The Chicago-born artist Alberto Aguilar enacts his artworks through video, performance, sound recordings, cooking, photographs, participatory events, drawings, installations, interior design, writing, collage, singing, teaching, conducting interviews, curating, mail-art, being on the Internet, writing, and personal social exchanges (e.g.…
Moral psychology is a rapidly growing field with two principle lineages. The main line began with Jean Piaget and includes developmental psychologists who have studied the acquisition of moral concepts and reasoning. The alternative line began in the 1990s with a new synthesis of evolutionary, neurological, and social-psychological research in which the central phenomena are moral emotions and intuitions. In this essay, I show how both of these lines have been shaped by an older debate between two 19th century narratives about modernity: one celebrating the liberation of individuals, the other mourning the loss of community and moral authority. I suggest that both lines of moral psychology have limited themselves to the moral domain prescribed by the liberation narrative, and so one future step for moral psychology should be to study alternative moral perspectives, particularly religious and politically conservative ones in which morality is, in part, about protecting groups, institutions, and souls. PMID:26158671
In this article, Miguel Aguilar describes the process of mental preparation he performs before beginning a new graffiti mural. This may include reviewing recent sketches and his lists of color palettes. Aguilar mind maps ideas he wants to connect, thinking about intentions or the goal he wants to accomplish. Aguilar further states "this…
This sharp, cloud free view of San Antonio, Texas (29.5N, 98.5W) illustrates the classic pattern of western cities. The city has a late nineteenth century Anglo grid pattern overlaid onto an earlier, less regular Hispanic settlement. A well marked central business district having streets laid out north/south and east/west is surrounded by blocks of suburban homes and small businesses set between the older colonial radial transportation routes.
San Antonio will be the site of the 1974 MLA Annual Meeting, and the program will emphasize expanding the role of health science libraries. Tours, as well as activities available in San Antonio, are described. The Convention Center itself, and the convention hotel, the Hilton Palacio del Rio, are mentioned, and other accommodations are listed. Social events are discussed, and the city's many interesting restaurants are noted. PMID:16017664
Teja, Jesus F. de la
Discusses the founding of San Antonio, originally San Antonio de Bexar, which, in 1718, came into being as a military settlement involved in Spanish imperial defensive measures. Focuses on the development and continued growth of San Antonio, Texas's most populous city in the 19th century. (CMK)
Balampekou, Matina; Floriotis, Georgis
This paper explores how the ideas of a great political thinker and philosopher Antonio Gramsci, are relevant to education and science and to critical science education. One of the main points in Gramsci's analysis is the social value and impact of certain aspects of the superstructure. He understands that education is a means which can be used for…
Tafuri, Francesco; Pepe, Giampiero; Vaglio, Ruggero
Antonio Barone prematurely passed away on 4 December 2011 at the age of 72, after a one-year battle with cancer. He left behind his wife Sveva and his two sons, Alberto and Livio. Antonio was Professor Emeritus at the University of Napoli Federico II, where he had been teaching for about 40 years. The initial research activity of Antonio was in the field of nuclear physics. In this context, almost 45 years ago, the Ge 'Lithium drift' semiconductor detectors represented a novelty, due to the high energy resolution enabled by those devices. Superconductors stimulated new approaches to radiation detection and this motivated Antonio's interest towards superconductivity. Following the birth of the Laboratorio di Cibernetica of the CNR in 1967 he was given the opportunity to work on a joint USA-Italy project (University of Wisconsin, Madison and CNR Naples) in the field of superconductivity on the peculiar subject of the superconductive 'Neuristors'. His research activity on Josephson junctions opened up a wide variety of very stimulating subjects in which he was deeply involved, ranging from the soliton propagation in 'long' Josephson structures to fluctuations phenomena, from light-sensitive junctions and proximity effect to the development of innovative superconducting devices. The strong interaction of Antonio with the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow, characterizes a long period of his research activity with a precious merging of theoretical and experimental aspects. This body of work converged into the famous monograph on the 'Physics and Applications of the Josephson Effect', written in collaboration with Gianfranco Paternò in 1982. This rapidly became the reference text for the Josephson effect, as documented by thousands of citations and the fact that it was translated into Russian, Japanese and Chinese. In 1983 Antonio was awarded the highest academic title of 'Doctor of the Physical-Mathematical Sciences' by the
Musschenga, Albert W.
In this article I examine the consequences of the dominance of intuitive thinking in moral judging and deciding for the role of moral reasoning in moral education. I argue that evidence for the reliability of moral intuitions is lacking. We cannot determine when we can trust our intuitive moral judgements. Deliberate and critical reasoning is…
Argues that schools will largely fail in their efforts to improve the moral and emotional growth of students if they do not attend to the moral and ethical development of teachers, especially urban teachers, who suffer from depression and disillusionment, the two primary causes of which are isolation and stress induced by problem students.…
Fenstermacher, Gary D.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.; Sanger, Matthew N.
In this article, the authors introduce what they believe is an important distinction between teaching morality and teaching morally. In P-12 schools, the moral education debate often focuses on character education programs or other moral curricula. Such programs and curricula are championed as a means of teaching morality and transmitting moral…
Shields, Kathleen M; Pruski, Charles E
San Antonio was selected as an official Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) demonstration site by National Association of County and City Officials in 2000. The San Antonio Metropolitan Health District, under the leadership of Dr Fernando A. Guerra, agreed to facilitate the process. The MAPP process provided the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District, the local public health authority, a defined process for community health improvement, as well as a mechanism to help bridge the gap between public health and the community. The San Antonio Metropolitan Health District organized a Core Planning Team to lead the MAPP process in April 2001. By October 2002, the Core Planning Team was expanded to a full community working group named the Alliance for Community Health in San Antonio and Bexar County (Alliance). The Alliance identified six strategic issues, which eventually became the basis of the San Antonio Community Health Improvement Plan. The strategic issues are Public Policy, Data Tracking, Healthy Lifestyles, Promoting a Sense of Community, Access to Care, and Safe Environment. San Antonio's MAPP experience has been successful in bringing together the public health system partners, and establishing public health priorities collectively. The MAPP process has resulted in the development of many new initiatives, and, most important, has opened the door to many partnership opportunities in the future. The work of the Alliance, through the MAPP process, has helped to leverage resources for public health improvement in San Antonio, and has the potential to effect positive change in public health in the future. PMID:16103814
... Surface Transportation Board San Antonio Central Railroad, L.L.C.--Lease Exemption--Port Authority of San Antonio San Antonio Central Railroad, L.L.C. (SAC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption... Antonio Central Railroad, L.L.C., Docket No. FD 35604, wherein Watco Holdings, Inc. has filed a...
Ockerman, Darwin J.; Banta, J. Ryan; Crow, Cassi L.; Opsahl, Stephen P.
Sediment plays an important role in the ecological health of rivers and estuaries and consequently is an important issue for water-resource managers. To better understand sediment characteristics in the San Antonio River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, completed a two-part study in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, to (1) collect and analyze sediment data to characterize sediment conditions and (2) develop and calibrate a watershed model to simulate hydrologic conditions and suspended-sediment loads during 2000–12.
Erdos, John I.; Nucci, Louis M.
The concept is summarized of a diffusive burning supersonic combustion ramjet engine (scramjet) envisioned by Antonio Ferri and some of the salient technologies are highlighted as developed by General Applied Science Labs, PIBAL, and NYU, under his direction.
Lefèvre, L.; Aparicio, A. J. P.; Gallego, M. C.; Vaquero, J. M.
We provide a source of detailed solar parameters spanning the years 1914 - 1920. Although various catalogs containing information on sunspots and sunspot groups have been available for almost 150 years, the contents and conventions can vary greatly from one source to another. Thus, the availability of multiple sources is very important to assess the relative uncertainties in the identified quantities. We provide here a machine-readable version of the sunspot catalog made by M. Aguilar from 1914 to 1920. We show and explain the structure and possible errors found in this catalog. We also try to understand the specific differences of this catalog, i.e. explain the shortcomings and benefits of this catalog versus other available sources of solar information. This catalog, combined with the Valencia catalog, presents a valuable source of comparison with the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO or GPR for Greenwich Photoheliographic Results) data, and it helps shed more light on the link between the RGO classification and the more modern classifications of sunspot groups found in the Zürich or McIntosh classifications. We also extend the work started by Carrasco et al. (Solar Phys. 290, 1445, 2015) on the mapping of Cortie types.
Chovitz, Bernard H.
Antonio Marussi, one of the most prominent geodesists of this century, died in Trieste, Italy, on April 24, 1984, at the age of 75. Blessed with good health and a robust physical constitution for most of his life, he was struck down by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) which he had contracted in 1982.Marussi is best known among geodesists as the father of modern three-dimensional geodesy. Following an initial presentation at the 1948 Oslo General Assembly of the IUGG, he published in 1949 in the Bulletin Géodésique an article entitled “Fondements de géométrie differentielle absolue du champ potential terrestre,” acknowledged now as one of the seminal works of the geodetic literature. In this and subsequent papers, Marussi developed in a general, rigorous, mathematical setting a unified approach to the solution of both geometric and physical problems in geodesy, obliterating the artificial distinction between horizontal and vertical which had been built up by geodesists over many years because of observational difficulties. He thus introduced many geodesists to the 20th century by demonstrating the value and, indeed, the necessity of advanced mathematical techniques like the tensor calculus and by anticipating useful data to be obtained by observations on close extraterrestrial objects like satellites.
98. Street view, East San Antonio Ave., looking west northwest, Guarantee Shoe Co. is 211 East San Antonio Ave. - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX
Opponents of biomedical enhancement often claim that, even if such enhancement would benefit the enhanced, it would harm others. But this objection looks unpersuasive when the enhancement in question is a moral enhancement — an enhancement that will expectably leave the enhanced person with morally better motives than she had previously. In this article I (1) describe one type of psychological alteration that would plausibly qualify as a moral enhancement, (2) argue that we will, in the medium-term future, probably be able to induce such alterations via biomedical intervention, and (3) defend future engagement in such moral enhancements against possible objections. My aim is to present this kind of moral enhancement as a counter-example to the view that biomedical enhancement is always morally impermissible. PMID:19132138
Cherne, Ferne; And Others
The Student Tracking System (STS) at San Antonio College is designed to increase retention of high risk students, and primarily students enrolled in developmental education courses. In addition to identifying students experiencing difficulty in the classroom, STS alerts educational support services personnel to these students, provides a system of…
American Educator, 1997
Discusses the successful use of Core Knowledge Curriculum in one inner-city elementary school in San Antonio (Texas) that had previously reflected low student achievement, inconsistent attendance, and student behavioral problems. Improvements in these conditions as revealed through teacher observations are highlighted. (GR)
This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Antonio, TX, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.
Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J.
Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced “self-conscious” emotions—shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or “collective” experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions—elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process—other-oriented empathy. PMID:16953797
Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Navrady, Lauren; Tedeschi, Ellen; Mobbs, Dean
Moral perceptions of harm and fairness are instrumental in guiding how an individual navigates moral challenges. Classic research documents that the gender of a target can affect how people deploy these perceptions of harm and fairness. Across multiple studies, we explore the effect of an individual’s moral orientations (their considerations of harm and justice) and a target’s gender on altruistic behavior. Results reveal that a target’s gender can bias one’s readiness to engage in harmful actions and that a decider’s considerations of harm—but not fairness concerns—modulate costly altruism. Together, these data illustrate that moral choices are conditional on the social nature of the moral dyad: Even under the same moral constraints, a target’s gender and a decider’s gender can shift an individual’s choice to be more or less altruistic, suggesting that gender bias and harm considerations play a significant role in moral cognition. PMID:27478541
Chambers, David W
This article explores the twin issues of whether organizations can act as ethical agents and what it means to exert moral influence over others. A discursive perspective is advanced that characterizes ethics as the action of communities based on promises. The received view of ethics as either the universal principles or individual responsibility is criticized as inadequate. Moral influence within community is considered under the various headings of democracy, office, brotherhood, agency, witness, and promise making. Moral influence among communities can include the damaging methods of "the superior position," coercion and misrepresentation, and appeal to third parties and the sound methods of rhetoric and promise making. PMID:17106040
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.
In the 1985 "Aguilar v. Felton" decision, the Supreme Court prohibited public school teachers in compensatory education programs funded under Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act from providing remedial services to sectarian private school students on private school premises. This document comprises a report on the effects…
Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian
In its basic sense, the term "human" is a term of biological classification: an individual is human just in case it is a member of the species Homo sapiens. Its opposite is "nonhuman": nonhuman animals being animals that belong to other species than H. sapiens. In another sense of human, its opposite is "inhuman," that is cruel and heartless (cf. "humane" and "inhumane"); being human in this sense is having morally good qualities. This paper argues that biomedical research and therapy should make humans in the biological sense more human in the moral sense, even if they cease to be human in the biological sense. This serves valuable biomedical ends like the promotion of health and well-being, for if humans do not become more moral, civilization is threatened. It is unimportant that humans remain biologically human, since they do not have moral value in virtue of belonging to H. sapiens. PMID:21076074
Chambers, David W
The American College of Dentists is embarking on a multiyear project to improve ethics in dentistry. Early indications are that the focus will be on actual moral behavior rather than theory, that we will include organizations as ethical units, and that we will focus on building moral leadership. There is little evidence that the "telling individuals how to behave" approach to ethics is having the hoped-for effect. As a profession, dentistry is based on shared trust. The public level of trust in practitioners is acceptable, but could be improved, and will need to be strengthened to reduce the risk of increasing regulation. While feedback from the way dentists and patients view ethics is generally reassuring, dentists are often at odds with patients and their colleagues over how the profesion manages itself. Individuals are an inconsistent mix of good and bad behavior, and it may be more helpful to make small improvements in the habits of all dentists than to try to take a few certifiably dishonest ones off the street. A computer simulation model of dentistry as a moral community suggests that the profession will always have the proportion of bad actors it will tolerate, that moral leadership is a difficult posture to maintain, that massive interventions to correct imbalances through education or other means will be wasted unless the system as a whole is modified, and that most dentists see no compelling benefit in changing the ethical climate of the profession because they are doing just fine. Considering organiza-tions as loci of moral behavior reveals questionable practices that otherwise remain undetected, including moral distress, fragmentation, fictitious dentists, moral fading, decoupling, responsibility shifting, and moral priming. What is most needed is not phillosophy or principles, but moral leadership. PMID:27159969
Xu, Elvis G B; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W; Leung, Kenneth M Y
Nonylphenols (NPs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are the most common endocrine disruptors detected in the coastal waters of Hong Kong. The Cape D'Aguilar Marine Reserve (CAMR), the only marine reserve in Hong Kong is close to urbanized areas, thus the resident marine organisms are inevitably influenced by partially treated wastewater from adjacent sewage treatment plants (STPs). Elevated levels of NPs and BPA were detected in all seawater, sediment and biota samples collected from the CAMR. Estrogenic activities of seawater from the CAMR, and sludge and sewage from a nearby STP were assessed using yeast estrogen screen assay. We found aromatase, estrogen receptor and vitellogenin genes in the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma were significantly up-regulated after exposure to the reserve's seawater. According to a tissue-residue-based probabilistic risk assessment, the marine species living in the CAMR are having 35% and 21% of chance to be at risk due to exposure to NPs and BPA, respectively. PMID:25561005
PNNL, FSEC, and CalcsPlus provided technical assistance to Build San Antonio Green on three deep energy retrofits. For this gut rehab they replaced the old roof with a steeper roof and replaced drywall while adding insulation, new HVAC, sealed ducts, transfer grilles, outside air run-time ventilation, new lighting and water heater.
Journal of Career Planning and Employment, 1989
Describes the 1989 College Placement Council national meeting to be held in San Antonio, Texas from May 30 through June 2, 1989. Briefly describes the city of San Antonio, discusses receptions and activities planned for the meeting, and lists five seminars covering topics of empowerment, endurance, enterprise, etiquette, and expertise, which will…
San Antonio Coll., TX.
The 1999-2000 San Antonio College (Texas) Fact Book includes the college profile, student profile, enrollment trends, personnel profile, and financial profile. In support of the mission of the Alamo Community College District, San Antonio College responds to Bexar County's diverse community by providing high-quality general education, liberal arts…
Explains the rationale that there should be a kind of harmony between moral understanding or reasoning on the one hand, and the feeling dispositions on the other hand. Considers the views of Kant and Schopenhauer as they apply to the subject. (Author/RK)
Chambers, David W
Civil societies set aside a common pool of resources to help those with whom chance has dealt harshly. Frequently we allow access to these common resources when bad luck is assisted by foolishness and lack of foresight. Sometimes we may even help ourselves to a few of those common assets since others are doing so and they are public goods, the cost of which is shared and has already been paid. Moral hazard is the questionable ethical practice of increasing opportunity for individual gain while shifting risk for loss to the group. Bailout is an example. What makes moral hazard so widespread and difficult to manage is that it is easier for individuals to see their advantage than it is for groups to see theirs. Runaway American healthcare costs can be explained in these terms. Cheating, overtreatment, commercialism, and other moral problems in dentistry can be traced to the interaction between opportunistic individual behavior and permissive group responses common in moral hazard. PMID:19928367
Can moral flaws lessen an artwork's aesthetic value? Answering yes to this question requires both that artworks can be morally flawed and that moral flaws within a work of art can have an aesthetic impact. For present purposes, the author will assume that artworks can be morally flawed by such means as endorsing immoral perspectives, culpably…
This research deals with the different psychological processes people undergo when they experience firsthand authentic moral conflicts. It also discusses the value of authentic moral conflicts in students' moral development, and reasons for the ineffectiveness of moral education in China. The main reason for the unsatisfactory effects of moral…
In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact…
Nichols, Shaun; Mallon, Ron
Recent work shows an important asymmetry in lay intuitions about moral dilemmas. Most people think it is permissible to divert a train so that it will kill one innocent person instead of five, but most people think that it is not permissible to push a stranger in front of a train to save five innocents. We argue that recent emotion-based…
When schools react to contemporary events and focus on complex moral problems they commonly fail to make basic distinctions between the morally serious and trivial, the moral and the non-moral, and problems and dilemmas. We need to teach the distinction between moral and other values, and between what is intrinsically good, what is right in…
Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo
Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…
Horell, Harold D.
The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…
Lachman, Vicki D
Moral resilience is the ability to deal with an ethically adverse situation without lasting effects of moral distress and moral residue. This requires morally courageous action, activating needed supports and doing the right thing. Morally resilient people also have developed self-confidence by confronting such situations so they can maintain their self-esteem, no matter what life delivers. Finally, the ability to adapt to changing circumstances with a sense of humor is at the heart of their flexibility. Morally resilient nurses are not naïve about the price of moral integrity. They know it does not come without pain of dealing with adversity, but they believe the virtue of moral courage is necessary to meet the ethical obligations of their profession (ANA, 2015b). PMID:27323473
Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wisneski, Daniel C; Brandt, Mark J; Skitka, Linda J
The science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent and manifold. Liberals and conservatives emphasized somewhat different moral dimensions. Religious and nonreligious participants did not differ in the likelihood or quality of committed moral and immoral acts. Being the target of moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on happiness, whereas committing moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on sense of purpose. Analyses of daily dynamics revealed evidence for both moral contagion and moral licensing. In sum, morality science may benefit from a closer look at the antecedents, dynamics, and consequences of everyday moral experience. PMID:25214626
Antonio Vergara Fernandez : Engineer of the LHC commissioning Questions asked : 1. What does it take to start up the LHC machine? 2. What's the plan for 1st injection day? 3. How do you feel about this?
Antonio Vergara Fernandez : Engineer of the LHC commissioning Questions asked : 1. What does it take to start up the LHC machine? 2. What's the plan for 1st injection day? 3. How do you feel about this?
In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…
James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…
The current status of the United States as an "immoral" society has a direct correlation to the lack of serious attention given to moral education in the classroom. Morality, and what constitutes morality education, is a topic of concern for parents as well as educators. Morality, as a term, incorporates the social, economic, and political biases…
The impact on the economy of five cultural institutions in the San Antonio, Texas, area was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are the San Antonio Symphony, San Antonio Opera, Witte Museum, Museum of Transportation, and the Carver Cultural Center. Data gathered from the six institutions…
Pritchard, Michael S.
Noting that reasonableness is not to be equated with rationality but is a form of rationality, this book explores ways in which educators can help children develop the capacity to be reasonable within the context of moral development. In Chapter 1, "Reasonable Children," the concept "reasonableness" is defined in the context of morality. Chapter…
Sachdeva, Sonya; Iliev, Rumen; Medin, Douglas L
Although mutually advantageous cooperative strategies might be an apt account of some societies, other moral systems might be needed among certain groups and contexts. In particular, in a duty-based moral system, people do not behave morally with an expectation for proportional reward, but rather, as a fulfillment of debt owed to others. In such systems, mutualistic motivations are not necessarily a key component of morality. PMID:23445599
Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.
The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182
Michael Slote's very interesting work on moral sentimentalism and moral education raises some important questions on the meaning of empathy, the limitations of "inductions", and the development of moral education from the perspective of care ethics. These questions are addressed in this commentary. (Contains 5 notes.)
Care ethics, and moral sentimentalism more generally, have not developed a picture of moral education that is comparable in scope or depth to the rationalist/Kantian/Rawlsian account of moral education that has been offered by Lawrence Kohlberg. But it is possible to do so if one borrows from the work of Martin Hoffman and makes systematic use of…
Kaplan, Martin F.
The application of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981), a general model of social judgment, overcomes shortcomings in the evaluation of moral development by offering a clear distinction between moral values and reasoning. To test the applicability of Anderson's theory to moral development research, two experiments were conducted using…
Exley, Robert J.
Lawrence M. Hinman's (2002) glossary of terms defines ethics as "the explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices." The definition further states that "Ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality..." The same glossary states that "Morality refers to the first-order beliefs and practices about good and evil…
Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.
