Jani, J.P.; Mistry, J.S. ); Raiyani, C.V.; Patel, J.S.; Desai, N.M.; Kashyap, S.K. )
The ubiquitous environmental pollutants organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been extensively studied for their toxicity. Monitoring of OCP and PAH residues has always been considered important for controlling human exposure. As compared to several other countries, the higher body burden of OCP in Indian general population is indicative of higher exposure to these chemicals. Recent studies have shown higher residues of OCP in food commodities including human mother's milk. The levels of OCP in drinking water is still a matter of concern and practically nothing is known about the residues of PAH in drinking water in India. This is the first report of its kind regarding the residues of OCP and PAH in drinking water of Ahmedabad City, the sixth largest city of India with a population of more than 2.5 million.
Shah, Rina; Das, Ajay; Desai, Ishwar; Tiwari, Ashwini
This study was undertaken to determine the concerns of primary school teachers about the inclusion of students with disabilities in Ahmedabad, India. A total of 560 teachers, working in government-run schools, returned the completed survey. A two-part questionnaire was used in this study. Part 1 gathered information relating to personal and…
Parizo, Justin; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Dhiman, Ramesh C; Greenhouse, Bryan
The world population, especially in developing countries, has experienced a rapid progression of urbanization over the last half century. Urbanization has been accompanied by a rise in cases of urban infectious diseases, such as malaria. The complexity and heterogeneity of the urban environment has made study of specific urban centers vital for urban malaria control programs, whereas more generalizable risk factor identification also remains essential. Ahmedabad city, India, is a large urban center located in the state of Gujarat, which has experienced a significant Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum disease burden. Therefore, a targeted analysis of malaria in Ahmedabad city was undertaken to identify spatiotemporal patterns of malaria, risk factors, and methods of predicting future malaria cases. Malaria incidence in Ahmedabad city was found to be spatially heterogeneous, but temporally stable, with high spatial correlation between species. Because of this stability, a prediction method utilizing historic cases from prior years and seasons was used successfully to predict which areas of Ahmedabad city would experience the highest malaria burden and could be used to prospectively target interventions. Finally, spatial analysis showed that normalized difference vegetation index, proximity to water sources, and location within Ahmedabad city relative to the dense urban core were the best predictors of malaria incidence. Because of the heterogeneity of urban environments and urban malaria itself, the study of specific large urban centers is vital to assist in allocating resources and informing future urban planning. PMID:27382081
Lehner, A.; Kraus, V.; Steinnocher, K.
The study of urban areas and their development focuses on cities, their physical and demographic expansion and the tensions and impacts that go along with urban growth. Especially in developing countries and emerging national economies like India, consistent and up to date information or other planning relevant data all too often is not available. With its Smart Cities Mission, the Indian government places great importance on the future developments of Indian urban areas and pays tribute to the large-scale rural to urban migration. The potentials of urban remote sensing and its contribution to urban planning are discussed and related to the Indian Smart Cities Mission. A case study is presented showing urban remote sensing based information products for the city of Ahmedabad. Resulting urban growth scenarios are presented, hotspots identified and future action alternatives proposed.
Knowlton, Kim; Kulkarni, Suhas P; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Jaiswal, Anjali; Connolly, Meredith; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Deol, Bhaskar; Sanchez, Lauren; Khosla, Radhika; Webster, Peter J; Toma, Violeta E; Sheffield, Perry; Hess, Jeremy J
Recurrent heat waves, already a concern in rapidly growing and urbanizing South Asia, will very likely worsen in a warming world. Coordinated adaptation efforts can reduce heat's adverse health impacts, however. To address this concern in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India), a coalition has been formed to develop an evidence-based heat preparedness plan and early warning system. This paper describes the group and initial steps in the plan's development and implementation. Evidence accumulation included extensive literature review, analysis of local temperature and mortality data, surveys with heat-vulnerable populations, focus groups with health care professionals, and expert consultation. The findings and recommendations were encapsulated in policy briefs for key government agencies, health care professionals, outdoor workers, and slum communities, and synthesized in the heat preparedness plan. A 7-day probabilistic weather forecast was also developed and is used to trigger the plan in advance of dangerous heat waves. The pilot plan was implemented in 2013, and public outreach was done through training workshops, hoardings/billboards, pamphlets, and print advertisements. Evaluation activities and continuous improvement efforts are ongoing, along with plans to explore the program's scalability to other Indian cities, as Ahmedabad is the first South Asian city to address heat-health threats comprehensively. PMID:24670386
Isaacson, Michal; D'Ambrosio, Lisa; Samanta, Tannistha; Coughlin, Joseph
As the population of older adults in India grows, research is needed to plan a sustainable future for India's older adults. This article reports results from a Global Positioning System (GPS)-based pilot study that examined the mobility of middle-class, older adults living in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Using mobility as a lens through which to examine the lives of older adults, we map potential research and identify policy areas of interest considering older adults in urban India. The study explores the role of life stage in mobility as well as the effects of gender and urban environment on mobility. Using this distinctive perspective on day-to-day life, we propose themes through which, using policy and planning tools, the living environments of older adults in Indian cities can be improved. These policy measures include focusing on walkability and pedestrian safety in residential areas and building on existing mixed land use to create high accessibility to goods and services in urban environments. PMID:26161686
Saravanan, V S; Ayessa Idenal, Marissa; Saiyed, Shahin; Saxena, Deepak; Gerke, Solvay
Diseases are rapidly urbanizing. Ageing infrastructures, high levels of inequality, poor urban governance, rapidly growing economies and highly dense and mobile populations all create environments rife for water-borne diseases. This article analyzes the role of institutions as crosscutting entities among a myriad of factors that breed water-borne diseases in the city of Ahmedabad, India. It applies 'path dependency' and a 'rational choice' perspective to understand the factors facilitating the breeding of diseases. This study is based on household surveys of approximately 327 households in two case study wards and intermittent interviews with key informants over a period of 2 years. Principle component analysis is applied to reduce the data and convert a set of observations, which potentially correlate with each other, into components. Institutional analyses behind these components reveal the role of social actors in exploiting the deeply rooted inefficiencies affecting urban health. This has led to a vicious cycle; breaking this cycle requires understanding the political dynamics that underlie the exposure and prevalence of diseases to improve urban health. PMID:27126201
Knowlton, Kim; Kulkarni, Suhas P.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Jaiswal, Anjali; Connolly, Meredith; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Deol, Bhaskar; Sanchez, Lauren; Khosla, Radhika; Webster, Peter J.; Toma, Violeta E.; Sheffield, Perry; Hess, Jeremy J.
Recurrent heat waves, already a concern in rapidly growing and urbanizing South Asia, will very likely worsen in a warming world. Coordinated adaptation efforts can reduce heat’s adverse health impacts, however. To address this concern in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India), a coalition has been formed to develop an evidence-based heat preparedness plan and early warning system. This paper describes the group and initial steps in the plan’s development and implementation. Evidence accumulation included extensive literature review, analysis of local temperature and mortality data, surveys with heat-vulnerable populations, focus groups with health care professionals, and expert consultation. The findings and recommendations were encapsulated in policy briefs for key government agencies, health care professionals, outdoor workers, and slum communities, and synthesized in the heat preparedness plan. A 7-day probabilistic weather forecast was also developed and is used to trigger the plan in advance of dangerous heat waves. The pilot plan was implemented in 2013, and public outreach was done through training workshops, hoardings/billboards, pamphlets, and print advertisements. Evaluation activities and continuous improvement efforts are ongoing, along with plans to explore the program’s scalability to other Indian cities, as Ahmedabad is the first South Asian city to address heat-health threats comprehensively. PMID:24670386
Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Deol, Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Priya Shekhar; Hess, Jeremy; Jaiswal, Anjali; Khosla, Radhika; Knowlton, Kim; Mavalankar, Mavalankar; Rajiva, Ajit; Sarma, Amruta; Sheffield, Perry
Introduction In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8°C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. Methods We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1–31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. Results The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest “summer” months of April (r = 0.69, p<0.001), May (r = 0.77, p<0.001), and June (r = 0.39, p<0.05). During a period of more intense heat (May 19–25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67–1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03–2.21] applying reference periods (May 12–18, 2010) from various years. Conclusion The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot
... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Education Trade Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27-February 1, 2014; Correction AGENCY: International Trade Administration... the Federal Register of July 16, 2013, in 78 FR 42505, title, note a top of page, correct the...
... is amending the Notice published at 78 FR 42505, July 16, 2013, regarding the U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India to revise the contact. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: There is now a new mission contact. Amendments For the reasons stated above, the...
Sharma, Som; Vaishnav, Rajesh; Shukla, Munn V.; Kumar, Prashant; Kumar, Prateek; Thapliyal, Pradeep K.; Lal, Shyam; Acharya, Yashwant B.
Clouds play a tangible role in the Earth's atmosphere and in particular, the cloud base height (CBH), which is linked to cloud type, is one of the most important characteristics to describe the influence of clouds on the environment. In the present study, CBH observations from Ceilometer CL31 were extensively studied during May 2013 to January 2015 over Ahmedabad (23.03° N, 72.54° E), India. A detailed comparison has been performed with the use of ground-based CBH measurements from Ceilometer CL31 and CBH retrieved from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) onboard Aqua and Terra satellite. CBH retrieved from MODIS is ˜ 1.955 and ˜ 1.093 km on 25 July 2014 and 1 January 2015 respectively, which matches well with ceilometer-measured CBH ( ˜ 1.92 and ˜ 1.097 km). Some interesting features of cloud dynamics viz. strong downdraft and updraft have been observed over Ahmedabad which revealed different cloud characteristics during monsoon and post-monsoon periods. CBH shows seasonal variation during the Indian summer monsoon and post-monsoon period. Results indicate that the ceilometer is an excellent instrument to precisely detect low- and mid-level clouds, and the MODIS satellite provides accurate retrieval of high-level clouds over this region. The CBH algorithm used for the MODIS satellite is also able to capture the low-level clouds.
Caillaud, A.; Bernard, J. P.; Bonneton, M.; Delcayre, F.; Grabié, V.; Praud, A.; Walter, E.
The first helium refrigeration system installed by Air Liquide at the Institute for Plasma Research, Ahmedabad, India, was successfully tested in 2003 and accepted beginning of 2004. It is able to provide an equivalent power of 1350W at 4.5K, including the circulation of supercritical helium, thanks to a cold circulator, and distribution of liquid helium at 4.5K. This installation will be completed with an additional small refrigeration system, composed of Air Liquide standard refrigerator HELIAL 1000, which has been adapted to provide 110W at 3.8K. This second refrigerator will supply two cryopumps with liquid helium, thanks to the thermosiphon effect. To achieve such a low temperature, the liquid helium bath produced by HELIAL 1000 will be pumped below atmospheric pressure, using vacuum pumps and complementary equipment. Both refrigerators will be presented, highlighting the particularities of each system.
Patel, Mayur; Patel, Ina M.; Patel, Yash M.
This cross-sectional study assessed the current situation of and factors associated with consumption of diabetic diet among 399 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects from Ahmedabad, Western India. The study was performed with diagnosed (at least one year old) diabetic subjects who attended the Department of Diabetology, All India Institute of Diabetes and Research and Yash Diabetes Specialties Centre (Swasthya Hospital), Ahmedabad during July 2010–November 2010. The subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included variables, such as sociodemographic factors, family history of diabetes, behavioural profile, risk profile (glycaemic status, hypertension, and obesity), and diet-related history (consumption of diabetic diet, consumption of low fat/skimmed milk, method of cooking, and sources for diet advice). Blood pressure, body mass index, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and fasting lipid profile were measured. All analyses including multivariate logistic regression were conducted using SPSS, version 11.5. In total, 399 T2DM subjects (65% male, 35% female) with mean age of 53.16±7.95 years were studied. Although 73% of T2DM subjects were consuming diabetic diet, the good glycaemic control (HbA1c level <7%) was achieved only in 35% of the subjects. The majority (75%) of the subjects had a positive family history of diabetes, and 52% were obese. In 77%, the main source of dietary advice was doctor. In 36%, the main methods of cooking were: boiling and roasting. The final multivariate model showed that visit to dietician, level of education, intake of low fat, and family history of diabetes were independent predictors for diabetic diet consumption among T2DM subjects. However, longitudinal and cohort studies are required to establish the association between consumption of diabetic diet and glycaemic control. PMID:23304911
Bhatnagar, V.K.; Patel, J.S.; Variya, M.R.; Venkaiah, K.; Shah, M.P.; Kashyap, S.K. )
Assessments of human exposure to persistent organochlorine insecticides (OCI) through biological monitoring offers a profound criteria to evaluate the magnitude of potential health risk, if any, due to use of these chemicals. Residues of these chemicals especially DDT and HCH have been identified and reviewed in man and his environment from different parts of the world however, by comparison very high levels of DDT and its metabolites have been reported in human body fat, blood and milk samples in India. Since there is a definite relationship between the amount of DDT and its residues in blood and those present in human fat depot, blood can be easily be used for assessing the total body burden of persistent OCI in various populations. In view of fragmentary reports on the levels of DDT and HCH in human blood samples from India which categorically pertain to the general population of urban areas like Delhi and Lucknow. The authors attempted to provide a database on residues of DDT and HCH including other cyclodiene compounds, e.g. heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, oxygchlordane, HCB and dieldrin in blood samples collected from general population of Ahmedabad (rural) area.
Tran, Kathy V.; Azhar, Gulrez S.; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy
Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile. PMID:23778061
Chandra, N.; Lal, S.; Venkataramani, S.; Patra, P. K.; Sheel, V.
About 70 % of the anthropogenic CO2 is emitted from the megacities and urban areas of the world. In-situ simultaneous measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been made using a state-of-the-art laser based cavity ring down spectroscopy technique at Ahmedabad, an urban site in western India, from November 2013 to May 2015 with a break during March to June 2014. Annual average concentrations of CO2 and CO have been found to be 413.0 ± 13.7 ppm and 0.50 ± 0.37 ppm respectively. Both the species show strong seasonality, with lower concentrations of 400.3 ± 6.8 ppm and 0.19 ± 0.13 ppm, respectively during the south-west monsoon, and higher values of 419.6 ± 22.8 ppm and 0.72 ± 0.68 ppm, respectively in autumn (SON). Strong diurnal variations are also observed for both the species. The common factors for diurnal cycles of CO2 and CO are the vertical mixing and rush hour traffic, while the influence of biospheric fluxes is also seen in CO2 diurnal cycle. Using CO and CO2 covariation, we differentiate the anthropogenic and biospheric components of CO2 and found that significant contributions of biospheric respiration and anthropogenic emission in the late night (00:00-05:00 IST) and evening rush hours (18:00-22:00 IST) respectively. We compute total yearly emission of CO to be 69.2 ± 0.07 Gg for the study region using the observed CO : CO2 correlation slope and bottom-up CO2 emission inventory. This calculated emission of CO is 52 % larger than the estimated emission of CO by the EDGAR inventory. The observations of CO2 have been compared with an atmospheric chemistry transport model (i.e., ACTM), which incorporates various components of CO2 fluxes. ACTM is able to capture the basic variabilities, but both diurnal and seasonal amplitudes are largely underestimated compared to the observations. We attribute this underestimation by model to uncertainties in terrestrial biosphere fluxes and coarse model resolution. The fossil fuel signal from
Chandra, Naveen; Lal, Shyam; Venkataramani, S.; Patra, Prabir K.; Sheel, Varun
About 70 % of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted from the megacities and urban areas of the world. In order to draw effective emission mitigation policies for combating future climate change as well as independently validating the emission inventories for constraining their large range of uncertainties, especially over major metropolitan areas of developing countries, there is an urgent need for greenhouse gas measurements over representative urban regions. India is a fast developing country, where fossil fuel emissions have increased dramatically in the last three decades and are predicted to continue to grow further by at least 6 % per year through to 2025. The CO2 measurements over urban regions in India are lacking. To overcome this limitation, simultaneous measurements of CO2 and carbon monoxide (CO) have been made at Ahmedabad, a major urban site in western India, using a state-of-the-art laser-based cavity ring down spectroscopy technique from November 2013 to May 2015. These measurements enable us to understand the diurnal and seasonal variations in atmospheric CO2 with respect to its sources (both anthropogenic and biospheric) and biospheric sinks. The observed annual average concentrations of CO2 and CO are 413.0 ± 13.7 and 0.50 ± 0.37 ppm respectively. Both CO2 and CO show strong seasonality with lower concentrations (400.3 ± 6.8 and 0.19 ± 0.13 ppm) during the south-west monsoon and higher concentrations (419.6 ± 22.8 and 0.72 ± 0.68 ppm) during the autumn (SON) season. Strong diurnal variations are also observed for both the species. The common factors for the diurnal cycles of CO2 and CO are vertical mixing and rush hour traffic, while the influence of biospheric fluxes is also seen in the CO2 diurnal cycle. Using CO and CO2 covariation, we differentiate the anthropogenic and biospheric components of CO2 and found significant contributions of biospheric respiration and anthropogenic emissions in the late night (00:00-05:00 h, IST
Bryjak, George J.
Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)
Pandya, Suchit S.; Hasnani, Jigar J.; Patel, P. V.; Chauhan, Vandip D.; Hirani, Nitin D.; Shukla, Ravi; Dhamsaniya, Hitesh B.
Aim: This study was undertaken to derive the prevalence rate of Fasciolosis in buffaloes by a collection of fecal and liver samples from Anand and Ahmedabad districts’ local slaughter houses. Materials and Methods: Fecal and liver samples were collected during ante- and post-mortem examination, respectively, and brought to the department laboratory preserved in 10% formalin for further processing. Fecal samples were processed with qualitative examination viz.; sedimentation technique for identification of the ova. Liver samples were also examined for the presence of gross parasites. Results: The highest prevalence rate was observed in the month of December (25.97% fecal and 33.33% liver samples) and lowest in the month of May (10.71% fecal and 11.76% liver samples) at Anand district. In the area of Ahmedabad district, the highest prevalence rate was recorded in the month of October and February (26.98%) and lowest in the month of May (10.34%) for the fecal and highest prevalence was observed in the month of February (26.98%) and lowest in May (11.11%) for the liver samples. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the heavy infection is present in Anand and Ahmedabad districts, especially in the month of winter followed by monsoon and the least in summer. PMID:27047167
Solanki, Ravi B.; Bhise, Anjali R.; Dangi, Bharat M.
Background: Lung reactions to exposure to dust, gases, and fumes at work places have been studied in different populations. The emission level of pollutants that emit particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in size (PM 10) has been found very high in Ahmedabad. Hence, petrol pump workers in Ahmedabad are likely to get exposed to a high level of air pollution along with petrol and diesel vapors. Both of these factors can affect the respiratory health of petrol pump workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 53 different petrol pumps of Ahmedabad. A total of 227 petrol pump workers underwent pulmonary function testing. Their spirometry parameters were compared with 227 age-matched, healthy controls. Results: A significant reduction (P < 0.001) was found in the spirometry parameters, such as, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in petrol pump workers, as compared to the controls. The mean values of FEV1/FVC (%) were significantly increased (P < 0.001). A decline in FVC was not significantly different among the workers according to the duration of exposure. As the duration of exposure increased, there was a progressive decline in FEV1/FVC (%) and FEF25-75. Conclusion: The study concludes that the deleterious effects of air pollution and petrol/diesel vapor inhalation on the lung function of petrol pump workers results in a restrictive type of lung function abnormality. The pattern of respiratory impairment changes to a mixed type as the duration of exposure increases. PMID:26180384
Kakkad, Khyati; Barzaga, Michelle L.; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Sheffield, Perry E.
