NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trammel, G. T.
1964-01-01
Aharonov-bohm paradox involving charge particle interaction with stationary current distribution showing that vector potential term in canonical momenta expression represents electromagnetic field momentum
Jones-Smith, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2010-02-15
A solenoid oscillating in vacuum will pair produce charged particles due to the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interaction. We calculate the radiation pattern and power emitted for charged scalar particles. We extend the solenoid analysis to cosmic strings and find enhanced radiation from cusps and kinks on loops. We argue by analogy with the electromagnetic AB interaction that cosmic strings should emit photons due to the gravitational AB interaction of fields in the conical spacetime of a cosmic string. We calculate the emission from a kink and find that it is of similar order as emission from a cusp, but kinks are vastly more numerous than cusps and may provide a more interesting observational signature.
Nonlocality of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Rohrlich, Daniel
2016-04-01
Although the Aharonov-Bohm and related effects are familiar in solid-state and high-energy physics, the nonlocality of these effects has been questioned. Here we show that the Aharonov-Bohm effect has two very different aspects. One aspect is instantaneous and nonlocal; the other aspect, which depends on entanglement, unfolds continuously over time. While local, gauge-invariant variables may occasionally suffice for explaining the continuous aspect, we argue that they cannot explain the instantaneous aspect. Thus the Aharonov-Bohm effect is, in general, nonlocal.
Aharonov-Bohm Constraint for Fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahalom, Asher
It was shown that an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect exists in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This effect is best described in terms of the MHD variational variables. If a MHD flow has a non trivial topology some of the functions appearing in the MHD Lagrangian are non-single valued. Some of those functions are analogue to the phases in the AB celebrated effect. While the manifestation of the quantum AB effect is in interference fringe patterns, the manifestation of the MHD Aharonov-Bohm effect is through a new dynamical conservation law. This local conservation law will be shown to constrain the dynamics of MHD flows including fusion scenarios. Bibliography
Thermoelectric effect in Aharonov-Bohm structures.
Lu, Xin; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Morrel, William G; Ni, Xiaoxi; Wu, Chang-Qin; Li, Baowen
2015-01-28
The thermoelectric effects of a single Aharonov-Bohm (SAB) ring and coupled double Aharonov-Bohm (DAB) rings have been investigated on a theoretical basis, taking into account the contributions of both electrons and phonons to the transport process by using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. The thermoelectric figure of merit of the coupled DAB rings cannot be predicted directly by combining the values of two SAB ring systems due to the contribution of electron-phonon interaction to coupling between the two sites connecting the rings. We find that thermoelectric efficiency can be optimized by modulating the phases of the magnetic flux threading the two rings. PMID:25537848
Thermoelectric effect in Aharonov-Bohm structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Xin; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Morrel, William G.; Ni, Xiaoxi; Wu, Chang-Qin; Li, Baowen
2015-01-01
The thermoelectric effects of a single Aharonov-Bohm (SAB) ring and coupled double Aharonov-Bohm (DAB) rings have been investigated on a theoretical basis, taking into account the contributions of both electrons and phonons to the transport process by using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. The thermoelectric figure of merit of the coupled DAB rings cannot be predicted directly by combining the values of two SAB ring systems due to the contribution of electron-phonon interaction to coupling between the two sites connecting the rings. We find that thermoelectric efficiency can be optimized by modulating the phases of the magnetic flux threading the two rings.
Tests of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caprez, Adam Preston
The Aharonov-Bohm effect was first proposed in 1959, and has stimulated discussion and controversy since the start. Seen by many as a purely quantum mechanical effect, it nevertheless involves such issues as gauge invariance and relativistic dynamics. This multi-faceted nature has led it to be considered a keystone of modern quantum theory. Over the past half-century, interest has remained strong in what many believe is still an open debate as to the purely quantum nature. Additionally, discovery of similar effects for particles other than electrons has further driven curiosity. To better understand the issues such as electromagnetic mass and relativistic effects involved in the Aharonov-Bohm effect, a theoretical study of a simpler two particle system was done. The goal was to understand the manner in which mass of the system behaved strictly classically as compared to a relativistically. As a result of this, a Gedanken experiment is presented which serves as a test for covariance. The two particle system was extended to a spherical shell interacting with a single particle, and a second thought experiment put forth to explore a coupling between electromagnetism and gravitation. In the course of searching for simpler systems which involved the same issues as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, a system presented in the Feynman Lectures of Physics was found to be appropriate. We conduct a complete relativistic analysis of this system as a step towards a full relativistic analysis of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Given the history and significance of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, it is perhaps surprising that relevant experimental tests had not been completed. For the first time, we searched for time delays as an electron passes a macroscopic solenoid. Such time delays are characteristic of classical forces acting on the electron. No such delays were found, seemingly confirming the standard viewpoint. It is still possible a classical explanation may exist for microscopic solenoids
The electric Aharonov-Bohm effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weder, Ricardo
2011-05-01
The seminal paper of Aharonov and Bohm [Phys. Rev. 115, 485 (1959)], 10.1103/PhysRev.115.485 is at the origin of a very extensive literature in some of the more fundamental issues in physics. They claimed that electromagnetic fields can act at a distance on charged particles even if they are identically zero in the region of space where the particles propagate, that the fundamental electromagnetic quantities in quantum physics are not only the electromagnetic fields but also the circulations of the electromagnetic potentials; what gives them a real physical significance. They proposed two experiments to verify their theoretical conclusions. The magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect, where an electron is influenced by a magnetic field that is zero in the region of space accessible to the electron, and the electric Aharonov-Bohm effect where an electron is affected by a time-dependent electric potential that is constant in the region where the electron is propagating, i.e., such that the electric field vanishes along its trajectory. The Aharonov-Bohm effects imply such a strong departure from the physical intuition coming from classical physics that it is no wonder that they remain a highly controversial issue after more than fifty years, in spite of the fact that they are discussed in most of the text books in quantum mechanics. The magnetic case has been studied extensively. The experimental issues were settled by the remarkable experiments of Tonomura et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1443 (1982); Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986)] with toroidal magnets, that gave a strong evidence of the existence of the effect, and by the recent experiment of Caprez et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 210401 (2007)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.210401 that shows that the results of the Tonomura et al. experiments cannot be explained by the action of a force. The theoretical issues were settled by Ballesteros and Weder [Commun. Math. Phys. 285, 345 (2009), 10.1007/s00220-008-0579-1; J. Math. Phys. 50
The electric Aharonov-Bohm effect
Weder, Ricardo
2011-05-15
The seminal paper of Aharonov and Bohm [Phys. Rev. 115, 485 (1959)] is at the origin of a very extensive literature in some of the more fundamental issues in physics. They claimed that electromagnetic fields can act at a distance on charged particles even if they are identically zero in the region of space where the particles propagate, that the fundamental electromagnetic quantities in quantum physics are not only the electromagnetic fields but also the circulations of the electromagnetic potentials; what gives them a real physical significance. They proposed two experiments to verify their theoretical conclusions. The magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect, where an electron is influenced by a magnetic field that is zero in the region of space accessible to the electron, and the electric Aharonov-Bohm effect where an electron is affected by a time-dependent electric potential that is constant in the region where the electron is propagating, i.e., such that the electric field vanishes along its trajectory. The Aharonov-Bohm effects imply such a strong departure from the physical intuition coming from classical physics that it is no wonder that they remain a highly controversial issue after more than fifty years, in spite of the fact that they are discussed in most of the text books in quantum mechanics. The magnetic case has been studied extensively. The experimental issues were settled by the remarkable experiments of Tonomura et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1443 (1982); Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986)] with toroidal magnets, that gave a strong evidence of the existence of the effect, and by the recent experiment of Caprez et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 210401 (2007)] that shows that the results of the Tonomura et al. experiments cannot be explained by the action of a force. The theoretical issues were settled by Ballesteros and Weder [Commun. Math. Phys. 285, 345 (2009); J. Math. Phys. 50, 122108 (2009); Commun. Math. Phys. 303, 175 (2011)] who rigorously proved that quantum
Aharonov-Bohm phase for an electromagnetic wave background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bright, Max; Singleton, Douglas; Yoshida, Atsushi
2015-09-01
The canonical Aharonov-Bohm effect is usually studied with time-independent potentials. In this work, we investigate the Aharonov-Bohm phase acquired by a charged particle moving in time-dependent potentials. In particular, we focus on the case of a charged particle moving in the time-varying field of a plane electromagnetic wave. We work out the Aharonov-Bohm phase using both the potential (i.e. oint A_μ dx ^μ ) and the field (i.e. 1/2int F_{μ ν } dσ ^{μ ν }) forms of the Aharonov-Bohm phase. We give conditions in terms of the parameters of the system (frequency of the electromagnetic wave, the size of the space-time loop, amplitude of the electromagnetic wave) under which the time-varying Aharonov-Bohm effect could be observed.
Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions.
Li, Enbang; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Fang, Kejie; Fan, Shanhui
2014-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohm effect is one of the most intriguing phenomena in both classical and quantum physics, and associates with a number of important and fundamental issues in quantum mechanics. The Aharonov-Bohm effects of charged particles have been experimentally demonstrated and found applications in various fields. Recently, attention has also focused on the Aharonov-Bohm effect for neutral particles, such as photons. Here we propose to utilize the photon-phonon interactions to demonstrate that photonic Aharonov-Bohm effects do exist for photons. By introducing nonreciprocal phases for photons, we observe experimentally a gauge potential for photons in the visible range based on the photon-phonon interactions in acousto-optic crystals, and demonstrate the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. The results presented here point to new possibilities to control and manipulate photons by designing an effective gauge potential. PMID:24476790
Aharonov-Bohm radiation of fermions
Chu Yizen; Mathur, Harsh; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2010-09-15
We analyze Aharonov-Bohm radiation of charged fermions from oscillating solenoids and cosmic strings. We find that the angular pattern of the radiation has features that differ significantly from that for bosons. For example, fermionic radiation in the lowest harmonic is approximately isotropically distributed around an oscillating solenoid, whereas for bosons the radiation is dipolar. We also investigate the spin polarization of the emitted fermion-antifermion pair. Fermionic radiation from kinks and cusps on cosmic strings is shown to depend linearly on the ultraviolet cutoff, suggesting strong emission at an energy scale comparable to the string energy scale.
Aharonov-Bohm effect in a class of noncommutative theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Ashok; Falomir, H.; Nieto, M.; Gamboa, J.; Méndez, F.
2011-08-01
The Aharonov-Bohm effect including spin-noncommutative effects is considered. At linear order in θ, the magnetic field is gauge invariant although spatially strongly anisotropic. Despite this anisotropy, the Schrödinger-Pauli equation is separable through successive unitary transformations and the exact solution is found. The scattering amplitude is calculated and compared with the usual case. In the noncommutative Aharonov-Bohm case the differential cross section is independent of θ.
Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm topological effects.
Dulat, Sayipjamal; Ma, Kai
2012-02-17
We reexamine the topological and nonlocal natures of the Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm phase effects. The underlying U(1) gauge structure is exhibited explicitly. And the conditions for developing topological Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm phases are clarified. We analyze the arguments of M. Peshkin and H. J. Lipkin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2847 (1995)] in detail and show that they are based on the wrong Hamiltonian which yields their conclusion incorrect. PMID:22401183
Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect based on dynamic modulation.
Fang, Kejie; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui
2012-04-13
We show that when the refractive index of a photonic system is harmonically modulated, the phase of the modulation introduces an effective gauge potential for photons. This effective gauge potential can be used to create a photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. We show that the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect provides the optimal mechanism for achieving complete on-chip nonmagnetic optical isolation. PMID:22587255
Anomalous aharonov-bohm gap oscillations in carbon nanotubes.
Sangalli, Davide; Marini, Andrea
2011-10-12
The gap oscillations caused by a magnetic flux penetrating a carbon nanotube represent one of the most spectacular observations of the Aharonov-Bohm effect at the nanoscale. Our understanding of this effect is, however, based on the assumption that the electrons are strictly confined on the tube surface, on trajectories that are not modified by curvature effects. Using an ab initio approach based on density functional theory, we show that this assumption fails at the nanoscale inducing important corrections to the physics of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Curvature effects and electronic density that is spilled out of the nanotube surface are shown to break the periodicity of the gap oscillations. We predict the key phenomenological features of this anomalous Aharonov-Bohm effect in semiconductive and metallic tubes and the existence of a large metallic phase in the low flux regime of multiwalled nanotubes, also suggesting possible experiments to validate our results. PMID:21805987
Lorentz violation correction to the Aharonov-Bohm scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anacleto, M. A.
2015-10-01
In this paper, using a (2 +1 )-dimensional field theory approach, we study the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) scattering with Lorentz symmetry breaking. We obtain the modified scattering amplitude to the AB effect due to the small Lorentz violation correction in the breaking parameter and prove that up to one loop the model is free from ultraviolet divergences.
Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in singly connected disordered conductors.
Aleiner, I L; Andreev, A V; Vinokur, V
2015-02-20
We show that the transport and thermodynamic properties of a singly connected disordered conductor exhibit quantum Aharonov-Bohm oscillations as a function of the total magnetic flux through the sample. The oscillations are associated with the interference contribution from a special class of electron trajectories confined to the surface of the sample. PMID:25763968
How quantum impenetrability affects Aharonov-Bohm scattering?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasev, G. N.; Shilov, V. M.
It is shown that different forms of quantum impenetrability lead to different physical consequences. This should be kept in mind in analyzing experimental data. The relativistic impenetrability conditions are considered and the corresponding relativistic Aharonov-Bohm cross-sections are obtained. The possibility of the AB effect occurrence in simply-connected space regions is discussed.
Feynman's Relativistic Electrodynamics Paradox and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caprez, Adam; Batelaan, Herman
2009-03-01
An analysis is done of a relativistic paradox posed in the Feynman Lectures of Physics involving two interacting charges. The physical system presented is compared with similar systems that also lead to relativistic paradoxes. The momentum conservation problem for these systems is presented. The relation between the presented analysis and the ongoing debates on momentum conservation in the Aharonov-Bohm problem is discussed.
Spin- and localization-induced fractional Aharonov-Bohm effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emperador, A.; Pederiva, F.; Lipparini, E.
2003-09-01
We performed a theoretical analysis of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the ground-state energy of quasi-one-dimensional quantum rings in a magnetic field, recently observed in conductance experiments, by means of quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The model rings considered contain N=10 and N=4 electrons, with radii of 20 and 120 nm, respectively. These parameters give a close description of the nanorings analyzed in the experiments. In particular, the two cases well reproduce the high- and low-electron-density regimes. For N=10, we have found fractional Aharonov-Bohm effect with a period Φ0/2 due to the changes in the total spin of the ground state. For N=4, we have found fractional oscillations with a period Φ0/4, which are shown to be a consequence of strong localization.
Aharonov-Bohm effect in cyclotron and synchrotron radiations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagrov, V. G.; Gitman, D. M.; Levin, A.; Tlyachev, V. B.
2001-07-01
We study the impact of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid on the radiation of a charged particle moving in a constant uniform magnetic field. With this aim in view, exact solutions of Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are found in the magnetic-solenoid field. Using such solutions, we calculate exactly all the characteristics of one-photon spontaneous radiation both for spinless and spinning particle. Considering non-relativistic and relativistic approximations, we analyze cyclotron and synchrotron radiations in detail. Radiation peculiarities caused by the presence of the solenoid may be considered as a manifestation of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the radiation. In particular, it is shown that new spectral lines appear in the radiation spectrum. Due to angular distribution peculiarities of the radiation intensity, these lines can in principle be isolated from basic cyclotron and synchrotron radiation spectra.
Aharonov-Bohm effect induced by circularly polarized light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sigurdsson, H.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.
2015-11-01
We demonstrated theoretically that the strong electron interaction with circularly polarized photons in ring-like nanostructures changes the phase of electron wave. This optically-induced effect is caused by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry and is similar to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. As a consequence of this phenomenon, the conductance of mesoscopic rings irradiated by a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave behaves as an oscillating function of the intensity and frequency of the wave.
Realization of adiabatic Aharonov-Bohm scattering with neutrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sjöqvist, Erik; Almquist, Martin; Mattsson, Ken; Gürkan, Zeynep Nilhan; Hessmo, Björn
2015-11-01
The adiabatic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is a manifestation of the Berry phase acquired when some slow variables take a planar spin around a loop. While the effect has been observed in molecular spectroscopy, direct measurement of the topological phase shift in a scattering experiment has been elusive in the past. Here, we demonstrate an adiabatic AB effect by explicit simulation of the dynamics of unpolarized very slow neutrons that scatter on a long straight current-carrying wire.
Aharonov-Bohm effect of excitons in nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Hui; Zhu, Jia-Lin; Li, Dai-Jun; Xiong, Jia-Jiong
2001-05-01
The magnetic field effects on excitons in an InAs nanoring are studied theoretically. By numerically diagonalizing the effective-mass Hamiltonian of the problem that can be separated into terms in center-of-mass and relative coordinates, we calculate the low-lying excitonic energy levels and oscillator strengths as a function of the ring width and the strength of an external magnetic field. It is shown that in the presence of Coulomb correlation, the so-called Aharonov-Bohm effect of excitons exists in a finite (but small) width nanoring. However, when the ring width becomes large, the non-simply-connected geometry of nanorings is destroyed, causing the suppression of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The analytical results are obtained for a narrow-width nanoring in which the radial motion is the fastest one and adiabatically decoupled from the azimuthal motions. The conditional probability distribution calculated for the low-lying excitonic states allows identification of the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The linear optical susceptibility is also calculated as a function of the magnetic field, to be compared with the future measurements of optical emission experiments on InAs nanorings.
Analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect in neo-Newtonian theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anacleto, M. A.; Salako, I. G.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.
2015-12-01
We address the issues of the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by an acoustic black hole in neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics. We then compute the differential cross section through the use of the partial wave approach in the neo-Newtonian theory which is a modification of the usual Newtonian theory that correctly incorporates the effects of pressure. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect due to a nontrivial response of the parameters defining the equation of state.
Spectroscopic detectability of the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Englman, R.
2016-01-01
It is theoretically shown that the emission spectra from an excited Jahn-Teller state in which the ions undergo a forced periodic trajectory have an M-shaped form, directly due to the sign change by the Berry-phase factor. The presence of a weak spectral sideline is noted and the effects of a nonlinear vibronic coupling are calculated. Experimental verifications of the results, e.g., on R'-centers in LiF, are proposed. The dip in the M-shaped emission line is a novel, and perhaps unique, spectroscopic manifestation of the "molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect."
Dispersionless forces and the Aharonov-Bohm effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batelaan, H.; Becker, M.
2015-11-01
The independence of the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift on particle velocity is one of its defining properties. The classical counterpart to this dispersionless behavior is the absence of forces along the direction of motion of the particle. A reevaluation of the experimental demonstration that forces are absent in the AB physical system is given, including previously unpublished data. It is shown that the debate on the presence or absence of forces is not settled. Experiments that measure the influence of magnetic permeability on forces and search for dispersionless quantum forces are proposed.
Aharonov-Bohm detection of two-dimensional magnetostatic cloaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Askarpour, Amir Nader; Alù, Andrea
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional magnetostatic cloaks, even when perfectly designed to mitigate the magnetic field disturbance of a scatterer, may be still detectable with Aharonov-Bohm (AB) measurements, and therefore may affect quantum interactions and experiments with elongated objects. We explore a multilayered cylindrical cloak whose permeability profile is tailored to nullify the magnetic-flux perturbation of the system, neutralizing its effect on AB measurements, and simultaneously optimally suppress the overall scattering. In this way, our improved magnetostatic cloak combines substantial mitigation of the magnetostatic scattering response with zero detectability by AB experiments.