The Moral University examines the ways that universities act morally toward students, faculty, their communities and the nation. It considers the effectiveness of moral reasoning courses in the curriculum and the growth of leadership courses. The book deals with the myriad ways in which universities act positively toward their communities. It also…
Maxwell, Bruce; Le Sage, Leonie
Philosophical and psychological opinion is divided over whether moral sensitivity, understood as the ability to pick out a situation's morally salient features, necessarily involves emotional engagement. This paper seeks to offer insight into this question. It reasons that if moral sensitivity does draw significantly on affective capacities of…
Bergmann, Jorg R.
Introduces a special issue containing a series of articles on the relation of social interaction and morality. The articles analyze actual instances of moral discourse, elucidating the nature and dynamics of the relationship. This introduction discusses morality, discourse, and social science; proto-mortality as a substructure of discourse;…
Suter, Renata S.; Hertwig, Ralph
Do moral judgments hinge on the time available to render them? According to a recent dual-process model of moral judgment, moral dilemmas that engage emotional processes are likely to result in fast deontological gut reactions. In contrast, consequentialist responses that tot up lives saved and lost in response to such dilemmas would require…
Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann
Effective counseling practice continues to be inevitably linked to underlying theories of behavioral causality. In this article, the authors present the Moral Capacity Profile of an individual from the perspective of the Amoral, Moral, Quasi-Moral/Quasi-Immoral, and Immoral Model of Behavior, a model that uniquely expands counseling's theoretical…
Macht, Mary W.; And Others
Will high morale among prison inmates result in low rates of recidivism? This study explores the hypothesis that inmate morale may be an indicator of the effectiveness of prison programs. It is based on an instrument devised by the authors to measure morale. (Author)
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the fundamental elements of moral literacy. Moral literacy involves three basic components: ethics sensitivity; ethical reasoning skills; and moral imagination. It is the contention of the author that though math and reading literacy is highly valued by the American educational…
Scott, Otis L., Jr.
Texas has a proud history of being a multicultural state. Of its nearly 23 million residents (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006), none of its major racial or ethnic groups (Anglo, Hispanic, Black, American Indian, or Asian) constitutes a majority of the population. San Antonio, with a population of over 1.2 million, is the second-largest city in Texas,…
This paper, drawing on original sources, provides an overview of and a discussion on those writings and ideas, in Antonio Gramsci's huge corpus of work, that are relevant to the education of adults. This should provide a fitting tribute to this major social theorist of the 20th century on the 70th anniversary of his death. Among the topics…
1. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERN BEEHIVE BRICK, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. KILNS 1A, 2A, 3A, AND 4A IN FOREGROUND. GAS VALVE AND METERING HOUSE TO LEFT OF PICTURE. - Jenkins Brick Company, Plant No. 2, Furnace Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL
Hall, Barbara Ann; And Others
In fall 1986, Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) began a five year longitudinal study of the effectiveness of its matriculation services, which include assessment, orientation, counseling/advisement, and follow-up of students by staff members. The study utilized a computerized tracking system to compare retention, grade point average (GPA),…
A study was conducted by the Community Services Department at Mt. San Antonio College (Mt. SAC) to evaluate participant satisfaction and suggestions for future direction for the department's comprehensive program of non-credit courses. A questionnaire was administered in class to 307 participants between April 1, and June 1, 1987, focusing on…
Hall, Barbara Ann; And Others
In fall 1986, Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) initiated a 5-year longitudinal study of the effectiveness of its matriculation services, including assessment, orientation, counseling/advisement, and follow-up. The academic performance and success of students participating in one or more of these services were compared to those of degree- and…
Describes a mass communications program at Texas's San Antonio College that invites Pulitzer Prize recipients to give guest lectures. Includes a list of the speakers who have lectured since the program's inception in 1978, a description of the speakers' accomplishments, and a description of program activities. (MAB)
Mount San Antonio Community Coll. District, Walnut, CA.
This databook contains some of the basic information to be used in decision making and planning in the Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) District. Part I focuses on the demographic characteristics of the district population, feeder school districts, and data from other educational providers. Part II presents statewide data on potential enrollment by…
Day, Ronald E.
Considers one concept in knowledge management, that of social capital, focusing on the problem of measure and value in capitalism, specifically within the period and conditions of post-Fordist production. Discusses the work of Antonio Negri and suggests the importance of knowledge management as a symptom of a turn in political economy. (Author/LRW)
San Antonio Coll., TX.
San Antonio College, a college of the Alamo Community College District, develops a system of academic program review in order to ensure effective and efficient delivery of the instructional services provided at the institution. This document provides guidelines on completing a program review. Through the review, the college aims to produce the…
A number of philosophers working in applied ethics and bioethics are now earnestly debating the ethics of what they term "moral bioenhancement." I argue that the society-wide program of biological manipulations required to achieve the purported goals of moral bioenhancement would necessarily implicate the state in a controversial moral perfectionism. Moreover, the prospect of being able to reliably identify some people as, by biological constitution, significantly and consistently more moral than others would seem to pose a profound challenge to egalitarian social and political ideals. Even if moral bioenhancement should ultimately prove to be impossible, there is a chance that a bogus science of bioenhancement would lead to arbitrary inequalities in access to political power or facilitate the unjust rule of authoritarians; in the meantime, the debate about the ethics of moral bioenhancement risks reinvigorating dangerous ideas about the extent of natural inequality in the possession of the moral faculties. PMID:24730485
Kang, Min Ju; Glassman, Michael
This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the…
Srivastava, Chhitij; Dhingra, Vishal; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Srivastava, Alka
Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means “manner, character, proper behavior”) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times. PMID:23858269
Srivastava, Chhitij; Dhingra, Vishal; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Srivastava, Alka
Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means "manner, character, proper behavior") is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times. PMID:23858269
Levy, Neil; Douglas, Thomas; Kahane, Guy; Terbeck, Sylvia; Cowen, Philip J.; Hewstone, Miles; Savulescu, Julian
A number of concerns have been raised about the possible future use of pharmaceuticals designed to enhance cognitive, affective, and motivational processes, particularly where the aim is to produce morally better decisions or behavior. In this article, we draw attention to what is arguably a more worrying possibility: that pharmaceuticals currently in widespread therapeutic use are already having unintended effects on these processes, and thus on moral decision making and morally significant behavior. We review current evidence on the moral effects of three widely used drugs or drug types: (i) propranolol, (ii) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and (iii) drugs that effect oxytocin physiology. This evidence suggests that the alterations to moral decision making and behavior caused by these agents may have important and difficult-to-evaluate consequences, at least at the population level. We argue that the moral effects of these and other widely used pharmaceuticals warrant further empirical research and ethical analysis. PMID:25892904
McCarthy, Joan; Deady, Rick
Moral distress has received much attention in the international nursing literature in recent years. In this article, we describe the evolution of the concept of moral distress among nursing theorists from its initial delineation by the philosopher Jameton to its subsequent deployment as an umbrella concept describing the impact of moral constraints on health professionals and the patients for whom they care. The article raises worries about the way in which the concept of moral distress has been portrayed in some nursing research and expresses concern about the fact that research, so far, has been largely confined to determining the prevalence of experiences of moral distress among nurses. We conclude by proposing a reconsideration, possible reconstruction and multidisciplinary approach to understanding the experiences of all health professionals who have to make difficult moral judgements and decisions in complex situations. PMID:18272615
Meyer, Liza C.; Hammer, Mary C.
The San Antonio Better Buildings Program is a unified single-point-of-service energy efficiency delivery mechanism targeting residential, commercial, institutional, industrial and public buildings. This comprehensive and replicable energy efficiency program is designed to be an effective demand side management initiative to provide a seamless process for program participants to have turn-key access to expert analysis, support and incentives to improve the performance of their in-place energy using systems, while reducing electrical energy use and demand.
Antonio Scarpa (1752-1832) was a prominent scholar who contributed greatly to otolaryngology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, neuroanatomy, and surgery. In 1801, he published a textbook on ophthalmology, the first Italian textbook on this subject and the most propagated European ophthalmic textbook in the first half of the 19th century. The book included important descriptions of lacrimal system disorders, many oculoplastic procedures, and the first description of posterior staphyloma. PMID:24366769
Jones, Nic; Norris, Ben; Meyer, Lisa
This report presents an analysis of value provided by grid-connected, distributed PV in San Antonio from a utility perspective. The study quantified six value components, summarized in Table ES- 1. These components represent the benefits that accrue to the utility, CPS Energy, in accepting solar onto the grid. This analysis does not treat the compensation of value, policy objectives, or cost-effectiveness from the retail consumer perspective.
Most Texans would rather sell a favorite horse than vote for a tax hike that promises bigger government. Yet San Antonio Mayor Julian Castro has not only persuaded his constituents to spend $248 million to pay for an unusual and ambitious preschool program for poor 4-year-olds, but he is also going to open doors in August--a mere nine months after…
San Antonio Coll., TX.
The 2000-2001 Fact Book for San Antonio College in Texas offers statistics on the college, students, enrollment trends, personnel, and finances. Highlights of the reports include: (1) 20,490 students were enrolled in fall 2000, 58.3% of whom were female; (2) 29% of students were age 19-21, 17.8% were 25-30, and 13% were 36-50; (3) 64% of students…
Moral philosophy seems well placed to claim the key role in theorizing about moral education. Indeed, moral philosophers have from antiquity had much to say about psychological and other processes of moral formation. Given this history, it may seem ironic that much systematic latter-day theorizing about moral education has been social scientific,…
Holt, Janet; Long, Tony
A prescriptive moral guidance approach to teaching nursing ethics is unacceptable. Students should be introduced to philosophical methods to learn autonomous analysis and decision making. Case-study material based on personal experiences enhances the integration of ethical reasoning and clinical practice. (SK)
Taylor, James Stacey
Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons' feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez argues that such instinctive distress is an appropriate response to the (rationally defensible) perception that certain kinds of arguments that are offered in favor of legalizing organ sales are "in an important sense, illegitimate." Having argued that repugnance should not ground the prohibition of markets in human organs, I will also argue that the moral distress that some feel towards certain arguments that favor such markets is not rationally defensible, either. PMID:25908777
Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both. PMID:24602097
Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith
The psychological study of moral development has expanded greatly, both in terms of the diversity of theoretical perspectives that are represented in the field, as well as in the range of topics that have been studied. This "Handbook of Moral Development" represents the diversity and multidisciplinary influences on current theorizing about the…
Discusses the reasons why educational researchers and teachers never embraced the ideas of John Wilson as they related to his components of morality in moral education. States that through this examination, the strengths and weaknesses of Wilson's approach can be appraised. (CMK)
Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.
Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…
Distinguishes five interpretations of sexual education including factual knowledge; self-control; stressing love; sexual training; and sexual morality. Suggests that sexual education should be understood as teaching children the moral tendencies relevant to sexual conduct. Argues that infantile sexual desire is based on a contradiction in terms…
Oser, Fritz K.
Identifies and discusses the elements and applications of learning from negative morality. Negative morality refers to the experience of learning from mistakes thereby creating a body of personal knowledge about "what not to do." This knowledge not only protects individuals but steers them to the right behavior. (MJP)
Lee, Lee C.