Health effects from climate change are an international concern with urban areas at particular risk due to urban heat island effects. The burden of disease on vulnerable populations in non-climate-controlled settings has not been well studied. This study compared neonatal morbidity in a non-air-conditioned hospital during the 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad to morbidity in the prior and subsequent years. The outcome of interest was neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions for heat. During the months of April, May, and June of 2010, 24 NICU admissions were for heat versus 8 and 4 in 2009 and 2011, respectively. Both the effect of moving the maternity ward and the effect of high temperatures were statistically significant, controlling for each other. Above 42 degrees Celsius, each daily maximum temperature increase of a degree was associated with 43% increase in heat-related admissions (95% CI 9.2–88%). Lower floor location of the maternity ward within hospital which occurred after the 2010 heat wave showed a protective effect. These findings demonstrate the importance of simple surveillance measures in motivating a hospital policy change for climate change adaptation—here relocating one ward—and the potential increasing health burden of heat in non-climate-controlled institutions on vulnerable populations. PMID:24734050
Kakkad, Khyati; Barzaga, Michelle L; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Sheffield, Perry E
Health effects from climate change are an international concern with urban areas at particular risk due to urban heat island effects. The burden of disease on vulnerable populations in non-climate-controlled settings has not been well studied. This study compared neonatal morbidity in a non-air-conditioned hospital during the 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad to morbidity in the prior and subsequent years. The outcome of interest was neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions for heat. During the months of April, May, and June of 2010, 24 NICU admissions were for heat versus 8 and 4 in 2009 and 2011, respectively. Both the effect of moving the maternity ward and the effect of high temperatures were statistically significant, controlling for each other. Above 42 degrees Celsius, each daily maximum temperature increase of a degree was associated with 43% increase in heat-related admissions (95% CI 9.2-88%). Lower floor location of the maternity ward within hospital which occurred after the 2010 heat wave showed a protective effect. These findings demonstrate the importance of simple surveillance measures in motivating a hospital policy change for climate change adaptation-here relocating one ward-and the potential increasing health burden of heat in non-climate-controlled institutions on vulnerable populations. PMID:24734050
Routh, R.; Shah, P.
In India, most of the built heritage is still retained by private ownership, who usually are un inproficient to provide the monetary support for the upkeep of the building. In such a scenario, the property goes into deterioration and is gradually lost. In response to this, the Ahmedabad Urban Develepment Authority (AUDA) have introduced a policy named Tradable Development Rights (TDR) for listed structures within the historic core of Ahmedabad, which will help in generating revenue for conservation of the built heritage. This paper discusses an apparatus which will assist the process of TDR by forming a common platform between the stakeholders to increase efficiency in the procurement and transaction procedure. The system comprises of a procedure which puts all the listed properties on an interactive map, classified according to the grade assigned to each along with the present physical condition of the building, along with information such as the heritage value, contact details, available FSI through TDR and at what amount. The map has been developed using Open Source GIS, and will act as a model for mapping and managing the inventory generated for Ahmedabad. This will help the builders approach the properties which have been graded in terms of importance and urgency as well as simultaneously providing public awareness by through necessary information which the property owner should know to avail the monetary benefits through TDR. The paper also highlights a comparative analysis and benefits of procuring the FSI available through TDR for the historic core.
Yang, Jingyan; Modi, Bhavesh V.; Tamplin, Stephen A.; Aghi, Mira B.; Dave, Paresh V.; Cohen, Joanna E.
Aim: To compare air nicotine levels in public places in Ahmedabad, India, before (June 2008) and after (January, 2010) the implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban which was introduced in October 2008. Materials and Methods: Air nicotine concentrations were measured by sampling of vapor-phase nicotine using passive monitors. In 2008 (baseline), monitors were placed for 5-7 working days in 5 hospitals, 10 restaurants, 5 schools, 5 government buildings, and 10 entertainment venues, of which 6 were hookah bars. In 2010 (follow-up), monitors were placed in 35 similar venues for the same duration. Results: Comparison of the overall median nicotine concentration at baseline (2008) (0.06 μg/m3 Interquartile range (IQR): 0.02-0.22) to that of follow-up (2010) (0.03 μg/m3 IQR: 0.00-0.13), reflects a significant decline (% decline = 39.7, P = 0.012) in exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The percent change in exposure varied by venue-type. The most significant decrease occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m3 at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up (%decline = 100, P < 0.001). In entertainment venues, government offices, and restaurants, decreases in SHS exposure also appeared evident. However, in hookah bars, air nicotine levels appeared to increase (P = 0.160). Conclusion: Overall, SHS exposure was significantly reduced in public places after the smoke-free legislation came into force. However, nicotine concentrations were still detected in most of the venues indicating imperfect compliance with the comprehensive ban. PMID:25657509
Jarwani, Bhavesh S; Motiani, Puja D; Sachdev, Sachin
Introduction/Purpose: The outbreak of methanol poisoning described in this paper occurred in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India in July 2009. Our intention is to share the experience of clinical features, laboratory investigations and their relation during this tragedy. Materials and Methods: Single center, retrospective study of clinical features and laboratory parameters of 178 cases of methanol toxicity treated at tertiary care hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Results: Maximum patients (39.8%, n = 45) were received in 48 h; Mean age of presentation was 41.9 ± 10.2 years. Most of them were men (175 out of 178). On presentation, 83% patients had gastro-intestinal symptoms, 46% had neurological symptoms, 73% had visual symptoms and 32% had dyspnoea. 62% had blurred vision, 10.5% had blindness. Patients with visual symptoms had high mean level of methanol (120.12 ± 23.12 vs. 55.43 ± 29.24, P = 0.014). On fundus examination 52.8% (n = 62) had bilateral hyperaemia of discs, 8.4% (n = 12) had bilateral disc pallor and 4.5% had papilledema (n = 5). Patients with hyperaemia of discs, discs pallor or papilledema, had higher mean methanol level (121.1 ± 32.2 mg% v/s 70.1 ± 23.2 mg%, P = 0.032). Mean of pH values was 7.17 ± 0.22 and bicarbonate was 12.3 ± 7.3 mmol/L. Both pH and bicarbonate levels correlated well with mortality and serum methanol level. Mean serum methanol level was 87.1 mg/dL, and correlated significantly with the mortality (53.1 ± 41 mg/dL v/s 121 ± 92 mg/dL, P value < 0.05). Conclusion: GI symptoms, neurological symptoms and breathlessness are important clue to ED physician for diagnose methanol poisoning. Visual symptoms and fundus findings correlate well with the methanol level. Arterial Blood Gas derived pH and bicarbonate levels correlate significantly with the methanol level and mortality. PMID:23723613
..., ethics compliance, entrepreneur skills and does not focus on creating an innovation-oriented educational... business-friendly states in India and has some of the country's most dynamic entrepreneurs. The...
Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2008
This declaration was developed at the 4th International Conference on Environmental Education (ICEE) in November 2007. The conference was sponsored by UNESCO, UNEP and the Government of India and hosted by the Centre for Environment Education (CEE) at Ahmedabad, India. The drafting process involved nearly 1,600 participants from 97 countries.…
In his speech at the inaugural session of the 4th International Conference on Environmental Education, Ahmedabad, India, in November 2007, Charles Hopkins, one of the "founding fathers" of environmental education (EE) at the 1st International Conference on Environmental Education in Tbilisi, Georgia, in 1977, reflected on how EE has progressed…
Situated amid tertiary-level institutions in the city of Ahmedabad, in Gujarat, India, this article explores how particular ideologies countering English inform pedagogic choices made by language teachers teaching in "vernacular-medium" (VM) college classrooms. The ideologies under discussion are two linked "thought structures." The first, the…
This article offers an interconnected, grounded understanding of how two Gandhian endeavours in the city of Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India, make us rethink the notion of "education" in terms of civic and communal engagement. Drawing on local, vernacular ways of living, learning, being, reasoning, and believing--in this case Gujarati--I show how these…
Devadoss, Stephen; Luckstead, Jeff; Danforth, Diana; Akhundjanov, Sherzod
The city size distribution for lower tail cities has received scant attention because a small portion of the population lives in rural villages, particularly in developed countries, and data are not readily available for small cities. However, in developing countries much of the population inhabits rural areas. The purpose of this study is to test whether power law holds for small cities in India by using the most recent and comprehensive Indian census data for the year 2011. Our results show that lower tail cities for India do exhibit a power law.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``India's Fabled City: The Art of... ``India's Fabled City: The Art of Courtly Lucknow,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...
Iyer, Veena; Choudhury, Nandini; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Somvanshi, Bhushan
The World Bank estimates that 21% of all communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water with diarrhoea alone causing more than 0.1 million deaths annually. The WHO drinking water surveillance parameters of quality, quantity, accessibility, affordability and continuity were assessed in one vulnerable ward of Ahmedabad—a fast growing city in Western India. Interviews with key informants of the ward office, health centre and water supply department, secondary analysis and mapping of field test reports and a questionnaire-based survey of different household types were conducted. We found that Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) supplies water to the ward intermittently for two hours during the day. Housing society clusters supplement their AMC water supply with untested bore-well water. The water quality surveillance system is designed for a twenty-four-hour piped distribution of treated surface water. However, in order to maintain surveillance over an intermittent supply that includes ground water, the sampling process should include periodic surveys of water actually consumed by the citizens. The laboratory capacity of the Central Water Testing Laboratory should expand to include more refined tests for microbial and chemical contamination. PMID:25254083
Nath, S. K.; Adhikari, M. D.; Devaraj, N.; Maiti, S. K.
The city of Kolkata is one of the most urbanized and densely populated regions in the world, which is a major industrial and commercial hub of the Eastern and Northeastern region of India. In order to classify the seismic risk zones of Kolkata we used seismic hazard exposures on the vulnerability components namely, landuse/landcover, population density, building typology, age and height. We microzoned seismic hazard of the City by integrating seismological, geological and geotechnical themes in GIS which in turn is integrated with the vulnerability components in a logic-tree framework to estimate both the socio-economic and structural risk of the City. In both the risk maps, three broad zones have been demarcated as "severe", "high" and "moderate". There had also been a risk-free zone in the City. The damage distribution in the City due to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake of Mw 8.1 well matches with the risk regime. The design horizontal seismic coefficients for the City have been worked out for all the predominant periods which indicate suitability of "A", "B" and "C" type of structures. The cumulative damage probabilities in terms of "slight", "moderate", "extensive" and "complete" have also been assessed for the significant four model building types viz. RM2L, RM2M, URML and URMM for each structural seismic risk zone in the City. Both the Seismic Hazard and Risk maps are expected to play vital roles in the earthquake inflicted disaster mitigation and management of the city of Kolkata.
Nath, S. K.; Adhikari, M. D.; Devaraj, N.; Maiti, S. K.
The city of Kolkata is one of the most urbanized and densely populated regions in the world and a major industrial and commercial hub of the eastern and northeastern region of India. In order to classify the seismic risk zones of Kolkata we used seismic hazard exposures on the vulnerability components, namely land use/land cover, population density, building typology, age and height. We microzoned seismic hazard of the city by integrating seismological, geological and geotechnical themes in GIS, which in turn are integrated with the vulnerability components in a logic-tree framework for the estimation of both the socioeconomic and structural risk of the city. In both the risk maps, three broad zones have been demarcated as "severe", "high" and "moderate". There had also been a risk-free zone in the city that is termed as "low". The damage distribution in the city due to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake of Mw = 8.1 matches satisfactorily well with the demarcated risk regime. The design horizontal seismic coefficients for the city have been worked out for all the fundamental periods that indicate suitability for "A", "B" and "C" type of structures. The cumulative damage probabilities in terms of "none", "slight", "moderate", "extensive" and "complete" have also been assessed for the predominantly four model building types viz. RM2L, RM2M, URML and URMM for each seismic structural risk zone in the city. Both the seismic hazard and risk maps are expected to play vital roles in the earthquake-inflicted disaster mitigation and management of the city of Kolkata.
Runoff water is an important transporting medium for various pollutants from land to surface water. Several mobiles and stationary sources such as vehicles, steel cement and thermal power plants, cooking, street, construction debris, etc. are emitting effluents in the environment of the central India. The rain runoff water washes out the air as well as land pollutants and flushes out into water bodies. Therefore, rain runoff water pollution in most urbanized and industrialized city of central India, i.e., Raipur during rainy season (May-September 2012) is analyzed statistically using cluster and principal component analysis to assess sources. The cluster analysis grouped runoff water samples into two clusters based on the similarity of runoff water quality characteristics of the total variance. The factor analysis differentiated the diffused sources of runoff water contaminants. The enrichment factors and runoff fluxes of the contaminants are discussed.
Muddu, S.; Mehta, V. K.; Malghan, D.; Kemp-Benedict, E.
India's 370 million urban population exceeds the total population of all countries except China. Water supply has not kept up with increasing urban demand. As utilities reach farther out to increase extraction and supply, and private self-supply from groundwater increases apace , there is no doubt that local water balances are dramatically impacted. Despite this, very little research has emerged on the modified water balance in urban India, which is essential to understanding sustainability of the resource base. This paper, taking Bangalore city as a case study, illustrates the possible impacts of domestic water supply and consumption. Spatial patterns in population growth and current piped water supply from the utility were developed from utility and municipal data. GIS analysis shows the spatial mismatch between the growth of the city and the piped water supply. In the past decade, Bangalore's population grew by almost 3 million people, with most of the additions in the outer areas where piped water supply infrastructure is most inadequate. In these areas, which account for large parts of the city with hundreds of thousands of residents, piped water supply is below 40 lpcd (liters per capita per day). Residents in these areas rely largely on groundwater from tankers and private borewells. Estimates of self-supply from groundwater were derived, which were then used with lumped and distributed simulations of groundwater balances. Lumped model results show that a severe lack of systematic data on actual groundwater extraction drives large uncertainty in the magnitude of net recharge change on a city-wide scale. Despite this uncertainty, the direction of net groundwater recharge is negative. Artificial recharge from leaking pipes and return flows exceed natural rainfall recharge by two-fold; however, private groundwater pumping is the largest component of the groundwater balance, leading to an overall groundwater overdraft estimate of 130%. Distributed groundwater
Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen
Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…
Das, S.K.; Misra, A.K.; Ray, B.K.; Hazra, A.; Ghosal, M.K.; Chaudhuri, A.; Roy, T.; Banerjee, T.K.; Raut, D.K.
Objective: No well-designed longitudinal study on Parkinson disease (PD) has been conducted in India. Therefore, we planned to determine the prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates of PD in the city of Kolkata, India, on a stratified random sample through a door-to-door survey. Method: This study was undertaken between 2003 to 2007 with a validated questionnaire by a team consisting of 4 trained field workers in 3 stages. Field workers screened the cases, later confirmed by a specialist doctor. In the third stage, a movement disorders specialist undertook home visits and reviewed all surviving cases after 1 year from last screening. Information on death was collected through verbal autopsy. A nested case-control study (1:3) was also undertaken to determine putative risk factors. The rates were age adjusted to the World Standard Population. Result: A total population of 100,802 was screened. The age-adjusted prevalence rate (PR) and average annual incidence rate were 52.85/100,000 and 5.71/100,000 per year, respectively. The slum population showed significantly decreased PR with age compared with the nonslum population. The adjusted average annual mortality rate was 2.89/100,000 per year. The relative risk of death was 8.98. The case-control study showed that tobacco chewing protected and hypertension increased PD occurrence. Conclusion: This study documented lower prevalence and incidence of PD as compared with Caucasian and a few Oriental populations. The mortality rates were comparable. The decreased age-specific PR among slum populations and higher relative risk of death need further probing. GLOSSARY AAIR = average annual incidence rate; AAMR = average annual mortality rate; CI = confidence interval; FSQ = family screening questionnaire; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficient; IR = incidence rate; MD = movement disorder; NSSO = National Sample Survey Organization; OR = odds ratio; PD = Parkinson disease; PPS = parkinsonism plus syndrome; PR = prevalence
Chaudhary, J. H.; Nayak, J. B.; Brahmbhatt, M. N.; Makwana, P. P.
Aim: The aim was to detect virulence gene associated with the Salmonella serovars isolated from pork and Slaughterhouse environment. Materials and Methods: Salmonella isolates (n=37) used in this study were isolated from 270 pork and slaughter house environmental samples collected from the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Slaughter House, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Salmonella serovars were isolated and identified as per BAM USFDA method and serotyped at National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli (Himachal Pradesh, India). Polymerase chain reaction technique was used for detection of five genes, namely invA, spvR, spvC, fimA and stn among different serovars of Salmonella. Results: Out of a total of 270 samples, 37 (13.70%) Salmonella were isolated with two serovars, namely Enteritidis and Typhimurium. All Salmonella serovars produced 284 bp invA gene, 84 bp fimA and 260 bp amplicon for enterotoxin (stn) gene whereas 30 isolates possessed 310 bp spvR gene, but no isolate possessed spvC gene. Conclusion: Presence of invA, fimA and stn gene in all isolates shows that they are the specific targets for Salmonella identification and are capable of producing gastroenteric illness to humans, whereas 20 Typhimurium serovars and 10 Enteritidis serovars can able to produce systemic infection. PMID:27047008
Shukla, J.; Choudhury, D.
A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh) of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismic sources in Gujarat are very uncertain and recurrence intervals of regional large earthquakes are not well defined. Because the instrumental records of India specifically in the Gujarat region are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt has been made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic approach. In this regard, all small and large faults of the Gujarat region were evaluated to obtain major fault systems. The empirical relations suggested by earlier researchers for the estimation of maximum magnitude of earthquake motion with various properties of faults like length, surface area, slip rate, etc. have been applied to those faults to obtain the maximum earthquake magnitude. For the analysis, seven different ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs) of strong ground motion have been utilized to calculate the maximum horizontal ground accelerations for each major city of Gujarat. Epistemic uncertainties in the hazard computations are accounted for within a logic-tree framework by considering the controlling parameters like b-value, maximum magnitude and ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs). The corresponding deterministic spectra have been prepared for each major city for the 50th and 84th percentiles of ground motion occurrence. These deterministic spectra are further compared with the specified spectra of Indian design code IS:1893-Part I (2002) to validate them for further practical use. Close examination of the developed spectra reveals that the expected ground motion values become high for the Kachchh region i.e. Bhuj
In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.
Kumar, R.; Mishra, V.
India has experienced a rapid urbanization during the past few decades. On the other hand, many parts of the country witnessed significant changes in mean and extreme climate related to precipitation and temperature. Here we analysed urban residence using the remotely sensed data considering the susceptibility of Indian cities to droughts and heat waves. We selected recently announced 100 urban areas that are planned to be developed as smart cities in future. Gridded precipitation data were used to compute SPEI values for frequency and ascertain the extent of droughts in the cities. The heat wave analysis was done in two phases. First phase included analysis using Heat Wave Magnitude Index (HWMI) to determine the intensity of such extreme events. In the second phase, Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect across different ecological configuration was studied for the cities. Land Surface Temperature (LST), urban extent map from MODIS and land-cover maps were used to study the UHI effect. For this, the urban extents were divided into urban core and sub-urban zones based on built up regions in the cities. The urban to rural temperature difference is analysed considering the ecological configuration in the region. The selected cities were categorised based on the biome features surrounding them. The results suggest aggravated condition in the urban space in India with reference to extreme events. For instance, extreme heat waves have substantially increased in India during the last few decades. In many urban areas, the UHI effect contributed a significant warming due to increased urbanization. We estimated projected changes in droughts and heat waves in the selected urban areas using the dynamically downscaled data from the region climate models. Our results suggest that a majority of urban areas are projected to face an elevated risk of temperature related extremes and issues of water sustainability in the coming decades.
Bajpai, Rajesh; Mishra, G K; Mohabe, S; Upreti, Dalip K; Nayaka, S
A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess the levels of atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Katni and Rewa cities of Madhya Pradesh, state in central India. The Pyxine cocoes and Phaeophyscia hispidula, two epiphytic foliose lichen were used as bioindicators in the present study and seven metals (As, Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, Zn, Pb) were analyzed in naturally growing thallus. The concentrations of these metals was observed to be in higher range as maximum values of Al, Cd, Cr and Zn were reported from the lichen samples from Rewa city which was 561.8 +/- 2.4, 6.8 +/- 0.8, 35.2 +/- 1.4, 214.6 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. Whereas As, Fe and Pb were reported maximum in the lichen samples collected from Katni city areas with 33.4 +/- 0.05, 689.4 +/- 2.6, 13.3 +/- 0.5 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. However the accumulation of Cd and Pb from both the cities are more or less similar in concentration. The selectivity sequence of metals were Fe>Al>Zn>As>Cr>Pb>Cd in Katni city, and Al>Fe>Zn>Cr>As>Pb>Cd in Rewa city. The findings of this study indicates that extent of heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of the two cities which may lead to adverse health affects. PMID:21882655
Anbazhagan, P.; Thingbaijam, K. K. S.; Nath, S. K.; Narendara Kumar, J. N.; Sitharam, T. G.