Spectroscopic detectability of the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Englman, R
2016-01-14
It is theoretically shown that the emission spectra from an excited Jahn-Teller state in which the ions undergo a forced periodic trajectory have an M-shaped form, directly due to the sign change by the Berry-phase factor. The presence of a weak spectral sideline is noted and the effects of a nonlinear vibronic coupling are calculated. Experimental verifications of the results, e.g., on R'-centers in LiF, are proposed. The dip in the M-shaped emission line is a novel, and perhaps unique, spectroscopic manifestation of the "molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect." PMID:26772550
Hidden photons in Aharonov-Bohm-type experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, Paola; Diaz, Christian; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Jaeckel, Joerg; Koch, Benjamin; Redondo, Javier
2016-07-01
We discuss the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the presence of hidden photons kinetically mixed with the ordinary electromagnetic photons. The hidden photon field causes a slight phase shift in the observable interference pattern. It is then shown how the limited sensitivity of this experiment can be largely improved. The key observation is that the hidden photon field causes a leakage of the ordinary magnetic field into the supposedly field-free region. The direct measurement of this magnetic field can provide a sensitive experiment with a good discovery potential, particularly below the ˜meV mass range for hidden photons.
Conservation of momentum and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caprez, Adam; Batelaan, Herman
2008-05-01
The Aharonov-Bohm Effect serves as an example of a purely quantum mechanical phenomenon in which classical forces on the electron are thought to vanish. The presence of forces is still an ongoing debate [1,2]. Surprisingly, a complete special relativistic treatment of the forces in the electron-solenoid system has never been done [3]. We present our ongoing theoretical work on the issue, and explore a connection between Feynman's well-known example [3] of two moving point charges and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect. The relation between this theoretical work and our earlier experimental results [4] is also discussed. [1] T.H. Boyer, J. Phys. A. 39, 3455 (2006). [2] G.C. Hegerfeldt and J.T. Neumann, [quant-ph] arXiv:0801.0799v1 (2008). [3] Y. Aharonov and D. Rohrlich, Quantum Paradoxes: Quantum Theory for the Perplexed (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005). [4] The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Vol. II, pp. 26-2-26-5 (1964). [5] A. Caprez, B. Barwick, and H. Batelaan. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 210401 (2007).
Revisiting the Marton, Simpson, and Suddeth experimental confirmation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macdougall, James; Singleton, Douglas; Vagenas, Elias C.
2015-09-01
We perform an "archeological" study of one of the original experiments used as evidence for the static, time-independent Aharonov-Bohm effect. Since the experiment in question [1] involved a time varying magnetic field we show that there are problems with the explanation of this experiment as a confirmation of the static Aharonov-Bohm effect - specifically the previous analysis ignored the electric field which arises in conjunction with a time-varying magnetic flux. We further argue that the results of this experiment do in fact conform exactly to the recent prediction [2,3] of a cancellation between the magnetic and electric phase shifts for the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect. To resolve this issue a new time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm experiment is called for.
Longhi, Stefano
2014-10-15
We suggest a method for trapping photons in quasi-one-dimensional waveguide or coupled-resonator lattices, which is based on an optical analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm cages for charged particles. Light trapping results from a destructive interference of Aharonov-Bohm type induced by a synthetic magnetic field, which is realized by periodic modulation of the waveguide/resonator propagation constants/resonances. PMID:25361112
Noncommutative analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect and superresonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.
2013-06-01
We consider the idea of modeling a rotating acoustic black hole by an idealized draining bathtub vortex which is a planar circulating flow phenomenon with a sink at the origin. We find the acoustic metric for this phenomenon from a noncommutative Abelian Higgs model. As such the acoustic metric not only describes a rotating acoustic black hole but also inherits the noncommutative characteristic of the spacetime. We address the issues of superresonance and analogue Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in this background. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves by a draining bathtub vortex leads to a modified AB effect and due to spacetime noncommutativity, the phase shift persists even in the limit where the parameters associated with the circulation and draining vanish. Finally, we also find that the analogue AB effect and superresonance are competing phenomena at a noncommutative spacetime.
Thermoelectric effects in a rectangular Aharonov-Bohm geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pye, A. J.; Faux, D. A.; Kearney, M. J.
2016-04-01
The thermoelectric transport properties of a rectangular Aharonov-Bohm ring at low temperature are investigated using a theoretical approach based on Green's functions. The oscillations in the transmission coefficient as the field is varied can be used to tune the thermoelectric response of the ring. Large magnitude thermopowers are obtainable which, in conjunction with low conductance, can result in a high thermoelectric figure of merit. The effects of single site impurities and more general Anderson disorder are considered explicitly in the context of evaluating their effect on the Fano-type resonances in the transmission coefficient. Importantly, it is shown that even for moderate levels of disorder, the thermoelectric figure of merit can remain significant, increasing the appeal of such structures from the perspective of specialist thermoelectric applications.
An Aharonov-Bohm interferometer for determining Bloch band topology.
Duca, L; Li, T; Reitter, M; Bloch, I; Schleier-Smith, M; Schneider, U
2015-01-16
The geometric structure of a single-particle energy band in a solid is fundamental for a wide range of many-body phenomena and is uniquely characterized by the distribution of Berry curvature over the Brillouin zone. We realize an atomic interferometer to measure Berry flux in momentum space, in analogy to an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer that measures magnetic flux in real space. We demonstrate the interferometer for a graphene-type hexagonal optical lattice loaded with bosonic atoms. By detecting the singular π Berry flux localized at each Dirac point, we establish the high momentum resolution of this interferometric technique. Our work forms the basis for a general framework to fully characterize topological band structures. PMID:25525160
Magnetic edge states in Aharonov-Bohm graphene quantum rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farghadan, R.; Saffarzadeh, A.; Heidari Semiromi, E.
2013-12-01
The effect of electron-electron interaction on the electronic structure of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) graphene quantum rings (GQRs) is explored theoretically using the single-band tight-binding Hamiltonian and the mean-field Hubbard model. The electronic states and magnetic properties of hexagonal, triangular, and circular GQRs with different sizes and zigzag edge terminations are studied. The results show that, although the AB oscillations in the all types of nanoring are affected by the interaction, the spin splitting in the AB oscillations strongly depends on the geometry and the size of graphene nanorings. We found that the total spin of hexagonal and circular rings is zero and therefore, no spin splitting can be observed in the AB oscillations. However, the non-zero magnetization of the triangular rings breaks the degeneracy between spin-up and spin-down electrons, which produces spin-polarized AB oscillations.
Patterns of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in graphene nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanovsky, Igor; Yannouleas, Constantine; Landman, Uzi
2012-04-01
Using extensive tight-binding calculations, we investigate (including the spin) the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in monolayer and bilayer trigonal and hexagonal graphene rings with zigzag boundary conditions. Unlike the previous literature, we demonstrate the universality of integer (hc/e) and half-integer (hc/2e) values for the period of the AB oscillations as a function of the magnetic flux, in consonance with the case of mesoscopic metal rings. Odd-even (in the number of Dirac electrons, N) sawtooth-type patterns relating to the halving of the period have also been found; they are more numerous for a monolayer hexagonal ring, compared to the cases of a trigonal and a bilayer hexagonal ring. Additional, more complicated patterns are also present, depending on the shape of the graphene ring. Overall, the AB patterns repeat themselves as a function of N, with periods proportional to the number of the sides of the rings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tadić, M.; Arsoski, V.; Čukarić, N.; Peeters, F. M.
2013-12-01
The excitonic Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in type-I nanorings are found to be caused by anticrossings between exciton states. These anticrossings are analyzed by a tight-binding-like model of exciton states. The criteria for the existence of the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are formulated. For nanorings of realistic width and height, the range of values of the inner radius where the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm oscillations exist is found.
Time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Kai; Wang, Jian-Hua; Yang, Huan-Xiong
2016-08-01
We study the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space. Because there is no net Aharonov-Bohm phase shift in the time-dependent case on the commutative space, therefore, a tiny deviation from zero indicates new physics. Based on the Seiberg-Witten map we obtain the gauge invariant and Lorentz covariant Aharonov-Bohm phase shift in general case on noncommutative space. We find there are two kinds of contribution: momentum-dependent and momentum-independent corrections. For the momentum-dependent correction, there is a cancellation between the magnetic and electric phase shifts, just like the case on the commutative space. However, there is a non-trivial contribution in the momentum-independent correction. This is true for both the time-independent and time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effects on the noncommutative space. However, for the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect, there is no overwhelming background which exists in the time-independent Aharonov-Bohm effect on both commutative and noncommutative space. Therefore, the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm can be sensitive to the spatial noncommutativity. The net correction is proportional to the product of the magnetic fluxes through the fundamental area represented by the noncommutative parameter θ, and through the surface enclosed by the trajectory of charged particle. More interestingly, there is an anti-collinear relation between the logarithms of the magnetic field B and the averaged flux Φ / N (N is the number of fringes shifted). This nontrivial relation can also provide a way to test the spatial noncommutativity. For BΦ / N ∼ 1, our estimation on the experimental sensitivity shows that it can reach the 10 GeV scale. This sensitivity can be enhanced by using stronger magnetic field strength, larger magnetic flux, as well as higher experimental precision on the phase shift.
Quantum interference and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in topological insulators.
Bardarson, Jens H; Moore, Joel E
2013-05-01
Topological insulators (TIs) have an insulating bulk but a metallic surface. In the simplest case, the surface electronic structure of a three-dimensional (3D) TI is described by a single two-dimensional (2D) Dirac cone. A single 2D Dirac fermion cannot be realized in an isolated 2D system with time-reversal symmetry, but rather owes its existence to the topological properties of the 3D bulk wavefunctions. The transport properties of such a surface state are of considerable current interest; they have some similarities with graphene, which also realizes Dirac fermions, but have several unique features in their response to magnetic fields. In this review we give an overview of some of the main quantum transport properties of TI surfaces. We focus on the efforts to use quantum interference phenomena, such as weak anti-localization and the Aharonov-Bohm effect, to verify in a transport experiment the Dirac nature of the surface state and its defining properties. In addition to explaining the basic ideas and predictions of the theory, we provide a survey of recent experimental work. PMID:23552181
Fingerprints of Majorana Bound States in Aharonov-Bohm Geometry.
Tripathi, Krashna Mohan; Das, Sourin; Rao, Sumathi
2016-04-22
We study a ring geometry, coupled to two normal metallic leads, which has a Majorana bound state (MBS) embedded in one of its arms and is threaded by Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux ϕ. We show that by varying the AB flux, the two leads go through resonance in an anticorrelated fashion while the resonance conductance is quantized to 2e^{2}/h. We further show that such anticorrelation is completely absent when the MBS is replaced by an Andreev bound state (ABS). Hence this anti-correlation in conductance when studied as a function of ϕ provides a unique signature of the MBS which cannot be faked by an ABS. We contrast the phase sensitivity of the MBS and ABS in terms of tunneling conductances. We argue that the relative phase between the tunneling amplitude of the electrons and holes from either lead to the level (MBS or ABS), which is constrained to 0,π for the MBS and unconstrained for the ABS, is responsible for this interesting contrast in the AB effect between the MBS and ABS. PMID:27152813
Aharonov-Bohm oscillation modes in double-barrier nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jia-Lin; Yu, Xiquan; Dai, Zhensheng; Hu, Xiao
2003-02-01
The energy spectrum and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in a two-dimensional nanoring interrupted by two identical barriers are studied, and a way of labeling a state according to the node numbers of the wave function in the absence of magnetic flux is introduced. It is found that a magnetic flux φ can modify both the phase and amplitude of wave functions due to the presence of the barriers. AB oscillations are strongly affected by the double barriers, and there are two modes of strong AB oscillations, named O and X modes. The energy levels of O and X modes are occasionally degenerate at φ=0 and 0.5, respectively, and the corresponding wave functions of both degenerate states are localized and can be greatly modified by a small change of φ. The O mode of AB oscillations, which does not exist in the parallel double-barrier ring usually used in experiments, presents an interesting picture and suggests other related phenomena.
Aharonov-Bohm phases in a quantum LC circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, ChunJun; Yao, Yuan; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.
2016-03-01
We study novel types of contributions to the partition function of the Maxwell system defined on a small compact manifold. These contributions, often not addressed in the perturbative treatment with physical photons, emerge as a result of tunneling transitions between topologically distinct but physically identical vacuum winding states. These new terms give an extra contribution to the Casimir pressure, yet to be measured. We argue that this effect is highly sensitive to a small external electric field, which should be contrasted with the conventional Casimir effect, where the vacuum photons are essentially unaffected by any external field. Furthermore, photons will be emitted from the vacuum in response to a time-dependent electric field, similar to the dynamical Casimir effect in which real particles are radiated from the vacuum due to the time-dependent boundary conditions. We also propose an experimental setup using a quantum LC circuit to detect this novel effect. We expect physical electric charges to appear on the capacitor plates when the system dimension is such that coherent Aharonov-Bohm phases can be maintained over macroscopically large distances.
Quantum interference and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardarson, Jens H.; Moore, Joel E.
2013-05-01
Topological insulators (TIs) have an insulating bulk but a metallic surface. In the simplest case, the surface electronic structure of a three-dimensional (3D) TI is described by a single two-dimensional (2D) Dirac cone. A single 2D Dirac fermion cannot be realized in an isolated 2D system with time-reversal symmetry, but rather owes its existence to the topological properties of the 3D bulk wavefunctions. The transport properties of such a surface state are of considerable current interest; they have some similarities with graphene, which also realizes Dirac fermions, but have several unique features in their response to magnetic fields. In this review we give an overview of some of the main quantum transport properties of TI surfaces. We focus on the efforts to use quantum interference phenomena, such as weak anti-localization and the Aharonov-Bohm effect, to verify in a transport experiment the Dirac nature of the surface state and its defining properties. In addition to explaining the basic ideas and predictions of the theory, we provide a survey of recent experimental work.
The Aharonov-Bohm effect in Möbius rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zehao; Ram-Mohan, L.; CenterComputational NanoScience Team
2013-03-01
Electron transmission through finite-width 2D ring structures is calculated for cylindrical, flat (Aharonov-Bohm), and Möbius rings. In the presence of an external magnetic field, curves of constructive transmission display a pattern similar to that for a 1D ring. The periodicity in the magnetic flux, in units of h / e , is weakly broken on 2D rings of finite width, so that a description with a 1D-path is very acceptable. The unusual states with half-integer values of
Fingerprints of Majorana Bound States in Aharonov-Bohm Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, Krashna Mohan; Das, Sourin; Rao, Sumathi
2016-04-01
We study a ring geometry, coupled to two normal metallic leads, which has a Majorana bound state (MBS) embedded in one of its arms and is threaded by Aharonov-Bohm (A B ) flux ϕ . We show that by varying the A B flux, the two leads go through resonance in an anticorrelated fashion while the resonance conductance is quantized to 2 e2/h . We further show that such anticorrelation is completely absent when the MBS is replaced by an Andreev bound state (ABS). Hence this anti-correlation in conductance when studied as a function of ϕ provides a unique signature of the MBS which cannot be faked by an ABS. We contrast the phase sensitivity of the MBS and ABS in terms of tunneling conductances. We argue that the relative phase between the tunneling amplitude of the electrons and holes from either lead to the level (MBS or ABS), which is constrained to 0 ,π for the MBS and unconstrained for the ABS, is responsible for this interesting contrast in the A B effect between the MBS and ABS.
Entanglement between static and flying qubits in an Aharonov Bohm double electrometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schomerus, Henning; Robinson, John P.
2007-03-01
We consider the phase-coherent transport of electrons passing through an Aharonov Bohm ring while interacting with a tunnel charge in a double quantum dot (representing a charge qubit) which couples symmetrically to both arms of the ring. For Aharonov Bohm flux ΦAB = h/2e we find that electrons can only be transmitted when they flip the charge qubit's pseudospin parity an odd number of times. The perfect correlations of the dynamics of the pseudospin and individual electronic transmission and reflection events can be used to entangle the charge qubit with an individual passing electron.
Photon mass and quantum effects of the Aharonov-Bohm type
Spavieri, G.; Rodriguez, M.
2007-05-15
The magnetic field due to the photon rest mass m{sub ph} modifies the standard results of the Aharonov-Bohm effect for electrons, and of other recent quantum effects. For the effect involving a coherent superposition of beams of particles with opposite electromagnetic properties, by means of a tabletop experiment, the limit m{sub ph}{approx_equal}10{sup -51} g is achievable, improving by 6 orders of magnitude that derived by Boulware and Deser for the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Internal frame dragging and a global analog of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
March-Russell, J. ); Preskill, J. ); Wilczek, F. )
1992-04-27
It is shown that the breakdown of a {ital global} symmetry group to a discrete subgroup can lead to analogs of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. At sufficiently low momentum transfer, the cross section for scattering of a particle with nontrivial Z{sub 2} charge off a global vortex is almost equal to (but definitely different from) maximal Aharonov-Bohm scattering; the effect goes away at large momentum transfer. The scattering of a spin-1/2 particle off a magnetic vortex provides an amusing experimentally realizable example.
Exotic Dirac Wavepackets Accumulating Aharonov-Bohm-type Phase in Free Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaminer, Ido; Nemirovsky, Jonathan; Rechtsman, Mikael; Bekenstein, Rivka; Segev, Mordechai
2013-05-01
Following the seminal 1958 paper by Aharonov-Bohm (AB), it is expected that two parts of the wavefunction of an electron can accumulate phase difference even when they are confined to a region in space with zero EM field. The AB effect was groundbreaking: the EM vector potential is a physical quantity affecting the outcome of experiments directly, not only through the fields extracted from it. But is the EM potential a real necessity for an AB-type effect? Can such effect exist in a potential-free system such as free-space? Here, we find self-accelerating solutions of the potential-free Dirac equation, for massive/massless fermions/bosons. These exotic Dirac particles mimic the dynamics of a free-charge moving under a ``virtual'' EM field. They accelerate even though no field is acting on them (and no charge is defined): the entire dynamics is a direct result of the initial conditions. We show that such particles display an effective AB effect that can be explained by a ``virtual'' potential that ``causes'' the exact same acceleration. We prove that one can create all effects induced by EM fields by only controlling the initial conditions of a wave pattern. Altogether, measurements taken along the trajectory cannot distinguish between a real force and this virtual force: self-induced by the wavepacket itself. The measurable effects of this virtual force are real by all measurable quantities. These phenomena can be observed in various settings: e.g., optical waves in hyperbolic metamaterials, and matter waves in honeycomb interference structures.
Gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect due to noncommutative BTZ black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.
2015-04-01
In this paper we consider the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by a noncommutative BTZ black hole. We compute the differential cross section via the partial wave approach, and we mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified Aharonov-Bohm effect due to spacetime noncommutativity.
Nucleon statistics in holographic QCD: Aharonov-Bohm effect in a matrix model
Hashimoto, Koji; Iizuka, Norihiro
2010-11-15
We show that the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the nuclear matrix model [K. Hashimoto, N. Iizuka, and P. Yi, J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2010), 3.] derives the statistical nature of nucleons in holographic QCD. For N{sub c}=odd (even), the nucleon is shown to be a fermion (boson).
