Science.gov

Sample records for aguda dois casos

  1. The DOI Is Coming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Davida

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of improving accessibility to copyrighted electronic content focuses on the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and the Open URL standard and linking software. Highlights include work of the World Wide Web consortium; URI (Uniform Resource Identifier); URL (Uniform Resource Locator); URN (Uniform Resource Name); OCLC's (Online Computer…

  2. DOI: A New Identifier for Digital Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berinstein, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Previews Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), a potential unifying classification system for the Web and the Internet developed by the Association of American Publishers and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives. Discusses issues and problems surrounding DOI implementation and usage and how DOI would affect publishers, users,…

  3. ESDIS DOI System, Approach, and Future Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project began investigating the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) in 2010 with the goal of assigning DOIs to various data products. These data products are archived and distributed by various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) located across the United States. Each data center has a unique approach and process for generating and archiving a variety of data products that are used for global change research. These varied approaches present a challenge for developing a DOI solution that fits all the possible variations. To address this challenge, ESDIS developed processes, guidelines, and several models for creating and assigning DOIs. Initially the system was started as a prototype approach and now it is fully operational. In February 2012, ESDIS joined the California Digital Library (CDL) EZID for registering the EOSDIS-related DOIs. ESDIS's DOI operational process allows for reserving DOIs while data providers are finalizing the DOIs and its associated elements. This flexibility allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. Data providers can change any DOI metadata, including the DOI name as long as it has not been registered or reserved by another data provider. ESDIS assures the uniqueness of the DOI names before it is registered. Currently, ESDIS has 146 data product DOIs registered with EZID and data providers have reserved an additional 93 DOIs with ESDIS. A semi-automated approach is being developed for processing and validating the DOI information provided by the data providers and will cover all the steps from the collection to the registration of DOIs. ESDIS's DOI concept utilizes a few mandatory metadata elements that effectively identify the data products and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page

  4. DOI or Don't We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Priscilla

    1998-01-01

    Explains digital object identifier (DOI) which was developed to facilitate digital commerce by maintaining persistent links to the rights holder of a digital object. Topics include uniform resource locators (URLs); uniform resource names (URNs); and Handle System software. (Author/LRW)

  5. DOIs Should Not Link to Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2011, the National Academy of Science's Board of Research Data and Information (BRDI) had a meeting on the topic of "Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards". As part of that meeting were various breakout groups to discuss issues that still remained regarding technical, scientific, and socio-cultural issues, the roles and actors that needed to be involved, and how to get additional feedback from the community. The technical breakout group decided that the majority of the technical problems with citing data revolved around establishing the identity of what it was that we were attempting to cite. As such, our recommendations were to push some of the work back onto the data publishers to tell us how scientists should cite their data (to avoid different disciplines applying different rules), establish 'data landing pages' to describe, document and link to the data, and to provide those pages with persistent identifiers such as a DOI. We present here some of the reasons that were discussed about why not to link directly to data, including: * recalibration, reaccessioning and other data impermanence, * setting context and providing for links to documentation, and * allowing selection of different packaging formats

  6. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline... indication of pipeline leakage. The results of these inspections shall be retained for at least 2 years...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250.1005 Section 250.1005 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall be inspected...

  11. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASoS) engineering and foundations for global design.

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Linebarger, John Michael; Moore, Thomas W.; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-01-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which must be recognized and reckoned with to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Design within CASoS requires the fostering of a new discipline, CASoS Engineering, and the building of capability to support it. Towards this primary objective, we created the Phoenix Pilot as a crucible from which systemization of the new discipline could emerge. Using a wide range of applications, Phoenix has begun building both theoretical foundations and capability for: the integration of Applications to continuously build common understanding and capability; a Framework for defining problems, designing and testing solutions, and actualizing these solutions within the CASoS of interest; and an engineering Environment required for 'the doing' of CASoS Engineering. In a secondary objective, we applied CASoS Engineering principles to begin to build a foundation for design in context of Global CASoS

  12. Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) Engineering Applications. Version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Linebarger, John Michael; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2011-10-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex eco-socio-economic-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to highly-saturated interdependencies and allied vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. The Phoenix initiative approaches this high-impact problem space as engineers, devising interventions (problem solutions) that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. CASoS embody the world's biggest problems and greatest opportunities: applications to real world problems are the driving force of our effort. We are developing engineering theory and practice together to create a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave, and allows us to better control those behaviors. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving CASoS Engineering principles while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it.

  13. Phoenix : Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) engineering version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas W.; Quach, Tu-Thach; Detry, Richard Joseph; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Kelic, Andjelka; Starks, Shirley J.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Sunderland, Daniel J.; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy; Maffitt, S. Louise; Finley, Patrick D.; Russell, Eric Dean; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Reedy, Geoffrey E.; Mitchell, Roger A.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Linebarger, John Michael

    2011-08-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to pervasive interdependencies and attendant vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. Phoenix was initiated to address this high-impact problem space as engineers. Our overarching goals are maximizing security, maximizing health, and minimizing risk. We design interventions, or problem solutions, that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving the principles and discipline of CASoS Engineering while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it. Both grounded in reality and working to extend our understanding and control of that reality, Phoenix is at the same time a solution within a CASoS and a CASoS itself.

  14. Implementing DOIs for Oceanographic Satellite Data at PO.DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausman, J.; Tauer, E.; Chung, N.; Chen, C.; Moroni, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) is NASA's archive for physical oceanographic satellite data. It distributes over 500 datasets from gravity, ocean wind, sea surface topography, sea ice, ocean currents, salinity, and sea surface temperature satellite missions. A dataset is a collection of granules/files that share the same mission/project, versioning, processing level, spatial, and temporal characteristics. The large number of datasets is partially due to the number of satellite missions, but mostly because a single satellite mission typically has multiple versions or even temporal and spatial resolutions of data. As a result, a user might mistake one dataset for a different dataset from the same satellite mission. Due to the PO.DAAC'S vast variety and volume of data and growing requirements to report dataset usage, it has begun implementing DOIs for the datasets it archives and distributes. However, this was not as simple as registering a name for a DOI and providing a URL. Before implementing DOIs multiple questions needed to be answered. What are the sponsor and end-user expectations regarding DOIs? At what level does a DOI get assigned (dataset, file/granule)? Do all data get a DOI, or only selected data? How do we create a DOI? How do we create landing pages and manage them? What changes need to be made to the data archive, life cycle policy and web portal to accommodate DOIs? What if the data also exists at another archive and a DOI already exists? How is a DOI included if the data were obtained via a subsetting tool? How does a researcher or author provide a unique, definitive reference (standard citation) for a given dataset? This presentation will discuss how these questions were answered through changes in policy, process, and system design. Implementing DOIs is not a trivial undertaking, but as DOIs are rapidly becoming the de facto approach, it is worth the effort. Researchers have historically referenced the source

  15. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, is assisted with his ascent and re- entry flight suit by Dave Law, USA mechanical technician, in the white room at Launch Pad 39B as Dr. Doi prepares to enter the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia on launch day. At right wearing glasses is Danny Wyatt, NASA quality assurance specialist. STS-87 is the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and Spartan-201. The 16-day mission will include a spacewalk by Dr. Doi and Mission Specialist Winston Scott.

  16. Mathematical Existence Results for the Doi-Edwards Polymer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupin, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present some mathematical results on the Doi-Edwards model describing the dynamics of flexible polymers in melts and concentrated solutions. This model, developed in the late 1970s, has been used and extensively tested in modeling and simulation of polymer flows. From a mathematical point of view, the Doi-Edwards model consists in a strong coupling between the Navier-Stokes equations and a highly nonlinear constitutive law. The aim of this article is to provide a rigorous proof of the well-posedness of the Doi-Edwards model, namely that it has a unique regular solution. We also prove, which is generally much more difficult for flows of viscoelastic type, that the solution is global in time in the two dimensional case, without any restriction on the smallness of the data.

  17. Image reconstruction algorithms for DOIS: a diffractive optic image spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Denise M.; Whitcomb, Kevin J.

    1996-06-01

    The diffractive optic imaging spectrometer, DOIS, is a compact, economical, rugged, programmable, multi-spectral imager. The design implements a conventional CCD camera and emerging diffractive optical element (DOE) technology in an elegant configuration, adding spectroscopy capabilities to current imaging systems (Lyons 1995). This paper reports on the visible prototype DOIS that was designed, fabricated and characterized. Algorithms are presented for simulation and post-detection processing with digital image processing techniques. This improves the spectral resolution by removing unwanted blurred components from the spectral images. DOIS is a practical image spectrometer that can be built to operate at ultraviolet, visible or infrared wavelengths for applications in surveillance, remote sensing, law enforcement, environmental monitoring, laser communications, and laser counter intelligence.

  18. STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi during CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi , Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, participates in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) in Kennedy Space Centers (KSC's) Vertical Processing Facility. Glenda Laws, the extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, stands behind Dr. Doi. The CEIT gives astronauts an opportunity to get a hands-on look at the payloads with which they will be working on-orbit. STS-87 will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, Dr. Doi will be the first Japanese astronaut to perform a spacewalk. STS-87 is scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC.

  19. STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, gives a thumbs up in his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Dr. Doi is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Winston Scott during STS-87.

  20. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  1. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASOS) engineering environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Detry, Richard Joseph; Linebarger, John Michael; Finley, Patrick D.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex physical-socio-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation. The Phoenix initiative implements CASoS Engineering principles combining the bottom up Complex Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems view with the top down Systems Engineering and System-of-Systems view. CASoS Engineering theory and practice must be conducted together to develop a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave and allows us to better control the outcomes. The pull of applications (real world problems) is critical to this effort, as is the articulation of a CASoS Engineering Framework that grounds an engineering approach in the theory of complex adaptive systems of systems. Successful application of the CASoS Engineering Framework requires modeling, simulation and analysis (MS and A) capabilities and the cultivation of a CASoS Engineering Community of Practice through knowledge sharing and facilitation. The CASoS Engineering Environment, itself a complex adaptive system of systems, constitutes the two platforms that provide these capabilities.

  2. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three areas:…

  3. Introduction of digital object identifiers (DOI) for seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Peter; Strollo, Angelo; Clark, Adam; Ahern, Tim; Newman, Rob; Clinton, John; Pequegnat, Catherine; Pedersen, Helle

    2015-04-01

    Proper attribution for scientific source data is important in promoting transparency and recognising the role of data providers in science. Data sets such as those produced by seismic networks now need to be citable and permanently locatable for research users. Recently the EIDA and IRIS-DMC communities have worked together on development of methods for generation, maintenance and promotion of persistent identifiers for seismic networks. This resulted in a 2014 Recommendation by the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) on the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for seismic networks. These can be cited equivalently to scientific papers, and tools such as DataCite allow the tracking of citations to these datasets. The GEOFON, IRIS and RESIF data centres have now begun to roll-out of these seismic network DOIs. This has involved working with principal investigators to prepare metadata consistent with the FDSN recommendation, preparation of landing pages, and changes to the web sites to promote DOIs where available. This has involved preparing improved descriptions of the data (metadata) and clarifying how individuals and institutions should best be recognised for their contributions to making the data available. We illustrate this process for a few representative networks. We will be in contact with additional network operators to help them establish DOIs for their networks in future.

  4. Did Oligocene crustal thickening precede basin development in northern Thailand? A geochronological reassessment of Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Morley, Christopher K.; Searle, Michael P.; Whitehouse, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    The Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep metamorphic core complexes in northern Thailand are comprised of amphibolite-grade migmatitic gneisses mantled by lower-grade mylonites and metasedimentary sequences, thought to represent Cordilleran-style core complexes exhumed through the mobilization of a low-angle detachment fault. Previous studies have interpreted two metamorphic events (Late Triassic and Late Cretaceous), followed by ductile extension between the late Eocene and late Oligocene, a model which infers movement on the detachment at ca. 40 Ma, and which culminates in a rapid unroofing of the complexes in the early Miocene. The Chiang Mai Basin, the largest such Cenozoic Basin in the region, lies immediately to the east. Its development is related to the extension observed at Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep, however it is not definitively dated, and models for its development have difficulty reconciling Miocene cooling ages with Eocene detachment movement. Here we present new in-situ LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb age data of zircon and monazite grains from gneiss and leucogranite samples taken from Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep. Our new zircon data exhibit an older age range of 221-210 Ma, with younger ages of ca. 72 Ma, and 32-26 Ma. Our monazite data imply an older age cluster at 83-67 Ma, and a younger age cluster of 34-24 Ma. While our data support the view of Indosinian basement being reworked in the Cretaceous, they also indicate a late Eocene-Oligocene tectonothermal event, resulting in prograde metamorphism and anatexis. We suggest that this later event is related to localized transpressional thickening associated with sinistral movement on the Mae Ping Fault, coupled with thickening at the restraining bend of the Mae Yuan Fault to the immediate west of Doi Inthanon. Further, this upper Oligocene age limit from our zircon and monazite data would imply a younger Miocene constraint on movement of the detachment, which, when combined with the previously recorded Miocene

  5. A flood map based DOI decoding method for block detector: a GATE simulation study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Han; Du, Dong; Su, Zhihong; Peng, Qiyu

    2014-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems using detectors with Depth of Interaction (DOI) capabilities could achieve higher spatial resolution and better image quality than those without DOI. Up till now, most DOI methods developed are not cost-efficient for a whole body PET system. In this paper, we present a DOI decoding method based on flood map for low-cost conventional block detector with four-PMT readout. Using this method, the DOI information can be directly extracted from the DOI-related crystal spot deformation in the flood map. GATE simulations are then carried out to validate the method, confirming a DOI sorting accuracy of 85.27%. Therefore, we conclude that this method has the potential to be applied in conventional detectors to achieve a reasonable DOI measurement without dramatically increasing their complexity and cost of an entire PET system. PMID:25227021

  6. 43 CFR 2.34 - Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA... AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Annual Report § 2.34 Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report? Under 5 U.S.C. 552(e), DOI is required to prepare an annual report regarding...

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.650 - When must DOI request assignment of the property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must DOI request...-75.650 When must DOI request assignment of the property? Within 30 calendar days after the expiration of the 30-calendar day period specified in § 102-75.640, DOI must submit to the disposal agency...

  8. 43 CFR 2.31 - How will DOI respond to my appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will DOI respond to my appeal? 2.31... OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.31 How will DOI respond to my appeal? (a) Appeals will be decided... will state the basis for DOI's decision as follows: (1) Decision to release or withhold records. (i)...

  9. 43 CFR 2.34 - Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA... AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Annual Report § 2.34 Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report? Under 5 U.S.C. 552(e), DOI is required to prepare an annual report regarding...

  10. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests... PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI do... will refer the case for a hearing as follows: (1) If the hearing is to be conducted by DOI, OEPC...

  11. 43 CFR 17.314 - Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age distinctions contained in DOI... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.314 Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations. Any age distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by DOI shall be presumed to...

  12. A High Resolution Monolithic Crystal, DOI, MR Compatible, PET Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S Miyaoka

    2012-03-06

    The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-interaction (DOI) positioning capability that will achieve state of the art spatial resolution and sensitivity performance for small animal PET imaging. When arranged in a ring or box detector geometry, the proposed detector module will support <1 mm3 image resolution and >15% absolute detection efficiency. The detector will also be compatible with operation in a MR scanner to support simultaneous multi-modality imaging. The detector design will utilize a thick, monolithic crystal scintillator readout by a two-dimensional array of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices using a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design. Our hypothesis is that our single-ended readout SES design will provide an effective DOI positioning performance equivalent to more expensive dual-ended readout techniques and at a significantly lower cost. Our monolithic crystal design will also lead to a significantly lower cost system. It is our goal to design a detector with state of the art performance but at a price point that is affordable so the technology can be disseminated to many laboratories. A second hypothesis is that using SiPM arrays, the detector will be able to operate in a MR scanner without any degradation in performance to support simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Having a co-registered MR image will assist in radiotracer localization and may also be used for partial volume corrections to improve radiotracer uptake quantitation. The far reaching goal of this research is to develop technology for medical research that will lead to improvements in human health care.

  13. 43 CFR 2.34 - Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual... TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Annual Report § 2.34 Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report? Under 5 U.S.C. 552(e), DOI is required to prepare an annual report regarding its FOIA...

  14. [Computer simulation of DOI-PET detector (1) -analysis of DOI discrimination accuracy in a detector block-].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akira; Haneishi, Hideaki; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    A detector proposed by Murayama et al. for detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) in PET consists of three-dimensionally arranged crystal elements with proper optical reflectors and is coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes. This detector has a great advantage in easiness and cost in fabrication. We implemented a simulator of this detector that allows us to find appropriate values of parameters such as optical properties of crystal or detector unit geometry before making detectors. The simulator is based on the Monte Carlo method that traces the migration of optical photons generated by interaction of a gamma ray with crystal. First, the simulator performance was validated by comparing with the experimental data obtained with some prototype detectors. Then, on some parameters including refractive index of inter-crystal material, reflectance of optical reflector and detector geometry, appropriate values were investigated for accurate discrimination of crystal element of interaction. PMID:12832869

  15. 43 CFR 2.32 - How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How long does DOI have to respond to my... TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.32 How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal? (a... have not received a decision on your appeal within 20 workdays, you have the right to seek review in...

  16. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  17. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  18. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  19. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  20. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... required by this section on all incoming, departing, and crossing pipelines on platforms....

  2. 43 CFR 17.301 - What is the purpose of DOI's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... general age discrimination regulations at 45 CFR part 90. The Act and the general regulations prohibit... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of DOI's age... Age General § 17.301 What is the purpose of DOI's age discrimination regulations? The purpose of...

  3. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? 2.5 Section 2.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1003 Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.232 - When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration? 1000.232 Section 1000.232 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.232 When must DOI respond to a request...

  6. 77 FR 17493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; DOI Generic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... December 22, 2010 (75 FR 80542). We again request public comments on this proposed information collection...; DOI Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY... Interior has submitted a Generic Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``DOI Generic Clearance...

  7. 43 CFR 2.2 - What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA? 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT General Information § 2.2 What is DOI's policy...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. 250.1004 Section 250.1004 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The lessee shall ensure the...

  9. 43 CFR 2.32 - How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal? 2.32 Section 2.32 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.32 How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?...

  10. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  11. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  12. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi with EVA coordinator Laws participates in the CEIT for his mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi , Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, participates in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Glenda Laws, the extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, stands behind Dr. Doi. The CEIT gives astronauts an opportunity to get a hands-on look at the payloads with which they will be working on-orbit. STS-87 will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, Dr. Doi will be the first Japanese astronaut to perform a spacewalk. STS- 87 is scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC.

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.635 - What information must the Department of the Interior (DOI) furnish eligible public agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must the Department of the Interior (DOI) furnish eligible public agencies? 102-75.635 Section 102-75.635... the Interior (DOI) furnish eligible public agencies? Upon request, DOI must furnish eligible...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline...) The table in this section lists the requirements if you take a DOI pipeline out of service: If...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.665 - What happens after the disposal agency receives the assignment recommendation from DOI?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disposal agency receives the assignment recommendation from DOI? 102-75.665 Section 102-75.665 Public... assignment recommendation from DOI? If, after considering other uses for the property, the disposal agency approves the assignment recommendation from DOI, it must assign the property by letter or other document...

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.670 - What responsibilities does DOI have after receiving the disposal agency's assignment letter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... does DOI have after receiving the disposal agency's assignment letter? 102-75.670 Section 102-75.670... Property for Use As Public Park Or Recreation Areas § 102-75.670 What responsibilities does DOI have after..., the Secretary may proceed with the transfer. DOI must take all necessary actions to accomplish...

  17. 76 FR 77244 - Renewal of Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1040-0001, DOI Programmatic Clearance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Office of the Secretary Renewal of Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1040-0001, DOI Programmatic... comments. SUMMARY: We (Department of the Interior, DOI) plan to ask the Office of Management and Budget... you wish to email comments, the email address is Donald_Bieniewicz@ios.doi.gov . Reference...

  18. DOI Use of AVIRIS Data in Natural Resources Management: A Technology Transfer Project Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getter, James R.; Wickland, Diane

    1998-01-01

    A meeting was held in December 1996, attended by representatives from Department of the Interior (DOI) and National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) at the request of Department of the Interior Secretary, Bruce Babbitt and NASA, Administrator Director Dan Goldin, to discuss the use of hyperspectral systems and related remote sensing technologies in addressing environmental issues of environmental importance to the (DOI). It was determined that NASA/DOI Coordination be established, comprised of representatives from each agency, designated to address the environmental issues and resulting technologies. A steering committee was formed consisting of representatives from NASA Headquarters, NASA PI's from University California-Davis, University of Colorado-Boulder, University of New Hampshire and DOI Bureaus (Indian Affairs, Land Management, Reclamation, National Park Service, and US Geological Survey).

  19. DOI criticized for failing to inventory hazardous waste sites on federal lands

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) manages approximately 440 million acres of public land across the United States, including national parks and forests, wildlife refuges, fish hatcheries, and water and hydroelectric projects. At these facilities, hazardous wastes are commonly generated through such activities as oil and gas drilling, coal mining, hydroelectric plant operation, and pesticide application. Consequently, a significant number of DOI sites are probably contaminated and thus must be identified, assessed, and remediated. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Data always getting bigger -- A scalable DOI architecture for big and expanding scientific data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Prakash, Giri; Shrestha, Biva; Younkin, Katarina; Jundt, Rolanda; Martin, Mark; Elliott, Jannean

    2016-08-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Archive established a data citation strategy based on Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for the ARM datasets in order to facilitate citing continuous and diverse ARM datasets in articles and other papers. This strategy eases the tracking of data provided as supplements to articles and papers. Additionally, it allows future data users and the ARM Climate Research Facility to easily locate the exact data used in various articles. Traditionally, DOIs are assigned to individual digital objects (a report or a data table), but for ARM datasets, these DOIs are assigned to an ARM data product.more » This eliminates the need for creating DOIs for numerous components of the ARM data product, in turn making it easier for users to manage and cite the ARM data with fewer DOIs. In addition, the ARM data infrastructure team, with input from scientific users, developed a citation format and an online data citation generation tool for continuous data streams. As a result, this citation format includes DOIs along with additional details such as spatial and temporal information.« less

  1. Choice of crystal surface finishing for a dual-ended readout depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peng; Ma, Tianyu; Wei, Qingyang; Yao, Rutao; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to choose the crystal surface finishing for a dual-ended readout (DER) DOI detector. Through Monte Carlo simulations and experimental studies, we evaluated 4 crystal surface finishing options as combinations of crystal surface polishing (diffuse or specular) and reflector (diffuse or specular) options on a DER detector. We also tested one linear and one logarithm DOI calculation algorithm. The figures of merit used were DOI resolution, DOI positioning error, and energy resolution. Both the simulation and experimental results show that (1) choosing a diffuse type in either surface polishing or reflector would improve DOI resolution but degrade energy resolution; (2) crystal surface finishing with a diffuse polishing combined with a specular reflector appears a favorable candidate with a good balance of DOI and energy resolution; and (3) the linear and logarithm DOI calculation algorithms show overall comparable DOI error, and the linear algorithm was better for photon interactions near the ends of the crystal while the logarithm algorithm was better near the center. These results provide useful guidance in DER DOI detector design in choosing the crystal surface finishing and DOI calculation methods. PMID:26757857

  2. Consistent Observational and Numerical Modeling Support for Ice Sheet Forcing of DOI event 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S.; Jackson, C.; Marchal, O.; Thompson, W.; Stocker, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Binge/Purge (B/P) hypothesis of abrupt climate change (MacAyeal, 1993a,b, Paleoceanography) suggests that an instability and periodic collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet is responsible for the observed abrupt warmings of Greenland (Dansgaard-Oeschger Interstadials or DOIs) through the influence of ice sheet meltwater on ocean circulation and its poleward heat transport. If the B/P hypothesis is correct, then one should be able to use the Greenland paleotemperature data and a climate model to infer changes in global sea level associated with the DOIs. The B/P hypothesis could then be tested by comparing the inferred sea level changes with independent reconstructions based on marine records (corals and sediments). We use stochastic inversion of a seasonal resolving climate model (Schmittner and Stocker, 1999, J. Climate), composed of a zonally averaged ocean model (Wright and Stocker, 1992, J. Geophys. Res.) coupled to an energy and moisture balance model of the atmosphere, to infer the changes in ice sheet meltwater required to explain the Greenland paleotemperature record from 39 ka to 34 ka which include DOIs 8, 7, and 6. We found a compelling consistency between modeled and reconstructed sea level changes for DOI 8 (a particularly long interstadial following Heinrich Event 4), which tends to support the B/P hypothesis. On the other hand, the large estimated uncertainties in the inversion solution and sea level reconstructions do not permit a firm test of the B/P hypothesis for DOIs 7 and 6.

  3. Nicotine attenuates DOI-induced head-twitch response in mice: implications for Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tizabi, Y; Russell, L T; Johnson, M; Darmani, N A

    2001-10-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS), a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder, is characterized by motor and vocal tics. Preliminary clinical studies indicate possible therapeutic benefits of nicotine in the treatment of Tourette's syndrome (TS). It has been proposed that twitches of the head in mice or twitches of head and shoulders in rats following administration of the selective 5HT(2A/C) agonist DOI (1-)2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane, can serve as an animal model of tics in TS. In this study, the effects of acute and chronic administration of nicotine on DOI-induced head twitch response (HTR) in male albino ICR mice were evaluated. Both acute and chronic nicotine (daily injections for 10 days) reduced the DOI-induced HTR. Moreover, chronic administration of DOI (1 mg/kg/day for 10 days) resulted in 65% increase in [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding in cerebellum and 41% increase in striatal [3H]cytisine binding. However, the acute inhibitory effects of nicotine were not blocked by pretreatment with the nicotinic antagonist, mecamylamine. Indeed, at higher doses, mecamylamine also reduced the DOI-induced HTR. The data suggest that both nicotine and mecamylamine may be of therapeutic potential in the treatment of some symptoms of TS. PMID:11513358

  4. Diffusion of Innovation in Long-Term Care (DOI-LTC) Measurement Battery

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Eleanor S.; Corazzini, Kirsten N.; Lekan, Deborah; Bailey, Donald C.; Sloane, Richard; Landerman, L. Richard; Champagne, Mary T.

    2013-01-01

    Poor understanding of factors influencing integration of new practices into long-term care (LTC) hinders timely implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). Using the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) framework, a new instrument measuring staff perceptions of an EBP was developed as part of a DOI-LTC battery, and tested in a cross-sectional survey of North Carolina LTC nursing personnel. Valid questionnaires were received from 95 licensed nurses and 102 certified nursing assistants (CNAs). Internal consistency reliability for five of seven subscales was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha = .77 to .95). Perception of innovation attributes was associated with intention to adopt the new practice (licensed nurses Spearman Rho = .41–.68, p < .0001; CNAs = .26–.54, p = .05 to < .0001). The DOI-LTC battery represents a promising new approach to studying implementation of EBPs in LTC. Future work should examine its responsiveness to interventions that facilitate implementation of EBPs in LTC. PMID:21702425

  5. Characterization of stacked-crystal PET detector designs for measurement of both TOF and DOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmall, Jeffrey P.; Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S.

    2015-05-01

    A PET detector with good timing resolution and two-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) discrimination can be constructed using a single-ended readout of scintillator stacks of Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), with various Cerium dopant concentrations, including pure Cerium Bromide (CeBr3). The stacked crystal geometry creates a unique signal shape for interactions occurring in each layer, which can be used to identify the DOI, while retaining the inherently good timing properties of LaBr3 and CeBr3. In this work, single pixel elements are used to optimize the choice of scintillator, coupling of layers, and type of photodetector, evaluating the performance using a fast, single-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a single 4 × 4 mm2 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). We also introduce a method to quantify and evaluate the DOI discrimination accuracy. From signal shape measurements using fast waveform sampling, we found that in addition to differences in signal rise times, between crystal layers, there were also differences in the signal fall times. A DOI accuracy of 98% was achieved using our classification method for a stacked crystal pair, consisting of a 15 mm long LaBr3(Ce:20%) crystal on top of a 15 mm long CeBr3 crystal, readout using a PMT. A DOI accuracy of 95% was measured with a stack of two, identical, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals. The DOI accuracy of this crystal pair was reduced to 91% when using a SiPM for readout. For the stack of two, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals, a coincidence timing resolution (average of timing results from the top and bottom layer) of 199 ps was measured using a PMT, and this was improved to 153 ps when using a SiPM. These results show that with stacked LaBr3/CeBr3 scintillators and fast waveform sampling nearly perfect DOI accuracy can be achieved with excellent timing resolution—timing resolution that is only minimally degraded compared to results from a single CeBr3 crystal of comparable length to the stacked crystals. The

  6. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi and his wife pose at LC 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan poses with his wife, Hitomi Doi, in front of Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B during final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. The other STS-87 crew members are Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., and Winston Scott; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan- 201 deployable satellite.

  7. Characterization of stacked-crystal PET detector designs for measurement of both TOF and DOI.

    PubMed

    Schmall, Jeffrey P; Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S

    2015-05-01

    A PET detector with good timing resolution and two-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) discrimination can be constructed using a single-ended readout of scintillator stacks of Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), with various Cerium dopant concentrations, including pure Cerium Bromide (CeBr3). The stacked crystal geometry creates a unique signal shape for interactions occurring in each layer, which can be used to identify the DOI, while retaining the inherently good timing properties of LaBr3 and CeBr3. In this work, single pixel elements are used to optimize the choice of scintillator, coupling of layers, and type of photodetector, evaluating the performance using a fast, single-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a single 4 × 4 mm(2) silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). We also introduce a method to quantify and evaluate the DOI discrimination accuracy. From signal shape measurements using fast waveform sampling, we found that in addition to differences in signal rise times, between crystal layers, there were also differences in the signal fall times. A DOI accuracy of 98% was achieved using our classification method for a stacked crystal pair, consisting of a 15 mm long LaBr3(Ce:20%) crystal on top of a 15 mm long CeBr3 crystal, readout using a PMT. A DOI accuracy of 95% was measured with a stack of two, identical, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals. The DOI accuracy of this crystal pair was reduced to 91% when using a SiPM for readout. For the stack of two, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals, a coincidence timing resolution (average of timing results from the top and bottom layer) of 199 ps was measured using a PMT, and this was improved to 153 ps when using a SiPM. These results show that with stacked LaBr3/CeBr3 scintillators and fast waveform sampling nearly perfect DOI accuracy can be achieved with excellent timing resolution-timing resolution that is only minimally degraded compared to results from a single CeBr3 crystal of comparable length to the stacked crystals. The

  8. Characterization of stacked-crystal PET detector designs for measurement of both TOF and DOI

    PubMed Central

    Schmall, Jeffrey P; Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S

    2015-01-01

    A PET detector with good timing resolution and two-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) discrimination can be constructed using a single-ended readout of scintillator stacks of Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), with various Cerium dopant concentrations, including pure Cerium Bromide (CeBr3). The stacked crystal geometry creates a unique signal shape for interactions occurring in each layer, which can be used to identify the DOI, while retaining the inherently good timing properties of LaBr3 and CeBr3. In this work, single pixel elements are used to optimize the choice of scintillator, coupling of layers, and type of photodetector, evaluating the performance using a fast, single-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a single 4×4 mm2 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). We also introduce a method to quantify and evaluate the DOI discrimination accuracy. From signal shape measurements using fast waveform sampling, we found that in addition to differences in signal rise times, between crystal layers, there were also differences in the signal fall times. A DOI accuracy of 98% was achieved using our classification method for a stacked crystal pair, consisting of a 15-mm long LaBr3(Ce:20%) crystal on top of a 15-mm long CeBr3 crystal, readout using a PMT. A DOI accuracy of 95% was measured with a stack of two, identical, 12-mm long, CeBr3 crystals. The DOI accuracy of this crystal pair was reduced to 91% when using a SiPM for readout. For the stack of two, 12-mm long, CeBr3 crystals, a coincidence timing resolution (average of timing results from the top and bottom layer) of 199 ps was measured using a PMT, and this was improved to 153 ps when using a SiPM. These results show that with stacked LaBr3/CeBr3 scintillators and fast waveform sampling nearly perfect DOI accuracy can be achieved with excellent timing resolution—timing resolution that is only minimally degraded compared to results from a single CeBr3 crystal of comparable length to the stacked crystals. The interface in the

  9. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  10. Data DOIs - virtues and weak points from the perspective of the data journal ESSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffenberger, Hans; Carlson, David

    2016-04-01

    Fundamentally, data publication seeks to provide improved access, trust and utility for data users accompanied by improved recognition for data providers. The features of persistent identifier schemes used in this context and the policies of providers of their resolver systems can greatly contribute towards these aims! Unfortunately, we also recognize situations where identifier systems undermine some of our lofty data publication aims. From our 7 years of successful experience with the data journal ESSD, we will present our practical observations as well as future requirements on the DOI-system in particular, such as: * Most scientists contributing to or drawing benefit from ESSD seem to understand the notion of published data in the sense of a static, citable entity to build on, relying on its long term availability and integrity (as is the case with journal articles), secured by DOIs. * It is still true that many data providers - individuals or projects - can not find a repository for their (type of) data which would provide a DOI (or other persistent identifier) and that many data centers and databases holding valuable data have a hard time adding DOIs as a feature of their systems for conceptual, legacy or funding reasons. * The typical evolution of many important data collections or data products - such as the Global Carbon Budget - can adequately be tracked with yearly (or less frequent) issues of dataset and data article, each having a new DOI. However, issuing a new DOI for a dataset extended in time clashes with many producers' wish to amass all references to the developing dataset under one citation (and one DOI). * Current practises with DOIs and metadata associated with DOIs need to be clarified and amended so the identifier systems can and do express and track the relationships between versions of data, addressing extensions, corrections, modifications, revisions and retractions in an unambiguous (and machine readable) manner, while also removing

  11. Digital Object Identifiers (DOI's) usage and adoption in U.S Geological Survey (USGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, M. T.; Palanisamy, G.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing grand environmental science challenges requires unprecedented access to easily understood data that cross the breadth of temporal, spatial, and thematic scales. From a scientist's perspective, the big challenges lie in discovering the relevant data, dealing with extreme data heterogeneity, large data volumes, and converting data to information and knowledge. Historical linkages between derived products, i.e. Publications, and associated datasets has not existed in the earth science community. The USGS Core Science Analytics and Synthesis, in collaboration with DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Mercury Consortium (funded by NASA, USGS and DOE), established a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) service for USGS data, metadata, and other media. This service is offered in partnership through the University of California Digital Library EZID service. USGS scientists, data managers, and other professionals can generate globally unique, persistent and resolvable identifiers for any kind of digital objects. Additional efforts to assign DOIs to historical data and publications have also been underway. These DOI identifiers are being used to cite data in journal articles, web-accessible datasets, and other media for distribution, integration, and in support of improved data management practices. The session will discuss the current DOI efforts within USGS, including a discussion on adoption, challenges, and future efforts necessary to improve access, reuse, sharing, and discoverability of USGS data and information.

  12. Resolving DOI Based URNs Using Squid: An Experimental System at UKOLN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    Describes UKOLN's (United Kingdom Office for Library and Information Networking--a national center for support in network information management in the library/information communities) experimental system that allows digital object identifiers (DOIs) encoded as uniform resource names (URNs) to be resolved on behalf of Web browsers by Squid, a…

  13. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths of... exists. (b)(1) Pipelines shall be pressure tested with water at a stabilized pressure of at least 1.25... pipeline shall be pressure tested with water or processed natural gas at a minimum stabilized pressure...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths of... exists. (b)(1) Pipelines shall be pressure tested with water at a stabilized pressure of at least 1.25... pipeline shall be pressure tested with water or processed natural gas at a minimum stabilized pressure...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths of... exists. (b)(1) Pipelines shall be pressure tested with water at a stabilized pressure of at least 1.25... pipeline shall be pressure tested with water or processed natural gas at a minimum stabilized pressure...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... pipeline may constitute a hazard to trawling operations or other uses. A trawl test or diver survey may be... determines that such items present no hazard to trawling or other operations. A protective device may be...

  17. Role of endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems in DOI-induced head-twitch response in mice.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Okuno, Ryoko; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2011-07-01

    We previously reported that systemic administration of the endocannabinoid anandamide inhibited the head-twitches induced by the hallucinogenic drug 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) in mice, which is mediated via the activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. Endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems have been suggested to modulate the function of 5-HT(2A) receptors. In the present study, we further investigated the role of endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems in DOI-induced head-twitch response in mice. An anandamide transport inhibitor AM404 (0.3-3mg/kg, i.p.), a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 (0.1-10mg/kg, i.p.), a glutamate release inhibitor riluzole (0.3 and 1mg/kg, i.p.), a natural glutamate analog l-glutamylethylamide (theanine, 1 and 3mg/kg, p.o.) and an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist NBQX (0.01-0.3mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited DOI-induced head-twitch response. The AMPA receptor positive modulator aniracetam (30 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) reversed inhibition of head-twitch response by NBQX and URB597. These findings indicated that endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems participate in the mechanism of action of DOI to induce head-twitch response. PMID:21504759

  18. The Transformation of Higher Education in Vietnam after DoiMoi: A Story of "Dualism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Hien

    2009-01-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the transformation of higher education reform in Vietnam since "DoiMoi," which involves examining its rationale and practical implementation. The reform reveals an interesting picture of Vietnam's higher education system, in which two development visions--a "market-led" vision and a "socialist-oriented"…

  19. Development of GAGG depth-of-interaction (DOI) block detectors based on pulse shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Yeol Yeom, Jung; Morishita, Yuki; Sato, Hiroki; Endo, Takanori; Usuki, Yoshiyuki; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-12-01

    A depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector is required for developing a high resolution and high sensitivity PET system. Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (GAGG fast: GAGG-F) is a promising scintillator for PET applications with high light output, no natural radioisotope and suitable light emission wavelength for semiconductor based photodetectors. However, no DOI detector based on pulse shape analysis with GAGG-F has been developed to date, due to the lack of appropriate scintillators of pairing. Recently a new variation of this scintillator with different Al/Ga ratios-Ce-doped Gd3Al2.6Ga2.4O12 (GAGG slow: GAGG-S), which has slower decay time was developed. The combination of GAGG-F and GAGG-S may allow us to realize high resolution DOI detectors based on pulse shape analysis. We developed and tested two GAGG phoswich DOI block detectors comprised of pixelated GAGG-F and GAGG-S scintillation crystals. One phoswich block detector comprised of 2×2×5 mm pixel that were assembled into a 5×5 matrix. The DOI block was optically coupled to a silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) array (Hamamatsu MPPC S11064-050P) with a 2-mm thick light guide. The other phoswich block detector comprised of 0.5×0.5×5 mm (GAGG-F) and 0.5×0.5×6 mm3 (GAGG-S) pixels that were assembled into a 20×20 matrix. The DOI block was also optically coupled to the same Si-PM array with a 2-mm thick light guide. In the block detector of 2-mm crystal pixels (5×5 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram revealed excellent separation with an average energy resolution of 14.1% for 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8.7. In the block detector that used 0.5-mm crystal pixels (20×20 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram also showed good separation with energy resolution of 27.5% for the 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 6.5. These results indicate that phoswich DOI detectors with the two

  20. Development of prototype PET scanner using dual-sided readout DOI-PET modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Kurei, Y.; Nishiyama, T.; Ohshima, T.; Taya, T.

    2014-12-01

    In our previous work, we proposed a novel design for a gamma-ray detector module capable of measuring the depth of interaction (DOI). In this paper, we further developed DOI-PET detector modules and a data acquisition system, and evaluated its performance. Each detector module was composed of a 3-D scintillator array and two large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays coupled to both ends of the 3-D scintillator array, leading to only 8-ch signal outputs from a module. The 3-D scintillator array was composed of 9 × 9 × 7 matrices of 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm3 Ce:GAGG crystals. The detector module showed good energy resolution of 10.6% as measured at 511 keV and a high average peak to valley ratio higher than 8 for each pixel crystal identified in the X-Y-Z directions. Moreover, we evaluated the spatial resolution of a virtual 18-ch PET gantry simulated by using two detector modules that were flexibly controlled using both the X-stage and θ-stage in 20-degree steps. By measuring a 22Na point source (0.25 mm in diameter), we showed that spatial resolution substantially degrades from 1.0 mm to 7.8 mm (FWHM; as measured at 0 mm and 28 mm off-center) with a non-DOI configuration, whereas the corresponding values for the DOI configuration were 0.9 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively (FWHM; as measured at 0 mm and 28 mm off-center). This preliminary study confirms that our DOI-PET module is useful for future high spatial resolution and compact small-animal PET scanners without radial image distortions at the peripheral regions of the field of view (FOV).

  1. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in § 250.1750...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in § 250.1750...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in § 250.1750...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in §...

  5. 25 CFR 900.208 - How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI? 900.208 Section 900.208 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND... Related Claims § 900.208 How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?...

  6. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage. PMID:2585023

  7. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement.

  8. Relaxation spectra of binary blends: Extension of the Doi-Edwards theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchesnokov, M. A.; Molenaar, J.; Slot, J. J. M.; Stepanyan, R.

    2007-10-01

    A molecular model is presented which allows the calculation of the stress relaxation function G for binary blends consisting of two monodisperse samples with arbitrary molecular weights. It extends the Doi-Edwards reptation theory (Doi M. and Edwards S. F., The Theory of Polymer Dynamics (Oxford Press, New York) 1986) to highly polydisperse melts by including constraint release (CR) and thermal fluctuations (CLF), yet making use of the same input parameters. The model reveals an explicit nonlinear dependence of CR frequency in the blend on the blend's molecular weight distribution (MWD). It provides an alternative way to quantify polydisperse systems compared to the widely used "double-reptation" theories. The results of the present model are in a good agreement with the experimental data given in Rubinstein M. and Colby R. H., J. Chem. Phys., 89 (1988) 5291.

  9. DOI Climate Science Centers--Regional science to address management priorities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Malley, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Our Nation's lands, waters, and ecosystems and the living and cultural resources they contain face myriad challenges from invasive species, the effects of changing land and water use, habitat fragmentation and degradation, and other influences. These challenges are compounded by increasing influences from a changing climate—higher temperatures, increasing droughts, floods, and wildfires, and overall increasing variability in weather and climate. The Department of the Interior (DOI) has established eight regional Climate Science Centers (CSC) (fig. 1) that will provide scientific information and tools to natural and cultural resource managers as they plan for conserving these resources in a changing world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) is managing the CSCs on behalf of the DOI.

  10. DOI Determination by Rise Time Discrimination in Single-Ended Readout for TOF PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R.I.; Surti, S.; Karp, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical TOF PET systems achieve detection efficiency using thick crystals, typically of thickness 2–3cm. The resulting dispersion in interaction depths degrades spatial resolution for increasing radial positions due to parallax error. Furthermore, interaction depth dispersion results in time pickoff dispersion and thus in degraded timing resolution, and is therefore of added concern in TOF scanners. Using fast signal digitization, we characterize the timing performance, pulse shape and light output of LaBr3:Ce, CeBr3 and LYSO. Coincidence timing resolution is shown to degrade by ~50ps/cm for scintillator pixels of constant cross section and increasing length. By controlling irradiation depth in a scintillator pixel, we show that DOI-dependence of time pickoff is a significant factor in the loss of timing performance in thick detectors. Using the correlated DOI-dependence of time pickoff and charge collection, we apply a charge-based correction to the time pickoff, obtaining improved coincidence timing resolution of <200ps for a uniform 4×4×30mm3 LaBr3 pixel. In order to obtain both DOI identification and improved timing resolution, we design a two layer LaBr3[5%Ce]/LaBr3[30%Ce] detector of total size 4×4×30mm3, exploiting the dependence of scintillator rise time on [Ce] in LaBr3:Ce. Using signal rise time to determine interaction layer, excellent interaction layer discrimination is achieved, while maintaining coincidence timing resolution of <250ps and energy resolution <7% using a R4998 PMT. Excellent layer separation and timing performance is measured with several other commercially-available TOF photodetectors, demonstrating the practicality of this design. These results indicate the feasibility of rise time discrimination as a technique for measuring event DOI while maintaining sensitivity, timing and energy performance, in a well-known detector architecture. PMID:24403611

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.640 - When must DOI notify the disposal agency that an eligible applicant is interested in acquiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must DOI notify the... Disposal Property for Use As Public Park Or Recreation Areas § 102-75.640 When must DOI notify the disposal agency that an eligible applicant is interested in acquiring the property? DOI must notify the...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.660 - What happens if DOI does not approve any applications or does not submit an assignment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if DOI does... Disposal Property for Use As Public Park Or Recreation Areas § 102-75.660 What happens if DOI does not approve any applications or does not submit an assignment recommendation? If DOI does not approve...

  13. Use of internal scintillator radioactivity to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Bircher, Chad; Shao Yiping

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors that use a dual-ended-scintillator readout to measure depth-of-interaction (DOI) must have an accurate DOI function to provide the relationship between DOI and signal ratios to be used for detector calibration and recalibration. In a previous study, the authors used a novel and simple method to accurately and quickly measure DOI function by irradiating the detector with an external uniform flood source; however, as a practical concern, implementing external uniform flood sources in an assembled PET system is technically challenging and expensive. In the current study, therefore, the authors investigated whether the same method could be used to acquire DOI function from scintillator-generated (i.e., internal) radiation. The authors also developed a method for calibrating the energy scale necessary to select the events within the desired energy window. Methods: The authors measured the DOI function of a PET detector with lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) scintillators. Radiation events originating from the scintillators' internal Lu-176 beta decay were used to measure DOI functions which were then compared with those measured from both an external uniform flood source and an electronically collimated external point source. The authors conducted these studies with several scintillators of differing geometries (1.5 x 1.5 and 2.0 x 2.0 mm{sup 2} cross-section area and 20, 30, and 40 mm length) and various surface finishes (mirror-finishing, saw-cut rough, and other finishes in between), and in a prototype array. Results: All measured results using internal and external radiation sources showed excellent agreement in DOI function measurement. The mean difference among DOI values for all scintillators measured from internal and external radiation sources was less than 1.0 mm for different scintillator geometries and various surface finishes. Conclusions: The internal radioactivity of LYSO scintillators can be used

  14. 10 years of data publication with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) at the World Data Center for Climate (WDCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockhause, Martina; Lautenschlager, Michael; Höck, Heinke; Toussaint, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) has been Data DOI publication agency for 10 years. Before issuing the first Data DOI, five years were spent on the development of a concept out of the idea to make scientific data citable. Apart from the unique and persistent identification of data objects, questions e.g. about the organizational structure including the roles of libraries and data centers, cost models, data quality, and the granularity of data publications were targeted in this pre-phase. The first Data DOI publication system was developed within the German project 'std_doi' (Scientific and Technical Data DOI) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) acted as DOI Registration Agency and the data centers PANGAEA, GFZ and WDCC as publication agencies and long-term data archives. The first publication of scientific data came from WDCC in March 2004 (doi:10.1594/WDCC/EH4_OPYC_SRES_A2). About five years after the first data publications, in December 2009, the international organization DataCite was formed, leading to several organizational as well as technical changes affecting WDCC's scientific data publication process. Recently, WDCC became the data publisher for the decentrally disseminated data of the project CMIP5 (Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) and participated in the development of the data publication system 'atarrabi', requiring several additions and changes in WDCC's established data publication procedure. The challenges for the future of WDCC's scientific data publication lie in the connections of data to other DOI objects like scientific publications or to other persistent identifiers such as e.g. ORCID for persons or EPIC Handles for changeable data objects in the scientific workflow. Issues like data quality and data granularity have not been solved for the time being but are still under investigation.