Different seismic hazard components pertaining to Bangalore city, namely soil overburden thickness, effective shear-wave velocity, factor of safety against liquefaction potential, peak ground acceleration at the seismic bedrock, site response in terms of amplification factor, and the predominant frequency, has been individually evaluated. The overburden thickness distribution, predominantly in the range of 5-10 m in the city, has been estimated through a sub-surface model from geotechnical bore-log data. The effective shear-wave velocity distribution, established through Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) survey and subsequent data interpretation through dispersion analysis, exhibits site class D (180-360 m/s), site class C (360-760 m/s), and site class B (760-1500 m/s) in compliance to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) nomenclature. The peak ground acceleration has been estimated through deterministic approach, based on the maximum credible earthquake of M W = 5.1 assumed to be nucleating from the closest active seismic source (Mandya-Channapatna-Bangalore Lineament). The 1-D site response factor, computed at each borehole through geotechnical analysis across the study region, is seen to be ranging from around amplification of one to as high as four times. Correspondingly, the predominant frequency estimated from the Fourier spectrum is found to be predominantly in range of 3.5-5.0 Hz. The soil liquefaction hazard assessment has been estimated in terms of factor of safety against liquefaction potential using standard penetration test data and the underlying soil properties that indicates 90% of the study region to be non-liquefiable. The spatial distributions of the different hazard entities are placed on a GIS platform and subsequently, integrated through analytical hierarchal process. The accomplished deterministic hazard map shows high hazard coverage in the western areas. The microzonation, thus, achieved is envisaged as a
Manar, Manish Kumar; Sahu, Krishna Kumar; Singh, Shivendra Kumar
Objective: To assess hospital waste management in nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on the staffs of nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow from September 2012 to March 2013. A total of eight hospitals were chosen as the study sample size. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the nonteaching hospitals. A pre-structured and pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to collect necessary information regarding the hospitals and biomedical waste (BMW) management of the hospitals. The general information about the selected hospitals/employees of the hospitals was collected. Results: Mean hospital waste generated in the eight nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow was 0.56 kg/bed/day. About 50.5% of the hospitals did not have BMW department and colored dustbins. In 37.5% of the hospitals, there were no BMW records and segregation at source. Incinerator was used only by hospital A for treatment of BMW. Hospital G and hospital H had no facilities for BMW treatment. Conclusion: There is a need for appropriate training of staffs, strict implementation of rules, and continuous surveillance of the hospitals of Lucknow to improve the BMW management and handling practices. PMID:25657950
Kannuri, Nanda Kishore; Anchala, Raghupathy; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V. S.; Gilbert, Clare E.
Context: There is a lack of evidence on the subjective aspects of the provider perspective regarding diabetes and its complications in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to understand the providers' perspective on the delivery of health services for diabetes and its complications, specifically the eye complications in India. Settings and Design: Hospitals providing diabetic services in government and private sectors were selected in 11 of the largest cities in India, based on geographical distribution and size. Methods: Fifty-nine semi-structured interviews conducted with physicians providing diabetes care were analyzed all interviews were recorded, transcribed, and translated. Nvivo 10 software was used to code the transcripts. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data. Results: The results are presented as key themes: “Challenges in managing diabetes patients,” “Current patient management practices,” and “Strengthening diabetic retinopathy (DR) services at the health systems level.” Diabetes affects people early across the social classes. Self-management was identified as an important prerequisite in controlling diabetes and its complications. Awareness level of hospital staff on DR was low. Advances in medical technology have an important role in effective management of DR. A team approach is required to provide comprehensive diabetic care. Conclusions: Sight-threatening DR is an impending public health challenge that needs a concerted effort to tackle it. A streamlined, multi-dimensional approach where all the stakeholders cooperate is important to strengthening services dealing with DR in the existing health care setup. PMID:27144138
Anchala, Raghupathy; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Gudlavalleti, Murthy V. S.; Singh, Vivek; Shukla, Rajan; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Ballabh, Hira Pant; Gilbert, Clare E.
Background: There is a lack of information on the practice patterns and available human resources and services for screening for eye complications among persons with diabetes in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to document existing health care infrastructure and practice patterns for managing diabetes and screening for eye complications. Methods: This cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in 11 cities where public and private diabetic care providers were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone diabetic care facilities were included. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to senior representative(s) of each institution to evaluate parameters using the World Health Organization health systems framework. Results: We interviewed physicians in 73 hospitals (61.6% multispecialty hospitals; 38.4% standalone clinics). Less than a third reported having skilled personnel for direct ophthalmoscopy. About 74% had provision for glycated hemoglobin testing. Only a third had adequate vision charts. Printed protocols on management of diabetes were available only in 31.5% of the facilities. Only one in four facilities had a system for tracking diabetics. Half the facilities reported having access to records from the treating ophthalmologists. Direct observation of the services provided showed that reported figures in relation to availability of patient support services were overestimated by around 10%. Three fourths of the information sheets and half the glycemia monitoring cards contained information on the eye complications and the need for a regular eye examination. Conclusions: The study highlighted existing gaps in service provision at diabetic care centers in India. PMID:27144131
Shrinagesh, B.; Markandey, Kalpana
Urban areas being economically diversified attract large streams of migrants making for a burgeoning population. This is more prevalent in the developing countries. The concomitants of this are high density, heavy traffic movement and increased pollution levels. To reduce the stressful life of city dwellers it is important to have open spaces, where one can pursue leisure time activities a few removes from clutter. A public space is a space that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads, public parks, libraries etc, are typically considered public space. The term ‘public space’ is also often misconstrued to mean other things such as ‘gathering place’, which is an element of the larger concept of social space. Hyderabad, the historical city is the capital of Telangana, India and extends from longitude 78o23’ to 78o33’E and latitude of 17o17’ to 17o31’N. It is the second largest city in terms of area and fifth largest in terms of population. It is one of the fastest growing cities in India. There is a huge influx of people from other states in search of better opportunities. The main objectives of the study are; to study the sprawl and changing demographic structure of the city of Hyderabad, to study the accessibility of parks, to study the need for the emergence of a local public sphere. The data base will be mainly on secondary data collected from various government sources. A primary survey will be conducted based on a structured questionnaire. GIS and other mapping techniques will be applied to analyse the data.
Vijay, Ritesh; Khobragade, Puja; Mohapatra, P K
Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city. PMID:20714928
Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.
Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread
Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.
In outlining a national strategy for environmental education in India, this document describes some current and future efforts of the Center for Environmental Education at Ahmedabad. It provides an historical account of India's environmental problems and its recent efforts at addressing those problems in light of rapid developmental efforts and…
Paul, Koushik; Dutta, Amit; Krishna, A P
Kolkata is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India and the capital city of the state of West Bengal. With an area of 187.33 km2 and a population of about 10 million (including a floating population of about 6 million), the city generates about 3500 Metric Ton (MT) of solid waste per day. Currently, Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) disposes its waste at Dhapa (21.47 ha), where the disposal rate exceeds 3000 MT/day, and at Garden Reach (3.52 ha), where the disposal rate is 100 MT/day. Considering the exhaustion of Dhapa land space, city planners are urgently searching for an alternate disposal ground. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), under the sponsorship of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), has brought out literature developing the site selection criteria for municipal solid waste disposal ground to suit Indian conditions. The developed criteria encompass environmental conditions, accessibility, geological and hydrogeological conditions, and ecological and societal effects. This paper attempts to locate the most suitable site for disposal of KMC area solid waste using the multicriterion decision analysis as stipulated in CPCB 2003 guidelines and the overlay analysis of geographic information system (GIS). Implications: The paper is based on landfill site selection for dumping of solid waste generated within Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area. The methodology uses GIS/remote sensing, Site Sensitivity Index (an offshoot of pairwise comparison technique developed in CPCB 2003 guidelines, Government of India), and the Delphi technique. Dhapa landfill site, where solid waste of KMC area is currently being disposed, is exhausted; the authors of this article thus found it relevant to carry out a research on the selection of an alternative landfill site. The study undertaken was comprehensive, yet presented in a lucid way so that policymakers will find easy to comprehend. PMID:25122958
Nesamani, K. S.; Subramanian, K. P.
In India the emissions rate and fuel consumption of intra-city buses are estimated using the European driving cycles, which don't represent Indian driving conditions and in-use operation of vehicles. This leads to underestimation or overestimation of emissions and fuel consumption. In this context, this paper offers some insight into the driving characteristics of intra-city buses using a Global Positioning System. The study has revealed that irrespective of road type and time of travel, a higher percentage of time is spent in idle mode. This is primarily due to alighting and boarding of passengers at regular intervals and fixed delays caused by traffic lights. More than 90 percent of trips have an average speed of less than 30 km h -1. This study has also developed an intra-city bus driving cycle for Chennai and compared it with some well-known international driving cycles. It has revealed that Chennai has unique driving characteristics and, therefore, it may not be appropriate to adopt a driving cycle of another country or city.
Kumar, Manoj; Mukherjee, Nivedita; Sharma, Gyan Prakash; Raghubanshi, A S
Rapid urbanization and increasing land use changes due to population and economic growth in selected landscapes is being witnessed of late in India and other developing countries. The cities are expanding in all directions resulting in large-scale urban sprawl and changes in urban land use. The spatial pattern of such changes is clearly noticed on the urban fringes or city peripheral rural areas than in the city center. In fact, this is reflected in changing urban land use patterns. There is an urgent need to accurately describe land use changes for planning and sustainable management. In the recent times, remote sensing is gaining importance as vital tool in the analysis and integration of spatial data. This study intends to estimate land use pattern in a planned and unplanned urban setup and also to analyze the impact of change in land use pattern in the Varanasi urban environment. The results indicate that the planned urban setup had a higher tree cover to that of unplanned area in the Varanasi City, although a considerable disparity existed within the planned urban setups. The results emphasize the need to critically review concepts of urban planning and give more consideration to the preservation and management of urban tree cover/greenspace. PMID:19562495
Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar; Bajaj, Sarita; Rajput, Rajesh; Subramaniam, K. A. V.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Bhandari, Rajendra; Dharmalingam, Mala; Sahay, Rakesh; Ganie, Ashraf; Kotwal, Narendra; Shriram, Usha
Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh), Bengaluru (Karnataka), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Kolkata (West Bengal), Hyderabad (Telangana), Nasik (Maharashtra), Rohtak (Haryana), Pune (Maharashtra), New Delhi (Delhi), Srinagar (Kashmir), and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh) enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388), using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613), whereas 40% (n = 155) of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%), majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country. PMID:27186559
Gilbert, Clare E.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Anchala, Raghupathy; Shukla, Rajan; Ballabh, Pant Hira; Vashist, Praveen; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Allagh, Komal; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Murthy, G. V. S.
Background: There is a paucity of information on the availability of services for diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to document existing healthcare infrastructure and practice patterns for managing DR. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 cities and included public and private eye care providers. Both multispecialty and stand-alone eye care facilities were included. Information was collected on the processes used in all steps of the program, from how diabetics were identified for screening through to policies about follow-up after treatment by administering a semistructured questionnaire and by using observational checklists. Results: A total of 86 eye units were included (31.4% multispecialty hospitals; 68.6% stand-alone clinics). The availability of a dedicated retina unit was reported by 68.6% (59) facilities. The mean number of outpatient consultations per year was 45,909 per responding facility, with nearly half being new registrations. A mean of 631 persons with sight-threatening-DR (ST-DR) were registered per year per facility. The commonest treatment for ST-DR was laser photocoagulation. Only 58% of the facilities reported having a full-time retina specialist on their rolls. More than half the eye care facilities (47; 54.6%) reported that their ophthalmologists would like further training in retina. Half (51.6%) of the facilities stated that they needed laser or surgical equipment. About 46.5% of the hospitals had a system to track patients needing treatment or for follow-up. Conclusions: The study highlighted existing gaps in service provision at eye care facilities in India. PMID:27144134
Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease. PMID:12284225
Lawrence, Alfred; Fatima, Nishat
Investigations were carried out during the summer season (March-June 2012) to observe the quality of indoor air by monitoring the levels of some selected air pollutants at 15 different houses covering the urban areas of Lucknow City. Concentrations of CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 were monitored indoors and outdoors simultaneously and I/O ratios were calculated. Regression analysis for I/O relationship was performed to assess the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor air quality. Air Quality Index (AQI) for indoor air was also calculated to have an idea about the quality of indoor air and their health effects. In collaboration with the medical college doctors of the city, we surveyed 197 persons to find out different diseases/symptoms being faced due to indoor air pollution. Results of the study revealed that the average levels of PM10 and PM2.5 were above the permissible limits laid by WHO at densely populated and roadside sites with 189 μg/m(3) (PM2.5 76 μg/m(3)) and 226 μg/m(3) (PM2.5 91 μg/m(3)) respectively. Correlation analysis showed positive results. At sites like Alambagh and Chowk, the indoor AQI range was alarming with the values of 302 and 209. Survey results also showed that 46% of urban people suffered from acute respiratory infections like bronchial asthma, headache, depression and dizziness and these people were mostly from Roadside colonies. PMID:24315412
Dholakia, Hem H.; Bhadra, Dhiman; Garg, Amit
Indian cities are among the most polluted areas globally, yet assessments of short term mortality impacts due to pollution have been limited. Furthermore, studies examining temperature - pollution interactions on mortality are largely absent. Addressing this gap remains important in providing research evidence to better link health outcomes and air quality standards for India. Daily all-cause mortality, temperature, humidity and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) data were collected for five cities - Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Shimla spanning 2005-2012. Poisson regression models were developed to study short term impacts of PM10 as well as temperature - pollution interactions on daily all-cause mortality. We find that excess risk of mortality associated with a 10 μg/m3 PM10 increase is highest for Shimla (1.36%, 95% CI = -0.38%-3.1%) and the least for Ahmedabad (0.16%, 95% CI = -0.31%-0.62%). The corresponding values for Bangalore, Hyderabad and Mumbai are 0.22% (-0.04%-0.49%), 0.85% (0.06%-1.63%) and 0.2% (0.1%-0.3%) respectively. The relative health benefits of reducing pollution are higher for cleaner cities (Shimla) as opposed to dirtier cities (Mumbai). Overall we find that temperature and pollution interactions do not significantly impact mortality for the cities studied. This is one of the first multi-city studies that assess heterogeneity of air pollution impacts and possible modification due to temperature in Indian cities that are spread across climatic regions and topographies. Our findings highlight the need for pursuing stringent pollution control policies in Indian cities to minimize health impacts.
ABSTRACT Introduction: Often people responsible for the oral care of children feel or believe that since primary teeth will eventually shed, it is not worthwhile to spend time/money on providing good oral health to children. Parents are the ones who take care of their children and make decisions for them. Hence, they should have knowledge about primary teeth, their health and caring in order to build confidence in their children through tiny teeth. Aim: To assess the knowledge of primary teeth and their importance among parents with children below 12 years. Materials and methods: A total of 1,000 questionnaires containing questions written both in English and in the local language (Kannada) were prepared for data collection and were personally distributed to parents visiting dental clinics for their children’s dental treatment. Statistical analysis: Both descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used. Results: Complaints related to dental caries constituted 82% of children visiting dental clinics among children in Bengaluru city. Only 39% of respondents were aware of all functions of primary teeth. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the parents of Bengaluru city had superficial or partial knowledge of primary teeth and that there is a need to improve this awareness. How to cite this article: Setty JV, Srinivasan I. Knowledge and Awareness of Primary Teeth and Their Importance among Parents in Bengaluru City, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):56-61. PMID:27274157
Satya; Upreti, Dalip K; Patel, D K
The aim of this study is to determine the possibility of using Rinodina sophodes (Ach.) Massal., a crustose lichen as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bioaccumulator for evaluation of atmospheric pollution in tropical areas of India, where few species of lichens are able to grow. PAHs were identified, quantified and compared to evaluate the potential utility of R. sophodes. The limit of detection for different PAHs was found to be 0.008-0.050 μg g( - 1). The total PAHs in different sites were ranged between 0.189 ± 0.029 and 0.494 ± 0.105 μg g( - 1). The major sources of PAHs were combustion of organic materials, traffic and vehicular exhaust (diesel and gasoline engine). Significantly higher concentration of acenaphthylene and phenanthrene indicates road traffic as major source of PAH pollution in the city. Two-way ANOVA also confirms that all PAHs content showed significant differences between all sampling sites (P 1%). This study establishes the utility of R. sophodes in monitoring the PAHs accumulation potentiality for development of effective tool and explores the most potential traits resistant to the hazardous environmental conditions in the tropical regions of north India, where no such other effective way of biomonitoring is known so far. PMID:21465135
Alam, Tabish; Kulkarni, Kishore
Energy plays a vital role in the development of any country. With rapid economic growth and multifold urbanization, India faces the problem of municipal solid waste management and disposal. This problem can be mitigate through adoption of environment friendly technologies for treatment and processing of waste before it is disposed off. Currently, urban and industrial wastes throughout India receive partial treatment before its final disposal, except in few exceptional cases. This practice leads to severe environmental pollution problems including major threat to human health. There is an absolute need to provide adequate waste collection and treatment before its disposal. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is getting importance in recent years. The MSW management involves collection, transportation, handling and conversion to energy by biological and thermal routes. Based on the energy potential available, the energy conversion through biogas production using available waste is being carried out. Waste-to-energy is now a clean, renewable, sustainable source of energy. The estimation of energy content of MSW in Roorkee city is discussed in this paper. Furthermore this paper also takes into account the benefits of carbon credits.
Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K
Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India. PMID:25464691
Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K
Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India. PMID:25508322
Kumar, Sunil; Bhattacharyya, J K; Vaidya, A N; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Devotta, Sukumar; Akolkar, A B
Solid waste management is one of the most challenging issues in urban cities, which are facing a serious pollution problem due to the generation of huge quantities of solid waste. This paper presents an assessment of the existing situation of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in major cities in India. The quantity and composition of MSW vary from place to place, and bear a rather consistent correlation with the average standard of living. Extensive field investigations were carried out for quantification, analysis of physical composition, and characterization of MSW in each of the identified cities. The MSW management status (per the MSW Rules, 2000) has also been assessed, and an action plan for better management has been formulated; both are presented in this paper. Studies carried out in 59 selected cities in India have revealed that there are many shortcomings in the existing practices used in managing the MSW. These shortcomings pertain mainly to inadequate manpower, financial resources, implements, and machinery required for effectively carrying out various activities for MSWM. To overcome the deficiencies in the existing MSWM systems, an indicative action plan has been presented incorporating strategies and guidelines. Based on this plan, municipal agencies can prepare specific action plans for their respective cities. PMID:18595684
Singh, Digvijay; Joshi, B D
The present paper deals with monitoring of noise pollution at different places of Meerut City (India) on the night of Deepawali festival. During the present study the noise levels were measured with the help of sound meter. The noise pollution is decreasing considerably for the last three years and it is recorded minimum in 2009 as compared to 2008 and 2007. The main reason of this decrement is the growing environmental awareness in the people of Meerut City. Needless to say, students of most of the school in Meerut City now prefer to celebrate Deepawali, festival of lights without sound and smoke. The campaign for eco-friendly Deepawali is expected to catch on with people in Meerut City which has already demonstrated its commitment towards environment conservation. Mainly fire crackers are used during Deepawali. The present paper is an attempt to create awareness among the people of Meerut City about the bitter truth of fire crackers. PMID:24749202
Ramesh, R.; Shiv Kumar, K.; Eswaramoorthi, S.; Purvaja, G. R.
Groundwater samples collected from both open and bore wells in an area of about 270 km2 from Madras City, India, have been analyzed for major ions (HCO3, Cl, Si, Na, Ca, and Mg) and trace elements (As, Se, B, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni, Mo, and Ba). The study reveals that the quality of potable water has deteriorated to a large extent. Seawater intrusion into the aquifer has been observed in nearly 50 percent of the study area. The toxic elements (As and Se) have already exceeded the maximum permissible limits of drinking water in almost the entire city. A positive correlation of As and Se with other toxic metals such as V, Cr, Fe, B, etc., indicates that all these elements are anthropogenic in origin. Applying multivariate analysis, the source for trace elements in groundwater has been grouped into two major factors: pollution and mobilization factors. The groundwater in the study area is largely contaminated by organic effluents and reflects the intensity of pollution caused by the overlying soil sediment and rapid infiltration of the pollutants.