Nucleon statistics in holographic QCD: Aharonov-Bohm effect in a matrix model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Koji; Iizuka, Norihiro
2010-11-01
We show that the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the nuclear matrix model [K. Hashimoto, N. Iizuka, and P. Yi, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 10 (2010), 3.10.1007/JHEP10(2010)003] derives the statistical nature of nucleons in holographic QCD. For Nc=odd (even), the nucleon is shown to be a fermion (boson).
Recovery of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in asymmetrical quantum rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voskoboynikov, O.
2016-07-01
We theoretically investigate suppression and recovery of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the diamagnetic response of electrons (holes) confined in self-assembled IncGa1-cAs/GaAs semiconductor reflection asymmetrical quantum rings. Based on the mapping method and gauge-origin-independent definition for the magnetic vector potential we simulate the energies and wave functions of the electron (hole) under external magnetic and electric fields. We examine the transformation of the ground state wave function of the electron (hole) in reflection asymmetrical rings from localized in one of the potential valleys (dotlike shape of the wave function) to distributed over all volume of the ring (ringlike shape) under an appropriate lateral electric field. This transformation greatly recovers the electron (hole) diamagnetic coefficient and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the diamagnetic response of the ring. However, the recovering electric field for the first Aharonov-Bohm diamagnetic oscillation of the electron is a suppressing one for the hole (and vice versa). This can block the recovery of the optical Aharonow-Bohm effect in IncGa1-cAs/GaAs asymmetrically wobbled rings. However, the recovery of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations for the independent electron (hole) by the external electric field remains interesting and feasible objective for the asymmetric rings.
Stokes' theorem, gauge symmetry and the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect
Macdougall, James Singleton, Douglas
2014-04-15
Stokes' theorem is investigated in the context of the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect—the two-slit quantum interference experiment with a time varying solenoid between the slits. The time varying solenoid produces an electric field which leads to an additional phase shift which is found to exactly cancel the time-dependent part of the usual magnetic Aharonov-Bohm phase shift. This electric field arises from a combination of a non-single valued scalar potential and/or a 3-vector potential. The gauge transformation which leads to the scalar and 3-vector potentials for the electric field is non-single valued. This feature is connected with the non-simply connected topology of the Aharonov-Bohm set-up. The non-single valued nature of the gauge transformation function has interesting consequences for the 4-dimensional Stokes' theorem for the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect. An experimental test of these conclusions is proposed.
Noncommutative correction to Aharonov-Bohm scattering: A field theory approach
Anacleto, M.A.; Gomes, M.; Silva, A.J. da; Spehler, D.
2004-10-15
We study a noncommutative nonrelativistic theory in 2+1 dimensions of a scalar field coupled to the Chern-Simons field. In the commutative situation this model has been used to simulate the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the field theory context. We verified that, contrary to the commutative result, the inclusion of a quartic self-interaction of the scalar field is not necessary to secure the ultraviolet renormalizability of the model. However, to obtain a smooth commutative limit the presence of a quartic gauge invariant self-interaction is required. For small noncommutativity we fix the corrections to the Aharonov-Bohm scattering and prove that up to one loop the model is free from dangerous infrared/ultraviolet divergences.
Spin accumulation assisted by the Aharonov-Bohm-Fano effect of quantum dot structures.
Gong, Wei-Jiang; Han, Yu; Wei, Guo-Zhu; Du, An
2012-01-01
: We investigate the spin accumulations of Aharonov-Bohm interferometers with embedded quantum dots by considering spin bias in the leads. It is found that regardless of the interferometer configurations, the spin accumulations are closely determined by their quantum interference features. This is mainly manifested in the dependence of spin accumulations on the threaded magnetic flux and the nonresonant transmission process. Namely, the Aharonov-Bohm-Fano effect is a necessary condition to achieve the spin accumulation in the quantum dot of the resonant channel. Further analysis showed that in the double-dot interferometer, the spin accumulation can be detailedly manipulated. The spin accumulation properties of such structures offer a new scheme of spin manipulation. When the intradot Coulomb interactions are taken into account, we find that the electron interactions are advantageous to the spin accumulation in the resonant channel. PMID:22985404
Reply to "Comment on `Role of potentials in the Aharonov-Bohm effect' "
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaidman, Lev
2015-08-01
The preceding Comment challenged my claim that potentials might be just auxiliary mathematical tools and that they are not necessary for explaining physical phenomena. The Comment did not confront my explanation without the potentials of the Aharonov-Bohm effects that appeared in the original article, but stated that I cannot apply this explanation for seven other examples. In my reply, using my method, I provide explanations of one of the examples, show that two other examples are not relevant, and agree that the remaining examples require further analysis. However, I argue that none of the examples provides robust counterexamples to my claim, similar to the original Aharonov-Bohm setups which were explained in my article, so the Comment does not refute my claim.
Spin-selective Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a lateral triple quantum dot.
Delgado, F; Shim, Y-P; Korkusinski, M; Gaudreau, L; Studenikin, S A; Sachrajda, A S; Hawrylak, P
2008-11-28
We present a theory of spin-selective Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a lateral triple quantum dot. We show that to understand the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in an interacting electron system within a triple quantum dot molecule (TQD) where the dots lie in a ring configuration requires one to not only consider electron charge but also spin. Using a Hubbard model supported by microscopic calculations we show that, by localizing a single electron spin in one of the dots, the current through the TQD molecule depends not only on the flux but also on the relative orientation of the spin of the incoming and localized electrons. AB oscillations are predicted only for the spin singlet electron complex resulting in a magnetic field tunable "spin valve." PMID:19113511
Spin accumulation assisted by the Aharonov-Bohm-Fano effect of quantum dot structures
2012-01-01
We investigate the spin accumulations of Aharonov-Bohm interferometers with embedded quantum dots by considering spin bias in the leads. It is found that regardless of the interferometer configurations, the spin accumulations are closely determined by their quantum interference features. This is mainly manifested in the dependence of spin accumulations on the threaded magnetic flux and the nonresonant transmission process. Namely, the Aharonov-Bohm-Fano effect is a necessary condition to achieve the spin accumulation in the quantum dot of the resonant channel. Further analysis showed that in the double-dot interferometer, the spin accumulation can be detailedly manipulated. The spin accumulation properties of such structures offer a new scheme of spin manipulation. When the intradot Coulomb interactions are taken into account, we find that the electron interactions are advantageous to the spin accumulation in the resonant channel. PMID:22985404
Time-dependent Pauli equation in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouguerra, Y.; Bounames, A.; Maamache, M.; Saadi, Y.
2008-04-01
We use the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory to determine the exact form of the wavefunctions of a two-dimensional Pauli equation of a charged spin 1/2 particle with time-dependent mass and frequency in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and a two-dimensional time-dependent harmonic oscillator. We find that the irregular solution at the origin as well as the regular one contributes to the phase of the wavefunction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.
2010-01-01
We investigate the effect of electron-electron interactions on Aharonov-Bohm (AB) current oscillations in nanorings formed by a chain of metallic quantum dots. We demonstrate that electron-electron interactions cause electron dephasing thereby suppressing the amplitude of AB oscillations at all temperatures down to T=0. The crossover between thermal and quantum dephasing is found to be controlled by the ring perimeter. Our predictions can be directly tested in future experiments.
Time-dependent Pauli equation in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Bouguerra, Y.; Bounames, A.; Maamache, M.; Saadi, Y.
2008-04-15
We use the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory to determine the exact form of the wavefunctions of a two-dimensional Pauli equation of a charged spin 1/2 particle with time-dependent mass and frequency in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and a two-dimensional time-dependent harmonic oscillator. We find that the irregular solution at the origin as well as the regular one contributes to the phase of the wavefunction.
How the Test of Aharonov-Bohm Effect Was Initiated at Hitachi Laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osakabe, Nobuyuki
2014-01-01
I joined the Tonomura's team in 1980. Since then, I have seen his enthusiasm and creativity in science as a member of his team and later as director of the laboratory. I will discuss in this article how the industrially driven technologies met science at Hitachi Central Research Laboratory in the case of verification of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and other scientific achievements by Akira Tonomura.
Kim, Hee Dae; Okuyama, Rin; Kyhm, Kwangseuk; Eto, Mikio; Taylor, Robert A; Nicolet, Aurelien L; Potemski, Marek; Nogues, Gilles; Dang, Le Si; Je, Ku-Chul; Kim, Jongsu; Kyhm, Ji-Hoon; Yoen, Kyu Hyoek; Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Jun Young; Han, Il Ki; Choi, Wonjun; Song, Jindong
2016-01-13
The Aharonov-Bohm effect in ring structures in the presence of electronic correlation and disorder is an open issue. We report novel oscillations of a strongly correlated exciton pair, similar to a Wigner molecule, in a single nanoquantum ring, where the emission energy changes abruptly at the transition magnetic field with a fractional oscillation period compared to that of the exciton, a so-called fractional optical Aharonov-Bohm oscillation. We have also observed modulated optical Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of an electron-hole pair and an anticrossing of the photoluminescence spectrum at the transition magnetic field, which are associated with disorder effects such as localization, built-in electric field, and impurities. PMID:26648477
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grochol, M.; Grosse, F.; Zimmermann, R.
2006-09-01
The optical exciton Aharonov-Bohm effect—i.e., an oscillatory component in the energy of optically active (bright) states—is investigated in nanorings. It is shown that a small effective electron mass, strong confinement of the electron, and high barrier for the hole, achieved, e.g., by an InAs nanoring embedded in an AlGaSb quantum well, are favorable for observing the optical exciton Aharonov-Bohm effect. The second derivative of the exciton energy with respect to the magnetic field is utilized to extract Aharonov-Bohm oscillations even for the lowest bright state unambiguously. A connection between the theories for infinitesimal narrow and finite width rings is established. Furthermore, the magnetization is compared to the persistent current, which oscillates periodically with the magnetic field and confirms thus the nontrivial (connected) topology of the wave function in the nanoring.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barseghyan, M. G.; Manaselyan, A. Kh.; Laroze, D.; Kirakosyan, A. A.
2016-07-01
In this work we study the electronic states in quantum dot-ring complex nanostructures with an on-center hydrogenic impurity. The influence of the impurity on Aharonov-Bohm energy spectra oscillations and intraband optical absorption is investigated. It is shown that in the presence of a hydrogenic donor impurity the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in quantum dot-ring structures become highly tunable. Furthermore, the presence of the impurity drastically changes the intraband absorption spectra due to the strong controllability of the electron localization type.
Absence of the Electric Aharonov-Bohm Effect due to Induced Charges
Wang, Rui-Feng
2015-01-01
This paper states that the induced charge should not be neglected in the electric Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect. If the induced charge is taken into account, the interference pattern of the moving charge will not change with the potential difference between the two metal tubes. It means that the scalar potential itself can not affect the phase of the moving charge, and the true factor affecting the phase of the moving charge is the energy of the system including the moving charge and the induced charge. PMID:26392302
Force-free gravitational redshift: proposed gravitational Aharonov-Bohm experiment.
Hohensee, Michael A; Estey, Brian; Hamilton, Paul; Zeilinger, Anton; Müller, Holger
2012-06-01
We propose a feasible laboratory interferometry experiment with matter waves in a gravitational potential caused by a pair of artificial field-generating masses. It will demonstrate that the presence of these masses (and, for moving atoms, time dilation) induces a phase shift, even if it does not cause any classical force. The phase shift is identical to that produced by the gravitational redshift (or time dilation) of clocks ticking at the atom's Compton frequency. In analogy to the Aharonov-Bohm effect in electromagnetism, the quantum mechanical phase is a function of the gravitational potential and not the classical forces. PMID:23003927
Scattering of spin-polarized electron in an Aharonov Bohm potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalilov, V. R.; Ho, Choon-Lin
2008-05-01
The scattering of spin-polarized electrons in an Aharonov-Bohm vector potential is considered. We solve the Pauli equation in 3 + 1 dimensions taking into account explicitly the interaction between the three-dimensional spin magnetic moment of electron and magnetic field. Expressions for the scattering amplitude and the cross section are obtained for spin-polarized electron scattered off a flux tube of small radius. It is also shown that bound electron states cannot occur in this quantum system. The scattering problem for the model of a flux tube of zero radius in the Born approximation is briefly discussed.
Lai, Wenxi; Xing, Yunhui; Ma, Zhongshui
2013-05-22
Phase relaxation of electrons transferring through an electromechanical transistor is studied using the Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. Using the quantum master equation approach, the phase properties of an electron are numerically analyzed based on the interference fringes. The coherence of the electron is partially destroyed by its scattering on excited levels of the local nanomechanical oscillator. The transmission amplitudes with respect to two adjacent mechanical vibrational levels have a phase difference of π. The character of the π phase shift depends on the oscillator frequency only and is robust over a wide range of values of the applied voltage, tunneling length and damping rate of the mechanical oscillator. PMID:23615899
Non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effect with the time-dependent gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz
2016-04-01
We investigate the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect for time-dependent gauge fields. We prove that the non-Abelian AB phase shift related to time-dependent gauge fields, in which the electric and magnetic fields are written in the adjoint representation of SU (N) generators, vanishes up to the first order expansion of the phase factor. Therefore, the flux quantization in a superconductor ring does not appear in the time-dependent Abelian or non-Abelian AB effect.
Yuan, Luqi; Xu, Shanshan; Fan, Shanhui
2015-11-15
We show that nonreciprocal unidirectional single-photon quantum transport can be achieved with the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. The system consists of a 1D waveguide coupling to two three-level atoms of the V-type. The two atoms, in addition, are each driven by an external coherent field. We show that the phase of the external coherent field provides a gauge potential for the photon states. With a proper choice of the phase difference between the two coherent fields, the transport of a single photon can exhibit unity contrast in its transmissions for the two propagation directions. PMID:26565819
Absence of the Electric Aharonov-Bohm Effect due to Induced Charges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-Feng
2015-09-01
This paper states that the induced charge should not be neglected in the electric Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect. If the induced charge is taken into account, the interference pattern of the moving charge will not change with the potential difference between the two metal tubes. It means that the scalar potential itself can not affect the phase of the moving charge, and the true factor affecting the phase of the moving charge is the energy of the system including the moving charge and the induced charge.
Aharonov-Bohm interferometer based on n -p junctions in graphene nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mreńca-Kolasińska, A.; Heun, S.; Szafran, B.
2016-03-01
We demonstrate that the phenomenon of current confinement along graphene n -p junctions at high magnetic fields can be used to form an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. The interference system exploits a closed n -p junction that can be induced by a floating gate within the sample, and coupling of the junction currents with the edge currents in the quantum Hall regime. Operation of the device requires current splitting at the edge and the n -p junction contacts which is found for armchair ribbons at low Fermi energy.
Absence of the Electric Aharonov-Bohm Effect due to Induced Charges.
Wang, Rui-Feng
2015-01-01
This paper states that the induced charge should not be neglected in the electric Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect. If the induced charge is taken into account, the interference pattern of the moving charge will not change with the potential difference between the two metal tubes. It means that the scalar potential itself can not affect the phase of the moving charge, and the true factor affecting the phase of the moving charge is the energy of the system including the moving charge and the induced charge. PMID:26392302
Gate controlled Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations from single neutral excitons in quantum rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, F.; Akopian, N.; Li, B.; Perinetti, U.; Govorov, A.; Peeters, F. M.; Bof Bufon, C. C.; Deneke, C.; Chen, Y. H.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O. G.; Zwiller, V.
2010-08-01
We report on a magnetophotoluminescence study of single self-assembled semiconductor nanorings which are fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy combined with AsBr3 in situ etching. Oscillations in the neutral exciton radiative recombination energy and in the emission intensity are observed under an applied magnetic field. Further, we control the period of the oscillations with a gate potential that modifies the exciton confinement. We infer from the experimental results, combined with calculations, that the exciton Aharonov-Bohm effect may account for the observed effects.
Control of the transmission phase in an asymmetric four-terminal Aharonov-Bohm interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchholz, Sven S.; Fischer, Saskia F.; Kunze, Ulrich; Bell, Matthew; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.
2010-07-01
Phase sensitivity and thermal dephasing in coherent electron transport in quasi-one-dimensional (1D) waveguide rings of an asymmetric four-terminal geometry are studied by magnetotransport measurements. We demonstrate the electrostatic control of the phase in Aharonov-Bohm resistance oscillations and investigate the impact of the measurement circuitry on decoherence. Phase rigidity is broken due to the ring geometry: orthogonal waveguide cross junctions and 1D leads minimize reflections and resonances between leads allowing for a continuous electron transmission phase shift. The measurement circuitry influences dephasing: thermal averaging dominates in the nonlocal measurement configuration while additional influence of potential fluctuations becomes relevant in the local configuration.
Anyonic Strings and Membranes in Anti-de Sitter Space and Dual Aharonov-Bohm Effects
Hartnoll, Sean A.
2007-03-16
It is observed that strings in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} and membranes in AdS{sub 7}xS{sup 4} exhibit long range phase interactions. Two well separated membranes dragged around one another in anti-de Sitter space (AdS) acquire phases of 2{pi}/N. The same phases are acquired by a well separated F and D string dragged around one another. The phases are shown to correspond to both the standard and a novel type of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the dual field theory.
Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a quasi-ballistic three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire.
Cho, Sungjae; Dellabetta, Brian; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Liu, Tiansheng; Gu, Genda; Gilbert, Matthew J; Mason, Nadya
2015-01-01
Aharonov-Bohm oscillations effectively demonstrate coherent, ballistic transport in mesoscopic rings and tubes. In three-dimensional topological insulator nanowires, they can be used to not only characterize surface states but also to test predictions of unique topological behaviour. Here we report measurements of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in (Bi1.33Sb0.67)Se3 that demonstrate salient features of topological nanowires. By fabricating quasi-ballistic three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire devices that are gate-tunable through the Dirac point, we are able to observe alternations of conductance maxima and minima with gate voltage. Near the Dirac point, we observe conductance minima for zero magnetic flux through the nanowire and corresponding maxima (having magnitudes of almost a conductance quantum) at magnetic flux equal to half a flux quantum; this is consistent with the presence of a low-energy topological mode. The observation of this mode is a necessary step towards utilizing topological properties at the nanoscale in post-CMOS applications. PMID:26158768
Excitonic Aharonov-Bohm effect: Unstrained versus strained type-I semiconductor nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tadić, M.; Čukarić, N.; Arsoski, V.; Peeters, F. M.
2011-09-01
We study how mechanical strain affects the magnetic field dependence of the exciton states in type-I semiconductor nanorings. Strain spatially separates the electron and hole in (In,Ga)As/GaAs nanorings which is beneficial for the occurrence of the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect. In narrow strained (In,Ga)As/GaAs nanorings the AB oscillations in the exciton ground-state energy are due to anticrossings with the first excited state. No such AB oscillations are found in unstrained GaAs/(Al,Ga)As nanorings irrespective of the ring width. Our results are obtained within an exact numerical diagonalization scheme and are shown to be accurately described by a two-level model with off-diagonal coupling t. The later transfer integral expresses the Coulomb coupling between states of electron-hole pairs. We also found that the oscillator strength for exciton recombination in (In,Ga)As/GaAs nanorings exhibits AB oscillations, which are superimposed on a linear increase with magnetic field. Our results agree qualitatively with recent experiments on the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in type-I (In,Ga)As/GaAs nanorings.