Research efforts in the area of moral development of the child, as based on Piaget's theory, are discussed. Some of the important processes Piaget uses to explain cognitive growth are presented first, followed by his theory of how the individual's capacity for moral judgment evolves. The research discussed tests Piaget's chief underlying…
Kovac, Jeffrey; Coppola, Brian P.
Explores what morally reflective educational practice might look like, focusing on education as a relational human activity that has a moral dimension. Discusses: (1) instructional goals (development of character, cognitive skills, and disciplinary skills, and reintegration of knowledge); (2) pedagogy (for example, the hidden curriculum in…
Harenski, Carla L; Antonenko, Olga; Shane, Matthew S; Kiehl, Kent A
Prior functional imaging studies of moral processing have utilized 'explicit' moral tasks that involve moral deliberation (e.g., reading statements such as 'he shot the victim' and rating the moral appropriateness of the behavior) or 'implicit' moral tasks that involve moral intuition (e.g., reading similar statements and memorizing them for a test but not rating their moral appropriateness). Although the neural mechanisms underlying moral deliberation and moral intuition may differ, these have not been directly compared. Studies using explicit moral tasks have reported increased activity in several regions, most consistently the medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction. In the few studies that have utilized implicit moral tasks, medial prefrontal activity has been less consistent, suggesting the medial prefrontal cortex is more critical for moral deliberation than moral intuition. Thus, we hypothesized that medial prefrontal activity would be increased during an explicit, but not an implicit, moral task. Participants (n=28) were scanned using fMRI while viewing 50 unpleasant pictures, half of which depicted moral violations. Half of the participants rated pictures on moral violation severity (explicit task) while the other half indicated whether pictures occurred indoors or outdoors (implicit task). As predicted, participants performing the explicit, but not the implicit, task showed increased ventromedial prefrontal activity while viewing moral pictures. Both groups showed increased temporo-parietal junction activity while viewing moral pictures. These results suggest that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex may contribute more to moral deliberation than moral intuition, whereas the temporo-parietal junction may contribute more to moral intuition than moral deliberation. PMID:19878727
Harenski, Carla L.; Antonenko, Olga; Shane, Matthew S.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Prior functional imaging studies of moral processing have utilized ‘explicit’ moral tasks that involve moral deliberation (e.g., reading statements such as ‘he shot the victim’ and rating the moral appropriateness of the behavior) or ‘implicit’ moral tasks that involve moral intuition (e.g., reading similar statements and memorizing them for a test but not rating their moral appropriateness). Although the neural mechanisms underlying moral deliberation and moral intuition may differ, these have not been directly compared. Studies using explicit moral tasks have reported increased activity in several regions, most consistently the medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction. In the few studies that have utilized implicit moral tasks, medial prefrontal activity has been less consistent, suggesting the medial prefrontal cortex is more critical for moral deliberation than moral intuition. Thus, we hypothesized that medial prefrontal activity would be increased during an explicit, but not an implicit, moral task. Participants (n = 28) were scanned using fMRI while viewing 50 unpleasant pictures, half of which depicted moral violations. Half of the participants rated pictures on moral violation severity (explicit task) while the other half indicated whether pictures occurred indoors or outdoors (implicit task). As predicted, participants performing the explicit, but not the implicit, task showed increased ventromedial prefrontal activity while viewing moral pictures. Both groups showed increased temporo-parietal junction activity while viewing moral pictures. These results suggest that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex may contribute more to moral deliberation than moral intuition, whereas the temporo-parietal junction may contribute more to moral intuition than moral deliberation. PMID:19878727
Schaefer, G Owen
Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement. PMID:26412738
This paper deals with two specific issues: the explanation of moral conduct and the structure of moral character. The purpose of the paper is to describe a new psychological perspective on moral conduct, and to discuss some empirical findings which follow from this perspective. Morality is regarded here as a natural phenomenon which considers…
This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…
Malti, Tina; Latzko, Brigitte
This chapter presents a brief introduction to the developmental and educational literature linking children's moral emotions to cognitive moral development. A central premise of the chapter is that an integrative developmental perspective on moral emotions and moral cognition provides an important conceptual framework for understanding children's…
Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.
The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…
Krebs, Dennis; Rosenwald, Alli
This study explored the relationship between moral reasoning and moral behavior in 31 average adults. Subjects were placed in a situation demanding low-key moral conflict. The study examined subjects' decisions and the relationship between their moral reasoning (revealed by verbal responses to Kohlberg's hypothetical dilemmas) and their behavior.…
Dudzinski, Denise Marie
The plethora of literature on moral distress has substantiated and refined the concept, provided data about clinicians' (especially nurses') experiences, and offered advice for coping. Fewer scholars have explored what makes moral distress moral If we acknowledge that patient care can be distressing in the best of ethical circumstances, then differentiating distress and moral distress may refine the array of actions that are likely to ameliorate it. This article builds upon scholarship exploring the normative and conceptual dimensions of moral distress and introduces a new tool to map moral distress from emotional source to corrective actions. The Moral Distress Map has proven useful in clinical teaching and ethics-related debriefings. PMID:26969723
Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls' theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. Also that there are psychological reasons to favor the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls' theory is an elaboration. Attempts to show that Kohlberg has confused ethics…
Friend, Gary Gene
This report provides a summarization of a study designed to determine if there is a significant relationship between formal religious education and the moral judgment development of college students, and after controlling for formal religious education, to see if there was also a significant relationship between the educational environment or…
The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language…
A VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST TOWARD MT. SAN ANTONIO FROM THE UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD TRACK NEAR CAJON PASS. VISIBLE FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE THE SANDSTONE OUTCROPS AT SULLIVANS CURVE IN THE FAR LEFT DISTANCE; BNSF RAILROAD MAIN TRACK 2 CURVING THROUGH THE HILLS IN THE LEFT DISTANCE; HILL 58.2 AT CENTER, MARKED BY AN ISOLATED STAND OF TREES; BNSF RAILROAD MAIN TRACK 1, RUNNING STRAIGHT THROUGH THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH; AND THE UNION PACIFIC TRACK AT THE FAR RIGHT. 123 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA
Zago, S; Randazzo, C
Whilst the debate about cerebral localisation of articulate speech was raging in France in the 1860s and in particular with reference to the observations of Paul Broca, there were also some Italians who attempted to make a contribution on the subject. Among those was the physician Antonio Berti, who in 1865 furnished some interesting observations on the association of aphasia with the frontal lobe. In this paper we intend to revive this forgotten episode that represents one of the early Italian observations on the issue of cortical localisation of speech. PMID:17205235
Lipton, Laura; Starratt, Robert J.
Students' decisions are influenced by the moral climate of their school. Changing social, economical, and traditional family structures have contributed to an upheaval of moral foundations. As a result, schools are becoming a critical arena for students to develop into morally responsible adults. Consequently, the moral growth of teachers is an…
While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…
Tappan, Mark B.
In this paper, I argue that it is quite useful, both theoretically and empirically, to adopt a socio-cultural approach to the study of moral development. This entails viewing "moral functioning" as a form of mediated action, and moral development as the process by which persons gradually appropriate a variety of "moral mediational means". Mediated…
The author critiques John Wilson's view of moral education for being too linear, ignoring the complexity of moral development. He proposes a more generalized moral education, with greater emphasis on affect and social context. For Wilson's article, see "Journal of Moral Education," p3-9, Oct 1979 (EJ220532). (SJL)
Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan
Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…
Williams, Richard N.; Gantt, Edwin E.
The step-off point for this article is the problem of the "moral judgement-moral action gap" as found in contemporary literature of moral education and moral development. We argue that this gap, and the conceptual problems encountered by attempts to bridge it, reflects the effect of a different, deeper and more problematic conceptual gap: the…
Taylor, Satomi Izumi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Wilson, Jeanne
Interviews were conducted with 28 kindergartners, their teachers, and their director to examine Japanese children's moral development. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed three themes related to moral development: social system morality, emotions, and responsibility. Children made moral decisions based on social system morality…
Offers a theoretical account of moral rationality within a rational constructivist paradigm examining the nature and relationship of rationality and reasoning. Suggests progressive changes through developmental levels of moral rationality. Proposes a developmental moral epistemology that accommodates moral pluralism to a greater degree than does…
Berkeley held that the moral duty of mankind was to obey God's laws; that--since God was a benevolent Creator--the object of His laws must be to promote the welfare and flourishing of mankind; and that, accordingly, humans could identify their moral duties by asking what system of laws for conduct would in fact tend to promote that object. This position--which is akin to that of 'rule' Utilitarianism--is neither unfamiliar nor manifestly untenable. He was surely mistaken, however, in his further supposition that, if this theory were accepted, the resolution of all (or most) particular moral dilemmas would be simple and straightforward. PMID:2181141
Borhani, Fariba; Keshtgar, Mohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas
Nurses are often faced with serious situations that require high levels of legal and ethical knowledge, and should therefore be sensitive to the moral issues in their profession in the decision making process. Some studies have investigated nurses' moral self-concept as an effective factor in moral sensitivity, but there is not sufficient evidence to support this. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between moral sensitivity and moral self-concept in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to study the relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Chang's Moral Self-Concept Questionnaire and Lutzen's Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 17. A total of 188 nurses participated in this study. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity (P < 0.05). Based on our findings, an individual's attention to moral issues can lead to greater sensitivity and result in morally responsible behavior at the time of decision making. Consequently, promotion of moral self-concept through personal effort or education can increase moral sensitivity, which in turn leads to behavioral manifestations of ethical knowledge. PMID:26839678
Borhani, Fariba; Keshtgar, Mohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas
Nurses are often faced with serious situations that require high levels of legal and ethical knowledge, and should therefore be sensitive to the moral issues in their profession in the decision making process. Some studies have investigated nurses’ moral self-concept as an effective factor in moral sensitivity, but there is not sufficient evidence to support this. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between moral sensitivity and moral self-concept in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to study the relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Chang’s Moral Self-Concept Questionnaire and Lutzen’s Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 17. A total of 188 nurses participated in this study. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity (P < 0.05). Based on our findings, an individual's attention to moral issues can lead to greater sensitivity and result in morally responsible behavior at the time of decision making. Consequently, promotion of moral self-concept through personal effort or education can increase moral sensitivity, which in turn leads to behavioral manifestations of ethical knowledge. PMID:26839678
Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e.g. beliefs) and that which manipulates other, non-representational states (e.g. motivations). Either way, I argue, the enhanced moral psychology will fail to conform to epistemic norms, and the only way to resolve this failure and allow the moral bioenhancement to be effective in addressing the targeted moral issues is to make the moral bioenhancement covert. PMID:26686733
... surplus water or water power from a government dam; or (4) if applicable, has involved or would involve... Energy Regulatory Commission San Antonio Water System; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order and... Antonio Water System (SAWS). e. Name of Project: SAWS Naco Hydroelectric Project. f. Location:...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Antonio Canova: The Seven Last Works... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Antonio Canova: The Seven Last...