  15. [2D imaging simulations of a small animal PET scanner with DOI measurement: jPET-RD.].

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Taiga; Kitamura, Keishi; Hagiwara, Naoki; Obi, Takashi; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Tsuda, Tomoaki; Inadama, Naoko; Wada, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    We present a preliminary study on the design of a high sensitivity small animal DOI-PET scanner: jPET-RD (for Rodents with DOI detectors), which will contribute to molecular imaging. The 4-layer DOI block detector for the jPET-RD that consists of scintillation crystals (1.4 mm x 1.4 mm x 4.5 mm) and a flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (52 mm x 52 mm) was previously proposed. In this paper, we investigate imaging performance of the jPET-RD through numerical simulations. The scanner has a hexagonal geometry with a small diameter and a large axial aperture. Therefore DOI information is expected to improve resolution uniformity in the whole field of view (FOV). We simulate the scanner for various parameters of the number of DOI channels and the crystal length. Simulated data are reconstructed using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization with accurate system modeling. The trade-off results between background noise and spatial resolution show that only shortening the length of crystal does not improve the trade-off at all, and that 4-layer DOI information improves uniformity of spatial resolution in the whole FOV. Excellent performance of the jPET-RD can be expected based on the numerical simulation results. PMID:15961924

  16. Sensitivity booster for DOI-PET scanner by utilizing Compton scattering events between detector blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-11-01

    In a conventional PET scanner, coincidence events are measured with a limited energy window for detection of photoelectric events in order to reject Compton scatter events that occur in a patient, but Compton scatter events caused in detector crystals are also rejected. Scatter events within the patient causes scatter coincidences, but inter crystal scattering (ICS) events have useful information for determining an activity distribution. Some researchers have reported the feasibility of PET scanners based on a Compton camera for tracing ICS into the detector. However, these scanners require expensive semiconductor detectors for high-energy resolution. In the Anger-type block detector, single photons interacting with multiple detectors can be obtained for each interacting position and complete information can be gotten just as for photoelectric events in the single detector. ICS events in the single detector have been used to get coincidence, but single photons interacting with multiple detectors have not been used to get coincidence. In this work, we evaluated effect of sensitivity improvement using Compton kinetics in several types of DOI-PET scanners. The proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity using coincidence events of single photons interacting with multiple detectors, which are identified as the first interaction (FI). FI estimation accuracy can be improved to determine FI validity from the correlation between Compton scatter angles calculated on the coincidence line-of-response. We simulated an animal PET scanner consisting of 42 detectors. Each detector block consists of three types of scintillator crystals (LSO, GSO and GAGG). After the simulation, coincidence events are added as information for several depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolutions. From the simulation results, we concluded the proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity considerably when effective atomic number of a scintillator is low. Also, we showed that FI estimate

  17. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi addresses the media at the SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As STS-87 Commander Kevin Kregel looks on, Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan addresses members of the press and media at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility after arriving for the final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. Other STS-87 crew members not pictured are Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., and Winston Scott; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan-201 deployable satellite.

  18. On the luminescence properties of CaSO4:Ce.

    PubMed

    Lapraz, D; Prevost, H; Iacconi, P; Guigues, C; Benabdesselam, M; Briand, D

    2002-01-01

    The luminescent properties of cerium doped calcium sulphate are studied: fluorescence and excitation spectra, optical absorption and thermoluminescence (TSL). It is known that, in rare earth doped CaSO4, only cerium induces a strong 400 degrees C TSL peak. In CaSO4:0.2%Ce samples synthesised under oxidising conditions, the recovery step of Ce3+ fluorescence is correlated with the 400 degrees C TSL peak readout, as mentioned by Nair er al. Our results indicate that an oxidation of Ce3+ ion does occur under X-irradiation (Ce3+ --> Ce4+), followed by a complete return to the trivalent state after thermal annealing at about 500 degrees C; our results confirm the hypothesis of Nair et al that Ce3+ ions are oxidised by ionising irradiation. So, a pure redox reaction seems the most probable for the 400 degrees C TSL peak of CaSO4:Ce. Moreover, the use of the 400 degrees C TSL peak for high temperature dosimetry applications is discussed. PMID:12382899

  19. A novel method to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiping; Yao, Rutao; Ma, Tianyu

    2008-12-01

    The detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) is a critical detector capability to improve the PET spatial resolution uniformity across the field-of-view and will significantly enhance, in particular, small bore system performance for brain, breast, and small animal imaging. One promising technique of DOI detection is to use dual-ended-scintillator readout that uses two photon sensors to detect scintillation light from both ends of a scintillator array and estimate DOI based on the ratio of signals (similar to Anger logic). This approach needs a careful DOI function calibration to establish accurate relationship between DOI and signal ratios, and to recalibrate if the detection condition is shifted due to the drift of sensor gain, bias variations, or degraded optical coupling, etc. However, the current calibration method that uses coincident events to locate interaction positions inside a single scintillator crystal has severe drawbacks, such as complicated setup, long and repetitive measurements, and being prone to errors from various possible misalignments among the source and detector components. This method is also not practically suitable to calibrate multiple DOI functions of a crystal array. To solve these problems, a new method has been developed that requires only a uniform flood source to irradiate a crystal array without the need to locate the interaction positions, and calculates DOI functions based solely on the uniform probability distribution of interactions over DOI positions without knowledge or assumption of detector responses. Simulation and experiment have been studied to validate the new method, and the results show that the new method, with a simple setup and one single measurement, can provide consistent and accurate DOI functions for the entire array of multiple scintillator crystals. This will enable an accurate, simple, and practical DOI function calibration for the PET detectors based on the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout. In

  20. A novel method to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Yiping; Yao Rutao; Ma Tianyu

    2008-12-15

    The detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) is a critical detector capability to improve the PET spatial resolution uniformity across the field-of-view and will significantly enhance, in particular, small bore system performance for brain, breast, and small animal imaging. One promising technique of DOI detection is to use dual-ended-scintillator readout that uses two photon sensors to detect scintillation light from both ends of a scintillator array and estimate DOI based on the ratio of signals (similar to Anger logic). This approach needs a careful DOI function calibration to establish accurate relationship between DOI and signal ratios, and to recalibrate if the detection condition is shifted due to the drift of sensor gain, bias variations, or degraded optical coupling, etc. However, the current calibration method that uses coincident events to locate interaction positions inside a single scintillator crystal has severe drawbacks, such as complicated setup, long and repetitive measurements, and being prone to errors from various possible misalignments among the source and detector components. This method is also not practically suitable to calibrate multiple DOI functions of a crystal array. To solve these problems, a new method has been developed that requires only a uniform flood source to irradiate a crystal array without the need to locate the interaction positions, and calculates DOI functions based solely on the uniform probability distribution of interactions over DOI positions without knowledge or assumption of detector responses. Simulation and experiment have been studied to validate the new method, and the results show that the new method, with a simple setup and one single measurement, can provide consistent and accurate DOI functions for the entire array of multiple scintillator crystals. This will enable an accurate, simple, and practical DOI function calibration for the PET detectors based on the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout. In

  1. Design of a High Resolution, Monolithic Crystal, PET/MRI Detector with DOI Positioning Capability.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Robert S; Li, Xiaoli; Lockhart, Cate; Lewellen, Tom K

    2008-10-01

    We report on a high resolution, monolithic crystal PET detector design concept that provides depth of interaction (DOI) positioning within the crystal and is compatible for operation in a MRI scanner to support multimodal anatomic and functional imaging. Our design utilizes a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) approach combined with a maximum likelihood positioning algorithm. The sensor will be a two-dimensional array of micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD). MAPDs are a new type of solid-state photodetector with Geiger mode operation that can provide signal gain similar to a photomltipiler tube (PMT). In addition, they can be operated in high magnetic fields to support PET/MR imaging. Utilizing a multi-step simulation process, we determined the intrinsic spatial resolution characteristics for a variety of detector configurations. The crystal was always modeled as a 48.8 mm by 48.8 mm by 15 mm monolithic slab of a lutetium-based scintillator. The SES design was evaluated via simulation for three different two-dimensional MAPD array sizes: 8×8 with 5.8×5.8 mm(2) pads; 12×12 with 3.8×3.8 mm(2) pads; and 16×16 with 2.8×2.8 mm(2) pads. To reduce the number of signal channels row-column summing readout was explored for the 12×12 and 16×16 channel array devices. The intrinsic spatial resolution for the 8×8 MAPD array is 0.88 mm FWHM in X and Y, and 1.83 mm FWHM in Z (i.e., DOI). Comparing the results versus using a conventional design with the photosensors on the backside of the crystal, an average improvement of ~24% in X and Y and 20% in Z is achieved. The X, Y intrinsic spatial resolution improved to 0.66 mm and 0.65 mm FWHM for the 12×12 and 16×16 MAPDs using row-column readout. Using the 12×12 and 16×16 arrays also led to a slight improvement in the DOI positioning accuracy. PMID:20607144

  2. Transient radiation effects in D.O.I. optical materials: Schott filter glass

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons-Potter, K.

    1998-07-01

    Department of Energy and Defense Programs systems are becoming increasingly reliant on the use of optical technologies that must perform under a range of ionizing radiation environments. In particular, the radiation response of materials under consideration for applications in direct optical initiation (D.O.I.) schemes must be well characterized. In this report, transient radiation effects observed in Schott filter glass S-7010 are characterized. Under gamma exposure with 2 MeV photons in a 20--30 nsec pulse, the authors observe strong initial induced fluorescence in the red region of the spectrum followed by significant induced absorption over the same spectral region. Peak induced absorption coefficients of 0.113 cm{sup {minus}1} and 0.088 cm{sup {minus}1} were calculated at 800 nm and 660 nm respectively.

  3. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  4. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; Dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  5. Re-using the DataCite Metadata Store as DOI registration proxy and IGSN registry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2012-12-01

    Currently a lot of work is done to stimulate the reuse of data. In joint efforts research institutions establish infrastructure to facilitate the publication of scientific datasets. To create a citable reference, these datasets must be tagged with persistent identifiers (DOIs) and described with metadata. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central catalogue that allows finding a sample's archiving location. The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) [1] provides solutions to the questions of unique sample identification and discovery. Use of the IGSN in digital data systems allows building linkages between the digital representation of samples in sample registries, e.g. SESAR [2], and their related data in the literature and in web accessible digital data repositories. DataCite recently decided to publish their metadata store (DataCite MDS) and accompanying software online [3]. The DataCite software allows registration of handles, deposition of metadata in an XML format, it offers a search interface, and is able to disseminate metadata via OAI-PMH. Its, REST interface allows an easy integration into institutional data work flows. For our applications at GFZ Potsdam we modified the DataCite MDS software for reuse it in two different contexts: as the DOIDB web service for data publications and as the IGSN registry web service for the registration of geological samples. The DOIDB acts as a proxy service to the DataCite Metadata Store and uses its REST-Interface for registration of DataCite DOI and associated DOI metadata. Metadata can be deposited in the DataCite or NASA DIF schema. Both schemata can be disseminated via OAI

  6. STS-87 M.S. Doi and Chawla and P.S. Kadenyuk in slidewire basket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew of the STS-87 mission, scheduled for launch Nov. 19 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia from pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), participates in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) at KSC. Testing a slide wire basket that is part of the pads emergency egress system are, from left, Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU); and Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight providing the crew of each mission opportunities to participate in simulated countdown activities. The TCDT ends with a mock launch countdown culminating in a simulated main engine cut-off. The crew also spends time undergoing emergency egress training exercises at the pad and has an opportunity to view and inspect the payloads in the orbiter's payload bay.

  7. The binary system K2SO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Hansen, I.D.

    1965-01-01

    The binary system K2SO4CaSO4 was studied by means of heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, high-temperature quenching technique and by means of a heating stage mounted on an X-ray diffractometer. Compositions and quench products were identified optically and by X-ray. Limited solid solution of CaSO4 in K2SO4 was found. There is a eutectic at 875??C and 34 wt. per cent CaSO4. Calcium langbeinite melts incongruently at 1011??C. The melting-point of CaSO4 (1462??C) was determined by the quenching technique using sealed platinum tubes. The only intermediate crystalline phase found in the system is K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite). ?? 1965.

  8. Effects of the serotonin agonists 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone, and DOI on water maze performance.

    PubMed

    Kant, G J; Wylie, R M; Chu, K; Ghosh, S

    1998-03-01

    We have previously reported that the serotonin 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT and the 5-HT2c agonist TFMPP impair performance on a water maze. In the present report we extended those studies by examining a second 5-HT1A agonist, buspirone, to see whether its effects paralleled those of 8-OH-DPAT, and by testing the effects of the 5-HT2 agonist DOI. Unlike the open pool Morris water maze, the maze used in these experiments has alleys and doorways. The maze can be easily reconfigured to present rats with both previously learned or new maze challenges. Performance is assessed by time to reach the maze exit platform and the number of wrong doorways entered (errors). At doses that did not affect performance in a previously learned maze, the 5-HT1A agonists 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg/kg) and buspirone (1 mg/kg) slowed acquisition of a new maze configuration as measured by both swim time to the exit platform and errors committed. A higher dose of buspirone (10 mg/kg) completely blocked acquisition of a novel maze. In contrast. DOI slowed performance as assessed by swim time on both a well-learned maze as well as acquisition of a new maze, but did not affect error rate on either task, suggesting that this 5-HT2 agonist impaired performance by depressing motor activity. These experiments demonstrate that serotonin agonists, especially the 5-HT1A subtype, can impair learning. PMID:9512079

  9. Enhanced defect of interest [DOI] monitoring by utilizing sensitive inspection and ADRTrue SEM review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Remo; Zeiske, Ulrich; Shabtay, Saar; Beyer, Mirko; Yerushalmi, Liran; Goshen, Oren

    2011-03-01

    As semiconductor process design rules continue to shrink, the ability of optical inspection tools to separate between true defects and nuisance becomes more and more difficult. Therefore, monitoring Defect of Interest (DOI) become a real challenge (Figure 1). This phenomenon occurs due to the lower signal received from real defects while noise levels remain almost the same, resulting in inspection high nuisance rate, which jeopardizes the ability to provide a meaningful, true defect Pareto. A non-representative defect Pareto creates a real challenge to a reliable process monitoring (Figure 4). Traditionally, inspection tool recipes were optimized to keep data load at a manageable level and provide defect maps with ~10% nuisance rate, but as defects of interest get smaller with design rule shrinkage, this requirement results in a painful compromise in detection sensitivity. The inspection is usually followed by defect review and classification using scanning electron microscope (SEM), the classification done manually and it is performed on a small sample of the inspection defect map due to time and manual resources limitations. Sample is usually 50~60 randomly selected locations, review is performed manually most of the times, and manual classification is performed for all the reviewed locations. In the approach described in this paper, the inspection tool recipe is optimized for sensitivity rather than low nuisance rate (i.e. detect all DOI with compromising on a higher nuisance rate). Inspection results with high nuisance rate introduce new challenges for SEM review methodology & tools. This paper describe a new approach which enhances process monitoring quality and the results of collaborative work of the Process Diagnostic & Control Business Unit of Applied Materials® and GLOBALFOUNDRIES® utilizing Applied Materials ADRTrueTM & SEMVisionTM capabilities. The study shows that the new approach reveals new defect types in the Pareto, and improves the ability to

  10. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals increased DOI-induced brain activity in a mouse model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Malkova, Natalia V; Gallagher, Joseph J; Yu, Collin Z; Jacobs, Russell E; Patterson, Paul H

    2014-06-17

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. In rodent models, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia-like behaviors. None of these behaviors are, however, specific to schizophrenia. The presence of hallucinations is a key diagnostic symptom of schizophrenia. In mice, this symptom can be defined as brain activation in the absence of external stimuli, which can be mimicked by administration of hallucinogens. We find that, compared with controls, adult MIA offspring display an increased stereotypical behavioral response to the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), an agonist for serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2AR). This may be explained by increased levels of 5-HT2AR and downstream signaling molecules in unstimulated MIA prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify neuronal activation elicited by DOI administration, we find that, compared with controls, MIA offspring exhibit a greater manganese (Mn(2+)) accumulation in several brain areas, including the PFC, thalamus, and striatum. The parafascicular thalamic nucleus, which plays the role in the pathogenesis of hallucinations, is activated by DOI in MIA offspring only. Additionally, compared with controls, MIA offspring demonstrate higher DOI-induced expression of early growth response protein 1, cyclooxygenase-2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the PFC. Chronic treatment with the 5-HT2AR antagonist ketanserin reduces DOI-induced head twitching in MIA offspring. Thus, the MIA mouse model can be successfully used to investigate activity induced by DOI in awake, behaving mice. Moreover, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is a useful, noninvasive method for accurately measuring this type of activity. PMID:24889602

  11. Measuring depth of injury (DOI) in an isolated rabbit eye irritation test (IRE) using biomarkers of cell death and viability.

    PubMed

    Jester, James V; Ling, Joseph; Harbell, John

    2010-03-01

    While DOI is a mechanistic correlate to the ocular irritation response, attempts to measure DOI in alternative tests have been limited to qualitative histopathologic assessment by veterinarian pathologists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether DOI could be measured objectively by fluorescent staining for biomarkers of cell death and viability using an ex vivo isolated rabbit eye (IRE) test. A panel of nine materials characterized by in vivo DOI were selected that caused slight (3% acetic acid and 5% SDS), mild (acetone, sodium hypochlorite and 10% acetic acid), moderate (cyclohexanol and parafluoroanaline) and severe (8% sodium hydroxide and 10% benzalkonium chloride) irritation. Materials were then tested using a modified IRE test with 3h recovery and then processed for cyrosectioning and staining using a TUNEL assay to detect cell death, phalloidin to detect intracellular f-actin and DAPI staining to detect nuclei. Control eyes treated with water showed intense phalloidin staining of the corneal epithelium and stromal keratocytes but no TUNEL labeling. In general, eyes treated with mild, moderate and severe irritants showed regions of TUNEL labeled epithelial and keratocyte nuclei with no phalloidin stain overlying phalloidin stained, undamaged cells. DOI measurements showed that slight irritants damaged<40% of the epithelium, mild and moderate irritants damaged>50% of the epithelium, extending at times into the anterior stroma (<20%), and the severe irritant damaged>50% of the stroma. Regression analysis between ex vivo and in vivo DOI showed a significant (p<0.007) correlation (r=0.785). These data suggest that fluorescent staining of fixed and sectioned tissue using biomarkers can be used to objectively identify the depth of injury caused by ocular irritants. PMID:19857567

  12. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals increased DOI-induced brain activity in a mouse model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Malkova, Natalia V.; Gallagher, Joseph J.; Yu, Collin Z.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Patterson, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. In rodent models, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia-like behaviors. None of these behaviors are, however, specific to schizophrenia. The presence of hallucinations is a key diagnostic symptom of schizophrenia. In mice, this symptom can be defined as brain activation in the absence of external stimuli, which can be mimicked by administration of hallucinogens. We find that, compared with controls, adult MIA offspring display an increased stereotypical behavioral response to the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), an agonist for serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2AR). This may be explained by increased levels of 5-HT2AR and downstream signaling molecules in unstimulated MIA prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify neuronal activation elicited by DOI administration, we find that, compared with controls, MIA offspring exhibit a greater manganese (Mn2+) accumulation in several brain areas, including the PFC, thalamus, and striatum. The parafascicular thalamic nucleus, which plays the role in the pathogenesis of hallucinations, is activated by DOI in MIA offspring only. Additionally, compared with controls, MIA offspring demonstrate higher DOI-induced expression of early growth response protein 1, cyclooxygenase-2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the PFC. Chronic treatment with the 5-HT2AR antagonist ketanserin reduces DOI-induced head twitching in MIA offspring. Thus, the MIA mouse model can be successfully used to investigate activity induced by DOI in awake, behaving mice. Moreover, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is a useful, noninvasive method for accurately measuring this type of activity. PMID:24889602

  13. STS-87 Mission Specialists Scott and Doi with EVA coordinator Laws participate in the CEIT for their

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Participating in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center are STS-87 crew members, assisted by Glenda Laws, extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, at left. Next to Laws is Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, who is looking on as Mission Specialist Winston Scott gets a hands-on look at some of the equipment. The STS-87 mission will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC, Dr. Doi and Scott will both perform spacewalks.

  14. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.

    1967-01-01

    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  15. The Past, Present and Future of the Compact Disc, Multimedia and the Industry: An Interview with Sony's Dr. Toshi Doi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herther, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    This interview with Dr. Toshi Doi, director of the Sony Corporation, covers his work at Sony, the multimedia industry, industry cooperation, Sony compact disc products and formats, multimedia standards and pricing, multimedia formats, and the future of the industry. A diagram of computer companies and corresponding multimedia platforms is…

  16. 25 CFR 900.208 - How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage General Provisions Non-Medical Related Claims § 900.208 How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?...

  17. Exploring Learner Perception of E-Learning Effectiveness in the Workplace Learning Context Based on Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Jung

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study aims to examine adult learner's perception related to e-learning effectiveness. The model of diffusion of innovations (DOI) was used as the research framework and quantitative research methodology employing survey techniques was applied to collect the data. The targeted population identified in this study includes adult…

  18. DOIs for Data: Progress in Data Citation and Publication in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Murphy, F.; Tedds, J.; Allan, R.

    2012-12-01

    publication, and assessing the trustworthiness of data archives. A key goal is to ensure that these projects reach out to, and are informed by, other related initiatives on a global basis, in particular anyone interested in developing long-term sustainable policies, processes, incentives and business models for managing and publishing research data. This presentation will give an overview of progress in the projects mentioned above, specifically focussing on the use of DOIs for datasets hosted in the NERC environmental data centers, and how DOIs are enabling formal data citation and publication in the geosciences.

  19. STS-87 M.S. Takao Doi, Ph.D., of NASDA after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan greets a NASDA official shortly after the orbiter Columbia returned to KSC, touching down on Runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. STS-87 concluded its mission with a main gear touchdown at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, drawing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles to a close. Also onboard the orbiter were Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  20. NASDA President Isao Uchida greets STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The president of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan, Isao Uchida, at left, chats with STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of NASDA, shortly after the landing of Columbia at Kennedy Space Center. STS-87 concluded its mission with a main gear touchdown at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 33, drawing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34- minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles to a close. Also onboard the orbiter were Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  1. 25 CFR 1000.55 - Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI the Director's decision not to award a grant under this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI the Director's decision not to award a grant under this subpart? 1000.55 Section 1000.55 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... Negotiation Grants Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.55 Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI...

  2. Concept for Future Data Services at the Long-Term Archive of WDCC combining DOIs with common PIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockhause, Martina; Weigel, Tobias; Toussaint, Frank; Höck, Heinke; Thiemann, Hannes; Lautenschlager, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) hosted at the German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ) maintains a long-term archive (LTA) of climate model data as well as observational data. WDCC distinguishes between two types of LTA data: Structured data: Data output of an instrument or of a climate model run consists of numerous, highly structured individual datasets in a uniform format. Part of these data is also published on an ESGF (Earth System Grid Federation) data node. Detailed metadata is available allowing for fine-grained user-defined data access. Unstructured data: LTA data of finished scientific projects are in general unstructured and consist of datasets of different formats, different sizes, and different contents. For these data compact metadata is available as content information. The structured data is suitable for WDCC's DataCite DOI process, the project data only in exceptional cases. The DOI process includes a thorough quality control process of technical as well as scientific aspects by the publication agent and the data creator. DOIs are assigned to data collections appropriate to be cited in scientific publications, like a simulation run. The data collection is defined in agreement with the data creator. At the moment there is no possibility to identify and cite individual datasets within this DOI data collection analogous to the citation of chapters in a book. Also missing is a compact citation regulation for a user-specified collection of data. WDCC therefore complements its existing LTA/DOI concept by Persistent Identifier (PID) assignment to datasets using Handles. In addition to data identification for internal and external use, the concept of PIDs allows to define relations among PIDs. Such structural information is stored as key-value pair directly in the handles. Thus, relations provide basic provenance or lineage information, even if part of the data like intermediate results are lost. WDCC intends to use additional PIDs on metadata

  3. A new forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunya, Kirati; Sumontha, Montri; Panitvong, Nonn; Dongkumfu, Wuttipong; Sirisamphan, Thana; Pauwels, Olivier S G

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new forest-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. is characterized by a maximum known SVL of 87.3 mm; 18 to 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 34 to 37 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including four to six pitted (female) or pore-bearing (male) scales on each femur separated by a diastema from five pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal scales; no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and three to five irregular beige dorsal bands between limb insertions. The discovery of a new reptile endemic to Doi Inthanon reinforces the high importance of this mountain in terms of biodiversity conservation. PMID:25661232

  4. Characterization of a high-resolution hybrid DOI detector for a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Godinez, Felipe; Chaudhari, Abhijit J; Yang, Yongfeng; Farrell, Richard; Badawi, Ramsey D

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to design and test a new high-resolution hybrid depth of interaction (DOI) detector for a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner. Two detectors have been designed and built. The completed detectors are based on a 14 × 14 array of 1.5 × 1.5 × 20 mm(3) unpolished lutetium orthosilicate scintillation crystals, with each element coated in a 50 μm layer of reflective material. The detector is read out from both ends using a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) and a large active area (20 × 20 mm(2)) avalanche photodiode (APD) to enable acquisition of DOI information. Nuclear instrumentation modules were used to characterize the detectors' performances in terms of timing, intrinsic spatial resolution (ISR) and energy resolution, as well as DOI resolution with a dual-ended readout configuration. Measurements with the APD were performed at a temperature of 10 °C. All crystals were identified at all depths, even though the signal amplitude from the PSPMT decreases with depth away from it. We measured a timing resolution of 2.4 ns, and an average energy resolution of 19%. The mean ISR was measured to be 1.2 mm for crystals in the central row of the array for detectors in the face-to-face position. Two off-center positions were measured corresponding to 26° and 51° oblique photon incidence, and the mean ISR at these positions was 1.5 and 1.7 mm, respectively. The average DOI resolution across all crystals and depths was measured to be 2.9 mm (including the beam width of 0.6 mm). This detector design shows good promise as a high-resolution detector for a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner. PMID:22581109

  5. 77 FR 19307 - Renewal of Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1040-0001, DOI Programmatic Clearance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...We (Department of the Interior, DOI) have submitted a request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve the information collection (IC) described below. This IC is scheduled to expire March 31, 2012. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and as part of our continuing efforts to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, we invite the general public and other Federal......

  6. Side readout of long scintillation crystal elements with digital SiPM for TOF-DOI PET

    SciTech Connect

    Yeom, Jung Yeol E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu; Vinke, Ruud; Levin, Craig S. E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Side readout of scintillation light from crystal elements in positron emission tomography (PET) is an alternative to conventional end-readout configurations, with the benefit of being able to provide accurate depth-of-interaction (DOI) information and good energy resolution while achieving excellent timing resolution required for time-of-flight PET. This paper explores different readout geometries of scintillation crystal elements with the goal of achieving a detector that simultaneously achieves excellent timing resolution, energy resolution, spatial resolution, and photon sensitivity. Methods: The performance of discrete LYSO scintillation elements of different lengths read out from the end/side with digital silicon photomultipliers (dSiPMs) has been assessed. Results: Compared to 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals read out from their ends with a coincidence resolving time (CRT) of 162 ± 6 ps FWHM and saturated energy spectra, a side-readout configuration achieved an excellent CRT of 144 ± 2 ps FWHM after correcting for timing skews within the dSiPM and an energy resolution of 11.8% ± 0.2% without requiring energy saturation correction. Using a maximum likelihood estimation method on individual dSiPM pixel response that corresponds to different 511 keV photon interaction positions, the DOI resolution of this 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} crystal side-readout configuration was computed to be 0.8 mm FWHM with negligible artifacts at the crystal ends. On the other hand, with smaller 3 × 3 × 5 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals that can also be tiled/stacked to provide DOI information, a timing resolution of 134 ± 6 ps was attained but produced highly saturated energy spectra. Conclusions: The energy, timing, and DOI resolution information extracted from the side of long scintillation crystal elements coupled to dSiPM have been acquired for the first time. The authors conclude in this proof of concept study that such detector configuration has the potential to enable

  7. Atomistic modelling of the hydration of CaSO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Craig D.

    2003-08-01

    Atomistic modelling techniques, using empirical potentials, have been used to simulate a range of structures formed by the hydration of γ-CaSO 4 and described as CaSO 4· nH 2O (0< n<1). The hemihydrate phase ( n=0.5) is of commercial importance and has been subjected to much experimental study. These simulation studies demonstrate significant water-matrix interactions that influence the crystallography of the hydrated phase. The existence of two types of hydration site has been predicted, including one within the Ca 2+coordination sphere. Close correlation between water molecule bonding energy, Ca 2+-O w bond length and unit-cell volume have been established. This shows that as the number of water molecules within the unit cell increases, the bonding energy increases and the unit cell contracts. However around n=0.5, this process reaches a turning point with the incorporation of further waters resulting in reduced binding energy and an expanding unit cell.

  8. Thermoluminescent response of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE induced by X-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Hernández, L; Rivera, T; Jimenez, Y; Alvarez, R; Zeferino, J; Vázquez, A; Azorín, J

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of the utilization of CaSO4:Dy pellets for X-ray measurements in a general radiology department. Thermoluminescence (TL) response of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE was compared to the TL response of commercial LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) samples. TL pellets were exposed to X-ray beam from X-ray machine CMR for clinical diagnosis purpose. The calibration curve of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE was obtained and it showed a linear response as a function of absorbed dose in air at the studied dose interval. Despite this fact, this material can be used for X-ray beams measurements if appropriate calibration procedures are performed. PMID:22182627

  9. Dosimetry of fast neutron beams using CaSO 4:Dy (TLD-900) pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, A. S.; Rassow, J.; Meissner, P.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes the use of commercially avialable CaSO 4:Dy (TLD-900) pellets for the measurement of absorbed doses of fast neutrons and gamma rays in mixed fields with one single detector. The gamma ray absorbed doses could be estimated by recording the thermoluminiscence (TL) induced during the neutron beam irradiations, whereas the fast neutron absorbed doses were measured by employing a post-irradiation TL accumulation due to activation of sulphur by the threshold nuclear reaction 32S(n, p) 32P in CaSO 4:Dy.

  10. Basic performance evaluation of a Si-PM array-based LGSO phoswich DOI block detector for a high-resolution small animal PET system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi

    2013-07-01

    The silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for PET. However, it remains unclear whether Si-PM can be used for a depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector based on the decay time differences of the scintillator where pulse shape analysis is used. For clarification, we tested the Hamamatsu 4 × 4 Si-PM array (S11065-025P) combined with scintillators that used different decay times to develop DOI block detectors using the pulse shape analysis. First, Ce-doped Gd(2)SiO(5) (GSO) scintillators of 0.5 mol% Ce were arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix and were optically coupled to the center of each pixel of the Si-PM array for measurement of the energy resolution as well as its gain variations according to the temperature. Then two types of Ce-doped Lu(1.9)Gd(0.1)Si0(5) (LGSO) scintillators, 0.025 mol% Ce (decay time: ~31 ns) and 0.75 mol% Ce (decay time: ~46 ns), were optically coupled in the DOI direction, arranged in a 11 × 7 matrix, and optically coupled to a Si-PM array for testing of the possibility of a high-resolution DOI detector. The energy resolution of the Si-PM array-based GSO block detector was 18 ± 4.4 % FWHM for a Cs-137 gamma source (662 keV). Less than 1 mm crystals were clearly resolved in the position map of the LGSO DOI block detector. The peak-to-valley ratio (P/V) derived from the pulse shape spectra of the LGSO DOI block detector was 2.2. These results confirmed that Si-PM array-based DOI block detectors are promising for high-resolution small animal PET systems. PMID:23271446

  11. The effect of the sigma-1 receptor selective compound LS-1-137 on the DOI-induced head twitch response in mice.

    PubMed

    Malik, Maninder; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2016-09-01

    Several receptor mediated pathways have been shown to modulate the murine head twitch response (HTR). However, the role of sigma receptors in the murine (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-induced HTR has not been previously investigated. We examined the ability of LS-1-137, a novel sigma-1 vs. sigma-2 receptor selective phenylacetamide, to modulate the DOI-induced HTR in DBA/2J mice. We also assessed the in vivo efficacy of reference sigma-1 receptor antagonists and agonists PRE-084 and PPCC. The effect of the sigma-2 receptor selective antagonist RHM-1-86 was also examined. Rotarod analysis was performed to monitor motor coordination after LS-1-137 administration. Radioligand binding techniques were used to determine the affinity of LS-1-137 at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. LS-1-137 and the sigma-1 receptor antagonists haloperidol and BD 1047 were able to attenuate a DOI-induced HTR, indicating that LS-1-137 was acting in vivo as a sigma-1 receptor antagonist. LS-1-137 did not compromise rotarod performance within a dose range capable of attenuating the effects of DOI. Radioligand binding studies indicate that LS-1-137 exhibits low affinity binding at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Based upon the results from these and our previous studies, LS-1-137 is a neuroprotective agent that attenuates the murine DOI-induced HTR independent of activity at 5-HT2 receptor subtypes, D2-like dopamine receptors, sigma-2 receptors and NMDA receptors. LS-1-137 appears to act as a sigma-1 receptor antagonist to inhibit the DOI-induced HTR. Therefore, the DOI-induced HTR can be used to assess the in vivo efficacy of sigma-1 receptor selective compounds. PMID:27397487

  12. Exploring facilitating factors and barriers to the nationwide dissemination of a Dutch school-based obesity prevention program “DOiT”: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evidence-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is a school-based obesity prevention program for 12 to 14-year olds attending the first two years of prevocational education. This paper describes the study protocol applied to evaluate (a) the nationwide dissemination process of DOiT in the Netherlands, and (b) the relationship between quality of implementation and effectiveness during nationwide dissemination of the program in the Netherlands. Methods In order to explore facilitating factors and barriers for dissemination of DOiT, we monitored the process of adoption, implementation and continuation of the DOiT program among 20 prevocational schools in the Netherlands. The study was an observational study using qualitative (i.e. semi-structured interviews) and quantitative methods (i.e. questionnaires and logbooks). Eight process indicators were assessed: recruitment, context, reach, dosage, fidelity, satisfaction, effectiveness and continuation. All teachers, students and parents involved in the implementation of the program were invited to participate in the study. As part of the process evaluation, a cluster-controlled trial with ten control schools was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the program on students’ anthropometry and energy balance-related behaviours and its association with quality of implementation. Discussion The identified impeding and facilitating factors will contribute to an adjusted strategy promoting adoption, implementation and continuation of the DOiT program to ensure optimal use and, thereby, prevention of obesity in Dutch adolescents. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN92755979. PMID:24355056

  13. An alternative method for immediate dose estimation using CaSO4:Dy based TLD badges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Dhabekar, Bhushan; Kadam, Sonal; Chougaonkar, M. P.; Babu, D. A. R.

    2014-11-01

    CaSO4:Dy based Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) are being used in country wide personnel monitoring program in India. The TL glow curve of CaSO4:Dy consists of a dosimetric peak at 220 °C and a low temperature peak at 120 °C which is unstable at room temperature. The TL integral counts in CaSO4:Dy reduces by 15% in seven days after irradiation due to the thermal fading of 120 °C TL peak. As the dosimetric procedure involves total integrated counts for dose conversion, the dosimeters are typically read about a week after receiving. However in the event of a suspected over exposure, where urgent processing is expected, this poses limitation. Post irradiation annealing treatment is used in such cases of immediate readout of cards. In this paper we report a new and easier to use technique based on optical bleaching for the urgent processing of TLD cards. Optical bleaching with green LED (∼555 nm photons) of 25,000 lux for one and half hour removes the low temperature TL peak without affecting the dosimetric peak. This method can be used for immediate dose estimation using CaSO4:Dy based TLD badges.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF CASO4 FORMED BY REACTION OF CAO AND SO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the XRD-determination of the identity of CaSO4, formed by the reaction between CaO and S02, and the support of that determination by density measurements with helium pycnometry. The anhydrous CaS04 compound formed has an orthorhombic crystal structure and an...

  15. Biaxial deformation of a polymer under shear: NMR test of the Doi-Edwards model with convected constraint release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Ryan J.; Kilfoil, Maria L.; Callaghan, Paul T.

    2001-11-01

    2H NMR quadrupole interaction spectroscopy has been used to measure the deformation of a 670 kD poly(dimethylsiloxane) melt under shear in a Couette cell. The signals were acquired from a per deuterated benzene probe molecule which provides a motionally averaged sampling of the entire segmental ensemble. We have measured the dependence on shear rate of the SXX (velocity), SYY (velocity gradient), SZZ (vorticity), and SXY (shear) elements of the segmental alignment tensor, as well as the angular dependence of the deuterium quadrupole splitting at fixed shear rate. We show that the data agree quite well with the Doi-Edwards theory but significantly better when convected constraint release effects are included. These fits return a value for the tube disengagement time of 100 ms.

  16. Hyperspectral Technology Transfer to the US Department of Interior: Summary of Results of the NASA/DOI Hyperspectral Technology Transfer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Ralph; Wickland, Diane

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 the Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach (OBIO), Biological Resources Division, US Geological Survey and NASA, Office of Earth Science (OES), initiated a coordinated effort for applying Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and analysis, as a technology transfer project, to critical DOI environmental issues in four study sites throughout the United States. This work was accomplished by four US Department of the Interior (DOI) study teams with support from NASA/OES principal investigators and the Office of Earth Science programs. The studies, including personnel, objectives, background, project plans, and milestones were documented in a project website at . This report summarizes the final outcomes of the project, detailing accomplishments, lessons learned, and benefits realized to NASA, the US Geological Survey, and the participating DOI bureaus.

  17. A Common Model To Support Interoperable Metadata: Progress Report on Reconciling Metadata Requirements from the Dublin Core and INDECS/DOI Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, David; Rust, Godfrey; Weibel, Stuart; Miller, Eric; Trant, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    The Dublin Core metadata community and the INDECS/DOI community of authors, rights holders, and publishers are seeking common ground in the expression of metadata for information resources. An open "Schema Harmonization" working group has been established to identify a common framework to support interoperability among these communities.…

  18. Negative decision outcomes are more common among people with lower decision-making competence: an item-level analysis of the Decision Outcome Inventory (DOI)

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew M.; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2015-01-01

    Most behavioral decision research takes place in carefully controlled laboratory settings, and examination of relationships between performance and specific real-world decision outcomes is rare. One prior study shows that people who perform better on hypothetical decision tasks, assessed using the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) measure, also tend to experience better real-world decision outcomes, as reported on the Decision Outcomes Inventory (DOI). The DOI score reflects avoidance of outcomes that could result from poor decisions, ranging from serious (e.g., bankruptcy) to minor (e.g., blisters from sunburn). The present analyses go beyond the initial work, which focused on the overall DOI score, by analyzing the relationships between specific decision outcomes and A-DMC performance. Most outcomes are significantly more likely among people with lower A-DMC scores, even after taking into account two variables expected to produce worse real-world decision outcomes: younger age and lower socio-economic status. We discuss the usefulness of DOI as a measure of successful real-world decision-making. PMID:25904876

  19. Temperature data acquired from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, 1973-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    System (GTOS). The data will also be useful for refining our basic understanding of the physical conditions in permafrost in Arctic Alaska, as well as providing important information for validating predictive models used for climate impact assessments. The processed data are available from the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) repository at doi:10.5065/D6N014HK.

  20. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chin A. Paw, Mai J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials. Methods: We revisited the Intervention Mapping (IM)…

  1. Negative decision outcomes are more common among people with lower decision-making competence: an item-level analysis of the Decision Outcome Inventory (DOI).

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew M; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2015-01-01

    Most behavioral decision research takes place in carefully controlled laboratory settings, and examination of relationships between performance and specific real-world decision outcomes is rare. One prior study shows that people who perform better on hypothetical decision tasks, assessed using the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) measure, also tend to experience better real-world decision outcomes, as reported on the Decision Outcomes Inventory (DOI). The DOI score reflects avoidance of outcomes that could result from poor decisions, ranging from serious (e.g., bankruptcy) to minor (e.g., blisters from sunburn). The present analyses go beyond the initial work, which focused on the overall DOI score, by analyzing the relationships between specific decision outcomes and A-DMC performance. Most outcomes are significantly more likely among people with lower A-DMC scores, even after taking into account two variables expected to produce worse real-world decision outcomes: younger age and lower socio-economic status. We discuss the usefulness of DOI as a measure of successful real-world decision-making. PMID:25904876

  2. Implemented or Not Implemented? Process Evaluation of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT and Associations with Program Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if and to what extent the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program was implemented as intended and how this affected program effectiveness. We collected data at 20 prevocational education schools in the Netherlands. We assessed seven process indicators: recruitment, reach, dosage, fidelity, satisfaction,…

  3. Modeling the thermoluminescent response of CaSO4:Dy by the MCNPX method.

    PubMed

    Furetta, C; Roman, J; Rivera, T; Azorín, J; Azorín, C G; Vega-Carrillo, H R

    2010-01-01

    This work describes an algorithm for absorbed dose evaluation in the region of X-ray diagnostic energy based on the response of CaSO(4):Dy thermoluminescence powder detectors. The absorbed dose was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation code (MCSC) and then compared to the experimental TLD results for X-rays effective energies (60)Co gamma radiation. In order to study the photon interaction in the matter, a cylindrical model of 1 cm(3) was used. The gamma radiation source was placed at 100 cm to the object; the source is considered as an isotropic source of (60)Co. The energy deposited into the cylindrical model was determined by the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNPX) method. Measurements of the TL phosphors were obtained by irradiating the powder by gamma radiation. TL glow curve of CaSO(4):Dy after gamma irradiated at a 1 Gy of absorbed dose was then obtained. PMID:20079655

  4. Preparation and investigation of thermoluminescence properties of CaSO4:Tm,Cu.

    PubMed

    Kása, I; Chobola, R; Mell, P; Szakács, S; Kerekes, A

    2007-01-01

    A new sort of thermoluminescent phosphor has been developed with the purpose of enlarging the range of linear dose-response. The thermoluminescence properties of CaSO(4):Tm,Cu, prepared according to our method, were studied in the dose range of 0.5 Gy-125.0 kGy. The results of the present work show that the CaSO(4):Tm,Cu is an excellent new dosimetric material due to its relatively simple glow curve, as a consequence of its simple trap system. Several applications are possible in dosimetry due to its wide range of linearity (2 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(3) Gy), from environmental and space dosimetry to accidental and high-dose irradiation, e.g. gamma irradiation facilities, electron accelerators, nuclear power plants, radiotherapy, medical physics, and so on. PMID:16905762

  5. Melatonin reversal of DOI-induced hypophagia in rats; possible mechanism by suppressing 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated activation of HPA axis.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, V; Kulkarni, S K

    2000-03-31

    Serotonin type 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor-mediated neurotransmitter is known to activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, regulate sleep-awake cycle, induce anorexia and hyperthermia. Interaction between melatonin and 5-HT(2A) receptors in the regulation of the sleep-awake cycle and head-twitch response in rat have been reported. Previous studies have shown that melatonin has suppressant effect on HPA axis activation, decreases core body temperature and induces hyperphagia in animals. However, melatonin interaction with 5-HT(2A) receptors in mediation of these actions is not yet reported. We have studied the acute effect of melatonin and its antagonist, luzindole on centrally administered (+/-)-1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl) 2-amino propane (DOI; a 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist)-induced activation of HPA axis, hypophagia and hyperthermia in 24-h food-deprived rats. Like ritanserin [(1 mg/kg, i.p.) 5-HT(2A/2C) antagonist], peripherally administered melatonin (1.5 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect the food intake, rectal temperature or basal adrenal ascorbic acid level. However, pretreatment of rats with it significantly reversed DOI (10 microgram, intraventricular)-induced anorexia and activation of HPA axis. But the hyperthermia induced by DOI was not sensitive to reversal by melatonin. Mel(1) receptor subtype antagonist luzindole (5 microgram, intraventricular) did not modulate the DOI effect but antagonized the melatonin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) reversal of 5-HT(2A) agonist response. The present data suggest that melatonin reversal of DOI-induced hypophagia could be due to suppression of 5-HT(2A) mediated activation of HPA axis. PMID:10727629

  6. CaSO4:DY,Mn: A new and highly sensitive thermoluminescence phosphor for versatile dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahl, Shaila; Lochab, S. P.; Kumar, Pratik

    2016-02-01

    With the advent of newer techniques for dose reduction coupled with the development of more sensitive detectors, the radiation doses in radiological medical investigation are decreasing. Nevertheless, keeping the tenet in mind that all radiation doses could entail risk, there is a need to develop more sensitive dosimeters capable of measuring low doses. This paper gives the account of the development of a new and sensitive phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn and its characterization. The standard production procedure based on the recrystallization method was used to prepare CaSO4:Dy,Mn. The Thermoluminescence (TL) studies were carried out by exposing it with gamma radiation (Cs-137) from 10 μGy to 100 Gy. The theoretical studies to determine the number of peaks and kinetic parameters related to the TL glow peaks in CaSO4:Dy,Mn was performed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method. Experiments were performed to determine optimum concentration of the dopants Dysprosium (Dy) and Mangnese (Mn) in the host CaSO4 so that maximum sensitivity of the phosphor may be achieved. The optimum dopant concentration turned out to be 0.1 mol%. As there were two dopants Dy and Mn their relative ratio were varied in steps of 0.025 keeping the concentration of total dopant (Dy and Mn) 0.1 mol% always. The maximum TL intensity was seen in the CaSO4:Dy(0.025),Mn(0.075) combination. The TL sensitivity of this phosphor was found to be about 2 and 1.8 times higher than that of popular phosphor CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD-700H) respectively. This new phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn showed fading of 11% which is similar to that of the standard phosphor CaSO4:Dy. The paper concludes that the new, highly sensitive TL phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn has shown higher sensitivity and hence the potential to replace commonly used CaSO4:Dy.

