05-01

    The fast multipole method (FMM) has been shown to have a reduced computational dependence on the size of finest-level groups of elements when the elements are positioned on a regular grid and FFT convolution is used to represent neighboring interactions. However, transformations between plane-wave expansions used for FMM interactions and pressure distributions used for neighboring interactions remain significant contributors to the cost of FMM computations when finest-level groups are large. The transformation operators, which are forward and inverse Fourier transforms with the wave space confined to the unit sphere, are smooth and well approximated using reduced-rank decompositions that further reduce the computational dependence of the FMM on finest-level group size. The adaptive cross approximation (ACA) is selected to represent the forward and adjoint far-field transformation operators required by the FMM. However, the actual error of the ACA is found to be greater than that predicted using traditional estimates, and the ACA generally performs worse than the approximation resulting from a truncated singular-value decomposition (SVD). To overcome these issues while avoiding the cost of a full-scale SVD, the ACA is employed with more stringent accuracy demands and recompressed using a reduced, truncated SVD. The results show a greatly reduced approximation error that performs comparably to the full-scale truncated SVD without degrading the asymptotic computational efficiency associated with ACA matrix assembly.

  19. Remote Sensing Image Fusion Method Based on Nonsubsampled Shearlet Transform and Sparse Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moonon, Altan-Ulzii; Hu, Jianwen; Li, Shutao

    2015-12-01

    The remote sensing image fusion is an important preprocessing technique in remote sensing image processing. In this paper, a remote sensing image fusion method based on the nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST) with sparse representation (SR) is proposed. Firstly, the low resolution multispectral (MS) image is upsampled and color space is transformed from Red-Green-Blue (RGB) to Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS). Then, the high resolution panchromatic (PAN) image and intensity component of MS image are decomposed by NSST to high and low frequency coefficients. The low frequency coefficients of PAN and the intensity component are fused by the SR with the learned dictionary. The high frequency coefficients of intensity component and PAN image are fused by local energy based fusion rule. Finally, the fused result is obtained by performing inverse NSST and inverse IHS transform. The experimental results on IKONOS and QuickBird satellites demonstrate that the proposed method provides better spectral quality and superior spatial information in the fused image than other remote sensing image fusion methods both in visual effect and object evaluation.

  20. A simple, low-cost method for chloroplast transformation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Economou, Chloe; Wannathong, Thanyanan; Szaub, Joanna; Purton, Saul

    2014-01-01

    The availability of routine techniques for the genetic manipulation of the chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has allowed a plethora of reverse-genetic studies of chloroplast biology using this alga as a model organism. These studies range from fundamental investigations of chloroplast gene function and regulation to sophisticated metabolic engineering programs and to the development of the algal chloroplast as a platform for producing high-value recombinant proteins. The established method for delivering transforming DNA into the Chlamydomonas chloroplast involves microparticle bombardment, with the selection of transformant lines most commonly involving the use of antibiotic resistance markers. In this chapter we describe a simpler and cheaper delivery method in which cell/DNA suspensions are agitated with glass beads: a method that is more commonly used for nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas. Furthermore, we highlight the use of an expression vector (pASapI) that employs an endogenous gene as a selectable marker, thereby avoiding the contentious issue of antibiotic resistance determinants in transgenic lines. PMID:24599870

  1. Standardization of size, shape and internal structure of spinal cord images: comparison of three transformation methods.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Yasuhisa; Yokota, Shigefumi; Okada, Yasumasa; Oku, Yoshitaka; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Ishiguro, Makio; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu

    2013-01-01

    Functional fluorescence imaging has been widely applied to analyze spatio-temporal patterns of cellular dynamics in the brain and spinal cord. However, it is difficult to integrate spatial information obtained from imaging data in specific regions of interest across multiple samples, due to large variability in the size, shape and internal structure of samples. To solve this problem, we attempted to standardize transversely sectioned spinal cord images focusing on the laminar structure in the gray matter. We employed three standardization methods, the affine transformation (AT), the angle-dependent transformation (ADT) and the combination of these two methods (AT+ADT). The ADT is a novel non-linear transformation method developed in this study to adjust an individual image onto the template image in the polar coordinate system. We next compared the accuracy of these three standardization methods. We evaluated two indices, i.e., the spatial distribution of pixels that are not categorized to any layer and the error ratio by the leave-one-out cross validation method. In this study, we used neuron-specific marker (NeuN)-stained histological images of transversely sectioned cervical spinal cord slices (21 images obtained from 4 rats) to create the standard atlas and also to serve for benchmark tests. We found that the AT+ADT outperformed other two methods, though the accuracy of each method varied depending on the layer. This novel image standardization technique would be applicable to optical recording such as voltage-sensitive dye imaging, and will enable statistical evaluations of neural activation across multiple samples. PMID:24223702

  2. Quench Detection and Protection for High Temperature Superconducting Transformers by Using the Active Power Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanato, N.; Kobayashi, Y.

    AC high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils have been developed for transformers, motors and so on. Quench detection and protection system are essential for safety operations of the AC HTS facilities. The balance voltage method is universally used for the quench detection and protection, however especially for AC operations, the method has risks in terms of high voltage sparks. Because the method needs a voltage tap soldered to a midpoint of the coil winding and the AC HTS facilities generally operate at high voltages and therefore high voltage sparks may occur at the midpoint with no insulation. We have proposed the active power method for the quench detection and protection. The method requires no voltage tap on the midpoint of the coil winding and therefore it has in-built effectiveness for the AC HTS facilities. In this paper, we show that the method can detect the quench in an HTS transformer and moreover our proposed quench protection circuits which consist of thyristors are simple and useful for the AC HTS facilities.

  3. Connecting the Dots and Merging Meaning: Using Mixed Methods to Study Primary Care Delivery Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Scammon, Debra L; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Rachel L; Day, Julie; Kim, Jaewhan; Waitzman, Norman J; Farrell, Timothy W; Magill, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the value of mixed methods in the study of practice transformation and illustrate procedures for connecting methods and for merging findings to enhance the meaning derived. Data Source/Study Setting. An integrated network of university-owned, primary care practices at the University of Utah (Community Clinics or CCs). CC has adopted Care by Design, its version of the Patient Centered Medical Home. Study Design. Convergent case study mixed methods design. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Analysis of archival documents, internal operational reports, in-clinic observations, chart audits, surveys, semistructured interviews, focus groups, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services database, and the Utah All Payer Claims Database. Principal Findings. Each data source enriched our understanding of the change process and understanding of reasons that certain changes were more difficult than others both in general and for particular clinics. Mixed methods enabled generation and testing of hypotheses about change and led to a comprehensive understanding of practice change. Conclusions. Mixed methods are useful in studying practice transformation. Challenges exist but can be overcome with careful planning and persistence. PMID:24279836

  4. An Efficient Method to Recognize Geologic Structures by Analyzing the Pressure Data with Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Srinivasan, S.; Li, L.; Bryant, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainty in prediction of flow performance stems from the uncertainty in model parameters such as conductivity, porosity etc., to a large extent, while the characterization of the model parameters is demanding due to the inherent heterogeneity of geologic structures. Inverse modeling approaches attempt to identify the unknown model structures and corresponding parameters by integrating observation data. Several inverse methods have been proposed in the literature ranging from trial-and-error methods to advanced ensemble Kalman filter assimilation, including those that use multiple point statistics to characterize complex geologic structures. However, these methods are hindered by the huge amount of data accumulated with time, for instance, the pressure data are recorded at very fine time intervals from the very early stage of bore hole drilling to mature production period. Assimilation of such large amount of data can be a computational burden to the inverse methods. The object of this work is to propose a computationally efficient approach to analyze the long observation records in order to recognize the subsurface structures, especially flow connectivity which plays a critical role in transport prediction. Wavelet transform is found to be a powerful technique that transforms data into different components and analyzes each component at corresponding scale. By analyzing the components transformed we relate the characteristics of the heterogeneity to signature in the production/injection records. Combining components at different scales we are able to recognize connectivity between wells, and thereby identify complex structure in aquifers. The method is demonstrated in a synthetic example where CO2 is injected into a deep saline aquifer for sequestration. The method is computationally efficient since it involves no iterative forward simulation or sensitivity matrix computation. Once the important episodes have been identified in the dynamic data, inverse

  5. Preliminary Method for Direct Quantification of Colistin Methanesulfonate by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Niece, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    Colistin use has increased in response to the advent of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. It is administered parenterally as an inactive prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). Various formulations of CMS and labeling conventions can lead to confusion about colistin dosing, and questions remain about the pharmacokinetics of CMS. Since CMS does not have strong UV absorbance, current methods employ a laborious process of chemical conversion to colistin followed by precolumn derivatization to detect formed colistin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Here, we report a method for direct quantification of colistin methanesulfonate by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR). PMID:26124160

  6. Finite volume method for the Black-Scholes equation transformed on finite interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkov, R.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we present a fitted FVM for the degenerate at the two ends parabolic equation, derived from the Black-Scholes equation after a transformation to a finite interval. For the case of European options we describe a fully discretization of the vertical method of lines, where the spatial discretization is formulated as a Petrov-Galerkin FEM. We show that the method is O(h) convergent and monotone. Numerical experiments are presented to verify the theoretical results. Experiments on a power-graded mesh demonstrate higher accuracy.