During the early 20th century, practicing San Antonio teachers took part in several different types of in-service education. This paper investigates the types of in-service education present during the superintendency of Lloyd Wolfe (1902-1908), a progressive San Antonio educator who employed innovative approaches to in-service education.…
... 5, 2012 (77 FR 13147-13149), the Department requested comments on which of the sites on the... National Park Service U.S. Nominations to the World Heritage List: San Antonio Franciscan Missions AGENCY... request that a draft nomination of the San Antonio Franciscan Missions for inclusion on the World...
Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M
"Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties. PMID:27292845
Anders Richards, Donald
The place of the encounter group within the framework of humanistic psychology is examined and an assessment of the moral significance of the humanistic psychology movement and the encounter group technique is attempted. (Editor)
Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal
Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality. PMID:23664451
Brandes, E.; Sharif, H.
A catastrophic flood occurred on July 1st, 2002 in San Antonio, Texas. Widespread and disastrous flooding developed across major river basins in the area and two reservoirs. Numerous high water rescues from cars, homes, campgrounds and vacation resorts occurred, and evacuations were widespread. Total damage was nearly 1 billion, including 48,000 homes damaged or destroyed, and 20 counties declared disaster areas. There were also seven fatalities due to flooding. Research is being conducted to (1) characterize the meteorological conditions that existed from the evening of June 30th through July 1st and produced 12.70 inches of rain at San Antonio International Airport for the three-day periods; (2) verify and adjust radar-rainfall estimates from WSR-88D radars located at New Braunfels and Laughlin AFB, TX, using surface recorded rainfall accumulations; and (3) apply the rainfall and watershed characteristics data to recreate the runoff event using a two- dimensional, physically-based, distributed-parameter hydrologic model. Preliminary results will be presented.
Suter, Renata S; Hertwig, Ralph
Do moral judgments hinge on the time available to render them? According to a recent dual-process model of moral judgment, moral dilemmas that engage emotional processes are likely to result in fast deontological gut reactions. In contrast, consequentialist responses that tot up lives saved and lost in response to such dilemmas would require cognitive control to override the initial response. Cognitive control, however, takes time. In two experiments, we manipulated the time available to arrive at moral judgments in two ways: by allotting a fixed short or large amount of time, and by nudging people to answer swiftly or to deliberate thoroughly. We found that faster responses indeed lead to more deontological responses among those moral dilemmas in which the killing of one to save many necessitates manhandling an innocent person and in which this action is depicted as a means to an end. Thus, our results are the first demonstration that inhibiting cognitive control through manipulations of time alters moral judgments. PMID:21354557
Priaulx, Nicky; Weinel, Martin; Wrigley, Anthony
We argue that the way in which the concept of expertise is understood and invoked has prevented progress in the debate as to whether moral philosophers can be said to be 'moral experts'. We offer an account of expertise that draws on the role of tacit knowledge in order to provide a basis upon which the debate can progress. Our analysis consists of three parts. In the first part we highlight two specific problems in the way that the concept of expertise has been invoked in the moral expertise debate, namely the understanding of expertise as an exclusive concept and the conflation of expertise with the idea of 'authority'. In the second part we suggest an alternative way of approaching the concept of expertise. This is based on Collins and Evans' sociological theory of expertises. This theory provides a valuable analytical framework for thinking about claims to expertise and for drawing the kinds of distinctions which allow for different kinds of moral expertises and competencies. In the final part, we show how the application of this theory helps to avoid some of the problematic conclusions which theorists have arrived at to date and provides a common platform for debate. Ultimately, it permits the argument to be made that moral philosophers could be considered specialist members of an expert community of moral decision-makers. PMID:25103422
Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Caldwell, Meredith; Kurtz, Melissa
: Moral distress is a pervasive problem in the nursing profession. An inability to act in alignment with one's moral values is detrimental not only to the nurse's well-being but also to patient care and clinical practice as a whole. Moral distress has typically been seen as characterized by powerlessness and victimization; we offer an alternate view. Ethically complex situations and experiences of moral distress can become opportunities for growth, empowerment, and increased moral resilience. This article outlines the concept and prevalence of moral distress, describes its impact and precipitating factors, and discusses promising practices and interventions. PMID:27294668
The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration. PMID:21133335
Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory. PMID:26025654
Killen, Melanie; Rizzo, Michael T.
Morality is at the core of what it means to be social. Moral judgments require the recognition of intentionality, that is, an attribution of the target’s intentions towards another. Most research on the origins of morality has focused on intragroup morality, which involves applying morality to individuals in one’s own group. Yet, increasingly, there has been new evidence that beginning early in development, children are able to apply moral concepts to members of an outgroup as well, and that this ability appears to be complex. The challenges associated with applying moral judgments to members of outgroups includes understanding group dynamics, the intentions of others who are different from the self, and having the capacity to challenge stereotypic expectations of others who are different from the ingroup. Research with children provides a window into the complexities of moral judgment and raises new questions, which are ripe for investigations into the evolutionary basis of morality. PMID:25717199
Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W
Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. PMID:25461028
Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R
The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes. PMID:23895167
The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose “religion” and “morality” into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts—in particular, sanitized conceptions of “prosocial” behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories “religion” and “morality” must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PMID:25528346
This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and animal use for millennia, namely socialization, education and parental supervision or those high tech methods that are general in their application. By that is meant those forms of cognitive enhancement that operate across a wide range of cognitive abilities and do not target specifically ‘ethical’ capacities. The paper analyses the work of some of the leading contemporary advocates of moral enhancement and finds that in so far as they identify moral qualities or moral emotions for enhancement they have little prospect of success. PMID:21133978
Greimel, T.C.; Ambrose, M.L.
The San Antonio Quadrangle, Texas, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m to identify environments and define areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. The areas were delineated according to criteria established by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program funded by the United States Department of Energy. Surface studies included investigations of uranium occurrences described in the literature, location of aerial radiometric anomalies, outcrop investigation, and followup of hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data. Selected geologic units were evaluated in the subsurface using electric and gamma-ray well logs that were used to construct subsurface maps and cross sections. The environment favorable for Texas roll-type sandstone deposits is present in eleven areas in the Queen City and Carrizo Formations and the Wilcox Group. Six geologic units remain unevaluated. All other geologic units in this quadrangle are considered unfavorable.
In his article 'Why Moral Philosophers Are Not and Should Not Be Moral Experts' David Archard attempts to show that his argument from common-sense morality is more convincing than other competing arguments in the debate. I examine his main line of argumentation and eventually refute his main argument in my reply. PMID:22994530
Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis
If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…
Addresses the issue of selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Argues that moral functioning is governed by self-reactive selfhood rather than by dispassionate abstract reasoning. Concludes that the massive threats to human welfare stem mainly from deliberate acts of principle rather than from unrestrained acts of impulse.…
Sherblom, Stephen A.
The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moral development, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic…
Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view. PMID:17845448
Neuroscience and technological medicine in general increasingly faces us with the imminent reality of cyborgs—integrated part human and part machine complexes. If my brain functions in a way that is supported by and exploits intelligent technology both external and implantable, then how should I be treated and what is my moral status—am I a machine or am I a person? I explore a number of scenarios where the balance between human and humanoid machine shifts, and ask questions about the moral status of the individuals concerned. The position taken is very much in accordance with the Aristotelian idea that our moral behaviour is of a piece with our social and personal skills and forms a reactive and reflective component of those skills. PMID:16446411
Falk, Armin; Szech, Nora
The possibility that market interaction may erode moral values is a long-standing, but controversial, hypothesis in the social sciences, ethics, and philosophy. To date, empirical evidence on decay of moral values through market interaction has been scarce. We present controlled experimental evidence on how market interaction changes how human subjects value harm and damage done to third parties. In the experiment, subjects decide between either saving the life of a mouse or receiving money. We compare individual decisions to those made in a bilateral and a multilateral market. In both markets, the willingness to kill the mouse is substantially higher than in individual decisions. Furthermore, in the multilateral market, prices for life deteriorate tremendously. In contrast, for morally neutral consumption choices, differences between institutions are small. PMID:23661753
Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan
Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931
Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan
Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931
Crow, Cassi L.; Banta, J. Ryan; Opsahl, Stephen P.
San Antonio and surrounding municipalities in Bexar County, Texas, are in a rapidly urbanizing region in the San Antonio River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority and the Texas Water Development Board, compiled historical sediment data collected between 1996 and 2004 and collected suspended-sediment and bedload samples over a range of hydrologic conditions in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Tex., and at a site on the Guadalupe River downstream from the San Antonio River Basin during 2011–13. In the suspended-sediment samples collected during 2011–13, an average of about 94 percent of the particles was less than 0.0625 millimeter (silt and clay sized particles); the 50 samples for which a complete sediment-size analysis was performed indicated that an average of about 69 percent of the particles was less than 0.002 millimeter. In the bedload samples collected during 2011–13, an average of 51 percent of sediment particles was sand-sized particles in the 0.25–0.5 millimeter-size range. In general, the loads calculated from the samples indicated that bedload typically composed less than 1 percent of the total sediment load. A least-squares log-linear regression was developed between suspended-sediment concentration and instantaneous streamflow and was used to estimate daily mean suspended-sediment loads based on daily mean streamflow. The daily mean suspended-sediment loads computed for each of the sites indicated that during 2011–12, the majority of the suspended-sediment loads originated upstream from the streamflow-gaging station on the San Antonio River near Elmendorf, Tex. A linear regression relation was developed between turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at the San Antonio River near Elmendorf site because the high-resolution data can facilitate understanding of the complex suspended-sediment dynamics over time and throughout the river basin.
Hardy, Sam A.; Carlo, Gustavo
Theory and research regarding moral motivation has focused for decades on the roles of moral reasoning and, to some extent, moral emotion. Recently, however, several models of morality have positioned identity as an additional important source of moral motivation. An individual has a moral identity to the extent that he or she has constructed his…
Crockett, Molly J.
Moral dilemmas engender conflicts between two traditions: consequentialism, which evaluates actions based on their outcomes, and deontology, which evaluates actions themselves. These strikingly resemble two distinct decision-making architectures: a model-based system that selects actions based on inferences about their consequences; and a model-free system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history. Here, I consider how these systems, along with a Pavlovian system that responds reflexively to rewards and punishments, can illuminate puzzles in moral psychology. PMID:23845564
Cutri, Ramona Maile; Ferrin, Scott
Argues that the historical development of U.S. bilingual education policy largely results from a morality based on economic and social interdependency. Explores strengths and limitations of that morality. Develops the construct of a spiritual morality that combines the powers of intellect, emotions, politics, and spirituality in support of…
Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…
Fullinwider, Robert K.
Moral educators have little to learn from the moral theories in which philosophers routinely trade. These theories--including those by Slote, Hume, and Kant--leave behind the concrete world in which the moral educator labors. As interesting as they may be, they merely devise alternative routes to the same destination--to the main general features…
Reed, Don Collins
The argument of this paper focuses on the relationship between cognitive structures and structures of interaction. It contends that there is still a place in moral development theory and research for a concept of moral stages. The thesis, in short, is that moral stages are not structures of thought. They are structures of action encoded in…
Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia
This paper poses the following question: When, in spite of knowing that it is wrong, people go on to hurt others, what does this mean for the development of moral agency? We begin by defining moral agency and briefly sketching relations between moral agency and other concepts. We then outline what three extant literatures suggest about this…
McLaughlin, Terence H.; Halstead, J. Mark
Describes the approach to moral education utilized by John Wilson focusing on his claims, arguments, and conclusions. Explores eight specific topics, such as his general perspective on moral education and the meaning and nature of moral. Reports on the areas of difficulty and criticism in relation to his approach. (CMK)
Young, Liane; Phillips, Jonathan
When we evaluate moral agents, we consider many factors, including whether the agent acted freely, or under duress or coercion. In turn, moral evaluations have been shown to influence our (non-moral) evaluations of these same factors. For example, when we judge an agent to have acted immorally, we are subsequently more likely to judge the agent to…
Nelson, John S.