  7. NASDA President Isao Uchida shakes hands with STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., after land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The president of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan, Isao Uchida, at left, shakes hands with STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of NASDA, shortly after the landing of Columbia at Kennedy Space Center. STS-87 concluded its mission with a main gear touchdown at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 33, drawing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles to a close. Also onboard the orbiter were Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  8. A Three-Legged Stool or Race? Governance Models for NOAA RISAs, DOI CSCs, and USDA Climate Hubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    NOAAs Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Teams, DOIs Climate Science Centers (CSCs), and USDAs Regional Climate Hubs (RCHs) have common missions of integrating climate and related knowledge across scientific disciplines and regions to create "actionable" information that decision-makes can use to manage climate risks and impacts at state and local scales. However, the sponsoring agency programs, university investigators, and local federal officials govern each differently. The three models of program and center governance are 1) exclusively university (RISAs), 2) a hybrid of Federal government and (host) university (CSCs,), and 3) exclusively Federal (Hubs). Each model has it's advantages and disadvantages in terms of legal definition and authority, scientific mission requirements and strategies, flexibility and legitimacy to conduct research and to collaborate regionally with constituencies, leadership and governance approach and "friction points,", staff capacity and ability to engage stakeholders, necessity to deliver products and services, bureaucratic oversight, performance evaluation, and political support at Congressional, state, and local levels. Using available sources of information and data, this paper will compare and contrast the strengths and weakness of these three regional applied climate science center governance models.

  9. A Three-Legged Stool or Race? Governance Models for NOAA RISAs, DOI CSCs, and USDA Climate Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    NOAAs Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Teams, DOIs Climate Science Centers (CSCs), and USDAs Regional Climate Hubs (RCHs) have common missions of integrating climate and related knowledge across scientific disciplines and regions to create "actionable" information that decision-makes can use to manage climate risks and impacts at state and local scales. However, the sponsoring agency programs, university investigators, and local federal officials govern each differently. The three models of program and center governance are 1) exclusively university (RISAs), 2) a hybrid of Federal government and (host) university (CSCs,), and 3) exclusively Federal (Hubs). Each model has it's advantages and disadvantages in terms of legal definition and authority, scientific mission requirements and strategies, flexibility and legitimacy to conduct research and to collaborate regionally with constituencies, leadership and governance approach and "friction points,", staff capacity and ability to engage stakeholders, necessity to deliver products and services, bureaucratic oversight, performance evaluation, and political support at Congressional, state, and local levels. Using available sources of information and data, this paper will compare and contrast the strengths and weakness of these three regional applied climate science center governance models.

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): U. S. DOI Sangamo/Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Carterville, IL. (First remedial action), March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-30

    The U.S. DOI Sangamo/Crab Orchard NWR site is within the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, located near Carterville, Illinois. Within the 43,000-acre refuge, lakes and adjacent wetlands support recreational activities on the western portion of the refuge, while the eastern portion is used for manufacturing facilities. DOI leased portions of the refuge to manufacturers of PCB-containing transformers and capacitors, automobile parts, fiberglass boats, plated metal parts, and jet engine starters. Solid wastes generated from these industrial activities were disposed of in onsite landfills, while other liquid wastes may have been discharged into nearby surface waters and impoundments. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, and sludge are metals including cadmium, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  11. Implemented or not implemented? Process evaluation of the school-based obesity prevention program DOiT and associations with program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates if and to what extent the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program was implemented as intended and how this affected program effectiveness. We collected data at 20 prevocational education schools in the Netherlands. We assessed seven process indicators: recruitment, reach, dosage, fidelity, satisfaction, effectiveness and continuation. Data collection involved teacher questionnaires (n= 110), adolescent questionnaires and adiposity measures (n= 938). Using multi-level confirmatory factor analyses, we applied an innovative method to obtain explorative implementation index scores. The percentage of accomplished activities ranged from 9% (for 'closure meeting') up to 93% (for 'obtaining support within the school for adoption'). The percentage of lessons delivered decreased from 74 to 18% towards the end of the program. Fidelity to the teacher manual ranged from 85 to 26%. In general, teachers were satisfied with the DOiT lessons and teaching materials. Despite teachers' satisfaction with the DOiT lessons and teaching materials, degree of program implementation was lower than expected, especially towards the end of the program. Further, some evidence was found for an association between a higher implementation index score and program effectiveness, but more research is needed to test the validity of the implementation index. PMID:27004906

  12. Evaluation of the dosimetric response for CaSO4:Dy at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E; Ramos-Bernal, S; Negrón-Mendoza, A; Azoŕin, J

    2002-01-01

    Homemade solid state CaSO4:Dy detectors were tested to evaluate their response to gamma radiation at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The dosemeters were irradiated with doses between 12 and 1071 Gy. For this study these dosemeters were exposed to gamma rays with a dose rate of 1.19 Gy.min(-1). The analysis for these crystals was made by thermoluminiscence. The dose response at liquid nitrogen temperature was linear in the dose range studied and it is about 20% lower with respect to the response at room temperature. The response is reproducible with the same geometric set-up. PMID:12382918

  13. Development of 1.45-mm resolution four-layer DOI-PET detector for simultaneous measurement in 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tachibana, Atsushi; Obata, Takayuki; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Suga, Mikio; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of PET-MRI systems have been developed by a number of research groups. However, almost all of the PET detectors used in these PET-MRI systems have no depth-of-interaction (DOI) capability. The DOI detector can reduce the parallax error and lead to improvement of the performance. We are developing a new PET-MRI system which consists of four-layer DOI detectors positioned close to the measured object to achieve high spatial resolution and high scanner sensitivity. As a first step, we are investigating influences the PET detector and the MRI system have on each other using a prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector. This prototype detector consists of a lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal block and a 4 × 4 multi-pixel photon counter array. The size of each crystal element is 1.45 mm × 1.45 mm × 4.5 mm, and the crystals are arranged in 6 × 6 elements × 4 layers with reflectors. The detector and some electric components are packaged in an aluminum shielding box. Experiments were carried out with 3.0 T MRI (GE, Signa HDx) and a birdcage-type RF coil. We demonstrated that the DOI-PET detector was normally operated in simultaneous measurements with no influence of the MRI measurement. A slight influence of the PET detector on the static magnetic field of the MRI was observed near the PET detector. The signal-to-noise ratio was decreased by presence of the PET detector due to environmental noise entering the MRI room through the cables, even though the PET detector was not powered up. On the other hand, no influence of electric noise from the PET detector in the simultaneous measurement on the MRI images was observed, even though the PET detector was positioned near the RF coil. PMID:25348721

  14. A DOI Detector With Crystal Scatter Identification Capability for High Sensitivity and High Spatial Resolution PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z.; Prout, D. L.; Silverman, R. W.; Herman, H.; Dooraghi, A.; Chatziioannou, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    potentially lead to a high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and DOI PET system. PMID:26478600

  15. High-sensitive CaSO4:Dy thermoluminescent phosphor synthesis by co-precipitation technique.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, A R; Jose, M T; Annalakshmi, O

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the successful development of the co-precipitation technique for the preparation of a high-sensitive dysprosium-doped calcium sulphate (CaSO(4):Dy) thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) phosphor with dosimetric glow peak at approximately 230 degrees C which is a desired development in the field of radiation protection dosimetry. The main advantages of this co-precipitation technique over the conventional recrystallisation technique of phosphor preparation are: (i) preparation time is very less; (ii) quantity of sulphuric acid evaporated is insignificant; (iii) higher TL sensitivity -20% more than the present material; (iv) better glow curve structure; (v) lesser glow peak shift and better linearity to gamma and (vi) uniform crystal morphology and lower grain size-all grains are mostly cuboidal in shape, quite uniform and small (average size about 25 microm), suitable for manufacturing teflon discs in as-prepared form. Optimum values of various parameters in the method of preparation for a batch of 20 g CaSO(4):Dy phosphors to obtain maximum TL sensitivity, with favourable glow curves are studied. PMID:18716066

  16. Complex terbium luminescence centers in spectral transformers based on CaSO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtseva, I.; Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch.; Maaroos, A.; Nagirnyi, V.; Pazylbek, S.; Tussupbekova, A.; Vasil'chenko, E.

    2015-11-01

    The blue and green terbium luminescence excitation spectra (5-15 eV) at a temperature of 9 or 300 K have been measured for a set of CaSO4 : Tb3+ phosphors with calcium and terbium ions characterized by fundamental features, which were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method with variations in the composition of the raw material, the type of terbium compounds, and the concentration of introduced terbium. A comprehensive analysis of these data, emission spectra, and decay kinetics (with the rising stage) of the terbium luminescence has revealed that the main luminescence centers in an efficient phosphor with 4 at % Tb3+ each contain four closely spaced Tb3+ ions in calcium positions, as well as Na+ ions and hydrogen-containing radicals. In such complex luminescence centers, cooperative nonradiative resonant transitions in neighboring terbium ions leads to a nearly complete concentration of the terbium luminescence in the green spectral region (5 D 4 → 7 F J ). The quantum yield of the green luminescence in CaSO4 : Tb3+ (4 at %) exceeds unity, QY > 1, in the region of direct excitation of Tb3+ into the 5 d state (~5.9 eV) or excitation of oxyanions near the terbium ions (~8.1 eV).

  17. Thermoluminesence of gamma rays irradiated CaSO4 nanorods doped with different elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Numan

    2015-01-01

    Nanorods of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) activated by Ag, Cu, Dy, Eu and Tb were synthesized by the co-precipitation technique. They were irradiated by γ-rays in a wide range of exposures and studied for their thermoluminesence (TL) properties. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra. SEM images show that the samples doped with rare earths elements (i.e. Dy, Eu and Tb) have thinner nanorods than the other samples, while XRD pattern shows a complete crystalline structures in a monoclinic phase. The TL glow curves of these samples show two components. The first one include low temperature glow peaks at around 125 °C, while the second component shows high temperature peaks in the range 230-270 °C. These glow peaks diver from sample to sample by their TL intensity. The TL results are promising, particularly that of Tb and Eu. Tb doped sample is found to be a highly TL sensitive with a prominent glow peak at around 270 °C, while Eu has created very active, high dense electron traps. The later shows quite linear response in the whole studied exposures i.e. 10 Gy-10 kGy. These results show that Eu or Tb doped CaSO4 nanorods might be proper candidates as dosimeters for high doses of ionizing radiations used in irradiation of foods and seeds.

  18. Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).[This retracts the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505.]. PMID:26328003

  19. Feasibility of a brain-dedicated PET-MRI system using four-layer DOI detectors integrated with an RF head coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikido, F.; Obata, T.; Shimizu, K.; Suga, M.; Inadama, N.; Tachibana, A.; Yoshida, E.; Ito, H.; Yamaya, T.

    2014-08-01

    We are developing a PET-MRI system which consists of PET detectors integrated with the head coil of the MRI in order to realize high spatial resolution and high sensitivity in simultaneous measurements. In the PET-MRI system, the PET detectors which consist of a scintillator block, photo-detectors and front-end circuits with four-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding capability are placed close to the measured object. Therefore, the proposed system can achieve high sensitivity without degradation of spatial resolution at the edge of the field-of-view due to parallax error thanks to the four-layer DOI capability. In this paper, we fabricated a prototype system which consists of a prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector, a dummy PET detector and a prototype birdcage type head coil. Then we used the prototype system to evaluate the performance of the four-layer DOI-PET detector and the reciprocal influence between the PET detectors and MRI images. The prototype DOI-PET detector consists of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays (S11064-050P), a readout circuit board, two scintillator blocks and a copper shielding box. Each scintillator block consists of four layers of Lu1.8Gd0.2SiO5:Ce (LGSO) scintillators and reflectors are inserted between the scintillation crystals. The dummy detector has all these components except the two scintillator blocks. The head coil is dedicated to a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio, Siemens) and the two detectors are mounted in gaps between head coil elements. Energy resolution and crystal identification performance of the prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector were evaluated with and without MRI measurements by the gradient echo and spin echo methods. We identified crystal elements in all four layers from a 2D flood histogram and energy resolution of 15-18% was obtained for single crystal elements in simultaneous measurements. The difference between the average energy resolutions and photo-peak positions with and without MRI

  20. Phase relation of CaSO4 at high pressure and temperature up to 90 GPa and 2300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Taku; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Inoue, Toru

    2016-05-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), one of the major sulfate minerals in the Earth's crust, is expected to play a major role in sulfur recycling into the deep mantle. Here, we investigated the crystal structure and phase relation of CaSO4 up to ~90 GPa and 2300 K through a series of high-pressure experiments combined with in situ X-ray diffraction. CaSO4 forms three thermodynamically stable polymorphs: anhydrite (stable below 3 GPa), monazite-type phase (stable between 3 and ~13 GPa) and barite-type phase (stable up to at least 93 GPa). Anhydrite to monazite-type phase transition is induced by pressure even at room temperature, while monazite- to barite-type transition requires heating at least to 1500 K at ~20 GPa. The barite-type phase cannot always be quenched from high temperature and is distorted to metastable AgMnO4-type structure or another modified barite structure depending on pressure. We obtained the pressure-volume data and density of anhydrite, monazite- and barite-type phases and found that their densities are lower than those calculated from the PREM model in the studied P-T conditions. This suggests that CaSO4 is gravitationally unstable in the mantle and fluid/melt phase into which sulfur dissolves and/or sulfate-sulfide speciation may play a major role in the sulfur recycling into the deep Earth.

  1. High energy electron beams characterization using CaSO4:Dy+PTFE phosphors for clinical therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Rivera, T; Espinoza, A; Von, S M; Alvarez, R; Jiménez, Y

    2012-07-01

    In the present work high energy electron beam dosimetry from linear accelerator (LINACs) for clinical applications using dysprosium doped calcium sulfate embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (CaSO4:Dy+PTFE) was studied. The irradiations were carried out using high electron beams (6 to 18 MeV) from a linear accelerator (LINAC) Varian, CLINAC 2300C/D, for clinical practice purpose. The electron irradiations were obtained using the water solid in order to guarantee electronic equilibrium conditions (EEC). Field shaping for electron beams was obtained with electron cones. Glow curve and other thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE were conducted under high electrons beams irradiations. The TL response of the pellets showed an intensity peak centered at around 215 °C. TL response of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE as a function of high electron absorbed dose showed a linearity in a wide range. To obtain reproducibility characteristic, a set of pellets were exposed repeatedly for the same electron absorbed dose. The results obtained in this study can suggest the applicability of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE pellets for high electron beam dosimetry, provided fading is correctly accounted for. PMID:22182630

  2. Thermoluminescent characteristics of LiF:Mg, Cu, P and CaSO4:Dy for low dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Del Sol Fernández, S; García-Salcedo, R; Mendoza, J Guzmán; Sánchez-Guzmán, D; Rodríguez, G Ramírez; Gaona, E; Montalvo, T Rivera

    2016-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics for LiF:Mg, Cu, P, and CaSO4:Dy under the homogeneous field of X-ray beams of diagnostic irradiation and its verification using thermoluminescence dosimetry are presented. The irradiation were performed utilizing a conventional X-ray equipment installed at the Hospital Juárez Norte of México. Different thermoluminescence characteristics of two material were studied, such as batch homogeneity, glow curve, linearity, detection threshold, reproducibility, relative sensitivity and fading. Materials were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to the standard calibration distance and they were positioned in a generic phantom. The dose analysis, verification and comparison with the measurements obtained by the TLD-100 were performed. Results indicate that the dosimetric peak appears at 202°C and 277.5°C for LiF:Mg, Cu, P and CaSO4:Dy, respectively. TL response as a function of X-ray dose showed a linearity behavior in the very low dose range for all materials. However, the TLD-100 is not accurate for measurements below 4mGy. CaSO4:Dy is 80% more sensitive than TLD-100 and it show the lowest detection threshold, whereas LiF:Mg, Cu, P is 60% more sensitive than TLD-100. All materials showed very good repeatability. Fading for a period of one month at room temperature showed low fading LiF:Mg, Cu, P, medium and high for TLD-100 and CaSO4:Dy. The results suggest that CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg, Cu, P are suitable for measurements at low doses used in radiodiagnostic. PMID:26922395

  3. Reply to: "Palmitoylethanolamide: problems regarding micronization, ultra-micronization and additives" Inflammopharmacology DOI:10.1007/s10787-014-0202-3.

    PubMed

    Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura; Fusco, Mariella; Della Valle, Maria Federica; Zusso, Morena; Costa, Barbara; Giusti, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    This is a reply to a recently published Commentary: "Palmitoylethanolamide: problems regarding micronization, ultra-micronization and additives" Inflammopharmacology DOI: 10.1007/s10787-014-0202-3 , written in relation to our review article: Skaper SD, Facci L, Fusco M, della Valle MF, Zusso M, Costa B, Giusti P (2014) "Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring disease-modifying agent in neuropathic pain" Inflammopharmacology 22:79-94 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-013-0191-7 . We believe that the Commentary by Kriek contains a number of erroneous statements and misinterpretations of the published scientific/medical literature which our reply shall elaborate on. Further, the writer of the Commentary has a direct connection to a company, JP Russell Science Ltd that sells palmitoylethanolamide. The take-home message of our review remains as originally stated: "Collectively, the findings presented here propose that palmitoylethanolamide merits further consideration as a disease-modifying agent for controlling inflammatory responses and related chronic and neuropathic pain". PMID:24862356

  4. Shock induced vaporization of anhydrite CaSO4 and calcite CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Satish C.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Yang, Wenbo

    2000-04-01

    Discovery of abundant anhydrite (CaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) in the otherwise carbonate sediments comprising the upper portion of the rocks contained within the Chicxulub impact crater has prompted research on the shock-induced vaporization of these minerals. We use a vaporization criterion determined by shock-induced entropy. We reanalyze the shock wave experiments of Yang [1]. He shocked 30% porous anhydrite and 46% porous calcite. Post-shock adiabatic expansion of the sample across a 5 mm-thick gap and then impact upon an aluminum witness plate backed by LiF window that is monitored with a VISAR. Reanalysis uses Herrman's P-α model [2] for porous materials, and a realistic interpolation gas equation-of-state for vaporization products. Derived values of the entropies for incipient and complete vaporization for anhydrite are 1.65±0.12 and 3.17±0.12 kJ(kg.K)-1, and for calcite these are 0.99±0.11 and 1.93±0.11 kJ(kg.K)-1. Corresponding pressures for incipient and complete vaporization along the Hugoniot of non-porous anhydrite are 32.5±2.5 and 122±13 GPa and for non-porous calcite are 17.8±2.9 and 54.1±5.3 GPa, respectively. These pressures are a factor of 2-3 lower than reported earlier by Yang.

  5. Autoradiographic characterization of (+-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-( sup 125 I) iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (( sup 125 I)DOI) binding to 5-HT2 and 5-HT1c receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, N.M.; Mitchell, W.M.; Garlick, R.K.; Glennon, R.A.; Teitler, M.; De Souza, E.B. )

    1990-11-01

    The 5-HT2 (serotonin) receptor has traditionally been labeled with antagonist radioligands such as (3H)ketanserin and (3H)spiperone, which label both agonist high-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-sensitive) and agonist low-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-insensitive) states of this receptor. The hallucinogen 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) is an agonist which labels the high-affinity guanyl nucleotide-sensitive state of brain 5-HT2 receptors selectively. In the present study, conditions for autoradiographic visualization of (+/-)-(125I)DOI-labeled 5-HT2 receptors were optimized and binding to slide-mounted sections was characterized with respect to pharmacology, guanyl nucleotide sensitivity and anatomical distribution. In slide-mounted rat brain sections (+/-)-(125I)DOI binding was saturable, of high affinity (KD approximately 4 nM) and displayed a pharmacologic profile typical of 5-HT2 receptors. Consistent with coupling of 5-HT2 receptors in the high-affinity state to a guanyl nucleotide regulatory protein, (125I)DOI binding was inhibited by guanyl nucleotides but not by adenosine triphosphate. Patterns of autoradiographic distribution of (125I)DOI binding to 5-HT2 receptors were similar to those seen with (3H)ketanserin- and (125I)-lysergic acid diethylamide-labeled 5-HT2 receptors. However, the density of 5-HT2 receptors labeled by the agonist (125I)DOI was markedly lower (30-50%) than that labeled by the antagonist (3H)ketanserin. High densities of (125I)DOI labeling were present in olfactory bulb, anterior regions of cerebral cortex (layer IV), claustrum, caudate putamen, globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, islands of Calleja, mammillary nuclei and inferior olive. Binding in hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus was generally sparse.

  6. Sub-millimetre DOI detector based on monolithic LYSO and digital SiPM for a dedicated small-animal PET system.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowski, Radosław; Mollet, Pieter; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2016-03-01

    The mouse model is widely used in a vast range of biomedical and preclinical studies. Thanks to the ability to detect and quantify biological processes at the molecular level in vivo, PET has become a well-established tool in these investigations. However, the need to visualize and quantify radiopharmaceuticals in anatomic structures of millimetre or less requires good spatial resolution and sensitivity from small-animal PET imaging systems.In previous work we have presented a proof-of-concept of a dedicated high-resolution small-animal PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillator crystals and Digital Photon Counter photosensor. The combination of thin monolithic crystals and MLE positioning algorithm resulted in an excellent spatial resolution of 0.7 mm uniform in the entire field of view (FOV). However, the limitation of the scanner was its low sensitivity due to small thickness of the lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals (2 mm).Here we present an improved detector design for a small-animal PET system that simultaneously achieves higher sensitivity and sustains a sub-millimetre spatial resolution. The proposed detector consists of a 5 mm thick monolithic LYSO crystal optically coupled to a Digital Photon Counter. Mean nearest neighbour (MNN) positioning combined with depth of interaction (DOI) decoding was employed to achieve sub-millimetre spatial resolution. To evaluate detector performance the intrinsic spatial resolution, energy resolution and coincidence resolving time (CRT) were measured. The average intrinsic spatial resolution of the detector was 0.60 mm full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). A DOI resolution of 1.66 mm was achieved. The energy resolution was 23% FWHM at 511 keV and CRT of 529 ps were measured. The improved detector design overcomes the sensitivity limitation of the previous design by increasing the nominal sensitivity of the detector block and retains an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution. PMID:26907952

  7. Thermoluminescence (TL) properties and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of high purity CaSO4:Dy TL material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Nadira; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Dollah, Mohd Taufik

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the characterization and TL properties of dysprosium (Dy) doped calcium sulfate (CaSO4) TL material produced by co-precipitation technique with 0.5mol% concentration of dopant. The morphology of the produced TL material was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the micrograph shows that rectangular parallelepiped shaped crystal with the average of 150 μm in length were produced. The crystallinity of the produced powder was studied using x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The XRD spectra show that the TL material produced is high purity anhydrite CaSO4 with average crystallite size of 74 nm with orthorhombic crystal system. The TL behavior of produced CaSO4:Dy was studied using a TLD reader after exposure to gamma ray by Co60 source with the doses of 1,5 and 10 Gy. The glow curve shows linear response with glow peak around 230°C which is desired development in the field of radiation dosimetry.

  8. Nano-fibrin stabilized CaSO4 crystals incorporated injectable chitin composite hydrogel for enhanced angiogenesis & osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arun Kumar, R; Sivashanmugam, A; Deepthi, S; Bumgardner, Joel D; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2016-04-20

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), an excellent biodegradable bone forming agent that is an ideal choice as additive in gels, however, its disadvantage being poor gel rheology and angiogenesis. Here, we have synthesized chitin-CaSO4-nano-fibrin based injectable gel system which shows improved rheology and angiogenic potential. Rheological studies showed that the composite gel was a shear thinning gel with elastic modulus of 15.4±0.275kPa; a 1.67 fold increase over chitin control. SEM and XRD analyses revealed the effect of nano-fibrin (nFibrin) in transforming CaSO4 crystal shape from needle to hexagonal. It also masked the retarding effect of CaSO4 towards in vitro early cell attachment and angiogenesis using rabbit adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (rASCs) and HUVECs, respectively. rASCs osteogenesis was confirmed by spectrophotometric endpoint assay, which showed 6-fold early increase in alkaline phosphatase levels and immuno-cytochemistry analysis. These in vitro results highlight the potential of injectable chitin-CaSO4-nFibrin gel for osteo-regeneration via enhanced angiogenesis. PMID:26876838

  9. Operational experience of electronic active personal dosemeter and comparison with CaSo4:Dy TL dosemeter in Indian PHWR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Managanvi, S S; Bihari, R R; Bhat, H R

    2013-01-01

    Direct reading dosemeter has been used for day-to-day radiation exposure control and management for last four decades in Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs). Recently new real time, alarm and pre-alarm on equivalent dose/dose rate, storage of dose/dose rate and maximum dose rate, user-friendly electronic active personal dosemeter (APD) has been implemented into practice for the first time at Kaiga Atomic Power Station-3&4,  of Indian NPPs. The dosemeter showed tolerance level (L) 0.1085±0.0450 compared with 0.1869±0.0729 (average±SD) for CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter, having narrow range trumpet curve, nil electromagnetic interference. Records of >29 000 for APD and TL dosemeter were analysed for comparasion of the measurement of the individual dose. APD followed general acceptance rule of ±25 % for dose >1 mSv. Monthly Station collective dose by TL dosemeters and APD for normal reactor operation as well as outage are found in good agreement. Operational experiences and statistical analysis support that an APD dosemeter is reasonably equivalent to CaSO4:Dy TL dosemeter. The accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the measurement of radiation for (137)Cs are comparable with CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter. Operational experience of APD during the normal operation as well as outage showed as one of the best ALARA tool for occupational dose monitoring, control, management and future outage planning. PMID:23528326

  10. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  11. Comment on ``Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a horizontal plate with thermal radiation'' by A. Ishak, Heat Mass Transfer, DOI 10.1007/s00231-009-0552-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, Eugen

    2010-10-01

    In a recent paper of Ishak (Heat Mass Transfer, doi: 10.1007/s00231-009-0552-3 DOI"/> , 2009) the similarity solutions of the title problem have been investigated numerically in some detail. The present note shows, however, that with the aid of a simple rescaling of the Prandtl number, the results reported by Ishak can easily be recovered from the well known solution of the same problem, without the effect of thermal radiation.

  12. Energy response of CaSO4:Dy teflon TLD disk dosimeters to photons and electrons.

    PubMed

    Sharada, K S

    1983-01-01

    The photon energy response of CaSO4:Dy teflon disk dosimeters used widely in radiation dosimetry is computed using the energy absorption coefficient values for calcium, sulfur, oxygen, and carbon taken from J. H. Hubbell's tables. For fluorine, the energy absorption coefficients were obtained from the values given by F. H. Attix for CaF2 and Ca. The energy response of the radiation-monitoring disk for the range of 10 keV to 10 MeV, relative to air, is computed and plotted. The response is maximum between 20 and 30 keV and then gradually falls to a constant at 200 keV to 10 MeV. This computed response for different energies is compared with the experimental TL response of the dosimeter. The electron energy response of these TLD disks is computed using the stopping-power values for the different component elements. The electron stopping power for sulfur and calcium from 10 keV to 10 MeV is computed using the Bethe-Bloch formula. Those for oxygen and carbon are taken from the tables given by M. J. Berger and S. M. Seltzer. For fluorine, the values are computed from those for Li and LiF given in the same tables. This calculated response is compared with the experimental beta response of the TL dosimeter. PMID:6823508

  13. Raman spectra of the different phases in the CaSO4-H2O system.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Martínez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Olazabal, María Ángeles; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-10-21

    Although it is known that the CaSO4/H2O system is formed by at least five different phases, this fact is not correctly documented in Raman spectroscopy studies. The main problem detected in the literature was the incorrect definition of the anhydrite, which produced the assignation of different spectra for a single compound. In this sense, two different spectra were clearly identified from the bibliography, which showed different main Raman bands at 1017 or 1025 cm(-1), although anhydrite could be present even as three different polymorphous species with different structures. A better understanding of the whole system obtained from a review of the literature allowed new conclusions to be established. Thanks to that revision and the development of different thermodynamical experiments by Raman spectroscopy, the Raman spectra of each phase were successfully identified for the first time. In this way, the main Raman bands of gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite III, anhydrite II and anhydrite I were identified at 1008, 1015, 1025, 1017 and 1017 cm(-1), respectively. To conclude this work, the contradictions found in literature were critically summarized. PMID:25226433

  14. Effects of Partial Substitutions of NaCl with KCl, CaSO4 and MgSO4 on the Quality and Sensorial Properties of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of NaCl replacers (KCl, CaSO4, and MgSO4) on the quality and sensorial properties of pork patty. In the characteristics of spray-dried salt particles, KCl showed the largest particle size with low viscosity in solution. Meanwhile CaSO4 treatment resulted in the smallest particle size and the highest viscosity (p<0.05). In comparison of the qualities of pork patties manufactured by varying level of Na replacers, MgSO4 treatment exhibited low cooking loss comparing to control (p<0.05). Textural properties of KCl and MgSO4 treatments showed similar pattern, i.e., low level of the replacers caused harder and less adhesive texture than those of control (p<0.05), whereas the hardness of these products was not different with control when the replacers were added more than 1.0%. The addition of CaSO4 also manifested harder and less adhesive than control (p<0.05), but the textural properties of CaSO4 treatment was not affected by level of Ca-salt. Eventually, sensorial properties indicated that KCl and CaSO4 influenced negative effects on pork patties. In contrast, MgSO4 showed better sensorial properties in juiciness intensity, tenderness intensity as well as overall acceptability than control, reflecting that MgSO4 was an effective Na-replacer in meat product formulation. PMID:26761288

  15. Comment on ``Geoeffectiveness of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections'' by N. Gopalswamy, S. Yashiro, and S. Akiyama (J. Geophys. Res. 2007, 112, doi:10.1029/2006JA012149)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolaev, Yu. I.

    2008-12-01

    Comment on paper: Gopalswamy, N., S. Yashiro, and S. Akiyama (2007), Geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A06112, doi:10.1029/2006JA012149 Gopalswamy et al. [2007] studied the geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the basis of solar observations during 1996-2005 and found that the geoeffectiveness of 229 frontside halo CMEs was 71%. Recently for observations of 305 frontside halo CMEs during 1997-2003 the geoeffectiveness was found to be 40% [Kim et al., 2005]. Complex analysis of both solar and interplanetary measurements showed that the geoeffectiveness of frontside halo CMEs is likely to be about 50% [Yermolaev et al., 2005; Yermolaev and Yermolaev, 2006]. Gopalswamy et al. [2007] did not discuss possible causes of this difference and were limited only to the general words: "The reason for the conflicting results (geoeffectiveness of CMEs ranging from 35% to more than 80%) may be attributed to the different definition of halo CMEs and geoeffectiveness." So, here we shall present our point of view on high geoeffectivenees of CME obtained in paper by Gopalswamy et al. [2007].

  16. Observation of the {nu}{sub 1} OH(OD) stretch of HOI and DOI by Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, J.J.; Lindner, J.; Leone, S.R. |

    1996-05-01

    The spectra of vibrationally hot HOI formed in the reaction of alkyl iodides with oxygen atoms are observed by Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy. The {ital v}=1{endash}3 levels of the OH stretch are observed via the {Delta}{ital v}={minus}1 and {Delta}{ital v}={minus}2 sequence bands. The spectrum of DOI is observed by using 2,2,2-{ital d}{sub 3}-iodoethane as the precursor in the oxygen atom reaction. The {ital v}=1{endash}4 levels of the OD stretch are observed in the {Delta}{ital v}={minus}1 sequence band, and the {ital v}=1{endash}5 levels of the OD stretch are observed in {Delta}{ital v}={minus}2. Medium resolution spectra (0.031 cm{sup {minus}1} apodized) are recorded and rotationally analyzed for the {nu}{sub 1} fundamental and 2{nu}{sub 1}{minus}{nu}{sub 1} hot band of HOI. An estimate of the HOI ground state structure is made by constraining the OH bond length to its value for HOCl and HOBr and calculating the HOI bond angle and the OI bond length by least squares fit to the ground state rotational constants. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve: Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2011; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methodology. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature and soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. DOI/GTN-P Climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2014; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. The array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2013; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  20. Hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) into gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O). The influence of the sodium poly(acrylate)/surface interaction and molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Domenech, Marc; Foissy, Alain; Persello, Jacques; Mutin, Jean-Claude

    2000-12-01

    The retarding influence of sodium poly(acrylate) (PANa) on the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) was investigated. This study reports the influence of sodium poly(acrylate) on hemihydrate dissolution, on homogenous and heterogeneous gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) nucleation as well as on gypsum growth. It is shown that adsorption of PANa does not hinder the dissolution of hemihydrate in the present experimental conditions. The specific interaction of PANa with gypsum can explain the oriented growth of gypsum crystal. The gypsum growth is slowed down but cannot be blocked by the adsorption of PANa. On the other hand, PANa can block the heterogeneous and homogenous gypsum nucleation. As soon as a critical surface density of PANa onto the hemihydrate surface is reached, the heterogeneous gypsum nucleation is prevented and hemihydrate hydration is indefinitely blocked. The interaction between PANa and the hemihydrate surface is of prime importance to control hydration. Also, the influence of the molecular weight of PANa on homogenous nucleation has been investigated. The precipitation of calcium polyacrylate can explain the differences between the two molecular weights used (2100 and 20 000). This work leads to the conclusion that heterogeneous nucleation is the key process that controls hydration of a system in which hemihydrate dissolution, gypsum nucleation and growth are all occurring at the same time in a continuous manner.

  1. Impact-induced devolatilization of CaSO4 anhydrite and implications for K-T extinctions: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The recent suggestions that the target area for the K-T bolide may have been a sulfate-rich evaporite and that the resulting sulfuric acid-rich aerosol was responsible for the subsequent cooling of the Earth and the resulting biological extinctions has prompted us to experimentally examine the impact-induced devolatization of the sulfate minerals anhydrite (CaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4(2H2O)). Preliminary results for anhydrite are reported. Up to 42 GPa peak shock pressure, little or no devolatilization occurs, consistent with chemical thermodynamic calculations. Calculation of the influence of the partial pressure of the gas species on impact-induced devolatilization suggests that an even greater amount of sulfur than that proposed by Brett could have been released to the atmosphere by an impact into a sulfate-rich layer. Solid recovery, impact-induced devolatilization experiments were performed on the Caltech 20mm gun using vented, stainless steel sample assemblies.

  2. Soluble minerals in chemical evolution. I - Adsorption of 5-prime-AMP on CaSO4 - A model system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J. B.; Chan, S.; Calderon, J.; Lahav, N.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption of 5-prime-AMP onto solid CaSO4-2H2O was studied in a saturated suspension as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration. The adsorption is pH-dependent and is directly correlated with the charge on the 5-prime-AMP molecule which is determined by the state of protonation of the N-1 nitrogen of the purine ring and the phosphate oxygens. It is proposed that the binding that occurs between the nucleotide and the salt is electrostatic in nature. The adsorption decreases with increasing ionic strength of the solution which means that in a fluctuating environment of wetting and drying cycles, a biomolecule similar to 5-prime-AMP could be expected to desorb during the drying phase. The results indicate that CaSO4-2H2O can serve as a concentrating surface for biomolecules. The significance of this is discussed with regard to the possible role of soluble minerals and their surfaces in a geochemical model consistent with the evolution of the earth and the origin of life.

  3. Seasonal biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and evaluation of ecological factors influencing species distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisuka, Wichai; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Yasushi; Fukuda, Masako; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Taai, Kritsana; Choochote, Wej; Saeung, Atiporn

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study on the seasonal biodiversity of black flies and evaluation of ecological factors influencing their distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, northern Thailand. Larvae were collected from six fixed-stream sites in relation to altitude gradients from May 2011 to April 2013. The water temperature, water pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salt, water velocity, stream width and depth, streambed particle sizes, riparian vegetation, and canopy cover were recorded from each site. Monthly collections from the six sites yielded 5475 last-instar larvae, belonging to 29 black fly species. The most frequently found species from all sites were Simulium asakoae (100%) followed by Simulium yuphae (83.3%), and Simulium chiangdaoense, Simulium gombakense, Simulium phahompokense, Simulium fruticosum, Simulium maeaiense and Simulium fenestratum (66.6%). Of the 5475 last-instar larvae, S. maeaiense (19.3%), S. chiangdaoense (15.8%) and S. asakoae (14.8%), were the three most abundant species. The Shannon diversity index (H) at the six sites with different altitudes of 2100m, 2000m, 1500m, 1400m, 700m, and 500m above mean sea level, were 2.042, 1.832, 2.158, 2.123, 1.821 and 1.822, respectively. The Shannon index and number of taxa in the cold season were higher than those in the rainy and hot seasons. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that at least three principal components have eigen values >1.0 and accounted for 93.5% of the total variability of ecological factors among sampling sites. The Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that most species had a trend towards altitude, canopy cover, riparian vegetation and water velocity. PMID:26028177

  4. Pneumatocele selar a tensión: Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Bendersky, Damián; Campero, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El neumoencéfalo a tensión luego de la cirugía transesfenoidal es poco común. En la literatura existen pocos casos reportados en los cuales el aire se encuentra localizado exclusivamente en las regiones selar y supraselar, constituyendo un pneumatocele selar. En este artículo se describe un caso inusual de pneumatocele selar a tensión de presentación tardía. Descripción del caso: Una mujer de 57 años consultó por hemianopsia bitemporal. Previamente, ya se le había realizado una cirugía transnasal por un adenoma hipofisario y se le había colocado una derivación lumbo-peritoneal por la presencia de una fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Además, se le había realizado una resección transcraneal de un componente intracavernoso del tumor y radiocirugía debido a la agresividad del mismo. Se llevó a cabo una resonancia magnética que demostró un pneumatocele selar y supraselar. Intervención: Se realizó un abordaje transciliar. La región selar estaba encapsulada por tejido cicatrizal debido a los procedimientos previos. Se abrió la cicatriz y el aire fue evacuado. Posteriormente, el piso selar fue cerrado con grasa y cola de fibrina. Despuós del procedimiento, su campo visual retornó a la normalidad. Un año después de su última cirugía, continua asintomática. Conclusión: El pneumatocele selar y supraselar a tensión es un hallazgo extremadamente raro luego de una cirugía transesfenoidal. Su manifestaciónw clínica sería la alteración visual debida a la compresión inferior de la vía óptica. El pneumatocele selar a tensión debe ser evacuado en un corto plazo. PMID:23596554

  5. Discussion of "The Case for the Median Fragment Size as a Better Fragment Size Descriptor than the Mean" by Finn Ouchterlony, Rock Mech Rock Eng, 2015. doi:10.1007/s00603-015-0722-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spathis, A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Ouchterlony (The Case for the Median Fragment Size as a Better Fragment Size Descriptor than the Mean, Rock Mech Rock Eng, 2015. doi: 10.1007/s00603-015-0722-1) argues that the median is preferred over the mean as a measure of central tendency of the rock fragmentation size distribution produced by blasting. This discussion suggests that neither is favoured over the other. Indeed, for distributions where both exist, they may be found in terms of each other, either by an analytical expression or by numerical calculation.

  6. Geophysical Exploration of Castle Remains in Barwałd Górny (Near Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Poland) Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) with Assistance of Depth of Investigation Index (DOI) Method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, Michał; Kula, Damian; Saternus, Robert; Lewicki, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    In March of 2014 at ruins of the 14th century castle, situated at the top of Mount Żar in Małopolska region, Poland, geophysical surveys were performed. Surveys were planned to investigate remains of the castle that could remain in the ground. Electrical Resistivity Tomography method was used there. In the paper 4 sections have been presented. During interpretation, as the supporting method, maps of Depth-of-Investigation (DOI) index have been used. Results of the surveys can point out potential remains of the castle walls and ruins of buildings that were situated in the stronghold

  7. An Investigation of the Adsorption Characteristics of 5'ATP and 5'AMP onto the Surface of Caso4 x 2H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, J.; Sweeney, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    A model has been proposed in which solid surfaces can act as a site for cataletic activity of condensation reactions for certain biomolecules. From this model, the adsorption characteristics of 5'ATP and 5'AMP onto the surface of CaSO4.2H2O was chosen for study. It has been proven that 5'ATP and 5'AMP do adsorb onto the surface of CaSO4. Studies were then made to determine the dependence of absorption versus time, concentration, ionic strength and pH. It was found that the adsorption of the nucleotides is highly pH dependent, primarily determined by the phosphate acid groups of the nucleic acid molecule. From this investigation, the data obtained is discussed in relation to the model for the prebiotic earth.

  8. Descompresión microvascular en espasmo hemifacial: Reporte de 13 casos y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Alvaro; Herreros, Isabel Cuervo-Arango; Barrenechea, Ignacio; Andjel, Germán; Ajler, Pablo; Rhoton, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados de 13 pacientes con diagnóstico de espasmo hemifacial (EHF), en los cuales se realizó una descompresión microvascular (DMV). Material y Método: Desde Junio de 2005 a Mayo de 2014, 13 pacientes con diagnóstico de EHF fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente, realizando una DMV. Se evaluó: edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la sintomatología, hallazgos intraoperatorios y resultados postoperatorios. Resultados: De los 13 pacientes intervenidos, 7 fueron mujeres y 6 varones. La media de edad fue de 53 años. El tiempo medio entre el inicio de la sintomatología y la intervención quirúrgica osciló entre 3 y 9 años. En todos los casos el EHF era típico, uno de ellos con neuralgia trigeminal concomitante, observándose en todos compresión neurovascular intraoperatoria. Por orden decreciente de frecuencia la causa de la compresión fue arteria cerebelosa anteroinferior, arteria cerebelosa posteroinferior, arteria dolicomega basilar y arteria dolicomega vertebral. El seguimiento postoperatorio fue en promedio de 24 meses. El 62% presentó desaparición postquirúrgica inmediata de la sintomatología preoperatoria, el 30% desaparición tras un período de 3 semanas a 2 meses (8% con mejoría parcial), y en el 8% no hubo mejoría. En cuanto a las complicaciones postoperatorias: 3 pacientes presentaron paresia facial II-III en la escala de House-Brackman (se recuperaron en un período de 6 meses), y 1 paciente presentó fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Ninguno de los pacientes de la serie presentaron hipoacusia transitorio o permanente. Conclusión: La DMV como tratamiento del EHF es un procedimiento efectivo y seguro, que permite la resolución completa de la patología en la mayoría de los casos. PMID:27127708

  9. X- and gamma-ray response of the TLD badge based on CaSO4:Dy Teflon TLD discs.

    PubMed

    Vohra, K G; Pradhan, A S; Bhatt, R C

    1982-09-01

    A TLD badge based on CaSO4: Dy Teflon TLD discs has been designed for personnel monitoring of radiation workers encountering X-rays of effective energies above 20 keV. The badge had two Teflon TLD discs, one of which is used bare (without any filter) and other which is used with a metal filter. By taking into account the TL readout of both of these discs, the problems of photon energy dependence as well as directional dependence of the badge have been reduced to a minimum. The uncertainty due to photon energy dependence above 29 KeV (eff.) was found to be within a value of +/- 15% (at an angle of incidence of 45 degrees). The directional dependence of the badge is within +/- 30% in the energy range from 35 KeV to 1.25 MeV. The badge is designed so as to provide approximate information on the effective photon energy of the X-ray exposures. PMID:7174332

  10. “Rice Is Essential but Tiresome; You Should Get Some Noodles”: Doi Moi and the Political Economy of Men’s Extramarital Sexual Relations and Marital HIV Risk in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phinney, Harriet M.

    2008-01-01

    Research from around the world has suggested that married women’s greatest risk for contracting HIV is from having sexual intercourse with their husbands. On the basis of 6 months of ethnographic research in Hanoi, Vietnam, I argue that the contemporary nature of the HIV epidemic in Hanoi is shaped by 3 interrelated policies implemented in 1986 as part of the government’s new economic policy, Doi Moi (Renovation). Together, these policies structure men’s opportunities for extramarital sexual relations and encourage wives to acquiesce to their husbands’ sexual infidelity, putting both at risk of HIV. I propose 4 structural intervention strategies that address the policies that contribute to men’s opportunities for extramarital liaisons and to marital HIV risk. PMID:18309136

  11. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT): systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amika S; Chin A Paw, Marijke JM; Kremers, Stef PJ; Visscher, Tommy LS; Brug, Johannes; van Mechelen, Willem

    2006-01-01

    Background Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol, this paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT), a school-based intervention program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain. The intervention focussed on the following health behaviours: (1) reduction of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, (2) reduction of energy intake derived from snacks, (3) decrease of levels of sedentary behaviour, and (4) increase of levels of physical activity (i.e. active transport behaviour and sports participation). The intervention program consisted of an individual classroom-based component (i.e. an educational program, covering 11 lessons of both biology and physical education classes), and an environmental component (i.e. encouraging and supporting changes at the school canteens, as well as offering additional physical education classes). We evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention program using a randomised controlled trial design. We assessed the effects of the intervention on body composition (primary outcome measure), as well as on behaviour, behavioural determinants, and aerobic fitness (secondary outcome measures). Furthermore, we conducted a process evaluation. Discussion The development of the DOiT-intervention resulted in a comprehensive school-based weight gain prevention program, tailored to the needs of Dutch adolescents from low socio-economic background. PMID:17173701

  12. Intensity variation study of the radiation field in a mammographic system using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD-900 (CaSO4:Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, E. L.; Silva, J. O.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M. P. A.; Daros, K. A. C.; Medeiros, R. B.