Gupta, Vivek V.; Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Bapat, Salil; Chaturvedi, Pulkit
Objectives A study was conducted with the purpose to assess the knowledge and attitude towards informed consent among private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all private dental practitioners in Bathinda City. A self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 14 items was used to assess their knowledge and attitude regarding informed consent. The response format was based on a 3-point Likert scale. One-way analysis of variance, independent sample t test, and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were utilized for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5%, respectively. Results The mean scores for knowledge and attitude were 19.37 ± 31.82 and 9.40 ± 1.72, respectively. Analysis revealed that qualification and years of experience was statistically significant among both dependent variables (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion An unbalanced knowledge of informed consent among the current dentists has suggested the need for awareness programs to fill the knowledge gaps and instill positive attitudes. PMID:25938015
Dhanaraj, Baskaran; Papanna, Mohan Kumar; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Vedachalam, Chandrasekaran; Sundaram, Vijayaraj; Shanmugam, Shivakumar; Sekar, Gomathi; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan; Wares, Fraser; Swaminathan, Soumya
Background The present study measured the community prevalence and risk factors of adult pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Chennai city, and also studied geographical distribution and the presence of different M. tuberculosis strains in the survey area. Methods A community-based cross sectional survey was carried out from July 2010 to October 2012 in Chennai city. Prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated by direct standardization method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify significant risk factors. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping was performed on isolated M. tuberculosis strains. Mapping of PTB cases was done using geographic positioning systems. Results Of 59,957 eligible people, 55,617 were screened by X-ray and /or TB symptoms and the prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated to be 228 (95% CI 189–265), 259 (95% CI 217–299) and 349 (95% CI 330–428) per 100,000 population, respectively. Prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was highest amongst men aged 55–64 years. Multivariate analysis showed that occurrence of both culture and bacteriologically positive PTB disease was significantly associated with: age >35 years, past history of TB treatment, BMI <18.5 Kgs/m2, solid cooking fuel, and being a male currently consuming alcohol. The most frequent spoligotype family was East African Indian. Spatial distribution showed that a high proportion of patients were clustered in the densely populated north eastern part of the city. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that TB is a major public health problem in this urban area of south India, and support the use of intensified case finding in high risk groups. Undernutrition, slum dwelling, indoor air pollution and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors for TB disease. PMID:25905900
Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.
Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that
Galloway, H. L., Jr.
Reports submitted by the NASA project representative for the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) at Ahmedabad, India are presented. These reports deal with the coordination of all SITE related matters between the ATS 6 Project at Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA Headquarters, and the SITE Program in India.
Bhende, A A; Choe, M K; Rele, J R; Palmore, J A
This study examines the determinants of contraceptive method choice in Jamshedpur, an industrial city in Bihar State, one of the few areas in India that enjoys a "cafeteria approach" to family planning method selection. While contraceptive prevalence in India is about 35%, Jamshedpur has a prevalence rate close to 60%. One of Jamshedpur's special programs is the Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) Family Welfare Programme, which provides an array of services to both employees and nonemployees. In 1983, TISCO commissioned the International Institute for Populations Studies (IIPS) to evaluate its programs. Based on the findings of an IIPS survey of 2376 currently married women between the ages of 15-44, this study attempts to identify determinants of contraceptive method choice. For its analysis, the study used a multinomial method choice. For its analysis, the study used a multinomial logit regression, a model appropriate for studying the relationships between a number of covariates and a dependent variable (the contraceptive method used) that has more than 2 possible outcomes (female sterilization, male sterilization, condom, female temporary method, natural methods, or no method). The survey examined the following covariates: religion/caste, mother tongue, husband's occupation, place of employment, age at consummation of marriage, husband's education, wife's education, marriage duration, survival status of last child, number and sex of living children, and attitude variables. The study found that religion, mother tongue, and educational levels are important determinants of acceptance and method choice. The number of children -- especially sons -- also affected contraceptive use, rising as family size increases. The study revealed that the Jamshedpur population did exercise choice in clear patterns when the choices were made available. PMID:12284858
Sen, Indra S.; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand; Paul, Debajyoti
Anthropogenic Pb in the environment is primarily sourced from combustion of fossil fuel and high-temperature industries such as smelters. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in the environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb-isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, a large city in northern part of India. The study shows that the PM10 aerosols had elevated concentration of Cd, Pb, Zn, As, and Cu in the Kanpur area, however their concentrations are well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit. Lead isotopic and trace metal data reveal industrial emission as the plausible source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere in Kanpur. However, Pb isotopic compositions of potential source end-members are required to fully evaluate Pb contamination in India over time. This is the first study that characterizes the isotopic composition of atmospheric Pb in an Indian city after leaded gasoline was phased out by 2000.
Ahmed, Ishfaq; Mian, Seema; Mudasir, Syed; Andrabi, K. I.
Background: Myopia is a common ocular disorder. Prevalence data with regard to myopia is scarce in India and almost nonexistent in Kashmir. Objective: To determine the prevalence of myopia in Srinagar City and to evaluate risk factors associated with the disease. Methods: 38 schools in the Srinagar were selected randomly and students were examined by our optometrist team. Children with refractive error of −0.25 D to −5.9 D were considered myopic, while those with −6 D and above were considered high myopic. Statistical analysis used: χ2 Tests were used as appropriate to test whether potential risk factors were significantly associated with myopia. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for risk factors that were independently associated with myopia in this population. Results: A total of 4,360 students of mean age 12.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.99 – 12.22: range, 7–18) participated in the study. Myopia was found in 4.74% students. Increasing age was associated with the increased risk of having myopia. Girl students were more likely to have myopia than boys (OR = 1.52). The prevalence of myopia among girls was more than that of boys. Students from low socioeconomic conditions were having higher prevalence of myopia than their counterparts from higher socioeconomic counterparts. Conclusion: Reduced vision because of myopia is an important health problem in students in Srinagar City. Most of these students do not have the necessary correction spectacles. Effective strategies are needed to eliminate the cause of a significant visual problem. PMID:21475475
Background Among the various oral ailments which have been observed in elderly, root caries is a significant one. Tooth loss is chief oral health-related negative variable to the quality of life in elderly and root caries is the major cause of tooth loss in them. It has been reported about a third of older population bears most of the root caries burden, so the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of root caries among older individuals residing in residential homes of Bengaluru city India. Material and Methods Elderly individuals aged 60 and above, residing in residential homes of Bangalore city, were included in the study. The study participants filled a questionnaire regarding their demographic details and oral health habits. Root surface caries was recorded according to criteria described by Banting et al. and root caries was expressed in terms of the root caries index (RCI). The statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The prevalence of root caries was 46.4%. The root caries index was 15%. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) observed across gender, marital status, diet, socio-economic status, medication, method of cleaning and frequency of cleaning and were identified as significant predictors of root caries. Conclusions The prevalence of root caries among institutionalized older people was high. Oral health policies and preventive measures are needed focusing on the special needs of this neglected and socioeconomically deprived population to improve their quality of life. Key words:Elders, residential home, root caries. PMID:27398175
Fernau, Curt N.
Discusses the educational program of the Textile Labour Association of Ahmedabad in India, which is designed to cope with the broad cultural, social, and economic problems facing workers and their families. The program focuses upon individual enrichment, cultural participation, and vocational mobility through the improvement of job skills. (JOW)
Panigrahi, Ansuman; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Panigrahi, Madhulita
Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed that 32.9% of study respondents had poor mental health and only about 10% of these women had sought any kind of mental health services. Logistic regression analysis showed that 3 predictors such as favourable attitude of colleagues, sharing their own problems with husband, and spending time for yoga/meditation/exercise had significant positive impact on the mental health status of married working women. A preventive program regarding various aspects of mental health for married working women at workplace as well as community level could be a useful strategy in reducing this public health problem. PMID:24800258
Saleth, R. Maria; Dinar, Ariel
Utilizing both primary and secondary information pertaining to the water sector of Hyderabad City, India, this paper (1) evaluates the economics of various technically feasible supply augmentations options; (2) estimates the group-specific water demand and consumption response functions under alternative pricing behaviors; (3) calculates the net willingness to pay (NWTP, considered to be the value of raw water at source) of different user groups as derived from their respective price elasticities; (4) shows how inadequate the NWTP is to justify most supply augmentation options including intersectoral water transfers under the existing water rate structure; (5) argues that the economic and institutional conditions internal to urban water sector cannot justify an externally imposed water transfers, whether market-based or otherwise, as long as the water rate structure is inefficient and regressive; and (6) concludes by underlining the central role that the pricing option, both the level and structure, plays not only in activating a number of nonprice options but also in generating incentives for the emergence of new and the consolidation of existing institutional conditions needed to support economically rooted water transfers and conservation initiatives.
Tisone-Bartels, Dede; Eppley, Felicia
This lesson on India was developed based on an Internet Indian diary. The lesson describes visits and experiences in Delhi, Khajuraho, Varanasi, Bombay, Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Madras, Jaipur, and Agra. It also provides a series of "virtual field trips" ("Love and Marriage"; "Sacred Places"; and "Solving a Community Problem through Education"). Each…
This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…
This book discusses primary education of the poor in the city of Mumbai, India. It focuses on the city of Mumbai itself and the poor who live in it, answering questions such as What makes the city the way it is? What does it mean to be poor in Mumbai? and How does the poverty of the poor in Mumbai affect their chances of receiving a basic…
In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the
Singh, Amanjot K.; Gupta, Vikram Kumar; Sharma, Bhuvan; Singla, Bhavna; Kaur, Paramjeet; Walia, Geeta
Introduction: Ground water is the ultimate and most suitable fresh water resource for human consumption in the urban areas of India. Studies regarding ground water quality have shown that the higher rate of exploration as compared to the rate of recharging, inappropriate dumping of solid, as well as liquid waste, lack of strict enforcement of law has led to the deterioration of ground water quality. The present study was thus, carried out to evaluate physicochemical, as well as a microbiological profile of tap water, and filtered water in urban areas of Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: The three zones under Municipal Corporation and two areas under Public Health Department were chosen according to the simple random sampling from Patiala city. From each area, 10 houses were chosen according to the systematic random sampling technique (n = 50). Water was taken from two sources, tap water, and from the water filter. Two samples were taken from each source one for the physicochemical analysis and another for bacteriological analysis. The samples which were sent for bacteriological assessment were collected in a sterile container. Results: The number of water samples found to be within desirable limits with respect to physicochemical parameters were significantly more with the filter water sample than the tap water samples. Suspicious/unsatisfactory microbiological quality of water was observed in 28% and 4% of tap and filter water samples, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that certain chemical parameters such as hardness, chloride, and fluoride levels were beyond the permissible limits. Therefore, we recommend that home filters should be installed, serviced appropriately, and their water quality should be checked routinely. Also, any leak from sewage pipes should be promptly repaired to prevent contamination of drinking water. PMID:26985408
Buch, Nirav; Goyal, Jagdish P.; Kumar, Nagendra; Parmar, Indira; Shah, Vijay B.; Charan, Jaykaran
Background: Early diagnosis of hypertension (HT) is an important strategy in its control. Previous studies have documented that hypertension may begin in adolescence, perhaps even in childhood. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and risk factors among school going children in Surat city, south Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: School going children aged between 6 to 18 years, of two schools were selected by purposive sampling method and blood pressure measurements were taken by mercury sphygmomanometer as per recommendation of American heart association. Hypertension is considered when blood pressure is more than 95th percentile according to update on task force report (2004) and children having hypertension in first and second recording repeat measurement was done to confirm hypertension after a week. Results: Total prevalence of hypertension in our study was 6.48%. Hypertension in males was 6.74% (<10 yrs 5.88%, 10-13yrs 6.04%, >13yrs 9.19%) and in females was 6.13% (<10yrs 0.62%, 10-13yrs 8.67%,.13yrs 8.48%). Prevalence of obesity in hypertension was 8.7% against normotensive 1.1% (P <0.05). Prevalence of hypertension in family members of hypertensive was 18.6% and in normotensive 13.1% (P =0.1). Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in family members of hypertensive was 23.4% and 13.7% in normotensive (P<0.05); while prevalence of ischemic heart disease in family members was 12.34% in hypertensive and 8.3% in normotensive (P <0.05). Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension was 6.48% in the study subjects. We identified obesity, family history of diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease was found to be significant association for childhood hypertension. PMID:22135481
1. Abstract Background Dog population management is required in many locations to minimise the risks dog populations may pose to human health and to alleviate animal welfare problems. In many cities in India, Animal Birth Control (ABC) projects have been adopted to provide population management. Measuring the impact of such projects requires assessment of dog population size among other relevant indicators. Methods This paper describes a simple mark-resight survey methodology that can be used with little investment of resources to monitor the number of roaming dogs in areas that are currently subject to ABC, provided the numbers, dates and locations of the dogs released following the intervention are reliably recorded. We illustrate the method by estimating roaming dog numbers in three cities in Rajasthan, India: Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. In each city the dog populations were either currently subject to ABC or had been very recently subject to such an intervention and hence a known number of dogs had been permanently marked with an ear-notch to identify them as having been operated. We conducted street surveys to record the current percentage of dogs in each city that are ear-notched and used an estimate for the annual survival of ear-notched dogs to calculate the current size of each marked population. Results Dividing the size of the marked population by the fraction of the dogs that are ear-notched we estimated the number of roaming dogs to be 36,580 in Jaipur, 24,853 in Jodhpur and 2,962 in Jaisalmer. Conclusions The mark-resight survey methodology described here is a simple way of providing population estimates for cities with current or recent ABC programmes that include visible marking of dogs. Repeating such surveys on a regular basis will further allow for evaluation of ABC programme impact on population size and reproduction in the remaining unsterilised dog population. PMID:21834979
Shukla, Rajan; Gudlavalleti, Murthy V. S.; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Anchala, Raghupathy; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Singh, Vivek; Vashist, Praveen; Allagh, Komal; Ballabh, Hira Pant; Gilbert, Clare E.
Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of visual impairment. Low awareness about the disease and inequitable distribution of care are major challenges in India. Objectives: Assess perception of care and challenges faced in availing care among diabetics. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital based survey was conducted in eleven cities. In each city, public and private providers of eye-care were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone facilities were included. Specially designed semi-open ended questionnaires were administered to the clients. Results: 376 diabetics were interviewed in the eye clinics, of whom 62.8% (236) were selected from facilities in cities with a population of 7 million or more. The mean duration of known diabetes was 11.1 (±7.7) years. Half the respondents understood the meaning of adequate glycemic control and 45% reported that they had visual loss when they first presented to an eye facility. Facilities in smaller cities and those with higher educational status were found to be statistically significant predictors of self-reported good/adequate control of diabetes. The correct awareness of glycemic control was significantly high among attending privately-funded facilities and higher educational status. Self-monitoring of glycemic status at home was significantly associated with respondents from larger cities, privately-funded facilities, those who were better educated and reported longer duration of diabetes. Duration of diabetes (41%), poor glycemic control (39.4%) and age (20.7%) were identified as the leading causes of DR. The commonest challenges faced were lifestyle/behavior related. Conclusions: The findings have significant implications for the organization of diabetes services in India. PMID:27144135
Subramaniam, Priya; Gupta, Tulika; Sharma, Akhilesh
Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect. The prevalence of MIH ranges widely from 2.4% to 40.2%. Aim: This study was under taken to determine the prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a representative sample of 2500 school children aged 7–9 years of Bengaluru, India. Oral examination was carried out by a single trained calibrated examiner under natural daylight. Results: Twelve children (0.48%) were diagnosed with MIH. A total of 68 teeth were observed with MIH. All four first permanent molars were affected in 50% of children. In the molar group, mandibular molars (29.41%) were more frequently affected than maxillary molars (27.94%). Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru was 0.48%, with no gender predilection. PMID:27041893
Thomas, Susan; Dagli, Rushabh; Bhateja, Geetika Arora; Sharma, Akanksha; Singh, Amarpreet
Objectives: This study had twin objectives of assessing the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices and to assess the dental caries status and treatment needs among the orphan children of orphanages of Jodhpur city, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: This cross- sectional study was carried out on 100 children to assess the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of children and adolescents of orphanages in Jodhpur city, Rajasthan, India. The data was collected on a pre-tested questionnaire which included 20 closed ended multiple-choice questions on perceived oral health status, knowledge of oral health and attitude, oral health practices, dietary habits and behaviour towards dental treatment. On completion of the questionnaire, each child underwent an oral examination and Dentition status and treatment needs index (WHO Oral Health Surveys- 1997) was recorded for each subject. Results: Almost 93% of the children felt the necessity of maintaining oral hygiene. There were 69% of the children who believed that it was necessary to brush teeth after every meal, 51% children believed that regular tooth-brushing prevents all tooth problems and 93% children knew that tobacco is carcinogenic in nature. Also, it was found that 77% of the children believed that regular dental visits help in maintaining oral hygiene. Conclusion: Many of them had acquired knowledge on oral health. More than half of the study subjects were aware of the importance of keeping good oral hygiene, regular dental visits and harmful effects of tobacco. PMID:25478441
Das, B.; Ahn, C.; Torres, O.
Many cities in India have gone through industrial revolution due to the priorities put by the State and Central Governments for economical growth. Bhubaneswar is one of the cities in the eastern part of India (85.8 E and 20.2 N) that has been the center of industrial activities since 1990s. A number of industries such as thermal power plants, sponge iron plants and housing developments have resulted changes in the land cover and in the slow deterioration of air quality affecting public health and reduced visibility. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the variability in aerosol optical and physical properties in Bhubaneswar using remote sensing data produced by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). We have analyzed the data for Aerosol Extiction Optical Depth (AOD), Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth (AAOD), UV Aerosol Index and Cloud Fraction from OMI and Aerosol Small Mode Fraction, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Cloud Optical Depth (COD), Aerosol Mass over Land from MODIS. The analysis has been made for 4 years from 2005-2008. Variations in AOD and AAOD values are observed during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods.
In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology. PMID:12177992
Situational analysis of services for diabetes and diabetic retinopathy and evaluation of programs for the detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in India: Methods for the India 11-city 9-state study
Murthy, G. V. S.; Gilbert, Clare E.; Shukla, Rajan; Vashist, Praveen; Shamanna, B. R.
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment in India. Available evidence shows that there are more than 60 million persons with diabetes in India and that the number will increase to more than a 100 million by 2030. There is a paucity of data on the perceptions and practices of persons with diabetes and the available infrastructure and uptake of services for DR in India. Objectives: Assess perception of care and challenges faced in availing eye care services among persons with diabetics and generate evidence on available human resources, infrastructure, and service utilization for DR in India. Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in eleven cities across 9 States in India. In each city, public and private providers of eye-care were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone facilities were included. Specially designed semi-open ended questionnaires were administered to the clients. Semi-structured interviews were administered to the service providers (both diabetic care physicians and eye care teams) and observational checklists were used to record findings of the assessment of facilities conducted by a dedicated team of research staff. Results: A total of 859 units were included in this study. This included 86 eye care and 73 diabetic care facilities, 376 persons with diabetes interviewed in the eye clinics and 288 persons with diabetes interviewed in the diabetic care facilities. Conclusions: The findings will have significant implications for the organization of services for persons with diabetes in India. PMID:27144132
Nath, S. K.; Adhikari, M. D.; Maiti, S. K.; Devaraj, N.; Srivastava, N.; Mohapatra, L. D.