Describes and evaluates four approaches to helping Catholic adolescents in their moral growth: using case studies to build knowledge of values and morality; providing moral models with whom young people can identify; presenting a positive ideology; and helping students recognize and respond to God's presence in their lives. (AYC)
Obidi, S. S.
Nigerian children experience moral education from the family, neighborhood adults, peer groups, and the community through direct instruction, observation, and unconscious absorption of moral lessons. They learn that gods and ancestors are sources of human morality. The introduction of Western religion and education encourages the young to pursue…
Smith, Rebecca M.
Family conflict over rights and responsibilities may result from horizontal and vertical decalage in members' development of moral reasoning abilities. The terms horizontal and vertical decalage refer to phenomena of uneven individual development within and across stages of moral reasoning. Because moral conflict involves competing claims, the…
Jacobson, Ronald B.
The questions of how and where to do moral education have been with us since antiquity. But, over the past couple of hundred years we have sent moral education to the margins within higher education. Using the historical analysis of Julie Reuben, the moral psychological work of Augusto Blasi, and the educational philosophical work of John Dewey, I…
MacMillan, C. J. B.
This paper argues that just as subject matter is inherently value-laden, educators should not feel trepidation about morally justifying their criteria for choosing curricula to be taught in the classroom. It recommends that true "moral" choices should be made on the bases of relevance to student experiences; moral propriety of subject matter…
Discusses the value of simulation games in moral education in four categories: fun and games; games as simulations of real life; games as motivators; and morality and game theory. Also examines the gaming aspects of morality, as well as the physical, psychological, precedent-setting, and internal consequences of an action. (Author/JK)
Clarken, Rodney H.
Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…
This paper proposes a lifespan developmental model of critical moral consciousness and examines its implications for education in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Mature moral consciousness, central to negotiating the challenges of the 21st century, is characterized by a deepening lifelong integration of moral motivation, agency and critical…
Kantor, Robert E.
A research memorandum presents the results of an on-going study into the implications of a moral science. Adopting a moral stance in scientific investigation would entail the abandonment of analytic modes of inquiry for more holistic, open-ended ones. The basic premise of a moral science is that it is possible for men to reach agreement on what is…
Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C
We present a new six-cell Model of Moral Motives that applies a fundamental motivational distinction in psychology to the moral domain. In addition to moral motives focused on the self or another, we propose two group-based moralities, both communal in orientation, but reflecting distinct moral motives (Social Order/Communal Solidarity vs. Social Justice/Communal Responsibility) as well as differences in construals of group entitativity. The two group-based moralities have implications for intragroup homogeneity as well as intergroup conflict. Our model challenges the conclusions of Haidt and colleagues that only conservatives (not liberals) are group oriented and embrace a binding morality. We explore the implications of this new model for politics in particular and for the self-regulation versus social regulation of morality more generally. PMID:23504824
Armstrong, Paul F.
The author presents a biography of Antonio Gramsci and discusses the influence of Karl Marx on Gramsci's key ideas concerning mode of production, superstructure, hegemony, consciousness, praxis, and intellectuals. Gramsci's emphasis on adult education for socialism is discussed. (CH)
Benson, John R; Jatoi, Ismail
38th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS), San Antonio, TX, USA, 8-12 December 2015 The 38th annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium was convened in San Antonio (TX, USA) on 8-12 December 2015. More than 7000 clinicians and scientists from around the world participated in the symposium, which featured a range of presentations and keynote talks pertaining to breast cancer screening, prevention, loco-regional and systemic therapies. This two-part report highlights a selection of important studies presented at this premier breast cancer event with part 1 focusing on radiotherapy treatment, translational approaches to immunotherapy and longer term cardiotoxicity from anti-HER2 therapies. The second part of this report will discuss a range of topics including de-escalation of chemotherapy regimens in luminal A tumors, the prognostic relevance of circulating tumor cells, the optimum treatment of triple-negative breast cancer and shifting attitudes to primary surgical treatment. PMID:26880386
Benson, John R; Jatoi, Ismail
38th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, San Antonio, TX, USA, 8-12 December 2015 The 38th annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) was convened in San Antonio (TX, USA) on 8-12 December 2015. More than 7000 clinicians and scientists from around the world participated in the symposium, which featured a range of presentations and keynote talks pertaining to breast cancer screening, prevention, loco-regional and systemic therapies. This two-part report highlights a selection of important studies presented at this premier breast cancer event with part 1 focusing on radiotherapy treatment, translational approaches to immunotherapy and longer term cardiotoxicity from anti-HER2 therapies. The second part of this report will discuss a range of topics including de-escalation of chemotherapy regimens in luminal A tumors, the prognostic relevance of circulating tumor cells, the optimum treatment of triple-negative breast cancer and shifting attitudes to primary surgical treatment. PMID:26880387
DeScioli, Peter; Kurzban, Robert
Evolutionary theories of morality, beginning with Darwin, have focused on explanations for altruism. More generally, these accounts have concentrated on conscience (self-regulatory mechanisms) to the neglect of condemnation (mechanisms for punishing others). As a result, few theoretical tools are available for understanding the rapidly…
Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared
In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the…
Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)
Johnson, Lawrence E.
Lawrence Johnson advocates a major change in our attitude toward the nonhuman world. He argues that nonhuman animals, and ecosystems themselves, are morally significant beings with interests and rights. The author considers recent work in environmental ethics in the introduction and then presents his case with the utmost precision and clarity.
Case, Verna; And Others
Provides an overview of the course "Sex, Technology, and Morality" which focuses on the human reproductive process and examines the advances in reproductive technology. The course emphasizes the social, political, and ethical implications of actual and possible technologies associated with human reproduction. (ML)
It is possible to approach, but not to achieve, the goal of perfection. To the three traditional philosophical values of truth, goodness, and beauty it is appropriate to append the important values of wisdom, humanness, and grace. Among the resources available toward the perfection of behavior are ethics, morality, and mores. The first chapter of…
Gross, Nathan; Wildman, Louis
Both the ethics of the profession and state school law require teachers to model in the conduct of education the behavior they expect of their students. Examples of the disparity between practice and creed imply a need for educators to face up to the moral obligations of their profession. (Author)
Compares the stated educational philosophy of several colleges and universities in 1896-97 with the contemporary version, focusing on the role of moral values in the curriculum. Institutions discussed include the University of Maine, University of North Dakota, Washington State University, Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania), Stetson University…
Rury, John L.
Reviews "Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980" by Charles Murray. Murray believes federal social welfare programs sap the moral fiber of poor Americans by eliminating a negative incentive for them to work at low paying jobs. Criticizes Murray's position, citing the importance of positive as well as negative incentives for working. (LHW)
The view of President Nixon and the current Supreme Court toward obscenity and censorship appears to be one of paternalistic protection for American citizens. The author discusses this issue as a basic moral-political question. (8 references) (Author/SJ)
Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…
Gibson, Donald E.
Examines hospice concepts and proposals to identify moral problems presented. Particular attention is given to the relationship between the hospice concept's alleged humanitarianism and emphasis on cost-efficiency. Suggests that cost emphasis raises serious questions about the meaning of hospice concepts. (JAC)
Fields, Cheryl D.
Issues and conditions affecting the black faculty member's morale in a predominantly white faculty are discussed, including isolation and marginalization, threats to tenure and financial security, disparity of workload, tensions over affirmative action, and limited access to research resources. These are compared with conditions common in a…
Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.
When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…
Morton, Kelly R.; Worthley, Joanna S.; Testerman, John K.; Mahoney, Marita L.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development explores the roles of cognition and emotion but focuses primarily on cognition. Contemporary post-formal theories lead to the conclusion that skills resulting from cognitive-affective integration facilitate consistency between moral judgement and moral behaviour. Rest's four-component model of moral…
Rembert, Ron B.
For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.
This paper discusses two closely related themes: first, the lack of provision of moral education; second, the loss of moral direction in society. The author argues that a proper moral education is one that provides an adequate understanding of the "moral sphere", just as the study of mathematics involves acquiring a grasp of mathematical thinking. While moral norms appear to differ from one culture to another, the author contends that there is a basic commonality at the level of essential moral principles. The paper concludes by arguing against any system where rights — particularly those of "any loosely definable minority" — restrict the freedom of others. The author laments that "justice" has become limited to a political definition of what is just. Thus politics has replaced morality as the arbiter of our behaviour.
Prado, C G
Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. PMID:23845164
Azevedo, Marco Antonio
In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu present a sophisticated argument in defense of the imperative of moral enhancement. They claim that without moral enhancement, the future of humanity is seriously compromised. The possibility of ultimate harm, caused by a dreadful terrorist attack or by a final unpreventable escalation of the present environmental crisis aggravated by the availability of cognitive enhancement, makes moral enhancement a top priority. It may be considered optimistic to think that our present moral capabilities can be successfully improved by means of moral education, moral persuasion, and fear of punishment. So, without moral enhancement, drastic restrictions on human freedom would become the only alternative to prevent those dramatic potential outcomes. In this article, I will try to show that we still have reason to be less pessimistic and that Persson & Savulescu's arguments are fortunately unconvincing. PMID:27473409
Archuleta, L.; Ishimatsu, J.; Schneiderman, J.S. . Geology Dept.)
Pelitic schists and gneisses from the San Antonio terrane in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains consist of garnet, biotite, plagioclase, quartz, sillimanite, cordierite, hercynite [+-] alkali feldspar. Large garnet porphyroblasts contain quartz, plagioclase and sillimanite inclusions. Cordierite occurs as haloes around garnet porphyroblasts and as small subgrains always associated with hercynite and together replacing sillimanite blades. Hercynite additionally appears to have nucleated on the edges of sillimanite blades. Contrary to previous investigations, hercynite appears to be a late mineral phase. Reaction textures described above have been used to calculate a set of net-transfer reactions that can be used (1) to characterize all possible exchanges of matter between minerals in the system and (2) to construct a reaction space for the system. Fourteen thin sections with large garnet porphyroblasts and abundant biotite were used for microprobe analysis. Detailed probe analyses show well-developed zoning in the plagioclase and alkali feldspar whose character varies depending on location in the thin section relative to neighboring minerals. Generally, large plagioclase porphyroblasts display normal zoning and are not as calcium-rich as plagioclase inclusions in the garnet. Garnet porphyroblasts have flat zoning profiles due to high temperatures of metamorphism. Pressures and temperatures of metamorphism have been calculated from these assemblages using garnet-biotite geothermometry and quartz-garnet-aluminosilicate-plagioclase geobarometry.