  7. Laplace transform homotopy perturbation method for the approximation of variational problems.

    PubMed

    Filobello-Nino, U; Vazquez-Leal, H; Rashidi, M M; Sedighi, H M; Perez-Sesma, A; Sandoval-Hernandez, M; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Contreras-Hernandez, A D; Pereyra-Diaz, D; Hoyos-Reyes, C; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Huerta-Chua, J; Castro-Gonzalez, F; Laguna-Camacho, J R

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes the application of Laplace Transform-Homotopy Perturbation Method and some of its modifications in order to find analytical approximate solutions for the linear and nonlinear differential equations which arise from some variational problems. As case study we will solve four ordinary differential equations, and we will show that the proposed solutions have good accuracy, even we will obtain an exact solution. In the sequel, we will see that the square residual error for the approximate solutions, belongs to the interval [0.001918936920, 0.06334882582], which confirms the accuracy of the proposed methods, taking into account the complexity and difficulty of variational problems. PMID:27006884

  8. Three-dimensional profiling using the Fourier transform method with a hexagonal grating projection

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Koichi; Kusunoki, Fuminori; Moriwaki, Kousuke; Fukuda, Hiroki; Tomii, Takaharu

    2008-04-20

    We present three-dimensional profilometry based on triangulation in which a hexagonal pattern is projected on the object. To obtain an accurate result with a one-shot photographic image, the Fourier transform method and method of excess fraction are adopted. The three grating components of the hexagonal pattern are used. For compactness a new pattern projection scheme is introduced. The experimental results show that the constructed optical system works well for measuring the profile of a mannequin with a height resolution of {approx} {+-} 1 mm.

  9. Effects of data transformation methods on classification of patients diagnosed with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Mohammadi, Iman; Kunjan, Kislaya; Kharrazi, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Large datasets may contain redundant data. Variable selection methods that select most relevant variables in the data set, fail to consider the interaction between the variables. Data transformation methods are used to transfer the original data to a new dimension and capture the most significant information within the data set. The data set used in this study was based on 45 clinical variables collected from 697 patients diagnosed as either having myocardial infarction (MI) or not. Principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were applied prior to classification of patients to MI or Non-MI groups using support vector machines (SVM). PMID:23920977

  10. Homotopy Perturbation Transform Method with He's Polynomial for Solution of Coupled Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Dinkar; Singh, Prince; Chauhan, Shubha

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a combined form of the Laplace transform method with the homotopy perturbation method (HPTM) is applied to solve nonlinear systems of partial differential equations viz. the system of third order KdV Equations and the systems of coupled Burgers' equations in one- and two- dimensions. The nonlinear terms can be easily handled by the use of He's polynomials. The results shows that the HPTM is very efficient, simple and avoids the round-off errors. Four test examples are considered to illustrate the present scheme. Further the results are compared with Homotopy perturbation method (HPM) which shows that this method is a suitable method for solving systems of partial differential equations.

  11. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in industrial transformer oil by radiolytic and photolytic methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia G; Silverman, Joseph; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Neta, Pedatsur; Poster, Dianne L

    2003-12-15

    Used electrical transformer oils containing low or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were treated using electron, gamma, and ultraviolet radiation, and the conditions for complete dechlorination were developed. Dechlorination was determined by analysis of the inorganic chloride formed and the concentrations of remaining PCBs. Transformer oil containing approximately 95 microg g(-1) PCB (approximately 3.5 mmol L(-1) Cl) is completely dechlorinated by irradiation with 600 kGy after the addition of 10% triethylamine (TEA). Transformer oil containing >800,000 microg g(-1) PCB (17.7 mol L(-1) Cl) requires an additional solvent to prevent solidification. When this oil is diluted with 2-propanol (2-PrOH) and TEA (v/v/v, 1/79/20), complete dechlorination is achieved with a dose of 2500 kGy. Ultraviolet photolysis of the same oil/2-PrOH/TEA solutions led to 90% dechlorination after exposure for 120 h in our experimental setup. Such yields were obtained by radiolysis with a dose of 2000 kGy (300 h in our Gammacell). Replacing TEA with KOH in 2-PrOH solutions greatly increases the yield of dechlorination in both the radiolytic and the photolytic experiments, demonstrating that a chain reaction plays a role in both of these treatment methods and suggesting that both methods deserve further consideration for large-scale application. PMID:14717194

  12. Photorefractive moiré-like patterns for the multifringe projection method in Fourier transform profilometry.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M E; de Oliveira, G N; de Souza, J C; dos Santos, P A M

    2016-02-10

    In the present paper, the method of simultaneous moiré-like fringe pattern projection for Fourier transform profilometry is described. The photorefractive holographic interferometric process produces controlled moiré-like patterns with two or more different variation directions. Each low spatial frequency fringe pattern is experimentally obtained as a result of the superposition of two high spatial frequency sinusoidal gratings, with slightly different pitches, for each fringe variation direction. These dynamic moiré-like patterns are induced due to an optical holographic beating of the sinusoidal induced gratings in the volume of the photorefractive Bi₁₂TiO₂₀ (BTO) crystal sample used as dynamic holographic medium. Two or more moiré-like fringe patterns, with at least two different variation directions, simultaneously (or not), are projected onto the object surface. Thus, this is the 2D fringe projection stage of our proposed Fourier transform procedure to determine the profile of a simple object. PMID:26906374

  13. Transformation of Sinorhizobium meliloti MTCC 100 and Mesorhizobium ciceri TAL 620 by CaCl2 method.

    PubMed

    Patel, Urmi; Sinha, Sarika

    2010-01-01

    The CaCl2 method, commonly used for transformation of Escherichia coli, was modified and used to develop a simpler and easier transformation method for Rhizobia sp. Two species of Rhizobia, Sinorhizobium meliloti MTCC 100 and Mesorhizobium ciceri TAL 620, were transformed with the 13.2 kb binary vector pGA482. At an optical density of 0.4, the transformation efficiencies in Sinorhizobium meliloti MTCC 100 and Mesorhizobium ciceri TAL 620 were 104 and 103, respectively. Competent cells of Sinorhizobium meliloti MTCC 100 were prepared at different growth intervals and transformed by the same vector. A maximum transformation efficiency of 104 was achieved at an optical density of 0.5. PMID:20130696

  14. Comprehensive reliability allocation method for CNC lathes based on cubic transformed functions of failure mode and effects analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhou; Zhu, Yunpeng; Ren, Hongrui; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-03-01

    Reliability allocation of computerized numerical controlled(CNC) lathes is very important in industry. Traditional allocation methods only focus on high-failure rate components rather than moderate failure rate components, which is not applicable in some conditions. Aiming at solving the problem of CNC lathes reliability allocating, a comprehensive reliability allocation method based on cubic transformed functions of failure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) is presented. Firstly, conventional reliability allocation methods are introduced. Then the limitations of direct combination of comprehensive allocation method with the exponential transformed FMEA method are investigated. Subsequently, a cubic transformed function is established in order to overcome these limitations. Properties of the new transformed functions are discussed by considering the failure severity and the failure occurrence. Designers can choose appropriate transform amplitudes according to their requirements. Finally, a CNC lathe and a spindle system are used as an example to verify the new allocation method. Seven criteria are considered to compare the results of the new method with traditional methods. The allocation results indicate that the new method is more flexible than traditional methods. By employing the new cubic transformed function, the method covers a wider range of problems in CNC reliability allocation without losing the advantages of traditional methods.

  15. The Transformation Design Method and Metamaterials: Tools to Realize Invisibility and Other Interesting Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Schurig, David

    2007-02-21

    I will explain how the transformation design method can yield a material specification that possesses the same electromagnetic behavior as a fairly general set of imagined space-time topologies. This method has been used to design invisibility cloaks, but the method is quite general and can be used to design a wide variety of interesting devices that guide, concentrate or shape electromagnetic fields in ways that would be difficult to manage with other design methodologies. Applications range from stealth to energy conversion and distribution to wireless communications to biomedical imaging. The drawback of the method is the complexity of the material specifications that it produces, which are in general anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Only with recent advances in the field of metamaterials can these specifications be realized. I will discuss how metamaterials accomplish this and what their limitations are, e.g. bandwidth, loss, frequency range etc. I will discuss in detail the recent implementation of an invisibility cloak in the microwave spectrum.

  16. Binary encoding method to encrypt Fourier-transformed information of digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuang Tsan

    2009-02-01

    An encoding method is used to encrypt the Fourier-transformed information of a hidden (covert) digital image in an overt image, while the Fourier-transformed information must be encoded with binary codes. All of the pixels in an overt image are classified into five groups that are called identification, type, tracing, dimension, and information codes. Identification codes are used to judge if the overt image contains codes that belong to the proposed encoding method or not; type codes are used to judge the encoding type; tracing codes are used to judge the encoding trace; dimension codes are used to judge the size of the hidden information; and information codes are used to decode the hidden information. Applying the proposed encoding method is rather easy, and host images corresponding to overt images are not needed for decoding work. The experiment has demonstrated four types of encoding for the proposed encoding method to reconstruct covert images without any distortion or only with a little distortion.

  17. An image hiding method based on cascaded iterative Fourier transform and public-key encryption algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Sang, Jun; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    An image hiding method based on cascaded iterative Fourier transform and public-key encryption algorithm was proposed. Firstly, the original secret image was encrypted into two phase-only masks M1 and M2 via cascaded iterative Fourier transform (CIFT) algorithm. Then, the public-key encryption algorithm RSA was adopted to encrypt M2 into M2' . Finally, a host image was enlarged by extending one pixel into 2×2 pixels and each element in M1 and M2' was multiplied with a superimposition coefficient and added to or subtracted from two different elements in the 2×2 pixels of the enlarged host image. To recover the secret image from the stego-image, the two masks were extracted from the stego-image without the original host image. By applying public-key encryption algorithm, the key distribution was facilitated, and also compared with the image hiding method based on optical interference, the proposed method may reach higher robustness by employing the characteristics of the CIFT algorithm. Computer simulations show that this method has good robustness against image processing.

  18. Grid transformation method of population data combining geographic factors and simulated township boundary adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiafu; Li, Hongsheng; Ma, Liuqing

    2009-09-01

    High-quality spatially referenced population information plays an important role in many social-demographic fields. This paper focuses on grid transformation method for population data by combining geographic factors and simulated township boundary adjustment. Given the location, area and census data of each town-level administrative unit and national base map (1:25000) in China, 1km*1km gridded population data can be acquired after interpolation and several adjustments. Besides the adjustment based on geographical factors like topography, transport (roads), rivers and settlements, a new adjustment method based on township boundary simulation and total population of the town is proposed in this paper. The Voronoi polygon of town point is generated and rasterized into 1km*1km grids. Considering the area of each township and boundary line of the corresponding country, the collapse or expansion process of the rasterized Voronoi polygon is conducted pixel by pixel to minimize the differences between total count of grids with same township ID and the announced area of the corresponding township iteratively. After boundary simulation, gridded population data is adjusted based on town-level census data. The study indicated that the proposed method can acquire fine-grained grid population surface. It is demonstrated as an effective method to transform census population data into regular grids.