Enhanced spin figure of merit in an Aharonov-Bohm ring with a double quantum dot
Zhou, Xingfei; Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun
2014-04-21
We theoretically investigate the thermoelectric effects in an Aharonov-Bohm ring with a serially coupled double quantum dot embedded in one arm. An external magnetic field is perpendicularly applied to the two dots. Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method in the linear-response regime, we calculate the charge and spin figures of merit. When the energy levels of the two quantum dots are equal and the system is connected to two normal leads, a large spin figure of merit (Z{sub s}T ≈ 4.5) accompanying with a small charge figure of merit (Z{sub c}T ≈ 0) can be generated due to the remarkable bipolar effect. Further, when the system is connected to two ferromagnetic leads, the spin figure of merit can reach even a higher value about 9. Afterwards, we find that Z{sub s}T is enhanced while Z{sub c}T is reduced in the coaction of the Aharonov-Bohm flux and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. It is argued that the bipolar effect is positive (negative) to spin (charge) figure of merit in the presence of level detuning of the two quantum dots and intradot Coulomb interactions, respectively. Also, we propose a possible experiment to verify our results.
Vacuum polarization of planar charged fermions with Coulomb and Aharonov-Bohm potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalilov, V. R.; Mamsurov, I. V.
2016-02-01
Vacuum polarization of charged massless fermions is investigated in the superposition of Coulomb and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) potentials in 2 + 1 dimensions. For this purpose, we construct the Green function of the two-dimensional Dirac equation with Coulomb and AB potentials (via the regular and irregular solutions of the radial Dirac equation) and then calculate the vacuum polarization charge density in the so-called subcritical and supercritical regimes. In the supercritical regime, the Green function has a discontinuity in the complex plane of “energy” due to the singularities on the negative energy axis; these singularities are situated on the unphysical sheet and related to the creation of infinitely many quasistationary fermionic states with negative energies. We expect that our results will be helpful in gaining deeper understanding of the fundamental problem of quantum electrodynamics which can be applied to the problems of charged impurity screening in graphene taking into consideration the electron spin.
Analytic Aharonov-Bohm rings — Currents readout from Zeeman spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Mufei; Reyes-Serrato, Armando
2016-06-01
This paper reports the work on the development and analysis of a model for quantum rings in which persistent currents are induced by Aharonov-Bohm (AB) or other similar effects. The model is based on a centric and annual potential profile. The time-independent Schrödinger equation including an external magnetic field and an AB flux is analytically solved. The outputs, namely energy dispersion and wavefunctions, are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the rotation quantum number m is limited to small numbers, especially in weak confinement, and a conceptual proposal is put forward for acquiring the flux and eventually estimating the persistent currents in a Zeeman spectroscopy. The wavefunctions and electron distributions are numerically studied and compared to one-dimensional (1D) quantum well. It is predicated that the model and its solutions, eigen energy structure and analytic wavefunctions, would be a powerful tool for studying various electric and optical properties of quantum rings.
Thermoelectric effect in an Aharonov-Bohm ring with an embedded quantum dot.
Zheng, Jun; Chi, Feng; Lu, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Kai-Cheng
2012-01-01
Thermoelectric effect is studied in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with an embedded quantum dot (QD) in the Coulomb blockade regime. The electrical conductance, electron thermal conductance, thermopower, and thermoelectric figure-of-merit are calculated by using the Keldysh Green's function method. It is found that the figure-of-merit ZT of the QD ring may be quite high due to the Fano effect originated from the quantum interference effect. Moreover, the thermoelectric efficiency is sensitive to the magnitude of the dot-lead and inter-lead coupling strengthes. The effect of intradot Coulomb repulsion on ZT is significant in the weak-coupling regime, and then large ZT values can be obtained at rather high temperature. PMID:22369454
Nguyen, V Hung; Niquet, Y-M; Dollfus, P
2014-05-21
We report on a numerical study of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect and parity selective tunneling in pn junctions based on rectangular graphene rings where the contacts and ring arms are all made of zigzag nanoribbons. We find that when applying a magnetic field to the ring, the AB interference can reverse the parity symmetry of incoming waves and hence can strongly modulate the parity selective transmission through the system. Therefore, the transmission between two states of different parity exhibits the AB oscillations with a π-phase shift, compared to the case of states of the same parity. On this basis, it is shown that interesting effects, such as giant (both positive and negative) magnetoresistance and strong negative differential conductance, can be achieved in this structure. Our study thus presents a new property of the AB interference in graphene nanorings, which could be helpful for further understanding the transport properties of graphene mesoscopic systems. PMID:24785639
Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Li-Xian; Li, Cai-Zhen; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min
2016-02-01
Three-dimensional Dirac semimetals, three-dimensional analogues of graphene, are unusual quantum materials with massless Dirac fermions, which can be further converted to Weyl fermions by breaking time reversal or inversion symmetry. Topological surface states with Fermi arcs are predicted on the surface and have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. Although the exotic transport properties of the bulk Dirac cones have been demonstrated, it is still a challenge to reveal the surface states via transport measurements due to the highly conductive bulk states. Here, we show Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in individual single-crystal Cd3As2 nanowires with low carrier concentration and large surface-to-volume ratio, providing transport evidence of the surface state in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals. Moreover, the quantum transport can be modulated by tuning the Fermi level using a gate voltage, enabling a deeper understanding of the rich physics residing in Dirac semimetals.
Mode Dependency of Quantum Decoherence Studied via an Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Tung-Sheng; Lin, Yiping; Wu, Phillip M.; Ling, Dah-Chin; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung
2016-02-01
We investigate the dependence of decoherence on the mode number M in a multiple-mode Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer. The design of the AB interferometer allows us to precisely determine M by the additivity rule of ballistic conductors; meanwhile, the decoherence rate is simultaneously deduced by the variance of the AB oscillation amplitude. The AB amplitude decreases and fluctuates with depopulating M . Moreover, the normalized amplitude exhibits a maximum at a specific M (˜9 ). Data analysis reveals that the charge-fluctuation-induced dephasing, which depends on the geometry and the charge relaxation resistance of the system, could play an essential role in the decoherence process. Our results suggest that the phase coherence, in principle, can be optimized using a deliberated design and pave one of the ways toward the engineering of quantum coherence.
Wave-packet rectification in nonlinear electronic systems: a tunable Aharonov-Bohm diode.
Li, Yunyun; Zhou, Jun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Li, Baowen
2014-01-01
Rectification of electron wave-packets propagating along a quasi-one dimensional chain is commonly achieved via the simultaneous action of nonlinearity and longitudinal asymmetry, both confined to a limited portion of the chain termed wave diode. However, it is conceivable that, in the presence of an external magnetic field, spatial asymmetry perpendicular to the direction of propagation suffices to ensure rectification. This is the case of a nonlinear ring-shaped lattice with different upper and lower halves (diode), which is attached to two elastic chains (leads). The resulting device is mirror symmetric with respect to the ring vertical axis, but mirror asymmetric with respect to the chain direction. Wave propagation along the two diode paths can be modeled for simplicity by a discrete Schrödinger equation with cubic nonlinearities. Numerical simulations demonstrate that, thanks to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, such a diode can be operated by tuning the magnetic flux across the ring. PMID:24691462
Mode Dependency of Quantum Decoherence Studied via an Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer.
Lo, Tung-Sheng; Lin, Yiping; Wu, Phillip M; Ling, Dah-Chin; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung
2016-02-26
We investigate the dependence of decoherence on the mode number M in a multiple-mode Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer. The design of the AB interferometer allows us to precisely determine M by the additivity rule of ballistic conductors; meanwhile, the decoherence rate is simultaneously deduced by the variance of the AB oscillation amplitude. The AB amplitude decreases and fluctuates with depopulating M. Moreover, the normalized amplitude exhibits a maximum at a specific M (∼9). Data analysis reveals that the charge-fluctuation-induced dephasing, which depends on the geometry and the charge relaxation resistance of the system, could play an essential role in the decoherence process. Our results suggest that the phase coherence, in principle, can be optimized using a deliberated design and pave one of the ways toward the engineering of quantum coherence. PMID:26967397
Characterisation of ferromagnetic rings for Zernike phase plates using the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Edgcombe, C J; Ionescu, A; Loudon, J C; Blackburn, A M; Kurebayashi, H; Barnes, C H W
2012-09-01
Holographic measurements on magnetised thin-film cobalt rings have demonstrated both onion and vortex states of magnetisation. For a ring in the vortex state, the difference between phases of electron paths that pass through the ring and those that travel outside it was found to agree very well with Aharonov-Bohm theory within measurement error. Thus the magnetic flux in thin-film rings of ferromagnetic material can provide the phase shift required for phase plates in transmission electron microscopy. When a ring of this type is used as a phase plate, scattered electrons will be intercepted over a radial range similar to the ring width. A cobalt ring of thickness 20 nm can produce a phase difference of π/2 from a width of just under 30 nm, suggesting that the range of radial interception for this type of phase plate can be correspondingly small. PMID:22842114
Polarized excitons in nanorings and the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govorov, A. O.; Ulloa, S. E.; Karrai, K.; Warburton, R. J.
2002-08-01
The quantum nature of matter lies in the wave function phases that accumulate while particles move along their trajectories. A prominent example is the Aharonov-Bohm phase, which has been studied in connection with the conductance of nanostructures. However, optical response in solids is determined by neutral excitations, for which no sensitivity to magnetic flux would be expected. We propose a mechanism for the topological phase of a neutral particle, a polarized exciton confined to a semiconductor quantum ring. We predict that this magnetic-field induced phase may strongly affect excitons in a system with cylindrical symmetry, resulting in switching between ``bright'' exciton ground states and novel ``dark'' states with nearly infinite lifetimes. Since excitons determine the optical response of semiconductors, the predicted phase can be used to tailor photon emission from quantum nanostructures.
Wave-packet rectification in nonlinear electronic systems: A tunable Aharonov-Bohm diode
Li, Yunyun; Zhou, Jun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Li, Baowen
2014-01-01
Rectification of electron wave-packets propagating along a quasi-one dimensional chain is commonly achieved via the simultaneous action of nonlinearity and longitudinal asymmetry, both confined to a limited portion of the chain termed wave diode. However, it is conceivable that, in the presence of an external magnetic field, spatial asymmetry perpendicular to the direction of propagation suffices to ensure rectification. This is the case of a nonlinear ring-shaped lattice with different upper and lower halves (diode), which is attached to two elastic chains (leads). The resulting device is mirror symmetric with respect to the ring vertical axis, but mirror asymmetric with respect to the chain direction. Wave propagation along the two diode paths can be modeled for simplicity by a discrete Schrödinger equation with cubic nonlinearities. Numerical simulations demonstrate that, thanks to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, such a diode can be operated by tuning the magnetic flux across the ring. PMID:24691462
Transmission through a quantum dot molecule embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer.
Lovey, Daniel A; Gomez, Sergio S; Romero, Rodolfo H
2011-10-26
We study theoretically the transmission through a quantum dot molecule embedded in the arms of an Aharonov-Bohm four quantum dot ring threaded by a magnetic flux. The tunable molecular coupling provides a transmission pathway between the interferometer arms in addition to those along the arms. From a decomposition of the transmission in terms of contributions from paths, we show that antiresonances in the transmission arise from the interference of the self-energy along different paths and that application of a magnetic flux can produce the suppression of such antiresonances. The occurrence of a period of twice the quantum of flux arises at the opening of the transmission pathway through the dot molecule. Two different connections of the device to the leads are considered and their spectra of conductance are compared as a function of the tunable parameters of the model. PMID:21970845
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jian-Heng; Tu, Matisse Wei-Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Min
2016-07-01
By considering a nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer consisting of a laterally coupled double dot coupled to the source and drain electrodes, we investigate the AB phase dependence of the bonding and antibonding states and the transport currents via the bonding and antibonding state channels. The relations of the AB phase dependence between the quantum states and the associated transport current components are analyzed, which provides useful information for the reconstruction of quantum states through the measurement of the transport current in such systems. We also obtain the validity of the experimental analysis [given in T. Hatano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 076801 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.076801] that bonding state currents in different energy configurations are almost the same. With the coherent properties in the quantum dot states as well as in the transport currents, we also provide a way to manipulate the bonding and antibonding states through the AB magnetic flux.
Topological phases reviewed: The Aharonov Bohm, Aharonov Casher, and He McKellar Wilkens phases
McKellar, B. H. J.; He, X-G.; Klein, A. G.
2014-03-05
There are three topological phases related to electromagnetic interactions in quantum mechanics: 1. The Aharonov Bohm phase acquired when a charged particle encircles a magnetic field but travels through a field free region. 2. The Aharonov Casher phase acquired when a magnetic dipole encircles electric charges but travels through a charge free region. 3. The He McKellar Wilkens phase acquired when an electric dipole encircles magnetic charges but travels through a charge free region. We review the conditions under which these phases are indeed topological and their experimental realisation. Because the He McKellar Wilkens phase has been recently observed we pay particular attention to how the basic concept of 'an electric dipole encircles magnetic charges' was realised experimentally, and discuss possible future experimental realisations.
Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 nanowires.
Wang, Li-Xian; Li, Cai-Zhen; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min
2016-01-01
Three-dimensional Dirac semimetals, three-dimensional analogues of graphene, are unusual quantum materials with massless Dirac fermions, which can be further converted to Weyl fermions by breaking time reversal or inversion symmetry. Topological surface states with Fermi arcs are predicted on the surface and have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. Although the exotic transport properties of the bulk Dirac cones have been demonstrated, it is still a challenge to reveal the surface states via transport measurements due to the highly conductive bulk states. Here, we show Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in individual single-crystal Cd3As2 nanowires with low carrier concentration and large surface-to-volume ratio, providing transport evidence of the surface state in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals. Moreover, the quantum transport can be modulated by tuning the Fermi level using a gate voltage, enabling a deeper understanding of the rich physics residing in Dirac semimetals. PMID:26902716
Aharonov-Bohm effect in the tunnelling of a quantum rotor in a linear Paul trap.
Noguchi, Atsushi; Shikano, Yutaka; Toyoda, Kenji; Urabe, Shinji
2014-01-01
Quantum tunnelling is a common fundamental quantum mechanical phenomenon that originates from the wave-like characteristics of quantum particles. Although the quantum tunnelling effect was first observed 85 years ago, some questions regarding the dynamics of quantum tunnelling remain unresolved. Here we realize a quantum tunnelling system using two-dimensional ionic structures in a linear Paul trap. We demonstrate that the charged particles in this quantum tunnelling system are coupled to the vector potential of a magnetic field throughout the entire process, even during quantum tunnelling, as indicated by the manifestation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in this system. The tunnelling rate of the structures periodically depends on the strength of the magnetic field, whose period is the same as the magnetic flux quantum φ0 through the rotor [(0.99 ± 0.07) × φ0]. PMID:24820051
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maslov, A. V.; Citrin, D. S.
2003-03-01
This work demonstrates that the Aharonov-Bohm effect for excitons, practically indistinguishable from the numerical noise without an applied electric field, becomes clearly evident in the optical absorption once the electric field is applied in the plane containing the nanoring. The enhancement arises as a result of the field-induced delocalization of the relative electron-hole motion around the entire ring. The excitonic effects are essential to describe even qualitatively the absorption spectra.
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-08-01
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a ``hairline'' solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dehua
2014-09-01
The Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in the photodetachment microscopy of the H- ions in an electric field has been studied on the basis of the semiclassical theory. After the H- ion is irradiated by a laser light, they provide a coherent electron source. When the detached electron is accelerated by a uniform electric field, two trajectories of a detached electron which run from the source to the same point on the detector, will interfere with each other and lead to an interference pattern in the photodetachment microscopy. After the solenoid is electrified beside the H- ion, even though no Lorentz force acts on the electron outside the solenoid, the photodetachment microscopy interference pattern on the detector is changed with the variation in the magnetic flux enclosed by the solenoid. This is caused by the AB effect. Under certain conditions, the interference pattern reaches the macroscopic dimensions and could be observed in a direct AB effect experiment. Our study can provide some predictions for the future experimental study of the AB effect in the photodetachment microscopy of negative ions.
Valley Zeeman energy in monolayer MoS2 quantum rings: Aharonov-Bohm effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, D.; Fu, Jiyong; Villegas-Lelovsky, L.; Dias, A. C.; Qu, Fanyao
2016-05-01
We investigate the valley Zeeman energy (VZE) in monolayer MoS2 quantum rings, subjected to a magnetic flux Φ only passing through a hole region enclosed by the inner circle of the ring. To gain insight on our numerical outcomes for finite two-dimensional rings, an analytic solution in the one-dimensional limit (zero ring width) is also presented. Although no magnetic field is applied inside the ring region, we observe finite VZEs. Interestingly, in contrast to the usual linear scenario, the VZE of the rings exhibits an oscillatory dependence on Φ with possible vanishing valley Zeeman effect even in a nonzero magnetic flux due to Aharonov-Bohm type effect. On the other hand, within one period of oscillations the VZE increases linearly with Φ . Furthermore, for a given magnetic flux, the valley Zeeman effect is more pronounced in a ring with a stronger quantum confinement. Thus the VZE can be tuned by either magnetic flux or ring confinement or both of them. This opens a new route for controlling the valley Zeeman effect using a nonmagnetic means.
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-01-01
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a “hairline” solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions. PMID:25103877
Analytical expression of Kondo temperature in quantum dot embedded in Aharonov-Bohm ring.
Yoshii, Ryosuke; Eto, Mikio
2011-01-01
We theoretically study the Kondo effect in a quantum dot embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm ring, using the "poor man's" scaling method. Analytical expressions of the Kondo temperature TK are given as a function of magnetic flux Φ penetrating the ring. In this Kondo problem, there are two characteristic lengths, Lc=ℏvF∕|ε̃0| and LK = ħvF = TK, where vF is the Fermi velocity and ε̃0 is the renormalized energy level in the quantum dot. The former is the screening length of the charge fluctuation and the latter is that of the spin fluctuation, i.e., size of Kondo screening cloud. We obtain diferent expressions of TK(Φ) for (i) Lc ≪ LK ≪ L, (ii) Lc ≪ L ≪ LK, and (iii) L ≪ Lc ≪ LK, where L is the size of the ring. TK is remarkably modulated by Φ in cases (ii) and (iii), whereas it hardly depends on Φ in case (i).PACS numbers: PMID:22112300
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms.
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A W; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-01-01
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a "hairline" solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions. PMID:25103877
Observation of Optical Signature of the Aharonov-Bohm Phase in Type-II Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuskovsky, Igor; MacDonald, W.; Tamargo, M. C.; Govorov, A. O.; Wei, X.; Tadic, M.; Peeters, F. M.
2006-03-01
Recent theoretical studies^1,2 on the optical response of type-II excitons in the magnetic field have shown that the excitons will acquire the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) phase as the electrical dipole, formed due to carrier separation, interacts with the field, resulting in the field dependent exciton energy and the emission intensity. Experimentally, the former has been reported^3; however, the behavior of the intensity is still not fully understood. We present results of magneto-photoluminescence studies on type-II ZnTe/ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) formed in Zn-Se-Te multilayer systems^4; this ensures that electron move within the x-y plane. The observed strong oscillations in the intensity is explained in terms of the AB effect^1,2,5 due to the electron motion around a stack of QDs, when the hole is strongly localized in one them. This is in qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions^2. 1. Kalameitsev, et al., JETP Lett. 68, 669 (1998); Govorov, et al., PRB R66, 081309 (2002); Janssens, et al., PRB 67, 235325 (2003). 2. Janssens, et al., PRB 69, 235320 (2004). 3. Ribeiro, et al., PRL 92, 126402 (2004). 4. Gu, et al.., PRB 71 045340 (2005). 5. Dias da Silva, et al., PRB 70, 155318 (2004).