    2014-02-01

    This study presents the results of the intensity variation of the radiation field in a mammographic system using the thermoluminescent dosimeter TLD-900 (CaSO4:Dy). These TLDs were calibrated and characterized in an industrial X-ray system used for instruments calibration, in the energy range used in mammography. They were distributed in a matrix of 19 lines and five columns, covering an area of 18 cm×8 cm in the center of the radiation field on the clinical equipment. The results showed a variation of the intensity probably explained by the non-uniformity of the field due to the heel effect.

  13. Magnetic removal of electron contamination for 60Co panoramic gamma ray exposure--Investigations with CaSO4:Dy and LiF based dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Munish; Sahani, G; Chourasiya, G

    2010-06-01

    Electron contamination from a sealed (60)Co radiation source has been investigated comprehensively using a CaSO(4):Dy based TLD badge and LiF crystals. It has been found that due to electron contamination, the thermoluminescence (TL) detectors exhibit over response which can be corrected by applying a magnetic field. It has also been found that for a source-to-dosimeter distance of 50 cm, the ratio of the TL readouts of the third to first discs of the TLD badge reduces from approximately 1.5 to approximately 1.00 after applying a magnetic field. Hence detectors which are sensitive to electrons as well as photons, and are capable of distinguishing them, can lead to an erroneous measurement. This happens because the contribution due to electron contamination interferes with pure gamma calibration. The study is helpful in establishing accurate calibration and appropriate correction factors for personnel monitoring carried out using CaSO(4):Dy based TLD badge. PMID:20071190

  14. Reference Linking with DOIs: A Case Study [and] The Santa Fe Convention of the Open Archives Initiative [and] The UPS Prototype: An Experiment End-User Service across E-Print Archives [and] The Costs of Print, Fiche, and Digital Access: The Early Canadiana Online Project [and] Ad*Access: Seeking Copyright Permissions for a Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Helen; Lyons, Catherine; Ratner, Howard; Risher, Carol; Shillum, Chris; Sidman, David; Stevens, Andrew; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Lagoze, Carl; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Krichel, Thomas; Nelson, Michael L.; Hochstenbach, Patrick; Lyapunov, Victor M.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Kholief, Mohamed; Liu, Xiaoming; O'Connell, Heath; Kingma, Bruce R.; Pritcher, Lynn

    2000-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss publishers' metadata hyperlinks with Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) on the Internet; the Santa Fe Convention of the Open Archives initiative (Oai) that promotes author self-archiving; the Universal Preprint Service; costs of digital, microfiche, and print access; and an online database of old print…

  15. DOI: Current Status and Outlook [and] The Virtual Naval Hospital: Lessons Learned in Creating and Operating a Digital Health Sciences Library for Nomadic Patrons [and] Interoperability for Digital Objects and Repositories: The Cornell/CNRI Experiments [and] Education for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskin, Norman; D'Alessandro, Michael P.; D'Alessandro, Donna M.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Bakalar, Richard S.; Ashley, Denis E.; Payette, Dandra; Blanchi, Christophe; Lagoze, Carl; Overly, Edward A.; Spink, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Describes the origin of the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) as a persistent identifier for managing copyrighted materials and its development; creation of the U.S. Navy digital health sciences library for isolated primary care providers and their patients; Cornell and CNRI prototype architecture for interoperable digital objects and repositories;…

  16. Dosimetric properties and stability of thermoluminescent foils made from LiF:Mg,Cu,P or CaSO4:Dy during long-term use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłosowski, M.; Liszka, M.; Kopeć, R.; Bilski, P.; Kędzierska, D.

    2014-11-01

    A few dosimetric systems based on thermoluminescence [TL] foils were developed in recent years (Nariyama et al. 2006, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120, 213-218; Olko et al. 2006 Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 118, 213-218) (Czopyk et al. 2008, Radiat. Meas., 43, 977-980; Kłosowski et al. 2010, Radiat. Meas., 45, 719-721; Kopeć et al. 2013, Radiat.Meas., 56, 380-383). Major application of these systems is mapping of 2D dose distribution for medical treatment plan verification, similarly to photochromic or radiochromic films. The advantage of TL foils compared to other films is their re-usability. In this work we present dosimetric properties as dose linearity and fadding of the foils made from LiF:Mg,Cu,P or CaSO4:Dy phosphors and high temperature polymers. Both types of the foils have good linearity in the range 1-20 Gy for LiF:Mg,Cu,P and 0.1-2 Gy for CaSO4:Dy. Their long term fading does not exceed 3.7% and 9% respectively. We additionally investigated effects of sensitivity loss and emission spectra for both types of the foils. One shortcoming of TL foils is that every heat process may have negative influence on their properties, causing changes of their sensitivity. Register signal of the foils after 15 readouts may be reduced by 16% of the initial. We consider that the main reason of these changes is oxidation of organic contamination on the surface and degradation of a polymer which is one of the components of the foils. Effect of sensitivity decreasing may be slowed down by proper use and cleaning detectors by solvent.

  17. An investigation of the adsorption characteristics of 5 prime ATP and 5 prime AMP onto the surface of CaSO sub 4 x 2H sub 2 O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, J.; Sweeney, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    A model has been proposed (Lahev and Chans, 1982) in which solid surfaces can act as a site for catalytic activity of condensation reactions for certain biomolecules. From this model, the adsorption characteristics of 5'ATP and 5'AMP onto the surface of CaSO4 2H2O was chosen for study. It has been proven that 5'ATP and 5'AMP do adsorb onto the surface of CaSO4. Studies were then made to determine the dependence of adsorption versus time, concentration, ionic strength and pH. It was found that the adsorption of the nucleotides is highly pH dependent, primarily determined by the phosphate acid groups of the nucleic acid molecule. From this investigation, the data obtained are discussed in relation to the model for the prebiotic earth.

  18. Determination of self attenuation coefficient and relative TL efficiency of CaSO 4 :Dy, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs - An alternate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, A. K.; Chatterjee, S.; Palani Selvam, T.; Joshi, V. J.; Chougaonkar, M. P.

    2011-10-01

    Self attenuation of TL and relative TL efficiency of polytetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE) embedded CaSO 4:Dy disc, LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) disc and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) chip were determined in the present study for photons of energy 10-34 keV. The relative TL efficiency was determined using an alternative approach in which ratio of experimental response and corrected theoretical response was used instead of measuring the absolute TL emission in photon counting mode. For CaSO 4:Dy disc, it was found that with increasing the proportion of CaSO 4:Dy phosphor in the disc, the light attenuation coefficient increases. The light attenuation coefficient of MTS disc and MCP-N chip was found to be 23.4 and 45.5 cm -1, respectively. The relative TL efficiency in the photon energy range of 10-34 keV for MTS discs and MCP-N chips, evaluated in the present study matches well with the reported values in the literature.

  19. Microwave-promoted pure host phase for red emission CaS:Eu2+ phosphor from single CaSO4 precursor and the photoluminescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Qi-Fei; Wang, Yan-Ze; Lu, Zhi-Juan; Sun, Liang; Dong, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Da-Jian

    2014-08-01

    We report a novel approach to obtaining a classical blue-green excitable CaS:Eu2+ phosphor with desired red emission by microwave (MW) firing procedure in the absence of adding elemental sulphur. The disturbing effect of MW electromagnetic field on decomposition of CaSO4 into CaS activated by europium is distinctly observed to give pure host phase without adding any elemental sulphur and carbon. The host phase evolution is observed to be highly dependent on the variation of applied MW power from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and the corresponding photoluminescence (PL), and a maximum PL intensity at 1100 W of MW power is acquired for the obtained purer host phase. The non-thermal and non-equilibrium effects by MW are revealed to correlate with the interaction between polar structure of the host and applied electromagnetic field. The results demonstrate an optional procedure to prepare this red-emitting phosphor in an effective, environment-friendly and scalable approach for phosphor production in the application of bio-illumination for plant cultivation and artificial photosynthesis.

  20. Development of a technique for improving coefficient of variation of CaSO4:Dy teflon-based TLD personnel monitoring system in low-dose region.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S M; Sneha, C; Sahai, M K; Chougaonkar, M P; Babu, D A R

    2015-12-01

    In view of the importance of zero-dose background (null signal) in influencing the coefficient of variation in low-dose region, a technique for the estimation of the same from composite (gross) signal is developed for CaSO4:Dy-based personnel monitoring system being used in India. The technique is based on simple analysis of glow curves (GCs) of unexposed and exposed dosemeters, evolution of trend/model for the zero-dose curves, generation of simulation protocol for individual zero-dose curves, establishment of characteristics of GCs of exposed dosemeters and finally preparation of an algorithm to segregate the components from composite signal. The technique offers the separation of real-time background and gives superior results over other method of approximation of the background. The results also prove efficiency of the empirical trending and simulation protocol of background GCs. The proposed technique can be implemented in routine monitoring without any extra man hours and reader time. PMID:25527179

  1. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface. PMID:24957062

  2. Shock induced reaction in Chicxulub target materials (CaSO4 and SiO2) and their relation to extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Guangqing; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The global platinum element rich layer, the presence of shocked quartz grains (in some cases with stishovite), and the observation of a tektite-rich layer, precisely at the K-T boundary, are the three major arguments for the extinction bolide impact hypothesis of Alvarez et al. Tektites (spherules) from Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico received particular interest because of their geological proximity to the Chicxulub impact structure, which is a leading candidate for at least one of the K-T impact craters. Although in most localities the original glass has weathered to clay minerals, some shock-induced glass is found in outcrops and drill cores which is used for Ar-38/Ar-39 dating. The glassy tektites were found to be chemically similar and coeval at 65.0 Ma with Chicxulub melt rock. Two kinds of K-T spherules were discovered: (1) a silic black glass; and (2) a yellow glass, enriched in Ca, Mg, and S. The high sulfur content of the glass and the abundance of anhydrite (CaSO4) in the carbonate-evaporite sequence observed in Drill Holes Y-1 and Y-2 at Chicxulub prompted studies of calcium sulfate devolatization. Further discussion of our experiments is presented.

  3. Descompresión microvascular en neuralgia del trigémino: Reporte de 36 casos y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Alvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Abraham Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados de 36 pacientes con diagnóstico de neuralgia del trigémino (NT), en los cuales se realizó una descompresión microvascular (DMV). Material y Método: Desde junio de 2005 a mayo de 2012, 36 pacientes con diagnóstico de NT fueron operados por el primer autor (AC), realizando una DMV. Se evaluó: Edad, sexo, tiempo de sintomatología previo a la cirugía, hallazgos intraoperatorios (a través de los videos quirúrgicos), y resultados postoperatorios. Resultados: De los 36 pacientes operados, 25 fueron mujeres y 11 varones. El promedio de edad fue de 48 años. El seguimiento postoperatorio fue en promedio de 38 meses. De los 36 pacientes, 32 (88%) evolucionaron sin dolor hasta la fecha. De los 4 casos con recurrencia de dolor, en dos pacientes se observó como hallazgo intraoperatorio un conflicto venoso. Conclusión: La DMV como tratamiento de la NT es un procedimiento efectivo y seguro. El hallazgo intraoperatorio de una “compresión” venosa podría indicar una evolución postoperatoria desfavorable. PMID:25379343

  4. Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;20:350. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.350.6572)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cet article retracte l'article "Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;20:350. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.350.6572)" PMID:26401219

  5. Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2003-08-01

    Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.

  6. Constraints on the distribution of CaSO4·nH2O phases on Mars and implications for their contribution to the hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Kevin; Bish, David

    2013-03-01

    The stability of minerals in the CaSO4·nH2O system was investigated using a Bruker D8 X-ray powder diffractometer equipped with an environmental cell interfaced to a heating stage, low-temperature chiller, and relative humidity (RH) generator. This in situ analysis procedure allowed for precise monitoring of dehydration/hydration reactions over a range of PH2O values from 4 to 15,000 Pa. The formation of bassanite from gypsum was sluggish below 323 K and is unlikely to occur under current martian conditions over a diurnal/seasonal cycle from desiccation alone. Dehydration is possible on a localized scale in association with volcanic/impact events although temperatures of dehydration and rates of reaction depend on PH2O, particle size, sample thickness and heating rate. Analysis of anhydrite rehydration at 258 K suggests that if gypsum dehydration were to occur, bassanite would be observed on the martian surface under present low PH2O conditions. In addition, a stable bassanite phase could potentially cycle between n = 0.5 and n = 0.67 as a function of relative humidity (1-80%), resulting in a small flux of H2O between the atmosphere and the regolith over a diurnal cycle. Rehydration of bassanite to gypsum occurs only under conditions of 100%RH; therefore the presence of a bassanite phase on the surface of Mars can be used to help constrain paleoclimates. Low-temperature (258 K) XRD hydration experiments of bassanite resulted in the formation of gypsum in the presence of ice, suggesting that bassanite will not be present in association with H2O ice. This behavior could simulate a potential hydration mechanism on the martian surface at higher latitudes as well as at depth in association with subsurface ice at lower latitudes.

  7. Corrosion study on high power feeding of telecomunication copper cable in 5 wt.% CaSO4.2H2O solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Hashim, Nabihah; Ibrahim, Mohd Saiful Bahri; Rahman, Muhammad Sayuzi Abdul; Idrus, Muhammad Amin; Hassan, Mohd Rezadzudin; Abdullah, Wan Razli Wan

    2016-07-01

    The studies were carried out to find out the best powering scheme over the copper telephone line. It was expected that the application of the higher power feeding could increase the data transfer and capable of providing the customer's satisfaction. To realize the application of higher remote power feeding, the potential of corrosion problem on Cu cables was studied. The natural corrosion behaviour of copper cable in the 0.5% CaSO4.2H2O solution was studied in term of open circuit potential for 30 days. The corrosion behaviour of higher power feeding was studied by the immersion and the planned interval test to determine the corrosion rate as well as the effect of voltage magnitudes and the current scheme i.e. positive direct (DC+) and alternating current (AC) at about 0.40 ± 0.01 mA/ cm2 current density. In the immersion test, both DC+ and AC scheme showed the increasing of feeding voltage magnitude has increased the corrosion rate of Cu samples starting from 60 to 100 volts. It was then reduced at about 100 - 120 volts which may due to the passive and transpassive mechanism. The corrosion rate was slowly reduced further from 120 to 200 volts. Visually, the positively charged of Cu cable was seems susceptible to severe corrosion, while AC scheme exhibited a slight corrosion reaction on the surface. However, the planned interval test and XRD results showed the corrosion activity of the copper cable in the studied solution was a relatively slow process and considered not to be corroded as a partially protective scale of copper oxide formed on the surface.

  8. Arsenic speciation in synthetic gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O): A synchrotron XAS, single-crystal EPR, and pulsed ENDOR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinru; Chen, Ning; Nilges, Mark J.; Pan, Yuanming

    2013-04-01

    Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) is a major by-product of mining and milling processes of borate, phosphate and uranium deposits worldwide and, therefore, potentially plays an important role in the stability and bioavailability of heavy metalloids, including As, in tailings and surrounding areas. Gypsum containing 1900 and 185 ppm As, synthesized with Na2HAsO4·7H2O and NaAsO2 in the starting materials, respectively, have been investigated by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), and pulsed electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy (ENDOR). Quantitative analyses of As K edge XANES and EXAFS spectra show that arsenic occurs in both +3 and +5 oxidation states and the As3+/As5+ value varies from 0.35 to 0.79. Single-crystal EPR spectra of gamma-ray-irradiated gypsum reveal two types of arsenic-associated oxyradicals: [AsO3]2- and an [AsO2]2-. The [AsO3]2- center is characterized by principal 75As hyperfine coupling constants of A1 = 1952.0(2) MHz, A2 = 1492.6(2) MHz and A3 = 1488.7(2) MHz, with the unique A axis along the S-O1 bond direction, and contains complex 1H superhyperfine structures that have been determined by pulsed ENDOR. These results suggest that the [AsO3]2- center formed from electron trapping on the central As5+ ion of a substitutional (AsO4)3- group after removal of an O1 atom. The [AsO2]2- center is characterized by its unique A(75As) axis approximately perpendicular to the O1-S-O2 plane and the A2 axis along the S-O2 bond direction, consistent with electron trapping on the central As3+ ion of a substitutional (AsO3)3- group after removal of an O2 atom. These results confirm lattice-bound As5+ and As3+ in gypsum and point to potential application of this mineral for immobilization and removal of arsenic pollution.

  9. Comment on “Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range, Western China” Baochun Huang, John D.A. Piper, Shoutao Peng, Tao Liu, Zhong Li, Qingchen Wang, Rixiang Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charreau, Julien; Chen, Yan; Gilder, Stuart; Barier, Laurie

    2008-04-01

    The recent publication of "Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range,Western China" by B.C. Huang, J.D.A. Piper, S.T. Peng, T. Liu, Z. Li, Q.C. Wang, R.X. Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020] discusses the Cenozoic uplift history of the Tianshan Mountains by studying the magnetostratigraphy of Paleogene to Neogene continental sediments from two sections located in the Kuche basin at the northern edge of the Tarim basin. To support their conclusion they reinterpreted a magnetostratigraphic study of the Yaha section, which lies ~ 10 km south of their sections, we previously published [J. Charreau, S. Gilder, Y. Chen, S. Dominguez, J.-P. Avouac, S. Sen, M. Jolivet, Y. Li and W. Wang, Magnetostratigraphy of the Yaha section, Tarim Basin (China): 11 Ma acceleration in erosion and uplift of the Tianshan Mountains, Geology 34(3), 2006, 181­184.]. Here, (1) we argue that the interpretations of the sedimentation rate changes they proposed for the Kuche sections are partially invalid, (2) we disagree with their reinterpretation of the age of the Yaha section, and (3) we think that the way they interpret their AMS data is incorrect.

  10. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198) where— P=Internal design pressure in pounds per... requirements of ANSI B16.5, API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR... procedures of API Spec 17J, incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must...

  11. Doi Moi, Education and Identity Formation in Contemporary Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Matthieu; Ket, Vu Doan

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 Vietnam had experienced more than two decades of reform. However, while the reforms have transformed the entire Vietnamese economy and opened the country to globalization, the education system is still very much under the Vietnamese Communist Party's control. The schoolbooks are published under close supervision of the authorities. The…

  12. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 CFR 250.198) where— P=Internal design pressure in pounds per square inch (psi). S=Specified..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange... Spec 17J, incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange assembly... incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline risers for tension leg platforms and... scouring, soft bottoms, mud slides, earthquakes, subfreezing temperatures, and other environmental factors....

  14. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange assembly... incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline risers for tension leg platforms and... scouring, soft bottoms, mud slides, earthquakes, subfreezing temperatures, and other environmental factors....

  15. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange assembly... incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline risers for tension leg platforms and... scouring, soft bottoms, mud slides, earthquakes, subfreezing temperatures, and other environmental factors....

  16. Reply to comment by Ben-Zvi, A., D. Rosenfeld and A. Givati on the paper: Levin, Z., N. Halfon and P. Alpert, “Reassessment of rain experiments and operations in Israel including synoptic considerations,” Atmos. Res. 97, 513-525. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.06.011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Zev; Halfon, Noam; Alpert, Pinhas

    2011-03-01

    Levin et al. (2010; hereafter LHA) (Levin, Z., Halfon, N., Alpert, P., 2010. Reassessment of rain experiments and operations in Israel including synoptic considerations. Atmos. Res. 97, 513-525. DOI:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.06.011.), reanalyzed the results of the operational seeding in northern Israel between 1975 and 2007 and the preceding Israel 2 cloud seeding experiment (1969-1975) and concluded that there is no net increase in precipitation over the target areas. Our analysis revealed that a synoptic bias during Israel 2 is one of the reasons for the apparent positive effect of seeding in the northern target area and the negative effect in the southern area both of which disappeared in the following experiment in the south (Israel 3; 1975-1995) and the operational seeding in the north. Ben-Zvi et al. (2010;hereafter BRG) criticized our paper primarily on the ground that we did not consider the positive results of Israel 1 experiment (1960-1967). It should be noted that in Israel 1 different seeding lines were used from those in both Israel 2 and the operational period. In addition, its raw data is not accessible anymore for reanalysis. Furthermore, Israel 2 had been designed as a confirmatory cross-over experiment to Israel 1 and failed to reproduce its promising results with double ratio (DR) of ~ 1.00, namely, zero rainfall enhancements. The same DR values were also found in Israel 3 and in the operational seeding. Therefore, because of the differences in the two experiments, the lack of access to the raw data and the disappointing results of the confirmatory experiment, we decided to concentrate our analysis on the more recent seeding activities. The attempt by BRG to explain the reduction of the DR to ~ 1.00 in the operational seeding period by the suppression due to pollution have been disproved by Alpert et al. (2008, 2009) and also fail to explain the sharp decline of the target/control ratio right at the beginning of the operational seeding period when

  17. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio; Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira; Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando

    2014-10-28

    direcionada como complemento diagnóstico ao exame físico em um serviço terciário de emergências clínicas. Métodos: Foram incluídos cem pacientes adultos sem doenças cardíacas ou pulmonares conhecidas que procuraram atendimento de urgência com queixas cardiológicas. Foram excluídos pacientes com alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma ou febre. A ecocardiografia direcionada foi realizada logo após a avaliação inicial do paciente na sala de emergência, com aparelho ultraportátil GE Vscan, avaliando subjetivamente: dimensões das cavidades, função sistólica ventricular, fluxos intracardíacos pelo mapeamento de fluxo em cores, pericárdio e aorta. Resultados: A idade média dos pacientes foi 61 ± 17 anos. O quadro clínico inicial foi dor torácica (52 pacientes), dispneia (32 pacientes), arritmia/avaliação da função ventricular (dez pacientes), hipotensão/tontura (cinco pacientes) e edema periférico (um paciente). Em 28 pacientes a ecocardiografia direcionada confirmou a hipótese diagnóstica inicial: 19 pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, cinco com síndrome coronariana aguda, dois com tromboembolismo pulmonar e dois com tamponamento cardíaco. Em 17 pacientes, a ecocardiografia direcionada alterou o diagnóstico, afastando a hipótese clínica inicial em dez casos com suspeita de insuficiência cardíaca, dois com suspeita de tromboembolismo pulmonar, dois com hipotensão a esclarecer, e em cada um dos três restantes com suspeitas de síndrome coronariana aguda, tamponamento cardíaco e dissecção de aorta. Conclusão: A ecocardiografia direcionada ultraportátil em serviço de emergências clínicas pode definir rapidamente o diagnóstico e, com isso, é possível iniciar mais precocemente o tratamento adequado. PMID:25352461

  18. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  19. A thermodynamic model for the prediction of phase equilibria and speciation in the H 2O-CO 2-NaCl-CaCO 3-CaSO 4 system from 0 to 250 °C, 1 to 1000 bar with NaCl concentrations up to halite saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Duan, Zhenhao

    2011-08-01

    A thermodynamic model is developed for the calculation of both phase and speciation equilibrium in the H 2O-CO 2-NaCl-CaCO 3-CaSO 4 system from 0 to 250 °C, and from 1 to 1000 bar with NaCl concentrations up to the saturation of halite. The vapor-liquid-solid (calcite, gypsum, anhydrite and halite) equilibrium together with the chemical equilibrium of H+,Na+,Ca, CaHCO3+,Ca(OH)+,OH-,Cl-, HCO3-,HSO4-,SO42-, CO32-,CO,CaCO and CaSO 4(aq) in the aqueous liquid phase as a function of temperature, pressure and salt concentrations can be calculated with accuracy close to the experimental results. Based on this model validated from experimental data, it can be seen that temperature, pressure and salinity all have significant effects on pH, alkalinity and speciations of aqueous solutions and on the solubility of calcite, halite, anhydrite and gypsum. The solubility of anhydrite and gypsum will decrease as temperature increases (e.g. the solubility will decrease by 90% from 360 K to 460 K). The increase of pressure may increase the solubility of sulphate minerals (e.g. gypsum solubility increases by about 20-40% from vapor pressure to 600 bar). Addition of NaCl to the solution may increase mineral solubility up to about 3 molality of NaCl, adding more NaCl beyond that may slightly decrease its solubility. Dissolved CO 2 in solution may decrease the solubility of minerals. The influence of dissolved calcite on the solubility of gypsum and anhydrite can be ignored, but dissolved gypsum or anhydrite has a big influence on the calcite solubility. Online calculation is made available on www.geochem-model.org/model.

  20. ftz evolution: findings, hypotheses and speculations (response to DOI 10.1002/bies.201100019).

    PubMed

    Heffer, Alison; Löhr, Ulrike; Pick, Leslie

    2011-12-01

    In a recent paper, Merabet and Hudry discuss models explaining the functional evolution of fushi tarazu (ftz) from an ancestral homeotic to a pair-rule segmentation gene in Drosophila. As most of the experimental work underlying these models comes from our research, we wish to reply to Merabet and Hudry providing an explanation of the experimental approaches and logical framework underlying them. We review experimental data that support our hypotheses and discuss misconceptions in the literature. We emphasize that the change in ftz function required changes in both expression pattern and protein function and review the evidence that these functional changes involved a switch in cofactor-interaction motifs during arthropod radiations. While agreeing with Merabet and Hudry that protein context likely contributes to Ftz function, we argue that until supporting evidence for alternative mechanisms is obtained, the role of cofactor-interaction motifs in driving a functional switch remains compelling. PMID:22113740

  1. 43 CFR 2.2 - What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... records under the FOIA? 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... release of records under the FOIA? It is our policy to make records of the Department available to the public consistent with the spirit of the FOIA and the Privacy Act....

  2. 43 CFR 2.2 - What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... records under the FOIA? 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... release of records under the FOIA? It is our policy to make records of the Department available to the public consistent with the spirit of the FOIA and the Privacy Act....

  3. Transient radiation-induced absorption in materials for the DOI laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannon, P. J.

    1994-11-01

    This is the final report on a series of experiments concerned with transient radiation-induced absorption in materials for a Cr,Nd:GSGG laser. Both the Sandia National Laboratories SPR III pulsed reactor and the Hermes III pulsed X-ray machine are used as radiation sources. The time dependence and the magnitude of the induced absorption in filter glasses and in doped and undoped LiNbO3 Q-switch materials have been measured. Gain has been observed in Cr,Nd:GSGG, the laser medium, when it is irradiated by X-rays.

  4. Transient radiation-induced absorption in materials for the DOI laser

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report on a series of experiments concerned with transient radiation-induced absorption in materials for a Cr,Nd:GSGG laser. Both the Sandia National Laboratories SPR III pulsed reactor and the Hermes III pulsed X-ray machine are used as radiation sources. The time dependence and the magnitude of the induced absorption in filter glasses and in doped and undoped LiNbO{sub 3} Q-switch materials have been measured. Gain has been observed in Cr,Nd:GSGG, the laser medium, when it is irradiated by X-rays.

  5. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... delivering gas to the power plant platform may be equipped with high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL), which... facilities shall be protected by high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL) to directly or indirectly shut in...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... delivering gas to the power plant platform may be equipped with high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL), which... facilities shall be protected by high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL) to directly or indirectly shut in...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... delivering gas to the power plant platform may be equipped with high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL), which... facilities shall be protected by high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL) to directly or indirectly shut in...

  8. System design of a small OpenPET prototype with 4-layer DOI detectors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouchi, Shoko; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed an OpenPET geometry which consists of two axially separated detector rings. The open gap is suitable for in-beam PET. We have developed the small prototype of the OpenPET especially for a proof of concept of in-beam imaging. This paper presents an overview of the main features implemented in this prototype. We also evaluated the detector performance. This prototype was designed with 2 detector rings having 8 depth-of-interaction detectors. Each detector consisted of 784 Lu(2x)Gd(2(1-x))SiO₅:Ce (LGSO) which were arranged in a 4-layer design, coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PS-PMT). The size of the LGSO array was smaller than the sensitive area of the PS-PMT, so that we could obtain sufficient LGSO identification. Peripheral LGSOs near the open gap directly detect the gamma rays on the side face in the OpenPET geometry. Output signals of two detectors stacked axially were projected onto one 2-dimensional position histogram for reduction of the scale of a coincidence processor. Front-end circuits were separated from the detector head by 1.2-m coaxial cables for the protection of electronic circuits from radiation damage. The detectors had sufficient crystal identification capability. Cross talk between the combined two detectors could be ignored. The timing and energy resolutions were 3.0 ns and 14%, respectively. The coincidence window was set 20 ns, because the timing histogram showed that not only the main peak, but also two small shifted peaks were caused by the coaxial cable. However, the detector offers the promise of sufficient performance, because random coincidences are at a nearly undetectable level for in-beam PET experiments. PMID:22124931

  9. Drilling and Testing the DOI041A Coalbed Methane Well, Fort Yukon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Arthur; Barker, Charles E.; Weeks, Edwin P.

    2009-01-01

    The need for affordable energy sources is acute in rural communities of Alaska where costly diesel fuel must be delivered by barge or plane for power generation. Additionally, the transport, transfer, and storage of fuel pose great difficulty in these regions. Although small-scale energy development in remote Arctic locations presents unique challenges, identifying and developing economic, local sources of energy remains a high priority for state and local government. Many areas in rural Alaska contain widespread coal resources that may contain significant amounts of coalbed methane (CBM) that, when extracted, could be used for power generation. However, in many of these areas, little is known concerning the properties that control CBM occurrence and production, including coal bed geometry, coalbed gas content and saturation, reservoir permeability and pressure, and water chemistry. Therefore, drilling and testing to collect these data are required to accurately assess the viability of CBM as a potential energy source in most locations. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Alaska Department of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), the Doyon Native Corporation, and the village of Fort Yukon, organized and funded the drilling of a well at Fort Yukon, Alaska to test coal beds for CBM developmental potential. Fort Yukon is a town of about 600 people and is composed mostly of Gwich'in Athabascan Native Americans. It is located near the center of the Yukon Flats Basin, approximately 145 mi northeast of Fairbanks.

  10. Substance use disorders and HIV in Vietnam since Doi Moi (Renovation): an overview.

    PubMed

    Giang, Le Minh; Ngoc, Lung Bich; Hoang, Vu Huy; Mulvey, Kevin; Rawson, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    Drawing from published and gray literature, this manuscript focuses on the following topics: (1) changing patterns of substance use and abuse in Vietnam since the early 1990s; (2) the roles of substance use in the HIV epidemic; (3) the responses of the Vietnamese government and other entities (both domestic and international) to substance use disorders (SUDs) and HIV; and (4) the current research capacity in Vietnam and ways in which furthering research in Vietnam could enrich our knowledge of the linkages between SUDs and HIV and of effective measures to reduce their public health consequences. A growing number of studies during the past two decades show dynamic and still evolving twin epidemics of SUDs and HIV in Vietnam, including a shift from consumption of opium to heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants, the concurrent use of drugs, and the increasing embrace by the government of internationally recognized effective responses (including harm reduction and methadone substitution therapy). And yet, remaining issues, such as the rapid ascendance of amphetamine-type stimulant use among the country's most vulnerable populations, the lack of effective integration of SUD and HIV services for HIV-infected drug users, and the reliance on international resources for maintaining quality services, among others, are posing challenges for building sustainable Vietnamese responses. Therefore, building local research and training capacity is a crucial foundation to meet these challenges. PMID:25278736

  11. Image properties of list mode likelihood reconstruction for a rectangular positron emission mammography with DOI measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jinyi; Klein, Gregory J.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2000-10-01

    A positron emission mammography scanner is under development at our Laboratory. The tomograph has a rectangular geometry consisting of four banks of detector modules. For each detector, the system can measure the depth of interaction information inside the crystal. The rectangular geometry leads to irregular radial and angular sampling and spatially variant sensitivity that are different from conventional PET systems. Therefore, it is of importance to study the image properties of the reconstructions. We adapted the theoretical analysis that we had developed for conventional PET systems to the list mode likelihood reconstruction for this tomograph. The local impulse response and covariance of the reconstruction can be easily computed using FFT. These theoretical results are also used with computer observer models to compute the signal-to-noise ratio for lesion detection. The analysis reveals the spatially variant resolution and noise properties of the list mode likelihood reconstruction. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with Monte Carlo results.

  12. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research.

    PubMed

    Swijghuisen Reigersberg, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths', University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper's aim is to raise awareness of the subject-specific needs of AHSS scholars to help inform the design of future digital tools for impact analysis in AHSS. Firstly, I shall explore the definition of research data and how it is currently understood by AHSS researchers. I will show why many researchers choose not to engage with digital dissemination techniques and ORCID. This discussion must necessarily include the idea that practice-based and applied AHSS research are processes which are not easily captured in numerical 'sets' and cannot be labelled electronically without giving careful consideration to what a group or data item 'represents' as part of the academic enquiry, and therefore how it should be cited and analysed as part of any impact assessment. Then, the paper will explore: the role of the monograph and arts catalogue in AHSS scholarship; how citation practices and digital impact measurement in AHSS currently operate in relation to authorship and how digital identifiers may hypothetically impact on metrics, intellectual property (IP), copyright and research integrity issues in AHSS. I will also show that, if we are to be truly interdisciplinary, as research funders and strategic thinkers say we should, it is necessary to revise the way we think about digital research dissemination. This will involve breaking down the boundaries between AHSS and other types of research. PMID:26236470

  13. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Swijghuisen Reigersberg, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths’, University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper’s aim is to raise awareness of the subject-specific needs of AHSS scholars to help inform the design of future digital tools for impact analysis in AHSS. Firstly, I shall explore the definition of research data and how it is currently understood by AHSS researchers. I will show why many researchers choose not to engage with digital dissemination techniques and ORCID. This discussion must necessarily include the idea that practice-based and applied AHSS research are processes which are not easily captured in numerical ‘sets’ and cannot be labelled electronically without giving careful consideration to what a group or data item ‘represents’ as part of the academic enquiry, and therefore how it should be cited and analysed as part of any impact assessment. Then, the paper will explore: the role of the monograph and arts catalogue in AHSS scholarship; how citation practices and digital impact measurement in AHSS currently operate in relation to authorship and how digital identifiers may hypothetically impact on metrics, intellectual property (IP), copyright and research integrity issues in AHSS. I will also show that, if we are to be truly interdisciplinary, as research funders and strategic thinkers say we should, it is necessary to revise the way we think about digital research dissemination. This will involve breaking down the boundaries between AHSS and other types of research. PMID:26236470

  14. Correction to: Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2015;18(2);59-71 DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0343.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In the February 2015 issue of Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking (vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 59–71), the article "Association Between Pornography Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adult Consumers: A Systematic Review," by Emily L. Harkness et al., the second author's name was displayed as "Barbara M. Mullan;" however, the middle initial is incorrect. The authors wish to apologize for the error and Dr. Mullan would like to be cited without a middle initial simply as "B Mullan." PMID:26544786

  15. Multicellularity arose several times in the evolution of eukaryotes (response to DOI 10.1002/bies.201100187).

    PubMed

    Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Lahr, Daniel J G

    2013-04-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium has cell-cell connections similar in structure, function, and underlying molecular mechanisms to animal epithelial cells. These similarities form the basis for the proposal that multicellularity is ancestral to the clade containing animals, fungi, and Amoebozoa (including Dictyostelium): Amorphea (formerly "unikonts"). This hypothesis is intriguing and if true could precipitate a paradigm shift. However, phylogenetic analyses of two key genes reveal patterns inconsistent with a single origin of multicellularity. A single origin in Amorphea would also require loss of multicellularity in each of the many unicellular lineages within this clade. Further, there are numerous other origins of multicellularity within eukaryotes, including three within Amorphea, that are not characterized by these structural and mechanistic similarities. Instead, convergent evolution resulting from similar selective pressures for forming multicellular structures with motile and differentiated cells is the most likely explanation for the observed similarities between animal and dictyostelid cell-cell connections. PMID:23315654

  16. Process Evaluation of a School-Based Weight Gain Prevention Program: The Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, A. S.; Chinapaw, M. J. M.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain among Dutch…

  17. Educational and Social Development in Doi Ang Khang: A Comparative Study of the Khob Dong and Nor Lae Villages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Timothy; Gray, Lauren; Lake, John; Roy, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Northern Thailand is home to many hill tribes, who have lived for hundreds of years as subsistence farmers or nomadic hunters. In the 1940s, communist insurgencies drove many hill tribes from China, Burma, and other nations south into northern Thailand. Uprooted from their native lands, the hill tribes left behind ties to economic resources and,…

  18. Linking to Journal Articles in an Online Teaching Environment: The Persistent Link, DOI, and OpenURL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Marc; Tyler, James

    2004-01-01

    The growing availability of online journal literature and the license agreements that make such literature useable in an academic environment present educators opportunities for using journal articles in online teaching. The use of online journal articles avoids logistical challenges associated with the use of printed copies of journal articles,…

  19. Restoring the Great Lakes: DOI stories of success and partnership in implementing the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Park Service; U.S. Geological Survey; Bureau of Indian Affairs

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a monumentally unique national treasure containing nearly ninety-five percent of the United States' fresh surface water. Formed by receding glaciers, the Great Lakes support a thriving, resilient ecosystem rich with fish, wildlife, and abundant natural resources. The Great Lakes also support an array of commercial uses, including shipping, and provide a source of recreation, drinking water, and other critical services that drive the economy of the region and the Nation. Regrettably, activities such as clear cutting of mature forests, over-harvesting of fish populations, industrial pollution, invasive species, and agricultural runoffs have degraded these treasured lakes over the decades creating long-term impacts to the surrounding watershed. Fortunately, the people who live, work, and recreate in the region recognize the critical importance of a healthy Great Lakes ecosystem, and have come together to support comprehensive restoration. To stimulate and promote the goal of a healthy Great Lakes region, President Obama and Congress created the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) in 2009. This program provides the seed money to clean up legacy pollution, restore habitats, protect wildlife, combat invasive species, and address agricultural runoff in the Great Lakes watershed. At the same time GLRI promotes public outreach, education, accountability, and partnerships.

  20. Materials Data on CaSO4 (SG:63) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF CASO4 FORMED BY REACTION OF CAO AND SO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The injection of calcium-based sorbents into coal-fired boilers for reaction with, and reduction in the levels of, sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the flue gas has undergone considerable research and development. Significant effort has also been made in developing models for the overall ...

  2. Etologia aplicada al manejo de especies amenazadas: el caso del turon de patas negras (Mustela nigripes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, A.; Biggins, D.; Miller, B.

    1999-01-01

    de esta especie de un modo más eficaz y rentable. Black-footed ferrets are considered one of the world's most endangered mammals. The last wild population was discovered in 1981 in Meteetsee, Wyoming, and, in 1985 it collapsed due to an epizootic of canine distemper in combination with sylvatic plague. Prior to the extinction of the last remnant population, 18 wild black-footed ferrets were captured to initiate captive propagation efforts. Captive breeding has been successful and, during the last 11 years, more than 2600 black-footed ferrets have been born in captive breeding centers. Since 1991, approximately 870 ferrets have been reintroduced in 5 areas located within the ferret's original geographic distribution, including sites in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Arizona. Scientific research has been, and continues to be, a critical tool to direct recovery efforts. Studies in applied ethology conducted on captive and reintroduced ferret populations have demonstrated that a naturalistic captive environment, particularly during early developmental periods, enhances the expression of behaviors necessary for survival in nature. Ferrets raised in a naturalistic environment develop better predatory skills, are able to recognize prairie dog burrows as a home and shelter from predators, and are more physically fit. Results from these studies have been adapted into management strategies to help implement a more cost-effective road to black-footed ferret recovery.

  3. Very deep traps in Al 2O 3 and CaSO 4 : Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portal, Guy; Lorrain, Serge; Valladas, Georges

    1980-09-01

    In dosimetry, empty traps were generally used at temperatures lower than 350°C. On account of the difficulties due to the black body emission, very few searchers have studied traps stimulated at higher temperatures [1,5]. The present work deals with the study of energetic levels stimulated at temperatures higher than 500°C. These levels have the advantage of being very stable even at conservation temperatures near 350°C.

  4. Acentos, Tildes, Casas, Cosas, Casos, Cosos? (Accents, Tildes, [Punctuation, and Spelling Accuracy]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabri Diaz, Victor

    1972-01-01

    Correct spelling, punctuation marks, and spelling accents must be taught in the beginning Spanish course. Accent marks make a difference in the interpretation of the written word. Rules govern the placing of exclamation and question marks and make up an integral part of written Spanish. Teachers have a duty and a responsibility to teach these…

  5. Materials Data on CaSO4 (SG:180) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Uma comparação entre técnicas de propagação de erros em astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, A. H.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Recentemente Dhillon & Watson (2001) criticaram o procedimento de determinação de erros via simulações de Monte Carlo no caso do imageamento indireto de estrelas, por introduzir ruído nos dados e resultar em erros superestimados. Estes autores propuseram a utilização alternativa do método de Bootstrap como uma técnica superior para a estimativa de erros. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados de um estudo comparativo da performance das técnicas de simulação por Monte Carlo e por Bootstrap para a determinação de erros em duas situações de interesse: (i) ajuste de modelos a espectros observados e (ii) imageamento indireto de discos de acréscimo com técnicas de mapeamento por eclipse. No caso (i), os dados de entrada são espectros de emissão simples de hidrogênio aos quais é adicionado ruído gaussiano de amplitude selecionada. No caso (ii), são produzidas curvas de luz do eclipse de uma distribuição de brilho seguindo a lei TµR-3/4 para discos estacionários cuja taxa de acréscimo varia ao longo do eclipse segundo uma distribuição gaussiana de amplitude selecionada, simulando o ruído. A avaliação da performance é feita com o auxílio de um diagrama do erro relativo na grandeza ajustada, conforme obtido por cada método, versus o erro relativo (ruído/sinal) dos dados de entrada. O estudo mostra que as duas técnicas produzem resultados semelhantes nos dois casos, e que a suposta superioridade do método de Bootstrap não se confirma.

  7. Entre dois mundos: vida quotidiana de criancas portuguesas na america [Between Two Worlds: The Daily Life of Portuguese Children in America].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Meneses, Fernando

    This Portuguese reader with accompanying teacher's guide describes the culture shock that Portuguese children and their families face when they immigrate to North America. The reader is divided into 75 short stories about the families that come from the rural areas of Portugal where there has been little industrialization. The purpose of the…

  8. Erratum to "Stratospheric aerosols on Jupiter from Cassini observations" [Icarus 226 (1) (2013) 159-171 doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.05.020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; West, R. A.; Banfield, D.; Yung, Y. L.

    2016-03-01

    Zhang et al. (2013) incorrectly calculated the number density and column density of fractal aggregates at middle and high latitudes in the Jovian stratosphere. In Zhang et al. (2013), the number density was post-analyzed based on the retrieved optical depth and retrieved particle cross-section. Although the retrieved quantities were correct, Zhang et al. (2013) accidentally used the low latitude particle information (Mie particle of ∼0.3 μm) for the middle and high latitudes where the fractal aggregates are composed of ∼1000 10-nm size monomers in the nominal case. The extinction cross section of a fractal aggregate particle is roughly a factor of 10 less than that of the Mie particles. Therefore, the number density and column density for middle and high latitude particles derived in Zhang et al. (2013) were underestimated by a factor of ∼10. However, the calculated mass loading was approximately correct because the mass of a fractal aggregate particle was overestimated by about a factor of 10 for the same reason. Here we provide some revised texts, a revised Table 3 for column density and a revised Fig. 12 for number density. No other changes are needed.

  9. Errata Corrige. Orthostatic Reactivity in Patients with Ischemic Stroke in the Chronic Period. http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2015.090

    PubMed Central

    Vasileva, Danche; Lubenova, Daniela; Mihova, Marija; Grigorova-Petrova, Kristin; Dimitrova, Antoaneta

    2015-01-01

    AIM: This study aims to trace the influence of specialized kinesitherapeutic methodology (SKTM) on orthostatic reactivity in patients with ischemic stroke in the chronic period (ISChP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: An active orthostatic test is used for the evaluation of the orthostatic reactions. The arterial blood pressure and heart rate were defined in the 10 minutes of supine position, before and after 1, 5 and 10 minutes of active upright position. The orthostatic autoregulation is evaluated four times - at the beginning of the study, on the 10th day, on the 1st month and three months after the start of the KT. The classification by Thulesius was used to separate the patients into two groups depending on the type of their orthostatic reactivity. RESULTS: At the beginning of the study of infringements symptomatic type orthostatic reactivity (SOR) was observed in 24 patients and hypertensive type orthostatic reactivity (HOR) was observed in the remaining 32 patients. Once applied SKTM establish improvement of orthostatic autoregulation for the groups SOR and HOR at the 10th day and the 1st month with a level of significance p <0.05. CONCLUSION: The applied specialized kinesitherapeutic methodology continued later as an adapted exercise program at home, has significantly improved the orthostatic reactivity in patients with orthostatic dysregulation due to the ISChP.

  10. DNA-aptamer gating membranes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc09660f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Özalp, Veli Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a membrane barrier whose permeability is modulated through the recognition of a small-molecule target, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), by a DNA-aptamer. The gating function of the DNA-aptamer in the stimulus-responsive membrane was shown to be specific, concentration dependent, and reversible. PMID:25633657

  11. "How Should I Know What Scientists Do?--I Am Just a Kid": Fourth-Grade Students' Conceptions of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore elementary students' views of (NOS) to see how well they align with national reform recommendations (AAAS, 1993; NRC, 1996). Using an open-ended questionnaire coupled with one-on-one interviews of fourth-grade students conducted at the end of the school year, the researchers explored students' understandings…

  12. Comment of "Event-based soil loss models for construction sites" by Trenouth and Gharabaghi, J. Hydrol. doi: 10.1016/jhydrol.2015.03.010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnell, P. I. A.

    2015-09-01

    Trenouth and Gharabaghi (2015) present two models which replace the EI30 index used as the event erosivity index in the USLE/RUSLE with ones that include runoff and values of EI30 to powers that differ for 1.0 as the event erosivity factor in modelling soil loss for construction sites. Their analysis on the application of these models focused on data from 5 locations as a whole but did not show how the models worked at each location. Practically, the ability to predict sediment yields at a specific location is more relevant than the capacity of a model to predict sediment yields globally. Also, the mathematical structure of their proposed models shows little regard to the physical processes involved in causing erosion and sediment yield. There is still the need to develop event-based empirical models for construction sites that are robust because they give proper consideration to the erosion process involved, and take account of the fact that sediment yield is usually determined from measurements of suspended load whereas soil loss at the scale for which the USLE/RUSLE model was developed includes both suspended load and bed load.