  19. Grid transformation method of population data combining geographic factors and simulated township boundary adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiafu; Li, Hongsheng; Ma, Liuqing

    2010-11-01

    High-quality spatially referenced population information plays an important role in many social-demographic fields. This paper focuses on grid transformation method for population data by combining geographic factors and simulated township boundary adjustment. Given the location, area and census data of each town-level administrative unit and national base map (1:25000) in China, 1km*1km gridded population data can be acquired after interpolation and several adjustments. Besides the adjustment based on geographical factors like topography, transport (roads), rivers and settlements, a new adjustment method based on township boundary simulation and total population of the town is proposed in this paper. The Voronoi polygon of town point is generated and rasterized into 1km*1km grids. Considering the area of each township and boundary line of the corresponding country, the collapse or expansion process of the rasterized Voronoi polygon is conducted pixel by pixel to minimize the differences between total count of grids with same township ID and the announced area of the corresponding township iteratively. After boundary simulation, gridded population data is adjusted based on town-level census data. The study indicated that the proposed method can acquire fine-grained grid population surface. It is demonstrated as an effective method to transform census population data into regular grids.

  20. A method for the large scale isolation of high transformation efficiency fungal genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Yang, Y; Castlebury, L A; Cerniglia, C E

    1996-12-01

    A procedure for isolation of genomic DNA from the zygomycete Cunninghamella elegans and other filamentous fungi and yeasts is reported. This procedure involves disruption of cells by grinding using dry ice, removal of polysaccharides using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and by phenol extractions, and precipitation of DNA with isopropanol at room temperature. The isolation method produced large scale (approximate 1 mg DNA/5 g wet cells) and highly purified high molecular mass DNA. Sau3AI partially digested DNA showed high transformation efficiency (> 10(6)/100 ng DNA) when ligated to ZAP-express lambda vector. PMID:8961565

  1. Transform methods for precision continuum and control models of flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupi, Victor D.; Turner, James D.; Chun, Hon M.

    1991-01-01

    An open loop optimal control algorithm is developed for general flexible structures, based on Laplace transform methods. A distributed parameter model of the structure is first presented, followed by a derivation of the optimal control algorithm. The control inputs are expressed in terms of their Fourier series expansions, so that a numerical solution can be easily obtained. The algorithm deals directly with the transcendental transfer functions from control inputs to outputs of interest, and structural deformation penalties, as well as penalties on control effort, are included in the formulation. The algorithm is applied to several structures of increasing complexity to show its generality.

  2. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    DOEpatents

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  3. A Fourier Transform Method for Vsin i Estimations under Nonlinear Limb-darkening Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenhagen, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Star rotation offers us a large horizon for the study of many important physical issues pertaining to stellar evolution. Currently, four methods are widely used to infer rotation velocities, namely those related to line width calibrations, on the fitting of synthetic spectra, interferometry, and on Fourier transforms (FTs) of line profiles. Almost all of the estimations of stellar projected rotation velocities using the Fourier method in the literature have been addressed with the use of linear limb-darkening (LD) approximations during the evaluation of rotation profiles and their cosine FTs, which in certain cases, lead to discrepant velocity estimates. In this work, we introduce new mathematical expressions of rotation profiles and their Fourier cosine transforms assuming three nonlinear LD laws—quadratic, square-root, and logarithmic—and study their applications with and without gravity-darkening (GD) and geometrical flattening (GF) effects. Through an analysis of He I models in the visible range accounting for both limb and GD, we find out that, for classical models without rotationally driven effects, all the Vsin i values are too close to each other. On the other hand, taking into account GD and GF, the Vsin i obtained with the linear law result in Vsin i values that are systematically smaller than those obtained with the other laws. As a rule of thumb, we apply these expressions to the FT method to evaluate the projected rotation velocity of the emission B-type star Achernar (α Eri).

  4. Assessment of uncertainty on structural dynamic responses with the short transformation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donders, S.; Vandepitte, D.; Van de Peer, J.; Desmet, W.

    2005-12-01

    The predictive capability of finite element models is limited by their deterministic nature: typically, not all model parameters are exactly known, while even small deviations may have significant effects on the predicted response. Parameter uncertainty should therefore be taken into account, e.g. with fuzzy arithmetic. The absence of fuzzy solvers led to interval arithmetic as a numerical alternative. The Transformation Method (TM), presented by M. Hanss, replaces interval arithmetic with a set of deterministic computations: for each interval, all parameter extrema are combined in every possible way. In a Design of Experiments terminology, the TM is a so-called Full Factorial design. The TM is applicable if the output is monotonic in the inputs. Unlike interval arithmetic, it does not overestimate the response uncertainty, as only parameter combinations are evaluated that actually occur. In this paper, the TM has been applied to visualise uncertain frequency response functions (FRFs), obtained with modal superposition. This yields accurate results when validated against Monte Carlo data, but the computation time is rather high. The Short Transformation Method (STM) is proposed as an attractive alternative to the original TM. A full set of deterministic computations, combining all interval extrema, is only performed at the lowest interval. For higher levels, a smaller set is evaluated. This allows reconstructing the fuzzy FRF from a much lower number of deterministic computations, with only a small reduction in the accuracy of FRFs. Both methods are demonstrated on a clamped plate and a car front cradle with uncertain design parameters.

  5. A Fourier transform method for Vsin i estimations under nonlinear Limb-Darkening laws

    SciTech Connect

    Levenhagen, R. S.

    2014-12-10

    Star rotation offers us a large horizon for the study of many important physical issues pertaining to stellar evolution. Currently, four methods are widely used to infer rotation velocities, namely those related to line width calibrations, on the fitting of synthetic spectra, interferometry, and on Fourier transforms (FTs) of line profiles. Almost all of the estimations of stellar projected rotation velocities using the Fourier method in the literature have been addressed with the use of linear limb-darkening (LD) approximations during the evaluation of rotation profiles and their cosine FTs, which in certain cases, lead to discrepant velocity estimates. In this work, we introduce new mathematical expressions of rotation profiles and their Fourier cosine transforms assuming three nonlinear LD laws—quadratic, square-root, and logarithmic—and study their applications with and without gravity-darkening (GD) and geometrical flattening (GF) effects. Through an analysis of He I models in the visible range accounting for both limb and GD, we find out that, for classical models without rotationally driven effects, all the Vsin i values are too close to each other. On the other hand, taking into account GD and GF, the Vsin i obtained with the linear law result in Vsin i values that are systematically smaller than those obtained with the other laws. As a rule of thumb, we apply these expressions to the FT method to evaluate the projected rotation velocity of the emission B-type star Achernar (α Eri).

  6. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  7. Astigmatism error modification for absolute shape reconstruction using Fourier transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuhang; Li, Qiang; Gao, Bo; Liu, Ang; Xu, Kaiyuan; Wei, Xiaohong; Chai, Liqun

    2014-12-01

    A method is proposed to modify astigmatism errors in absolute shape reconstruction of optical plane using Fourier transform method. If a transmission and reflection flat are used in an absolute test, two translation measurements lead to obtain the absolute shapes by making use of the characteristic relationship between the differential and original shapes in spatial frequency domain. However, because the translation device cannot guarantee the test and reference flats rigidly parallel to each other after the translations, a tilt error exists in the obtained differential data, which caused power and astigmatism errors in the reconstructed shapes. In order to modify the astigmatism errors, a rotation measurement is added. Based on the rotation invariability of the form of Zernike polynomial in circular domain, the astigmatism terms are calculated by solving polynomial coefficient equations related to the rotation differential data, and subsequently the astigmatism terms including error are modified. Computer simulation proves the validity of the proposed method.

  8. Multiscale characterization method for line edge roughness based on redundant second generation wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fei; Zhao Xuezeng; Li Ning

    2010-10-15

    We introduce a multiscale characterization method for line edge roughness (LER) based on redundant second generation wavelet transform. This method involves decomposing LER characteristics into independent bands with different spatial frequency components at different scales, and analyzing the reconstructed signals to work out the roughness exponent, the spatial frequency distribution characteristics, as well as the rms value. The effect of noise can be predicted using detailed signals in the minimum space of scale. This method was applied to numerical profiles for validation. Results show that according to the line edge profiles with similar amplitudes, the roughness exponent R can effectively reflect the degree of irregularity of LER and intuitively provide information on LER spatial frequency distribution.

  9. Secondary Path Modeling Method for Active Noise Control of Power Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Liang, Jiabi; Liang, Yuanbin; Wang, Lixin; Pei, Xiugao; Li, Peng

    The accuracy of the secondary path modeling is critical to the stability of active noise control system. On condition of knowing the input and output of the secondary path, system identification theory can be used to identify the path. Based on the experiment data, correlation analysis is adopted to eliminate the random noise and nonlinear harmonic in the output data in order to obtain the accurate frequency characteristic of the secondary path. After that, Levy's Method is applied to identify the transfer function of the path. Computer simulation results are given respectively, both showing the proposed off-line modeling method is feasible and applicable. At last, Levy's Method is used to attain an accurate secondary path model in the active control of transformer noise experiment and achieves to make the noise sound level decrease about 10dB.

  10. General properties of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation and applicability of the corrected original Foldy-Wouthuysen method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silenko, Alexander J.

    2016-02-01

    General properties of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation which is widely used in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry are considered. Merits and demerits of the original Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation method are analyzed. While this method does not satisfy the Eriksen condition of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, it can be corrected with the use of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We show a possibility of such a correction and propose an appropriate algorithm of calculations. An applicability of the corrected Foldy-Wouthuysen method is restricted by the condition of convergence of a series of relativistic corrections.