Phase shifts and phase π jumps in four-terminal waveguide Aharonov-Bohm interferometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreisbeck, Christoph; Kramer, Tobias; Buchholz, Sven S.; Fischer, Saskia F.; Kunze, Ulrich; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.
2010-10-01
Quantum coherent properties of electrons can be studied in Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometers. We investigate both experimentally and theoretically the transmission phase evolution in a four-terminal quasi-one-dimensional AlGaAs/GaAs-based waveguide AB ring. As main control parameter besides the magnetic field, we tune the Fermi wave number along the pathways using a top-gate. Our experimental results and theoretical calculations demonstrate the strong influence of the measurement configuration upon the AB-resistance-oscillation phase in a four-terminal device. While the nonlocal setup displays continuous phase shifts of the AB oscillations, the phase remains rigid in the local voltage-probe setup. Abrupt phase jumps are found in all measurement configurations. We analyze the phase shifts as functions of the magnetic field and the Fermi energy and provide a detailed theoretical model of the device. Scattering and reflections in the arms of the ring are the source of abrupt phase jumps by π .
Aharonov-Bohm interference in gate-defined ring of high-mobility graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hu-Jong
2015-03-01
Recent progress in preparing a high-quality graphene layer enables one to investigate the intrinsic carrier transport nature in the material. Here, we report the signature of conservation of the Berry's phase with preserved valley symmetry in Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometers fabricated on monolayer graphene with high carrier mobility, where the graphene was sandwiched between two thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layers. In measurements, charge carriers were confined in an AB ring-shaped potential well formed by the dual-gate operation of the bottom and top gates and the four-terminal magneto-conductance (MC) was measured with varying charge carrier density and temperature. Graphene in the device was in the ballistic regime as confirmed by the conductance quantization in steps of ΔG = 4e2/ h in a constricted conducting channel of separate measurements. We observed h/e periodic modulation of MC and the zero-field conductance minimum with a negative MC background. The phase information of AB interference strongly suggests that carriers in the graphene in our devices preserve the intrinsic Dirac transport nature, which would be conveniently utilized for valleytronics in graphene.
The semi-classical limit of the Aharonov-Bohm effect: The actualized approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kholmetskii, A. L.; Yarman, T.
2013-03-01
We suggest an approach, which formally allows us to describe the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in the semi-classical language. In the framework of this approach, we keep the classical concepts of electromagnetic field and force. At the same time, instead of point-like classical charges, we introduce a finite-size elementary charge distribution, modelling the wave-like packet, associated with the motion of a given electron. In this case we derive the force on the wave-like packet on behalf of the solenoid via the minimization of action defined through the Lagrangian density (instead of the Lagrangian used in common classical electrodynamics of point-like charges). We show that this force due to the solenoid, being dependent on the vector potential, yields the common expression for the magnetic AB phase, when the original wave packet is splitted into a superposition of two packets encirling the solenoid. We also analyze in the classical language the implementation of total momentum conservation law for the isolated system "moving electrons plus elongated solenoid" and determine the properties of finite-size charge distribution, when this law is fulfilled. The results obtained are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grochol, Michal; Zimmermann, Roland
2007-11-01
Transition energies and oscillator strengths of excitons in dependence on magnetic field are investigated in types I and II semiconductor nanorings. A slight deviation from circular (concentric) shape of the type II nanoring gives a better observability of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations since the ground state is always optically active. Kinetic equations for the exciton occupation are solved with acoustic phonon scattering as the major relaxation process, and absorption and luminescence spectra are calculated, showing deviations from equilibrium. The presence of a nonradiative exciton decay leads to a quenching of the integrated photoluminescence with magnetic field.
On the Aharonov-Bohm Operators with Varying Poles: The Boundary Behavior of Eigenvalues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noris, Benedetta; Nys, Manon; Terracini, Susanna
2015-11-01
We consider a magnetic Schrödinger operator with magnetic field concentrated at one point (the pole) of a domain and half integer circulation, and we focus on the behavior of Dirichlet eigenvalues as functions of the pole. Although the magnetic field vanishes almost everywhere, it is well known that it affects the operator at the spectral level (the Aharonov-Bohm effect, Phys Rev (2) 115:485-491, 1959). Moreover, the numerical computations performed in (Bonnaillie-Noël et al., Anal PDE 7(6):1365-1395, 2014; Noris and Terracini, Indiana Univ Math J 59(4):1361-1403, 2010) show a rather complex behavior of the eigenvalues as the pole varies in a planar domain. In this paper, in continuation of the analysis started in (Bonnaillie-Noël et al., Anal PDE 7(6):1365-1395, 2014; Noris and Terracini, Indiana Univ Math J 59(4):1361-1403, 2010), we analyze the relation between the variation of the eigenvalue and the nodal structure of the associated eigenfunctions. We deal with planar domains with Dirichlet boundary conditions and we focus on the case when the singular pole approaches the boundary of the domain: then, the operator loses its singular character and the k-th magnetic eigenvalue converges to that of the standard Laplacian. We can predict both the rate of convergence and whether the convergence happens from above or from below, in relation with the number of nodal lines of the k-th eigenfunction of the Laplacian. The proof relies on the variational characterization of eigenvalues, together with a detailed asymptotic analysis of the eigenfunctions, based on an Almgren-type frequency formula for magnetic eigenfunctions and on the blow-up technique.
Bruno, Patrick
2012-06-15
The (Berry-Aharonov-Anandan) geometric phase acquired during a cyclic quantum evolution of finite-dimensional quantum systems is studied. It is shown that a pure quantum state in a (2J+1)-dimensional Hilbert space (or, equivalently, of a spin-J system) can be mapped onto the partition function of a gas of independent Dirac strings moving on a sphere and subject to the Coulomb repulsion of 2J fixed test charges (the Majorana stars) characterizing the quantum state. The geometric phase may be viewed as the Aharonov-Bohm phase acquired by the Majorana stars as they move through the gas of Dirac strings. Expressions for the geometric connection and curvature, for the metric tensor, as well as for the multipole moments (dipole, quadrupole, etc.), are given in terms of the Majorana stars. Finally, the geometric formulation of the quantum dynamics is presented and its application to systems with exotic ordering such as spin nematics is outlined. PMID:23004240
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khatua, Pradip; Bansal, Bhavtosh; Shahar, Dan
2014-01-01
In a "thought experiment," now a classic in physics pedagogy, Feynman visualizes Young's double-slit interference experiment with electrons in magnetic field. He shows that the addition of an Aharonov-Bohm phase is equivalent to shifting the zero-field wave interference pattern by an angle expected from the Lorentz force calculation for classical particles. We have performed this experiment with one slit, instead of two, where ballistic electrons within two-dimensional electron gas diffract through a small orifice formed by a quantum point contact (QPC). As the QPC width is comparable to the electron wavelength, the observed intensity profile is further modulated by the transverse waveguide modes present at the injector QPC. Our experiments open the way to realizing diffraction-based ideas in mesoscopic physics.
Smirnov, A. G.
2015-12-15
We develop a general technique for finding self-adjoint extensions of a symmetric operator that respects a given set of its symmetries. Problems of this type naturally arise when considering two- and three-dimensional Schrödinger operators with singular potentials. The approach is based on constructing a unitary transformation diagonalizing the symmetries and reducing the initial operator to the direct integral of a suitable family of partial operators. We prove that symmetry preserving self-adjoint extensions of the initial operator are in a one-to-one correspondence with measurable families of self-adjoint extensions of partial operators obtained by reduction. The general scheme is applied to the three-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonian describing the electron in the magnetic field of an infinitely thin solenoid. We construct all self-adjoint extensions of this Hamiltonian, invariant under translations along the solenoid and rotations around it, and explicitly find their eigenfunction expansions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roshanzamir-Nikou, M.; Goudarzi, H.
2016-02-01
A strong magnetic field significantly affects the intrinsic magnetic moment of fermions. In quantum electrodynamics, it was shown that the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron arises kinematically, while it results from a dynamical interaction with an external magnetic field for hadrons (proton). Taking the anomalous magnetic moment of a fermion into account, we find an exact expression for the boundstate energy and the corresponding eigenfunctions of a two-dimensional nonrelativistic spin-1/2 harmonic oscillator with a centripetal barrier (known as the isotonic oscillator) including an Aharonov-Bohm term in the presence of a strong magnetic field. We use the Laplace transform method in the calculations. We find that the singular solution contributes to the phase of the wave function at the origin and the phase depends on the spin and magnetic flux.
Ren, S L; Heremans, J J; Gaspe, C K; Vijeyaragunathan, S; Mishima, T D; Santos, M B
2013-10-30
Low-temperature Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the magnetoresistance of mesoscopic interferometric rings patterned on an InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure are investigated for their dependence on excitation current and temperature. The rings have an average radius of 650 nm, and a lithographic arm width of 300 nm, yielding pronounced interference oscillations over a wide range of magnetic fields. Apart from a current and temperature dependence, the oscillation amplitude also shows a quasi-periodic modulation with applied magnetic field. The phase coherence length is extracted by analysis of the fundamental and higher Fourier components of the oscillations, and by direct analysis of the amplitude and its dependence on parameters. It is concluded that the Thouless energy forms the measure of excitation energies for quantum decoherence. The amplitude modulation finds an explanation in the effect of the magnetic flux threading the finite width of the interferometer arms. PMID:24096892
Quantum motion of a point particle in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm potential in curved space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Edilberto O.; Ulhoa, Sérgio C.; Andrade, Fabiano M.; Filgueiras, Cleverson; Amorim, R. G. G.
2015-11-01
The nonrelativistic quantum dynamics of a spinless charged particle in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm potential in curved space is considered. We chose the surface as being a cone defined by a line element in polar coordinates. The geometry of this line element establishes that the motion of the particle can occur on the surface of a cone or an anti-cone. As a consequence of the nontrivial topology of the cone and also because of two-dimensional confinement, the geometric potential should be taken into account. At first, we establish the conditions for the particle describing a circular path in such a context. Because of the presence of the geometric potential, which contains a singular term, we use the self-adjoint extension method in order to describe the dynamics in all space including the singularity. Expressions are obtained for the bound state energies and wave functions.
Hou, Dong; Wang, Shikuan; Wang, Rulin; Ye, LvZhou; Xu, RuiXue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing
2015-03-14
Several recent advancements for the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach are reported. First, we propose an a priori estimate for the optimal number of basis functions for the reservoir memory decomposition. Second, we make use of the sparsity of auxiliary density operators (ADOs) and propose two ansatzs to screen out all the intrinsic zero ADO elements. Third, we propose a new truncation scheme by utilizing the time derivatives of higher-tier ADOs. These novel techniques greatly reduce the memory cost of the HEOM approach, and thus enhance its efficiency and applicability. The improved HEOM approach is applied to simulate the coherent dynamics of Aharonov-Bohm double quantum dot interferometers. Quantitatively accurate dynamics is obtained for both noninteracting and interacting quantum dots. The crucial role of the quantum phase for the magnitude of quantum coherence and quantum entanglement is revealed. PMID:25770531
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, A. G.
2015-12-01
We develop a general technique for finding self-adjoint extensions of a symmetric operator that respects a given set of its symmetries. Problems of this type naturally arise when considering two- and three-dimensional Schrödinger operators with singular potentials. The approach is based on constructing a unitary transformation diagonalizing the symmetries and reducing the initial operator to the direct integral of a suitable family of partial operators. We prove that symmetry preserving self-adjoint extensions of the initial operator are in a one-to-one correspondence with measurable families of self-adjoint extensions of partial operators obtained by reduction. The general scheme is applied to the three-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonian describing the electron in the magnetic field of an infinitely thin solenoid. We construct all self-adjoint extensions of this Hamiltonian, invariant under translations along the solenoid and rotations around it, and explicitly find their eigenfunction expansions.
Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhao, Xueyang; Yin, Haitao; Wan, Weilong; Feng, Li
2014-03-01
The spin polarized transport properties through an Aharonov-Bohm ring embedded with a double quantum dot-molecule in each arm with Rashba spin-orbit (RSO) interaction is theoretically studied in the framework of the equation of motion of Green's function. Based on molecular state representation, the anti-resonance phenomenon in the conductance spectrum is readily explained. We found that the position of antiresonant peaks in conductance spectrum is determined by the interdot coupling strengths. Moreover, the magnitude of conductance of each spin component can be manipulated by the Rashba spin orbit interaction strength. Especially only one spin component electron can be allowed to transport through this structure by modulating the strength of RSO interaction properly. PMID:24745284
Khatua, Pradip; Bansal, Bhavtosh; Shahar, Dan
2014-01-10
In a "thought experiment," now a classic in physics pedagogy, Feynman visualizes Young's double-slit interference experiment with electrons in magnetic field. He shows that the addition of an Aharonov-Bohm phase is equivalent to shifting the zero-field wave interference pattern by an angle expected from the Lorentz force calculation for classical particles. We have performed this experiment with one slit, instead of two, where ballistic electrons within two-dimensional electron gas diffract through a small orifice formed by a quantum point contact (QPC). As the QPC width is comparable to the electron wavelength, the observed intensity profile is further modulated by the transverse waveguide modes present at the injector QPC. Our experiments open the way to realizing diffraction-based ideas in mesoscopic physics. PMID:24483873
Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Dong, Shi-Hai
2016-05-01
This study presents the confinement influences of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux and electric and magnetic fields directed along the z axis and encircled by quantum plasmas on the hydrogen atom. The all-inclusive effects result in a strongly attractive system while the localizations of quantum levels change and the eigenvalues decrease. We find that the combined effect of the fields is stronger than a solitary effect and consequently there is a substantial shift in the bound state energy of the system. We also find that to perpetuate a low-energy medium for the hydrogen atom in quantum plasmas, a strong electric field and weak magnetic field are required, whereas the AB flux field can be used as a regulator. The application of the perturbation technique utilized in this paper is not restricted to plasma physics; it can also be applied in molecular physics. PMID:27300989
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin; Li, Yunyun; Zhou, Jun; Nakayama, Tsuneyoshi; Li, Baowen
2016-06-01
We theoretically investigate the spin-dependent Seebeck effect in an Aharonov-Bohm mesoscopic ring in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions under magnetic flux perpendicular to the ring. We apply the Green's function method to calculate the spin Seebeck coefficient employing the tight-binding Hamiltonian. It is found that the spin Seebeck coefficient is proportional to the slope of the energy-dependent transmission coefficients. We study the strong dependence of spin Seebeck coefficient on the Fermi energy, magnetic flux, strength of spin-orbit coupling, and temperature. Maximum spin Seebeck coefficients can be obtained when the strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings are slightly different. The spin Seebeck coefficient can be reduced by increasing temperature and disorder.
Fano effect in the Andreev reflection of the Aharonov-Bohm-Fano ring with Majorana bound states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Cui; Zheng, Yi-Song
2015-06-01
The Andreev reflection in an Aharonov-Bohm-Fano ring induced by Majorana bound states (MBSs) is theoretically investigated. We find that compared with the Fano effect in the normal electron tunneling process, the Fano effect here is more determined by the structural parameters, i.e., the quantum dot level, the dot-MBS coupling, and the dot-MBS and MBS-lead couplings. By transforming the ring into its Nambu representation, we present a comprehensive analysis about the quantum interference in the Andreev reflection, and then explain the reason for the occurrence of the Fano effect. These results will be helpful for understanding the quantum interference in the MBS-assisted Andreev reflection.
Bulgakov, Evgeny N; Sadreev, Almas F
2016-07-01
We consider the trapping of electrons with a definite spin polarization by bound states in the continuum (BSC) in the open Aharonov-Bohm rings in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). Neglecting the Zeeman term we show the existence of BSCs in the one-dimensional ring when the eigenstates of the closed ring are doubly degenerate. With account of the Zeeman term BSCs occur only at the points of threefold degeneracy. The BSCs are found in the parametric space of flux and RSOI strength in close pairs with opposite spin polarization. Thereby the spin polarization of electrons transmitted through the ring can be altered by minor variation of magnetic or electric field at the vicinity of these pairs. Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional open ring show similar results for the BSCs. Encircling the BSC points in the parametric space of the flux and the RSOI constant gives rise to a geometric phase. PMID:27165662
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Bidisha; Ji, Haojie; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Cadieu, Fred J.; Peng, Le; Moug, Richard; Tamargo, Maria C.; Kuskovsky, Igor L.
2013-02-01
A spectral analysis of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations in photoluminescence intensity was performed for stacked type-II ZnTe/ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) fabricated within multilayered Zn-Se-Te system with sub-monolayer insertions of Te. Robust AB oscillations allowed for fine probing of distinguishable QDs stacks within the ensemble of QDs. The AB transition magnetic field, B AB , changed from the lower energy side to the higher energy side of the PL spectra revealing the presence of different sets of QDs stacks. The change occurs within the spectral range, where the contributing green and blue bands of the spectra overlapped. "Bundling" in lifetime measurements is seen at transition spectral regions confirming the results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Dong, Shi-Hai
2016-05-01
This study presents the confinement influences of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux and electric and magnetic fields directed along the z axis and encircled by quantum plasmas on the hydrogen atom. The all-inclusive effects result in a strongly attractive system while the localizations of quantum levels change and the eigenvalues decrease. We find that the combined effect of the fields is stronger than a solitary effect and consequently there is a substantial shift in the bound state energy of the system. We also find that to perpetuate a low-energy medium for the hydrogen atom in quantum plasmas, a strong electric field and weak magnetic field are required, whereas the AB flux field can be used as a regulator. The application of the perturbation technique utilized in this paper is not restricted to plasma physics; it can also be applied in molecular physics.
Schütz, G; Rembold, A; Pooch, A; Prochel, H; Stibor, A
2015-11-01
We propose an experiment for the first proof of the type I electric Aharonov-Bohm effect in an ion interferometer for hydrogen. The performances of three different beam separation schemes are simulated and compared. The coherent ion beam is generated by a single atom tip (SAT) source and separated by either two biprisms with a quadrupole lens, two biprisms with an einzel-lens or three biprisms. The beam path separation is necessary to introduce two metal tubes that can be pulsed with different electric potentials. The high time resolution of a delay line detector allows to work with a continuous ion beam and circumvents the pulsed beam operation as originally suggested by Aharonov and Bohm. We demonstrate that the higher mass and therefore lower velocity of ions compared to electrons combined with the high expected SAT ion emission puts the direct proof of this quantum effect for the first time into reach of current technical possibilities. Thereby a high detection rate of coherent ions is crucial to avoid long integration times that allow the influence of dephasing noise from the environment. We can determine the period of the expected matter wave interference pattern and the signal on the detector by determining the superposition angle of the coherent partial beams. Our simulations were tested with an electron interferometer setup and agree with the experimental results. We determine the separation scheme with three biprisms to be most efficient and predict a total signal acquisition time of only 80s to measure a phase shift from 0 to 2π due to the electric Aharonov-Bohm effect. PMID:26188995
Numazaki, Kazuya; Imai, Hiromitsu; Morinaga, Atsuo
2010-03-15
The second-order Zeeman effect of the sodium clock transition in a weak magnetic field of less than 50 {mu}T was measured as the scalar Aharonov-Bohm phase by two-photon stimulated Raman atom interferometry. The ac Stark effect of the Raman pulse was canceled out by adopting an appropriate intensity ratio of two photons in the Raman pulse. The Ramsey fringes for the pulse separation of 7 ms were obtained with a phase uncertainty of {pi}/200 rad. The nondispersive feature of the scalar Aharonov-Bohm phase was clearly demonstrated through 18 fringes with constant amplitude. The Breit-Rabi formula of the sodium clock transition was verified to be {Delta}{nu}=(0.222{+-}0.003)x10{sup 12}xB{sup 1.998{+-}0.004} in a magnetic field of less than 50 {mu}T.