Seismic microzonation is a process of estimating site-specific effects due to an earthquake on urban centers for its disaster mitigation and management. The state of West Bengal, located in the western foreland of the Assam-Arakan Orogenic Belt, the Himalayan foothills and Surma Valley, has been struck by several devastating earthquakes in the past, indicating the need for a seismotectonic review of the province, especially in light of probable seismic threat to its capital city of Kolkata, which is a major industrial and commercial hub in the eastern and northeastern region of India. A synoptic probabilistic seismic hazard model of Kolkata is initially generated at engineering bedrock (Vs30 ~ 760 m s-1) considering 33 polygonal seismogenic sources at two hypocentral depth ranges, 0-25 and 25-70 km; 158 tectonic sources; appropriate seismicity modeling; 14 ground motion prediction equations for three seismotectonic provinces, viz. the east-central Himalaya, the Bengal Basin and Northeast India selected through suitability testing; and appropriate weighting in a logic tree framework. Site classification of Kolkata performed following in-depth geophysical and geotechnical investigations places the city in D1, D2, D3 and E classes. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment at a surface-consistent level - i.e., the local seismic hazard related to site amplification performed by propagating the bedrock ground motion with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years through a 1-D sediment column using an equivalent linear analysis - predicts a peak ground acceleration (PGA) range from 0.176 to 0.253 g in the city. A deterministic liquefaction scenario in terms of spatial distribution of liquefaction potential index corresponding to surface PGA distribution places 50% of the city in the possible liquefiable zone. A multicriteria seismic hazard microzonation framework is proposed for judicious integration of multiple themes, namely PGA at the surface, liquefaction potential
Bhatt, Bhavin S; Chahwala, Fenisha D; Rathod, Sangeeta; Singh, Achuit K
Capsicum annuum (Chilli) is a perennial herbaceous plant that is cultivated as an annual crop throughout the world, including India. Chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) is a major biotic constraint, causing major losses in chilli production. During 2014, leaf samples of chilli plants displaying leaf curl disease were collected from the Ahmedabad district of Gujarat, India. These samples were used to isolate, clone and sequence viral genomic DNA and an associated betasatellite DNA molecule. Sequence analysis showed 90.4 % nucleotide sequence identity to the previously reported chilli leaf curl virus-[India:Guntur:2009] (ChiLCV-[IN:Gun:09]. As per ICTV nomenclature rules, ChiLCV-Ahm represents a new species of begomovirus, and we therefore propose the name chilli leaf curl Ahmedabad virus-[India:Ahmedabad:2014] (ChiLCAV-[IN:Ahm:14]). The associated betasatellite DNA showed a maximum of 93.5 % nucleotide sequence identity to a previously reported tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite and may be named tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite-[India:Ahmedabad:Chilli:2014]. PMID:26831933
Solomon, Sunil S.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Mcfall, Allison M.; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Anand, Santhanam; Nandagopal, P.; Ogburn, Elizabeth; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Lucas, Gregory M.; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.
Objective To characterize prevalence, incidence and associated correlates of HIV infection among MSM in 12 cities across India. Design Cross-sectional sample using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from September 2012-June 2013 Methods A total 12,022 MSM (∼1000 per city) were recruited. Participants had to be ≥18 years, self-identify as male and report oral/anal intercourse with a man in the prior year. HIV infection was diagnosed using 3 rapid tests. Cross-sectional HIV incidence was estimated using a multi-assay algorithm. All estimates incorporate RDS-II weights. Results Median age was 25 years, 45.0% self-identified as “panthi” (predominantly penetrative anal intercourse) and 30.6% reported being married to a woman. Weighted HIV prevalence was 7.0% (range: 1.7% to 13.1%). In multivariate analysis, significantly higher odds of HIV infection was observed among those who were older, had lower educational attainment, were practicing purely receptive anal sex or both receptive and penetrative sex and those who were HSV-2 positive. Of 1,147 MSM who tested HIV positive, 53 were identified as recent HIV infections (annualized incidence = 0.87%; range = 0 to 2.2%). In multivariate analysis, injecting drugs in the prior 6 months, syphilis, higher number of male partners and fewer female partners were significantly associated with recent HIV infection. Conclusions We observed a high burden of HIV among MSM in India with tremendous diversity in prevalence, incidence and risk behaviors. In particular, we observed high incidence in areas with relatively low prevalence suggesting emerging epidemics in areas not previously recognized to have high HIV burden. PMID:25849835
Motling, Sanjay; Dutta, Amit; Mukherjee, S N; Kumar, Sunil
The uncontrolled tipping of mixed urban solid waste in landfill site causes serious negative impacts on the environment. The major issue in this context is the generation of leachate which possesses potential of polluting freshwater ecosystem including groundwater besides associated health hazards and depletion of soil fertility. In this context, a pseudo computation quantitative tool, known as leachate pollution index (LPI), has been developed by some researchers for scaling pollution potential of landfill site owing to emergence of leachate. This paper. deals with the assessment of leachate quality of existing landfill site of Kolkata situated at Dhapa waste dumping ground through evaluation of the LPI from experimental analysis of leachate. The leachate was collected from this site in different seasons. 18 parameters were tested with real leachate samples in the Environmental Engineering Laboratory of Civil Engineering Department of Jadavpur University Kolkata. The results exhibited a very high value of organic pollutants in the leachate with COD as 21,129 mg/L and also values of TDS, Fe2+, Cr, Zn, chloride and ammonical nitrogen. The LPI value of Kolkata landfill site at Dhapa was estimated and also compared with leachate quality data of other metropolitan cities viz. Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai as available in literatures. It is found that LPI of the Kolkata landfill site is highest compared to all other landfill sites of other metropolitan cities in India. PMID:25509951
Mohapatra, P K; Vijay, R; Pujari, P R; Sundaray, S K; Mohanty, B P
Variability of groundwater quality parameters is linked to various processes such as weathering, organic matter degradation, aerobic respiration, iron reduction, mineral dissolution and precipitation, cation exchange and mixing of salt water with fresh water. Multivariate statistical analyses such as principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to the standardized data set of eleven groundwater quality parameters (i.e. pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe3+, alkalinity, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), TDS) collected during the post-monsoon and the summer seasons in order to elicit hydrologic and biogeochemical processes affecting water quality in the unconfined aquifer beneath Puri city in eastern India. The application of PCA resulted in four factors explaining 73% variance in post-monsoon and 81% variance in summer. The HCA using Ward's method and squared Euclidean distance measure classified the parameters into four clusters based on their similarities. PCA and HCA allowed interpretation of processes. During both post-monsoon and summer seasons, anthropogenic pollution and organic matter degradation/Fe(III) reduction were found dominant due to contribution from on-site sanitation in septic tanks and soak pits in the city. Cation exchange and mineral precipitation were possible causes for increase in Na+ and decrease in Ca2+ concentration in summer. Fresh water recharge during monsoon and Sea water intrusion in summer are attributed as significant hydrologic processes to variations of the groundwater quality at the study site. PMID:22097065
Pallav, Kumar; Raghukanth, S. T. G.; Singh, Konjengbam D.
Seismic site coefficients (Fs) for Imphal city have been estimated based on 700 synthetically generated earthquake time histories through stochastic finite fault method, considering various combinations of magnitudes and fault distances that may affect Imphal city. Seismic hazard curves and Uniform Hazard Response Spectra (UHRS) are presented for Imphal city. Fs have been estimated based on site response analyses through SHAKE-91 for a period range of engineering interest (PGA to 3.0 s), for 5% damping. Fs were multiplied by UHRS values to obtain surface level spectral acceleration with 2 and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 year (~2500 and ~500 year) return period. Comparison between predicted mean surface level response spectra and IS-1893 code shows that spectral acceleration value is higher for longer periods (i.e., > 1.0 s), for ~500 year return period, and lower for periods shorter than 0.2 s for ~2500 year return period.
Ghosh, Dipak; Lahiri, Madhumita Banerjee; Tudu, Bharati; Deb, Argha; Majumder, Ashis; Bose, Asok Nath; Chakrabarty, Debashis
The study of the existing scenario of the effect of trees and shrubs as urban screen plantings for abating the level of real time traffic-induced noise pollution in Kolkata city deserves extreme importance. However, no such data are available till date in this area. This paper reports the result of a preliminary study to assess the attenuation of real time traffic noise by tree belts at three different important locations of the city. This measurement provides some new and interesting data which will be useful for further study and subsequent plan. PMID:24749200
Chakravarthy, Murali; Myatra, Sheila Nainan; Rosenthal, Victor D; Udwadia, F E; Gokul, B N; Divatia, J V; Poojary, Aruna; Sukanya, R; Kelkar, Rohini; Koppikar, Geeta; Pushparaj, Leema; Biswas, Sanjay; Bhandarkar, Lata; Raut, Sandhya; Jadhav, Shital; Sampat, Sulochana; Chavan, Neeraj; Bahirune, Shweta; Durgad, Shilpa
The fundamental tool for preventing and controlling healthcare-acquired infections is hand hygiene (HH). Nonetheless, adherence to HH guidelines is often low. Our goal was to assess the effect of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach (IMHHA) in three intensive care units of three INICC member hospitals in two cities of India and to analyze the predictors of compliance with HH. From August 2004 to July 2011, we carried out an observational, prospective, interventional study to evaluate the implementation of the IMHHA, which included the following elements: (1) administrative support, (2) supplies availability, (3) education and training, (4) reminders in the workplace, (5) process surveillance and (6) performance feedback. The practices of health care workers were monitored during randomly selected 30-min periods. We observed 3612 opportunities for HH. Overall adherence to HH increased from 36.9% to 82% (95% CI 79.3-84.5; P=0.0001). Multivariate analysis indicated that certain variables were significantly associated with poor HH adherence: nurses vs. physicians (70.5% vs. 74%; 95% CI 0.62-0.96; P=0.018), ancillary staff vs. physicians (43.6% vs. 74.0%; 95% CI 0.48-0.72; P<0.001), ancillary staff vs. nurses (43.6% vs. 70.5%; 95% CI 0.51-0.75; P<0.001) and private vs. academic hospitals (74.2% vs. 66.3%; 95% CI 0.83-0.97; P<0.001). It is worth noticing that in India, the HH compliance of physicians is higher than in nurses. Adherence to HH was significantly increased by implementing the IMHHA. Programs targeted at improving HH are warranted to identify predictors of poor compliance. PMID:25270387
Das, Durgesh Nandini; Sinha, Niharika; Naik, Prajna Paramita; Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Sarangi, Itisam; Bhutia, Sujit K
In this study, we examined potential adverse health effect of particulate matter (PM) collected from industrial areas of Rourkela, Odisha, India. Results indicate that PM in these areas contains benzo[a]pyrene in addition to other unidentified molecules. Ames test revealed the above PM to be highly mutagenic. Further studies of PM in HaCaT cells suggest its DNA damaging potential which may lead to apoptosis. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species following PM exposure may be an early event in the PM induced apoptosis. In addition, the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), the key xenobiotic metabolism enzyme, was found to be increased following PM exposure indicating its role in PM induced toxicity. To confirm this, we used genetic and pharmacological inhibitors of CYP450 like CYP1B1 siRNA and Clotrimazole. Interestingly, we found that the use of these inhibitors significantly suppressed the PM induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells, which confirm the crucial role of CYP1B1 in the toxic manifestation of PM. For further analysis, blood samples were collected from the volunteer donor and analyzed for immunophenotypes and comet assay to survey any change in immune cells and DNA damage in blood cells respectively. The study was performed with 55 blood samples including 32 from industrial areas and 23 people from non-industrial zone of Rourkela city. Samples had a mean±SD age of 35±6.2years (35 men and 20 women). Our investigation did not observe any significant alteration in lymphocytes (P=0.671), B cell (P=0.104), cytotoxic T cell (P=0.512), helper T cell (P=0.396), NK cell (P=0.675) and monocytes (P=0.170) of blood cells from these two groups. Taken together; this study first time reports the possible health hazards of PM from industrial areas of Odisha, India. PMID:27458701
Vaccari, Franco; Walling, M. Yanger; Mohanty, William K.; Nath, Sankar K.; Verma, Akhilesh K.; Sengupta, A.; Panza, Giuliano F.
Kolkata, one of the oldest cities of India, is situated over the thick alluvium of the Bengal Basin, where it lies at the boundary of the zone III and zone IV of the seismic zonation map of India. An example of the study of site effects of the metropolitan Kolkata is presented based on theoretical modeling. Full synthetic strong motion waveforms have been computed using a hybrid method that combines the modal summation and finite difference techniques. The 1964 Calcutta earthquake, which was located at the southern part of Kolkata, is taken as the source region, with the focal mechanism parameters of dip = 32°, strike = 232° and rake = 56°. Four profiles are considered for the computation of the synthetic seismograms from which the maximum ground acceleration ( A MAX) is obtained. Response spectra ratios (RSR) are then computed using a bedrock reference model to estimate local amplifications effects. The A MAX varies from 0.05 to 0.17 g and the comparison of the A MAX with the different intensity scales (MM, MSK, RF and MCS) shows that the expected intensity is in the range from VII to X (MCS) for an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 at an epicentral distance of about 100 km. This theoretical result matches with the empirical (historical and recent) intensity observations in Kolkata. The RSR, as a function of frequency, reaches the largest values (largest amplification) in the frequency range from 1.0 to 2.0 Hz. The largest site amplification is observed at the top of loose soil.
Vijayanand, C; Rajaguru, P; Kalaiselvi, K; Selvam, K Panneer; Palanivel, M
Industrialization and urbanization are the two major causes of deteriorating air quality. To evaluate the ambient air quality of the Coimbatore city, suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected at ten stations and analysed for the heavy metals content. The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd) were estimated. The level of SPM was found to be either at permissible or non-permissible limit depending upon the category of the sampling station. At majority of sampling stations, concentrations of Zn were found to be maximum than other heavy metals. The order of average concentrations of heavy metals in Coimbatore atmospheric air was Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Cr>Ni>Cd. The usage of Zn for protective coating on iron, steel etc. by the industries in Coimbatore city could be the major reason for the higher concentration of this heavy metal in this region. PMID:18471965
Thitame, Sunil Namdeo; Pondhe, G M; Meshram, D C
This paper deals with the characteristics and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Sangamner city. The composition of solid waste was studied by segregating it into different component, i.e., kitchen waste, paper, earth and fine material, slaughter house waste, leaves, metals, etc. These components were categorised into organic waste and inorganic waste. It was observed that Sangamner city produces around 61% organic waste, and the rest is inorganic waste. The characteristics of organic solid waste, i.e., pH, electrical conductivity, moisture content, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were evaluated. The analysis of organic content of MSW indicates that it is good source of nutrients for the agriculture sector whereas inorganic material can be used for landfill. PMID:19890729
Sharma, Richa; Chakraborty, Anusheema; Joshi, Pawan Kumar
Over the past five decades, the fragile wetland ecosystem surrounding the city of Kolkata has witnessed extensive changes in the name of urban development. In this study, we elaborate relationships among biophysical parameters and land surface temperature (LST) in Kolkata city and nearby surrounding areas where rapid urbanization has occurred. LST and associated surface physical characteristics were assessed using Landsat images acquired for the years 1989, 2006, and 2010. The satellite data was used to study the spatiotemporal urban footprint and correlation among normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), normalized difference water index (NDWI) and LST. Land use land cover (LULC) maps prepared using supervised classification had overall accuracy of 90, 88, and 86 % and kappa coefficient of 0.8726, 0.8455, and 0.8212 for 1989, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The spatial expansion as a consequence of increasing urban population is 108.94 km(2) over past two decades. The urban built-up in and around the city extends up to 88.71 km(2) in 1989, 144.64 km(2) in 2006, and 197.65 km(2) in 2010. These changes have attributed in elevating surface temperature in the study region. Analysis of biophysical parameters shows LST and NDBI having a positive correlation, LST and NDVI having negative correlation, while NDBI and NDWI having a perfectly negative correlation. Satellite estimated temperatures of the surface show a warming trend evident from increasing mean surface temperature values from 27.36 °C in 1989 to 30.025 °C in 2006 and 33.023 °C in 2010. The magnitude and extent of the estimates of LST are consistent with the urbanization pattern throughout the city and adjoining areas. PMID:25504194
Kumar, Bhupander; Verma, Virendra Kumar; Singh, Satish Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Akolkar, Avinash B.
Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have never been produced in India, but were used in industrial applications. PCBs have been detected in environmental samples since 1966, and their sources in soils come from depositions of industrial applications, incinerators and biomass combustions. PCBs adsorb to soil particles and persist for long time due to their properties. Their close proximity may also lead to human exposure through ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact, and may exert neurotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic health effects. Background Residential soil from Korba, India, was extracted using pressurized liquid extraction procedure, cleaned on modified silica and quantified for PCBs. Soil ingestion was considered as the main exposure pathways of life-long intake of PCBs. Human health risk in terms of life time average daily dose, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and non-cancer hazard quotient (HQ) were estimated using established guidelines. Background The estimated average ILCR from non dioxin like PCBs for human adults and children was 3.1×10–8 and 1.1×10–7, respectively. ILCR from dioxin like PCBs for human adults and children was 3.1×10–6 and 1.1×10–5, respectively. The HQ for PCBs was 6.3×10–4 and 2.2×10–3, respectively for human adults and children. Study observed that ILCR from non dioxin like PCBs was lower than acceptable guideline range of 10–6-10–4, and ILCR from dioxin like PCBs was within the limit. HQ was lower than safe limit of 1. Background Study concluded that human population residing in Korba had low health risk due to PCBs in residential soils. Significance for public health The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils from an industrial city in India were measured for the assessment of human health risk. PCBs composition profiles were dominated with tri-chlorinated and tetra-chlorinated biphenyls. The possible sources of PCBs contamination can be attributed to local industrial
The Association of Pre-storm Ground Wetness with Inland Penetration of Monsoon Depressions : A Study Using Self Organizing Maps (SOM) C.M. Kishtawal Meteorology and Oceanography Group, Space Applications Center, Ahmedabad, INDIA Dev Niyogi2 Department of Agronomy, and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
Kishtawal, C. M.; Niyogi, D.
Monsoon depressions (MDs)are probably the most important rain bearing systems that occur during the Indian summer monsoon season. The unique topography of Indian peninsula and Indo-china region favor the formation and development of MDs in the warm and moist air over the Bay of Bengal. After formation the MDs move in a north-northwest track along the monsoon trough to the warmer and drier heat low regions of Northwest India and Pakistan. The dynamic structure of MDs is largely maintained by convergence of atmospheric water vapor flux coupled with the lower tropospheric divergent circulation (Chen et al., 2005), and they weaken rapidly after landfall due to the lack of surface moisture fluxes (Dastoor and Krishnamurti, 1991). In the present study we explored the association between pre-storm wetness conditions and the post-landfall situation of MDs using 54-year long observations (1951-2004) of 183 MDs and daily surface rainfall. Our analysis suggests that the MD’s post-landfall behavior is most sensitive to mean inland rainfall between To-1 to To-8 days (the pre-storm rainfall), where To is the day of formation of MD in the Bay of Bengal. Further, pre-storm rainfall over a broad region along the monsoon trough is found to exhibit the maximum association with the MDs inland lifespan. We further carried out the unsupervised classification of pre-storm rainfall patterns using Self Organizing Map(SOM), a topology preserving map that maps data from higher dimensions onto a two dimensional grid(Kohenen, 1990). The SOM patterns of rainfall indicate that pre-storm wetness is strongly associated with the inland penetration length of MDs with wetter conditions supporting MDs to survive longer after the landfall. Although the pre-storm inland wetness has not been found to be associated with the formation of MDs and a number of MDs form during relatively dry inland conditions during the early (June) and late (September) phases of monsoon, the inland-penetration and post
Deogade, Suryakant C; Vinay, S; Naidu, Sonal
Oral disorders are cumulative throughout life and hence unfavourable outcomes are likely to be greatest among the elderly. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized geriatric population in old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, to assess their prosthetic status and prosthetic needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the four old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh state, India. All residents aged 60 years and above formed the study population. The recording of prosthetic status and prosthetic needs was carried out according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). A total of 224 individuals were included in the study of which 123 were females and 101 were males. Seventy five percent of the females and 55 % of the males had no prostheses in their upper arch and 61 % of the females and 76 % of the males had no prostheses in their lower arch. More number of males presented with 'Bridges' in their upper arch when compared to females (P value = 0.006). Highest prosthetic need in males was multi-unit prosthesis (42 % in upper arch and 41 % in lower arch) whereas, females' required full prosthesis (39 % in both the upper arch and lower arches). Ageing presents some formidable challenges, particularly with the institutionalised. This study clearly demonstrates a high insufficiency of prosthetic care among the institutionalized elderly population. Any preparation towards the provision of oral health care should not be limited to treatment alone but, more importantly focus on empowering this elderly community with information and education programmes. PMID:24431796
Madala, Srikanth; Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.
Chennai is a rapidly growing metropolitan coastal city in southern India with several major sources of pollution. The complex coastal meteorology influences the pollutant transport in different seasons. In this study, the air quality pattern in Chennai with respect of NOX over different seasons are simulated with FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) considering release inventory of industrial, vehicular and domestic sources of pollution from seven different locations in Chennai. The meteorological fields for dispersion calculation are simulated using Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model at a high resolution (3 km). Air quality data in the study region available at six different places are used for comparing model outputs over 12 days in each season (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon). The Hanna diffusion scheme in FLEXPART-WRF is modified with new seasonal empirical turbulent intensity relationships derived as a function of atmospheric stability from turbulence data. Simulated concentrations are evaluated by varying the diffusion schemes (Hanna, modified Hanna) in FLEXPART and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes [YSU, ACM2 and MYNN2] in ARW. Simulations revealed distinct seasonal variation of dispersion patterns of NOX due to seasonal flow-field variation in the study region. It is found that, the new turbulence intensity relationships provide better comparisons for concentrations of NOX relative to the default Hanna relationship. Further, simulations using ACM2 PBL significantly reduced the negative bias and errors in concentration due to capturing the flow-field and other meteorological variables well. The study demonstrates the utility of FLEXPART for air quality modeling in the coastal city.