  11. A Simple Method for Predicting Transmembrane Proteins Based on Wavelet Transform

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The increasing protein sequences from the genome project require theoretical methods to predict transmembrane helical segments (TMHs). So far, several prediction methods have been reported, but there are some deficiencies in prediction accuracy and adaptability in these methods. In this paper, a method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been developed to predict the number and location of TMHs in membrane proteins. PDB coded as 1KQG is chosen as an example to describe the prediction process by this method. 80 proteins with known 3D structure from Mptopo database are chosen at random as data sets (including 325 TMHs) and 80 sequences are divided into 13 groups according to their function and type. TMHs prediction is carried out for each group of membrane protein sequences and obtain satisfactory result. To verify the feasibility of this method, 80 membrane protein sequences are treated as test sets, 308 TMHs can be predicted and the prediction accuracy is 96.3%. Compared with the main prediction results of seven popular prediction methods, the obtained results indicate that the proposed method in this paper has higher prediction accuracy. PMID:23289014

  12. Development of Bayesian-based transformation method of Landsat imagery into pseudo-hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen Tien; Koike, Katsuaki

    2015-10-01

    It has been generally accepted that hyperspectral remote sensing is more effective and provides greater accuracy than multispectral remote sensing in many application fields. EO-1 Hyperion, a representative hyperspectral sensor, has much more spectral bands, while Landsat data has much wider image scene and longer continuous space-based record of Earth's land. This study aims to develop a new method, Pseudo-Hyperspectral Image Synthesis Algorithm (PHISA), to transform Landsat imagery into pseudo hyperspectral imagery using the correlation between Landsat and EO-1 Hyperion data. At first Hyperion scene was precisely pre-processed and co-registered to Landsat scene, and both data were corrected for atmospheric effects. Bayesian model averaging method (BMA) was applied to select the best model from a class of several possible models. Subsequently, this best model is utilized to calculate pseudo-hyperspectral data by R programming. Based on the selection results by BMA, we transform Landsat imagery into 155 bands of pseudo-hyperspectral imagery. Most models have multiple R-squared values higher than 90%, which assures high accuracy of the models. There are no significant differences visually between the pseudo- and original data. Most bands have Pearson's coefficients < 0.95, and only a small fraction has the coefficients < 0.93 like outliers in the data sets. In a similar manner, most Root Mean Square Error values are considerably low, smaller than 0.014. These observations strongly support that the proposed PHISA is valid for transforming Landsat data into pseudo-hyperspectral data from the outlook of statistics.

  13. Structural transformation by electrodeposition on patterned substrates (STEPS): a new versatile nanofabrication method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Philseok; Epstein, Alexander K; Khan, Mughees; Zarzar, Lauren D; Lipomi, Darren J; Whitesides, George M; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2012-02-01

    Arrays of high-aspect-ratio (HAR) nano- and microstructures are of great interest for designing surfaces for applications in optics, bio-nano interfaces, microelectromechanical systems, and microfluidics, but the difficulty of systematically and conveniently varying the geometries of these structures significantly limits their design and optimization for a specific function. This paper demonstrates a low-cost, high-throughput benchtop method that enables a HAR array to be reshaped with nanoscale precision by electrodeposition of conductive polymers. The method-named STEPS (structural transformation by electrodeposition on patterned substrates)-makes it possible to create patterns with proportionally increasing size of original features, to convert isolated HAR features into a closed-cell substrate with a continuous HAR wall, and to transform a simple parent two-dimensional HAR array into new three-dimensional patterned structures with tapered, tilted, anisotropic, or overhanging geometries by controlling the deposition conditions. We demonstrate the fabrication of substrates with continuous or discrete gradients of nanostructure features, as well as libraries of various patterns, starting from a single master structure. By providing exemplary applications in plasmonics, bacterial patterning, and formation of mechanically reinforced structures, we show that STEPS enables a wide range of studies of the effect of substrate topography on surface properties leading to optimization of the structures for a specific application. This research identifies solution-based deposition of conductive polymers as a new tool in nanofabrication and allows access to 3D architectures that were previously difficult to fabricate. PMID:21438614

  14. CMF Signal Processing Method Based on Feedback Corrected ANF and Hilbert Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yaqing; Yang, Huiyue; Zhang, Haitao; Liu, Xiangyu

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we focus on CMF signal processing and aim to resolve the problems of precision sharp-decline occurrence when using adaptive notch filters (ANFs) for tracking the signal frequency for a long time and phase difference calculation depending on frequency by the sliding Goertzel algorithm (SGA) or the recursive DTFT algorithm with negative frequency contribution. A novel method is proposed based on feedback corrected ANF and Hilbert transformation. We design an index to evaluate whether the ANF loses the signal frequency or not, according to the correlation between the output and input signals. If the signal frequency is lost, the ANF parameters will be adjusted duly. At the same time, singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm is introduced to reduce noise. And then, phase difference between the two signals is detected through trigonometry and Hilbert transformation. With the frequency and phase difference obtained, time interval of the two signals is calculated. Accordingly, the mass flow rate is derived. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method always preserves a constant high precision of frequency tracking and a better performance of phase difference measurement compared with the SGA or the recursive DTFT algorithm with negative frequency contribution

  15. Feature Transformation Detection Method with Best Spectral Band Selection Process for Hyper-spectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike; Brickhouse, Mark

    2015-11-01

    We present a newly developed feature transformation (FT) detection method for hyper-spectral imagery (HSI) sensors. In essence, the FT method, by transforming the original features (spectral bands) to a different feature domain, may considerably increase the statistical separation between the target and background probability density functions, and thus may significantly improve the target detection and identification performance, as evidenced by the test results in this paper. We show that by differentiating the original spectral, one can completely separate targets from the background using a single spectral band, leading to perfect detection results. In addition, we have proposed an automated best spectral band selection process with a double-threshold scheme that can rank the available spectral bands from the best to the worst for target detection. Finally, we have also proposed an automated cross-spectrum fusion process to further improve the detection performance in lower spectral range (<1000 nm) by selecting the best spectral band pair with multivariate analysis. Promising detection performance has been achieved using a small background material signature library for concept-proving, and has then been further evaluated and verified using a real background HSI scene collected by a HYDICE sensor.

  16. Phase retrieval of microscope objects using the Wavelet-Gabor transform method from holographic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Romo, Martín.; Padilla-Vivanco, Alfonso; Kim, Myung K.; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina

    2014-09-01

    An analysis of an optical-digital system based on the architecture of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer for recording holographic filters is presented. The holographic recording system makes use of one microscope objective in each interferometer arm. Moreover, the Gabor Wavelet Transform is implemented for the holographic reconstruction stage. The samples studied of this research are selected in order to test the retrieval algorithm and to characterize the resolution of the holographic recording system. In this last step, some sections of an USAF1951 resolution chart are used. These samples allow us to study the features of lighting in the recorded system. Additionally, some organic samples are used to proven the capabilities of the method because biological samples have much complex morphological composition than others. With this in mind, we can verify the frequencies recovered with each of the settings set in the retrieval method. Experimental results are presented.

  17. A coordinate transformation method for calculating the 3D light intensity distribution in ICF hohlraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhili; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Kuixia; Chen, Xudong; Chen, Mingyu; Pu, Jixiong

    2016-06-01

    For an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system, the light intensity distribution in the hohlraum is key to the initial plasma excitation and later laser-plasma interaction process. Based on the concept of coordinate transformation of spatial points and vector, we present a robust method with a detailed procedure that makes the calculation of the three dimensional (3D) light intensity distribution in hohlraum easily. The method is intuitive but powerful enough to solve the complex cases of random number of laser beams with arbitrary polarization states and incidence angles. Its application is exemplified in the Shenguang III Facility (SG-III) that verifies its effectiveness and it is useful for guiding the design of hohlraum structure parameter.

  18. Novel copyright information hiding method based on random phase matrix of Fresnel diffraction transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chao; Chen, Ru-jun

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new copyright information hide method for digital images in Moiré fringe formats. The copyright information is embedded into the protected image and the detecting image based on Fresnel phase matrix. Firstly, using Fresnel diffraction transform, the random phase matrix of copyright information is generated. Then, according to Moiré fringe principle, the protected image and the detecting image are modulated respectively based on the random phase matrix, and the copyright information is embedded into them. When the protected image and the detecting image are overlapped, the copyright information can reappear. Experiment results show that our method has good concealment performance, and is a new way for copyright protection.

  19. A two-step Hilbert transform method for 2D image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Noo, Frédéric; Clackdoyle, Rolf; Pack, Jed D

    2004-09-01

    The paper describes a new accurate two-dimensional (2D) image reconstruction method consisting of two steps. In the first step, the backprojected image is formed after taking the derivative of the parallel projection data. In the second step, a Hilbert filtering is applied along certain lines in the differentiated backprojection (DBP) image. Formulae for performing the DBP step in fanbeam geometry are also presented. The advantage of this two-step Hilbert transform approach is that in certain situations, regions of interest (ROIs) can be reconstructed from truncated projection data. Simulation results are presented that illustrate very similar reconstructed image quality using the new method compared to standard filtered backprojection, and that show the capability to correctly handle truncated projections. In particular, a simulation is presented of a wide patient whose projections are truncated laterally yet for which highly accurate ROI reconstruction is obtained. PMID:15470913

  20. Medical image interpolation method based on similarity analysis of discrete wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shichun; Liu, Jian

    2007-12-01

    A new interpolation method based on multi-resolution technique is presented and used for medical image zooming. The aim of this work is to focus on similarity analysis of adjacent sub-bands provided by Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to enhance the accuracy of the interpolation. First, decompose the original image into sub-bands by the DWT; second, consider the similarity between adjacent sub-bands to calculate the high frequency components; third, use the original image as the low frequency component and apply the inverse DWT to obtain the final interpolation result. Experimental results on magnetic resonance (MR) images and positron emission tomography (PET) images illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. An additive and lossless watermarking method based on invariant image approximation and Haar wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Pan, W; Coatrieux, G; Cuppens, N; Cuppens, F; Roux, Ch