Monisha, P J; Sankar, I V; Sil, Shreekantha; Chatterjee, Ashok
2016-01-01
Persistent current in a correlated quantum ring threaded by an Aharonov-Bohm flux is studied in the presence of electron-phonon interactions and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The quantum ring is modeled by the Holstein-Hubbard-Rashba Hamiltonian and the energy is calculated by performing the conventional Lang-Firsov transformation followed by the diagonalization of the effective Hamiltonian within a mean-field approximation. The effects of Aharonov-Bohm flux, temperature, spin-orbit and electron-phonon interactions on the persistent current are investigated. It is shown that the electron-phonon interactions reduce the persistent current, while the Rashba coupling enhances it. It is also shown that temperature smoothens the persistent current curve. The effect of chemical potential on the persistent current is also studied. PMID:26831831
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monisha, P. J.; Sankar, I. V.; Sil, Shreekantha; Chatterjee, Ashok
2016-02-01
Persistent current in a correlated quantum ring threaded by an Aharonov-Bohm flux is studied in the presence of electron-phonon interactions and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The quantum ring is modeled by the Holstein-Hubbard-Rashba Hamiltonian and the energy is calculated by performing the conventional Lang-Firsov transformation followed by the diagonalization of the effective Hamiltonian within a mean-field approximation. The effects of Aharonov-Bohm flux, temperature, spin-orbit and electron-phonon interactions on the persistent current are investigated. It is shown that the electron-phonon interactions reduce the persistent current, while the Rashba coupling enhances it. It is also shown that temperature smoothens the persistent current curve. The effect of chemical potential on the persistent current is also studied.
Monisha, P. J.; Sankar, I. V.; Sil, Shreekantha; Chatterjee, Ashok
2016-01-01
Persistent current in a correlated quantum ring threaded by an Aharonov-Bohm flux is studied in the presence of electron-phonon interactions and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The quantum ring is modeled by the Holstein-Hubbard-Rashba Hamiltonian and the energy is calculated by performing the conventional Lang-Firsov transformation followed by the diagonalization of the effective Hamiltonian within a mean-field approximation. The effects of Aharonov-Bohm flux, temperature, spin-orbit and electron-phonon interactions on the persistent current are investigated. It is shown that the electron-phonon interactions reduce the persistent current, while the Rashba coupling enhances it. It is also shown that temperature smoothens the persistent current curve. The effect of chemical potential on the persistent current is also studied. PMID:26831831
Magnetic-field-tuned Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and evidence for non-Abelian anyons at ν = 5/2.
Willett, R L; Nayak, C; Shtengel, K; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W
2013-11-01
We show that the resistance of the ν = 5/2 quantum Hall state, confined to an interferometer, oscillates with the magnetic field consistent with an Ising-type non-Abelian state. In three quantum Hall interferometers of different sizes, resistance oscillations at ν = 7/3 and integer filling factors have the magnetic field period expected if the number of quasiparticles contained within the interferometer changes so as to keep the area and the total charge within the interferometer constant. Under these conditions, an Abelian state such as the (3, 3, 1) state would show oscillations with the same period as at an integer quantum Hall state. However, in an Ising-type non-Abelian state there would be a rapid oscillation associated with the "even-odd effect" and a slower one associated with the accumulated Abelian phase due to both the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Abelian part of the quasiparticle braiding statistics. Our measurements at ν = 5/2 are consistent with the latter. PMID:24237543
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karrasch, C.; Meden, V.
2009-01-01
We study a quantum dot Josephson junction inside an Aharonov-Bohm environment. The geometry is modeled by an Anderson impurity coupled to two directly linked BCS leads. We illustrate that the well-established picture of the low-energy physics being governed by an interplay of two distinct (singlet and doublet) phases is still valid for this interferometric setup. The phase boundary depends, however, nonmonotonically on the coupling strength between the superconductors, causing the system to exhibit re-entrance behavior and multiple phase transitions. We compute the zero-temperature Josephson current and demonstrate that it can become negative in the singlet phase by virtue of the Coulomb interaction U . As a starting point, the limit of large superconducting energy gaps Δ=∞ is solved analytically. In order to tackle arbitrary Δ<∞ and U>0 , we employ a truncated functional renormalization-group scheme which was previously demonstrated to give quantitatively reliable results for the quantum dot Josephson problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kenji
2016-01-01
Many researchers have reported on spin filters using linear Rashba spin-orbit interactions (SOI). However, spin filters using square and cubic Rashba SOIs have not yet been reported. We consider that this is because the Aharonov-Casher (AC) phases acquired under square and cubic Rashba SOIs are ambiguous. In this study, we try to derive the AC phases acquired under square and cubic Rashba SOIs from the viewpoint of non-Abelian SU(2) gauge theory. These AC phases can be derived successfully from the non-Abelian SU(2) gauge theory without the completing square methods. Using the results, we investigate the spin filtering in a double quantum dot (QD) Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring under linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. This AB ring consists of elongated QDs and quasi-one-dimensional quantum nanowires under an external magnetic field. The spin transport is investigated from the left nanowire to the right nanowire in the above structure within the tight-binding approximation. In particular, we focus on the difference of spin filtering among linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. The calculation is performed for the spin polarization by changing the penetrating magnetic flux for the AB ring subject to linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. It is found that perfect spin filtering is achieved for all of the Rashba SOIs. This result indicates that this AB ring under general Rashba SOIs can be a promising device for spin current generation. Moreover, the AB rings under general Rashba SOIs behave in totally different ways in response to penetrating magnetic flux, which is attributed to linear, square, and cubic behaviors in the in-plane momentum. This result enables us to make a clear distinction between linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs according to the peak position of the perfect spin filtering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maamache, M.; Lahoulou, C.; Saadi, Y.
2009-05-01
Invariant operator method for discrete or continuous spectrum eigenvalue and unitary transformation approach are employed to study the two-dimensional time-dependent Pauli equation in presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect (AB) and external scalar potential. For the spin particles the problem with the magnetic field is that it introduces a singularity into wave equation at the origin. A physical motivation is to replace the zero radius flux tube by one of radius R, with the additional condition that the magnetic field be confined to the surface of the tube, and then taking the limit R → 0 at the end of the computations. We point that the invariant operator must contain the step function θ(r - R). Consequently, the problem becomes more complicated. In order to avoid this difficulty, we replace the radius R by ρ(t)R, where ρ(t) is a positive time-dependent function. Then at the end of calculations we take the limit R → 0. The qualitative properties for the invariant operator spectrum are described separately for the different values of the parameter C appearing in the nonlinear auxiliary equation satisfied by ρ(t), i.e., C > 0, C = 0, and C < 0. Following the C's values the spectrum of quantum states is discrete (C > 0) or continuous (C <= 0).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mtsuko, Davie; Aslan, Tahir; Ncube, Siphephile; Coleman, Christopher; Wamwangi, Daniel; Bhattacharyya, Somnath
2016-02-01
Magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations of multiple periodicities are recorded in singly connected silicon nanowires of diameter ≈50 \\text{nm} . At 100 K we observe oscillations of periodicity ≈1.78 \\text{T} and 0.444 T corresponding to h/e and h/4e Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations, whereas at 10 K we record periodicities of 0.98 T, 0.49 T and 0.25 T corresponding to h/e, h/2e (Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS)) and h/4e oscillations. At 2.5 K we find magnetoresistance oscillations with multiple periodicities of 1.3 T, 0.52 T, and 0.325 T corresponding to AB and AAS oscillations. The h/2e and h/4e peaks can be attributed to the interference of time-reversed paths originating from the core orbits that scatter coherently on the surface of the nanowires multiple times. We also observed 20 mT and 60 mT oscillations of small amplitude superimposed on a quasi-periodic background which we attribute to the quantum interference of special surface states associated with skipping orbits that propagate quasi-ballistically. The aperiodic fluctuations in the MR at all temperatures are universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) originating from randomly spaced impurity scattering in the core of the nanowire.
Bai, Long; Zhang, Rong; Duan, Chen-Long
2012-01-01
: Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we theoretically study the Andreev reflection(AR) in a four-terminal Aharonov-Bohm interferometer containing a coupled double quantum dot with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and the coherent indirect coupling via two ferromagnetic leads. When two ferromagnetic electrodes are in the parallel configuration, the spin-up conductance is equal to the spin-down conductance due to the absence of the RSOI. However, for the antiparallel alignment, the spin-polarized AR occurs resulting from the crossed AR (CAR) and the RSOI. The effects of the coherent indirect coupling, RSOI, and magnetic flux on the Andreev-reflected tunneling magnetoresistance are analyzed at length. The spin-related current is calculated, and a distinct swap effect emerges. Furthermore, the pure spin current can be generated due to the CAR when two ferromagnets become two half metals. It is found that the strong RSOI and the large indirect coupling are in favor of the CAR and the production of the strong spin current. The properties of the spin-related current are tunable in terms of the external parameters. Our results offer new ways to manipulate the spin-dependent transport. PMID:23228047
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Haojie
In this thesis I develop understanding of the fundamental physical and material properties of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe submonolayer quantum dots (QDs), grown via combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE). I use magneto-photoluminescence, including excitonic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect and polarized optical spectroscopy as the primary tools in this work. I present previous studies as well as the background of optical and magneto-optical processes in semiconductor nanostructures and introduce the experimental methods in Chapters 1 - 3. In Chapter 4 I focus on the excitonic AB effect in the type-II QDs. I develop a lateral tightly-bound exciton model for ZnTe/ZnSe type-II QDs, using analytical methods and numerical calculations. This explained the magneto-PL observation and allowed for establishing the size and density of the QDs in each sample based on the results of PL and magneto-PL measurements. For samples with larger QDs, I observe behaviors that fall between properties of quantum-dot and quantum-well-like systems due to increased QD densities and their type-II nature. Finally, the decoherence mechanisms of the AB excitons are investigated via the temperature dependent studies of the magneto-PL. It is determined that the AB exciton decoherence is due to transport-like (acoustic phonon) scattering of the electrons moving in the ZnSe barriers, but with substantially smaller magnitude of electron-phonon coupling constant due to relatively strong electron-hole coupling within these type-II QDs. In Chapter 5 I discuss the results of circularly polarized magneto-PL measurements. A model with ultra-long spin-flip time of holes confined to submonolayer QDs is proposed. The g-factor of type-II excitons was extracted from the Zeeman splitting and the g-factor of electrons was obtained by fitting the temperature dependence of the degree of circular polarization (DCP), from which g-factor of holes confined within ZnTe QDs was found. It is shown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaidman, Lev; Dennis, Mark; Popescu, Sandu
2010-01-01
This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical dedicated to the subject of quantum phases and highlighting the impact of the discovery of the Aharonov--Bohm effect and of the Berry phase across physics. Researchers working in the area are invited to submit papers of original research to this issue. Editorial policy The Editorial Board has invited Lev Vaidman, Mark Dennis and Sandu Popescu to serve as Guest Editors for the special issue. The criteria for acceptance of contributions are as follows: Contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual procedure and high standards of the journal. Papers should be original and should contain substantial new results. All contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual procedure of the journal. Papers should report original and significant research that has not already been published. Guidelines for preparation of contributions The DEADLINE for contributed papers will be 1 February 2010. This deadline will allow the special issue to appear in September 2010. Advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should be submitted electronically, if possible, by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special Issue— Quantum Phases'. Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. Authors unable to submit electronically may send hard-copy contributions to: Publishing Administrators, Journal of Physics A, IOP Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Please quote 'JPhysA Special Issue— Quantum Phases'. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any
Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Perturbation Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Purcell, Kay M.; Henneberger, Walter C.
1978-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohn effect is obtained in first-order perturbation theory. It is shown that the effect occurs only when the initial state is a superposition of eigenstates of Lz corresponding to eigenvalues having opposite sign. (Author/GA)
Aharonov-Bohm effect on Aharonov-Casher scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Qiong-Gui
2010-01-01
The scattering of relativistic spin-1/2 neutral particles with a magnetic dipole moment by a long straight charged line and a magnetic flux line at the same position is studied. The scattering cross sections for unpolarized and polarized particles are obtained by solving the Dirac-Pauli equation. The results are in general the same as those for pure Aharonov-Casher scattering (by the charged line alone) as expected. However, in special cases when the incident energy, the line charge density, and the magnetic flux satisfy some relations, the cross section for polarized particles is dramatically changed. Relations between the polarization of incident particles and that of scattered ones are presented, both in the full relativistic case and the nonrelativistic limit. The characteristic difference between the general and special cases lies in the backward direction: in the general cases the incident particles are simply bounced while in the special cases their polarization is turned over simultaneously. For pure Aharonov-Casher scattering there exist cases where the helicities of all scattered particles are reversed. This seems to be remarkable but appears unnoticed previously. Two mathematical approaches are employed to deal with the singularity of the electric and magnetic field and it turns out that the physical results are essentially the same.
Aharonov-Bohm phase in high density quark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Nitta, Muneto
2016-03-01
Stable non-Abelian vortices, which are color magnetic flux tubes as well as superfluid vortices, are present in the color-flavor locked phase of dense quark matter with diquark condensations. We calculate the Aharanov-Bohm phases of charged particles, that is, electrons, muons, and color-flavor locked mesons made of tetraquarks around a non-Abelian vortex.
Topological Charge Screening in Disordered Aharonov-Bohm Wavefunctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houston, Alexander; Hannay, John; Taylor, Alexander; Dennis, Mark
Free electrical charges are typically subject to screening relations. For example, in ionic fluids and Coulomb gases there is screening (both global and local) of the electrical charges, described by the first and second Stillinger-Lovett sum rules. A topological analogy governs the statistical behaviour of the nodal points in Gaussian random superpositions of plane waves. These nodal points are integer topological charges, i.e. vortices and antivortices of the complex wavefunction, whose sign is that of the phase circulation. Such superpositions are known to model high energy eigenfunctions in the presence of wave chaos, and display topological charge screening in the bulk. We investigate how these screening relations are affected by the introduction of a magnetic flux line, which may be fractional in strength. We find that the global screening relation is broken, with the average total topological charge of the vortices given by the flux strength, and that the local screening of the flux itself shows unexpected features.
Uniform asymptotic formula for the Aharonov Bohm wavefield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hannay, J. H.
2016-06-01
A uniform asymptotic formula for the Aharonov–Bohm wavefield (that of a plane quantum wave scattered by a thin straight solenoid) far away from the solenoid is obtained in a direct way. Actually quite good accuracy is achieved even down to one wavelength away. The error is numerically of order radius^(‑3/2) for all values of polar angle, including directly forwards. Several previous formulas, uniform and otherwise, for the far field limit exist in the literature. All contain the essential ingredient: the Fresnel integral (complex error function), but ordinarily the error in these formulas is of order radius^(‑1/2) in the forwards direction where the Fresnel contribution is most important.
AZO DYES ARE MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THE MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY DETECTED IN THE CRISTAIS RIVER WATERS
To determine if compounds from a dye processing plant were contributing to the mutagenicity repeatedly found in the Cristais River, Sao Paulo, Brazil, we chemically characterized the treated industrial effluent, raw and treated water, and the sludge produced by a Drinking Water T...
THE CONTRIBUTION OF AZO DYES TO THE MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF THE CRISTAIS RIVER
To verify if compounds within the discharge of a dye processing plant were contributing to the mutagenicity repeatedly found in the Cristais River, Sao Paulo, Brazil, we chemically characterized the treated industrial effluent, raw and treated water, and the sludge produced by a ...
In order to verify if dyestuffs within an effluent of a textile industry was contributing to the systematic mutagenicity detected in the Cristais River, within the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, mutagenic samples of the industrial effluent, crude water, and treated silt of the...
Exciton storage in type-II quantum dots using the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect
Climente, Juan I.; Planelles, Josep
2014-05-12
We investigate the bright-to-dark exciton conversion efficiency in type-II quantum dots subject to a perpendicular magnetic field. To this end, we take the exciton storage protocol recently proposed by Simonin and co-workers [Phys. Rev. B 89, 075304 (2014)] and simulate its coherent dynamics. We confirm the storage is efficient in perfectly circular structures subject to weak external electric fields, where adiabatic evolution is dominant. In practice, however, the efficiency rapidly degrades with symmetry lowering. Besides, the use of excited states is likely unfeasible owing to the fast decay rates. We then propose an adaptation of the protocol which does not suffer from these limitations.
Comment on "Role of potentials in the Aharonov-Bohm effect"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Rohrlich, Daniel
2015-08-01
Are the electromagnetic scalar and vector potentials dispensable? Vaidman [Phys. Rev. A 86, 040101(R) (2012)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.040101 has suggested that local interactions of gauge-invariant quantities, e.g., magnetic torques, suffice for the description of all quantum electromagnetic phenomena. We analyze six thought experiments that challenge this suggestion. All of them have explanations in terms of local interactions of gauge-dependent quantities, and, in addition, some have explanations in terms of nonlocal interactions of gauge-invariant quantities. We claim, however, that two of our examples have no gauge-invariant formal description and that, in general, no local description can dispense with electromagnetic potentials.
Single electron bipolar conductance switch driven by the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Lee, Joonhee; Tallarida, Nicholas; Rios, Laura; Perdue, Shawn M; Apkarian, Vartkess Ara
2014-06-24
We demonstrate a conductance switch controlled by the spin-vibronic density of an odd electron on a single molecule. The junction current is modulated by the spin-flip bistability of the electron. Functional images are provided as wiring diagrams for control of the switch's frequency, amplitude, polarity, and duty-cycle. The principle of operation relies on the quantum mechanical phase associated with the adiabatic circulation of a spin-aligned electron around a conical intersection. The functional images quantify the governing vibronic Hamiltonian. PMID:24824563
Electronic energy levels of nanorings with impurities and Aharonov-Bohm effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez, S.
2011-10-01
By modeling impurities along a nanoring as general potential forms the Schrödinger equation for ballistic electrons is shown to separate in cylindrical coordinates. We find an analytical eigenvalue equation for N delta-function-barrier impurities in the presence of magnetic flux. Previous calculations of the electronic states of a one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nanoring for only one or two impurities modeled by equal square barriers is explicitly extended to three and four different or equal impurities modeled as delta-barrier, square-barrier, or delta-well potential forms. This is shown to be generalizable to any number N. Effects on the energy spectra due to magnetic flux and different kinds and numbers of impurities are compared in 1D and 2D nanorings.
The Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Transport Properties in Graphene Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lungu, Mihai; Giugiulan, Raluca; Lungu, Antoanetta; Bunoiu, Madalin; Neculae, Adrian
2013-12-01
This paper investigates the possibility to improve the filtering process of flue gas by separation of suspended nanoparticle using dielectrophoresis. The study focuses on the particles having an average radius of about 50-150 nm, that cannot be filtrated by classical techniques but have a harmful effect for environment and human health. The size distribution nanoparticles collected from the flue gas filters of a hazardous waste incinerator plant were evaluated. Based on obtained experimental data and a proposed mathematical model, the concentration distribution of nanoparticle suspended in flue gas inside a microfluidic separation device was analyzed by numerical simulations, using the finite element method. The performances of the device were described in terms of three new specific quantities related to the separation process, namely Recovery, Purity and Separation Efficiency. The simulations could provide the optimal values of control parameters for separation process, and aim to be a useful tool in designing microfluidic devices for separating nanoparticle from combustion gases.