Bhosale, B J; Late, Amul; Nalawade, P M; Chavan, S P; Mule, M B
With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level. PMID:20603577
Sharma, Richa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Joshi, Pawan Kumar
Urbanisation is a ubiquitous phenomenon with greater prominence in developing nations. Urban expansion involves land conversions from vegetated moisture-rich to impervious moisture-deficient land surfaces. The urban land transformations alter biophysical parameters in a mode that promotes development of heat islands and degrades environmental health. This study elaborates relationships among various environmental variables using remote sensing dataset to study spatio-temporal footprint of urbanisation in Surat city. Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data were used in conjugation with geo-spatial techniques to study urbanisation and correlation among various satellite-derived biophysical parameters, [Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, Normalised Difference Built-up Index, Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Bareness Index, Modified NDWI and land surface temperature (LST)]. Land use land cover was prepared using hierarchical decision tree classification with an accuracy of 90.4 % (kappa = 0.88) for 1990 and 85 % (kappa = 0.81) for 2009. It was found that the city has expanded over 42.75 km(2) within a decade, and these changes resulted in elevated surface temperatures. For example, transformation from vegetation to built-up has resulted in 5.5 ± 2.6 °C increase in land surface temperature, vegetation to fallow 6.7 ± 3 °C, fallow to built-up is 3.5 ± 2.9 °C and built-up to dense built-up is 5.3 ± 2.8 °C. Directional profiling for LST was done to study spatial patterns of LST in and around Surat city. Emergence of two new LST peaks for 2009 was observed in N-S and NE-SW profiles. PMID:22828979
Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Gupta, Indrani; Shetye, Sugandha; Kumar, Rakesh
Mass concentrations of PM10 were high at all locations of Mumbai city in all seasons. From the enrichment analysis, it was observed that high enrichment of metals existed at all sites, the reason for which could be the effects of meteorology and trans-boundary movement of pollutants. Multivariate statistical analysis tools were used to identify common sources, viz. road dust, biomass burning, secondary aerosol, brake wear, residual oil combustion, smelting, natural soil, vehicles tyre wear, and marine aerosol. Findings indicate that most of the sites were dominated by local sources based on activities in the vicinity of the sampling locations. PMID:25906590
Saxena, Shalini; Upreti, D K; Sharma, Neeta
Accumulation of Pb, Fe, Cr, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu and Hg metals in six common lichen species growing on Mangifera indica trees in mango orchard surrounding the north side of the Lucknow city, were analyzed. The study revealed the higher concentration of Pb (3.3 - 15.6 microgg(-1)), Cr (25.6 - 137.5 microgg(-1)), Zn (49.4 - 219.7 microgg(-1)), Cu (10.2 - 66.6 microgg(-1)) and Fe (1748 - 19374 microgg(-1)). PMID:17717985
Ara, G; Siddique, Y H; Afzal, M
The present paper reports the distribution of serum protein markers viz. haptoglobin and transferrin in two major groups of Aligarh city of North India. In present study we have undertaken a survey of 538 individuals belonging to eight different populations, four from the Hindu community i.e. Brahmin, Bania, Rajput and Jatav, and the rest four among the Muslim community i.e. Syed, Sheikh, Pathan and Ansari. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.2939 (Ansari) to 0.4873 (Brahmin) for haptoglobin and from 0.000 (Rajput) to 0.1498 (Pathan) for transferrin. The values of D(ST) are 0.4122 and 0.4406, and that of G(ST) are 0.5059 and 0.9726 for haptoglobin and transferrin markers respectively. Through F(ST) test, it has been concluded that there is a high genetic differentiation of populations within Hindu and Muslim groups, though there is absence of any significant differences between these groups. PMID:21866866
Khan, D; Samadder, S R
Collection of municipal solid waste is one of the most important elements of municipal waste management and requires maximum fund allocated for waste management. The cost of collection and transportation can be reduced in comparison with the present scenario if the solid waste collection bins are located at suitable places so that the collection routes become minimum. This study presents a suitable solid waste collection bin allocation method at appropriate places with uniform distance and easily accessible location so that the collection vehicle routes become minimum for the city Dhanbad, India. The network analyst tool set available in ArcGIS was used to find the optimised route for solid waste collection considering all the required parameters for solid waste collection efficiently. These parameters include the positions of solid waste collection bins, the road network, the population density, waste collection schedules, truck capacities and their characteristics. The present study also demonstrates the significant cost reductions that can be obtained compared with the current practices in the study area. The vehicle routing problem solver tool of ArcGIS was used to identify the cost-effective scenario for waste collection, to estimate its running costs and to simulate its application considering both travel time and travel distance simultaneously. PMID:27207771
Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K; Dwivedi, S K
Using an organism living in situ for monitoring is referred as passive monitoring. Lepraria lobificans Nyl., a leprose lichen growing naturally on monuments and buildings in the city Mandav in central India is used for passive monitoring of atmospheric metals. Seven metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were analyzed. Samples collected from road site exhibit the maximum concentration of Fe, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Iron exhibit maximum accumulation both in lichen thallus and the substratum with mean values of 2,195.63 microg g(-1) dry weight. As compared with other growth form of lichens, L. lobificans exhibits the higher accumulation of Fe than foliose and fruticose lichens. On the basis of these results, it can be hypothesized that L. lobificans is an excellent accumulator of different metals. The statistical analysis applied to the element concentration between the metals as well as between the sites by analysis of variance found the difference to be significant at 1% and 5%, respectively. Student-Newman-Keuls test also shows significant difference for iron between the different metals. PMID:19496009
Pipal, A S; Tiwari, S; Satsangi, P G; Taneja, Ajay; Bisht, D S; Srivastava, A K; Srivastava, M K
Agra, one of the oldest cities "World Heritage site", and Delhi, the capital city of India are both located in the border of Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and heavily loaded with atmospheric aerosols due to tourist place, anthropogenic activities, and its topography, respectively. Therefore, there is need for monitoring of atmospheric aerosols to perceive the scenario and effects of particles over northern part of India. The present study was carried out at Agra (AGR) as well as Delhi (DEL) during winter period from November 2011 to February 2012 of fine particulate (PM₂.₅: d < 2.5 μm) as well as associated carbonaceous aerosols. PM₂.₅ was collected at both places using medium volume air sampler (offline measurement) and analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Also, simultaneously, black carbon (BC) was measured (online) at DEL. The average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ was 165.42 ± 119.46 μg m(-3) at AGR while at DEL it was 211.67 ± 41.94 μg m(-3) which is ~27% higher at DEL than AGR whereas the BC mass concentration was 10.60 μg m(-3). The PM₂.₅ was substantially higher than the annual standard stipulated by central pollution control board and United States Environmental Protection Agency standards. The average concentrations of OC and EC were 69.96 ± 34.42 and 9.53 ± 7.27 μm m(-3), respectively. Total carbon (TC) was 79.01 ± 38.98 μg m(-3) at AGR, while it was 50.11 ± 11.93 (OC), 10.67 ± 3.56 μg m(-3) (EC), and 60.78 ± 14.56 μg m(-3) (TC) at DEL. The OC/EC ratio was 13.75 at (AGR) and 5.45 at (DEL). The higher OC/EC ratio at Agra indicates that the formation of secondary organic aerosol which emitted from variable primary sources. Significant correlation between PM₂.₅ and its carbonaceous species were observed indicating similarity in sources at both sites. The average concentrations of secondary organic carbon (SOC) and primary organic carbon (POC) at AGR were 48.16 and 26
Satya; Upreti, D K
Accumulation of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur content in Rinodina sophodes, crustose poleotolerent lichen growing naturally in and around six sites of Kanpur city was estimated, and their influence on the photosynthetic pigments of the lichen was studied. Maximum carbon concentration was recorded at highly polluted area while higher accumulation of nitrogen was recorded near village in outskirt of the city having higher ammonia emission. The concentration of sulphur was not detected in most of the sites except a single site where it had a quite lower value (0.22%). Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b) increased parallel to the level of traffic density. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that chlorophyll a had highly significant correlation (1%) with chlorophyll b (r=0.9986) and total chlorophyll (r=0.9307). Carbon is directly correlated with nitrogen (r=0.3035), sulphur (r=0.1743) and chlorophyll degradation (r=0.2685) while negatively correlated with chlorophyll a (-0.3323), chlorophyll b (r=-0.3429) and total chlorophyll (r=-0.0824). Nitrogen showed negative correlation between all photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll degradation, while in case of sulphur, it was high positive correlation at 1% with chlorophyll degradation (0.9445). PMID:19520501
Mandal, Papiya; Prakash, Mamta; Bassin, J K
A study was conducted in the residential areas of Delhi, India, to assess the variation in ambient air quality and ambient noise levels during pre-Diwali month (DM), Diwali day (DD) and post-Diwali month during the period 2006 to 2008. The use of fireworks during DD showed 1.3 to 4.0 times increase in concentration of respirable particulate matter (PM(10)) and 1.6 to 2.5 times increase in concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) than the concentration during DM. There was a significant increase in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) concentration but the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) did not show any considerable variation. Ambient noise level were 1.2 to 1.3 times higher than normal day. The study also showed a strong correlation between PM(10) and TSP (R (2) ≥ 0.9) and SO(2) and NO(2) (R (2) ≥ 0.9) on DD. The correlation between noise level and gaseous pollutant were moderate (R (2) ≥ 0.5). The average concentration of the pollutants during DD was found higher in 2007 which could be due to adverse meteorological conditions. The statistical interpretation of data indicated that the celebration of Diwali festival affects the ambient air and noise quality. The study would provide public awareness about the health risks associated with the celebrations of Diwali festival so as to take proper precautions. PMID:21424668
Edmeades, Jeffrey; Pande, Rohini Prabha; Falle, Tina; Krishnan, Suneeta
This paper explores the ways in which women's sterilisation decisions are influenced by the combination of a preference for male children and a desire for smaller family size among young married women in two urban slums in Bengaluru, India. While both son preference and an emphasis on sterilisation are well-known demographic characteristics of most South Asian countries, relatively little research has been conducted that links the two. We take advantage of a longitudinal survey of 416 unsterilised married women aged 16-25 to explore how having sons and the number of children influence a woman's sterilisation decision. Discrete-time event history techniques are used to estimate two models: the first examines the effect of having sons and number of children separately, and the second examines them in combination in the form of an interaction. The results suggest sterilisation is motivated by son preference mainly at lower parities (three or fewer children) and by concerns about family size at higher parities. Understanding how sterilisation and other reproductive behaviours are influenced by the interaction of family size and sex preferences will help policy-makers and programmers to meet the needs of women while continuing to address discriminatory behaviour against females. PMID:21218299
Goyal, Jagdish P; Kumar, Nagendra; Parmar, Indira; Shah, Vijay B; Patel, Bharat
Background: Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Design: Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Setting: Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. Participants: The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Data collection: Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Measurement: Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age <85th and <95th percentile of reference population were classified as overweight and BMI for age <95th percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year). Result: The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%). Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. Conclusion: The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity. PMID:22279261
Babai, K S; Poongothai, S; Punniyakotti, J
An extensive study on the determination of the natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in soil samples of Chennai city, India has been undertaken and the results of the same are compared with the levels reported in other Indian cities as well as other parts of the world. The radioactivity content in the soil samples, the absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices were calculated and compared with UNSCEAR 2000 recommended values. In addition to the above, mapping of indoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using thermo luminescent dosemeters throughout Chennai city and the same are reported. PMID:22847868
The capital city, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India is exposed to the multiple geohazards as the city is located in the region which experiences extreme physical phenomenon due to changing climate in the tectonically active North-Eastern Himalayas. The geohazards in Itanagar includes landslides, floods, soil erosion and earthquakes. The high decadal growth rate of 111.36% in 1991-2001 census has brought in many challenges with respect to the capital city developmental planning. Due to rapid and haphazard growth in urban land use the people residing in the city are gradually becoming more vulnerable to the geohazards in the past decades. The city condition at present has raised issues of grave concern related to effective hazard management. It is observed that geoscientific approach is violated at many places in the urban developmental activities along the central spine, the National Highway-52A of the capital city. There is an urgent need of geoscientists to apprise the urban populace about land suitability and stability in terms of rock types, soil, slope, geomorphology, groundwater condition etc. and the vulnerability of the existing urban land use to landslides, flood, soil erosion and earthquakes. In this paper major issue, critical issues and elements at risk are discussed in the context of ethics in geohazard management and developmental planning for urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate.
Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Patro, Binod Kumar
Background: India enacted a comprehensive tobacco control law known as cigarettes and other tobacco products act (COTPA) in 2003. However, enforcement of the provisions under the law is still a matter of concern. Compliance survey is an effective tool to measure the status of implementation of the law at various public places. Smoke-free hospital campus demonstrates commitment to good health and sends a pro-healthy signal to the community. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the compliance to the prohibition of smoking at public places (under section-4 of COTPA) in a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at 40 different venues within a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. These places were observed for certain parameters of assessment by a structured checklist, which included evidence of active smoking, evidence of recent smoking, display of signages, presence of smoking aids, cigarette butts and bidi ends. Results: Overall compliance rate for section-4 of COTPA was found to be mere 23%. Evidence of active smoking was observed in 21 (52.5%) venues. Signages were seen at only 8 places (20%). Butt ends and other smoking aids were seen in 37 (92.5%) and 26 (65%) places respectively. Conclusion: These dismal findings suggest non-compliance to the provisions under COTPA, which calls for a sensitization workshop and advocacy for all the stakeholders. PMID:24339489
Ashok Kumar, V; Rajendran, R; Manavalan, R; Tewari, S C; Arunachalam, N; Ayanar, K; Krishnamoorthi, R; Tyagi, B K
In 2001, a major dengue outbreak was recorded in Chennai city, with 737 cases (90%) out of a total of 861 cases recorded from Tamil Nadu state. A KAP survey was carried out to assess the community knowledge, attitude and practice on dengue fever (DF), following the major dengue outbreak in 2001. A pre- tested, structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The multistage cluster sampling method was employed and 640 households (HHs) were surveyed. Among the total HHs surveyed, 34.5% of HHs were aware of dengue and only 3.3% of HHs knew that virus is the causative agent for DF. Majority of the HHs (86.5%) practiced water storage and only 3% of them stored water more than 5 days. No control measures were followed to avoid mosquito breeding in the water holding containers by majority of HHs (65%). Sixty percent of HHs did not know the biting behaviour of dengue vector mosquitoes. The survey results indicate that the community knowledge was very poor on dengue, its transmission, vector breeding sources, biting behavior and preventive measures. The lack of basic knowledge of the community on dengue epidemiology and vector bionomics would be also a major cause of increasing trend of dengue in this highly populated urban environment. There is an inevitable need to organize health education programmes about dengue disease to increase community knowledge and also to sensitize the community to participate in integrated vector control programme to resolve the dengue problem. PMID:20962733
Vijay, Ritesh; Popat, Rishabh; Pisode, Mayur; Sharma, Asheesh; Manoj, Kumar; Chakrabarti, T; Gupta, Rajesh
The objective of the present study was to monitor and assess the noise levels at traffic intersections in Napgur city under heterogenic traffic activities. For this, traffic volume and noise level were measured at intersections on highways, major roads andring road during morning and evening peak hours. Traffic volume was categorized in light, medium and heavy vehicles while noise levels were measured for Lmin, Lmax, Leq , L10 and L90. Equivalent noise was observed in the range of 71.3 to 79.3 dB(A) at the traffic intersections. Due to heterogenic traffic conditions and activities at the intersection like honking, idling, gear noise, bearing noise, breaking noise, tyre-road noise and exhaust noise, no correlation was established between traffic volume and observed noise levels except West High Court road. A strong correlation was found at West High Court road due to controlled traffic flow and less impact of heavy vehicles. Impact of noisy vehicles on general traffic was also assessed at the traffic intersections based on noise pollution levels and traffic noise index. The study suggests that control measures are required at the traffic intersections to minimize noise pollution levels. PMID:25464696
Vijay, Ritesh; Popat, Rishabh; Pisode, Mayur; Sharma, Asheesh; Manoj, Kumar; Chakrabarti, T; Gupta, Rajesh
The objective of the present study was to monitor and assess the noise levels at traffic intersections in Napgur city under heterogenic traffic activities. For this, traffic volume and noise level were measured at intersections on highways, major roads andring road during morning and evening peak hours. Traffic volume was categorized in light, medium and heavy vehicles while noise levels were measured for Lmin, Lmax, Leq , L10 and L90. Equivalent noise was observed in the range of 71.3 to 79.3 dB(A) at the traffic intersections. Due to heterogenic traffic conditions and activities at the intersection like honking, idling, gear noise, bearing noise, breaking noise, tyre-road noise and exhaust noise, no correlation was established between traffic volume and observed noise levels except West High Court road. A strong correlation was found at West High Court road due to controlled traffic flow and less impact of heavy vehicles. Impact of noisy vehicles on general traffic was also assessed at the traffic intersections based on noise pollution levels and traffic noise index. The study suggests that control measures are required at the traffic intersections to minimize noise pollution levels. PMID:25508327
Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Marshall, Fiona M
Rapid growth in urbanization and industrialization in developing countries may significantly contribute in heavy metal contamination of vegetables through atmospheric depositions. In the present study, an assessment was made to investigate the spatial and seasonal variations in deposition rates of heavy metals and its contribution to contamination of palak (Beta vulgaris). Samples of bulk atmospheric deposits and Beta vulgaris for analysis of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were collected from different sampling locations differing in traffic density and land use patterns. The results showed that the sampling locations situated in industrial or commercial areas with heavy traffic load showed significantly elevated levels of Cu, Zn and Cd deposition rate as compared to those situated in residential areas with low traffic load. The deposition rates of Cu, Zn and Cd were significantly higher in summer and winter as compared to rainy season, however, Pb deposition rate was significantly higher in rainy and summer seasons as compared to winter season. Atmospheric depositions have significantly elevated the levels of heavy metals in B. vulgaris collected during evening as compared to those collected in morning hours. The study further showed that local population has maximum exposure to Cd contamination through consumption of B. vulgaris. The present study clearly points out the urban and industrial activities of a city have potential to elevate the levels of heavy metals in the atmospheric deposits, which may consequently contaminate the food chain and thus posing health risk to the local population. PMID:17879134
Sabarish, R. Mani; Narasimhan, R.; Chandhru, A. R.; Suribabu, C. R.; Sudharsan, J.; Nithiyanantham, S.
In the design of irrigation and other hydraulic structures, evaluating the magnitude of extreme rainfall for a specific probability of occurrence is of much importance. The capacity of such structures is usually designed to cater to the probability of occurrence of extreme rainfall during its lifetime. In this study, an extreme value analysis of rainfall for Tiruchirapalli City in Tamil Nadu was carried out using 100 years of rainfall data. Statistical methods were used in the analysis. The best-fit probability distribution was evaluated for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days of continuous maximum rainfall. The goodness of fit was evaluated using Chi-square test. The results of the goodness-of-fit tests indicate that log-Pearson type III method is the overall best-fit probability distribution for 1-day maximum rainfall and consecutive 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-day maximum rainfall series of Tiruchirapalli. To be reliable, the forecasted maximum rainfalls for the selected return periods are evaluated in comparison with the results of the plotting position.
Sachidanandamurthy, K L; Yajurvedi, H N
Monthly changes in water quality parameters (physicochemical) of a rain fed lake (Bilikere) in Mysore city, were investigated for two calendar years (2002 and 2003) to assess the suitability of this lake for pisciculture. Although there were monthly fluctuations in water temperature, total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrite and ammonia, they were within the desirable limits. On the other hand, total alkalinity and hydrogen sulphide throughout the study period and pH for a major part, were higher than the desirable limits. Other parameters viz; turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate, and nitrate in a few months were higher than the desirable limits for waters used for fish culture. The high levels of these factors are due to the entry of agricultural run off and occasional flow of sewage into the lake. In addition dense algal growth was noticed at times of the year which is caused by surge in nutrients level whenever there was a rainfall. Since, the lake has a great aquacultural potential, it is suggested that control of nutrient load that enters the lake occasionally, might help the lake to continue its mesotrophic status. PMID:17405319
Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.