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we propose a new additive lossless watermarking scheme which identifies parts of the image that can be reversibly watermarked and conducts message embedding in the conventional Haar wavelet transform coefficients. Our approach makes use of an approximation of the image signal that is invariant to the watermark addition for classifying the image in order to avoid over/underflows. The method has been tested on different sets of medical images and some usual natural test images as Lena. Experimental result analysis conducted with respect to several aspects including data hiding capacity and image quality preservation, shows that our method is one of the most competitive existing lossless watermarking schemes in terms of high capacity and low distortion. PMID:21096246

  2. A novel transform domain processing based channel estimation method for OFDM radio-over-fiber systems.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Yu, Jianjun; Yang, Qi; Shao, Yufeng; Zhang, Junwen; Chi, Nan

    2013-03-25

    In this paper, a transform domain processing (TDP) based channel estimation method for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) systems is proposed. Theoretically investigation shows that TDP can greatly reduce the number of required training symbols. An 8 x 4.65 Gb/s multi-user OFDM RoF system over 40 km fiber link and 60 GHz wireless link is experimentally demonstrated utilizing TDP scheme. Compared with conventional time domain averaging (TDA) scheme, the overhead can be reduced from several tens of training symbols to merely one symbol and the receiver sensitivity has been improved by 1.8 dB at BER of 3.8 x 10(-3). The calculated BER performance for 8 wireless users clearly validates the feasibility of this TDP-based channel estimation method. PMID:23546130

  3. A new testing method of SNR for cooled CCD imaging camera based on stationary wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Qianshun; Yu, Feihong

    2013-08-01

    Cooled CCD (charge coupled device) imaging camera has found wide application in the field of astronomy, color photometry, spectroscopy, medical imaging, densitometry, chemiluminescence and epifluorescence imaging. A Cooled CCD (CCCD) imaging camera differs from traditional CCD/CMOS imaging camera in that Cooled CCD imaging camera can get high resolution image even in the low illumination environment. SNR (signal noise ratio) is most popular parameter of digital image quality evaluation. Many researchers have proposed various SNR testing methods for traditional CCD imaging camera, however, which is seldom suitable to Cooled CCD imaging camera because of different main noise source. In this paper, a new testing method of SNR is proposed to evaluate the quality of image captured by Cooled CCD. Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) is introduced in the testing method for getting more exact image SNR value. The method proposed take full advantage of SWT in the image processing, which makes the experiment results accuracy and reliable. To further refining SNR testing results, the relation between SNR and integration time is also analyzed in this article. The experimental results indicate that the testing method proposed accords with the SNR model of CCCD. In addition, the testing values for one system are about one value, which show that the proposed testing method is robust.

  4. Third-order symplectic integration method with inverse time dispersion transform for long-term simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing

    2016-06-01

    The symplectic integration method is popular in high-accuracy numerical simulations when discretizing temporal derivatives; however, it still suffers from time-dispersion error when the temporal interval is coarse, especially for long-term simulations and large-scale models. We employ the inverse time dispersion transform (ITDT) to the third-order symplectic integration method to reduce the time-dispersion error. First, we adopt the pseudospectral algorithm for the spatial discretization and the third-order symplectic integration method for the temporal discretization. Then, we apply the ITDT to eliminate time-dispersion error from the synthetic data. As a post-processing method, the ITDT can be easily cascaded in traditional numerical simulations. We implement the ITDT in one typical exiting third-order symplectic scheme and compare its performances with the performances of the conventional second-order scheme and the rapid expansion method. Theoretical analyses and numerical experiments show that the ITDT can significantly reduce the time-dispersion error, especially for long travel times. The implementation of the ITDT requires some additional computations on correcting the time-dispersion error, but it allows us to use the maximum temporal interval under stability conditions; thus, its final computational efficiency would be higher than that of the traditional symplectic integration method for long-term simulations. With the aid of the ITDT, we can obtain much more accurate simulation results but with a lower computational cost.

  5. W-transform method for feature-oriented multiresolution image retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, M.K.; Lin, B.

    1995-07-01

    Image database management is important in the development of multimedia technology. Since an enormous amount of digital images is likely to be generated within the next few decades in order to integrate computers, television, VCR, cables, telephone and various imaging devices. Effective image indexing and retrieval systems are urgently needed so that images can be easily organized, searched, transmitted, and presented. Here, the authors present a local-feature-oriented image indexing and retrieval method based on Kwong, and Tang`s W-transform. Multiresolution histogram comparison is an effective method for content-based image indexing and retrieval. However, most recent approaches perform multiresolution analysis for whole images but do not exploit the local features present in the images. Since W-transform is featured by its ability to handle images of arbitrary size, with no periodicity assumptions, it provides a natural tool for analyzing local image features and building indexing systems based on such features. In this approach, the histograms of the local features of images are used in the indexing, system. The system not only can retrieve images that are similar or identical to the query images but also can retrieve images that contain features specified in the query images, even if the retrieved images as a whole might be very different from the query images. The local-feature-oriented method also provides a speed advantage over the global multiresolution histogram comparison method. The feature-oriented approach is expected to be applicable in managing large-scale image systems such as video databases and medical image databases.

  6. Development of an efficient regeneration and transformation method for the new potential oilseed crop Lepidium campestre

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lepidium campestre is an undomesticated oilseed species with a great potential to become a new crop for both food and industrial feedstocks production. Genetic modification is needed for further improving the oil quantity and quality of Lepidium. Studies on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium are very limited and there is no transformation protocol available. Results We have investigated the effects of different factors, especially the type, concentration and combination of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium. The results showed that the 2,4-D treatment was crucial to shoot regeneration from different explants. The duration of 2,4-D exposure between 2-4 days did not show significant difference in shoot regeneration, while the effect of 2,4-D concentration varied greatly depending on the type of explants and cytokinins used, for example, the low concentration of 2,4-D combined with TDZ significantly increased the regeneration frequency of hypocotyls. Cotyledon and hypocotyl explants responded differently to cytokinin, for example, TDZ was more effective than zeatin in promoting shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, but did not affect the regeneration of cotyledons which was more affected by high concentration of zeatin. The results also showed that NAA was not effective for shoot regeneration. Germination in light increased the regeneration frequency compared to that in dark. After optimization of the different conditions, an efficient regeneration protocol was developed with the regeneration efficiency of 92.7%. Using this protocol, the transformation frequency of 6% in average was achieved. The presence of transgenes in the transgenic lines was confirmed by GUS staining, PCR and Southern blot analyses. Conclusion Through systematic investigation of important factors affecting in vitro shoot regeneration, we have developed an efficient regeneration and transformation protocol for the genetic modification of

  7. Comparison of automatic denoising methods for phonocardiograms with extraction of signal parameters via the Hilbert Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, Sheila R.; Agzarian, John; Abbott, Derek

    2001-05-01

    Phonocardiograms (PCGs) have many advantages over traditional auscultation (listening to the heart) because they may be replayed, may be analyzed for spectral and frequency content, and frequencies inaudible to the human ear may be recorded. However, various sources of noise may pollute a PCG including lung sounds, environmental noise and noise generated from contact between the recording device and the skin. Because PCG signals are known to be nonlinear and it is often not possible to determine their noise content, traditional de-noising methods may not be effectively applied. However, other methods including wavelet de-noising, wavelet packet de-noising and averaging can be employed to de-noise the PCG. This study examines and compares these de-noising methods. This study answers such questions as to which de-noising method gives a better SNR, the magnitude of signal information that is lost as a result of the de-noising process, the appropriate uses of the different methods down to such specifics as to which wavelets and decomposition levels give best results in wavelet and wavelet packet de-noising. In general, the wavelet and wavelet packet de-noising performed roughly equally with optimal de-noising occurring at 3-5 levels of decomposition. Averaging also proved a highly useful de- noising technique; however, in some cases averaging is not appropriate. The Hilbert Transform is used to illustrate the results of the de-noising process and to extract instantaneous features including instantaneous amplitude, frequency, and phase.

  8. A retrospective evaluation method for in vitro mammalian genotoxicity tests using cytotoxicity index transformation formulae.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yurika; Kasamatsu, Toshio; Ikeda, Naohiro; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-15

    Although in vitro chromosomal aberration tests and micronucleus tests have been widely used for genotoxicity evaluation, false-positive results have been reported under strong cytotoxic conditions. To reduce false-positive results, the new Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline (TG) recommends the use of a new cytotoxicity index, relative increase in cell count or relative population doubling (RICC/RPD), instead of the traditionally used index, relative cell count (RCC). Although the use of the RICC/RPD may result in different outcomes and require re-evaluation of tested substances, it is impractical to re-evaluate all existing data. Therefore, we established a method to estimate test results from existing RCC data. First, we developed formulae to estimate RICC/RPD from RCC without cell counts by considering cell doubling time and experiment time. Next, the accuracy of the cytotoxicity index transformation formulae was verified by comparing estimated RICC/RPD and measured RICC/RPD for 3 major chemicals associated with false-positive genotoxicity test results: ethyl acrylate, eugenol and p-nitrophenol. Moreover, 25 compounds with false-positive in vitro chromosomal aberration (CA) test results were re-evaluated to establish a retrospective evaluation method based on derived estimated RICC/RPD values. The estimated RICC/RPD values were in good agreement with the measured RICC/RPD values for every concentration and chemical, and the estimated RICC suggested the possibility that 12 chemicals (48%) with previously judged false-positive results in fact had negative results. Our method enables transformation of RCC data into RICC/RPD values with a high degree of accuracy and will facilitate comprehensive retrospective evaluation of test results. PMID:26778504

  9. High-throughput transformation method for Yarrowia lipolytica mutant library screening.

    PubMed

    Leplat, Christophe; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Rossignol, Tristan