Scaling of Aharonov-Bohm couplings and the dynamical vacuum in gauge theories
Goldhaber, A.S. ); Li, H. ); Parwani, R.R. )
1995-01-15
Recent results on the vacuum polarization induced by a thin string of magnetic flux lead us to suggest an analogue of the Copenhagen flux spaghetti'' QCD vacuum as a possible mechanism for avoiding the divergence of perturbative QED, thus permitting a consistent completion of the full, nonperturbative theory. The mechanism appears to operate for spinor, but not scalar, QED.
Aharonov-Bohm Beats in Excitonic Luminescence from Quantum Rings and Type-II Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias da Silva, Luis; Shahbazyan, Tigran
2005-03-01
We study the absorption spectrum of neutral magnetoexcitons confined in ring-like structures. Despite their neutral character, excitons exhibit strong modulation effects on the energy and oscillator strength in the presence of magnetic fields [1] that have been recently observed [2]. We calculate the absorption coefficient α for neutral excitons confined in circular ring geometries with radii Re for electrons and Rh for holes. A particularly interesting situation comes about when Re!=Rh and a net radial charge polarization arises. In this case, we consider an attractive Coulomb interaction proportional to (Re- Rh)-1 and the excitonic absorption peak shows oscillatory behavior as function of the applied magnetic field both in position and amplitude. Such oscillations strongly depend on the dipole moment P=e(Rh-Re) of the exciton and on the dielectric constant of the system. Such intensity changes could in principle be experimentally observed with single dot spectroscopy in quantum rings [3]. Supported by the NSF-IMC and NSF-RUI [1] A.O. Govorov et al. Phys. Rev. B 66 081309 (2002); A.O. Govorov et al. Physica E 13, 297 (2002). [2] E. Ribeiro et al. Phys Rev. Lett. 92 126402 (2004). [3] R.J. Warburton et al. Nature 405 (6789) 926 (2000).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Englman, R.
2016-08-01
The recent phase shift data of Takada et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (2014) 126601) for a two level system are reconstructed from their current intensity curves by the method of Hilbert transform, for which the underlying Physics is the principle of causality. An introductory algebraic model illustrates pedagogically the working of the method and leads to newly derived relationships involving phenomenological parameters, in particular for the sign of the phase slope between the resonance peaks. While the parametrization of the experimental current intensity data in terms of a few model parameters shows only a qualitative agreement for the phase shift, due to the strong impact of small, detailed variations in the experimental intensity curve on the phase behavior, the numerical Hilbert transform yields a satisfactory reproduction of the phase.
Can Real Forces Be Induced by Interference of Quantum Wavefunctions?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaminer, Ido; Nemirovsky, Jonathan; Rechtsman, Mikael; Bekenstein, Rivka; Segev, Mordechai
2013-04-01
In 1958, a revolutionary paper by Aharonov and Bohm predicted a phase difference between two parts of an electron wavefunction even when being confined to a regime with no EM field. The Aharonov-Bohm effect was groundbreaking: proving that the EM vector potential is a real physical quantity, affecting the outcome of experiments not only through the EM fields extracted from it. But is the EM potential a real necessity for an Aharonov-Bohm-type effect? Can it exist in a potential-free system such as free-space? Here, we find self-accelerating wavepackets that are solutions of the free Dirac equation, for massive/massless fermions/bosons. These accelerating Dirac particles mimic the dynamics of a free-charge moving under a ``virtual'' EM field, even though no field is acting and there is no charge: the entire dynamics is a direct result of the initial conditions. We show that such particles display an effective Aharonov-Bohm effect caused by exactly the same ``virtual'' potential that also ``causes'' the acceleration. Altogether, along the trajectory, there is no way to distinguish between a real force and the self-induced force - it is real by all measurable quantities. This proves that one can create all effects induced by EM fields by only controlling the initial conditions of a wave pattern, while the dynamics is in free-space. These phenomena can be observed in various settings: e.g., optical waves in honeycomb photonic lattices or in hyperbolic metamaterials, and matter waves in honeycomb interference structures.
Two Further Experiments on Electron Interference
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matteucci, G.; Pozzi, G.
1978-01-01
Presents the results of two experiments concerning the phenomena of the interference of probabilities and of the so called Aharonov-Bohm effect. An electron biprism and a standard electron microscope have been used for the experiments. (Author/GA)
Maxwell Duality, Lorentz Invariance, and Topological Phase
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowling, J.; Williams, C.; Franson, J.
1999-01-01
We discuss the Maxwell electromagnetic duality relations between the Aharonov-Bohm, Aharonov-Casher, and He-McKellar-Wilkens topological phases, which allows a unified description of all three phenomena.
Poniedziałek, M R; Szafran, B
2012-02-29
We study the electron transport in three terminal junctions and quantum rings looking for the classical deflection of electron trajectories in the presence of intersubband scattering. We indicate that although the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and the Lorentz force effects co-exist in the low subband transport, for higher Fermi energies a simultaneous observation of both effects is difficult and calls for carefully formed structures. In particular, in quantum rings with channels wider than the input lead the Lorentz force is well resolved but the Aharonov-Bohm periodicity is lost in chaotic scattering events. In quantum rings with equal lengths of the channels and T-shaped junctions the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are distinctly periodic but the Lorentz force effects are not well pronounced. We find that systems with wedge-shaped junctions allow for observation of both the periodic Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and the magnetic deflection. PMID:22277600
Quantum mechanics : Intellectually delicious;
Peshkin, M.; Vaidman, L.
2010-03-01
It is 50 years since the discovery of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, and 25 years since that of the Berry phase. A celebration of this double anniversary at the University of Bristol made evident that these discoveries still offer much food for thought. The meeting celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Berry phase was held on 14-15 December 2009 in the historic H. H.
Quantum interference in an electron-hole graphene ring system
Smirnov, D.; Schmidt, H.; Haug, R. J.
2013-12-04
Quantum interference is observed in a graphene ring system via the Aharonov Bohm effect. As graphene is a gapless semiconductor, this geometry allows to study the unique situation of quantum interference between electrons and holes in addition to the unipolar quantum interference. The period and amplitude of the observed Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are independent of the sign of the applied gate voltage showing the equivalence between unipolar and dipolar interference.
Not Available
1993-07-01
It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.
Topological quantum scattering under the influence of a nontrivial boundary condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mota, Herondy
2016-04-01
We consider the quantum scattering problem of a relativistic particle in (2 + 1)-dimensional cosmic string spacetime under the influence of a nontrivial boundary condition imposed on the solution of the Klein-Gordon equation. The solution is then shifted as consequence of the nontrivial boundary condition and the role of the phase shift is to produce an Aharonov-Bohm-like effect. We examine the connection between this phase shift and the electromagnetic and gravitational analogous of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and compare the present results with previous ones obtained in the literature, also considering non-relativistic cases.
emGain: Determination of EM gain of CCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien
2012-01-01
The determination of the EM gain of the CCD is best done by fitting the histogram of many low-light frames. Typically, the dark+CIC noise of a 30ms frame itself is a sufficient amount of signal to determine accurately the EM gain with about 200 512x512 frames. The IDL code emGain takes as an input a cube of frames and fit the histogram of all the pixels with the EM stage output probability function. The function returns the EM gain of the frames as well as the read-out noise and the mean signal level of the frames.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.
2013-12-01
Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two
Bioterrorism awareness for EMS.
Patrick, Richard W
2004-04-01
It is important to understand that the issues surrounding bioterrorism and all weapons of mass destruction are complex. In an effort to enhance response to such events, EMS should handle all incidents from the perspective of an all-hazards approach. Prevention, preparation, response and recovery are essential to the safe mitigation of all incidents. Organizations must be prepared. Plan now for a safer tomorrow. Your personnel and communities depend on you. PMID:15131906
Quantum mechanical effects of topological origin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duru, I. H.
1993-01-01
Following a brief review of the original Casimir and Aharonov-Bohm effects, some other effects of similar natures are mentioned. A Casimir interaction between AB fluxes is presented. Possible realizations of the Casimir effects for massive charged fields in solid state structures and a new AB effect for photons are suggested.
Energy levels and far-infrared spectra of oval-shaped nanorings
Gutiérrez, W.; García, L. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.
2014-05-15
The evolution of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation of low-lying states and far infrared spectrum associated to variation of the path curvature for electron motion along nanorings with centerlines in a form of a set of Cassini ovals, whose shape is changed continuously from a single elongated loop to two separated loops is theoretically investigated.
How to Test Atom and Neutron Neutrality with Atom Interferometry
Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Geraci, Andrew A.; Hogan, Jason; Kasevich, Mark
2008-03-28
We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10{sup -28}e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10{sup -28}e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds.
How to test atom and neutron neutrality with atom interferometry.
Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Geraci, Andrew A; Hogan, Jason; Kasevich, Mark
2008-03-28
We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10{-28}e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10{-28}e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds. PMID:18517846
Enhanced Magnetoabsorption Oscillations in Semiconductor Nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Citrin, David; Maslov, Alex
2003-03-01
We present calculations of the interband optical absorption of semiconductor nanoscale rings including essential excitonic effects. We show that an in-plane electric field can significantly enhance the depth of magnetoabsorption oscillations due to Aharonov-Bohm like effects in the optical properties.
Energy levels and far-infrared spectra of oval-shaped nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutiérrez, W.; García, L. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.
2014-05-01
The evolution of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation of low-lying states and far infrared spectrum associated to variation of the path curvature for electron motion along nanorings with centerlines in a form of a set of Cassini ovals, whose shape is changed continuously from a single elongated loop to two separated loops is theoretically investigated.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matteucci, G.
2007-01-01
In the so-called electric Aharonov-Bohm effect, a quantum interference pattern shift is produced when electrons move in an electric field free region but, at the same time, in the presence of a time-dependent electric potential. Analogous fringe shifts are observed in interference experiments where electrons, travelling through an electrostatic…
Suppression of decoherence in a graphene monolayer ring
Smirnov, D. Rode, J. C.; Haug, R. J.
2014-08-25
The influence of high magnetic fields on coherent transport is investigated. A monolayer graphene quantum ring is fabricated and the Aharonov-Bohm effect is observed. For increased magnitude of the magnetic field, higher harmonics appear. This phenomenon is attributed to an increase of the phase coherence length due to reduction of spin flip scattering.
Nontrivial systems and the necessity of the scalar quantum mechanics axioms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
KotÅ¯lek, Jan
2009-06-01
We discuss the necessity of the axioms of scalar quantum mechanics introduced by Paschke and clearly demonstrate their geometric and/or physical meaning. We show that reasonable nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is exactly specified by the axioms. A system describing the electric Aharonov-Bohm effect is presented. It illustrates the topological obstructions for the existence of a Hamiltonian.
Testing Atom and Neutron Neutrality with Atom Interferometry
Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Geraci, Andrew A.; Hogan, Jason; Kasevich, Mark; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2008-01-07
We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10{sup -28} e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10{sup 28} e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds.
Identified EM Earthquake Precursors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick
2014-05-01
Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for
EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM
This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...
Is EMS communicating with the FCC?
Johnson, M S; VanCott, C; Glass, C; Anderson, P B
1989-07-01
Radio communication problems in EMS run the spectrum from annoying to deadly. Dedicated radio frequencies for EMS, much like those exclusive to police and fire departments, are long overdue. PMID:10293680
Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira
2002-01-01
The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:12149326
The European Mobile System (EMS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.
1993-01-01
The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.
DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment
Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell
2011-02-01
The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshii, Ryosuke; Takada, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Shunji; Marmorini, Giacomo; Hayakawa, Hisao; Nitta, Muneto
2015-12-01
We find the angular Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states (or the twisted kink crystals) in which a phase and an amplitude of a pair potential modulate simultaneously in a quasi-one-dimensional superconducting ring with a static Zeeman magnetic field applied on the ring and static Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux penetrating the ring. The superconducting ring with magnetic flux produces a persistent current, whereas the Zeeman split of Fermi energy results in the spatial modulation of the pair potential. We show that these two magnetic fields stabilize the FFLO phase in a large parameter region of the magnetic fields. We further draw the phase diagram with the two kinds of first-order phase transitions; one corresponds to phase slips separating the Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux, and the other separates the number of peaks of the pair amplitude for the Zeeman magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milošević, M. M.; Tadić, M.; Peeters, F. M.
2008-11-01
The influence of lateral asymmetry on the electronic structure and optical transitions in elliptical strained InAs nanorings is analyzed in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. Two-dimensional rings are assumed to have elliptical inner and outer boundaries oriented in mutually orthogonal directions. The influence of the eccentricity of the ring on the energy levels is analyzed. For large eccentricity of the ring, we do not find any Aharonov-Bohm effect, in contrast to circular rings. Rather, the single-particle states of the electrons and the holes are localized as in two laterally coupled quantum dots formed in the lobes of the nanoring. Our work indicates that the control of shape is important for the existence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in semiconductor nanorings.
Milošević, M M; Tadić, M; Peeters, F M
2008-11-12
The influence of lateral asymmetry on the electronic structure and optical transitions in elliptical strained InAs nanorings is analyzed in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. Two-dimensional rings are assumed to have elliptical inner and outer boundaries oriented in mutually orthogonal directions. The influence of the eccentricity of the ring on the energy levels is analyzed. For large eccentricity of the ring, we do not find any Aharonov-Bohm effect, in contrast to circular rings. Rather, the single-particle states of the electrons and the holes are localized as in two laterally coupled quantum dots formed in the lobes of the nanoring. Our work indicates that the control of shape is important for the existence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in semiconductor nanorings. PMID:21832775
School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Education Resource Strategies, 2012
2012-01-01
"School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…
View of Spacelab engineering Model (EM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
View of Spacelab engineering Model (EM) as it is being brought in the O and C bldg at Kenndey Space Center (27464); view of the EM as it is being offloaded from the C-54 aircraft. Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 108-KSC-80-OC-666 (27465); model taken out to launch pad (27466).
EM international activities. February 1997 highlights
1997-02-01
EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.
Flux periodicities and quantum hair on holographic superconductors.
Montull, Marc; Pujolàs, Oriol; Salvio, Alberto; Silva, Pedro J
2011-10-28
Superconductors in a cylindrical geometry respond periodically to a cylinder-threading magnetic flux, with the period changing from hc/2e to hc/e depending on whether the Aharonov-Bohm effects are suppressed. We show that holographic superconductors present a similar phenomenon, and that the different periodicities follow from classical no-hair theorems. We also give the Ginzburg-Landau description of the period-doubling phenomenon. PMID:22107621
Topological Raman band in the carbon nanohorn.
Sasaki, Ken-ichi; Sekine, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Kouta; Gotoh, Hideki
2013-09-13
Raman spectroscopy has been used in chemistry and physics to investigate the fundamental process involving light and phonons. The carbon nanohorn introduces a new subject to Raman spectroscopy, namely topology. We show theoretically that a photoexcited carrier with a nonzero winding number activates a topological D Raman band through the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The topology-induced D Raman band can be distinguished from the ordinary D Raman band for a graphene edge by its peak position. PMID:24074113
Robust surface states in epitaxial Bi(111) thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Kai; Jin, Xiaofeng
Bulk Bi a prototype semimetal with trivial electronic band topology. Unanticipatedly, we show the Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak and Aharonov-Bohm effects in epitaxial Bi(111) thin films. Meanwhile, we clearly identify the interaction of the top and bottom surface states via quantum tunneling by the electrical conductance and weak anti-localization measurements. These results have significantly enriched our understanding about the electronic structure of Bi, which might be helpful for clearing up some of its longstanding subtle issues.
Magnetic modulation of the tunnelling between defect states in antidot superlattices.
Movilla, J L; Planelles, J
2012-07-11
We show theoretically that the tunnelling between properly designed defects in periodic antidot lattices can be strongly modulated by applied magnetic fields. Further, transport channels made up of linear arrangements of tunnel-coupled defects can accommodate Aharonov-Bohm cages, suggesting a magnetic control of the transport through the system. Evidence supporting an unusual robustness of the caging effect against electron-electron interactions is also provided. PMID:22713775
Quantum tunneling through graphene nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Z. Z.; Chang, Kai; Peeters, F. M.
2010-05-01
We investigate theoretically quantum transport through graphene nanorings in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. Our theoretical results demonstrate that the graphene nanorings behave like a resonant tunneling device, contrary to the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations found in conventional semiconductor rings. The resonant tunneling can be tuned by the Fermi energy, the size of the central part of the graphene nanorings and the external magnetic field.
Quantum tunneling through graphene nanorings.
Wu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Z Z; Chang, Kai; Peeters, F M
2010-05-01
We investigate theoretically quantum transport through graphene nanorings in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. Our theoretical results demonstrate that the graphene nanorings behave like a resonant tunneling device, contrary to the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations found in conventional semiconductor rings. The resonant tunneling can be tuned by the Fermi energy, the size of the central part of the graphene nanorings and the external magnetic field. PMID:20388970
Direct writing of in-plane-gated nanostructures by focused laser beam-induced doping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumgartner, P.; Wegscheider, W.; Bichler, M.; Groos, G.; Abstreiter, G.
1998-07-01
The fabrication technique of local doping with a focused laser beam is employed to fabricate electronic nanostructures. Zn-doped regions are used to fabricate in-plane electron channels in a high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The operation of different devices, like quantum point contacts, single electron transistors or Aharonov-Bohm rings, is demonstrated. The coplanar gate geometry improves the performance of the devices in charge sensing applications.
Solution of the Dirac equation with magnetic monopole and pseudoscalar potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aghaei, Sohrab; Chenaghlou, Alireza
2014-04-01
The Dirac equation in the presence of the Dirac magnetic monopole potential, the Aharonov-Bohm potential, a Coulomb potential and a pseudo-scalar potential, is solved by separation of variables using the spinweighted spherical harmonics. The energy spectrum and the form of the spinor functions are obtained. It is shown that the number j in spin-weighted spherical harmonics must be greater than left| q right| - tfrac{1} {2}.
Solution of the Dirac equation with magnetic monopole and pseudoscalar potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aghaei, Sohrab; Chenaghlou, Alireza
2014-04-01
The Dirac equation in the presence of the Dirac magnetic monopole potential, the Aharonov-Bohm potential, a Coulomb potential and a pseudo-scalar potential, is solved by separation of variables using the spinweighted spherical harmonics. The energy spectrum and the form of the spinor functions are obtained. It is shown that the number j in spin-weighted spherical harmonics must be greater than.
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2009-09-15
Recent astrophysical observations have motivated novel theoretical models of the dark matter sector. A class of such models predicts the existence of GeV scale cosmic strings that communicate with the standard model sector by Aharonov-Bohm interactions with electrically charged particles. We discuss the cosmology of these 'dark strings' and investigate possible observational signatures. More elaborate dark sector models are argued to contain hybrid topological defects that may also have observational signatures.
Fractional angular momentum in noncommutative generalized Chern-Simons quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xi-Lun; Sun, Yong-Li; Wang, Qing; Long, Zheng-Wen; Jing, Jian
2016-07-01
The noncommutative generalized Chern-Simons quantum mechanics, i.e., the Chern-Simons quantum mechanics on the noncommutative plane in the presence of Aharonov-Bohm magnetic vector potentials, is studied in this paper. We focus our attention on the canonical orbital angular momentum and show that there are two different approaches to produce the fractional angular momentum in the noncommutative generalized Chern-Simons quantum mechanics.