Toner, Ignatius J.; Potts, Richard
Addresses several issues regarding the impact of models on the child's morality among 72 five- to seven-year-old boys. Moral behavior was recorded, moral judgment was assessed and responses to a hypothesized moral dilemma were obtained. Among the results, the child's moral responses depended, in part, on the level of justification used by the…
Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian
We respond to a number of objections raised by John Harris in this journal to our argument that we should pursue genetic and other biological means of morally enhancing human beings (moral bioenhancement). We claim that human beings now have at their disposal means of wiping out life on Earth and that traditional methods of moral education are probably insufficient to achieve the moral enhancement required to ensure that this will not happen. Hence, we argue, moral bioenhancement should be sought and applied. We argue that cognitive enhancement and technological progress raise acute problems because it is easier to harm than to benefit. We address objections to this argument. We also respond to objections that moral bioenhancement: (1) interferes with freedom; (2) cannot be made to target immoral dispositions precisely; (3) is redundant, since cognitive enhancement by itself suffices. PMID:21797913
Pyrrho, Monique; Schramm, Fermin Roland
Nanotechnology is a set of knowledge, techniques, and practices in studying and exploring new properties of materials that arise when manipulated at the atomic and molecular levels. The technical possibility of organizing and controlling matter at the smallest dimensions and units can result in profound changes in industrial production processes and have significant moral impacts on human relations, organization of the current social order, and even life as a phenomenon. However, moral reflection on nanotechnology has been criticized over the assertion that nanotechnology fails to raise any new ethical issue, for example. The current article discusses the limits of this claim by presenting two aspects that distinguish between nanotechnology and earlier biotechnoscientific advances in terms of their ethical implications: (a) uncertainty as an epistemic characteristic and (b) the threat to the current symbolic character of DNA as the "code of life". PMID:23147944
What is the ethical significance of debriefing in deceptive research? The standard view of debriefing is that it serves to disclose the deception to the participant and is a means of evaluating and mitigating potential harms that may have resulted from involvement in the research. However, as the article by Miller, Gluck, and Wendler in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal points out, there has been little systematic attention to the ethics of debriefing, particularly with regard to the role of debriefing in addressing the prima facie moral wrong of deception itself. They argue that in addition to mitigating the harms of deception, debriefing should include an apology to participants for being deceived. In the current paper, I argue that an apology is not morally obligatory in most research contexts. Debriefing should be considered an opportunity to further define the researcher-participant relationship without the need to be remorseful about the research practice. PMID:18935923
In this paper I explore the role of manners and morals. In particular, what is the connection between emotional demeanor and the inner stuff of virtue? Does the fact that we can pose faces and hide our inner sentiments, i.e., "fake it," detract from or add to our capacity for virtue? I argue, following a line from the Stoics, that it can add to…
Motivating employees is one of a manager's most important roles, but it is a challenge in today's shifting health-care market. Decreasing funding and a changing patient population are forcing hospitals to either cut costs or go out of business. In such a tense environment, the possibility of layoffs continually looms over our heads. Whether your laboratory is contemplating job cuts or you already have been through them, you know there is no worse threat to employee morale. A March 1996 Strategic Management survey reported that poor morale is the worst human resource problem among 81% of 691 U.S. hospitals. Ronald Henkoff said it best in the January 1994 issue of Fortune Magazine: "A distressing 80% of downsizers admit that the morale of the remaining employees has been mugged. These sullen, dispirited, hunkered-down folks, lest we forget, are the very people who are supposed to revitalize our enterprise and delight our customers." Many times, when we focus on cost constraints and customer service, we overlook what we might do to improve trust among our staff. Rather than letting bad feelings run their course after 1999 job cuts, we decided to intervene. We developed new management tools and recovery interventions at Children's Medical Center to ward off discontent after the changes. PMID:11299912
Ockerman, Darwin J.
Five streamflow gain-loss measurement surveys were made along lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River from Mitchell Street to South Loop 410 east of Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, during May?October 1999. All of the measurements were made during dry periods, when stormwater runoff was not occurring and effects of possible bank storage were minimized. San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River were divided into six subreaches, and streamflow measurements were made simultaneously at the boundaries of these subreaches so that streamflow gains or losses and estimates of inflow from or outflow to shallow ground water could be quantified for each subreach. There are two possible sources of ground-water inflow to lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River east of Kelly Air Force Base. One source is direct inflow of shallow ground water into the streams. The other source is ground water that enters tributaries that flow into the San Antonio River. The estimated mean direct inflow of ground water to the combined San Pedro Creek and San Antonio River study reach was 3.0 cubic feet per second or 1.9 million gallons per day. The mean tributary inflow of ground water was estimated to be 1.9 cubic feet per second or 1.2 million gallons per day. The total estimated inflow of shallow ground water was 4.9 cubic feet per second or 3.2 million gallons per day. The amount of inflow from springs and seeps (estimated by observation) is much less than the amount of direct ground-water inflow estimated from the gain-loss measurements. Therefore, the presence of springs and seeps might not be a reliable indicator of the source of shallow ground water entering the river. Most of the shallow ground water that enters the San Antonio River from tributary inflow enters from the west side, through Concepcion Creek, inflows near Riverside Golf Course, and Six-Mile Creek.
Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni
We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621
This article addresses a puzzle about moral learning concerning its social context and the potential for moral progress: Won't the social context of moral learning shape moral perceptions, beliefs, and motivation in ways that will inevitably "limit" moral cognition, motivation, and progress? It addresses the relationships between…
Schnall, Simone; Haidt, Jonathan; Clore, Gerald L.; Jordan, Alexander H.
How, and for whom, does disgust influence moral judgment? In 4 experiments participants made moral judgments while experiencing extraneous feelings of disgust. Disgust was induced in Experiment 1 by exposure to a bad smell, in Experiment 2 by working in a disgusting room, in Experiment 3 by recalling a physically disgusting experience, and in Experiment 4 through a video induction. In each case, the results showed that disgust can increase the severity of moral judgments relative to controls. Experiment 4 found that disgust had a different effect on moral judgment than did sadness. In addition, Experiments 2-4 showed that the role of disgust in severity of moral judgments depends on participants’ sensitivity to their own bodily sensations. Taken together, these data indicate the importance - and specificity - of gut feelings in moral judgments. PMID:18505801
Tennison, Michael N
Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely in the realm of the hypothetical. This paper proposes that psilocybin may represent a viable, practical option for moral enhancement and that its further research in the context of moral psychology could comprise the next step in the development of moral transhumanism. PMID:22855738
Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna
To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028169
Heslep, Robert D.
Examines the relationship between moral right and moral duty to be educated, discussing duty, right, education, and moral theory and suggesting that moral right and moral duty to be educated are partially independent and totally compatible with each other. Neither is superior, and both should be included in moral theory. (SM)
Uhlmann, Eric Luis
McCullough et al.’s functionalist model of revenge is highly compatible with the person-centered approach to moral judgment, which emphasizes the adaptive manner in which social perceivers derive character information from moral acts. Evidence includes act–person dissociations in which an act is seen as less immoral than a comparison act, yet as a clearer indicator of poor moral character. PMID:23211645
Moreno, Jonathan D
I will begin by presenting some doubts about what might be called the "received view" of the role of the moral expert as a health care consultant. Then I will review the literature on moral experts and moral expertise and proceed to apply the results of that review to the notion that there are some who are expert in ethical decision making in health care. I will try to show that certain conclusions that can be drawn from this rather circumscribed topic have implications for the very conception of the relationship between moral theory and clinical ethics. PMID:11650947
Johnston, D. Kay
Discusses the application of moral orientations of justice and care in the context of classroom cheating incident. Explores the everyday moral choices inherent in teaching. Defines teaching as a relational activity concerned fundamentally with morality. (DK)
The author identifies four main sources of moral relativism; defines cultural and ethical relativism, and social and personal moral relativism; and presents three arguments to refute moral relativism. (AV)
Rintoul, Heather M.; Goulais, Linda
Competency in moral Literacy, like any other literacy develops through careful and continual practice (Herman, 2007). In this qualitative study we explore the vice principalship and the development of administrative moral literacy. Using a northern Ontario Canada case study, we recount how three secondary school vice principals further their own…
Johnson, David; Brett, William
Today, more than at any other time in human history, biologists are or should be concerned about the morality of biological research and newly developed technologies. Two questions confront any scientist or science student concerned about morality and the life sciences. Is there some theoretical framework that might be used to assist in deciding…
Defines the good in organizations; critiques the moral and methodological perspectives in Thomas Greenfield's writing; explains Jurgen Habermas' theory of discourse ethics; distinguishes key similarities and differences between Greenfield's and Habermas' moral theories; discusses substantive and methodological implications for the field of…
White, Fiona A.; Matawie, Kenan M.
This study investigated the extent to which parents' moral thought and family processes are involved in the socialization of adolescent moral thought. Olson et al's (1992) Circumplex Model and White's (2000) Family Socialization Model provided the conceptual framework for predicting that families high in cohesion, adaptability and communication…
Opotow, Susan; Gerson, Janet; Woodside, Sarah
This article presents Moral Exclusion Theory as a way to systematize the study of complex issues in peace education and to challenge the thinking that supports oppressive social structures. The authors define its 2 key concepts: moral exclusion, the limited applicability of justice underlying destructive conflicts and difficult social problems;…
Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong
Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment. PMID:25133716
Moral rules provide the baseline for ethics, proscribing unacceptable behavior; moral ideals inspire us to act in ways that improve the human condition. Whatever the moral ideals for pure research, science has a practical side so it is important to find a moral ideal to give guidance to more applied research. This article presents a moral ideal for use-inspired research based on Norman Care's idea of shared-fate individualism This ideal reflects the observation that all human lives, both present and future are tightly coupled and, as a result, research projects should be chosen, where possible, with the goal of service to others. Together with the ideals of the habit of truth and the gift economy, shared-fate individualism provides the basis for a humane ethics of science. PMID:17717730
Hershenov, David B; Hershenov, Rose J
Fetuses and infants are said to warrant protecting because of their potential. But valuing potential supposedly leads to absurdities like protecting cells that could be technologically altered to develop into persons. This can be avoided by recognising that morally relevant potential is determined by what is presently healthy development (proper functioning) for an organism. The only interests of mindless organisms are in the flourishing that necessarily depends upon their healthy functioning. They can be harmed when those interests are frustrated. We criticise McMahan for claiming that harm is instead a function of the degree of psychological ties to the future. PMID:24570396
Ehrich, Lisa Catherine
Moral (rather than "corporate") accountability in education is essential; so is a human-centered leadership approach. Findings from an Australian study that investigated elementary principals' responsiveness to teachers' learning show how these leaders exercised their moral, professional, and contractual accountability to support a caring,…
Beaudoin-Ryan, Leanne; Goldin-Meadow, Susan
Stem-cell research. Euthanasia. Personhood. Marriage equality. School shootings. Gun control. Death penalty. Ethical dilemmas regularly spark fierce debate about the underlying moral fabric of societies. How do we prepare today's children to be fully informed and thoughtful citizens, capable of moral and ethical decisions? Current approaches…
Piburn, Michael D.