  13. Reconstructing historical habitat data with predictive models Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/13-0327.1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zweig, Christa L.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2014-01-01

    Historical vegetation data are important to ecological studies, as many structuring processes operate at long time scales, from decades to centuries. Capturing the pattern of variability within a system (enough to declare a significant change from past to present) relies on correct assumptions about the temporal scale of the processes involved. Sufficient long-term data are often lacking, and current techniques have their weaknesses. To address this concern, we constructed multistate and artificial neural network models (ANN) to provide fore- and hindcast vegetation communities considered critical foraging habitat for an endangered bird, the Florida Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis). Multistate models were not able to hindcast due to our data not satisfying a detailed balance requirement for time reversibility in Markovian dynamics. Multistate models were useful for forecasting and providing environmental variables for the ANN. Results from our ANN hindcast closely mirrored the population collapse of the Snail Kite population using only environmental data to inform the model. The parallel between the two gives us confidence in the hindcasting results and their use in future demographic models.

  14. Review on measurement techniques of transport properties of nanowires Additions and Corrections. See DOI:10.1039/C3NR03242F Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Miguel Muñoz; Calero, Olga Caballero; Lopeandia, A. F.; Rodriguez-Viejo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties at the nanoscale are novel and different from those in bulk materials. Over the last few decades, there has been an ever growing interest in the fabrication of nanowire structures for a wide variety of applications including energy generation purposes. Nevertheless, the study of their transport properties, such as thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity or Seebeck coefficient, remains an experimental challenge. For instance, in the particular case of nanostructured thermoelectrics, theoretical calculations have shown that nanowires offer a promising way of enhancing the hitherto low efficiency of these materials in the conversion of temperature differences into electricity. Therefore, within the thermoelectrical community there has been a great experimental effort in the measurement of these quantities in actual nanowires. The measurements of these properties at the nanoscale are also of interest in fields other than energy, such as electrical components for microchips, field effect transistors, sensors, and other low scale devices. For all these applications, knowing the transport properties is mandatory. This review deals with the latest techniques developed to perform the measurement of these transport properties in nanowires. A thorough overview of the most important and modern techniques used for the characterization of different kinds of nanowires will be shown. PMID:24113712

  15. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    The study of gravitation constitutes an exceptional occasion to show the richness and complexity of science and technology, contemplating, among other things: the problematic situations which are at the heart of the scientific knowledge, the difficulties encountered in the construction of knowledge and, especially, the necessity of overcoming "common-sense evidence" that proclaimed the existence of an insurmountable barrier between Earth and Heavens, hindering scientific development during many centuries. In this paper we present a program of activities to orient the study of Gravitation atUpperHigh School, favoring students' participation in the reconstruction of this first scientific revolution and giving them the opportunity to see the importance of Astronomy both in the history of science and today. El estudio de la gravitación constituye una ocasión excepcional para mostrar la ciencia y la tecnología en toda su riqueza y complejidad, considerando, entre otros aspectos:

  16. Las situaciones problemáticas relevantes que llevaron a la construcción de los conocimientos,
  17. las dificultades de todo tipo con las que hubo que enfrentarse y, muy en particular,
  18. la necesidad de superar las "evidencias de sentido común" que establecían una supuesta barrera infranqueable entre la Tierray los Cielos y que obstaculizaron durante siglos el desarrollo científico.
  19. En este trabajo presentamos un programa de actividades para el estudio de la gravitación en la secundaria superior, orientado a favorecer la participación de los estudiantes, en alguna medida, en la reconstrucción de este proceso que constituyó la denominada primera gran revolución científica y asomándonos al estudio de una de las ciencias más antiguas, la Astronomía, que hoy sigue despertando gran interés. O estudo da gravitação constitui uma ocasião excepcional para mostrar a ciência e a tecnologia em toda sua riqueza e complexidade, considerando, entre outros aspectos: as situações problemáticas relevantes que levaram à construção dos conhecimentos, as dificuldades de todo tipo que se teve que enfrentar nessa construção e, muito em particular,a necessidade de se superar as "evidências do senso comum" que estabeleciam uma suposta barreira intransponível entre a Terra e os Céus e que foram um obstáculo durante séculos para o desenvolvimento científico. Neste trabalho apresentamos um programa de atividades para o estudo da gravitação nos últimos anos do ensino médio, orientado a favorecer a participação dos estudantes, em alguma medida, na reconstrução deste processo que constituiu a denominada primeira grande revolução científica e a nos aproximarmos do estudo de uma das ciências mais antigas, a Astronomia, que hoje continua despertando grande interesse.

  20. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Internet Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....doi.gov/foia/list.html 5. DOI FOIA Contacts: http://www.doi.gov/foia/contacts.html 6. DOI FOIA Regulations (43 CFR, Part 2, Subparts A and B): http://www.doi.gov/foia/foiaregs.html 7. DOI FOIA Policy and Guidance: http://www.doi.gov/foia/policy.html 8. Electronic Reading Room:...

  21. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Internet Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....doi.gov/foia/list.html 5. DOI FOIA Contacts: http://www.doi.gov/foia/contacts.html 6. DOI FOIA Regulations (43 CFR, Part 2, Subparts A and B): http://www.doi.gov/foia/foiaregs.html 7. DOI FOIA Policy and Guidance: http://www.doi.gov/foia/policy.html 8. Electronic Reading Room:...

  22. The Shiga Microalbuminuria Reduction Trial (SMART) Group. Reduction of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Shiga Microalbuminuria Reduction Trial (SMART). Diabetes Care 2007;30:1581-1583. DOI: 10.2337/dc06-2493. Erratum appears in Diabetes Care 2013;36:4172. DOI: 10.2337/dc13-er12.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Based on the review and recommendation of the American Diabetes Association's Subcommittee on Ethical Scientific Publications (ESP), Diabetes Care formally retracts the above-cited article. For reasons described below, the published data are considered to be unreliable. According to an investigation and analysis of the data conducted by Shiga University of Medical Science (report received 25 November 2013), 10.1% of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) data reported in the article did not match original patient records. In the valsartan and amlodipine groups, respectively, 12.5% and 8.1% of the ACR data reported in the article differed from patient records. Close examination of these differences showed that ACR values reported for the valsartan group were smaller, and those for the amlodipine group were larger, than values reported in patient records; these differences "worked to the advantage of valsartan." The investigative panel of Shiga University of Medical Science concluded that the above-cited article is "inappropriate for [a] scientific paper." PMID:24558079

  23. Heat capacities and entropies from 8 to 1000 K of langbeinite (K2Mg2(SO4)3), anhydrite (CaSO4) and of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.; Russell-Robinson, Susan; Hemingway, Bruce S.

    1989-01-01

    Although Bond (Bell Sys. Tech. J., 22 (1943) 145) reported that langbeinite was piezoelectric at room temperature, we found no evidence in our Cpo measurements for a Curie temperature above which langbeinite would no longer be piezoelectric.

  24. Síndrome de Poland. Presentacíon de un caso. [Poland's syndrome. A case report].

    PubMed

    Fernández González, A L; García Redondo, A; García Castro, A

    1990-01-01

    A case of Poland's syndrome in a 19-year-old male is briefly described. This syndrome is characterized by congenital absence of the pectoralis major and minor muscles as well as homolateral brachysyndactyly. The etiology is unknown. Surgical repair is aimed at constructing a functional hand. Chest deformities usually does not require surgery except in cases of lung herniation or breast hypoplasia. PMID:2096446

  1. POBREZA Y VULNERABILIDAD EN MÉXICO: EL CASO DE LOS JÓVENES QUE NO ESTUDIAN NI TRABAJAN*

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Mejía, Nelly; Pérez, Francisco; Rivera, Alfonso; Ramírez, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    La situación de los jóvenes que no estudian ni trabajan (ninis) se ha vuelto evidente en los últimos años debido a los riesgos que enfrenta dicha población. Este artículo contribuye a la literatura al analizar las características económicas y laborales de los ninis, explora la situación laboral de sus parejas y provee proyecciones al año 2030. Asimismo, propone una clasificación de ninis para focalizar el diseño de políticas públicas, que identifica una tendencia a la baja de éstos debido a las mujeres que acceden al sistema educativo y al mercado laboral y que una mayor proporción de esta población estará compuesta por desempleados. PMID:25918452

  2. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los des

  3. In vitro toxicological characterisation of arsenic-containing fatty acids and three of their metabolites† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tx00122f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, S.; Raber, G.; Ebert, F.; Leffers, L.; Müller, S. M.; Taleshi, M. S.; Francesconi, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic-containing fatty acids are a group of fat-soluble arsenic species (arsenolipids) which are present in marine fish and other seafood. Recently, it has been shown that arsenic-containing hydrocarbons, another group of arsenolipids, exert toxicity in similar concentrations comparable to arsenite although the toxic modes of action differ. Hence, a risk assessment of arsenolipids is urgently needed. In this study the cellular toxicity of a saturated (AsFA 362) and an unsaturated (AsFA 388) arsenic-containing fatty acid and three of their proposed metabolites (DMAV, DMAPr and thio-DMAPr) were investigated in human liver cells (HepG2). Even though both arsenic-containing fatty acids were less toxic as compared to arsenic-containing hydrocarbons and arsenite, significant effects were observable at μM concentrations. DMAV causes effects in a similar concentration range and it could be seen that it is metabolised to its highly toxic thio analogue thio-DMAV in HepG2 cells. Nevertheless, DMAPr and thio-DMAPr did not exert any cytotoxicity. In summary, our data indicate that risks to human health related to the presence of arsenic-containing fatty acids in marine food cannot be excluded. This stresses the need for a full in vitro and in vivo toxicological characterisation of these arsenolipids. PMID:26744620

  4. Towards a general growth model for graphene CVD on transition metal catalysts† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06873h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Caneva, Sabina; Hofmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene on three polycrystalline transition metal catalysts, Co, Ni and Cu, is systematically compared and a first-order growth model is proposed which can serve as a reference to optimize graphene growth on any elemental or alloy catalyst system. Simple thermodynamic considerations of carbon solubility are insufficient to capture even basic growth behaviour on these most commonly used catalyst materials, and it is shown that kinetic aspects such as carbon permeation have to be taken into account. Key CVD process parameters are discussed in this context and the results are anticipated to be highly useful for the design of future strategies for integrated graphene manufacture. PMID:26730836

  5. A computational study of the quantum transport properties of a Cu–CNT composite† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp01470k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Koziol, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The quantum transport properties of a Cu–CNT composite are studied using a non-equilibrium Green's function approach combined with the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method. The results show that the electrical conductance of the composite depends strongly on CNT density and alignment but more weakly on chirality. Alignment with the applied bias is preferred and the conductance of the composite increases as its mass density increases. PMID:26120607

  6. Comment on: Measurement of the force exerted on the surface of an object immersed in a plasma. Eur. Phys. J. D 69: 91 (2015), DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2015-50743-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tsankov, Tsanko V.

    2015-10-01

    Surfaces exposed to a plasma experience a certain pressure that pushes them away from the volume. This effect has been investigated experimentally in a recent article by Thomas Trottenberg, Thomas Richter, and Holger Kersten from Kiel University/Germany [Eur. Phys. J. D 69, 91 (2015)]. The experimental results are impressive and have actually drawn the attention of the community to an interesting question which so far has been largely ignored. In addition to their experimental results the Kiel group proposes also a rough concept in order to explain their findings which provides certainly a basic qualitative understanding of the physical processes involved. However, on a closer inspection the picture developed so far is not entirely satisfying and the problem seems to require a more fundamental approach. This comment shows that the effect of the wall pressure can be described exactly using only analytical methods. The physical situation is analyzed by three different approaches. First, the simple case of only one spatial dimension is presented in detail. Second, the case of spherical symmetry is analyzed by some simplifying assumptions in order to investigate the effect of higher dimensionality. Third, a formal derivation for arbitrary geometry is given. This general result includes the one-dimensional case but does not allow a convenient connection between the pressures at the wall and in the center. Finally, the results are summarized and some conclusions are drawn.

  7. Tuning the nitric oxide release from CPO-27 MOFs† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra24023a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Damiano; Duncan, Morven J.; Kelsall, Christopher J.; Doherty, Mary K.; Whitfield, Phillip D.; Megson, Ian L.; Morris, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) storage and release measurements have been recorded for Ni-doped CPO-27 (Mg) and CPO-27 (Zn), and the biological effect of the released NO was assessed in porcine coronary artery relaxation tests. The results indicate that the doping strategy leads to increased levels of NO storage and delivery compared to the parent materials and that the NO dosage and biological response can be tuned via this approach to suit the requirements of particular applications. PMID:27019705

  8. Triplet–triplet annihilation upconversion followed by FRET for the red light activation of a photodissociative ruthenium complex in liposomes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp04352b

    PubMed Central

    Askes, Sven H. C.; Kloz, Miroslav; Bruylants, Gilles; Kennis, John T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Upconversion is a promising way to trigger high-energy photochemistry with low-energy photons. However, combining upconversion schemes with non-radiative energy transfer is challenging because bringing several photochemically active components in close proximity results in complex multi-component systems where quenching processes may deactivate the whole assembly. In this work, PEGylated liposomes were prepared that contained three photoactive components: a porphyrin dye absorbing red light, a perylene moiety emitting in the blue, and a light-activatable ruthenium prodrug sensitive to blue light. Time-dependent spectroscopic studies demonstrate that singlet perylene excited states are non-radiatively transferred to the nearby ruthenium complex by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Under red-light irradiation of the three-component membranes, triplet–triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) occurs followed by FRET, which results in a more efficient activation of the ruthenium prodrug compared to a physical mixture of two-component upconverting liposomes and liposomes containing only the ruthenium complex. This work represents a rare example where TTA-UC and Förster resonance energy transfer are combined to achieve prodrug activation in the phototherapeutic window. PMID:26420663

  9. Photoactive rolled-up TiO2 microtubes: fabrication, characterization and applications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tc00796d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Marz, Sonja M.; Soler, Lluís; Madani, Abbas; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    Because of its unique properties, titania (TiO2) represents a promising candidate in a wide variety of research fields. In this paper, some of the properties and potential applications of titania within rolled-up nanotechnology are explored. It is shown how the structural and optical properties of rolled titania microtubes can be controlled by properly tuning the microfabrication parameters. The rolling up of titania films on different sacrificial layers and containing different shapes, achieving a control on the diameter of the fabricated titania microtubes, is presented. In order to obtain the more photoactive crystalline form of titania, one during-fabrication and two post-fabrication methods are demonstrated. Interesting applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photonics are suggested: the use of titania rolled-up microtubes as micromotors and optical microresonators is presented. PMID:25580249

  10. Comment on: Ab initio calculations of B2 type RHg (R = Ce,Pr,Eu and Gd) intermetallic compounds. Eur. Phys. J. B 87, 268 (2014), DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2014-50521-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Salah

    2016-02-01

    In a recent article by Devi et al. [Eur. Phys. J. B 87, 268 (2014)], the structural, electronic, elastic and some thermal properties of B2 type RHg (R = Ce, Pr, Eu and Gd) intermetallic compounds have been studied by ab initio calculations. After the study of their article I found that there are some mistakes in predicted crystal density, longitudinal, transverse and average elastic wave velocities, and Debye temperature data. The crystal density has been found multiplied per 4. Also the longitudinal, transverse and average elastic wave velocities and Debye temperature are different from my reexamined values (all results represented by Devi et al. have been found divided per 2). Although these small mistakes do not influence their conclusion, it is better to correct them. In the present work, I reexamined all data again by using the right formulas, based on the lattice parameters and the elastic constants obtained in the work of Devi et al.

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of d-α-amino amides from aliphatic aldehydes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00064e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schwieter, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Peptides consisting of d-amino amides are highly represented among both biologically active natural products and non-natural small molecules used in therapeutic development. Chemical synthesis of d-amino amides most often involves approaches based on enzymatic resolution or fractional recrystallization of their diastereomeric amino acid salt precursors, techniques that produce an equal amount of the l-amino acid. Enantioselective synthesis, however, promises selective and general access to a specific α-amino amide, and may enable efficient peptide synthesis regardless of the availability of the corresponding α-amino acid. This report describes the use of a cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed aza-Henry reaction using bromonitromethane, and the integration of its product with umpolung amide synthesis. The result is a straightforward 3-step protocol beginning from aliphatic aldehydes that provides homologated peptides bearing an aliphatic side chain at the resulting d-α-amino amide. PMID:25838883

  12. Local dynamic mechanical analysis for heterogeneous soft matter using ferrule-top indentation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sm00300a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A.; Koenderink, Gijsje H.

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong demand for nanoindentation methods to probe the heterogeneous viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. Important applications include diagnosis of early onset diseases such as arthritis and investigations into cellular mechanoresponse in tissue. Quantification of tissue mechanics at length and time scales relevant to biological processes, however, remains a technical challenge. Here, we present a new nanoindentation approach that is ideally suited to probe the viscoelastic properties of soft, hydrated tissues. We built a ferrule-top probe that uses wavelength modulation in a Fabry–Pérot cavity configuration to detect cantilever deflection and to drive a feedback-controlled piezoelectric actuator. This technique allows us to control the static load applied onto the sample using an all-optical mm-sized probe. We extract the local elastic and viscous moduli of the samples by superposing a small oscillatory load and recording the indentation depth at the frequency of oscillation. By using a set of silicone elastomers with a range of stiffnesses representative of biological tissues, we demonstrate that the technique can accurately determine moduli over a wide range (0.1–100 kPa) and over a frequency range of 0.01–10 Hz. Direct comparison with macroscopic rheology measurements yields excellent quantitative agreement, without any fitting parameters. Finally, we show how this method can provide a spatially-resolved map of large variations in mechanical properties (orders of magnitude) across the surface of soft samples thanks to high sensitivity over large (>μm) cantilever deflections. This approach paves the way to investigations into the local dynamic mechanical properties of biological soft matter. PMID:26908197

  13. Supramolecular copolymers with stimuli-responsive sequence control† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06951c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Albertazzi, Lorenzo; van der Veeken, Nick; Baker, Matthew B.; Palmans, Anja R. A.

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel responsive supramolecular copolymer able to change its monomer sequence as a result of molecular stimuli. Nucleic acids and RNAse are used as molecular inputs, controlling the clustering of specific monomers along the polymer backbone. This opens new ways towards the molecular control of synthetic supramolecular networks. PMID:26390385

  14. Synthesis of highly functionalized oligobenzamide proteomimetic foldamers by late stage introduction of sensitive groups† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ob00078a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Burslem, George M.; Kyle, Hannah F.; Prabhakaran, Panchami; Breeze, Alexander L.; Edwards, Thomas A.; Warriner, Stuart L.; Nelson, Adam

    2016-01-01

    α-Helix proteomimetics represent an emerging class of ligands that can be used to inhibit an array of helix mediated protein–protein interactions. Within this class of inhibitor, aromatic oligobenzamide foldamers have been widely and successfully used. This manuscript describes alternative syntheses of these compounds that can be used to access mimetics that are challenging to synthesize using previously described methodologies, permitting access to compounds functionalized with multiple sensitive side chains and accelerated library assembly through late stage derivatisation. PMID:27005701

  15. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01234h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman M.; Cingolani, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment – where particles are abundantly internalized – is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a “lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect” since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments. PMID:24842463

  16. Efficient bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells through disorder by design† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta10091g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Muñoz, José M.; Carretero-Palacios, Sol; Jiménez-Solano, Alberto; Li, Yuelong; Lozano, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Herein we realize an optical design that optimizes the performance of bifacial solar cells without modifying any of the usually employed components. In order to do so, dielectric scatterers of controlled size and shape have been successfully integrated in the working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), resulting in bifacial devices of outstanding performance. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 6.7% and 5.4% have been attained under front and rear illumination, respectively, which represent a 25% and a 33% PCE enhancement with respect to an 8 μm-thick standard solar cell electrode using platinum as the catalytic material. The remarkable bifacial character of our approach is demonstrated by the high rear/front efficiency ratio attained, around 80%, which is among the largest reported for this sort of device. The proposed optimized design is based on a Monte Carlo approach in which the multiple scattering of light within the cell is fully accounted for. We identified that the spherical shape of the scatterers is the key parameter controlling the angular distribution of the scattering, the most efficient devices being those in which the inclusions provide a narrow forward-oriented angular distribution of the scattered light. PMID:27019714

  17. Trienamine catalyzed asymmetric synthesis and biological investigation of a cytochalasin B-inspired compound collection† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob02272j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sellstedt, Magnus; Schwalfenberg, Melanie; Ziegler, Slava; Antonchick, Andrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their enhanced metabolic needs many cancers need a sufficient supply of glucose, and novel inhibitors of glucose import are in high demand. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a potent natural glucose import inhibitor which also impairs the actin cytoskeleton leading to undesired toxicity. With a view to identifying selective glucose import inhibitors we have developed an enantioselective trienamine catalyzed synthesis of a CB-inspired compound collection. Biological analysis revealed that indeed actin impairment can be distinguished from glucose import inhibition and led to the identification of the first selective glucose import inhibitor based on the basic structural architecture of cytochalasin B. PMID:26606903

  18. Design of thiol–ene photoclick hydrogels using facile techniques for cell culture applications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4bm00187g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Thiol–ene ‘click’ chemistries have been widely used in biomaterials applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and controlled cell culture, owing to their rapid, cytocompatible, and often orthogonal reactivity. In particular, hydrogel-based biomaterials formed by photoinitiated thiol–ene reactions afford spatiotemporal control over the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the network for creating synthetic materials that mimic the extracellular matrix or enable controlled drug release. However, the use of charged peptides functionalized with cysteines, which can form disulfides prior to reaction, and vinyl monomers that require multistep syntheses and contain ester bonds, may lead to undesired inhomogeneity or degradation under cell culture conditions. Here, we designed a thiol–ene hydrogel formed by the reaction of allyloxycarbonyl-functionalized peptides and thiol-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol). Hydrogels were polymerized by free radical initiation under cytocompatible doses of long wavelength ultraviolet light in the presence of water-soluble photoinitiators (lithium acylphosphinate, LAP, and 2-hydroxy-1-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)phenyl]-2-methyl-1-propanone, Irgacure 2959). Mechanical properties of these hydrogels were controlled by varying the monomer concentration to mimic a range of soft tissue environments, and hydrogel stability in cell culture medium was observed over weeks. Patterns of biochemical cues were created within the hydrogels post-formation and confirmed through the incorporation of fluorescently-labeled peptides and Ellman's assay to detect free thiols. Human mesenchymal stem cells remained viable after encapsulation and subsequent photopatterning, demonstrating the utility of the monomers and hydrogels for three-dimensional cell culture. This facile approach enables the formation and characterization of hydrogels with well-defined, spatially-specific properties and expands the suite of monomers available for three-dimensional cell culture and other biological applications. PMID:25717375

  19. Oxidative dearomatisation: the key step of sorbicillinoid biosynthesis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Containing all experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c3sc52911h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Fahad, Ahmed al; Abood, Amira; Fisch, Katja M.; Osipow, Anna; Davison, Jack; Avramović, Marija; Butts, Craig P.; Piel, Jörn; Simpson, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    An FAD-dependent monooxygenase encoding gene (SorbC) was cloned from Penicillium chrysogenum E01-10/3 and expressed as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli. The enzyme efficiently performed the oxidative dearomatisation of sorbicillin and dihydrosorbicillin to give sorbicillinol and dihydrosorbicillinol respectively. Bioinformatic examination of the gene cluster surrounding SorbC indicated the presence of two polyketide synthase (PKS) encoding genes designated sorbA and sorbB. The gene sorbA-encodes a highly reducing iterative PKS while SorbB encodes a non-reducing iterative PKS which features a reductive release domain usually involved in the production of polyketide aldehydes. Using these observations and previously reported results from isotopic feeding experiments a new and simpler biosynthetic route to the sorbicillin class of secondary metabolites is proposed which is consistent with all reported experimental results. PMID:25580210

  20. The use of the Rx spin label in orientation measurement on proteins, by EPR† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp04753f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, M. A.; McKay, J. E.; Robinson, J. L. S.; EL Mkami, H.; Smith, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    The bipedal spin label Rx is more restricted in its conformation and dynamics than its monopodal counterpart R1. To systematically investigate the utility of the Rx label, we have attempted to comprehensively survey the attachment of Rx to protein secondary structures. We have examined the formation, structure and dynamics of the spin label in relation to the underlying protein in order to determine feasibility and optimum conditions for distance and orientation measurement by pulsed EPR. The labeled proteins have been studied using molecular dynamics, CW EPR, pulsed EPR distance measurement at X-band and orientation measurement at W-band. The utility of different modes and positions of attachment have been compared and contrasted. PMID:26426572

  1. Reply to the 'Comment on "Observation of mutual diffusion of macromolecules in PS/PMMA binary films by confocal Raman microscopy"' by J. Pablo Tomba, Soft Matter, 2016, 12, DOI: 10.1039/C5SM02735G.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenglong; Chen, Xudong; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Weihong; Zhang, Ming Qiu

    2016-05-18

    We greatly appreciate Tomba's valuable comments on our paper appearing in Soft Matter (2012, 8, 4780). Our responses are listed below to provide additional information for academic discussion. PMID:27158701

  2. Graphene-oxide-supported ultrathin Au nanowires: efficient electrocatalysts for borohydride oxidation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06705g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leelavathi, Annamalai; Ahmad, Rafia; Singh, Abhishek K.; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    We report stable ultrathin Au nanowires supported on reduced graphene oxide with outstanding electrocatalytic activity for borohydride oxidation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed abnormal inductive behavior, indicative of surface reactivation. DFT calculations indicate that the origin of the high activity stems from the position of the Au d-band center. PMID:26439584

  3. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06850a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer–metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography. PMID:26612770

  4. Implications of discontinuous elevation gradients on fragmentation and restoration in patterned wetlands Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/ES11-00119.1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zweig, Christa L.; Reichert, Brian E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2011-01-01

    Large wetlands around the world face the possibility of degradation, not only from complete conversion, but also from subtle changes in their structure and function. While fragmentation and isolation of wetlands within heterogeneous landscapes has received much attention, the disruption of spatial patterns/processes within large wetland systems and the resulting fragmentation of community components are less well documented. A greater understanding of pattern/process relationships and landscape gradients, and what occurs when they are altered, could help avoid undesirable consequences of restoration actions. The objective of this study is to determine the amount of fragmentation of sawgrass ridges due to artificial impoundment of water and how that may be differentially affected by spatial position relative to north and south levees. We also introduce groundbreaking evidence of landscape-level discontinuous elevation gradients within WCA3AS by comparing generalized linear and generalized additive models. These relatively abrupt breaks in elevation may have non-linear effects on hydrology and vegetation communities and would be crucial in restoration considerations. Modeling suggests there are abrupt breaks in elevation as a function of northing (Y-coordinate). Fragmentation indices indicate that fragmentation is a function of elevation and easting (X-coordinate), and that fragmentation has increased from 1988-2002. When landscapes change and the changes are compounded by non-linear landscape variables that are described herein, the maintenance processes change with them, creating a degraded feedback loop that alters the system's response to structuring variables and diminishes our ability to predict the effects of restoration projects or climate change. Only when these landscape variables and linkages are clearly defined can we predict the response to potential perturbations and apply the knowledge to other landscape-level wetland systems in need of future restoration.

  5. Metal organic framework synthesis in the presence of surfactants: towards hierarchical MOFs?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ce02324b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Dikhtiarenko, A.; Mayoral, A.; Tellez, C.; Coronas, J.; Kapteijn, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of synthesis pH and H2O/EtOH molar ratio on the textural properties of different aluminium trimesate metal organic frameworks (MOFs) prepared in the presence of the well-known cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 120 °C was studied with the purpose of obtaining a MOF with hierarchical pore structure. Depending on the pH and the solvent used, different topologies were obtained (namely, MIL-96, MIL-100 and MIL-110). On the one hand, MIL-110 was obtained at lower temperatures than those commonly reported in the literature and without additives to control the pH; on the other hand, MIL-100 with crystallite sizes as small as 30 ± 10 nm could be easily synthesized in a mixture of H2O and EtOH with a H2O/EtOH molar ratio of 3.4 at pH 2.6 in the presence of CTAB. The resulting material displays a hierarchical porosity that combines the microporosity from the MOF and the non-ordered mesopores defined in between the MOF nanoparticles. Interestingly, the maximum of the pore size distribution could be varied between 3 and 33 nm. Finally, at pH 2.5 and using water as a solvent, platelets of MIL-96, a morphology never observed before for this MOF, were synthesized with a (001) preferential crystal orientation, the (001) plane running parallel to the bipyramidal cages of the MIL-96 topology. PMID:26246799

  6. Erratum: Water Science and Technology 72 (7): Development of a new wastewater treatment process for resource recovery of carotenoids, H. Sato, H. Nagare, T. N. C. Huynh and H. Komatsu, doi: 10.2166/wst.2015.330.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A new wastewater treatment process that involves coagulation, ozonation, and microalgae cultivation has been developed. Here, two challenges are discussed. The first was minimizing phosphorus removal during coagulation in order to maximize algal production. The second was to optimize microalgae cultivation; algal species that grow rapidly and produce valuable products are ideal for selection. Haematococcus pluvialis, which produces the carotenoid astaxanthin, was used. Growth rate, nutrient removal ability, and astaxanthin production of H. pluvialis in coagulated wastewater were investigated. After coagulation with chitosan, the turbidity and suspended solids decreased by 89% ± 8% and 73% ± 16%, respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the supernatant remained at 86% ± 6% and 67% ± 24%, respectively. These results indicate that coagulation with chitosan can remove turbidity and SS while preserving nutrients. H. pluvialis grew well in the supernatant of coagulated wastewater. The astaxanthin yield from coagulated wastewater in which microalgae were cultured was 3.26 mg/L, and total phosphorus and nitrogen contents decreased 99% ± 1% and 90% ± 8% (Days 31-35), respectively. PMID:27508383

  7. Photoluminescence enhancement of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer transfer† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05163k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Manuel; Zakharko, Yuriy; Gannott, Florentina; Grimm, Stefan B.

    2015-01-01

    The photoluminescence of as-grown, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on quartz is strongly quenched and barely detectable. Here we show that transferring these SWNTs to another substrate such as clean quartz or glass increases their emission efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. By statistical analysis of large nanotube arrays we show at what point of the transfer process the emission enhancement occurs and how it depends on the receiving substrate and the employed transfer polymer. We find that hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) as the transfer polymer results in higher photoluminescence enhancement than the more hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Possible mechanisms for this enhancement such as strain relief, disruption of the strong interaction of SWNTs with the substrate and localized emissive states are discussed. PMID:26400227

  8. Accurate calculation of the absolute free energy of binding for drug molecules† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02678d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Aldeghi, Matteo; Heifetz, Alexander; Bodkin, Michael J.; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of binding affinities has been a central goal of computational chemistry for decades, yet remains elusive. Despite good progress, the required accuracy for use in a drug-discovery context has not been consistently achieved for drug-like molecules. Here, we perform absolute free energy calculations based on a thermodynamic cycle for a set of diverse inhibitors binding to bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and demonstrate that a mean absolute error of 0.6 kcal mol–1 can be achieved. We also show a similar level of accuracy (1.0 kcal mol–1) can be achieved in pseudo prospective approach. Bromodomains are epigenetic mark readers that recognize acetylation motifs and regulate gene transcription, and are currently being investigated as therapeutic targets for cancer and inflammation. The unprecedented accuracy offers the exciting prospect that the binding free energy of drug-like compounds can be predicted for pharmacologically relevant targets. PMID:26798447

  9. Enzyme classification using complex dynamic hemithioacetal systems† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR spectra, linear discriminant analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc01823h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Jayawardena, H. Surangi N.

    2016-01-01

    A complex dynamic hemithioacetal system was generated for the evaluation of lipase reactivities in organic media. In combination with pattern recognition methodology, twelve different lipases were successfully classified into four distinct groups following their reaction selectivities and reactivities. A probe lipase was further categorized using the training matrix with predicted reactivity. PMID:26987550

  10. Biologically controlled synthesis and assembly of magnetite nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4fd00240g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Mathieu; Bertinetti, Luca; Neely, Robert K.; Schertel, Andreas; Körnig, André; Flors, Cristina; Müller, Frank D.; Schüler, Dirk; Klumpp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles have size- and shape-dependent magnetic properties. In addition, assemblies of magnetite nanoparticles forming one-dimensional nanostructures have magnetic properties distinct from zero-dimensional or non-organized materials due to strong uniaxial shape anisotropy. However, assemblies of free-standing magnetic nanoparticles tend to collapse and form closed-ring structures rather than chains in order to minimize their energy. Magnetotactic bacteria, ubiquitous microorganisms, have the capability to mineralize magnetite nanoparticles, the so-called magnetosomes, and to direct their assembly in stable chains via biological macromolecules. In this contribution, the synthesis and assembly of biological magnetite to obtain functional magnetic dipoles in magnetotactic bacteria are presented, with a focus on the assembly. We present tomographic reconstructions based on cryo-FIB sectioning and SEM imaging of a magnetotactic bacterium to exemplify that the magnetosome chain is indeed a paradigm of a 1D magnetic nanostructure, based on the assembly of several individual particles. We show that the biological forces are a major player in the formation of the magnetosome chain. Finally, we demonstrate by super resolution fluorescence microscopy that MamK, a protein of the actin family necessary to form the chain backbone in the bacteria, forms a bundle of filaments that are not only found in the vicinity of the magnetosome chain but are widespread within the cytoplasm, illustrating the dynamic localization of the protein within the cells. These very simple microorganisms have thus much to teach us with regards to controlling the design of functional 1D magnetic nanoassembly. PMID:25932467

  11. Comment on: Alam Akhtar, Ahmad Shabir, Sultan Bhat, M., Ahmad Bashir, 2015. Tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas. Geomorphology doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.03.025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Alam et al. (2015) have challenged the classic piggyback tectonic model for the development of Kashmir basin, NW Himalaya. However, all the evidence shown is completely contrary to the geologic, tectonic, structural, seismologic, geodetic, and geomorphic data of previous works. A perfectly planar major (~ 165 km) dextral strike-slip fault has been mapped; however, with such planar geometry, any strike-slip fault cannot produce a pull-apart basin because such basins are characteristic features of step-overs and linkage fault geometries. And the Horsetail structures are impossible for a major planar strike-slip fault geometry that is proposed by the authors. The recent geodetic data of the Kashmir basin strongly refutes the pure strike-slip model. Therefore, the structures, geomorphology, geology, and kinematics associated with typical dextral strike-slip fault geometry completely contradict to what has been proposed by Alam et al. (2015).

  12. Light-triggered chemical amplification to accelerate degradation and release from polymeric particles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06143a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Olejniczak, Jason; Nguyen Huu, Viet Anh; Lux, Jacques; Grossman, Madeleine; He, Sha

    2015-01-01

    We describe a means of chemical amplification to accelerate triggered degradation of a polymer and particles composed thereof. We designed a light-degradable copolymer containing carboxylic acids masked by photolabile groups and ketals. Photolysis allows the unmasked acidic groups in the polymer backbone to accelerate ketal hydrolysis even at neutral pH. PMID:26445896

  13. Switching specific biomolecular interactions on surfaces under complex biological conditions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4an01225a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lashkor, Minhaj; Rawson, Frankie J.; Preece, Jon A.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, electrically switchable mixed self-assembled monolayers based on oligopeptides have been developed and investigated for their suitability in achieving control over biomolecular interactions in the presence of complex biological conditions. Our model system, a biotinylated oligopeptide tethered to gold within a background of tri(ethylene glycol) undecanethiol, is ubiquitous in both switching specific protein interactions in highly fouling media while still offering the non-specific protein-resistance to the surface. Furthermore, the work demonstrated that the performance of the switching on the electro-switchable oligopeptide is sensitive to the characteristics of the media, and in particular, its protein concentration and buffer composition, and thus such aspects should be considered and addressed to assure maximum switching performance. This study lays the foundation for developing more realistic dynamic extracellular matrix models and is certainly applicable in a wide variety of biological and medical applications. PMID:25180245

  14. Synthesis of double-clickable functionalised graphene oxide for biological applications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05412e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Kuo-Ching; Rubio, Noelia; Costa, Pedro M.; Kafa, Houmam; Abbate, Vincenzo; Festy, Frederic; Bansal, Sukhvinder S.; Hider, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Azide- and alkyne-double functionalised graphene oxide (Click2 GO) was synthesised and characterised with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman spectroscopy. Fourteen-percentage increase in azide content was found, after pre-treatment of GO with meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA), determined with elemental analysis. No effect on A549 cell viability was found, up to 100 μg mL–1 and 72 h of incubation, determined with the modified lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH) assay. Two sequential copper(i) catalysed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions were performed to conjugate the propargyl-modified blood–brain barrier targeting peptide Angiopep-2, and a bis-azide polyethylene glycol (M W = 3500), to the Click2 GO. The final conjugate was characterised with ATR-FTIR and TGA. PMID:26295072

  15. Gold nanoparticles as a substrate in bio-analytical near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4an01899k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Holly J.; Fogarty, Simon W.; Kerns, Jemma G.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    As biospectroscopy techniques continue to be developed for screening or diagnosis within a point-of-care setting, an important development for this field will be high-throughput optimization. For many of these techniques, it is therefore necessary to adapt and develop parameters to generate a robust yet simple approach delivering high-quality spectra from biological samples. Specifically, this is important for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) wherein there are multiple variables that can be optimised to achieve an enhancement of the Raman signal from a sample. One hypothesis is that “large” diameter (>100 nm) gold nanoparticles provide a greater enhancement at near-infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) wavelengths than those <100 nm in diameter. Herein, we examine this notion using examples in which SERS spectra were acquired from MCF-7 breast cancer cells incubated with 150 nm gold nanoparticles. It was found that 150 nm gold nanoparticles are an excellent material for NIR/IR SERS. Larger gold nanoparticles may better satisfy the theoretical restraints for SERS enhancement at NIR/IR wavelengths compared to smaller nanoparticles. Also, larger nanoparticles or their aggregates are more readily observed via optical microscopy (and especially electron microscopy) compared to smaller ones. This allows rapid and straightforward identification of target areas containing a high concentration of nanoparticles and facilitating SERS spectral acquisition. To some extent, these observations appear to extend to biofluids such as blood plasma or (especially) serum; SERS spectra of such biological samples often exhibit a low signal-to-noise ratio in the absence of nanoparticles. With protein-rich biofluids such as serum, a dramatic SERS effect can be observed; although this might facilitate improved spectral biomarker identification in the future, it may not always improve classification between control vs. cancer. Thus, use of “large” gold nanoparticles are a good starting point in order to derive informative NIR/IR SERS analysis of biological samples. PMID:25802895

  16. Chemical generation and modification of peptides containing multiple dehydroalanines† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05469a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Philip M.; Foley, Patrick J.; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical formation of dehydroalanine has been widely used for the post-translational modification of proteins and peptides, however methods to incorporate multiple dehydroalanine residues into a single peptide have not been defined. We report the use of methyl 2,5-dibromovalerate which can be used to cleanly carry out this transformation. PMID:26219458

  17. Monitoring cytosolic and ER Zn2+ in stimulated breast cancer cells using genetically encoded FRET sensors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5mt00257e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hessels, Anne M.; Taylor, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    The Zn2+-specific ion channel ZIP7 has been implicated to play an important role in releasing Zn2+ from the ER. External stimulation of breast cancer cells has been proposed to induce phosphorylation of ZIP7 by CK2α, resulting in ZIP7-mediated Zn2+ release from the ER into the cytosol. Here, we examined whether changes in cytosolic and ER Zn2+ concentrations can be detected upon such external stimuli. Two previously developed FRET sensors for Zn2+, eZinCh-2 (K d = 1 nM at pH 7.1) and eCALWY-4 (K d = 0.63 nM at pH 7.1), were expressed in both the cytosol and the ER of wild-type MCF-7 and TamR cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and TamR cells with external Zn2+ and pyrithione, one of the previously used triggers, resulted in an immediate increase in free Zn2+ in both cytosol and ER, suggesting that Zn2+ was directly transferred across the cellular membranes by pyrithione. Cells treated with a second trigger, EGF/ionomycin, showed no changes in intracellular Zn2+ levels, neither in multicolor imaging experiments that allowed simultaneous imaging of cytosolic and ER Zn2+, nor in experiments in which cytosolic and ER Zn2+ were monitored separately. In contrast to previous work using small-molecule fluorescent dyes, these results indicate that EGF–ionomycin treatment does not result in significant changes in cytosolic Zn2+ levels as a result from Zn2+ release from the ER. These results underline the importance of using genetically encoded fluorescent sensors to complement and verify intracellular imaging experiments with synthetic fluorescent Zn2+ dyes. PMID:26739447

  18. Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ee03874j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Taisuke; Seo, Ji-Youn; Domanski, Konrad; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Tress, Wolfgang; Abate, Antonio; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. With the addition of inorganic cesium, the resulting triple cation perovskite compositions are thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions. This enables more reproducible device performances to reach a stabilized power output of 21.1% and ∼18% after 250 hours under operational conditions. These properties are key for the industrialization of perovskite photovoltaics. PMID:27478500

  19. Conductance tomography of conductive filaments in intrinsic silicon-rich silica RRAM† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04982b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Montesi, Luca; Hudziak, Stephen; Mehonic, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an imaging study of filamentary conduction in silicon suboxide resistive RAM devices. We used a conductive atomic force microscope to etch through devices while measuring current, allowing us to produce tomograms of conductive filaments. To our knowledge this is the first report of such measurements in an intrinsic resistance switching material. PMID:26482563

  20. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  1. Castagna, M., M. W. Becker, and A. Bellin (2011), Joint estimation of transmissivity and storativity in a bedrock fracture, Water Resour. Res., 47, W09504, doi:10.1029/2010WR009262.

    SciTech Connect

    Castagna, M; Becker, M W; Bellin, A

    2011-11-30

    The spatial variability of transmissivity (T) and storativity (S) in a sandstone bedding plane fracture was investigated through field and numerical hydraulic tomography experiments. Cross-hole pumping tests were conducted in a single subhorizontal bedrock fracture, thereby constraining the problem to two dimensions. A Bayesian method implementing pilot points was used to invert the drawdown, under the hypothesis that T and S are independent random space functions, where integral scale, mean, and variance of the random fields were parameters of inversion in addition to pilot point values. An ensemble of 20 Monte Carlo realizations was created for each model scenario. Inversion of the measured cross-hole drawdown resulted in spatially variable T and S fields. To determine the accuracy of the method, a suite of synthetic inversions modeled after the field site were also conducted. The synthetic experiments demonstrate that the assumed spatial structure of S influences the accuracy of both the T and S inversions. When the S field is spatially heterogeneous and is assumed to be heterogeneous in the inversion, a consistent representation of the T and S fields is obtained. When the S field is spatially heterogeneous but is assumed to be homogeneous in the inversion, a consistent representation of the T field is still obtained, but the S field is entirely misrepresented; if the S field is actually homogeneous but assumed to be heterogeneous, a poor representation of the T and S fields is obtained along with high uncertainty in the inversion statistics of confidence.