EM International, July 1994, Volume 2
Not Available
1994-10-01
The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.
Many factors complicate EM susceptibility tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richards, R. J.
1982-09-01
Procedures and apparatus currently employed for assaying the EM susceptibility of communication, navigation, and EW equipment are described. Susceptibility is examined in either conducted susceptibility tests, where signals are introduced into the input port of the device under test, or in radiated modes, where the entire device is exposed to an EM field to test for component and system failure. Noting that military standards require up to 10 times the EM resistance as commercial standards, the use of shielded enclosures in both commercial and military testing facilities is explored. RF-tight enclosures are filled with a homogeneous EM field produced by, optimally, broadband generators which emit signals which are amplified to desired levels. Sweep functions permit testing under broadband conditions. Attention is given to radiator selection and antenna choice to produce satisfactory test conditions at all frequencies.
Unified Data Resource for CryoEM
Lawson, Catherine L.
2010-01-01
3D cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction methods are uniquely able to reveal structures of many important macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. EMDataBank.org, a joint effort of the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe), the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB), and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI), is a “one-stop shop” resource for global deposition and retrieval of cryoEM map, model and associated metadata. The resource unifies public access to the two major EM Structural Data archives: EM Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB), and facilitates use of EM structural data of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes by the wider scientific community. PMID:20888470
EMS in Taiwan: past, present, and future.
Chiang, Wen-Chu; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Wang, Hui-Chih; Yang, Chi-Wei; Shih, Fuh-Yuan; Hsiung, Kuang-Hua; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming
2009-01-01
Taiwan is a small island country located in East Asia. From around 1995 modern concepts of the EMS were imported and supported by legislation. Considerable progress has since been made towards the construction of an effective pre-hospital care system. This article introduces the current status of the EMS in Taiwan, including the systems, response configurations, funding, personnel, medical directorship, and outcome research. The features and problems of in-hospital emergency care are also discussed. Key areas for further development in the country vary depending on regional differences in available resource and population density. An analysis of the strength, weakness, opportunity, and threats of the evolving EMS in Taiwan could be an example for other countries where the EMS is undergoing a similar process of development and optimisation. PMID:19059690
EMS adaptation for climate change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.
2010-12-01
The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.
10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...
10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...
10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...
10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...
10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...
Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.
Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L
2016-01-01
Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. PMID:27572725
Risk Communication Within the EM Program
Edelson, M.
2003-02-26
The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication
Do earthquakes generate EM signals?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walter, Christina; Onacha, Stephen; Malin, Peter; Shalev, Eylon; Lucas, Alan
2010-05-01
study areas, large swarms of earthquakes were located very close to the electromagnetic coils. This abstract focuses on the data from the Wairakei area. Preliminary data analysis has been carried out by band pass filtering and removing of the harmonics of the 50 Hz power line frequency. The initial results clearly show that electromagnetic signals accompany the seismic P and S waves (coseismic signal). Further data analysis involves the extraction of the seismoelectric signal generated at the onset of the earthquake and at interfaces from the coseismic signal and other ‘noise' sources. This processing step exhibits a major challenge in seismoelectric data processing. Unlike in other studies we measured the EM field and the seismic field at one location. Therefore the seismoelectric wave travelling at the speed of light cannot be determined as easily in the arrival times as when an array of coils is used. This makes the determination of the origin time much more difficult. Hence other processing techniques need to be explored.
The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data
Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J. Sunil
2014-01-01
We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains. PMID:26783375
Percutaneous absorption and disposition of Tinopal EMS.
Black, J G; Moule, R C; Philp, J
1977-08-01
A cotton-substantive, anionic, fluorescent whitening agent manufactured by several suppliers under various trade names e.g. Tinopal EMS, has been synthesized in radioactive form. Intubation of detergent or aqueous solution into rats resulted in little absorption from the intestinal tract as evidenced by low radioactivity in the urine and tissues. Most of the dose was excreted rapidly in the faeces. After parenteral administration to rats, the radioactivity was rapidly excreted in the faeces with small amounts remaining in tissues and organs. There was slight evidence of retention of radioactivity in the kidneys. Very small amounts of Tinopal EMS in detergent were absorbed through rat skin, but only when concentrations greater than those normally used by the consumer, together with occlusion of the skin were employed. Small amounts were absorbed throught skin when applied in ethanol. It is concluded that the possibility of systemic toxic effects in man as a result of percutaneous absorption is remote. PMID:929616
Crosshole EM in steel-cased boreholes
Wilt, M.; Lee, K.H.; Becker, A.; Spies, B.; Wang, B.
1996-07-01
The application of crosshole EM methods through steel well-casing was investigated in theoretical, laboratory and field studies. A numerical code was developed that calculates the attenuation and phase delay of an EM dipole signal propagated through a steel well casing lodged in a homogeneous medium. The code was validated with a scale model and used for sensitivity studies of casing and formation properties. Finally, field measurements were made in an oil field undergoing waterflooding. Our most important findings are that (1) crosshole surveys are feasible using a well pair with one metallic and one non-metallic casing. (2) The casing effect seems be localized within the pipe section that includes the sensor. (3) The effects of the casing can be corrected using simple means and (4) crosshole field data that are sensitive to both formation and casing were acquired in a working environment.
TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission
Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa
2009-01-01
TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.
Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits
Thomas, Stephen H.; Arthur, Annette O.
2012-01-01
Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS) utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems. PMID:22203905
Test beam performance of CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter
Fukui, Y.; CDF Upgrade Group
1998-01-01
CDF Plug Upgrade(tile-fiber) EM Calorimeter performed resolution of 15%/{radical}E{circle_plus}0.7% with non-linearity less than 1% in a energy range of 5-180 GeV at Fermilab Test Beam. Transverse uniformity of inside-tower-response of the EM Calorimeter was 2.2% with 56 GeV positron, which was reduced to 1.0% with response map correction. We observed 300 photo electron/GeV in the EM Calorimeter. Ratios of EM Calorimeter response to positron beam to that to {sup 137}Cs Source was stable within 1% in the period of 8 months.
2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...
2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK
Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS
Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman
2004-04-01
The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS
EM threat analysis for wireless systems.
Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)
2006-06-01
Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.
Stochastic EM-based TFBS motif discovery with MITSU
Kilpatrick, Alastair M.; Ward, Bruce; Aitken, Stuart
2014-01-01
Motivation: The Expectation–Maximization (EM) algorithm has been successfully applied to the problem of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) motif discovery and underlies the most widely used motif discovery algorithms. In the wider field of probabilistic modelling, the stochastic EM (sEM) algorithm has been used to overcome some of the limitations of the EM algorithm; however, the application of sEM to motif discovery has not been fully explored. Results: We present MITSU (Motif discovery by ITerative Sampling and Updating), a novel algorithm for motif discovery, which combines sEM with an improved approximation to the likelihood function, which is unconstrained with regard to the distribution of motif occurrences within the input dataset. The algorithm is evaluated quantitatively on realistic synthetic data and several collections of characterized prokaryotic TFBS motifs and shown to outperform EM and an alternative sEM-based algorithm, particularly in terms of site-level positive predictive value. Availability and implementation: Java executable available for download at http://www.sourceforge.net/p/mitsu-motif/, supported on Linux/OS X. Contact: a.m.kilpatrick@sms.ed.ac.uk PMID:24931999
Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard
2016-01-01
In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375
7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... Secretary in making a decision on the requested natural disaster determination. (4) The Secretary will... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans...
7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... Secretary in making a decision on the requested natural disaster determination. (4) The Secretary will... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans...
Click-EM for imaging metabolically tagged nonprotein biomolecules.
Ngo, John T; Adams, Stephen R; Deerinck, Thomas J; Boassa, Daniela; Rodriguez-Rivera, Frances; Palida, Sakina F; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Ellisman, Mark H; Tsien, Roger Y
2016-06-01
EM has long been the main technique for imaging cell structures with nanometer resolution but has lagged behind light microscopy in the crucial ability to make specific molecules stand out. Here we introduce click-EM, a labeling technique for correlative light microscopy and EM imaging of nonprotein biomolecules. In this approach, metabolic labeling substrates containing bioorthogonal functional groups are provided to cells for incorporation into biopolymers by endogenous biosynthetic machinery. The unique chemical functionality of these analogs is exploited for selective attachment of singlet oxygen-generating fluorescent dyes via bioorthogonal 'click chemistry' ligations. Illumination of dye-labeled structures generates singlet oxygen to locally catalyze the polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product that is readily imaged by EM. We describe the application of click-EM in imaging metabolically tagged DNA, RNA and lipids in cultured cells and neurons and highlight its use in tracking peptidoglycan synthesis in the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:27110681
Regier, Michael D; Moodie, Erica E M
2016-05-01
We propose an extension of the EM algorithm that exploits the common assumption of unique parameterization, corrects for biases due to missing data and measurement error, converges for the specified model when standard implementation of the EM algorithm has a low probability of convergence, and reduces a potentially complex algorithm into a sequence of smaller, simpler, self-contained EM algorithms. We use the theory surrounding the EM algorithm to derive the theoretical results of our proposal, showing that an optimal solution over the parameter space is obtained. A simulation study is used to explore the finite sample properties of the proposed extension when there is missing data and measurement error. We observe that partitioning the EM algorithm into simpler steps may provide better bias reduction in the estimation of model parameters. The ability to breakdown a complicated problem in to a series of simpler, more accessible problems will permit a broader implementation of the EM algorithm, permit the use of software packages that now implement and/or automate the EM algorithm, and make the EM algorithm more accessible to a wider and more general audience. PMID:27227718
Evaluation of Fracture Azimuth by EM Wave and Elastic Wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, X.; Wang, Q.; Liu, C.; Lu, Q.; Zeng, Z.; Liang, W.; Yu, Y.; Ren, Q.
2013-12-01
Fracture system plays an important role in the development of underground energy, for example enhanced geothermal system (EGS), oil shale and shale gas, etc. Therefore, it becomes more and more important to detect and evaluate the fracture system. Geophysical prospecting is an useful method to evaluate the characteristics of the subsurface fractures. Currently, micro-seismology, multi-wave seismic exploration, and electromagnetic (EM) survey are reported to be used for the purpose. We are studying a method using both elastic wave and EM wave to detect and evaluate the fracture azimuth in laboratory. First, we build a 3D horizontal transverse isotropy (HTI) model, shown in the figure 1, by dry parallel fractures system, which was constructed by plexiglass plates and papers. Then, we used the ultrasonic system to obtain reflected S-wave data. Depending on the shear wave splitting, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the algorithm of Pearson correlation coefficient. In addition, we used the full Polarimetric ultra wide band electromagnetic (FP-UWB-EM) wave System, shown in the figure 2, to obtain full polarimetric reflected EM-wave data. Depending on the rotation of the EM wave polarimetry, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the the ration between maximum amplitude of co-polarimetric EM wave and maximum amplitude of cross-polarimetric EM wave. Finally, we used both EM-wave data and S-wave data to evaluate the fracture azimuth by the method of cross plot and statistical mathematics. To sum up, we found that FP-UWB-EM wave can be used to evaluated the fracture azimuth and is more accurate than ultrasound wave. Also joint evaluation using both data could improve the precision.
Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment
Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya
2016-01-01
As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127
Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya
2016-05-01
As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127
Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993
Not Available
1993-12-31
The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.
Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems
Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A.
1998-07-01
In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.
DOE EM industry programs robotics development
Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.
1997-12-01
The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.
Online EM with weight-based forgetting.
Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro
2015-05-01
In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability. PMID:25710091
Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.
Scheres, S H W
2016-01-01
This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts. PMID:27572726
Bennemann, K
2010-06-23
Characteristic results of magnetism in small particles, thin films and tunnel junctions are presented. As a consequence of the reduced atomic coordination in small clusters and thin films the electronic states and density of states are modified. Thus, magnetic moments and magnetization are affected. Generally, in clusters and thin films magnetic anisotropy plays a special role. In tunnel junctions the interplay of magnetism, spin currents and superconductivity are of particular interest. In ring-like mesoscopic systems Aharonov-Bohm-induced currents are studied. Results are given for single transition metal clusters, cluster ensembles, thin films, mesoscopic structures and tunnel systems. PMID:21393778
Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials: From the Hofstadter Moth to Lattice Gauge Theory
Osterloh, K.; Baig, M.; Santos, L.; Zoller, P.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-07-01
We demonstrate how to create artificial external non-Abelian gauge potentials acting on cold atoms in optical lattices. The method employs atoms with k internal states, and laser assisted state sensitive tunneling, described by unitary kxk matrices. The single-particle dynamics in the case of intense U(2) vector potentials lead to a generalized Hofstadter butterfly spectrum which shows a complex mothlike structure. We discuss the possibility to realize non-Abelian interferometry (Aharonov-Bohm effect) and to study many-body dynamics of ultracold matter in external lattice gauge fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horta-Piñeres, Sindi; Elizabeth Escorcia-Salas, G.; Mikhailov, I. D.; Sierra-Ortega, J.
2014-11-01
The energy spectrum of a positively charged exciton confined in vertically coupled type II quantum dots with different morphologies in the presence of the external magnetic field is studied. The effect of the quantum dot morphology on the curves of the lowest energy levels as functions of the magnetic field is analyzed. It is shown that a strong correlation presented in this system generates the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the lower energy levels similar to those in wide quantum ring. The novel curves of the trion energies dependences on the external magnetic field for the disk-like, lens-like, and cone-like structures are presented.
Relativistic Killingbeck energy states under external magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eshghi, M.; Mehraban, H.; Ikhdair, S. M.
2016-07-01
We address the behavior of the Dirac equation with the Killingbeck radial potential including the external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields. The spin and pseudo-spin symmetries are considered. The correct bound state spectra and their corresponding wave functions are obtained. We seek such a solution using the biconfluent Heun's differential equation method. Further, we give some of our results at the end of this study. Our final results can be reduced to their non-relativistic forms by simply using some appropriate transformations. The spectra, in the spin and pseudo-spin symmetries, are very similar with a slight difference in energy spacing between different states.
On the Landau system in noncommutative phase-space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Anirban; Halder, Aslam
2015-12-01
We consider the Landau system in a canonically noncommutative phase-space. A set of generalized transformations containing scaling parameters is derived which maps the NC problem to an equivalent commutative problem. The energy spectrum admits NC corrections which are computed using the explicit NC variables as well as the commutative-equivalent variables. Their exact matching solidifies the evidence of the equivalence of the two approaches. We also obtain the magnetic length and level degeneracy, which admit NC corrections. We further study the Aharonov-Bohm effect where the phase-shift is found to alter due to noncommutativity and also depends on the scaling parameters.
Observation of localized flat-band modes in a quasi-one-dimensional photonic rhombic lattice.
Mukherjee, Sebabrata; Thomson, Robert R
2015-12-01
We experimentally demonstrate the photonic realization of a dispersionless flat band in a quasi-one-dimensional photonic lattice fabricated by ultrafast laser inscription. In the nearest neighbor tight binding approximation, the lattice supports two dispersive and one nondispersive (flat) band. We experimentally excite superpositions of flat-band eigenmodes at the input of the photonic lattice and show the diffractionless propagation of the input states due to their infinite effective mass. In the future, the use of photonic rhombic lattices, together with the successful implementation of a synthetic gauge field, will enable the observation of Aharonov-Bohm photonic caging. PMID:26625021
Quasiballistic transport of Dirac fermions in a Bi2Se3 nanowire.
Dufouleur, J; Veyrat, L; Teichgräber, A; Neuhaus, S; Nowka, C; Hampel, S; Cayssol, J; Schumann, J; Eichler, B; Schmidt, O G; Büchner, B; Giraud, R
2013-05-01
Quantum coherent transport of surface states in a mesoscopic nanowire of the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi(2}Se(3) is studied in the weak-disorder limit. At very low temperatures, many harmonics are evidenced in the Fourier transform of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations, revealing the long phase coherence length of spin-chiral Dirac fermions. Remarkably, from their exponential temperature dependence, we infer an unusual 1/T power law for the phase coherence length L(φ)(T). This decoherence is typical for quasiballistic fermions weakly coupled to their environment. PMID:23683235
Longhi, Stefano
2015-04-01
A method for realizing asymmetric (one-way) transmission of discretized light in modulated, linear, and purely passive optical lattices is suggested, which exploits the idea of unidirectional coherent perfect absorption. The system consists of a linear photonic lattice of coupled resonators or waveguides, side coupled to a chain of lossy elements, in which light can avoid the occupation of the dissipative sites when propagating in one way, but not in the opposite one. Non-reciprocity requires modulation of the resonator/waveguide parameters, realizing a dissipative optical Aharonov-Bohm diode with non-reciprocal behavior. PMID:25831312
Topological dephasing in the ν =2 /3 fractional quantum Hall regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jinhong; Gefen, Yuval; Sim, H.-S.
2015-12-01
We study dephasing in electron transport through a large quantum dot (a Fabry-Perot interferometer) in the fractional quantum Hall regime with filling factor 2 /3 . In the regime of sequential tunneling, dephasing occurs due to electron fractionalization into counterpropagating charge and neutral edge modes on the dot. In particular, when the charge mode moves much faster than the neutral mode, and at temperatures higher than the level spacing of the dot, electron fractionalization combined with the fractional statistics of the charge mode leads to the dephasing selectively suppressing h /e Aharonov-Bohm oscillations but not h /(2 e ) oscillations, resulting in oscillation-period halving.
Double-donor complex in vertically coupled quantum dots in a threading magnetic field.
Manjarres-García, Ramón; Escorcia-Salas, Gene Elizabeth; Manjarres-Torres, Javier; Mikhailov, Ilia D; Sierra-Ortega, José
2012-01-01
We consider a model of hydrogen-like artificial molecule formed by two vertically coupled quantum dots in the shape of axially symmetrical thin layers with on-axis single donor impurity in each of them and with the magnetic field directed along the symmetry axis. We present numerical results for energies of some low-lying levels as functions of the magnetic field applied along the symmetry axis for different quantum dot heights, radii, and separations between them. The evolution of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the energy levels with the increase of the separation between dots is analyzed. PMID:23013550
Synthetic gauge fields for vibrational excitations of trapped ions.
Bermudez, Alejandro; Schaetz, Tobias; Porras, Diego
2011-10-01
The vibrations of a collection of ions in a microtrap array can be described in terms of tunneling phonons. We show that the vibrational couplings may be tailored by using a gradient of the trap frequencies together with a periodic driving of the trapping potentials. These ingredients allow us to induce effective gauge fields on the vibrational excitations, such that phonons mimic the behavior of charged particles in a magnetic field. In particular, microtrap arrays are well suited to realize a quantum simulator of the famous Aharonov-Bohm effect and observe the paradigmatic edge states typical from quantum-Hall samples and topological insulators. PMID:22107274
Transverse Force on Quarks in Deep-Inelastic Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkardt, Matthias
2015-10-01
Transverse single-spin asymmetries are not the only observable where the transverse force on quarks in DIS plays a role. For example, higher-twist effects in polarized inclusive DIS can be related to that force. Furthermore the torque due to that force is relevant when comparing the Jaffe-Manohar with the Ji definition for quark orbital angular momentum. I explain the origin of that force in semi-classical pictures and discuss connections and differences with the Aharonov-Bohm effect.