The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The
Vyas, A.; Shastri, B.; Joshi, Y.
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) or ENVISAT AATSR provides thermal infrared data and comparatively easy to acquire, process and analyze. In the case of Ahmedabad city, land cover changes over the time is to be studied by classifying the image and then temperature can be derived by using a quadratic regression model from Malaret at al. (1985). Band 6 produces the images that show the relative difference emitted thermal energy that correlate in part with the effects of solar heating on surface of varying composition and orientation. The surface temperatures are suitable to detect UHI at Urban canopy level. Nichol (1996) found that surface temperatures extracted are moreover similar to the actual ambient air temperatures recorded. The paper has narrated analylitical framework on which the research has been carried out. The result derived on Land Surface Temperature variation causing Urban Heat Island, its relationship with the land use land cover. A time series data has been used. Authors are thankful to Ms. Darshana Rawal, Ms. Pallavi Knahdewal and Mr. Hardik Panchal.
Sharma, M K; Jain, C K; Rao, G Tamma; Rao, V V S Gurunadha
Migration pattern of organochloro pesticide lindane has been studied in groundwater of metropolitan city Vadodara. Groundwater flow was simulated using the groundwater flow model constructed up to a depth of 60 m considering a three-layer structure with grid size of 40 × 40 × 40 m(3). The general groundwater flow direction is from northeast to south and southwest. The river Vishwamitri and river Jambua form natural hydrologic boundary. The constant head in the north and south end of the study area is taken as another boundary condition in the model. The hydraulic head distribution in the multilayer aquifer has been computed from the visual MODFLOW groundwater flow model. TDS has been computed though MT3D mass transport model starting with a background concentration of 500 mg/l and using a porosity value of 0.3. Simulated TDS values from the model matches well with the observed data. Model MT3D was run for lindane pesticide with a background concentration of 0.5 μg/l. The predictions of the mass transport model for next 50 years indicate that advancement of containment of plume size in the aquifer system both spatially and depth wise as a result of increasing level of pesticide in river Vishwamitri. The restoration of the aquifer system may take a very long time as seen from slow improvement in the groundwater quality from the predicted scenarios, thereby, indicating alarming situation of groundwater quality deterioration in different layers. It is recommended that all the industries operating in the region should install efficient effluent treatment plants to abate the pollution problem. PMID:25910721
Rawat, Kishan Singh; Tripathi, Vinod Kumar
Hydrological and geological aspect of the region play vital role for water resources utilization and development. Protection and management of groundwater resources are possible with the study of spatio-temporal water quality parameters. The study was undertaken to assess the deterioration in groundwater quality, through systematic sampling during post monsoon seasons of the year 2008 by collecting water samples from thirty bore wells located in Dwarka, sub-city of Delhi, India. The average concentrations of groundwater quality parameters namely Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Nitrate (NO3 -), Chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO4 2-), total hardness (TH), total dissolved solids (TDS), and electrical conductivity were 300, 178, 26.5, 301, 103, 483, 1042 mg/l and 1909 μS/cm respectively. Estimated physico-chemical parameters revealed that 7 % of the groundwater samples shown nitrate concentrations higher than safe limit prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Groundwater quality the in study region was poor due to come out result that NO3 - concentration exceeding the threshold value of 50 mg/l, and main cause is disposal of sewage and animal wastes to Najafgarh drain. Dominant cations are Mg2+, Ca2+ and anions are SO4 2- and Cl-. The abundance of the major ions in groundwater is in the order: Ca2+ > Mg2+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3. TH have strong correlation with Ca2+ (r = 0.81), Mg2+ (r = 0.82), Cl- (r = 0.86) but poor correlation with TDS (r = 0.52). Knowledge of correlation values between water quality parameters is helpful to take decision of appropriate management strategy for controlling groundwater pollution.
Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana
Chronic industrial fluoride toxicosis in the forms of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis was investigated in 162 villagers (94 males and 78 females) above 15 years of age living in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants located approximately 12 km south of Udaipur city of Rajasthan, India. Out of these villagers, 90 (55.5%) and 29 (18.0%) were found to be afflicted with mild to severe dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Dental fluorosis characterized with light to deep-brownish bilaterally striated horizontal lines, pits or patches and fine dots or granules was noted on incisor teeth of villagers. Irregular wearing, excessive corrosions (abrasions), dark-brownish pigmentation of exposed cementum and dentine material, diastem as between teeth, pronounced loss of tooth supporting bone with recession and bulging of gingiva (gum) were also present in subjects of older age group (>55 years). Among 29 (18.0%) individuals, mild to moderate manifestations of skeletal fluorosis such as crippling, kyphosis, invalidism and genu-varum syndrome were found. In these fluorotic subjects pain/rigidity in major joints viz. neck, back, hip, knee and shoulder was also found. None of the fluorotic subjects showed evidence of genu-valgum syndrome. Other signs of chronic industrial fluoride intoxication in soft tissues (non-skeletal fluorosis) included colic, intermittent diarrhoea or constipation, bloating, polyuria and polydipsia. These findings indicate that surrounding environment of superphosphate fertilizer plants is contaminated with fluoride emission, which in turn is causing diverse ill health effects in humans which are discussed. PMID:26160742
Kumar, A. Vaneet; Kothiyal, N. C.; Kumari, Saruchi; Mehra, R.; Parkash, A.; Sinha, R. R.; Tayagi, S. K.; Gaba, R.
The objective of the present study was to ascertain contamination levels, distribution behaviour and PAHs exposure during summer, winter and autumn during 2011-2012 in one of the developing cities of northern India. Average PAHs concentration was found to be 18.17, 4.04 and 16.38 μg g -1, whereas, concentration of 16 individual PAHs was found to vary between 0.02 and 200.23, 0.008 and 28.4 μg g -1, and 0.01 and 252.55 μg g -1 during summer, winter and autumn seasons, respectively. The average concentration of low and high carcinogenic PAHs during summer, winter and autumn was found to be 5.1 and 31.29, 2.1 and 6.4, 4.74 and 35.08 μg g -1 at most intercepts. The average ratio of low to high carcinogenic PAHs was found to be 1:6, 1:3, 1:7.6 during summer, winter and autumn, respectively. Five ringed PAHs were found in higher concentration in all seasons. Dib(ah)A and B(a)P were the two individual PAHs found in highest concentration during summer, winter and autumn seasons. Two tailed T-test was applied for authenticity of the results. Toxic equivalency factor of B(a)P and Dib(ah)A was maximum as compared to other PAHs. The study could be of great significance for the planners while considering environmental remedial measures.
Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2008
The first set of international recommendations to guide environmental education (EE) was developed in Tbilisi, Georgia, in 1977. Ten years later, in 1987, a conference in Moscow, Russia, reviewed progress and focused on institutional strategies and action plans to strengthen environmental education. A third international environmental education…
Dash, S. K.; Saraswat, Vaishali; Panda, S. K.; Sharma, Neha
Changes in the surface air temperature and rainfall, extreme events and their future projections at four Indian cities and corresponding meteorological subdivisions and homogeneous zones have been analyzed in this study based on observed gridded datasets from the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and climate projections from nine IPCC models. The cities include Howrah, Vishakhapatnam, Madurai and Kochi. Their corresponding meteorological subdivisions are Gangetic West Bengal, Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry and Kerala. When one considers the larger spatial scale, these cities and meteorological subdivisions are situated in the temperature homogeneous zones of North East, East Coast and West Coast. Similarly, North East and Peninsular India are the rainfall homogeneous zones where these four cities are situated. In this study, indication of change in any climate parameter is assumed to be strong if the same is found in a city and also in its meteorological subdivision and homogeneous zone. When the indications are of the same nature in a city and either in its meteorological subdivision or homogeneous zone, it is termed as weak. Comparison shows that the values of annual mean temperature and summer monsoon precipitation simulated by MIROC 3.2 (medres) and NCAR_CCSM3 models are close to the corresponding observed values at each of the four cities. Analysis shows similar trends in the annual mean observed temperature and monsoon precipitation in the selected four cities and their corresponding meteorological subdivisions and homogeneous zones. Based on IMD gridded datasets, the rise in annual mean temperature at 1% significant level during 1969-2005 in Kochi and its subdivision and homogeneous zone is a strong indication of warming. At Madurai such warming is weak. Whereas, at Howrah and Vishakhapatnam, there are no strong indications of warming based on the available IMD gridded data. So far as the future is concerned, the results show that in
Sikka, R; Nayyar, V; Sidhu, S S
The disposal of industrial and sewage water is a problem of increasing importance throughout the world. In India, and most of the developing countries untreated sewage and industrial wastes are discharged on land or into the running water streams which is used for irrigating crops. These wastes often contain high amount of trace elements which may accumulate in soils in excessive quantities on long term use and enter the food chain through absorption by the plants. Among the trace metals, Cd has received the greater attention because of its easy absorption and accumulation in plants and animals to levels toxic for their health. The objective of this study conducted in three industrially different cities viz., Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla was to monitor the extent of Cd accumulation in soils and plants receiving untreated sewage water. Plant and soil samples were collected from sewage and tubewell irrigated areas. Soil samples were analysed for texture, pH, EC, organic carbon (OC), CaCO(3), bioavailable DTPA-Cd and plant samples were analysed for total Cd. In sewage irrigated soils, the mean values of pH were lower but organic carbon and electrical conductivity were generally higher both in surface and sub-surface layers of all the three cities as compared to tubewell irrigated soils. The mean DTPA- extractable Cd in sewage irrigated soil was 6.3- and 4.36-fold in Ludhiana, 3.38- and 1.71-fold in Jalandhar and 3.35- and 6.67-fold in Malerkotla in 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil depth, respectively, compared with the values in tubewell irrigated soils. The accumulation of DTPA-Cd in sewage irrigated soils was restricted to 30 cm depth after which the values were generally close to values in tubewell irrigated soils. Soil pH, OC, CaCO(3), clay and silt collectively accounted for 37.1%, 65.1% and 53.9% DTPA-extractable bioavailable Cd in soils of Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. Lower R(2) values in Ludhiana suggest that factors other than the ones
Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A.; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim
Background A baseline cross-sectional survey among female sex workers (FSWs) was conducted in four cities within the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve FSWs’ access to HIV, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. The survey measured where FSWs seek HIV/SRH care and what motivates their choice. Methods Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400) and Mysore, India (n = 458) and interviewed. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests. Results Across cities, FSWs most commonly sought care for the majority of HIV/SRH services at public health facilities, most especially in Durban (ranging from 65% for condoms to 97% for HIV care). Services specifically targeting FSWs only had a high coverage in Mysore for STI care (89%) and HIV testing (79%). Private-for-profit clinics were important providers in Mombasa (ranging from 17% for STI care and HIV testing to 43% for HIV care), but not in the other cities. The most important reason for the choice of care provider in Durban and Mombasa was proximity, in Tete ‘where they always go’, and in Mysore cost of care. Where available, clinics specifically targeting FSWs were more often chosen because of shorter waiting times, perceived higher quality of care, more privacy and friendlier personnel. Conclusion The place where care is sought for HIV/SRH services differs substantially between cities. Targeted services have limited coverage in the African cities compared to Mysore. Convenience appears more important for choosing the place of care than aspects of quality of care. The best model to improve access, linking targeted interventions with general health services, will need to be tailored to the specific context of each city. PMID:27494412
Arunachalam, Natarajan; Tyagi, Brij Kishore; Samuel, Miriam; Krishnamoorthi, R; Manavalan, R; Tewari, Satish Chandra; Ashokkumar, V; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Petzold, Max
Background Dengue is highly endemic in Chennai city, South India, in spite of continuous vector control efforts. This intervention study was aimed at establishing the efficacy as well as the favouring and limiting factors relating to a community-based environmental intervention package to control the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial was designed to measure the outcome of a new vector control package and process analysis; different data collection tools were used to determine the performance. Ten randomly selected intervention clusters (neighbourhoods with 100 houses each) were paired with ten control clusters on the basis of ecological/entomological indices and sociological parameters collected during baseline studies. In the intervention clusters, Aedes control was carried out using a community-based environmental management approach like provision of water container covers through community actors, clean-up campaigns, and dissemination of dengue information through schoolchildren. The main outcome measure was reduction in pupal indices (pupae per person index), used as a proxy measure of adult vectors, in the intervention clusters compared to the control clusters. Results At baseline, almost half the respondents did not know that dengue is serious but preventable, or that it is transmitted by mosquitoes. The stakeholder analysis showed that dengue vector control is carried out by vertically structured programmes of national, state, and local administrative bodies through fogging and larval control with temephos, without any involvement of community-based organizations, and that vector control efforts were conducted in an isolated and irregular way. The most productive container types for Aedes pupae were cement tanks, drums, and discarded containers. All ten intervention clusters with a total of 1000 houses and 4639 inhabitants received the intervention while the ten control clusters with a total of 1000 houses and 4439
Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Munshi, Autar Krishen
ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the prevalence of traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth among the 5 to 8 years old children attending the schools in Mathura city. Study design: A total of 1657 children of the age groups: 5, 6, 7 and 8 years from 20 schools situated in various parts of Mathura city were included in this study, utilizing stratified cluster random sampling method. Results: The prevalence of traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth in 5 to 8 years old age group was found to be 2.7%. Males accounted for 3.1% whereas females accounted for 2.3%. Overall, males experienced more traumatic injuries than the females with male to female ratio of 1.8:1. The etiology of traumatic injuries was mostly due to falls, followed by bicycle accidents, collisions, violence and bike accidents in that order. How to cite this article: Gojanur S, Yeluri R, Munshi AK. Prevalence and Etiology of Traumatic Injuries to the Anterior Teeth among 5 to 8 Years Old School Children in Mathura City, India: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):172-175. PMID:26628850
Saikia, C. K.; Somerville, P. G.; Ichinose, G.; Thio, H.
A magnitude Mw 7.7 earthquake occurred during the morning hours of India's Republic Day celebration on January 26, 2001 near the margin of the Indian sub-continent in the Kachchh region. The revised hypocentral location for this event by the USGS has an estimated depth of 17 km. Its seismic moment is estimated at 6.2x1028 dyne-cm. The teleseismic P waves are sharp at all stations indicating an abrupt large slip on the fault plane. Within 3-4 minutes Bhuj, Anjar, Bachau, Gandhidham, Kukuma, Ratnar, Lodai, Kottar and many other nearby villages were in ruins. Isolated collapses of mid-size buildings occurred in Ahmedabad located about 240 km away and Surat located at about 360 km. The transverse and longitudinal ground motions recorded at the ground floor of a mid-rise building show motions were as high as 0.11g and lasted for about 30s. These motions are relatively large. There is, however, a suspicion about the performance of the recording station. Using the empirical attenuation relations of Abrahamson and Silva for western North America, we expect about 0.0262g and 0.035g for rock and soil sites, respectively in Ahmedabad. The city itself is located at the bank of Sabarmati River and is built on sediments whose thickness varies between about 2 to 4 km. It is quite likely that the ground motion was amplified by the basin structure. So far, the primary source of waveform data from the mainshock is from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) in Seattle, Washington, and includes stations located at upper-mantle and teleseismic distances. Using the teleseismic P-wave seismograms, Yagi and Kikuchi developed initial slip models for the two possible fault planes of this earthquake using a source depth of 10 km. Both of these slip models indicate a westward rupture and 6- 8 meters of displacement at the centroid. We have also inverted the teleseismic P waves independently using a source depth of 18 km to be consistent with the USGS and Harvard hypocentral locations. Based
2001-01-01This image shows the area around the January 26, 2001, earthquake in western India, the deadliest in the country's history with some 20,000 fatalities. The epicenter of the magnitude 7.6 earthquake was just to the left of the center of the image. The Gulf of Kachchh (or Kutch) is the black area running from the lower left corner towards the center of the image. The city of Bhuj is in the yellow-toned area among the brown hills left of the image center and is the historical capital of the Kachchh region. Bhuj and many other towns and cities nearby were almost completely destroyed by the shaking of the earthquake. These hills reach up to 500 meters (1,500 feet) elevation. The city of Ahmedabad, capital of Gujarat state, is the radar-bright area next to the right side of the image. Several buildings in Ahmedabad were also destroyed by the earthquake. The dark blue areas around the center of the image and extending to the left side are low-lying salt flats called the Rann of Kachchh with the Little Rann just to the right of the image center. The bumpy area north of the Rann (green and yellow colors) is a large area of sand dunes in Pakistan. A branch of the Indus River used to flow through the area on the left side of this image, but it was diverted by a previous large earthquake that struck this area in 1819.The annotated version of the image includes a 'beachball' that shows the location and slip direction of the January 26, 2001, earthquake from the Harvard Quick CMT catalog: http://www.seismology.harvard.edu/CMTsearch.html. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to brown and white at the highest elevations. This image is a mosaic of four SRTM swaths.This image
Kumar Karn, S; Harada, H
A field survey was conducted on four slum, squatter and pavement dweller communities of Mumbai City, India with a total sample size of 1,070 households. Study revealed extremely low water consumption pattern averaging merely 30 l/c x d, no sewerage and safe excreta disposal facilities manifested by high occurrence of water-borne diseases. The annual diarrhoeal, typhoid and malaria cases were estimated to 614, 68 and 126 per thousand populations respectively. At point prevalence scale, at least 30% of all morbidity can be accounted for by water-related infections. In addition to the impacts of neighborhood water pollution and sanitation, such diseases were also found positively correlated with low water consumption and poverty related factors as, poor housing and family income. Analysis of variance also revealed intra-poor gradient both in living standards and health conditions on which the pavement dwellers were observed to be the greatest sufferers of all. PMID:12523765
Gudlavalleti, Murthy V. S.; Anchala, Raghupathy; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Shukla, Rajan; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Singh, Vivek; Allagh, Komal; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Gilbert, Clare E.
Background: India has the second largest population of persons with diabetes and a significant proportion has poor glycemic control and inadequate awareness of management of diabetes. Objectives: Determine the level of awareness regarding management of diabetes and its complications and diabetic care practices in India. Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in 11 cities where public and private providers of diabetic care were identified. At each diabetic care facility, 4–6 persons with diabetes were administered a structured questionnaire in the local language. Results: Two hundred and eighty-five persons with diabetes were interviewed. The mean duration since diagnosis of diabetes was 8.1 years (standard deviation ± 7.3). Half of the participants reported a family history of diabetes and 41.7% were hypertensive. Almost 62.1% stated that they received information on diabetes and its management through interpersonal channels. Family history (36.1%), increasing age (25.3%), and stress (22.8%) were the commonest causes of diabetes reported. Only 29.1% stated that they monitored their blood sugar levels at home using a glucometer. The commonest challenges reported in managing diabetes were dietary modifications (67.4%), compliance with medicines (20.5%), and cost of medicines (17.9%). Around 76.5% were aware of complications of diabetes. Kidney failure (79.8%), blindness/vision loss (79.3%), and heart attack (56.4%) were the commonest complications mentioned. Almost 67.7% of the respondents stated that they had had an eye examination earlier. Conclusions: The findings have significant implications for the organization of diabetes services in India for early detection and management of complications, including eye complications. PMID:27144133
Context: Adolescent health is a relatively new focus area of India’s National health program. However, little evidence is available for the existing problems especially in adolescent slum population. A study was planned to explore the problems of adolescent pertaining to sexuality, physical health, tobacco and alcohol use in slums of Urban Meerut, and create evidence base for informed planning and decision making by the local health authorities. Aims: To study the adolescent health in the slums of Meerut City, India. Settings and Design: Entire slums of Urban Meerut, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Study was done in the slums of Meerut city, in Northern India. WHO 30 cluster sampling technique was used. Thirty slums were selected from the list of all the slums of Meerut, 210 adolescents were selected with 7 adolescents from each slum. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: More than one third of the (36.7%) adolescents reported to have a current health problem, however only half of these sought medical help for treatment. Tweleve percent of adolescents reported history of alcohol or tobacoo use. Nine percent adolescents complained of stressful atmosphere at home. About 10% adolescents in the surveyed population gave history of sexual activity, but only one third of them had used condom during their last sexual intercourse. Conclusion: This study reflects the high morbidity and poor treatment seeking behaviour among adolescents in urban slums. A significant proportion of adolescents indulge in high risk sexual behavior, tobacco and alcohol use. There were significant gender differences with regards to treatment seeking behaviour, sexual behaviour, tobacco and alcohol use. The gender nuances must be taken into account while planning interventions for this section of population. PMID:25302222
Sahu, S.; Beig, G.; Schultz, M.; Parkhi, N.; Stein, O.