  2. Divergent regioselectivity in photoredox-catalyzed hydrofunctionalization reactions of unsaturated amides and thioamides† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02331e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    A direct method to construct 2-oxazolines and 2-thiazolines from corresponding allylic amides and thioamides is reported. The redox-neutral intramolecular hydrofunctionalization is enabled by a dual catalyst system comprised of 9-mesityl-N-methyl acridinium tetrafluoroborate and phenyl disulphide and exhibits complete selectivity for the anti-Markovnikov regioisomeric products. The cyclization of allylic thioamides is postulated to operate via a modified mechanism in which oxidation of the thioamide, rather than the alkene, is responsible for the observed reactivity. PMID:25541590

  3. Investigations on recyclisation and hydrolysis in avibactam mediated serine β-lactamase inhibition† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ob00353b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hwanho; Paton, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    β-Lactams inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and serine β-lactamases by acylation of a nucleophilic active site serine. Avibactam is approved for clinical use in combination with ceftazidime, and is a breakthrough non β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor also reacting via serine acylation. Molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum chemical calculations on avibactam-mediated inhibition of a clinically relevant cephalosporinase reveal that recyclisation of the avibactam derived carbamoyl complex is favoured over hydrolysis. In contrast, we show that analogous recyclisation in β-lactam mediated inhibition is disfavoured. Avibactam recyclisation is promoted by a proton shuttle, a ‘structural’ water protonating the nucleophilic serine, and stabilization of the negative charge developed on aminocarbonyl oxygen. The results imply the potential of calculations for distinguishing between bifurcating pathways during inhibition and in generating hypotheses for predicting resistance. The inability of β-lactams to undergo recyclisation may be an Achilles heel, but one that can be addressed by suitably functionalized reversibly binding inhibitors. PMID:27072755

  4. Retaining individualities: the photodynamics of self-ordering porphyrin assemblies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc09095d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Wen-Dong; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Baker, Lewis A.; Stulz, Eugen; Napier, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The retention of photochemical properties of individual chromophores is a key feature of biological light harvesting complexes. This is achieved despite extensive aggregation of the chromophores, which in synthetic chromophore assemblies often yields a change in spectral characteristics. As an alternative approach towards mimicking biological light harvesting complexes, we report the synthesis of porphyrin assemblies which retained the photochemical properties of the individual chromophore units despite their substantial aggregation. These new materials highlight a new bottom-up approach towards the design and understanding of more complex biomimetic and naturally occurring biological systems. PMID:26680651

  5. 14N overtone NMR under MAS: signal enhancement using symmetry-based sequences and novel simulation strategies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp03994g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Haies, Ibraheem M.; Jarvis, James A.; Bentley, Harry; Heinmaa, Ivo; Kuprov, Ilya; Williamson, Philip T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Overtone 14N NMR spectroscopy is a promising route for the direct detection of 14N signals with good spectral resolution. Its application is currently limited, however, by the absence of efficient polarization techniques for overtone signal enhancement and the lack of efficient numerical simulation techniques to aid in both the development of new methods and the analysis and interpretation of experimental data. In this paper we report a novel method for the transfer of polarization from 1H to the 14N overtone using symmetry-based R-sequences that overcome many of the limitations of adiabatic approaches that have worked successfully on static samples. Refinement of these sequences and the analysis of the resulting spectra have been facilitated through the development of an efficient simulation strategy for 14N overtone NMR spectroscopy of spinning samples, using effective Hamiltonians on top of Floquet and Fokker–Planck equations. PMID:25662410

  6. Rational, yet simple, design and synthesis of an antifreeze-protein inspired polymer for cellular cryopreservation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc04647e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Daniel E.; Cameron, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins AF(G)Ps are potent ice recrystallization inhibitors, which is a desirable property to enhance cryopreservation of donor tissue/cells. Here we present the rational synthesis of a new, biomimetic, ice-recrystallization inhibiting polymer derived from a cheap commodity polymer, based on an ampholyte structure. The polymer is used to enhance the cryopreservation of red blood cells, demonstrating a macromolecular solution to tissue storage. PMID:26176027

  7. Glycosylated gold nanoparticle libraries for label-free multiplexed lectin biosensing† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tb01994j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Sarah-Jane; Otten, Lucienne

    2016-01-01

    Glycan/lectin interactions drive a wide range of recognition and signal transduction processes within nature. However, their measurement is complicated or limited by the analytical tools available. Most technologies require fluorescently labelled proteins (e.g. microarrays) or expensive infrastructure (such as surface plasmon resonance). This also limits their application in biosensing, especially for low-resource settings, where detection of pathogens based on glycan binding could speed up diagnosis. Here we employ a library-oriented approach to immobilise a range of monosaccharides onto polymer-stabilised gold nanoparticles to enable rapid and high-throughput evaluation of their binding specificities with a panel of lectins. The red to blue colour shift upon gold nanoparticle aggregation is used as the output, removing the need for labelled protein, enabling compatibility with 96-well microplates. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a flatbed scanner (or digital camera) to extract biophysical data, ensuring that only minimal resources are required. Finally, linear discriminant analysis is employed to demonstrate how the glyconanoparticles can be applied as a multiplexed biosensor capable of identifying pathogenic lectins without the need for any infrastructure and overcoming some of the issues of lectin promiscuity. PMID:27162639

  8. A novel design strategy for nanoparticles on nanopatterns: interferometric lithographic patterning of Mms6 biotemplated magnetic nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tc03895b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, S. M.; El-Zubir, O.; Rawlings, A. E.; Leggett, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology demands the synthesis of highly precise, functional materials, tailored for specific applications. One such example is bit patterned media. These high-density magnetic data-storage materials require specific and uniform magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to be patterned over large areas (cm2 range) in exact nanoscale arrays. However, the realisation of such materials for nanotechnology applications depends upon reproducible fabrication methods that are both precise and environmentally-friendly, for cost-effective scale-up. A potentially ideal biological fabrication methodology is biomineralisation. This is the formation of inorganic minerals within organisms, and is known to be highly controlled down to the nanoscale whilst being carried out under ambient conditions. The magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 uses a suite of dedicated biomineralisation proteins to control the formation of magnetite MNPs within their cell. One of these proteins, Mms6, has been shown to control formation of magnetite MNPs in vitro. We have previously used Mms6 on micro-contact printed (μCP) patterned self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces to control the formation and location of MNPs in microscale arrays, offering a bioinspired and green-route to fabrication. However, μCP cannot produce patterns reliably with nanoscale dimensions, and most alternative nanofabrication techniques are slow and expensive. Interferometric lithography (IL) uses the interference of laser light to produce nanostructures over large areas via a simple process implemented under ambient conditions. Here we combine the bottom-up biomediated approach with a top down IL methodology to produce arrays of uniform magnetite MNPs (86 ± 21 nm) with a period of 357 nm. This shows a potentially revolutionary strategy for the production of magnetic arrays with nanoscale precision in a process with low environmental impact, which could be scaled readily to facilitate large-scale production of nanopatterned surface materials for technological applications. PMID:27358738

  9. Discrimination between bacterial species by ratiometric analysis of their carbohydrate binding profile† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5mb00720h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Lucienne; Fullam, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global health concern meaning there is an urgent need for new treatments and diagnostics. Here glycosylated surfaces are used to profile the binding patterns of a range of Gram-negative, Gram-positive and mycobacteria. This enables the creation of ‘barcodes’ to enable identification and discrimination between the strains, which could not be achieved by single-point glycan binding and offers a new concept in bacteria detection. PMID:26647648

  10. Comment on Urban et al. "Assessment of human health risks posed by consumption of fish from the Lower Passaic River (LPR), New Jersey" (2009, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.03.004).

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Gary A; Hayton, Anne G; Macgregor, Janine

    2010-03-15

    Urban et al. (2009) presented a human health risk assessment for the Lower Passaic River that very narrowly defines fish consumption, ignores crab consumption, and is not consistent with current NJ or EPA risk assessment procedures and guidance. The restrictively defined consumption then leads to inappropriate conclusions on the risk of eating fish from this highly contaminated estuarine river. The paper underestimates angler exposure to contaminated fish, does not evaluate exposure to contaminated crab, and underestimates the cancer risks and non-cancer health hazards associated with these exposure pathways. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection along with the NJ Department of Health and Senior Services issues fish and crab consumption advisories for all state waters; these advisories should be followed for the Passaic River and surrounding waters: http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dsr/FishSmartEatSmartNJ.org. PMID:20149414

  11. Reply to comments by Ahmad et al. on: Shah, A. A., 2013. Earthquake geology of Kashmir Basin and its implications for future large earthquakes International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-013-0874-8 and on Shah, A. A., 2015. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India, International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-015-1183-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) mapped major unknown faults and fault segments in Kashmir basin using geomorphological techniques. The major trace of out-of-sequence thrust fault was named as Kashmir basin fault (KBF) because it runs through the middle of Kashmir basin, and the active movement on it has backtilted and uplifted most of the basin. Ahmad et al. (Int J Earth Sci, 2015) have disputed the existence of KBF and maintained that faults identified by Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) were already mapped as inferred faults by earlier workers. The early works, however, show a major normal fault, or a minor out-of-sequence reverse fault, and none have shown a major thrust fault.

  12. Fotometria diferencial de estrelas T Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    períodos possíveis: 2,2 ou 3,8 dias, além de variações irregulares superpostas. Foram observados, também, dois eventos súbitos, espaçados de uma hora, com amplitudes de 0,05mag e duração de aproximadamente 30 minutos. Admitindo-se que tal modulação seja originada por acréscimo sobre a superfície estelar, dois cenários são possíveis. No caso do menor período, apenas uma mancha quente seria visível. No outro caso, duas manchas seriam necessárias, explicando assim a presença de dois picos ao se colocar os pontos em fase.

  13. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of brines - comparing isotope ratio mass spectrometry and isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, Christian; Koeniger, Paul; van Geldern, Robert; Stadler, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Today's standard analytical methods for high precision stable isotope analysis of fluids are gas-water equilibration and high temperature pyrolysis coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS). In recent years, relatively new laser-based analytical instruments entered the market that are said to allow high isotope precision data on nearly every media. This optical technique is referred to as isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). The objective of this study is to evaluate the capability of this new instrument type for highly saline solutions and a comparison of the analytical results with traditional IRMS analysis. It has been shown for the equilibration method that the presence of salts influences the measured isotope values depending on the salt concentration (see Lécuyer et al, 2009; Martineau, 2012). This so-called 'isotope salt effect' depends on the salt type and salt concentration. These factors change the activity in the fluid and therefore shift the isotope ratios measured by the equilibration method. Consequently, correction factors have to be applied to these analytical data. Direct conversion techniques like pyrolysis or the new laser instruments allow the measurement of the water molecule from the sample directly and should therefore not suffer from the salt effect, i.e. no corrections of raw values are necessary. However, due to high salt concentrations this might cause technical problems with the analytical hardware and may require labor-intensive sample preparation (e.g. vacuum distillation). This study evaluates the salt isotope effect for the IRMS equilibration technique (Thermo Gasbench II coupled to Delta Plus XP) and the laser-based IRIS instruments with liquid injection (Picarro L2120-i). Synthetic salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, MgSO4, CaSO4) and natural brines collected from the Stassfurt Salt Anticline (Germany; Stadler et al., 2012) were analysed with both techniques. Salt concentrations ranged from seawater salinity

  14. Experiencias, Sentido y Significado de la Consejeria en Justicia Social a Nivel Universitario: Estudio de Caso Cualitativo Mediante Tres Narrativas De Consejeros Profesionales en Educacion Superior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago Tosado, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand and profoundly describe the nature of social justice practice, as is comes up from the experience of three professional counselors whose working settings are the academic arena. Detailed descriptions are presented concerning the meanings and sense of counseling for social justice, as the interviews…

  15. Educacion Fundamental Integral #2: Teoria y Aplicacion en el Caso de ACPO. (Fundamental Integral Education #2: Theory and Application in the Case of ACPO.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Hernando Bernal

    Educacion Fundamental Integral (EFI) is an educational process which aims to help Colombia's rural population to improve their living conditions. EFI adapts to the concrete circumstances of the person in his own environment. Objectives of EFI are to make the rural people: responsible for the work necessary for their own development; work together;…

  16. Experiencias de Vida de la Mujer Adulta: Estudio de Caso de Lideres en Desarrollo del Programa de Administracion y Supervision Educativa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Roman, Gildrette M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the twentieth century to present, the role of women in society has undergone fundamental changes. Women, today, has assumed many different task and new roles, becoming part of professional workforce and increasing level of education by aspiring a higher education gaining access to leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative…

  17. Protegiendo a su familia de los terremotos-Los siete pasos a la seguridad para prepararse en caso de un terremoto (en espa?ol y en ingles)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desarrollado por American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund, California Earthquake Authority, Governor's Office of Emergency Services, New America Media, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency, and U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Les escribimos esta carta para comunicarle un mensaje sumamente importante sobre las preparaciones de emergencia. Historicamente, hemos sufrido terremotos aqui en el Area de la Bahia de San Francisco que han causado graves privaciones para los residentes de la comunidad y da?os increibles a nuestras ciudades. Es probable que suframos un terremoto de gran magnitud en los proximos 30 a?os. Muchos de nosotros venimos de otros paises donde hemos pasado por terremotos y por eso creemos entenderlos. Sin embargo, la manera que nos preparamos para terremotos en nuestros paises de origen puede ser distinta a la que empleamos aca en los Estados Unidos. Muy pocas personas mueren a causa de los derrumbes de los edificios en el Area de la Bahia porque la mayoria de los edificios son construidos para resistir el sacudimiento de la tierra. Pero es muy probable que su familia no tenga atencion medica, alimentos o que esten separados del uno al otro por dias o semanas. Finalmente depende de usted mantener a su familia a salvo hasta que llegue asistencia, por eso les pedimos que nos unamos para aprender a cuidar a su familia antes, durante, y despues de un terremoto. El primer paso es leer este libro. Cada uno de su familia, ni?os y adultos, pueden aprender como prepararse para un terremoto. Haga participar e incluya sus ni?os; pueden ayudarle a prepararse. Aproveche las clases ofrecidas en su comunidad sobre las preparaciones de terremotos por la Cruz Roja Estadounidense (American Red Cross). Estos cursos de preparacion son gratis y disponibles en espa?ol para todos en la comunidad sin tomar en cuenta la historia de la familia, estado legal, genero o edad. Les recomendamos que tome ventaja de estas clases gratuitas. Para mas informacion consulte la ultima pagina de este libro. Recuerde que un terremoto puede ocurrir sin aviso y la unica manera de reducir el da?o de terremotos es estar preparados. !Preparese!

  18. Catalysts for Change: Three Case Studies of Quality Education Worldwide = Catalizadores del Cambio: Tres Casos de Estudio sobre la Educacion de Calidad en el Mundo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puriefoy, Wendy D.

    2007-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of democracy and is absolutely fundamental to a democratic, civil and prosperous society. Beyond the boundaries of the United States, other countries are working to provide quality education to their children through civil society institutions. In particular, there are three extraordinary organizations in Peru,…

  19. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  20. Reforma Ortografica, Planejamento e Difusao Linguistica: O Caso da Lingua Portuguesa (Orthographic Reform, Planning, and Linguistic Diffusion: The Case of Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, John Robert

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the Luso-Brazilian Accord is a strategy to spread the Portuguese language in Africa, particularly in the former colonies of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, and Sao Tome e Principe, and to construct and solidify a community of lusophone nations in geopolitical terms in world affairs. Language planning in these countries…

  1. [Radiological percutaneous gastrostomy (GRP), 17 años de experiencia, serie de casos del hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío].

    PubMed

    Navarro Falcón, Magnolia Del Carmen; Parejo Campos, Juana; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; García Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2015-01-01

    When assessing a patient nutritional support the state of the gastrointestinal tract is the most important point to consider, whenever possible we should choose the enteral nutrition (EN) over parenteral nutrition (PN) and recognized by its various advantages. The percutaneous gastrostomy (GRP) were introduced in clinical practice as an alternative to surgical gastrostomy (GQ). The speed, simplicity, low cost, low morbidity and low mortality of these techniques has allowed its rapid development.The feeding tubes types used were the balloon-retained devices catheter, the pig tail and the ballon-retained with gastropexia (gastropexia). It is a retrospective study of all patients who were placed GPR in the Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Sevilla, between September 1996 and September 2013, which aims to study is to describe the characteristics of patients and the complications presented for different types of enteral feeding tubes used. GPR 186 were performed in 176 patients (135 males (76.70%), with an average duration of 303.6 days, the most frequent diseases were cancers of the head and neck 49.46%. The types of feeding tubes used were pigtail 118 (63.44%), balloon-retained devices 22 (11.83%), and gastropexia 46 (24.73%). The most common early complications in the pigtail group were early purulent exudate and early bleeding (2.5 and 3.4% respectively), while in the balloon catheter group the initial output of the probe was most frequent early complication (13.7%), none of these complications were observed in the group of gastropexy. The most common late complication was obstruction probe. The GPR is a safe technique with lower mortality of 1%; Low frequently of early and late complications. A better understanding of this technique can reduce the frequency of complications. PMID:25561125

  2. 43 CFR 17.320 - General responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Duties of Doi Recipients § 17.320 General responsibilities. Each DOI recipient has primary responsibility to ensure that... information, and to afford DOI access to its records to the extent DOI finds necessary to determine...

  3. 75 FR 55315 - National Fuel Marketing Company, LLC; NFM Midstream, LLC; NFM Texas Pipeline, LLC; NFM Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Investigations (DOI) as non- decisional staff in deliberations by the Commission in this docket. By this order... of Enforcement, Larry Parkinson, Director, DOI, and Geof Hobday of DOI to the January 15, 2009 list of staff excepted from the DOI non-decisional staff designation. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary....

  4. 30 CFR 220.033 - Audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operations shall be subject to audit by DOI or its appointed agent. Where possible, the auditor for DOI shall coordinate audit efforts with other nonoperators, if any. DOI shall have the right to initiate an audit any... notified. DOI may elect to send an auditor with the audit team specified by the nonoperators in lieu...

  5. 44 CFR 206.348 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... designated representative of the Department of the Interior (DOI) at the regional level before approving any.... (a) The consultation shall be by written memorandum to the DOI representative and shall contain the... understanding with DOI, the DOI representative will provide technical information and an opinion whether or...

  6. 43 CFR 17.332 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and Enforcement Procedures § 17.332 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. DOI will... it. The FMCS shall send the agreement to DOI. DOI, however, retains the right to monitor the... process without prior approval of the head of the mediation agency. (e) DOI will use the mediation...

  7. 75 FR 55315 - Seminole Energy Services, LLC; Seminole Gas Company, LLC; Seminole High Plains, LLC; Lakeshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Office of Enforcement's Division of Investigations (DOI) as non- decisional staff in deliberations by the... Commission also adds Norman Bay, Director, Office of Enforcement, Larry Parkinson, Director, DOI, and Geof Hobday of DOI to the January 15, 2009 list of staff excepted from the DOI non-decisional...

  8. 43 CFR 2.4 - How do I obtain information routinely available to the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information. (a) General. (1) General information about DOI or one of its bureaus may be obtained by visiting DOI's home page (see appendix B to this part for a list of Internet addresses) or by contacting the... list of DOI contacts). Many documents are made available to the public through DOI's reading...

  9. 43 CFR 17.331 - Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or on behalf of others, may file a complaint with DOI, alleging discrimination prohibited by the Act... good cause shown, however, DOI may extend this time limit. (b) DOI will consider the date a complaint... described in paragraphs (a) and (c)(1) of this section. (c) DOI will attempt to facilitate the filing...

  10. 43 CFR 17.339 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DOI has made no finding with regard to the complaint; or (2) DOI issues any finding in favor of the recipient. (b) If DOI fails to make a finding within 180 days or issues a finding in favor of the recipient, DOI will: (1) Promptly advise the complainant of this fact; (2) Advise the complainant of his or...

  11. Reliability beyond Theory and into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    The critical reactions of Bentler (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9100-1), Green and Yang (2009a, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9098-4 ; 2009b, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9099-3), and Revelle and Zinbarg (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9102-z) to Sijtsma's (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0) paper on Cronbach's alpha are addressed. The dissemination of…

  12. Assessment of biocompatibility of 3D printed photopolymers using zebrafish embryo toxicity assays† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supporting Fig. S1–2 and Table T1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5lc01374g Click here for additional data file. ‡ ‡We would also want to draw the attention of the reader to the availability of the dataset associated with this paper, available here (http://dx.doi.org/10.5525/gla.researchdata.238).

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, N. P.; Zhu, F.; Hall, C. J.; Reboud, J.; Crosier, P. S.; Patton, E. E.; Wlodkowic, D.

    2016-01-01

    3D printing has emerged as a rapid and cost-efficient manufacturing technique to enable the fabrication of bespoke, complex prototypes. If the technology is to have a significant impact in biomedical applications, such as drug discovery and molecular diagnostics, the devices produced must be biologically compatible to enable their use with established reference assays and protocols. In this work we demonstrate that we can adapt the Fish Embryo Test (FET) as a new method to quantify the toxicity of 3D printed microfluidic devices. We assessed the biocompatibility of four commercially available 3D printing polymers (VisiJetCrystal EX200, Watershed 11122XC, Fototec SLA 7150 Clear and ABSplus P-430), through the observation of key developmental markers in the developing zebrafish embryos. Results show all of the photopolymers to be highly toxic to the embryos, resulting in fatality, although we do demonstrate that post-printing treatment of Fototec 7150 makes it suitable for zebrafish culture within the FET. PMID:26646354

  13. Peptide:glycosaminoglycan hybrid hydrogels as an injectable intervention for spinal disc degeneration† †The data associated with this paper are openly available from the University of Leeds data repository, http://doi.org/10.5518/47 ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full experimental methods, additional self-assembly and gelation data, additional FTIR spectra and TEM images, rheometry frequency sweep plots and peptide purity and content information. See DOI: 10.1039/c6tb00121a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, D. E.; Mitchell, E. A.; Kapur, N.

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of the spinal discs is a major cause of back pain. During the degeneration process, there is a loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from the proteoglycan-rich gel in the disc's nucleus, which adversely alters biomechanical performance. Current surgical treatments for back pain are highly invasive and have low success rates; there is an urgent need for minimally-invasive approaches that restore the physiological mechanics of the spine. Here we present an injectable peptide:GAG hydrogel that rapidly self-assembles in situ and restores the mechanics of denucleated intervertebral discs. It forms a gel with comparable mechanical properties to the native tissue within seconds to minutes depending on the peptide chosen. Unlike other biomaterials that have been proposed for this purpose, these hybrid hydrogels can be injected through a very narrow 25 G gauge needle, minimising damage to the surrounding soft tissue, and they mimic the ability of the natural tissue to draw in water by incorporating GAGs. Furthermore, the GAGs enhance the gelation kinetics and thermodynamic stability of peptide hydrogels, significantly reducing effusion of injected material from the intervertebral disc (GAG leakage of 8 ± 3% after 24 h when peptide present, compared to 39 ± 3% when no peptide present). In an ex vivo model, we demonstrate that the hydrogels can restore the compressive stiffness of denucleated bovine intervertebral discs. Compellingly, this novel biomaterial has the potential to transform the clinical treatment of back pain by resolving current surgical challenges, thus improving patient quality of life. PMID:27429755

  14. Spatially explicit estimates of stock size, structure and biomass of North Atlantic albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Dragon, A.-C.; Arrizabalaga, H.

    2014-09-01

    The development of the ecosystem approach and models for the management of ocean marine resources requires easy access to standard validated data sets of historical catch data for the main exploited species. They are used to measure the impact of biomass removal by fisheries and to evaluate the models outputs, while the use of a standard data set facilitates models inter-comparison. Unlike standard stock assessment models, new state-of-the-art ecosystem models require geo-referenced fishing data with the highest possible spatial resolution. This study presents an application to the North Atlantic albacore tuna stock with a careful definition and validation of a spatially explicit fishing data set prepared from publicly available sources (ICCAT) for its use in a spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model (SEAPODYM) to provide the first spatially explicit estimate of albacore density in the North Atlantic by life stage. Density distributions together with the fishing data used for the estimates are provided at doi.pangaea.de/">http://doi.pangaea.de/ (see section Source Data References) (doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828115">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828115; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828226">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828226; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828227">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828227; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828228">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828228; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828229">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828229; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828230">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828230; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828231">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828231; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828232">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828232; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828232">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828232; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828233">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828233; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA

  15. A teoria da percolação aplicada às galáxias aneladas peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.; de Medeiros, N. G. F.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Oliveira-Abans, M.

    2003-08-01

    Formulado no final da década de 50, o modelo de percolação concentra-se em descrever o meio poroso, que será visto neste trabalho como uma rede de canais aleatórios, por onde escoa um fluido determinístico. Se o número de canais for suficientemente grande, então eles estarão ligados e o meio se tornará permeável à passagem do fluido. Neste caso, dizemos que houve a percolação do fluido. Reformulando o modelo acima, podemos escrever um código particularmente adaptado para simulações em Galáxias, onde iremos supor que os canais formam um reticulado, e que cada sítio da rede representa um poro que será interpretado como uma região ativa de formação estelar. Para cada elo teremos um pequeno canal ligando dois sítios vizinhos, que poderá, após um tempo "t", induzir ou não a formação de uma região ativa no poro vizinho. Para simular a passagem desta região ativa através dos poros, diremos que um elo está aberto com probabilidade p e fechado com probabilidade 1-p. Dessa forma, passamos a imaginar configurações de elos abertos e fechados, onde cada configuração ocorre com uma certa probabilidade, dada por p|A|(1-p)|F|, onde |A| é o número de elos abertos e |F| o número de elos fechados da configuração. A expressão anterior só tem importância física se |A| e |F| forem ambos finitos, pois, caso contrário, a probabilidade de ocorrência de uma dada configuração será sempre nula. Neste trabalho, foram considerados dados cinemáticos publicados na literatura bem como aqueles obtidos pelos autores a partir de observações fotométricas realizadas no Observatório de Las Campanãs, em 1994, para a Galáxia Anelada Peculiar HRG 03401. Mostraremos que para certos valores de p, situados entre 0,5 e 0,6, os clusters assim formados irão simular, de maneira coerente, o referido objeto.

  16. The crystalline sponge method: MOF terminal ligand effects† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental and crystallographic procedures, and data tables. CCDC 1063685 and 1063686. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5cc03840e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Chen, Yu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Bromide and chloride analogs of the commonly used zinc iodide-based metal organic framework for the crystalline sponge method were synthesized and evaluated. Inclusion of (1R)-(–)-menthyl acetate into these MOFs was analysed using third-generation synchrotron radiation, and the effects and potential benefits of varying the MOF terminal ligand are discussed. PMID:26081991

  17. Discovery of high affinity inhibitors of Leishmania donovani N-myristoyltransferase† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. The coordinates and structure factor files have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under the accession codes 5A27 and 5A28. See DOI: 10.1039/c5md00241a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rackham, Mark D.; Yu, Zhiyong; Brannigan, James A.; Heal, William P.; Paape, Daniel; Barker, K. Victoria; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Smith, Deborah F.; Leatherbarrow, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) is a potential drug target in Leishmania parasites. Scaffold-hopping from published inhibitors yielded the serendipitous discovery of a chemotype selective for Leishmania donovani NMT; development led to high affinity inhibitors with excellent ligand efficiency. The binding mode was characterised by crystallography and provides a structural rationale for selectivity. PMID:26962429

  18. Catalytic arylsulfonyl radical-triggered 1,5-enyne-bicyclizations and hydrosulfonylation of α,β-conjugates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1406678 (3f). For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic formats see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02343b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Shuai; Hao, Wen-Juan; Xu, Ge; Wu, Shuo; Miao, Jiao-Na; Wang, Shu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic bicyclization reaction of 1,5-enynes anchored by α,β-conjugates with arylsulfonyl radicals generated in situ from sulfonyl hydrazides has been established using TBAI (20 mol%) and Cu(OAc)2 (5 mol%) as co-catalysts under convenient conditions. In addition, the use of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the oxidant and pivalic acid (PivOH) as an additive was proven to be necessary for this reaction. The reactions occurred through 5-exo-dig/6-endo-trig bicyclizations and homolytic aromatic substitution (HAS) cascade mechanisms to give benzo[b]fluorens regioselectively. A similar catalytic process was developed for the synthesis of γ-ketosulfones. These reactions feature readily accessible starting materials and simple one-pot operation. PMID:26568814

  19. Flexibility transition and guest-driven reconstruction in a ferroelastic metal–organic framework† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Atomic coordinates and lattice parameter data. CCDC 1016797. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4ce01572j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Sarah J.; Cliffe, Matthew J.; Hill, Joshua A.; Cairns, Andrew B.; Funnell, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    The metal–organic framework copper(i) tricyanomethanide, Cu(tcm), undergoes a ferroelastic transition on cooling below T f = 240 K. Thermal expansion measurements reveal an order-of-magnitude variation in framework flexibility across T f. The low-temperature phase α-Cu(tcm) exhibits colossal positive and negative thermal expansion that is the strongest ever reported for a framework material. On exposure to acetonitrile, Cu(tcm) undergoes a reconstructive solid-phase transition to acetonitrilocopper(i) tricyanomethanide. This transition can be reversed by heating under vacuum. Infrared spectroscopy measurements are sensitive to the phase change, suggesting that Cu(tcm) may find application in solid-phase acetonitrile sensing. PMID:25632268

  20. Surface roughness-induced speed increase for active Janus micromotors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc01607j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Udit; Soler, Lluís; Gibbs, John G.; Fischer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple physical fabrication method to control surface roughness of Janus micromotors and fabricate self-propelled active Janus microparticles with rough catalytic platinum surfaces that show a four-fold increase in their propulsion speed compared to conventional Janus particles coated with a smooth Pt layer. PMID:25905919

  1. Comment on E.F. Torrey and R.H. Yolken: “Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia” (Schizophr Bull. 2010;36/1:26–32) and R.D. Strous: “Psychiatric Genocide: Reflections and Responsibilities” (Schizophr Bull. Advance Access Publication on February 4, 2010; doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq003)

    PubMed Central

    Haefner, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Torrey and Yolken wonder whether the killing of mentally ill persons in Nazi Germany reduced the risk for schizophrenia in the following generation. Epidemiological data from Germany do not permit reliable comparisons. Torrey and Yolken point out that horrible crime is still only little known. Strous and several contributors on the Schizophrenia Research Forum confirm that view. The history of ideas shows that social Darwinism in the educated classes and the doctrine of degeneration in psychiatry widely influenced thinking prior to World War II. Psychiatrists, lacking effective treatment for steadily growing numbers of the mentally ill, were susceptible to these ideologies. In a first step, several countries introduced compulsory sterilization as a genetic means of preventing diseases believed to be hereditary. Hitler's megalomaniac idea of creating a new human species by steering human evolution through the elimination of “unfit” genes in the mentally ill and inferior races led to the breach of human rights. His euthanasia program—the biggest crime ever perpetrated on the sick—turned out to usher in the gas chambers of the Holocaust. PMID:20421336

  2. Selective syntheses of leuconolam, leuconoxine, and mersicarpine alkaloids from a common intermediate through regiocontrolled cyclizations by Staudinger reactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and procedures, compound characterization data, copies of 1H and 13C NMR spectra for new compounds. See DOI: 10.1039/c4qo00312h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zining; Geng, Qian; Lv, Zhe; Pritchett, Beau P.; Baba, Katsuaki; Numajiri, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Selective syntheses of leuconolam, leuconoxine, and mersicarpine alkaloids bearing distinctive core structures were achieved through Staudinger reactions using a common intermediate. In the key cyclization step, water functioned like a switch to control which core structure to produce. The chemistry allowed for selective syntheses of the group of alkaloids from a simple intermediate through straightforward chemical operations. PMID:25717379

  3. Layered gadolinium hydroxides for low-temperature magnetic cooling† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, PXRD analysis, SEM experiments, and isothermal magnetization curves. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05150a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Espallargas, Guillermo Mínguez; Lorusso, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Layered gadolinium hydroxides have revealed to be excellent candidates for cryogenic magnetic refrigeration. These materials behave as pure 2D magnetic systems with a Heisenberg–Ising critical crossover, induced by dipolar interactions. This 2D character and the possibility offered by these materials to be delaminated open the possibility of rapid heat dissipation upon substrate deposition. PMID:26256944

  4. A highly selective fluorogenic probe for the detection and in vivo imaging of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Structures and characterisation for all MK compounds. Full characterisation data (NMR, HR-MS) for all SODO derivatives. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc00095a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Er, Jun Cheng; Jiang, Hao; Li, Xin; Luo, Zhaofeng; Ramezani, Thomas; Feng, Yi; Tang, Mui Kee; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) is an essential enzyme that protects tissue from oxidative damage. Herein we report the first fluorogenic probe (SODO) for the detection and in vivo imaging of Cu/Zn SOD. SODO represents a unique chemical probe for translational imaging studies of Cu/Zn SOD in inflammatory disorders. PMID:26940443

  5. Towards “bionic” proteins: replacement of continuous sequences from HIF-1α with proteomimetics to create functional p300 binding HIF-1α mimics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedures and characterisation; additional biophysical data. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc01812b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Burslem, George M.; Kyle, Hannah F.; Breeze, Alexander L.; Edwards, Thomas A.; Nelson, Adam; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    Using the HIF-1α transcription factor as a model, this manuscript illustrates how an extended sequence of α-amino acids in a polypeptide can be replaced with a non-natural topographical mimic of an α-helix comprised from an aromatic oligoamide. The resultant hybrid is capable of reproducing the molecular recognition profile of the p300 binding sequence of HIF-1α from which it is derived. PMID:27009828

  6. Reproductive toxicity and meiotic dysfunction following exposure to the pesticides Maneb, Diazinon and Fenarimol† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tx00141a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Daniela A, Parodi; Jasmine, Sjarif; Yichang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive identification and mechanistic analysis of reproductive toxicants constitutes one of the major hurdles in the toxicological assessment of chemicals originating from the large number of chemicals to be tested and the difficulty in examining germ cells at various stages of their development. We previously described the development of an assay in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans that allows the detection of chemicals bearing aneugenic activity and that could be used for the detection of germline toxicity. We present here new evidence for the reproductive toxicity of three pesticides identified in our germline toxicity assay: Maneb, Diazinon and Fenarimol. We show that all three pesticides cause an acute germline nuclear loss in exposed nematodes in a dose-dependent fashion. The loss of germline nuclei coincides with the meiotic stage of pachytene during Prophase I and is dependent on the germline apoptotic machinery suggesting activation of a meiotic checkpoint. Further investigation revealed a profound dysregulation of the meiotic program as evidenced by (1) an alteration of the kinetics of double strand repair, (2) the disruption of the process of chromosome morphogenesis at the end of Prophase I and (3) the reorganization of the meiotic differentiation gradient inherent to the C. elegans germline following exposure to Maneb and Diazinon. These defects correlate with a significant increase in embryonic lethality and a corresponding decrease in the number of progeny. These results therefore provide strong evidence for the reproductive toxicity of Maneb, Diazinon and Fenarimol rooted in the alteration of early steps of germ cell differentiation. PMID:25984295

  7. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermodynamic characterization of Zr doped ceria in the 1573–1773 K temperature range† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp04916k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work encompasses the thermodynamic characterization and critical evaluation of Zr4+ doped ceria, a promising redox material for the two-step solar thermochemical splitting of H2O and CO2 to H2 and CO. As a case study, we experimentally examine 5 mol% Zr4+ doped ceria and present oxygen nonstoichiometry measurements at elevated temperatures ranging from 1573 K to 1773 K and oxygen partial pressures ranging from 4.50 × 10–3 atm to 2.3 × 10–4 atm, yielding higher reduction extents compared to those of pure ceria under all conditions investigated, especially at the lower temperature range and at higher p O2. In contrast to pure ceria, a simple ideal solution model accounting for the formation of isolated oxygen vacancies and localized electrons accurately describes the defect chemistry. Thermodynamic properties are determined, namely: partial molar enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. In general, partial molar enthalpy and entropy values of Zr4+ doped ceria are lower. The equilibrium hydrogen yields are subsequently extracted as a function of the redox conditions for dopant concentrations as high as 20%. Although reduction extents increase greatly with dopant concentration, the oxidation of Zr4+ doped ceria is thermodynamically less favorable compared to pure ceria. This leads to substantially larger temperature swings between reduction and oxidation steps, ultimately resulting in lower theoretical solar energy conversion efficiencies compared to ceria under most conditions. In effect, these results point to the importance of considering oxidation thermodynamics in addition to reduction when screening potential redox materials. PMID:25714616

  8. Reversible DNA i-motif to hairpin switching induced by copper(ii) cations† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental, preliminary experiments, data fitting and supporting data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05111h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Day, Henry Albert; Wright, Elisé Patricia; MacDonald, Colin John; Gates, Andrew James

    2015-01-01

    i-Motif DNA structures have previously been utilised for many different nanotechnological applications, but all have used changes in pH to fold the DNA. Herein we describe how copper(ii) cations can alter the conformation of i-motif DNA into an alternative hairpin structure which is reversible by chelation with EDTA. PMID:26252811

  9. Orthogonal halogen and hydrogen bonds involving a peptide bond model† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental part, DSC, IR spectroscopic and crystallographic data. CCDC 899779–899785. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4ce01514b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Vasylyeva, Vera; Nayak, Susanta K.; Cavallo, Gabriella; Resnati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The peptide bond model N-methylacetamide self-assembles with a range of dihalotetrafluorobenzenes forming co-crystals that all show the occurrence of orthogonal hydrogen and halogen bonds. PMID:25663816

  10. A bio-catalytically driven Janus mesoporous silica cluster motor with magnetic guidance† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc08285k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xing

    2015-01-01

    A bio-catalytic Janus motor based on the mesoporous silica cluster (JMSC) is fabricated. Chemically conjugated catalase triggers the decomposition of H2O2 to produce driving force by bubble propulsion, while a metallic (Ni) coating layer allows for magnetic guidance of the motor. The JMSC motor can act as a delivery vehicle with cargo loading inside its mesopores. PMID:25407318

  11. Distortions of ethyne when complexed with a cuprous or argentous halide: the rotational spectrum of C2H2···CuF† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp02248g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Stephens, Susanna L.; Tew, David P.; Bittner, Dror M.

    2015-01-01

    A new molecule C2H2···CuF has been synthesized in the gas phase by means of the reaction of laser-ablated metallic copper with a pulse of gas consisting of a dilute mixture of ethyne and sulfur hexafluoride in argon. The ground-state rotational spectrum was detected by two types of Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy, namely that conducted in a microwave Fabry–Perot cavity and the chirped-pulse broadband technique. The spectroscopic constants of the six isotopologues 12C2H2···63Cu19F, 12C2H2···65Cu19F, 13C2H2···63Cu19F, 13C2H2···65Cu19F, 12C2D2···63Cu19F and 12C2D2···65Cu19F were determined and interpreted to show that the molecule has a planar, T-shaped geometry belonging to the molecular point group C 2v, with CuF forming the stem of the T. Quantitative interpretation reveals that the ethyne molecule is distorted when subsumed into the complex in such manner that the C 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 C bond lengthens (by δr) and the two H atoms cease to be collinear with the CC internuclear line. The H atoms move symmetrically away from the approaching Cu atom of CuF, to increase each *C–H angle by δA = 14.65(2)°, from 180° to 194.65(2)°. Ab initio calculations at the explicitly-correlated level of theory CCSD(T)(F12*)/aug-cc-pVTZ lead to good agreement with the experimental geometry. It is shown that similar distortions δr and δA, similarly determined, for four complexes C2H2···MX (M = Cu or Ag; X = F, Cl or CCH) are approximately linearly related to the energies D e for the dissociation process C2H2···MX = C2H2 + MX. PMID:26134582

  12. A diversity-oriented synthesis strategy enabling the combinatorial-type variation of macrocyclic peptidomimetic scaffolds† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, characterization data and details of the computational analyses. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob00371g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Hadje Georgiou, Kathy; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Giacomini, Elisa; Hansen, Mette R.; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; Tan, Yaw Sing; Carro, Laura; Sore, Hannah F.

    2015-01-01

    Macrocyclic peptidomimetics are associated with a broad range of biological activities. However, despite such potentially valuable properties, the macrocyclic peptidomimetic structural class is generally considered as being poorly explored within drug discovery. This has been attributed to the lack of general methods for producing collections of macrocyclic peptidomimetics with high levels of structural, and thus shape, diversity. In particular, there is a lack of scaffold diversity in current macrocyclic peptidomimetic libraries; indeed, the efficient construction of diverse molecular scaffolds presents a formidable general challenge to the synthetic chemist. Herein we describe a new, advanced strategy for the diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) of macrocyclic peptidomimetics that enables the combinatorial variation of molecular scaffolds (core macrocyclic ring architectures). The generality and robustness of this DOS strategy is demonstrated by the step-efficient synthesis of a structurally diverse library of over 200 macrocyclic peptidomimetic compounds, each based around a distinct molecular scaffold and isolated in milligram quantities, from readily available building-blocks. To the best of our knowledge this represents an unprecedented level of scaffold diversity in a synthetically derived library of macrocyclic peptidomimetics. Cheminformatic analysis indicated that the library compounds access regions of chemical space that are distinct from those addressed by top-selling brand-name drugs and macrocyclic natural products, illustrating the value of our DOS approach to sample regions of chemical space underexploited in current drug discovery efforts. An analysis of three-dimensional molecular shapes illustrated that the DOS library has a relatively high level of shape diversity. PMID:25778821

  13. Reply to the 'Comment on "Exposure to mercury and Aroclor 1268 congeners in least terns (Sternula antillarum) in coastal Georgia, USA"' by P. C. Fuchsman, M. H. Henning and V. S. Magar, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 2016, 18, DOI: 10.1039/C5EM00489F.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gabrielle L; Mills, Gary L; Schweitzer, Sara; Hernandez, Sonia

    2016-02-17

    This article provides our response to the comment by Fuchsman et al. regarding the interpretation of results presented in our recent publication (Robinson et al., Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 2015, 17, 1424) reporting on concentrations of Aroclor 1268 congeners in least tern eggs in coastal Georgia, USA. PMID:26814679

  14. Formation of porous SnS nanoplate networks from solution and their application in hybrid solar cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details to performed experiments and characterisation methods, additional XRD data, absorption spectra, TAS data and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc03125g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gury, L.; Sánchez-Molina, I.; Martínez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we present a facile solution-based route towards nanostructured, hybrid absorber layers based on tin mono-sulfide (SnS), an emerging, non-toxic absorber material for low-cost and large-scale PV applications. Charge photogeneration properties in the hybrid system are studied using transient absorption spectroscopy and fabricated solar cells show efficient photocurrent generation over a broad spectral range. PMID:26016404

  15. Structural, optical and charge generation properties of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite copper antimony sulfide thin films prepared from metal xanthates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Chemical structures of the used metal xanthates, additional XRD, SEM-EDX and UV-vis data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta05777a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Andrew J.; Brown, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report on a solution based approach for the preparation of thin films of copper antimony sulfide, an emerging absorber material for third generation solar cells. In this work, copper and antimony xanthates are used as precursor materials for the formation of two different copper antimony sulfide phases: chalcostibite (CuSbS2) and tetrahedrite (Cu12Sb4S13). Both phases were thoroughly investigated regarding their structural and optical properties. Moreover, thin films of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite were prepared on mesoporous TiO2 layers and photoinduced charge transfer in these metal sulfide/TiO2 heterojunctions was studied via transient absorption spectroscopy. Photoinduced charge transfer was detected in both the chalcostibite as well as the tetrahedrite sample, which is an essential property in view of applying these materials as light-harvesting agents in semiconductor sensitized solar cells. PMID:27019713

  16. Miniaturized catalysis: monolithic, highly porous, large surface area capillary flow reactors constructed in situ from polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS)† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cy00510h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Scholder, P.

    2015-01-01

    A single-step molding process utilizing free-radical cross-linking reaction of vinyl POSS in microliter-sized dimensions leads to hierarchically-structured, mechanically robust, porous hybrid structures. Functional variants show excellent performance in Suzuki-type coupling reactions. Due to their small volume, long-term operational robustness, and potential chemical diversity, these materials are promising candidates for catalyst screening applications. PMID:26322221

  17. Electronic communication of cells with a surface mediated by boronic acid saccharide interactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental detail and supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc04311e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson-Brown, Alex; Yong, Sue; Mansor, Muhammad H.; Hussein, Zarrar; Yip, Nga-Chi; Mendes, Paula M.; Fossey, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of a molecularly tailored surface functionalised with a saccharide binding motif, a phenyl boronic acid derivative is reported. The functionalised surface facilitated the transfer of electrons, via unique electronic interactions mediated by the presence of the boronic acid, from a macrophage cell line. This is the first example of eukaryotic cellular-electrical communication mediated by the binding of cells via their cell–surface saccharide units. PMID:26413585

  18. Metal–organic framework based mixed matrix membranes: a solution for highly efficient CO2 capture?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cs00437j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Beatriz; Coronas, Joaquin; Gascon, Ignacio; Benavides, Miren Etxeberria; Karvan, Oğuz; Caro, Jürgen; Kapteijn, Freek

    2015-01-01

    The field of metal–organic framework based mixed matrix membranes (M4s) is critically reviewed, with special emphasis on their application in CO2 capture during energy generation. After introducing the most relevant parameters affecting membrane performance, we define targets in terms of selectivity and productivity based on existing literature on process design for pre- and post-combustion CO2 capture. Subsequently, the state of the art in M4s is reviewed against these targets. Because final application of these membranes will only be possible if thin separation layers can be produced, the latest advances in the manufacture of M4 hollow fibers are discussed. Finally, the recent efforts in understanding the separation performance of these complex composite materials and future research directions are outlined. PMID:25692487

  19. Trivalent Gd-DOTA reagents for modification of proteins† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic details for known compounds; materials and methods for bioconjugation reactions; copies of spectra of new compounds and compounds prepared according to new procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra20359g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Martin J.; Williamson, Daniel J.; Burslem, George M.; Plante, Jeffrey P.; Manfield, Iain W.; Tiede, Christian; Ault, James R.; Stockley, Peter G.; Plein, Sven; Maqbool, Azhar; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Foster, Richard; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel protein-targeted MRI contrast agents crucially depends on the ability to derivatise suitable targeting moieties with a high payload of relaxation enhancer (e.g., gadolinium(iii) complexes such as Gd-DOTA), without losing affinity for the target proteins. Here, we report robust synthetic procedures for the preparation of trivalent Gd-DOTA reagents with various chemical handles for site-specific modification of biomolecules. The reagents were shown to successfully label proteins through isothiocyanate ligation or through site-specific thiol–maleimide ligation and strain-promoted azide–alkyne cycloaddition. PMID:27019702

  20. Response to "Comment on "Conformational analysis of small organic molecules using NOE and RDC data: A discussion of strychnine and α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone" by I.A. Khodov, M.G. Kiselev, V.V. Klochkov, S.V. Efimov [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2016.02.009]" - Or Life is about compromises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Christina M.; Kolmer, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Since the very early days of the Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) researchers try to obtain distance information from the NOE and correlate it with structure. It is quite accepted by now that NOE intensities and cross relaxation rates can be measured quantitatively. In terms of deducing structures from NOEs, however, structural models and approximations have to be used, especially if conformational flexibility is present. For a recent review article, see [1].

  1. Proteome-wide analysis of human disease mutations in short linear motifs: neglected players in cancer?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary files 1–22 and supplementary Fig. 1–3. See DOI: 10.1039/c4mb00290c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Weatheritt, Robert J.; Dinkel, Holger; Davey, Norman E.

    2014-01-01

    Disease mutations are traditionally thought to impair protein functionality by disrupting the folded globular structure of proteins. However, 22% of human disease mutations occur in natively unstructured segments of proteins known as intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). This therefore implicates defective IDR functionality in various human diseases including cancer. The functionality of IDRs is partly attributable to short linear motifs (SLiMs), but it remains an open question how much defects in SLiMs contribute to human diseases. A proteome-wide comparison of the distribution of missense mutations from disease and non-disease mutation datasets revealed that, in IDRs, disease mutations are more likely to occur within SLiMs than neutral missense mutations. Moreover, compared to neutral missense mutations, disease mutations more frequently impact functionally important residues of SLiMs, cause changes in the physicochemical properties of SLiMs, and disrupt more SLiM-mediated interactions. Analysis of these mutations resulted in a comprehensive list of experimentally validated or predicted SLiMs disrupted in disease. Furthermore, this in-depth analysis suggests that ‘prostate cancer pathway’ is particularly enriched for proteins with disease-related SLiMs. The contribution of mutations in SLiMs to disease may currently appear small when compared to mutations in globular domains. However, our analysis of mutations in predicted SLiMs suggests that this contribution might be more substantial. Therefore, when analysing the functional impact of mutations on proteins, SLiMs in proteins should not be neglected. Our results suggest that an increased focus on SLiMs in the coming decades will improve our understanding of human diseases and aid in the development of targeted treatments. PMID:25057855

  2. Light-driven biocatalytic reduction of α,β-unsaturated compounds by ene reductases employing transition metal complexes as photosensitizers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental sections, tables, figures and discussion. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cy01642h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Peers, Martyn K.; Toogood, Helen S.; Heyes, Derren J.; Mansell, David; Coe, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and cost effective nicotinamide cofactor regeneration is essential for industrial-scale bio-hydrogenations employing flavin-containing biocatalysts such as the Old Yellow Enzymes. A direct flavin regeneration system using visible light to initiate a photoredox cycle and drive biocatalysis is described, and shown to be effective in driving biocatalytic activated alkene reduction. Using Ru(ii) or Ir(iii) complexes as photosensitizers, coupled with an electron transfer mediator (methyl viologen) and sacrificial electron donor (triethanolamine) drives catalytic turnover of two Old Yellow Enzymes with multiple oxidative substrates. Therefore, there is great potential in the development of light-driven biocatalytic systems, providing an alternative to the reliance on enzyme-based cofactor regeneration systems. PMID:27019691

  3. Comment on "Structural and Mössbauer studies of evaporated Fe100-x Pdx thin films" by A. Laggoun, A. Guittoum, S. Bahamida, M. Boudissa and A. Fnidiki. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 68, 20301 (2014), Doi: 10.1051/epjap/2014140195

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André Buffat, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The paper "Structural and Mössbauer studies of evaporated Fe100-x Pdx thin films" by A. Laggoun et al. contains interpretation errors of XRD patterns and therefore cast some heavy doubt on the actual phases present in the Fe-Pd films.