    2015-09-01

    As a microorganism of major biotechnological importance, the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is subjected to intensive genetic engineering and functional genomic analysis. Future advancements in this area, however, require a system that will generate a large collection of mutants for high-throughput screening. Here, we report a rapid and efficient method for high-throughput transformation of Y. lipolytica in 96-well plates. We developed plasmids and strains for the large-scale screening of overexpression mutant strains, using Gateway® vectors that were adapted for specific locus integration in Y. lipolytica. As an example, a collection of mutants that overexpressed the alkaline extracellular protease (AEP) was obtained in a single transformation experiment. The platform strain that we developed to receive the overexpression cassette was designed to constitutively express a fluorescent protein as a convenient growth reporter for screening in non-translucid media. An example of growth comparison in skim milk-based medium between AEP overexpression and deletion mutants is provided. PMID:26100263

  10. A new method for RGB to CIELAB color space transformation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yajun; Liu, Ding; Liang, Junli

    2013-10-01

    During printing quality inspection, the inspection of color error is an important content. However, the RGB color space is device-dependent, usually RGB color captured from CCD camera must be transformed into CIELAB color space, which is perceptually uniform and device-independent. To cope with the problem, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) based algorithms for the RGB to the CIELAB color space transformation is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the modeling color targets and testing color targets is established, respectively used in modeling and performance testing process. Secondly, we derive a Bayesian model for estimation the coefficients of a polynomial, which can be used to describe the relation between RGB and CIELAB color space. Thirdly, a Markov chain is set up base on Gibbs sampling algorithm (one of the MCMC algorithm) to estimate the coefficients of polynomial. Finally, the color difference of testing color targets is computed for evaluating the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results showed that the nonlinear polynomial regression based on MCMC algorithm is effective, whose performance is similar to the least square approach and can accurately model the RGB to the CIELAB color space conversion and guarantee the color error evaluation for printing quality inspection system.

  11. Method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography using the Anscombe transformation

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Lucas R.; de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Nunes, Polyana F.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work proposes an accurate method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography starting from a clinical image acquired with a standard dose. Methods: The method developed in this work consists of scaling a mammogram acquired at the standard radiation dose and adding signal-dependent noise. The algorithm accounts for specific issues relevant in digital mammography images, such as anisotropic noise, spatial variations in pixel gain, and the effect of dose reduction on the detective quantum efficiency. The scaling process takes into account the linearity of the system and the offset of the detector elements. The inserted noise is obtained by acquiring images of a flat-field phantom at the standard radiation dose and at the simulated dose. Using the Anscombe transformation, a relationship is created between the calculated noise mask and the scaled image, resulting in a clinical mammogram with the same noise and gray level characteristics as an image acquired at the lower-radiation dose. Results: The performance of the proposed algorithm was validated using real images acquired with an anthropomorphic breast phantom at four different doses, with five exposures for each dose and 256 nonoverlapping ROIs extracted from each image and with uniform images. The authors simulated lower-dose images and compared these with the real images. The authors evaluated the similarity between the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and power spectrum (PS) of simulated images and real images acquired with the same dose. The maximum relative error was less than 2.5% for every ROI. The added noise was also evaluated by measuring the local variance in the real and simulated images. The relative average error for the local variance was smaller than 1%. Conclusions: A new method is proposed for simulating dose reduction in clinical mammograms. In this method, the dependency between image noise and image signal is addressed using a novel application of the Anscombe

  12. Predicting Flavin and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide-Binding Sites in Proteins Using the Fragment Transformation Method

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Feng; Chen, Jin-Yi

    2015-01-01

    We developed a computational method to identify NAD- and FAD-binding sites in proteins. First, we extracted from the Protein Data Bank structures of proteins that bind to at least one of these ligands. NAD-/FAD-binding residue templates were then constructed by identifying binding residues through the ligand-binding database BioLiP. The fragment transformation method was used to identify structures within query proteins that resembled the ligand-binding templates. By comparing residue types and their relative spatial positions, potential binding sites were identified and a ligand-binding potential for each residue was calculated. Setting the false positive rate at 5%, our method predicted NAD- and FAD-binding sites at true positive rates of 67.1% and 68.4%, respectively. Our method provides excellent results for identifying FAD- and NAD-binding sites in proteins, and the most important is that the requirement of conservation of residue types and local structures in the FAD- and NAD-binding sites can be verified. PMID:26000290

  13. A hybrid group method of data handling with discrete wavelet transform for GDP forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, Nadira Mohamed; Shabri, Ani

    2013-09-01

    This study is proposed the application of hybridization model using Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in time series forecasting. The objective of this paper is to examine the flexibility of the hybridization GMDH in time series forecasting by using Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A time series data set is used in this study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the forecasting model. This data are utilized to forecast through an application aimed to handle real life time series. This experiment compares the performances of a hybrid model and a single model of Wavelet-Linear Regression (WR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and conventional GMDH. It is shown that the proposed model can provide a promising alternative technique in GDP forecasting.

  14. A new method to calculate the beam charge for an integrating current transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuchi; Han Dan; Zhu Bin; Dong Kegong; Tan Fang; Gu Yuqiu

    2012-09-15

    The integrating current transformer (ICT) is a magnetic sensor widely used to precisely measure the charge of an ultra-short-pulse charged particle beam generated by traditional accelerators and new laser-plasma particle accelerators. In this paper, we present a new method to calculate the beam charge in an ICT based on circuit analysis. The output transfer function shows an invariable signal profile for an ultra-short electron bunch, so the function can be used to evaluate the signal quality and calculate the beam charge through signal fitting. We obtain a set of parameters in the output function from a standard signal generated by an ultra-short electron bunch (about 1 ps in duration) at a radio frequency linear electron accelerator at Tsinghua University. These parameters can be used to obtain the beam charge by signal fitting with excellent accuracy.

  15. A quantitative and qualitative method to control chemotherapeutic preparations by Fourier transform infrared-ultraviolet spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Dziopa, Florian; Galy, Guillaume; Bauler, Stephanie; Vincent, Benoit; Crochon, Sarah; Tall, Mamadou Lamine; Pirot, Fabrice; Pivot, Christine

    2013-06-01

    Chemotherapy products in hospitals include a reconstitution step of manufactured drugs providing an adapted dosage to each patient. The administration of highly iatrogenic drugs raises the question of patients' safety and treatment efficiency. In order to reduce administration errors due to faulty preparations, we introduced a new qualitative and quantitative routine control based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. This automated method enabled fast and specific control for 14 anticancer drugs. A 1.2 mL sample was used to assay and identify each preparation in less than 90 sec. Over a two-year period, 9370 controlled infusion bags showed a 1.49% nonconformity rate, under 15% tolerance from the theoretical concentration and 96% minimum identification matching factor. This study evaluated the reliability of the control process, as well as its accordance to chemotherapy deliverance requirements. Thus, corrective measures were defined to improve the control process. PMID:23014899

  16. Isospin-violating nucleon-nucleon forces using the method of unitary transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Evgeny Epelbaum; Ulf-G. Meissner

    2005-02-01

    Recently, we have derived the leading and subleading isospin-breaking three-nucleon forces using the method of unitary transformation. In the present work we extend this analysis and consider the corresponding two-nucleon forces using the same approach. Certain contributions to the isospin-violating one- and two-pion exchange potential have already been discussed by various groups within the effective field theory framework. Our findings agree with the previously obtained results. In addition, we present the expressions for the subleading charge-symmetry-breaking two-pion exchange potential which were not considered before. These corrections turn out to be numerically important. Together with the three-nucleon force results presented in our previous work, the results of the present study specify completely isospin-violating nuclear force up to the order {Lambda}{sup 5}.

  17. Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing

    SciTech Connect

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

    2011-04-20

    Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra.

  18. Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing.

    PubMed

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

    2011-04-20

    Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra. PMID:21509063

  19. Female Reproductive Tissues Are the Primary Target of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation by the Arabidopsis Floral-Dip Method1

    PubMed Central

    Desfeux, Christine; Clough, Steven J.; Bent, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    The floral-dip method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis allows efficient plant transformation without need for tissue culture. To facilitate use with other plant species, we investigated the mechanisms that underlie this method. In manual outcrossing experiments, application of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to pollen donor plants did not produce any transformed progeny, whereas application of Agrobacterium to pollen recipient plants yielded transformants at a rate of 0.48%. Agrobacterium strains with T-DNA carrying gusA (encoding β-glucuronidase [GUS]) under the control of 35S, LAT52, or ACT11 promoters revealed delivery of GUS activity to developing ovules, whereas no GUS staining of pollen or pollen tubes was observed. Transformants derived from the same seed pod contained independent T-DNA integration events. In Arabidopsis flowers, the gynoecium develops as an open, vase-like structure that fuses to form closed locules roughly 3 d prior to anthesis. In correlation with this fact, we found that the timing of Agrobacterium infection was critical. Transformants were obtained and GUS staining of ovules and embryo sacs was observed only if the Agrobacterium were applied 5 d or more prior to anthesis. A 6-fold higher rate of transformation was obtained with a CRABS-CLAW mutant that maintains an open gynoecium. Our results suggest that ovules are the site of productive transformation in the floral-dip method, and further suggest that Agrobacterium must be delivered to the interior of the developing gynoecium prior to locule closure if efficient transformation is to be achieved. PMID:10889238

  20. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Yang, J; Liu, K F; Qin, B; Chen, D Z

    2014-06-01

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA. PMID:24985809

  1. A stochastic Galerkin method for the Euler equations with Roe variable transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, Per; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Nordström, Jan

    2014-01-15

    The Euler equations subject to uncertainty in the initial and boundary conditions are investigated via the stochastic Galerkin approach. We present a new fully intrusive method based on a variable transformation of the continuous equations. Roe variables are employed to get quadratic dependence in the flux function and a well-defined Roe average matrix that can be determined without matrix inversion. In previous formulations based on generalized polynomial chaos expansion of the physical variables, the need to introduce stochastic expansions of inverse quantities, or square roots of stochastic quantities of interest, adds to the number of possible different ways to approximate the original stochastic problem. We present a method where the square roots occur in the choice of variables, resulting in an unambiguous problem formulation. The Roe formulation saves computational cost compared to the formulation based on expansion of conservative variables. Moreover, the Roe formulation is more robust and can handle cases of supersonic flow, for which the conservative variable formulation fails to produce a bounded solution. For certain stochastic basis functions, the proposed method can be made more effective and well-conditioned. This leads to increased robustness for both choices of variables. We use a multi-wavelet basis that can be chosen to include a large number of resolution levels to handle more extreme cases (e.g. strong discontinuities) in a robust way. For smooth cases, the order of the polynomial representation can be increased for increased accuracy.