Stages of moral reasoning through which children develop, as researched by developmental psychologists Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg, are outlined in the introduction of this paper. The six stages are defined and exemplified by the moral issue of the value of human life. The developmental model, as it is argued, is suitable for instruction in…
Rich, John Martin
This paper argues that the emotions have a central place in moral education. Two types of emotions involved in moral judgment are defined: constitutive and regulative. Fear and guilt are used as paradigms to explain how emotions are learned. A model for education in conscientiousness, compassion, and benevolence is outlined. (Author/SJL)
The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…
van der Zande, Paul; Brekelmans, Mieke; Vermunt, Jan D.; Waarlo, Arend Jan
Recent neuropsychological research suggests that intuition and emotion play a role in our reasoning when we are confronted with moral dilemmas. Incorporating intuition and emotion into moral reflection is a rather new idea in the educational world, where rational reasoning is preferred. To develop a teaching and learning strategy to address this…
Bhattacharya, N. C.
Deals primarily with the currently popular notion of "moral education". Points out some of the theoretical problems that must be resolved before adding the prefix "moral" to education as well as the practical difficulties that will be encountered in teaching this confused "subject" in the public schools in a multi-cultural society. (Editor/RK)
Discusses an evolutionary approach to human morality. Emphasizes the rapid development of brain weight, neural circuits, and synaptic systems during early childhood. Concludes that the human brain has resources for generating responsible, caring behavior but must be nurtured and educated. Urges that moral training in a proper social climate be…
That psychoanalytical treatment in its classical Freudian sense is primarily a moral or ethical cure is not a very controversial claim. However, it is far from obvious how we are to understand precisely the moral character of psychoanalysis. It has frequently been proposed that this designation is valid because psychoanalysis strives neither to cure psychological symptoms pharmaceutically, nor to superficially modify the behaviour of the analysand, but to lead the analysand through an interpretive process during which he gradually gains knowledge of the unconscious motives that determine his behaviour, a process that might ideally liberate him to obtain, in relation to his inner desires, the status of a moral agent. There resides something appealing in these claims. But it is the author's belief that there is an even deeper moral dimension applying to psychoanalytical theory and praxis. Freudian psychoanalysis is a moral cure due to its way of thematizing psychological suffering as moral suffering. And this means that the moral subject - the being that can experience moral suffering - is not primarily something that the psychoanalytical treatment strives to realize, but rather the presupposition for the way in which psychoanalysis theorizes psychological problems as such. PMID:24720632
Harrison, John L.
The work of John Wilson, now teaching at Oxford University, as moral educator is summarized and evaluated. His rationalist humanistic approach is based on a componential characterization of the morally educated person. The rationale and conceptual status of the components is discussed. His position is compared to that of Peter McPhail, R. S.…
Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; McCoy, Ann
Two studies of the development of children's moral relationships with nature addressed such questions as: (1) What does it mean to say that we have an obligation not to harm the natural environment? (2) Does the natural environment feel pain? (3) Does it have rights? or (4) Is moral obligation an inappropriate construct by which to understand the…
Reaction against the naive moral absolutism of past historical writing has frequently led to unconditional moral and cultural relativism which is equally dangerous. A viable solution is contingent relativism in historical judgments, combining explicit and examinable criteria of human values and concern for contexts of time and place. (Author/SJL)
Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared
In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the moral/conventional distinction. Mind and Language, 22, 117-131] recent claim that, contrary to Turiel and associates, people do not judge harm to be authority independent and general in scope in the context of complex harmful scenarios (e.g., prisoner interrogation, military training). In a modified replication of their study, we examined participants' judgments of harmful actions in these contexts by taking into account their explanations for their judgments. We claim that both in terms of participants' judgments and rationales, the results largely confirm our hypothesis that actions involving harm andinjustice or rights violation are judged to be authority independent and general in scope, which is a modification of Turiel's traditional hypothesis. PMID:19717146
Discusses the history and problems of the Community Action Program and the War on Poverty from the 1960s-1980s, highlighting San Antonio, Texas, and the San Antonio Neighborhood Youth Organization. Suggests that the War on Poverty's historical significance was more political than economic, and it emerged as a program that Hispanic and Black San…
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Villares, Gabriela; Lo Russo, Virginia; Pastor de Ward, Catalina; Milano, Viviana; Miyashiro, Lidia; Mazzanti, Renato
The dataset of free-living marine nematodes of San Antonio Bay is based on sediment samples collected in February 2009 during doctoral theses funded by CONICET grants. A total of 36 samples has been taken at three locations in the San Antonio Bay, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina on the coastal littoral at three tidal levels. This presents a unique and important collection for benthic biodiversity assessment of Patagonian nematodes as this area remains one of the least known regions. In total 7,743 specimens of free-living marine nematodes belonging to two classes, eight orders, 37 families, 94 genera and 104 species were collected. PMID:27110176
Villares, Gabriela; Lo Russo, Virginia; Pastor de Ward, Catalina; Milano, Viviana; Miyashiro, Lidia; Mazzanti, Renato
Abstract The dataset of free-living marine nematodes of San Antonio Bay is based on sediment samples collected in February 2009 during doctoral theses funded by CONICET grants. A total of 36 samples has been taken at three locations in the San Antonio Bay, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina on the coastal littoral at three tidal levels. This presents a unique and important collection for benthic biodiversity assessment of Patagonian nematodes as this area remains one of the least known regions. In total 7,743 specimens of free-living marine nematodes belonging to two classes, eight orders, 37 families, 94 genera and 104 species were collected. PMID:27110176
Gray, Kurt; Young, Liane; Waytz, Adam
Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds—a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions of mind perception (agency and experience) map onto moral types (agents and patients), and deficits of mind perception correspond to difficulties with moral judgment. Second, not only are moral judgments sensitive to perceived agency and experience, but all moral transgressions are fundamentally understood as agency plus experienced suffering—that is, interpersonal harm—even ostensibly harmless acts such as purity violations. Third, dyadic morality uniquely accounts for the phenomena of dyadic completion (seeing agents in response to patients, and vice versa), and moral typecasting (characterizing others as either moral agents or moral patients). Discussion also explores how mind perception can unify morality across explanatory levels, how a dyadic template of morality may be developmentally acquired, and future directions. PMID:22754268
Schools provide a context or moral space for youth to develop their identity; however, with the racialized ideology, language and practices that promote Black youth criminality, criminalized schools become a racialized, classed, and gendered moral space that feeds into the school-to-prison pipeline. The criminalization of schools refers to a…
The ability to reason well is central to the concept of intelligence, but intelligence alone will not guarantee morality. To recognise the "right" choice and to judge our own and others' actions, is to make an act of reason. To choose to value morality and to make the "right" choice is an act of character. The link between intelligence and choice…
Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.
The report is the result of a study that investigated the extent to which Mexican American students in 9 independent school districts in metropolitan San Antonio, Texas, were afforded equal educational opportunities. The districts were Alamo Heights, East Central, Edgewood, Harlandale, North East, Northside, San Antonio, South San Antonio, and…
Toner, Ignatius J.; Potts, C. Richard
The impact of adult models on the moralities of seventy-two 5- to 7-year-old boys was assessed in this study. Each subject was exposed to a televised adult model and was then administered tests of moral behavior (resistance to deviation in a laboratory situation), moral choice (in a hypothetical situation) and moral judgment level (on an…
Skalko, John; Cherry, Mark J
Two clusters of essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy provide a critical gaze through which to explore central moral, phenomenological, ontological, and political concerns regarding human moral agency and personal responsibility. The first cluster challenges common assumptions in bioethics regarding the voluntariness of human actions. The second set turns the debate towards morally responsible choice within the requirements of distributive justice. The force of their collective analysis leaves us with a well-founded basis critically to approach any account of bioethics or health policy that is insufficiently attentive to the central challenges of human freedom and responsible free choice. PMID:27473410
Our understanding of human morality has dramatically improved in the last decades, thanks to efforts carried out with scientific methods, in addition to the traditional speculative approach. Substantial contributions and relevant empirical data have come from neuroscience, psychology, genetics, comparative ethology, anthropology, and the social sciences. In this fruitful synergy, one useful approach is still missing: computational modeling. More precisely, a neurocomputational model aimed at simulating forms of moral behavior, to our knowledge, has not yet been designed. The purpose of this work is to start filling this gap, proposing MOral Neural Engine (MONE), a model that simulates the emergence of moral cognition. The neural engine in this model is assumed to be based in frontal areas, specifically the orbitofrontal and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and in connections to limbic areas involved in emotions and reward, such as the ventral striatum and the amygdala. Moral cognition is probably the result of a collection of several different neural processes, activated depending on the type of moral problem, each associated with a variety of emotions. This model, in its first implementation, deals with only a single moral situation: stealing someone's food, a transgression that typically elicits guilt, learned in the model from the angry facial expressions of the victim. PMID:26585964
A pressing and difficult practical problem concerns the general issue of the right social response to offenders classified as having antisocial personality disorder. This paper approaches this general problem by focusing, from a philosophical perspective, on the still relevant but more approachable question whether psychopathic offenders are morally responsible. In particular, I investigate whether psychopaths possess moral understanding. A plausible way to approach the last question requires a satisfactory philosophical interpretation of the empirical evidence that appears to show that psychopaths fail to draw the distinction between conventional and moral norms. Specifically, I will consider a recent philosophical debate polarized between supporters of rationalist and sentimentalist accounts of moral understanding. These opponents have discussed whether the case of psychopathy offers empirical support for their account and undermine the rival view. I will argue that the available empirical data leave the outcome of this discussion indeterminate. However, this implies that both these principal theories of moral understanding, if independently motivated, would imply that psychopaths have certain deficits that might affect their moral understanding and, consequently, their moral responsibility. PMID:21151766
Clarken, Rodney H.
Conceptions of morality and moral education are in need of reexamination in this time of global transformation. Historical views of morality and moral education are briefly presented, the commonalities and implications of these conceptualizations discussed and their influence on civilization briefly explored. The modern-day conceptions of morality…
Reports on a study of moral judgments in aggressive and nonaggressive children. Assessed moral judgment by presenting the children with stories of moral conflict in everyday life using peer rating. Results showed significant differences according to gender and no constant level of moral reasoning was measured in either aggressive or nonaggressive…
Westphal, Kenneth R.
Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…
In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities--a shared…
Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.
In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…
Wicks, Robert S.
Moral contradictions and cross purposes in society make formal moral training in the schools difficult, if not impossible. Values clarification and school-wide programs of moral education are of questionable merit. Nevertheless, effective moral education is implicit in teaching the subjects that comprise good basic education. A mathematics…
For generations, moral development has been both a conscious aim and a formal process in Japanese education. This book investigates the history and development of Japanese moral education and analyzes and compares current moral education with the concepts of the Imperial Rescript on Education (1890) and the "shushin" moral education of prewar…
Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Skalski, Jonathan E.; Basinger, Jason C.
Understanding lay conceptions of morality is important not only because they can guide moral psychology theory but also because they may play a role in everyday moral functioning. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine adolescent conceptions of moral maturity. Study 1 (200 adolescents 12-18 years) involved a free-listing procedure to…