  4. BODIPY–BODIPY dyad: assessing the potential as a viscometer for molecular and ionic liquids† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details on the synthesis and purification of BODIPY dyes and ILs, sample preparations and physical properties of ILs as well as spectral data. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ra09757b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Joseph D.; Raut, Sangram; Jameson, Laramie P.; Smith, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    A symmetrical BODIPY–BODIPY dyad with a diyne linker was prepared in two steps; the lifetime decay of this rotor appeared to correlate with the viscosity of the media, thus making this dyad a suitable small molecule viscometer for molecular solvents. The potential of using the rotor to probe the viscosity of ionic liquids was also investigated. PMID:25844163

  5. Intramolecular interactions in the polar headgroup of sphingosine: serinol† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Ab initio parameters for serinol conformers within 1000 cm–1, measured transition frequencies, typical a-type transition for conformer aa1, interconversion barriers and possible tunnelling pathways. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc09423b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Loru, Donatella; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The intramolecular interactions in the lipid sphingosine have been elucidated through the investigation of the amino alcohol serinol which mimics its polar headgroup. Intricate networks of intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups and the amino group contribute to the stabilisation of five different conformations observed in the broadband rotational spectrum. PMID:26727395

  6. Improvements in Cd stable isotope analysis achieved through use of liquid–liquid extraction to remove organic residues from Cd separates obtained by extraction chromatography† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ja00115c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Coles, Barry; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds released from resins that are commonly employed for trace element separations are known to have a detrimental impact on the quality of isotopic analyses by MC-ICP-MS. A recent study highlighted that such effects can be particularly problematic for Cd stable isotope measurements (M. Gault-Ringold and C. H. Stirling, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2012, 27, 449–459). In this case, the final stage of sample purification commonly applies extraction chromatography with Eichrom TRU resin, which employs particles coated with octylphenyl-N,N-di-isobutyl carbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). During chromatography, it appears that some of these compounds are eluted alongside Cd and cannot be removed by evaporation due to their high boiling points. When aliquots of the zero-ε reference material were processed through the purification procedure, refluxed in concentrated HNO3 and analyzed at minimum dilution (in 1 ml 0.1 M HNO3), they yielded Cd isotopic compositions (ε114/110Cd = 4.6 ± 3.4, 2SD, n = 4) that differed significantly from the expected value, despite the use of a double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. This result was accompanied by a 35% reduction in instrumental sensitivity for Cd. With increasing dilution of the organic resin residue, both of these effects are reduced and they are insignificant when the eluted Cd is dissolved in ≥3 ml 0.1 M HNO3. Our results, furthermore, indicate that the isotopic artefacts are most likely related to anomalous mass bias behavior. Previous studies have shown that perchloric acid can be effective at avoiding such effects (Gault-Ringold and Stirling, 2012; K. C. Crocket, M. Lambelet, T. van de Flierdt, M. Rehkämper and L. F. Robinson, Chem. Geol., 2014, 374–375, 128–140), presumably by oxidizing the resin-derived organics, but there are numerous disadvantages to its use. Here we show that liquid–liquid extraction with n-heptane removes the organic compounds, dramatically improving quality of the Cd isotope data for samples that are analyzed at or close to minimum dilution factors. This technique is quick, simple and may be of use prior to analysis of other isotope systems where similar resins are employed. PMID:27284213

  7. DNA topology influences molecular machine lifetime in human serum† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: DNA sequences, fluorophore and quencher properties, equipment design, and degradation studies. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02283e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Goltry, Sara; Hallstrom, Natalya; Clark, Tyler; Kuang, Wan; Lee, Jeunghoon; Jorcyk, Cheryl; Knowlton, William B.; Yurke, Bernard; Hughes, William L.

    2015-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology holds the potential for enabling new tools for biomedical engineering, including diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics. However, applications for DNA devices are thought to be limited by rapid enzymatic degradation in serum and blood. Here, we demonstrate that a key aspect of DNA nanotechnology—programmable molecular shape—plays a substantial role in device lifetimes. These results establish the ability to operate synthetic DNA devices in the presence of endogenous enzymes and challenge the textbook view of near instantaneous degradation. PMID:25959862

  8. Novel nonadride, heptadride and maleic acid metabolites from the byssochlamic acid producer Byssochlamys fulva IMI 40021 – an insight into the biosynthesis of maleidrides† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of any supplementary information available should be included here. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06988b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Szwalbe, Agnieszka J.; Williams, Katherine; O'Flynn, Daniel E.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Mulholland, Nicholas P.; Vincent, Jason L.; Willis, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Byssochlamys fulva strain IMI 40021 produces (+)-byssochlamic acid 1, its novel dihydroanalogue 2 and four related secondary metabolites. Agnestadrides A, 17 and B, 18 constitute a novel class of seven-membered ring, maleic anhydride-containing (hence termed heptadride) natural products. The putative maleic anhydride precursor 5 for both nonadride and heptadride biosynthesis was isolated as a fermentation product for the first time and its structure confirmed by synthesis. Acid 5 undergoes facile decarboxylation to anhydride 6. The generic term maleidrides is proposed to encompass biosynthetically-related compounds containing maleic anhydride moieties fused to an alicyclic ring, varying in size and substituents. PMID:26452099

  9. Discrimination between lectins with similar specificities by ratiometric profiling of binding to glycosylated surfaces; a chemical ‘tongue’ approach† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) is available: This includes protein preparation, surface functionalisation and LDA analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra08857g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, L.

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate–lectin interactions dictate a range of signalling and recognition processes in biological systems. The exploitation of these, particularly for diagnostic applications, is complicated by the inherent promiscuity of lectins along with their low affinity for individual glycans which themselves are challenging to access (bio)synthetically. Inspired by how a ‘tongue’ can discriminate between hundreds of flavours using a minimal set of multiplexed sensors and a training algorithm, here individual lectins are ‘profiled’ based on their unique binding profile (barcode) to a range of monosaccharides. By comparing the relative binding of a panel of 5 lectins to 3 monosaccharide-coated surfaces, it was possible to generate a training algorithm that enables correct identification of lectins, even those with similar glycan preferences. This is demonstrated to be useful for discrimination between the cholera and ricin toxin lectins showing the potential of this minimalist approach for exploiting glycan complexity. PMID:27019703

  10. A novel protocol for the one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction provides easy access to hinge-binding groups for kinase inhibitors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob01915j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, A.; Zambon, A.

    2016-01-01

    The one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction is a very efficient means of accessing cross-coupling products of two aryl-halide partners that generally requires the use of specific catalysts or ligands and/or relatively long reaction times. This new microwave-assisted method provides a quick one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction protocol that we applied to the synthesis of various bi- or poly-aryl scaffolds, including a variety of aryl and heteroaryl ring systems and the core frameworks of kinase inhibitors vemurafenib and GDC-0879. PMID:26620576

  11. An automated programmable platform enabling multiplex dynamic stimuli delivery and cellular response monitoring for high-throughput suspension single-cell signaling studies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4lc01070a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    He, Luye; Kniss, Ariel; San-Miguel, Adriana; Rouse, Tel; Kemp, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell signaling events are orchestrated by dynamic external biochemical cues. By rapidly perturbing cells with dynamic inputs and examining the output from these systems, one could study the structure and dynamic properties of a cellular signaling network. Conventional experimental techniques limit the implementation of these systematic approaches due to the lack of sophistication in manipulating individual cells and the fluid microenvironment around them; existing microfluidic technologies thus far are mainly targeting adherent cells. In this paper we present an automated platform to interrogate suspension cells with dynamic stimuli while simultaneously monitoring cellular responses in a high-throughput manner at single-cell resolution. We demonstrate the use of this platform in an experiment to measure Jurkat T cells in response to distinct dynamic patterns of stimuli; we find cells exhibit highly heterogeneous responses under each stimulation condition. More interestingly, these cells act as low-pass filters, only entrained to the low frequency stimulus signals. We also demonstrate that this platform can be easily programmed to actively generate arbitrary dynamic signals. We envision our platform to be useful in other contexts to study cellular signaling dynamics, which may be difficult using conventional experimental methods. PMID:25609410

  12. Harnessing nonlinear rubber swelling for bulk synthesis of anisotropic hybrid nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The TEM images of control Au–PDVB hybrid nanoparticles formed without the presence of PVP and Au–PS hybrid nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tc01660b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric hybrid nanoparticles are at the forefront of colloidal chemistry as building blocks for novel structures and applications, as well as for exploring fundamental ways of breaking symmetry in physical systems. Current methods of synthesis have significant limitations in terms of control over synthesis, particle size ranges and polydispersity. We report a facile and scalable synthesis based on the anisotropic swelling of rubber to obtain metal–(polymer rubber) hybrid nanoparticles. Initial Au nanoparticle (NP) seeds are grown larger by reducing HAuCl4 with divinyl benzene (DVB), while simultaneous radical polymerization of DVB forms a cross-linked rubber layer of PDVB on the Au NP surface. The propensity of rubber to swell nonlinearly in the presence of DVB monomers amplifies initial asymmetries to break the symmetry of the PDVB shell, causing growth of asymmetric protrusions on one side of the core–shell particles, which are fixed by further polymerization. Plasmonic absorption of Au allows us to follow the Au reduction reaction and also suggests potential applications of some of the asymmetric particles in plasmon-enhanced sensing. The polydispersity, determined statistically from TEM and SEM images, of the resulting particles is low (<10%) and their sizes, shapes and metal–polymer ratios are easily tunable. PMID:27358735

  13. Improved tag-switch method reveals that thioredoxin acts as depersulfidase and controls the intracellular levels of protein persulfidation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc04818d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Wedmann, Rudolf; Onderka, Constantin; Wei, Shengwei; Szijártó, István András; Miljkovic, Jan Lj.; Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Lange, Mike; Savitsky, Sergey; Yadav, Pramod Kumar; Torregrossa, Roberta; Harrer, Ellen G.; Harrer, Thomas; Ishii, Isao; Gollasch, Maik; Wood, Mark E.; Galardon, Erwan; Xian, Ming; Whiteman, Matthew; Banerjee, Ruma

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a signalling molecule capable of regulating several important physiological functions such as blood pressure, neurotransmission and inflammation. The mechanisms behind these effects are still largely elusive and oxidative posttranslational modification of cysteine residues (protein persulfidation or S-sulfhydration) has been proposed as the main pathway for H2S-induced biological and pharmacological effects. As a signalling mechanism, persulfidation has to be controlled. Using an improved tag-switch assay for persulfide detection we show here that protein persulfide levels are controlled by the thioredoxin system. Recombinant thioredoxin showed an almost 10-fold higher reactivity towards cysteine persulfide than towards cystine and readily cleaved protein persulfides as well. This reaction resulted in H2S release suggesting that thioredoxin could be an important regulator of H2S levels from persulfide pools. Inhibition of the thioredoxin system caused an increase in intracellular persulfides, highlighting thioredoxin as a major protein depersulfidase that controls H2S signalling. Finally, using plasma from HIV-1 patients that have higher circulatory levels of thioredoxin, we could prove depersulfidase role in vivo. PMID:27170841

  14. Microwave gallium-68 radiochemistry for kinetically stable bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: structural investigations and cellular uptake under hypoxia† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1001632–1001634. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5dt02537k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Israt S.; Arrowsmith, Rory L.; Cortezon-Tamarit, Fernando; Twyman, Frazer; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Botchway, Stanley W.; Dilworth, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the microwave synthesis of several bis(thiosemicarbazones) and the rapid gallium-68 incorporation to give the corresponding metal complexes. These proved kinetically stable under ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ biological assays and were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and radioactive cell retention studies under normoxia and hypoxia. 68Ga complex retention was found to be 34% higher in hypoxic cells than in normoxic cells over 30 min, further increasing to 53% at 120 min. Our data suggests that this class of gallium complexes show hypoxia selectivity suitable for imaging in living cells and in vivo tests by microPET in nude athymic mice showed that they are excreted within 1 h of their administration. PMID:26583314

  15. Solubilised bright blue-emitting iridium complexes for solution processed OLEDs† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis CIF of the crystal structures. CCDC 1440897–1440899. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6tc00151c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Adam F.; Bansal, Ashu K.; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Combining a sterically bulky, electron-deficient 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-4-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)pyridine (dFMesppy) cyclometalating C∧N ligand with an electron rich, highly rigidified 1,1′-(α,α′-o-xylylene)-2,2′-biimidazole (o-xylbiim) N∧N ligand gives an iridium complex, [Ir(dFMesppy)2(o-xylbiim)](PF6), that achieves extraordinarily bright blue emission (Φ PL = 90%; λ max = 459 nm in MeCN) for a cationic iridium complex. This complex is compared with two reference complexes bearing 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine, and solution-processed organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been fabricated from these materials. PMID:27398216

  16. Mechanochemical and solvent-free assembly of zirconium-based metal–organic frameworks† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Selected PXRD, FTIR-ATR, BET, TGA, SEM and DLS data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc08972g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Užarević, Krunoslav; Wang, Timothy C.; Moon, Su-Young; Fidelli, Athena M.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    We develop the first mechanochemical and solvent-free routes for zirconium metal–organic frameworks, making the frameworks UiO-66 and UiO-66-NH2 accessible on the gram scale without strong acids, high temperatures or excess reactants. The frameworks form either by milling, or spontaneous self-assembly by simply exposing solid mixtures of reactants to organic vapour. The generated frameworks exhibit high porosity and catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of model nerve agents, on par with their solvothermally generated counterparts. PMID:26696097

  17. A reply to Wang T, Shan L, Du L, Feng J, Xu Z, Staal WG, Jia F. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015; doi: 10.1007/s00787-015-0786-1.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Keith

    2016-04-01

    The author of this correspondence has recently published findings of an ecological investigation wherein herbicide use was proposed as an instrumental variable that predicts healthcare utilization among subjects with severe ADHD impairment via individual exposure to nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Vitamin D deficiency, a possible risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as discussed by Wang et al., may be a homeostatic response to increasing chronic environmental N2O exposures. The author explains how deficient and insufficient states of vitamin D may promote vagal withdrawal and tolerance to increasing opioid exposures in the environment and how these characteristics are particularly relevant in neurodevelopmental disorders, like ASD and ADHD. PMID:26662808

  18. Probing the mechanisms of electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry with nitrated peptides† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: CID MS/MS spectra of N-acetylated peptides; CID experimental data. See DOI: 10.1039/c0cp00623h

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    Previously we have shown that the presence of 3-nitrotyrosine within a peptide sequence severely depletes the peptide backbone fragments typically observed following electron capture dissociation (ECD) mass spectrometry. Instead, ECD of nitrated peptides is characterised by abundant losses of small neutrals (hydroxyl radicals, water and ammonia). Here, we investigate the origin of ammonia loss by comparing the ECD behaviour of lysine- and arginine-containing nitrated peptides, and their N-acetylated counterparts, and nitrated peptides containing no basic amino acid residues. The results reveal that ammonia loss derives from the N-terminus of the peptides, however, the key finding of this work is the insight provided into the hierarchy of various proposed ECD mechanisms: the Utah-Washington mechanism, the electron predator mechanism and the Oslo mechanism. PMID:20830387

  19. A simple approach to hybrid inorganic–organic step-growth hydrogels with scalable control of physicochemical properties and biodegradability† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and characterization data as mentioned in the text. See DOI: 10.1039/c4py01789g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Alves, F.

    2015-01-01

    We prepared new and scalable, hybrid inorganic–organic step-growth hydrogels with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) network knot construction elements and hydrolytically degradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) di-ester macromonomers by in situ radical-mediated thiol–ene photopolymerization. The physicochemical properties of the gels are fine-tailored over orders of magnitude including functionalization of their interior, a hierarchical gel structure, and biodegradability. PMID:25821524

  20. Erratum: Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in five groups with different severities of gambling: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions by Jacquelene F. Moghaddam, Gihyun Yoon, Daniel L. Dickerson, Suck Won Kim, and Joseph Westermeyer DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12197.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    In Ref.[1], the following error was published under the Declaration of Interest. The article erroneously acknowledged the receipt of a funding source #1R01AA022066-01. We apologize for this error. PMID:26767449

  1. Synthesis and activity of a novel inhibitor of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and spectroscopic data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob02482j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gotham, Victoria J. B.; Hobbs, Melanie C.; Burgin, Ryan; Turton, David

    2016-01-01

    During efforts to prepare the known compound NMDI1, a new tetracyclic compound, called VG1, was prepared in six steps. This compound was found to have good activity as an inhibitor of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. PMID:26740124

  2. Spontaneous formation of Au–Pt alloyed nanoparticles using pure nano-counterparts as starters: a ligand and size dependent process† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: supplementary STEM and EDS data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01819f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Usón, Laura; Mayoral, Alvaro; Hueso, Jose L.; Eguizabal, Adela; Arruebo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate the formation of PtAu monodisperse alloyed nanoparticles by ageing pure metallic Au and Pt small nanoparticles (sNPs), nanoparticle size <5 nm, under certain conditions. We demonstrate that those bimetallic entities can be obtained by controlling the size of the initial metallic sNPs separately prepared and by selecting their appropriate capping agents. The formation of this spontaneous phenomenon was studied using HR-STEM, EDS, ionic conductivity, UV-Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Depending on the type of capping agent used and the size of the initial Au sNPs, three different materials were obtained: (i) AuPt bimetallic sNPs showing a surface rich in Au atoms, (ii) segregated Au and Pt sNPs and (iii) a mixture of bimetallic nanoparticles as well as Pt sNPs and Au NPs. Surface segregation energies and the nature of the reaction environment are the driving forces to direct the distribution of atoms in the bimetallic sNPs. PtAu alloyed nanoparticles were obtained after 150 h of reaction at room temperature if a weak capping agent was used for the stabilization of the nanoparticles. It was also found that Au atoms diffuse towards Pt sNPs, producing a surface enriched in Au atoms. This study shows that even pure nanoparticles are prone to be modified by the surrounding nanoparticles to give rise to new nanomaterials if atomic diffusion is feasible. PMID:25985914

  3. The photochemical thiol–ene reaction as a versatile method for the synthesis of glutathione S-conjugates targeting the bacterial potassium efflux system Kef† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further experimental details and NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c5qo00436e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Tim; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    The thiol–ene coupling reaction is emerging as an important conjugation reaction that is suitable for use in a biological setting. Here, we explore the utility of this reaction for the synthesis of glutathione-S-conjugates (GSX) and present a general, operationally simple, protocol with a wide substrate scope. The GSX afforded are an important class of compounds and provide invaluable molecular tools to study glutathione-binding proteins. In this study we apply the diverse library of GSX synthesised to further our understanding of the structural requirements for binding to the glutathione-binding protein, Kef, a bacterial K+ efflux system, found in many bacterial pathogens. This system is vital to the survival of bacteria upon exposure to electrophiles, and plays an essential role in the maintenance of intracellular pH and K+ homeostasis. Consequently, Kef is an appealing target for the development of novel antibacterial drugs. PMID:27110363

  4. Self-assembly of endohedral metallofullerenes: a decisive role of cooling gas and metal–carbon bonding† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information on metal–carbon bonding and MD simulations. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08645k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qingming; Heine, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The endohedral metallofullerene (EMF) self-assembly process in Sc/carbon vapor in the presence and absence of an inert cooling gas (helium) is systematically investigated using quantum chemical molecular dynamics simulations. It is revealed that the presence of He atoms accelerates the formation of pentagons and hexagons and reduces the size of the self-assembled carbon cages in comparison with analogous He-free simulations. As a result, the Sc/C/He system simulations produce a larger number of successful trajectories (i.e. leading to Sc-EMFs) with more realistic cage-size distribution than simulations of the Sc/C system. The main Sc encapsulation mechanism involves nucleation of several hexagons and pentagons with Sc atoms already at the early stages of carbon vapor condensation. In such proto-cages, both Sc–C σ-bonds and coordination bonds between Sc atoms and the π-system of the carbon network are present. Sc atoms are thus rather labile and can move along the carbon network, but the overall bonding is sufficiently strong to prevent dissociation even at temperatures around 2000 kelvin. Further growth of the fullerene cage results in the encapsulation of one or two Sc atoms within the fullerene. In agreement with experimental studies, an extension of the simulations to Fe and Ti as the metal component showed that Fe-EMFs are not formed at all, whereas Ti is prone to form Ti-EMFs with small cage sizes, including Ti@C28-T d and Ti@C30-C 2v(3). PMID:26815243

  5. Core functionalization of semi-crystalline polymeric cylindrical nanoparticles using photo-initiated thiol–ene radical reactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further methods, polymer and nanostructure characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5py01970b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Thomas, Anthony W.; Inam, Maria; Doncom, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Sequential ring-opening and reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was used to form a triblock copolymer of tetrahydropyran acrylate (THPA), 5-methyl-5-allyloxycarbonyl-1,3-dioxan-2-one (MAC) and l-lactide. Concurrent deprotection of the THPA block and crystallization-driven self-assembly (CDSA) was undertaken and allowed for the formation of cylindrical micelles bearing allyl handles in a short outer core segment. These handles were further functionalized by different thiols using photo-initiated thiol–ene radical reactions to demonstrate that the incorporation of an amorphous PMAC block within the core does not disrupt CDSA and can be used to load the cylindrical nanoparticles with cargo.

  6. Conformational properties of 1,4- and 1,5-substituted 1,2,3-triazole amino acids – building units for peptidic foldamers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Tables on the RHF/3-21G conformers, NMR spectra and analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ob02359e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Peptidic foldamers have recently emerged as a novel class of artificial oligomers with properties and structural diversity similar to that of natural peptides, but possessing additional interesting features granting them great potential for applications in fields from nanotechnology to pharmaceuticals. Among these, foldamers containing 1,4- and 1,5-substitued triazole amino acids are easily prepared via the Cu- and Ru-catalyzed click reactions and may offer increased side chain variation, but their structural capabilities have not yet been widely explored. We here describe a systematic analysis of the conformational space of the two most important basic units, the 1,4-substitued (4Tzl) and the 1,5-substitued (5Tzl) 1,2,3-triazole amino acids, using quantum chemical calculations and NMR spectroscopy. Possible conformations of the two triazoles were scanned and their potential minima were located using several theoretical approaches (B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p), ωB97X-D/6-311++G(2d,2p), M06-2X/6-311++G(2d,2p) and MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p)) in different solvents. BOC-protected versions of 4Tzl and 5Tzl were also prepared via one step transformations and analyzed by 2D NOESY NMR. Theoretical results show 9 conformers for 5Tzl derivatives with relative energies lying close to each other, which may lead to a great structural diversity. NMR analysis also indicates that conformers preferring turn, helix and zig-zag secondary structures may coexist in solution. In contrast, 4Tzl has a much lower number of conformers, only 4, and these lack strong intraresidual interactions. This is again supported by NMR suggesting the presence of both extended and bent conformers. The structural information provided on these building units could be employed in future design of triazole foldamers. PMID:25605623

  7. Targeting the endoplasmic reticulum with a membrane-interactive luminescent ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complex† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization of 2 and Fig. S1–S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c3sc51725j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Martin R.; Cecchin, Denis; Walker, Michael G.; Mulla, Raminder S.

    2013-01-01

    The characterization and bioactivity of the dinuclear ruthenium(ii) complex [(Ru(DIP)2)2(tpphz)]4+ (DIP = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and tpphz = tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c:3′′,2′′-h:2′′′,3′′′-j]phenazine) is reported. This new complex is found to be luminescent in acetonitrile, where excitation into MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge-transfer) bands in the visible area of the spectrum (λ ex = 450 nm, ε = 45 000 M–1 cm–1) result in red emission (λ em,max = 620 nm, Φ MLCT = 0.017). Aqueous in vitro binding studies indicate that this complex binds to duplex DNA with an affinity of 1.8 × 106 M–1 through a non-classical groove-binding interaction, however, unlike the parent complex [(Ru(phen)2)2(tpphz)]4+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), it also displays an increase in MLCT luminescence on addition of liposomes. Confocal microscopy and TEM studies show that this lipophilic complex targets the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells, where it functions as an imaging agent for this organelle, and cytotoxicity studies in human cancer cell lines indicate a comparable potency to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin. PMID:25580209

  8. A multifunctional poly(curcumin) nanomedicine for dual-modal targeted delivery, intracellular responsive release, dual-drug treatment and imaging of multidrug resistant cancer cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The synthesis procedure of Biotin–PEG–PCDA and the experimental results of MTT. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tb02450a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jining; Wang, Feihu; Li, Fangzhou; Zhang, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    A multifunctional anti-cancer nanomedicine based on a biotin–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(curcumin-dithio dipropionic acid) (Biotin–PEG–PCDA) polymeric nanocarrier loaded with paclitaxel (PTX), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and quantum dots (QDs) is developed. It combines advantageous properties of efficient targeted delivery and uptake (via biotin and MNP), intracellular responsive release (via cleavable PCDA polymer), fluorescence imaging (via QD) and combined PTX-curcumin dual-drug treatment, allowing for overcoming drug resistance mechanisms of model multidrug resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). The PTX/MNPs/QDs@Biotin–PEG–PCDA nanoparticles are highly stable under physiological conditions, but are quickly disassembled to release their drug load in the presence of 10 mM glutathione (GSH). The nanoparticles show high uptake by tumour cells from a combined effect of magnet targeting and biotin receptor-mediated internalization. Moreover, curcumin, an intracellularly cleaved product of PCDA, can effectively down regulate the expression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to increase PTX accumulation within target cancer cells, thereby enhancing PTX induced cytotoxicity and therapeutic efficacy against MCF-7/ADR cells. Taken together, this novel tumour-targeting and traceable multifunctional nanomedicine is highly effective against model MDR cancer at the cellular level. PMID:27152196

  9. Classifying pairs with trees for supervised biological network inference† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Implementation and computational issues, supplementary performance curves, and illustration of interpretability of trees. See DOI: 10.1039/c5mb00174a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Wehenkel, Louis; Babu, M. Madan; Geurts, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Networks are ubiquitous in biology, and computational approaches have been largely investigated for their inference. In particular, supervised machine learning methods can be used to complete a partially known network by integrating various measurements. Two main supervised frameworks have been proposed: the local approach, which trains a separate model for each network node, and the global approach, which trains a single model over pairs of nodes. Here, we systematically investigate, theoretically and empirically, the exploitation of tree-based ensemble methods in the context of these two approaches for biological network inference. We first formalize the problem of network inference as a classification of pairs, unifying in the process homogeneous and bipartite graphs and discussing two main sampling schemes. We then present the global and the local approaches, extending the latter for the prediction of interactions between two unseen network nodes, and discuss their specializations to tree-based ensemble methods, highlighting their interpretability and drawing links with clustering techniques. Extensive computational experiments are carried out with these methods on various biological networks that clearly highlight that these methods are competitive with existing methods. PMID:26008881

  10. Zero-strain reductive intercalation in a molecular framework† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis, experimental methods, and sample characterisation; X-ray powder diffraction refinement details. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ce02364a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Joshua A.; Cairns, Andrew B.; Lim, Jared J. K.; Cassidy, Simon J.; Clarke, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Reductive intercalation of potassium within the molecular framework Ag3[Fe(CN)6] gives rise to a volume strain that is an order of magnitude smaller than is typical for common ion-storage materials. We suggest that framework flexibility might be exploited as a general strategy for reducing cycling strain in battery and ion-storage materials. PMID:25892969

  11. The reaction of an iridium PNP complex with parahydrogen facilitates polarisation transfer without chemical change† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sample preparation, signal enhancements and raw data. CCDC 1026865. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4dt03088e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Arthur J.; Rayner, Peter J.; Cowley, Michael J.; Green, Gary G. R.; Whitwood, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    The short lived pincer complex [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(py)]BF4 is shown to be active for signal amplification by reversible exchange. This catalyst formulation enables the efficient transfer of polarization from parahydrogen to be placed into just a single molecule of the hyperpolarisation target, pyridine. When the catalysts 1H nuclei are replaced by 2H, increased levels of substrate hyperpolarization result and when the reverse situation is examined the catalyst itself is clearly visible through hyperpolarised signals. The ligand exchange pathways of [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(py)]BF4 that are associated with this process are shown to involve the formation of 16-electron [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2]BF4 and the 18-electron H2 addition product [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(H2)]BF4. PMID:25410259

  12. Ultrafast intersystem crossing dynamics in uracil unravelled by ab initio molecular dynamics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Discussion of fitting procedure for decay time constants, assignment of state character for ISC transitions and Cartesian coordinates of molecular geometries. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp04158e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Martin; Mai, Sebastian; González, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been performed in order to investigate the relaxation dynamics of uracil after UV excitation in gas phase. Intersystem crossing (ISC) has been included for the first time into time-dependent simulations of uracil, allowing the system to relax in the singlet as well as in the triplet states. The results show a qualitatively different picture than similar simulations that include singlet states only. The inclusion of ISC effectively quenches the relaxation to the singlet ground state and instead privileges transitions from the low-lying nπ* state (S1) to a ππ* triplet state (T2) followed by rapid internal conversion to the lowest triplet state. PMID:25301389

  13. First synthetic analogues of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates: interaction with PP-InsP5 kinase† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Data deposition: the atomic coordinates and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank, www.pdb.org (PDB ID code 4GB4). See DOI: 10.1039/c2cc36044f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Andrew M.; Wang, Huanchen; Weaver, Jeremy D.; Shears, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    We synthesised analogues of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (PP-InsPs) in which the diphosphate is replaced by an α-phosphonoacetic acid (PA) ester. Structural analysis revealed that 5-PA-InsP5 mimics 5-PP-InsP5 binding to the kinase domain of PPIP5K2; both molecules were phosphorylated by the enzyme. PA-InsPs are promising candidates for further studies into the biology of PP-InsPs. PMID:23032903

  14. Synthetic tools for studying the chemical biology of InsP8 † †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Data deposition: atomic coordinates and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank, www.pdb.org (PDB ID codes 5BYA and 5BYB). See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05017k

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Andrew M.; Wang, Huanchen; Shears, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    To synthesise stabilised mimics of InsP8, the most phosphorylated inositol phosphate signalling molecule in Nature, we replaced its two diphosphate (PP) groups with either phosphonoacetate (PA) or methylenebisphosphonate (PCP) groups. Utility of the PA and PCP analogues was verified by structural and biochemical analyses of their interactions with enzymes of InsP8 metabolism. PMID:26153667

  15. Mechanistic investigations reveal that dibromobimane extrudes sulfur from biological sulfhydryl sources other than hydrogen sulfide† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, pH stability data for BTE, NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc01875c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Leticia A.; Shen, Xinggui; McDermott, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule in the last decade. During the growth of this field, significant controversy has arisen centered on the physiological concentrations of H2S. Recently, a monobromobimane (mBB) method has been developed for the quantification of different biologically-relevant sulfide pools. Based on the prevalence of the mBB method for sulfide quantification, we expand on this method to report the use of dibromobimane (dBB) for sulfide quantification. Reaction of H2S with dBB results in formation of highly-fluorescent bimane thioether (BTE), which is readily quantifiable by HPLC. Additionally, the reaction of sulfide with dBB to form BTE is significantly faster than the reaction of sulfide with mBB to form sulfide dibimane. Using the dBB method, BTE levels as low as 0.6 pM can be detected. Upon use of the dBB method in wild-type and CSE–/– mice, however, dBB reports significantly higher sulfide levels than those measured using mBB. Further investigation revealed that dBB is able to extract sulfur from other sulfhydryl sources including thiols. Based on mechanistic studies, we demonstrate that dBB extracts sulfur from thiols with α- or β-hydrogens, thus leading to higher BTE formation than from sulfide alone. Taken together, the dBB method is a highly sensitive method for H2S but is not compatible for use in studies in which other thiols are present. PMID:25632344

  16. Chemically diverse polymer microarrays and high throughput surface characterisation: a method for discovery of materials for stem cell culture† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4bm00054d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Celiz, A. D.; Smith, J. G. W.; Patel, A. K.; Langer, R.; Anderson, D. G.; Barrett, D. A.; Young, L. E.; Davies, M. C.; Denning, C.

    2014-01-01

    Materials discovery provides the opportunity to identify novel materials that are tailored to complex biological environments by using combinatorial mixing of monomers to form large libraries of polymers as micro arrays. The materials discovery approach is predicated on the use of the largest chemical diversity possible, yet previous studies into human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) response to polymer microarrays have been limited to 20 or so different monomer identities in each study. Here we show that it is possible to print and assess cell adhesion of 141 different monomers in a microarray format. This provides access to the largest chemical space to date, allowing us to meet the regenerative medicine challenge to provide scalable synthetic culture ware. This study identifies new materials suitable for hPSC expansion that could not have been predicted from previous knowledge of cell-material interactions. PMID:25328672

  17. Retraction: Sophocleous, M. (2012). Conserving and extending the useful life of the largest aquifer in North America: The future of the High Plains/Ogallala aquifer. Ground Water , 50: 831–839. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00965.x.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The above article, published online on July 23, 2012 on Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the author's sponsoring institution, the journal Editor in Chief, Franklin W. Schwartz, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation by the Kansas Geological Survey (a research and service division of the University of Kansas), which identified unattributed areas of overlap with a number of other publications. PMID:24754060

  18. Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of QDs, XPS spectra, UV-vis and PL spectra of the sensitized electrodes, details about photophysical characterization and IPCE spectra interpretation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta06769c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhyung; Sajjad, Muhammad T.; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Reiss, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells has demonstrated the possibility of low-cost and efficient photovoltaics. However, the standard device structure based on n-type materials often suffers from slow hole injection rate, which may lead to unbalanced charge transport. We have fabricated efficient p-type (inverted) QD sensitized cells, which combine the advantages of conventional QD cells with p-type dye sensitized configurations. Moreover, p-type QD sensitized cells can be used in highly promising tandem configurations with n-type ones. QDs without toxic Cd and Pb elements and with improved absorption and stability were successfully deposited onto mesoporous NiO electrode showing good coverage and penetration according to morphological analysis. Detailed photophysical charge transfer studies showed that high hole injection rates (108 s–1) observed in such systems are comparable with electron injection in conventional n-type QD assemblies. Inverted solar cells fabricated with various QDs demonstrate excellent power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.25%, which is 4 times higher than the best values for previous inverted QD sensitized cells. Attempts to passivate the surface of the QDs show that traditional methods of reduction of recombination in the QD sensitized cells are not applicable to the inverted architectures. PMID:27478616

  19. Visualizing Keyword Distribution across Multidisciplinary C-Space; Google Meets eBay: What Academic Librarians Can Learn from Alternative Information Providers; Trends in Use of Electronic Journals in Higher Education in the UK-Views of Academic Staff and Students; DOI: A 2003 Progress Report; Understanding the International Audiences for Digital Cultural Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald; Kenney, Anne R.; McGovern, Nancy Y.; Martinez, Ida T.; Heidig, Lance J.; Bonthron, Karen; Urquhart, Christine; Thomas, Rhian; Ellis, David; Everitt, Jean; Lonsdale, Ray; McDermott, Elizabeth; Morris, Helen; Phillips, Rebecca; Spink, Sian; Yeoman, Alison; Armstrong, Chris; Fenton, Roger; Paskin, Norman; Miller, Paul; Dawson, David; Perkins, John

    2003-01-01

    Includes five articles that discusses c-space as a visualization schema related to keyword distribution in information retrieval; academic librarians and alternative information providers, such as Google and eBay; electronic journal use in higher education in the United Kingdom; digital object identifiers; and international audiences for digital…

  20. Supra-molecular assembly of a lumican-derived peptide amphiphile enhances its collagen-stimulating activity† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: DETAILS. See DOI: 10.1039/c5bm00428d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Merlin N. M.; Dehsorkhi, Ashkan; Hamley, Ian W.

    2016-01-01

    C16-YEALRVANEVTLN, a peptide amphiphile (PA) incorporating a biologically active amino acid sequence found in lumican, has been examined for its influence upon collagen synthesis by human corneal fibroblasts in vitro, and the roles of supra-molecular assembly and activin receptor-like kinase ALK receptor signaling in this effect were assessed. Cell viability was monitored using the Alamar blue assay, and collagen synthesis was assessed using Sirius red. The role of ALK signaling was studied by receptor inhibition. Cultured human corneal fibroblasts synthesized significantly greater amounts of collagen in the presence of the PA over both 7-day and 21-day periods. The aggregation of the PA to form nanotapes resulted in a notable enhancement in this activity, with an approximately two-fold increase in collagen production per cell. This increase was reduced by the addition of an ALK inhibitor. The data presented reveal a stimulatory effect upon collagen synthesis by the primary cells of the corneal stroma, and demonstrate a direct influence of supra-molecular assembly of the PA upon the cellular response observed. The effects of PA upon fibroblasts were dependent upon ALK receptor function. These findings elucidate the role of self-assembled nanostructures in the biological activity of peptide amphiphiles, and support the potential use of a self-assembling lumican derived PA as a novel biomaterial, intended to promote collagen deposition for wound repair and tissue engineering purposes. PMID:26626506

  1. Comment on "The ligand polyhedral model approach to the mechanism of complete carbonyl exchange in [Rh4(CO)12] and [Rh6(CO)16]" by Brian F. G. Johnson, Dalton Transactions, 2015, 44, DOI: 10.1039/C4DT03360D.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Brian T; Grachova, Elena V; Tunik, Sergey P; Podkorytov, Ivan S

    2015-10-01

    Experimental results (recent IR, DFT calculations and modern multinuclear NMR measurements on Rh-containing clusters, together with earlier VT multinuclear NMR measurements) show that the use of the Ligand Polyhedral Model (LPM) to provide a general mechanism for ligand fluxionality in Transition Metal Carbonyl Clusters (TMCCs) in solution cannot be sustained; instead there are numerous examples of only partial CO-migration over either part or sometimes the whole of the Rh-polyhedron as well as rhodium and carbonyl polyhedral rearrangements of Rh9- and Rh10-TMCCs containing an interstitial P when, in the high temperature limiting spectra, all the metals and all the carbonyls become equivalent and show time-averaged values of (1)J(Rh-P) and (2)J(P-CO) respectively. PMID:26344915

  2. Coordination polymers of 5-substituted isophthalic acid† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1417516–1417520 contain the supplementary crystallographic data for this paper. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5ce02091c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Samuel A.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Teat, Simon J.; Morris, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of five coordination polymers – Ni2(mip)2(H2O)8·2H2O (1), Zn6(mip)5(OH)2(H2O)4·7.4H2O (2), Zn6(mip)5(OH)2(H2O)2·4H2O (3), Mn(HMeOip)2 (4), and Mn3(tbip)2(Htbip)2(EtOH)2 (5) – are reported. Preliminary nitric oxide release data on compounds 2 and 3 are also given. PMID:27019640

  3. Regio- and stereoselective synthesis of benzothiazolo-pyrimidinones via an NHC-catalyzed Mannich/lactamization domino reaction† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1029497. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4cc08594a

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qijian; Song, Xiaoxiao; Xiong, Jiawen; Raabe, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    An NHC-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective Mannich/lactamization domino reaction of N-(benzothiazolyl)imines with α-chloroaldehydes has been developed. This new protocol provides a facile approach for the asymmetric synthesis of benzothiazolo-pyrimidinones and a pyrrolo[1,2-a]indolone in moderate to good yields (34–78%) and excellent stereoselectivities (87–99% ee, up to >20 : 1 d.r.). PMID:25476422

  4. Synthesis and luminescence modulation of pyrazine-based gold(iii) pincer complexes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of synthesis and characterization, X-ray crystallography, photophysical properties, theoretical calculations. CCDC 1417819–1417822. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5cc07523h

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Cestau, Julio; Bertrand, Benoît; Blaya, Maria; Jones, Garth A.

    2015-01-01

    The first examples of pyrazine-based gold(iii) pincer complexes are reported; their intense photoemissions can be modified by protonation, N-alkylation or metal ions, without the need for altering the ligand framework. Emissions shift from red (77 K) to blue (298 K) due to thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). PMID:26425736

  5. Enzyme-responsive polyion complex (PIC) nanoparticles for the targeted delivery of antimicrobial polymers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Peptide synthesis, further details of PIC nanoparticle characterisation and full data from microbiology assays. See DOI: 10.1039/c6py00146g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Insua, Ignacio; Liamas, Evangelos; Zhang, Zhenyu; Peacock, Anna F. A.; Krachler, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Here we present new enzyme-responsive polyion complex (PIC) nanoparticles prepared from antimicrobial poly(ethylene imine) and an anionic enzyme-responsive peptide targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa's elastase. The synthetic conditions used to prepare these nanomaterials allowed us to optimise particle size and charge, and their stability under physiological conditions. We demonstrate that these enzyme responsive PIC nanoparticles are selectively degraded in the presence of P. aeruginosa elastase without being affected by other endogenous elastases. This enzyme-responsive PIC particle can exert an elastase-specific antimicrobial effect against P. aeruginosa without affecting non-pathogenic strains of these bacteria. These targeted enzyme-responsive PIC nanoparticles constitute a novel platform for the delivery of antimicrobial peptides and polymers, and can be a powerful tool in the current race against antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27148427

  6. Deuterated carbohydrate probes as ‘label-free’ substrates for probing nutrient uptake in mycobacteria by nuclear reaction analysis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc09588j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, R.; Gibson, M. I.; Thompson, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and probing small molecule uptake in cells is challenging, requiring sterically large chemical labels, or radioactive isotopes. Here, the uptake of deuterated sugars by Mycobacterium smegmatis, a non-pathogenic model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been investigated using ion-beam (nuclear reaction) analysis demonstrating a new technique for label-free nutrient acquisition measurement. PMID:25695462

  7. Comment on: 'Late Cretaceous extensional denudation along a marble detachment fault zone in the Kırşehir massif near Kaman, Central Turkey' by C. Lefebvre et al., 2011 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsg.2011.06.002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genç, Yurdal; Yürür, Tekin

    2012-03-01

    For long time, Central Anatolia was believed to be a region undergoing compressional tectonics following the Late Cretaceous closure of the Tethys Ocean. Gautier et al. (2008) who studied the ductile domain of the Niğde core complex discussed the Niğde exhumation in terms of compression and extension. Genç and Yürür (2004), Yürür and Genç (2006), and Genç and Yürür (2010) structurally described the detachment faults not only from the Niğde Massif but also from several other locations in central Anatolia to propose that the region underwent crustal extension since Late Cretaceous time. One of the important conclusions of Genç and Yürür (2010) is that the suture lines now observed in Anatolia have to be reconsidered with regard to displacements that the suture lines may have experienced due to this extensional regime. A new paper by Lefebvre et al. (2011), was recently published dealing with the tectonics of the Kırşehir Massif entitled 'Cretaceous extensional denudation along a marble detachment fault zone in the Kırşehir massif near Kaman, Central Turkey'. The paper mainly discusses the 'Kaman fault zone' using calcite deformation fabrics of the marbles. Applying calcite fabrics and geochronological data from the literature, they propose a geotectonic model in four stages for the Kırşehir metamorphics. The purpose of this comment is to point out a number of incoherencies in the paper of Lefebvre et al. (2011). We have numbered these for convenience.