  2. Assessment of the derivative-moment transformation method for unsteady-load estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohebbian, Ali; Rival, David E.

    2012-08-01

    It is often difficult, if not impossible, to measure the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces on a moving body. For this reason, a classical control-volume technique is typically applied to extract the unsteady forces. However, measuring the acceleration term within the volume of interest using particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be limited by optical access, reflections, as well as shadows. Therefore, in this study, an alternative approach, termed the derivative-moment transformation (DMT) method, is introduced and tested on a synthetic data set produced using numerical simulations. The test case involves the unsteady loading of a flat plate in a two-dimensional, laminar periodic gust. The results suggest that the DMT method can accurately predict the acceleration term so long as appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions are maintained. The major deficiency, which is more dominant for the direction of drag, was found to be the determination of pressure and unsteady terms in the wake. The effect of control-volume size was investigated, suggesting that larger domains work best by minimizing the associated error in the determination of the pressure field. When decreasing the control-volume size, wake vortices, which produce high gradients across the control surfaces, are found to substantially increase the level of error. On the other hand, it was shown that for large control volumes, and with realistic spatial resolution, the accuracy of the DMT method would also suffer. Therefore, a delicate compromise is required when selecting control-volume size in future experiments.

  3. An improved method for broadband interferometric lightning location using wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shi; Zhou, Bi-Hua; Shi, Li-Hua; Dong, Wan-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Jun; Gao, Tai-Chang

    2009-09-01

    The principle of VHF broadband interferometer for lightning observations is to extract the phase differences between a pair of RF signals at different frequency components, and thereafter, to compute the direction of the radiation source. However, the phase difference spectra are usually distorted by random noise, which directly affects the location accuracy and reliability. In order to suppress phase interference effectively, a phase filtering algorithm which combines circular correlation with translation-invariant denoising is proposed. Application of the algorithm to a segment of observational data shows that the proposed algorithm does a much better job in recovering the phase spectra than other techniques. Simulated data distorted by the addition of random noise are also used to illustrate the improvements of the method in resolving incident angle, which is compared with other wavelet-based thresholding techniques and the conventional Fourier transform-based cross-correlation method. Finally, this phase filtering algorithm is applied to mapping two natural lightning processes. Contrast analysis reveals that this algorithm could be utilized to retrieve well-defined paths which are not discerned by conventional method, and depict the branches more clearly and precisely.

  4. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J.; Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.

    2014-06-01

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  5. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Clausen, S; Morgenstjerne, A; Rathmann, O

    1996-10-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single measurement at a known sample temperature, for example, at ambient temperature. The temperature of the sample surface can be measured rather easily at ambient temperature. The spectrum at ambient temperature is used to eliminate background effects from spectra as measured at other surface temperatures. The temperatures of the sample are found in a single calculation from the measured spectra independently of the response function of the instrument and the emissivity of the sample. The spectral emissivity of a sample can be measured if the instrument is calibrated against a blackbody source. Temperatures of blackbody sources are estimated with an uncertainty of 0.2-2 K. The method is demonstrated for measuring the spectral emissivity of a brass specimen and an oxidized nickel specimen. PMID:21127576

  6. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.; Yang, J. Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.

    2014-06-15

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  7. Study on dietary fibre by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Chylińska, Monika; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Kruk, Beata; Zdunek, Artur

    2016-04-01

    Fresh fruit is an important part of the diet of people all over the world as a significant source of water, vitamins and natural sugars. Nowadays it is also one of the main sources of dietary fibre. In fruit the dietary fibre is simply cell wall consisting essentially of polysaccharides. The aim of present study was to predict the contents of pectins, cellulose and hemicelluloses by partial least squares regression (PLS) analysis on the basis of Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra of fruit cell wall residue. The second purpose was to analyse the composition of dietary fibre from fruit based on FT-IR spectral information in combination with chemometric methods (principle components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA)). Additionally the contents of polysaccharides in studied fruits were determined by analytical methods. It has been shown that the analysis of infrared spectra and the use of multivariate statistical methods can be useful for studying the composition of dietary fibre. PMID:26593472

  8. Novel Thermographic Method for Characterizing Transformation Temperatures of Thin-Film Shape Memory Alloys Aimed at Combinatorial Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, Yuko; Sakurai, Junpei; Shimokohbe, Akira; Hata, Seiichi

    2011-06-01

    A novel characterization method for the two-way martensitic transformation temperatures of thin-film shape memory alloys (SMAs) is proposed. The method uses thermography to detect the transformation as a change in emissivity. The proposed method was demonstrated for a Ti-Pd-Ni thin-film SMA along with electrical resistivity monitoring. Definite emissivity changes were observed during both heating and cooling. Furthermore, the changes in emissivity corresponded to changes in the electrical resistivity. To confirm the validity of the proposed method, the results were compared with results obtained using conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The reverse-martensitic transformation temperature was found to agree with the results of the proposed method. However, the martensitic transformation temperature did not agree well. The reason for this disagreement is the differences in the definition of the transformation temperature and stress conditions used. We expect that the proposed method will enable high-throughput characterization of SMAs by a combinatorial approach in the future.

  9. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3 MJ and a 6.3 MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers. PMID:26230392

  10. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3MJ and a 6.3MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers. PMID:26230392

  11. Discrete Wavelet Packet Transforms and volcanic tremor: method and application to Erta 'Ale, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. P.; Carniel, R.; Malone, S.

    2005-12-01

    The time-varying properties of volcanic tremor demand advanced techniques capable of analyzing changes in both time and frequency domains. Specifically, rapid data preprocessing techniques with the ability to distinguish signal from noise are especially valuable in analyzing the temporal, spatial, and spectral properties of these signals. To this end, we use the Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform and the Best Shift Basis algorithm to select an orthonormal basis for continuous volcanic tremor data, then apply a simple statistical test to eliminate frequency bands that primarily consist of Gaussian white noise. We then use the Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform to compute and analyze features in the detail coefficients of each "signal" band. Because MODWPT detail coefficients are equivalent to a time series convolved with a zero phase filter, we apply standard polarization and amplitude-based location techniques to each frequency band's detail coefficients to analyze possible source locations and mechanisms. To demonstrate the usefulness of these techniques, we present a sample analysis of data from Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, recorded on a temporary network in November 2003. Data were sampled at 100 Hz and the DWPT was computed with the LA(16) wavelet to a maximum level of j = 7. The optimal basis for this data set consists of 54 frequency bands, but only 9 contain meaningful "signal" energy. We identify two frequency bands whose locations suggest a distributed source; three frequency bands whose signals may come from the lava lake itself; three high-frequency bands of scattered energy; and one very high frequency band of non-Gaussian instrument noise. Finally, we discuss optimization efforts, computational efficiency, and the feasibility of using similar wavelet methods to preprocess data in real time or near real time.

  12. The coordinate transformation method for design of polarizers on HL-2A electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, D. H.; Huang, M.; Zhou, J.; Rao, J.; Zhuang, G.

    2013-10-15

    Polarizers are widely used to change the polarization of millimeter waves on the electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECRH and CD) systems. A new method based on the coordinate transformation and the Fourier expansion (the so-called C-method) has been developed for design of polarizers on the HL-2A ECRH and CD systems. This method transforms the grating problem to an eigenvalue problem, making it easy and clear to understand and solve. The comparison between the C-method, the integral method, and the low power test results is presented. It indicates that the C-method can be considered as a rigorous numerical method for the design of polarizers. Finally, two polarizers were designed based on the C-method which can be used together to achieve almost arbitrary polarization.

  13. Image restoration method based on Hilbert transform for full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Choi, Woo June; Choi, Eun Seo; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2008-01-01

    A full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) system utilizing a simple but novel image restoration method suitable for a high-speed system is demonstrated. An en-face image is retrieved from only two phase-shifted interference fringe images through using the mathematical Hilbert transform. With a thermal light source, a high-resolution FF-OCT system having axial and transverse resolutions of 1 and 2.2 μm, respectively, was implemented. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is confirmed by presenting the obtained en-face images of biological samples such as a piece of garlic and a gold beetle. The proposed method is robust to the error in the amount of the phase shift and does not leave residual fringes. The use of just two interference images and the strong immunity to phase errors provide great advantages in the imaging speed and the system design flexibility of a high-speed high-resolution FF-OCT system.

  14. Sound quality recognition using optimal wavelet-packet transform and artificial neural network methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Y. F.; Wang, Y. S.; Shi, L.; Guo, H.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    According to the human perceptional characteristics, a method combined by the optimal wavelet-packet transform and artificial neural network, so-called OWPT-ANN model, for psychoacoustical recognition is presented. Comparisons of time-frequency analysis methods are performed, and an OWPT with 21 critical bands is designed for feature extraction of a sound, as is a three-layer back-propagation ANN for sound quality (SQ) recognition. Focusing on the loudness and sharpness, the OWPT-ANN model is applied on vehicle noises under different working conditions. Experimental verifications show that the OWPT can effectively transfer a sound into a time-varying energy pattern as that in the human auditory system. The errors of loudness and sharpness of vehicle noise from the OWPT-ANN are all less than 5%, which suggest a good accuracy of the OWPT-ANN model in SQ recognition. The proposed methodology might be regarded as a promising technique for signal processing in the human-hearing related fields in engineering.

  15. [Calculating the stark broadening of welding arc spectra by Fourier transform method].