  8. Eliminating caspase-7 and cathepsin B cross-reactivity on fluorogenic caspase-3 substrates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supporting figures, synthesis and characterisation of the substrates, and enzymatic assays. See DOI: 10.1039/c5mb00730e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Martha; Pérez-López, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    11 FRET-based fluorogenic substrates were constructed using the pentapeptide template Asp-Glu-X2-Asp-X1′, and evaluated with caspase-3, caspase-7 and cathepsin B. The sequence Asp-Glu-Pro-Asp-Ser was able to selectively quantify caspase-3 activity in vitro without notable caspase-7 and cathepsin B cross-reactivity, while exhibiting low μM K M values and good catalytic efficiencies (7.0–16.9 μM–1 min–1). PMID:26726961

  9. Tylosin polyketide synthase module 3: stereospecificity, stereoselectivity and steady-state kinetic analysis of β-processing domains via diffusible, synthetic substrates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01505g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Fiers, William D.; Dodge, Greg J.; Li, Yang; Smith, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Polyketide synthase (PKS) β-processing domains are responsible for much of the stereochemical complexity of polyketide natural products. Although the importance of β-processing domains has been well noted and significantly explored, key stereochemical details pertaining to cryptic stereochemistry and the impact of remote stereogenic centers have yet to be fully discerned. To uncover the inner workings of ketoreductases (KR) and dehydratases (DH) from the tylosin pathway a didomain composed of TylDH3-KR3 was recombinantly expressed and interrogated with full-length tetraketide substrates to probe the impact of vicinal and distal stereochemistry. In vitro product isolation analysis revealed the products of the cryptic KR as d-alcohols and of the DH as trans-olefins. Steady-state kinetic analysis of the dehydration reaction demonstrated a strict stereochemical tolerance at the β-position as d-configured substrates were processed more than 100 times more efficiently than l-alcohols. Unexpectedly, the k cat/K M values were diminished 14- to 45-fold upon inversion of remote ε- and ζ-stereocenters. This stereochemical discrimination is predicted to be driven by a combination of allylic A1,3 strain that likely disfavors binding of the ε-epimer and a loss of electrostatic interactions with the ζ-epimer. Our results strongly suggest that dehydratases may play a role in refining the stereochemical outcomes of preceding modules through their substrate stereospecificity, honing the configurational purity of the final PKS product. PMID:26366283

  10. Using a biomimetic membrane surface experiment to investigate the activity of the magnetite biomineralisation protein Mms6† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Including Mms6 protein and peptide sequences, additional QCM-D and SEM data and protein modelling. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra16469a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Scott M.; Rawlings, Andrea E.; Galloway, Johanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are able to synthesise precise nanoparticles of the iron oxide magnetite within their cells. These particles are formed in dedicated organelles termed magnetosomes. These lipid membrane compartments use a range of biomineralisation proteins to nucleate and regulate the magnetite crystallisation process. A key component is the membrane protein Mms6, which binds to iron ions and helps to control the formation of the inorganic core. We have previously used Mms6 on gold surfaces patterned with a self-assembled monolayer to successfully produce arrays of magnetic nanoparticles. Here we use this surface system as a mimic of the interior face of the magnetosome membrane to study differences between intact Mms6 and the acid-rich C-terminal peptide subregion of the Mms6 protein. When immobilised on surfaces, the peptide is unable to reproduce the particle size or homogeneity control exhibited by the full Mms6 protein in our experimental setup. Moreover, the peptide is unable to support anchoring of a dense array of nanoparticles to the surface. This system also allows us to deconvolute particle binding from particle nucleation, and shows that Mms6 particle binding is less efficient when supplied with preformed magnetite nanoparticles when compared to particles precipitated from solution in the presence of the surface immobilised Mms6. This suggests that Mms6 binds to iron ions rather than to magnetite surfaces in our system, and is perhaps a nucleating agent rather than a controller of magnetite crystal growth. The comparison between the peptide and the protein under identical experimental conditions indicates that the full length sequence is required to support the full function of Mms6 on surfaces. PMID:27019707

  11. Tripodal tris(hydroxypyridinone) ligands for immunoconjugate PET imaging with 89Zr4+: comparison with desferrioxamine-B† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: 1H and 13C NMR data, reverse phase HPLC and size exclusion HPLC chromatograms, phosphoimages of ITLC plates, ex vivo biodistribution data. See DOI: 10.1039/c4dt02978j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Meszaros, Levente K.; Paterson, Brett M.; Berry, David J.; Cooper, Maggie S.; Ma, Yongmin; Hider, Robert C.; Blower, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its long half-life (78 h) and decay properties (77% electron capture, 23% β+, E max = 897 keV, E av = 397 keV, Eγ = 909 keV, Iγ = 100%) 89Zr is an appealing radionuclide for immunoPET imaging with whole IgG antibodies. Derivatives of the siderophore desferrioxamine-B (H3DFO) are the most widely used bifunctional chelators for coordination of 89Zr4+ because the radiolabeling of the resulting immunoconjugates is rapid under mild conditions. 89Zr-DFO complexes are reportedly stable in vitro but there is evidence that 89Zr4+ is released in vivo, and subsequently taken up by the skeleton. We have evaluated a novel tripodal tris(hydroxypyridinone) chelator, H3CP256 and its bifunctional maleimide derivative, H3YM103, for coordination of Zr4+ and compared the NMR spectra, and the 89Zr4+ radiolabeling, antibody conjugation, serum stability and in vivo distribution of radiolabelled immunoconjugates with those of H3DFO and its analogues. H3CP256 coordinates 89Zr4+ at carrier-free concentrations forming [89Zr(CP256)]+. Both H3DFO and H3CP256 were efficiently radiolabelled using [89Zr(C2O4)4]4– at ambient temperature in quantitative yield at pH 6–7 at millimolar concentrations of chelator. Competition experiments demonstrate that 89Zr4+ dissociates from [89Zr(DFO)]+ in the presence of one equivalent of H3CP256 (relative to H3DFO) at pH 6–7, resulting largely in [89Zr(CP256)]+. To assess the stability of H3DFO and H3YM103 immunoconjugates radiolabelled with 89Zr, maleimide derivatives of the chelators were conjugated to the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab via reduced cysteine side chains. Both immunoconjugates were labelled with 89Zr4+ in >98% yield at high specific activities and the labeled immunoconjugates were stable in serum with respect to dissociation of the radiometal. In vivo studies in mice indicate that 89Zr4+ dissociates from YM103-trastuzumab with significant amounts of activity becoming associated with bones and joints (25.88 ± 0.58% ID g–1 7 days post-injection). In contrast, <8% ID g–1 of 89Zr activity becomes associated with bone in animals administered 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab over the course of 7 days. The tris(hydroxypyridinone) chelator, H3CP256, coordinates 89Zr4+ rapidly under mild conditions, but the 89Zr-labelled immunoconjugate, 89Zr-YM103-trastuzumab was observed to release appreciable amounts of 89Zr4+ in vivo, demonstrating inferior stability when compared with 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab. The significantly lower in vivo stability is likely to be a result of lower kinetic stability of the Zr4+ tris(hydroxypyridinone complex) relative to that of DFO and its derivatives. PMID:25351250

  12. Influence of the season on vitamin D levels and regulatory T cells in patients with polymorphic light eruption† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5pp00398a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schweintzger, N. A.; Gruber-Wackernagel, A.; Shirsath, N.; Quehenberger, F.; Obermayer-Pietsch, B.

    2016-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of photohardening in polymorphic light eruption (PLE) are still unknown, but medical photohardening was shown to increase regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers in the blood of PLE patients, similar to natural hardening. Furthermore, oral vitamin D supplementation increased peripheral Tregs in healthy individuals. We herein report on a post hoc analysis of 26 screened PLE patients of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT01595893), in which the influence of the progressing season was investigated on baseline CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127– Treg numbers by flow cytometry and Treg suppressive function by co-culture assays with T effector cells as a secondary endpoint, together with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels at the study's screening visit, taking place in the period from January to June. The mean 25(OH)D serum level of all patients was 33.2 ng ml–1. Ten of those patients (38.5%) were identified with low 25(OH)D levels (<30 ng ml–1). Significantly higher baseline 25(OH)D serum levels (plus 34.4%; P = 0.0182) as well as higher relative Treg percentages in CD4+ population (plus 62.8%; P = 0.0157) and in total lymphocyte population (plus 59.6%; P = 0.0372) and higher absolute Treg numbers (plus 100.2%; P = 0.0042) were observed in the late spring/early summer period (April to June) compared to the winter period (January to February). No significant relationship was observed when Treg numbers and function were correlated with 25(OH)D levels. These data indicate that in PLE patients Treg numbers and their suppressive function are independent of vitamin D serum levels and suggest that UV light and/or other seasonal factors may affect these cells via the non-vitamin D related pathway(s). PMID:26911519

  13. Increased duplex stabilization in porphyrin-LNA zipper arrays with structure dependent exciton coupling† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic procedures for the building blocks and DNA strands, full spectroscopic analysis of the ssDNA and duplex systems. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob01681a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Daniel G.; Hussain, Rohanah; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kumar, Pawan; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.; Berova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Porphyrins were attached to LNA uridine building blocks via rigid 5-acetylene or more flexible propargyl-amide linkers and incorporated into DNA strands. The systems show a greatly increased thermodynamic stability when using as little as three porphyrins in a zipper arrangement. Thermodynamic analysis reveals clustering of the strands into more ordered duplexes with both greater negative ΔΔS and ΔΔH values, and less ordered duplexes with small positive ΔΔS differences, depending on the combination of linkers used. The exciton coupling between the porphyrins is dependent on the flanking DNA sequence in the single stranded form, and on the nature of the linker between the nucleobase and the porphyrin in the double stranded form; it is, however, also strongly influenced by intermolecular interactions. This system is suitable for the formation of stable helical chromophore arrays with sequence and structure dependent exciton coupling. PMID:26416024

  14. Distance dependent charge separation and recombination in semiconductor/molecular catalyst systems for water splitting† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, DFT calculations and additional transient absorption measurements. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc05143b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Willkomm, Janina; Muresan, Nicoleta M.; Lakadamyali, Fezile; Planells, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    The photoinduced reduction of three Co electrocatalysts immobilised on TiO2 is 104 times faster than the reverse charge recombination. Both processes show an exponential dependence on the distance between the semiconductor and the catalytic core. PMID:25207748

  15. Edge chlorination of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene investigated by density functional theory and vibrational spectroscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Description and animations of the vibrational normal modes of HBC and HBC-Cl discussed in the text. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp07755a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoumi, Ali; Narita, Akimitsu; Dong, Renhao; Feng, Xinliang; Castiglioni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the molecular structure and vibrational properties of perchlorinated hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC-Cl) by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and IR and Raman spectroscopy, in comparison to the parent HBC. The theoretical and experimental IR and Raman spectra demonstrated very good agreement, elucidating a number of vibrational modes corresponding to the observed peaks. Compared with the parent HBC, the edge chlorination significantly alters the planarity of the molecule. Nevertheless, the results indicated that such structural distortion does not significantly impair the π-conjugation of such polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:26912311

  16. Use of complementary nucleobase-containing synthetic polymers to prepare complex self-assembled morphologies in water† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization of monomers, polymers and particles: NMR, SEC, TEM, SAXS, and DLS. See DOI: 10.1039/c6py00263c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yan; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; S. Rolph, Marianne; Hua, Zan; Hands-Portman, Ian; Kirby, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Amphiphilic nucleobase-containing block copolymers with poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) as the hydrophilic block and nucleobase-containing blocks as the hydrophobic segments were successfully synthesized using RAFT polymerization and then self-assembled via solvent switch in aqueous solutions. Effects of the common solvent on the resultant morphologies of the adenine (A) and thymine (T) homopolymers, and A/T copolymer blocks and blends were investigated. These studies highlighted that depending on the identity of the common solvent, DMF or DMSO, spherical micelles or bicontinuous micelles were obtained. We propose that this is due to the presence of A–T interactions playing a key role in the morphology and stability of the resultant nanoparticles, which resulted in a distinct system compared to individual adenine or thymine polymers. Finally, the effects of annealing on the self-assemblies were explored. It was found that annealing could lead to better-defined spherical micelles and induce a morphology transition from bicontinuous micelles to onion-like vesicles, which was considered to occur due to a structural rearrangement of complementary nucleobase interactions resulting from the annealing process. PMID:27358655

  17. Cannabinoids: clearing the smoke on pain, inflammation and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Downer, E J; Finn, D P

    2014-01-01

    Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section, see Fagan and Campbell (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12492, Ignatowska-Jankowska et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12298, Ligresti et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12410, Lopez-Rodriguez et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12519, Murataeva et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12411, Okine et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12540, Rodríguez-Cueto et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12283, Stanley and O'Sullivan (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12560, Toguri et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12545, Wu et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12500. Linked articles are: Avraham et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12478, Machado et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12488, Ward et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12439. PMID:24588559

  18. 43 CFR 2.10 - Where do I send my request?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION ACT Requests for Records under the FOIA § 2.10 Where do I send my request? (a) DOI does not have a... of documents in its possession. DOI's files are decentralized and are maintained by various...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity: a large, prospective population study. Pharmacogenomics. 2008 Mar;9(3):303-9. doi: 10.2217/14622416. ... genotype and thiopurine dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Mar;89(3):387-91. doi: 10.1038/clpt. ...

  20. 25 CFR 900.6 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Services (HHS) or the Department of the Interior (DOI), or both. IHS means the Indian Health Service of the... Services (HHS) or the Secretary of the Interior (DOI), or both (and their respective delegates)....

  1. Genetics Home Reference: STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... direct innate immune sensor of cyclic di-GMP. Nature. 2011 Sep 25;478(7370):515-8. doi: ... endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate immune signalling. Nature. 2008 Oct 2;455(7213):674-8. doi: ...

  2. 76 FR 56214 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance for Information Collection: Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... youth employment and education programs provided through the Department of the Interior's (DOI's... in DOI running youth employment and education programs through partnership organizations. Partnership... effectiveness: (1) Building civic engagement and leadership skills. (2) Enhancing career preparedness...

  3. 77 FR 42329 - Notice of Intent To Initiate Public Scoping and Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Interior's (DOI) NEPA regulations, 43 CFR Part 46, the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement... Comment Procedures In accordance with the CEQ's regulations for implementing NEPA and the DOI's...

  4. 40 CFR 300.600 - Designation of federal trustees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... trustee for natural resources managed or controlled by the DOI. Examples of the Secretary's trusteeship... the Secretaries of DOI, USDA, DOD, and DOE. (4) Head of authorized agencies. For natural...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.93 - May the Secretary place any requirements on programs and funds that are otherwise available to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... agencies other than DOI? 1000.93 Section 1000.93 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... agencies other than DOI? No, unless the Secretary is required to develop terms and conditions that...

  6. 77 FR 51041 - 30-Day Extension of Call for Nominations for the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: On July 27, 2012, the United States Department of the Interior (DOI) published a request...@ios.doi.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shirley Conway, Office of Natural Resources...

  7. 78 FR 57875 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Southeast Missouri Ozarks Regional Restoration Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... availability; request for public comments. SUMMARY: The United States Department of the Interior (DOI), acting... (573) 526-3353. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The DOI (represented by the FWS), the USDA (represented...

  8. 48 CFR 1401.370 - Acquisition Managers' Partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition Managers' Partnership. (a) The Acquisition Managers' Partnership (AMP) is a forum for DOI's senior... and effectiveness of its procurement services in support of DOI's mission. (b) The AMP consists of...

  9. 48 CFR 1404.7001 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATTERS Deposit of Contract Publications 1404.7001 General. The DOI Departmental Library is responsible... “Departmental publication” means any publication or report produced under a DOI contract or...

  10. 30 CFR 229.109 - Reimbursement for costs incurred by a State under the delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authority. (a) The Department of the Interior (DOI) shall reimburse the State for 100 percent of the direct... maintain books and records in accordance with the standards established by the DOI and will provide the...

  11. 43 CFR 17.302 - To what programs or activities do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations apply to each DOI recipient and to each program or activity operated by the recipient which receives Federal financial assistance provided by DOI. (b) The Act and these regulations do not apply...

  12. 48 CFR 1401.603-3 - Appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the bureau/office procedures within the constraints of DOI Integrated Charge Card Program Policy Manual located at http://www.doi.gov/pam/chargecard. Additional guidance is available in the GSA...

  13. 43 CFR 17.321 - Notice to subrecipients and beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Age Duties of Doi Recipients § 17.321 Notice to subrecipients and beneficiaries. (a) Where a recipient extends Federal financial assistance from DOI to subrecipients, the recipient shall provide...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... of five disease-associated human adenylosuccinate lyase mutants. Biochemistry. 2009 Jun 16;48(23):5291-302. doi: ... ADSL) and the R303C ADSL deficiency-associated mutation. Biochemistry. 2012 Aug 21;51(33):6701-13. doi: ...

  15. Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas

    PubMed Central

    Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

    2013-01-01

    Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un

  16. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  17. On ambiente de binárias de pequena massa em formação: o caso do glóbulo cometário CG30 e IRAS08076-3556

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho, combinamos observações de polarização linear no óptico (banda R), dados no infravermelho distante (IRAS) e observações de transições moleculares em radiofreqüências (CO e espécies isotópicas, HCN e HCO+) para analisar o glóbulo cometário (GC) CG30 (na região da IRAS Vela Shell), que apresenta objetos Herbig-Haro e ejeções de matéria, além de uma fonte pontual IRAS em seu interior. Os objetivos deste estudo são: determinar a eficiência de formação estelar nos glóbulos cometários, através da relação entre a massa total do GC e da massa das estrelas em formação; determinar como o campo magnético influencia na formação de estrelas no interior destes objetos; e analisar as modificações que ejeções de matéria de estrelas em formação causam no gás e no campo magnético dos GCs. Combinando nossos dados com trabalhos já publicados, mostramos que CG30 tem uma eficiência de formação estelar em torno de 3%; que o campo magnético é importante na manutenção da estrutura global do GC e demonstra sinais de torção e compressão; e que a ejeção bipolar de matéria das estrelas do par formam uma ejeção quadripolar, a qual influencia na densidade e temperatura do gás e no grau de polarização dos grãos de poeira associados ao gás do GC.

  18. Algunos Criterios para Evaluar Programas de Educacion Superior a Nivel de Posgrado: El Caso Particular de la Administracion Publica (Some Criteria to Evaluate Higher Education Programs at the Graduate Level: The Special Case of Public Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Intended as a contribution to a workshop discussion on program evaluation in higher education, the paper covers five major evaluation issues. First, it deals with evaluation concepts, explaining the purposes of evaluation; pertinent terms; and the sources of evaluation in public health procedures, the scientific method, the systems approach, and…

  19. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  20. In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Study of Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and Epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O) Dehydration Utilizing an Ultrasonic Levitator.

    PubMed

    Brotton, Stephen J; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2013-02-21

    We present an original apparatus combining an acoustic levitator and a pressure-compatible process chamber. To characterize in situ the chemical and physical modifications of a levitated, single particle while heated to well-defined temperatures using a carbon dioxide laser, the chamber is interfaced to a Raman spectroscopic probe. As a proof-of-concept study, by gradually increasing the heating temperature, we observed the variations in the Raman spectra as 150 μg of crystals of gypsum and epsomite were dehydrated in anhydrous nitrogen gas. We display spectra showing the decreasing intensities of the ν1 symmetric and ν3 asymmetric stretching modes of water with time and the simultaneous shift of the ν1(SO4(2-)) symmetric stretch mode to higher wavenumbers. Our results demonstrate that the new apparatus is well suited to study the dehydration of levitated species such as minerals and offers potential advantages compared with previous experiments on bulk samples. PMID:26281883

  1. Research Culture in Higher Education: The Case of a Foreign Language Department in Mexico (Cultura de la investigación: el caso de un Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras en México)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández Méndez, Edith; Reyes Cruz, María del Rosario

    2014-01-01

    In the case of Mexico, until recently, many universities focused mainly on teaching, but recent changes have led to new appointments in research, administration, and community service. There now seems to be, however, a view of the predominance of research in the academic environment. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine and…

  2. Genetics Home Reference: narcolepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jun;41(6):708-11. doi: 10.1038/ng.372. Epub 2009 May 3. Erratum in: Nat ... Sep;42(9):786-9. doi: 10.1038/ng.647. Epub 2010 Aug 15. Erratum in: Nat ... Nov;40(11):1324-8. doi: 10.1038/ng.231. Epub 2008 Sep 28. Citation on PubMed ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: 16p11.2 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009 Mar-Jun;52(2-3):77-87. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2009.03.006. Epub ... Appl Genet. 2011 Nov;52(4):443-9. doi: 10.1007/s13353-011-0063-z. Epub 2011 ... Med Genet. 2010 Mar;47(3):195-203. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2009.069369. Epub 2009 Sep ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Koolen-de Vries syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genet. 2011 Mar-Apr;54(2):144-51. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2010.11.003. Epub ... Genet A. 2013 Jan;161A(1):21-6. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35652. Epub 2012 Nov ... Genet. 2012 Apr 6;90(4):599-613. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.02.013. Citation ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: hidradenitis suppurativa

    MedlinePlus

    ... Apr;60(4):539-61; quiz 562-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.11.911. Review. ... Acad Dermatol. 2009 Jul;61(1):51-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2009.02.013. Epub ... Dermatol Clin. 2010 Oct;28(4):779-93. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2010.07.003. Review. ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Kabuki syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hum Genet. 2012 Apr;57(4):223-7. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2012.28. Epub 2012 Mar ... Hum Genet. 2009 May;54(5):304-9. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2009.30. Epub 2009 Apr ... Genet. 2012 Jan 13;90(1):119-24. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.11.021. Epub ...

  7. 25 CFR 1001.10 - Selection criteria for other planning and negotiating financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for other financial assistance for planning and negotiating of a DOI non-BIA program, service... that may be available to self-governance tribes/consortia for planning and negotiating with DOI non-BIA... are available for the purpose of planning and negotiating with DOI non-BIA bureaus under this...

  8. 40 CFR 300.910 - Authorization of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... preauthorization plan applies and the DOC and DOI natural resource trustees shall review and either approve... plan applies and the DOC and DOI natural resource trustees approve in advance the use of certain... DOI natural resource trustees, when practicable, may authorize the use of dispersants, surface...

  9. 77 FR 31378 - Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... responsibilities to American Indians and Alaska Natives. The five questions can be found at http://www.doi.gov...: trustcommission@ios.doi.gov . ADDRESSES: The public meeting will be held at the Office of the Special Trustee for... federal facility. We encourage you to respond to trustcommission@ios.doi.gov by June 7, 2012, and plan...

  10. 43 CFR Appendix C to Part 2 - Fee Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are posted on DOI's FOIA home page (see Appendix B). If you do not have access to the Internet, please... larger than 8.5 × 14 inches Direct cost to DOI Color copies of pages no larger than 11 × 17 inches $1.50...) Direct cost to DOI (3) Electronic records: Charges for services related to processing requests...

  11. 76 FR 77831 - 2012 Presidential Candidate Matching Fund Submission Dates and Post Date of Ineligibility Dates...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... (``DOI''). Candidates are required to submit a NOCO statement prior to each regularly scheduled date on..., and accounts receivable. 11 CFR 9034.5(a). Candidates will be notified of their DOI by the Commission. A Candidate who has net outstanding campaign obligations post-DOI may continue to submit...

  12. 78 FR 52999 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Indiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Review of Actions by FHWA and United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), DOI. ] SUMMARY: This... Actions by FHWA and United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), DOI, was published in the Federal... Judicial Review of these actions and decisions by the USFWS, DOI, was published in the Federal Register...

  13. 77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Secretary, Department of the Interior (DOI) announces the proposed extension of a public information....doi.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information on this renewed.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract DOI is below parity with the Relevant Civilian Labor Force...

  14. 43 CFR 17.337 - Remedial action by recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 17.337 Remedial action by recipients. Where DOI finds... DOI may require to overcome the effects of the discrimination. If another recipient exercises control over the recipient that has discriminated, DOI may require both recipients to take remedial action....

  15. 76 FR 60815 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the Limestone Hills Training Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Interior (DOI) (cooperating agency). The LEIS analyzed the proposed withdrawal of 18,644 acres of federal... component of the legislative proposal package that BLM will submit to DOI and the Office of Management and Budget. After agency review and concurrence, the DOI will transmit the proposed legislation to...

  16. 78 FR 18624 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Multi-Stakeholder Group (USEITI MSG) Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... and the meeting will be posted on the USEITI MSG Web site at www.doi.gov/eiti/faca . DATES... comments during the public comment period must submit written statements to useiti@doi.gov by April 5, 2013... minutes from these proceedings will be posted on our Internet site at http://www.doi.gov/eiti/faca...

  17. 10 CFR 626.7 - Royalty transfer and exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to an agreement between DOE and DOI for the transfer of royalty oil. (b) Acquisition strategy. (1) DOE and DOI shall select a royalty volume from specified leases for transfer usually over six-month... requirements respectively, DOE may take the royalty oil directly from DOI and place it in SPR storage...

  18. 43 CFR 17.323 - Information collection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Doi Recipients § 17.323 Information collection requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Keep records in a form and containing information which DOI determines may be necessary to ascertain whether the recipient is complying with the Act and these regulations. (b) Provide to DOI, upon...

  19. 77 FR 59639 - 15-Day Extension of Call for Nominations for the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) published a request for nominees and comments on July 27, 2012. Subsequently, DOI published a 30-day extension of this...; Washington, DC 20240. Email nominations to Shirley.Conway@onrr.gov or EITI@ios.doi.gov . FOR...

  20. 75 FR 29317 - Response to Comments on the Second Round of Nominated Sites to the National System of MPAs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... of existing MPAs to the national system. SUMMARY: NOAA and the Department of the Interior (DOI... to Public Comments On January 7, 2010, NOAA and DOI (agencies) published the Nomination of Existing.... Response: These comments support the goals of Executive Order 13158, which directs NOAA, DOI and...

  1. 78 FR 32270 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Multi-Stakeholder Group (USEITI MSG) Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... provided at the entrance each day of the meetings, and also posted on the final agendas at www.doi.gov/eiti... Staff via email at useiti@ios.doi.gov , by phone at 202-208-0272, or by fax at 202-513- 0734... the Committee, including its charter, can be found at www.doi.gov/eiti/faca . Meeting Agenda:...

  2. 78 FR 20944 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Notice of a New System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Department of the Interior (DOI) is issuing a public... Department of the Interior (DOI), National Park Service (NPS) maintains the ``Commercial Use Authorization... contrary determination. DOI will publish a revised notice if changes are made based upon a review of...

  3. 25 CFR 900.2 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Department of the Interior (DOI) in... interagency agreement) by the DHHS and the DOI for the benefit of Indians for which appropriations are made to... the record keeping systems of the DHHS or the DOI, or both, records of the contractors...

  4. 76 FR 13268 - FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity: Paul S. Sarbanes Transit in Parks Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... administered by FTA in partnership with the Department of the Interior (DOI) and the U.S. Department of... Federal land management agency are eligible to apply. DOI, after consultation with and in cooperation with... (DOI) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. Congestion in and around parks...

  5. 43 CFR 17.336 - Hearings, decisions, post-termination proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-termination proceedings. Certain DOI procedural provisions applicable to title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 apply to DOI's enforcement of these regulations. The procedural provisions of DOI's Title VI regulations can be found at 43 CFR 17.8 through 17.10 and 43 CFR part 4, subpart I....

  6. 76 FR 15901 - Acquisition Regulation Miscellaneous Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    .... SUMMARY: The Department of the Interior (DOI) is proposing to revise the Department of the Interior Acquisition Regulation (DIAR) in order to make minor corrections to DOI acquisition procedures to be... e-mail tiffany_schermerhorn@ios.doi.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background This rule...

  7. Innovation Diffusion Model in Higher Education: Case Study of E-Learning Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buc, Sanjana; Divjak, Blaženka

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion of innovation (DOI) is critical for any organization and especially nowadays for higher education institutions (HEIs) in the light of vast pressure of emerging educational technologies as well as of the demand of economy and society. DOI takes into account the initial and the implementation phase. The conceptual model of DOI in…

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.485 - What happens if property that was conveyed for use as a historic monument is revested in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... use as a historic monument is revested in the United States? In such a case, DOI must notify the... disposal or for other cause. The notification must cite the legal and administrative actions that DOI must... grantee. After receiving a statement from DOI that title to the property is proposed for revesting,...

  9. 76 FR 60583 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Indiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Review of Actions by FHWA and United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), DOI. SUMMARY: This notice... Actions by FHWA and United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), DOI, was published in the Federal... these actions and decisions by the USFWS, DOI, was published in the Federal Register on April 17,...

  10. 75 FR 27109 - FY 2010 Discretionary Funding Opportunity: Paul S. Sarbanes Transit in Parks Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... program is administered by FTA in partnership with U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) and the U.S... management agency are eligible to apply. DOI, after consultation with and in cooperation with FTA, will... Program) (49 U.S.C. 5320). The program is administered by FTA in partnership with DOI and the...

  11. 43 CFR 17.335 - Compliance procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 17.335 Compliance procedure. (a) DOI may enforce the Act and these regulations through: (1) Termination of a recipient's Federal financial assistance from DOI under the program... correcting a violation of the Act or these regulations. (b) DOI will limit any termination under §...

  12. 78 FR 57409 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Public Outreach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... sessions or public webinar, or online at www.doi.gov/eiti . DATES: The public outreach sessions will be... Secretariat via email at useiti@ios.doi.gov , by phone at 202-208-0272 or by fax at 202-513-0682... the Committee, including its charter, can be found at www.doi.gov/eiti/faca . The Public...

  13. 75 FR 57978 - Notice of Intent; Request for Comments on Adoption of the National Park Service's Wetland and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... evaluation, adoption of the EIS/EIR would meet Department of Interior (DOI) and Service National..., adoption of the EIS/EIR would meet Department of Interior (DOI) and Service NEPA procedures and guidelines... independent evaluation, the EIS/EIR would meet Department of Interior (DOI) and Service NEPA procedures...

  14. 76 FR 52341 - Privacy Act of 1974, as amended; Notice of a New System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Department of the Interior (DOI) maintains the Debarment and Suspension Program system of records. The primary purpose of this system of records is to assist DOI in... determination. DOI will publish a revised notice if changes are made based upon a review of the...

  15. 77 FR 66628 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Notice of a New System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    .... Background The Department of the Interior (DOI) is creating the Donations Program Files system of records... contrary determination. DOI will publish a revised notice if changes are made based upon a review of the... United States citizen or lawful permanent resident. As a matter of policy, DOI extends...

  16. 43 CFR 17.330 - Compliance reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 17.330 Compliance reviews. (a) DOI may conduct compliance reviews... and correct violations of the Act and these regulations. DOI may conduct these reviews even in the... review indicates a violation of the Act or these regulations, DOI will attempt to secure...

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.690 - What happens if property that was transferred for use as a public park or recreation area is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... noncompliance with the terms or conditions of disposal, or for other cause? DOI must notify the appropriate GSA... disposal or for other cause. The notification must cite the legal and administrative actions that DOI must... schedules. After receiving notice from DOI that title to the property is proposed for revesting, GSA...

  18. 43 CFR 17.322 - Assurance of compliance and recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Duties of Doi Recipients § 17.322 Assurance of compliance and recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) Each recipient of Federal financial assistance from DOI shall sign a written assurance as specified by DOI that it will comply with the Act and these regulations....

  19. 75 FR 66774 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    .... Department of the Interior (DOI) has amended its Departmental Manual (DM) by adding a new chapter to provide... Register, DOI intends to promote greater transparency and accountability to the public and enhance..., NW.; Washington, DC 20240. Telephone: 202-513-0712. E-mail: kaiini.kaloi@ios.doi.gov ....

  20. 43 CFR 17.333 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 17.333 Investigation. (a) Informal investigation. (1) DOI will... mediation agreement. (2) As part of the initial investigation, DOI will use informal fact finding methods... possible, settle the complaint on terms that are mutually agreeable to the parties. DOI may seek...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 112 - Memorandum of Understanding Among the Secretary of the Interior, Secretary of Transportation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...). The Secretary of the Department of the Interior (DOI), Secretary of the Department of Transportation... DOI, DOT, and EPA various responsibilities identified in section 311(j) of the CWA. Sections 2(b)(3), 2(d)(3), and 2(e)(3) of E.O. 12777 assigned to DOI spill prevention and control,...

  2. 75 FR 60438 - Record of Decision for the Guam and Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands Military Relocation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Agency (EPA), the Department of Interior (DOI), the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.... Discussions with the EPA, NOAA, and the DOI identified additional data these agencies would prefer were... cooperatively with EPA, NOAA, and DOI and is described in the ``Final Scope of Work Elements for Marine...

  3. 75 FR 8731 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Revisions to the Existing System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ...: The Department of the Interior (DOI) is issuing public notice of its intent to amend a Department-wide... 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a). DOI-71, ``Electronic FOIA Tracking System and FOIA Case Files--Interior,'' is... Department of the Interior (DOI), Washington, DC 20240. SYSTEM MANAGER AND ADDRESS: The additional...

  4. 75 FR 8786 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Indiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Review of Actions by FHWA and United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), DOI. SUMMARY: This notice... States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), DOI, was published in the Federal Register on April 17, 2007. A... Notice of Limitation on Claims for Judicial Review of these actions and decisions by the USFWS, DOI,...

  5. 78 FR 2422 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Collection, 1028-0096, Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers (DOI CSCs). SUMMARY: We (the U.S... ``Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers (DOI CSCs).'' The primary objective of the National... responsibility to manage DOI Climate Science Centers that are co-located at cooperating organizations at...

  6. 75 FR 19827 - Acquisition Regulation Rewrite

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...The Department of the Interior (DOI) is taking interim final action on administrative changes to the Department of the Interior Acquisition Regulation (DIAR). This action revises the DIAR, 48 CFR Chapter 14, but does not impose any new requirements on DOI contractors. The revisions in this interim final rule will make minor corrections to and streamline DOI acquisition processes to be......

  7. Process Architecture for Managing Digital Object Identifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.; Stolte, E.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project implemented a process for registering Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for data products distributed by Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). For the first 3 years, ESDIS evolved the process involving the data provider community in the development of processes for creating and assigning DOIs, and guidelines for the landing page. To accomplish this, ESDIS established two DOI User Working Groups: one for reviewing the DOI process whose recommendations were submitted to ESDIS in February 2014; and the other recently tasked to review and further develop DOI landing page guidelines for ESDIS approval by end of 2014. ESDIS has recently upgraded the DOI system from a manually-driven system to one that largely automates the DOI process. The new automated feature include: a) reviewing the DOI metadata, b) assigning of opaque DOI name if data provider chooses, and c) reserving, registering, and updating the DOIs. The flexibility of reserving the DOI allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. The DOI update process allows the changing of any DOI metadata except the DOI name unless the name has not been registered. Currently, ESDIS has processed a total of 557 DOIs of which 379 DOIs are registered with EZID and 178 are reserved with ESDIS. The DOI incorporates several metadata elements that effectively identify the data product and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page which describes the data product. ESDIS in consultation with data providers in the Earth Science community is currently developing landing page guidelines that specify the key data product descriptive elements to be included on each data product's landing page. This poster will describe in detail the unique automated process and

  8. Severe maternal morbidity: a case-control study in Maranhao, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    para morbidade materna grave em São Luís, capital de um dos estados mais pobres do Brasil. Método Estudo caso-controle realizado em duas maternidades públicas de alto risco e duas UTIs de referência aos casos obstétricos entre 01/03/2009 e 28/02/2010. Foram incluídas todas as pacientes internadas por complicação do período grávido-puerperal e que preenchiam os critérios de Waterstone e/ou Mantel para morbidade materna grave. Foram selecionados para cada caso, dois controles por sorteio aleatório dentre as pacientes internadas no mesmo período e mesma maternidade que o caso. As informações de domínio sociodemográfico, clínico, obstétrico, comportamental, exposição a eventos estressores na gestação, assistência ao pré-natal, intercorrências obstétricas e atenção ao parto, foram obtidas por meio de entrevista estruturada. As variáveis foram analisadas por modelo de regressão logística múltipla não condicional, baseado em modelo hierarquizado a priori. Resultados Foram identificados como fatores de risco para morbidade materna grave: idade >35 anos (OR=3,11; IC 95%:1,53-6,31), hipertensão prévia à gestação (OR=2,52; IC 95%:1,09-5,80), antecedente de aborto (OR=1,61; IC 95%:0,97-2,68), ter realizado 4–5 consultas pré-natais (OR=1,78; IC 95%:1,05-3,01) ou 1–3 consultas (OR=1,89; IC 95%:1,03-3,49). Conclusão Os resultados do estudo corroboram a importância da assistência à saúde reprodutiva e o pré-natal completo e qualificado na prevenção de eventos mórbidos graves durante o ciclo grávido-puerperal. PMID:23399443

  9. Developing Data Citations from Digital Object Identifier Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Nathan; Wanchoo, Lalit

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project has been processing information for the registration of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for the last five years of which an automated system has been in operation for the last two years. The ESDIS DOI registration system has registered over 2000 DOIs with over 1000 DOIs held in reserve until all required information has been collected. By working towards the goal of assigning DOIs to the 8000+ data collections under its management, ESDIS has taken the first step towards facilitating the use of data citations with those products. Jeanne Behnke, ESDIS Deputy Project Manager has reviewed and approved the poster.

  10. Erratum.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The publisher found that the following CE tests were published with incorrect DOIs:In the CE Test for "The Baltimore Buprenorphine Initiative: Understanding the Role of Buprenorphine in Addressing Heroin Addiction in an Urban-Based Community." (2014). Journal of Addictions Nursing, 25(1), 26Y27, doi: 10.1097/JAN.0000000000000013 should have been doi: 10.1097/JAN.0000000000000024. In the CE Test for "Substance Abuse Treatment Processes and Outcomes in Day/Outpatient Health Maintenance Organization Setting." (2014). Journal of Addictions Nursing, 25(3), 137Y138, doi: 10.1097/JAN.0000000000000013 should have been doi: 10.1097/JAN.0000000000000044. In the CE Test for "NADA Protocol: Integrative Acupuncture in Addictions." (2014). Journal of Addictions Nursing, 25(4), 188Y189, doi: 10.1097/JAN.0000000000000013 should have been doi: 10.1097/JAN.0000000000000057. PMID:25920103

  11. Efficient suppression of back electron/hole recombination in cobalt phosphate surface-modified undoped bismuth vanadate photoanodes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD characterization and SEM images of CoPi-modified and unmodified BiVO4, continuous illumination J–V curves, transient absorption fit results, and transient absorption decays measured as a function of excitation intensities. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta05826k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yimeng; Le Formal, Florian; Kafizas, Andreas; Pendlebury, Stephanie R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compared for the first time the dynamics of photogenerated holes in BiVO4 photoanodes with and without CoPi surface modification, employing transient absorption and photocurrent measurements on microsecond to second timescales. CoPi surface modification is known to cathodically shift the water oxidation onset potential; however, the reason for this improvement has not until now been fully understood. The transient absorption and photocurrent data were analyzed using a simple kinetic model, which allows quantification of the competition between electron/hole recombination and water oxidation. The results of this model are shown to be in excellent agreement with the measured photocurrent data. We demonstrate that the origin of the improvement of photocurrent onset resulting from CoPi treatment is primarily due to retardation of back electron/hole recombination across the space charge layer; no evidence of catalytic water oxidation via CoPi was observed. PMID:27358733

  12. A multistep continuous flow synthesis machine for the preparation of pyrazoles via a metal-free amine-redox process† †Raw spectra can be found at https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/252343. ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5re00082c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Jian-Siang; Ley, Steven V.

    2016-01-01

    A versatile multistep continuous flow setup is reported for the four-step conversion of anilines into pyrazole products. The synthesis machine incorporates the use of amine-redox chemistry through diazotization and a metal-free vitamin C mediated reduction. The machine can be used for the synthesis of an array of analogues or the scale up of an individual target. PMID:27398231

  13. Commentary on "Reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk in 2 US cohort studies, 1993-2010." Karami S, Daugherty SE, Schonfeld SJ, Park Y, Hollenbeck AR, Grubb RL 3rd, Hofmann JN, Chow WH, Purdue MP, Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Am J Epidemiol 2013; 177(12):1368-77. [Epub 2013 Apr 26]. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws406.

    PubMed

    Boorjian, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995-2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993-2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend= 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation. PMID:25087669

  14. Understanding thio-effects in simple phosphoryl systems: role of solvent effects and nucleophile charge† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A breakdown of calculated activation free energies shown in Table 1, as well as absolute energies and Cartesian coordinates of all key species in this work are presented as ESI. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob00309a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alexandra T. P.; O'Donoghue, AnnMarie C.; Hodgson, David R. W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental work (J. Org. Chem., 2012, 77, 5829) demonstrated pronounced differences in measured thio-effects for the hydrolysis of (thio)phosphodichloridates by water and hydroxide nucleophiles. In the present work, we have performed detailed quantum chemical calculations of these reactions, with the aim of rationalizing the molecular bases for this discrimination. The calculations highlight the interplay between nucleophile charge and transition state solvation in SN2(P) mechanisms as the basis of these differences, rather than a change in mechanism. PMID:25797408

  15. DNA origami based Au–Ag-core–shell nanoparticle dimers with single-molecule SERS sensitivity† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information about materials and methods, designs of DNA origami templates, height profiles, additional SERS spectra, assignment of DNA bands, SEM images, additional AFM images, FDTD simulations, additional reference spectra for Cy3 and detailed description of EF estimation, simulated absorption and scattering spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08674d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, J.; Heck, C.; Ellerik, L.; Merk, V.

    2016-01-01

    DNA origami nanostructures are a versatile tool to arrange metal nanostructures and other chemical entities with nanometer precision. In this way gold nanoparticle dimers with defined distance can be constructed, which can be exploited as novel substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We have optimized the size, composition and arrangement of Au/Ag nanoparticles to create intense SERS hot spots, with Raman enhancement up to 1010, which is sufficient to detect single molecules by Raman scattering. This is demonstrated using single dye molecules (TAMRA and Cy3) placed into the center of the nanoparticle dimers. In conjunction with the DNA origami nanostructures novel SERS substrates are created, which can in the future be applied to the SERS analysis of more complex biomolecular targets, whose position and conformation within the SERS hot spot can be precisely controlled. PMID:26892770

  16. Focusing of mammalian cells under an ultrahigh pH gradient created by unidirectional electropulsation in a confined microchamber† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Figures S1–S5 and videos S1–S2. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc00319e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Loufakis, Despina Nelie; Cao, Zhenning; Ma, Sai; Mittelman, David

    2014-01-01

    The transport and manipulation of cells in microfluidic structures are often critically required in cellular analysis. Cells typically make consistent movement in a dc electric field in a single direction, due to their electrophoretic mobility or electroosmotic flow or the combination of the two. Here we demonstrate that mammalian cells focus to the middle of a closed microfluidic chamber under the application of unidirectional direct current pulses. With experimental and computational data, we show that under the pulses electrochemical reactions take place in the confined microscale space and create an ultrahigh and nonlinear pH gradient (∼2 orders of magnitude higher than the ones in protein isoelectric focusing) at the middle of the chamber. The varying local pH affects the cell surface charge and the electrophoretic mobility, leading to focusing in free solution. Our approach provides a new and simple method for focusing and concentrating mammalian cells at the microscale. PMID:25750708

  17. Evaluation of a head-to-head study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and atomoxetine: evaluation of Dittmann RW, Cardo E, Nagy P, et al. Efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a head-to-head, randomised, double-blind, Phase IIIb study. CNS Drugs 2013;27:1081-1092. doi: 10.1007/s40263-013-0104-8 ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01106430.

    PubMed

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothermel, Boris; Poustka, Luise

    2014-09-01

    Here, we evaluate a report of a head-to-head study of the prodrug stimulant lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) and the non-stimulant atomoxetine hydrochloride (ATX) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An inadequate response to previous methylphenidate (MPH) treatment was a notable inclusion criterion. The primary efficacy outcome of a more rapid clinical response to LDX than to ATX was predictable from the known properties of the two drugs. However, secondary efficacy outcomes indicated that LDX was significantly more effective than ATX in relieving investigator-rated symptoms of ADHD, with an effect size of 0.56. Safety and tolerability profiles were consistent with the known properties of LDX and ATX. Despite some issues with the study design, the conclusion that LDX is more effective than ATX over the short term appears robust. In addition, the magnitude of improvement with both treatments indicated that previous MPH treatment is not a factor affecting the potential for patients to benefit from LDX or ATX. The results may help to inform clinical practice in Europe, where LDX is approved for treating children and adolescents with ADHD and a previous inadequate response to MPH, and in other regions where generic MPH formulations are typically the first-line therapeutic option. PMID:25085429

  18. Hunting for hydrogen: random structure searching and prediction of NMR parameters of hydrous wadsleyite† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further information on the structures generated by AIRSS, alternative structural models, supercell calculations, total enthalpies of all computed structures and further information on 1H/2H NMR parameters. Example input and all raw output files from AIRSS and CASTEP NMR calculations are also included. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cp01529h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Robert F.; McKay, David; Pickard, Chris J.; Berry, Andrew J.; Griffin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The structural chemistry of materials containing low levels of nonstoichiometric hydrogen is difficult to determine, and producing structural models is challenging where hydrogen has no fixed crystallographic site. Here we demonstrate a computational approach employing ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) to generate a series of candidate structures for hydrous wadsleyite (β-Mg2SiO4 with 1.6 wt% H2O), a high-pressure mineral proposed as a repository for water in the Earth's transition zone. Aligning with previous experimental work, we solely consider models with Mg3 (over Mg1, Mg2 or Si) vacancies. We adapt the AIRSS method by starting with anhydrous wadsleyite, removing a single Mg2+ and randomly placing two H+ in a unit cell model, generating 819 candidate structures. 103 geometries were then subjected to more accurate optimisation under periodic DFT. Using this approach, we find the most favourable hydration mechanism involves protonation of two O1 sites around the Mg3 vacancy. The formation of silanol groups on O3 or O4 sites (with loss of stable O1–H hydroxyls) coincides with an increase in total enthalpy. Importantly, the approach we employ allows observables such as NMR parameters to be computed for each structure. We consider hydrous wadsleyite (∼1.6 wt%) to be dominated by protonated O1 sites, with O3/O4–H silanol groups present as defects, a model that maps well onto experimental studies at higher levels of hydration (J. M. Griffin et al., Chem. Sci., 2013, 4, 1523). The AIRSS approach adopted herein provides the crucial link between atomic-scale structure and experimental studies. PMID:27020937

  19. Supramolecular polymerisation in water; elucidating the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization by IR and UV spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering, video files of optical microscopy imaging. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sm02843d Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leenders, Christianus M. A.; Baker, Matthew B.; Pijpers, Imke A. B.; Lafleur, René P. M.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the self-assembly of small molecules in water is crucial for the development of responsive, biocompatible soft materials. Here, a family of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivatives that comprise a BTA moiety connected to an amphiphilic chain is synthesised with the aim to elucidate the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions in the self-assembly of these BTAs. The amphiphilic chain consists of an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 11, or 12 methylene units, connected to a tetraethylene glycol (at the periphery). The results show that an undecyl spacer is the minimum length required for these BTAs to self-assemble into supramolecular polymers. Interestingly, exchange studies reveal only minor differences in exchange rates between BTAs containing undecyl or dodecyl spacers. Additionally, IR spectroscopy provides the first experimental evidence that hydrogen-bonding is operative and contributes to the stabilisation of the supramolecular polymers in water. PMID:26892482

  20. Highly photoluminescent copper carbene complexes based on prompt rather than delayed fluorescence† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1469283 (for 1a), 1469285 (for 1b) and 1469284 (for 1c). For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6cc02349e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Romanov, Alexander S.; Di, Dawei; Yang, Le; Fernandez-Cestau, Julio; Becker, Ciaran R.; James, Charlotte E.; Zhu, Bonan

    2016-01-01

    Linear two-coordinate copper complexes of cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAAC)CuX (X = halide) show photoluminescence with solid-state quantum yields of up to 96%; in contrast to previously reported Cu photoemitters the emission is independent of temperature over the range T = 4–300 K and occurs very efficiently by prompt rather than delayed fluorescence, with lifetimes in the sub-nanosecond range. PMID:27087532