    PubMed

    Pan, Cheng-Gang; Hua, Xue-Ming; Zhang, Wang; Li, Fang; Xiao, Xiao

    2012-07-01

    It's the most effective and accurate method to calculate the electronic density of plasma by using the Stark width of the plasma spectrum. However, it's difficult to separate Stark width from the composite spectrum linear produced by several mechanisms. In the present paper, Fourier transform was used to separate the Lorentz linear from the spectrum observed, thus to get the accurate Stark width. And we calculated the distribution of the TIG welding arc plasma. This method does not need to measure arc temperature accurately, to measure the width of the plasma spectrum broadened by instrument, and has the function to reject the noise data. The results show that, on the axis, the electron density of TIG welding arc decreases with the distance from tungsten increasing, and changes from 1.21 X 10(17) cm(-3) to 1.58 x 10(17) cm(-3); in the radial, the electron density decreases with the distance from axis increasing, and near the tungsten zone the biggest electronic density is off axis. PMID:23016315

  16. Recursion-transform method for computing resistance of the complex resistor network with three arbitrary boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhi-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    We develop a general recursion-transform (R-T) method for a two-dimensional resistor network with a zero resistor boundary. As applications of the R-T method, we consider a significant example to illuminate the usefulness for calculating resistance of a rectangular m ×n resistor network with a null resistor and three arbitrary boundaries, a problem never solved before, since Green's function techniques and Laplacian matrix approaches are invalid in this case. Looking for the exact calculation of the resistance of a binary resistor network is important but difficult in the case of an arbitrary boundary since the boundary is like a wall or trap which affects the behavior of finite network. In this paper we obtain several general formulas of resistance between any two nodes in a nonregular m ×n resistor network in both finite and infinite cases. In particular, 12 special cases are given by reducing one of the general formulas to understand its applications and meanings, and an integral identity is found when we compare the equivalent resistance of two different structures of the same problem in a resistor network.

  17. Method for calibrating a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Tolmachev, Aleksey

    2003-08-19

    A method for improving the calibration of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer wherein the frequency spectrum of a sample has been measured and the frequency (f) and intensity (I) of at least three species having known mass to charge (m/z) ratios and one specie having an unknown (m/z) ratio have been identified. The method uses the known (m/z) ratios, frequencies, and intensities at least three species to calculate coefficients A, B, and C, wherein the mass to charge ratio of a least one of the three species (m/z).sub.i is equal to ##EQU1## wherein f.sub.i is the detected frequency of the specie, G(I.sub.i) is a predetermined function of the intensity of the species, and Q is a predetermined exponent. Using the calculated values for A, B, and C, the mass to charge ratio of the unknown specie (m/z).sub.ii is calculated as the sum of ##EQU2## wherein f.sub.ii is the measured frequency of the unknown specie, and (I.sub.ii) is the measured intensity of the unknown specie.

  18. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z. Zhou, Z. B. Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.

    2014-05-15

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  19. Recursion-transform method for computing resistance of the complex resistor network with three arbitrary boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    We develop a general recursion-transform (R-T) method for a two-dimensional resistor network with a zero resistor boundary. As applications of the R-T method, we consider a significant example to illuminate the usefulness for calculating resistance of a rectangular m×n resistor network with a null resistor and three arbitrary boundaries, a problem never solved before, since Green's function techniques and Laplacian matrix approaches are invalid in this case. Looking for the exact calculation of the resistance of a binary resistor network is important but difficult in the case of an arbitrary boundary since the boundary is like a wall or trap which affects the behavior of finite network. In this paper we obtain several general formulas of resistance between any two nodes in a nonregular m×n resistor network in both finite and infinite cases. In particular, 12 special cases are given by reducing one of the general formulas to understand its applications and meanings, and an integral identity is found when we compare the equivalent resistance of two different structures of the same problem in a resistor network. PMID:26066134

  20. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge.

    PubMed

    Hu, M; Bai, Y Z; Zhou, Z B; Li, Z X; Luo, J

    2014-05-01

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided. PMID:24880402

  1. A Fractal Dimension and Wavelet Transform Based Method for Protein Sequence Similarity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Tang, Yuan Yan; Lu, Yang; Luo, Huiwu

    2015-01-01

    One of the key tasks related to proteins is the similarity comparison of protein sequences in the area of bioinformatics and molecular biology, which helps the prediction and classification of protein structure and function. It is a significant and open issue to find similar proteins from a large scale of protein database efficiently. This paper presents a new distance based protein similarity analysis using a new encoding method of protein sequence which is based on fractal dimension. The protein sequences are first represented into the 1-dimensional feature vectors by their biochemical quantities. A series of Hybrid method involving discrete Wavelet transform, Fractal dimension calculation (HWF) with sliding window are then applied to form the feature vector. At last, through the similarity calculation, we can obtain the distance matrix, by which, the phylogenic tree can be constructed. We apply this approach by analyzing the ND5 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) protein cluster data set. The experimental results show that the proposed model is more accurate than the existing ones such as Su's model, Zhang's model, Yao's model and MEGA software, and it is consistent with some known biological facts. PMID:26357222

  2. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z.; Zhou, Z. B.; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.

    2014-05-01

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  3. Cross modulation method of transformation of the spatial coherence of pulsed laser radiation in a nonlinear medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kitsak, M A; Kitsak, A I

    2008-04-30

    The cross modulation method of transformation of the spatial coherence of low-power pulsed laser radiation in a nonlinear medium is proposed. The method is realised experimentally in a multimode optical fibre. The estimates of the degree of spatial coherence of radiation subjected to the phase cross modulation demonstrated the high efficiency of this radiation decorrelation mechanism. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  4. Fourier transform method of calculating total cross sections using the time-dependent close-coupling theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.; Robicheaux, F.

    2002-07-01

    A formulation of the time-dependent close-coupling theory is described which allows efficient calculation of the total ionization cross section for many electron energies. The Fourier transform method is applied to the electron-impact ionization of Li2+ and excellent agreement is found with experiment and a distorted-wave method.

  5. How to get exogenous DNA to cross the cell membrane of plants. Comment on “Physical methods for genetic transformation in plants” by Rivera et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Hernández, Andrés; Campos Guillén, Juan

    2012-09-01

    Physical methods for genetic transformation in plants. The most commonly applied methods in plant transformation include Agrobacterium infection and protoplast or microprojectile bombardment. A plant transformation system is a prerequisite for the development of a plant improvement program. The global area utilized for biotech crops increases every year.

  6. A simple method for optimising transformation of non-parametric data: an illustration by reference to cortisol assays.

    PubMed

    Clark, James E; Osborne, Jason W; Gallagher, Peter; Watson, Stuart

    2016-07-01

    Neuroendocrine data are typically positively skewed and rarely conform to the expectations of a Gaussian distribution. This can be a problem when attempting to analyse results within the framework of the general linear model, which relies on assumptions that residuals in the data are normally distributed. One frequently used method for handling violations of this assumption is to transform variables to bring residuals into closer alignment with assumptions (as residuals are not directly manipulated). This is often attempted through ad hoc traditional transformations such as square root, log and inverse. However, Box and Cox (Box & Cox, ) observed that these are all special cases of power transformations and proposed a more flexible method of transformation for researchers to optimise alignment with assumptions. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of the infinitely flexible Box-Cox transformation on neuroendocrine data using syntax in spss. When applied to positively skewed data typical of neuroendocrine data, the majority (~2/3) of cases were brought into strict alignment with Gaussian distribution (i.e. a non-significant Shapiro-Wilks test). Those unable to meet this challenge showed substantial improvement in distributional properties. The biggest challenge was distributions with a high ratio of kurtosis to skewness. We discuss how these cases might be handled, and we highlight some of the broader issues associated with transformation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27230811

  7. Development of methods based on double Hough transform or Gabor filtering to discriminate between crop and weed in agronomic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Jérémie; Gée, Christelle; Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents two spatial methods to discriminate between crop and weeds. The application is related to agronomic image with perspective crop rows. The first method uses a double Hough Transform permitting a detection of crop rows and a classification between crop and weeds. The second method is based on Gabor filtering, a band pass filter. The parameters of this filter are detected from a Fast Fourier Transform of the image. For each method, a weed infestation rate is obtained. The two methods are compared and a discussion concludes about the abilities of these methods to detect the crop rows in agronomic images. Finally, we discuss this method regarding the capability of the spatial approach for classifying weeds from crop.

  8. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-15

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.

  9. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung; Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response. PMID:25273766

  10. A transformation method for obtaining marker-free plants of a cross-pollinating and vegetatively propagated crop.

    PubMed

    de Vetten, Nick; Wolters, Anne-Marie; Raemakers, Krit; van der Meer, Ingrid; ter Stege, Renaldo; Heeres, Els; Heeres, Paul; Visser, Richard

    2003-04-01

    It is generally thought that transformation of plant cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens occurs at a very low frequency. Therefore, selection marker genes are used to identify the rare plants that have taken up foreign DNA. Genes encoding antibiotic and herbicide resistance are widely used for this purpose in plant transformation. Over the past several years, consumer and environmental groups have expressed concern about the use of antibiotic- and herbicide-resistance genes from an ecological and food safety perspective. Although no scientific basis has been determined for these concerns, generating marker-free plants would certainly contribute to the public acceptance of transgenic crops. Several methods have been reported to create marker gene-free transformed plants, for example co-transformation, transposable elements, site-specific recombination, or intrachromosomal recombination. Not only are most of these systems time-consuming and inefficient, but they are also employed on the assumption that isolation of transformants without a selective marker gene is not feasible. Here we present a method that permits the identification of transgenic plants without the use of selectable markers. This strategy relies on the transformation of tissue explants or cells with a virulent A. tumefaciens strain and selection of transformed cells or shoots after PCR analysis. Incubation of potato explants with A. tumefaciens strain AGL0 resulted in transformed shoots at an efficiency of 1-5% of the harvested shoots, depending on the potato genotype used. Because this system does not require genetic segregation or site-specific DNA-deletion systems to remove marker genes, it may provide a reliable and efficient tool for generating transgenic plants for commercial use, especially in vegetatively propagated species like potato and cassava. PMID:12627169