The mega city of Delhi is the second largest urban agglomeration in India with 16.7 mio. inhabitants. Delhi has the highest per capita power consumption of electricity in India and the demand has risen by more than 50% during the last decade. Emissions from commercial, power, domestic and industrial sectors have strongly increased causing more and more environmental problems due to air pollution and its adverse impacts on human health. Particulate matter (PM) of size less than 2.5-micron (PM2.5) and 10 micron (PM10) have emerged as primary pollutants of concern due to their adverse impact on human health. As part of the System of Air quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project developed for air quality forecasting during the Commonwealth Games (CWG) - 2010, a high resolution Emission Inventory (EI) of PM10 and PM2.5 has been developed for the metropolitan city Delhi for the year 2010. The comprehensive inventory involves detailed activity data and has been developed for a domain of 70km×65km with a 1.67km×1.67km resolution covering Delhi and its surrounding region (i.e. National Capital Region (NCR)). In creating this inventory, Geographical Information System (GIS) based techniques were used for the first time in India. The major sectors considered are, transport, thermal power plants, industries, residential and commercial cooking along with windblown road dust which is found to play a major role for the megacity environment. Extensive surveys were conducted among the Delhi slum dwellers (Jhuggi) in order to obtain more robust estimates for the activity data related to domestic cooking and heating. Total emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 including wind blown dust over the study area are found to be 236 Gg/yr and 94 Gg/yr respectively. About half of the PM10 emissions stem from windblown road dust. The new emission inventory has been used for regional air quality forecasts in the Delhi region during the Commonwealth games (SAFAR project), and they will soon be
Jeyashree, Kathiresan; Gupta, Madhu; Kathirvel, Soundappan; Singh, Amarjeet
There have been various commitments made in the international front to reduce maternal mortality ratio, and India has set its target at <100 maternal deaths/100 000 live-births. One of the strategies is to have 80% of the deliveries take place at healthcare institutions. However, health-related behaviour and decision-making is affected by many factors beyond the availability of health services. We report the case of a fourth gravida, belonging to the Sansi tribe, with son-preference in urban northern India, who delivered her fourth female child at home. We attempt to understand beliefs, norms and practices involved in deciding place of delivery in the context of theory of reasoned action and health belief model so that cultural appropriateness can be ensured in healthcare delivery. The study emphasises that there is need for improvement in cultural appropriateness of healthcare services delivered to the community. PMID:23365161
Jeyashree, Kathiresan; Gupta, Madhu; Kathirvel, Soundappan; Singh, Amarjeet
There have been various commitments made in the international front to reduce maternal mortality ratio, and India has set its target at <100 maternal deaths/100,000 live-births. One of the strategies is to have 80% of the deliveries take place at healthcare institutions. However, health-related behaviour and decision-making is affected by many factors beyond the availability of health services. We report the case of a fourth gravida, belonging to the Sansi tribe, with son-preference in urban northern India, who delivered her fourth female child at home. We attempt to understand beliefs, norms and practices involved in deciding place of delivery in the context of theory of reasoned action and health belief model so that cultural appropriateness can be ensured in healthcare delivery. The study emphasises that there is need for improvement in cultural appropriateness of healthcare services delivered to the community. PMID:23365161
Jangam, Chandrakant; Ramya Sanam, S; Chaturvedi, M K; Padmakar, C; Pujari, Paras R; Labhasetwar, Pawan K
The present case study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality in alluvial settings in Lucknow City in India. The groundwater samples have been collected in the areas of Lucknow City where the on-site sanitation systems have been implemented. The groundwater samples have been analyzed for the major physicochemical parameters and fecal coliform. The results of analysis reveal that none of the groundwater samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) limits for all the parameters. Fecal coliform was not found in majority of the samples including those samples which were very close to the septic tank. The study area has a thick alluvium cover as a top layer which acts as a natural barrier for groundwater contamination from the on-site sanitation system. The t test has been performed to assess the seasonal effect on groundwater quality. The statistical t test implies that there is a significant effect of season on groundwater quality in the study area. PMID:26342476
Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city. PMID:23369323
Bhusan, K.; Kundu, S. S.; Goswami, K.; Sudhakar, S.
Slopes are the most common landforms in North Eastern Region (NER) of India and because of its relatively immature topography, active tectonics, and intense rainfall activities; the region is susceptible to landslide incidences. The scenario is further aggravated due to unscientific human activities leading to destabilization of slopes. Guwahati, the capital city of Assam also experiences similar hazardous situation especially during monsoon season thus demanding a systematic study towards landslide risk reduction. A systematic assessment of landslide hazard requires understanding of two components, "where" and "when" that landslides may occur. Presently no such system exists for Guwahati city due to lack of landslide inventory data, high resolution thematic maps, DEM, sparse rain gauge network, etc. The present study elucidates the potential of space-based inputs in addressing the problem in absence of field-based observing networks. First, Landslide susceptibility map in 1 : 10,000 scale was derived by integrating geospatial datasets interpreted from high resolution satellite data. Secondly, the rainfall threshold for dynamic triggering of landslide was estimated using rainfall estimates from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis. The 3B41RT data for 1 hourly rainfall estimates were used to make Intensity-Duration plot. Critical rainfall was estimated for every incidence by analysing cumulative rainfall leading to a landslide for total of 19 incidences and an empirical rainfall intensity-duration threshold for triggering shallow debris slides was developed (Intensity = 5.9 Duration-0.479).
Sil, Arjun; Sitharam, T. G.
Seismic site characterization is the basic requirement for seismic microzonation and site response studies of an area. Site characterization helps to gauge the average dynamic properties of soil deposits and thus helps to evaluate the surface level response. This paper presents a seismic site characterization of Agartala city, the capital of Tripura state, in the northeast of India. Seismically, Agartala city is situated in the Bengal Basin zone which is classified as a highly active seismic zone, assigned by Indian seismic code BIS-1893, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part-1 General Provisions and Buildings. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2002), it is the highest seismic level (zone-V) in the country. The city is very close to the Sylhet fault (Bangladesh) where two major earthquakes ( M w > 7) have occurred in the past and affected severely this city and the whole of northeast India. In order to perform site response evaluation, a series of geophysical tests at 27 locations were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique, which is an advanced method for obtaining shear wave velocity ( V s) profiles from in situ measurements. Similarly, standard penetration test (SPT-N) bore log data sets have been obtained from the Urban Development Department, Govt. of Tripura. In the collected data sets, out of 50 bore logs, 27 were selected which are close to the MASW test locations and used for further study. Both the data sets ( V s profiles with depth and SPT-N bore log profiles) have been used to calculate the average shear wave velocity ( V s30) and average SPT-N values for the upper 30 m depth of the subsurface soil profiles. These were used for site classification of the study area recommended by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) manual. The average V s30 and SPT-N classified the study area as seismic site class D and E categories, indicating that
Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch
Majumdar, Deepanjan; Gajghate, D. G.
Emission inventory of CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 has been prepared for Nagpur city in Central India for the year 2004. Data on fossil fuel (coal, light diesel oil, high speed diesel, petrol/gasoline, low sulphur heavy stock, furnace oil and kerosene) consumption in thermal power, industrial, transport and domestic sectors were collected. Thermal power sector had the maximum coal consumption followed by the industrial and domestic sectors, whereas kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel and gasoline were used only in any single sector. Total annual CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from these fuels in Nagpur city for the year 2004 was found to be 14792418 MT (14.8 Tg), 4649 (4.6 Tg), 1529 (1.5 Tg) and 69093 (6.9 Tg), respectively, in which thermal power and domestic sector had the maximum share. Coal was found to be the major contributor to Green House Gas (GHG) and SO 2 emissions in all the sectors barring transport and domestic sectors. Carbon dioxide was the predominant GHG emitted by the selected sectors in terms of absolute emissions and also global warming contribution (GWC), though the share in the latter was lesser in magnitude due to higher global warming potential (GWP) of CH 4 and N 2O than CO 2. Thermal power sector had a share of 51% in total CO 2 emissions from all the sectors, followed by domestic, industrial and transport sectors having 27, 12 and 10% contributions, respectively. Share of thermal power sector in total SO 2 emissions was 61%, followed by 24% from industrial, 10% from domestic and 5% from transport sector.
Hongal, Sudhir; Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Goel, Pankaj; Byarakele, Chandrashekar; Mishra, Priyesh; Jain, Shubham
Background: The current cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras) residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Based on a convenient non-probability snow ball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of study and who fulfilled the selection criteria were approached. A cross section of the general population was also surveyed. An interviewer-based, predesigned, structured, close-ended 18-item questionnaire that had been designed based on the primary objective of the study was used. All the obtained data were analyzed using software, Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Results: According to 188 (86.2%) males, 187 (87.4%) females and 168 (81.2%) eunuchs, good oral health can improve the general health. Most of the study participants including 211 (98.6%) females, 210 (96.3%) males and 205 (99%) eunuchs use either tooth paste or tooth powder to clean their teeth. While, a majority of eunuchs, i.e., 113 (54.6%), were having habit of chewing smokeless tobacco containing products such as betel nut, betel quid, gutkha, etc., The difference in use of tobacco products was statistically significant. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral hygiene practices which are performed among eunuch population. Efforts to increase the awareness of oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of this population. PMID:25425825
Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran
Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225
Sikka, R; Nayyar, V K
Soil and plant samples were collected from sewage and tubewell irrigated sites from three industrially different cities of Punjab (India) viz. Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla. The extent of lead (Pb) pollution was assessed with respect to background concentration of tubewell irrigation. In sewage irrigated surface soil layer (0-15 cm), the extent of Pb accumulation was 4.61, 4.20 and 2.26 times higher than those receiving tubewell irrigation sites in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that soil pH, organic carbon, calcium carbonate and clay were significant soil parameters explaining the variation in available soil Pb. The mean Pb content in plants receiving sewage irrigation was 4.56, 5.48 and 2.72 times higher than tubewell irrigation in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. The content of Pb in plants receiving sewage irrigation revealed that, assuming a weekly consumption of 500-1000 g of vegetables grown on sewage irrigated soils by an adult of 70 kg body weight, the Pb intake may far exceed the World Health Organization proposed tolerable weekly intake of Pb. PMID:26886426
Yadav, Ravi; Beig, G.; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.
The city of Udaipur (24.58°N, 73.68°E) in the province of Rajasthan in the Western part of India has a special significance as it is surrounded by the Arawali mountain ranges on one side and desert on the other side. It is located around the foothills of the rocky Arawali range. It is on the world map due to its tourist attraction. The changing pattern in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) during the past three years indicates an alarming increasing trend, posing a threat to its environment & tourism sector which regulates its economy to a period during the monsoon and distribution of particulate matter is found to be governed by the meteorology and changes the trend. The level of PM10, which was already above the threshold level in 2010, further increased in 2012. The trend is found to be rapid during the months of October & November where an increase by 37% is observed in 3 years. The level of PM2.5, which is the most hazardous for respiratory system diseases, has now started to cross the ambient air quality standards set by the World Health Organization. The impact is significant during winter when the inversion layer is down due to colder temperature and foreign tourists are a peak giving rise an increased morbidity rate. The linkages of local weather with an anthropogenically induced trend and long range transport of pollutants have been outlined.
Khajuria, Meenakshi; Dutta, S P S
To assess water quality of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points, viz. Parade Ground, Mohalla Paharian, Purani Mandi, Malhotrian Street, Raghunathpura and Hari Market in old Jammu city of India, water parameters viz. temperature, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, free carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, sulphate, silicate, nitrate, phosphate, iron, copper, zinc, lead and chromium were analyzed during the years 2000-2001/2001-2002. There was alteration in water quality parameters in the distribution system caused by entry of sewage, soil, etc. through dislocation, cracks, valve regulators/turncock, defective joints, breakage, etc. in the pipes through crossing and deposits of biofilms inside the pipes, dead ends and their degradation through microbes. Comparison of water quality with National and International Standards revealed that all the parameters were within permissible limits of drinking water standards. Water Quality Index (WQI) of various physico-chemical parameters revealed that the water of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points was fit for human consumption as it was found under the category of good (WQI < 50). PMID:23505827
Ravindra, Khaiwal; Garg, Vinod K
Ground water quality of Hisar city was assessed for its suitability for drinking purposes. Samples collected from the Bore-wells (forms a part of municipal water supply) and handpumps (direct consumption) were analyzed for the various physico-chemical parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, total hardness, total alkalinity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride and sulfate. The concentrations of magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate and especially of chloride were found moderately higher than the WHO standards for the drinking water. Further a comparison of fluoride (F-) levels in groundwater of various cities and towns of Haryana state was performed. The relatively higher concentrations of F- in groundwater of Haryana raise the risk of fluorosis and hence groundwater must be used with proper treatment. Promising defluoridation methods using locally available materials and technologies are discussed for the prevention and control of fluorosis. Data were assessed statistically to find the suitable markers of ground water quality as an aid to monitoring groundwater quality. PMID:17295116
Kumar, Nithin; Kanchan, Tanuj; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; Thapar, Rekha; Mithra, Prasanna; Kulkarni, Vaman; Papanna, Mohan Kumar; Holla, Ramesh; Sarathy, Saran
Drug dependence is still to be recognized in developing countries as a significant public health problem and literature on the magnitude of this problem is limited. The present research was planned to study the socio-demographic profile and the reasons for substance use among patients admitted at De-addiction centres in Mangalore, India. In this cross-sectional study, all the patients admitted at the De-addiction centres during the study period were interviewed. The data was analyzed and the results obtained were expressed in proportions. A total of 83 patients were included in the study, all of whom were males. A positive family history of substance use was evident in 63% of the respondents. The mean age of the study participants was 41.9 (SD±11.2) years and the mean age for starting substance use was 20.9 (SD±7.7) years. The most common substance used was alcohol (95.2%). Majority of the subjects (56.6%) cited peer pressure as a reason for initiating substance use. Our findings suggest that the initiation of substance use occurs during late teenage years and mostly due to peer pressure. Our observations point towards the vulnerability of younger age towards substance use and hence, it is proposed that the preventive health policies in this regard should be targeted specifically during teenage years. PMID:23469075
Chandrashekara, M S; Veda, S M; Paramesh, L
A systematic study of the ground water and soil samples collected from different locations around Mysore city (12(°)N and 76(°)E) has been carried out. (226)Ra activity concentration in water samples varies from 0.28 to 189 mBq l(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 4.75 mBq l(-1) and (222)Rn concentration in ground water varies from 4.25 to 435 Bq l(-1) with a GM of 25.9 Bq l(-1). The GM of inhalation and ingestion doses due to (222)Rn in water is 65.2 and 5.43, µSv y(-1), respectively. The measured GM gamma dose rate in air is 85.4 nGy h(-1) and absorbed dose rate estimated from the measured activity of radionuclides is 92.6 nGy h(-1). PMID:21764808
Ahmed, M Noor; Sinha, Sukesh Narayan; Vemula, Sudershan Rao; Sivaperumal, P; Vasudev, K; Ashu, Shaik; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Bhatnagar, V
The objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in different fish species collected from fish outlets in the south Indian city of Hyderabad. The samples of fish extracted by using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 45 congeners) were determined by gas chromatography-microelectron capture detection (GC-μECD) method. The intake of individual PCB congeners through fish, toxicity equivalence factors (TEFs), hazardous quotient, quantitative assessment, and risk evaluations was estimated in the Indian population. Daily dietary intakes of PCBs at the 95th-percentile-measured concentrations were twice the values of the 50th-percentile-measured concentrations in all socio-economic groups. The dietary intakes of PCBs through fish consumption in middle-income group, low-income group, and industrial laborers (0.023 μg kg(-1) day(-1)), the high-income group (0.031 μg kg(-1) day(-1)), and slum dwellers (0.039 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) exceeded the reference dose. The observed estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of our study for all socio-economic sections (0.0087 μg/kg/day) crossed the cancer benchmark concentration of 0.0003 μg/kg/day. In slum dwellers, the ingestion of fish from freshwater and marine water results in the highest lifetime cancer risks of 4.7 in 100,000 and 7.8 in 100,000, respectively. Ultimately, the concentrations of PCBs were determined high in all of the fish species collected. Risk assessment showed that the fish were highly contaminated with PCBs and may pose health threats to consumers in the city of Hyderabad as well as a lifetime cancer risk. PMID:26780413
Shavi, Girish R; Thakur, Bhanupriya; Bhambal, Ajay; Jain, Swapnil; Singh, Vani; Shukla, Ankita
Background: To assess the oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of head and neck cancer patients and to find association between QoL, demographic and disease variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 153 patients diagnosed and being treated for head and neck cancer in Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital, India. Data collected from the survey included demographic details and OHRQoL, which was measured by European Organization of Research for Treatment of Cancer QoL questionnaire head & neck-35. Cancer measurements (location of tumor, stages of cancer, treatment type) were collected from the patient’s hospital records. Results: The majority of the population 84 (54.9%) belonged to 41-60 years age group and most of them were male (78.4%). The most frequent site of the primary tumor was the oral cavity (71.3%) and the majority of patients had Stage II and III cancer. Main factors affecting QoL were loss of weight, use of painkillers, sticky saliva, reduced mouth opening and problems in social eating. Significant association found between pain (P = 0.044), swallowing (P = 0.018), sense (P = 0.001), Social eating (P = 0.003), social contact (P = 0.008), reduced mouth opening (P = 0.008) with respect to type of treatment. Conclusions: We conclude that there was a significant reduction in the QoL in cancer patients resulting from myriad forms of cancers. An assessment of the QoL and symptoms can help the dentist to direct attention to most important symptoms and provide counseling for appropriate interventions towards improving QoL outcomes and the response to the treatment. PMID:26464534
Jha, Prithwiraj; Roy, Rudra Prasad; Barat, S
Sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in Siliguri cityof West Bengal, India. In regular surveys undertaken during June to August 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (QIM) was applied to assess its quality Raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samples), gill, liverand a portion of gut with gut-contents were aseptically removed for enumeration of the total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and coliform counts. Oreochromis mossambicus and Tenulosa ilisha recorded significantly higher QIM scores, compared to other species (p<0.05). Riverine fish, Lepidocephalichthys guntea and Channa punctatus scored the lowest QIM scores (0) while scores for Puntius ticto and Mystus vittatus and pond cultured species like Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Labeo bata and Cyprinus carpio were very marginal (p<0.05). Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from all the studied species while Pseudomonas spp. was isolated from only seven species. Among the tissues examined, the lowest counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from the skin in every fish species. Highest counts of pathogenic bacteria (except Pseudomonas spp.) were recorded in Tenulosa ilisha for all the tissues except liver. Since fish are properly cooked in Bengali households, the risk of disease from fish consumption is relatively less. However, some tribes residing in the region are known to consume undercooked fish and proper cooking methods should be followed in view of the present findings to avoid health risks. Besides, utmost care should be taken while handling fish. PMID:21387907
Gadhavi, Bhakti P.; Mehta, Hemant B.; Shah, Chinmay J.; Gokhale, Pradnya A.; Makwana, Amit H.
Introduction Smoking is an increasingly popular indulgence in India. Assessment by routine spirometry falls short of direct functional parameter like Diffusion Lung Capacity (DLC), also known as lung transfer factor (LTF). Aim To measure LTF amongst middle aged male smokers and to study various correlates for it. Materials and Methods Total of 45 asymptomatic male current smokers were enrolled for this cross-sectional study conducted at pulmonary function testing lab of Physiology Department of our college. Smoking history was evaluated and smoking index was defined by product of number smoked per day and years smoked. We used instrument Ultima PFX of Medgraphic Company. After pre syringe calibration LTF was measured by Methane mixture using protocols of ATS. Parameters measured were Dlco-uncorrected, corrected and normalized to VA (alveolar volume). Results were compared for statistical significance and significance was set as p <0.05. Results In case group of 45(25 bidi and 20 cigarette smokers) mean age was 30 years, mean duration was 8 years, mean smoking index was 60. We found small insignificant decline in actual LTF values than predicted which was not significantly different between bidi and cigarette smokers. Duration, age and intensity of smoking were negatively and significantly correlated with LTF value while anthropometric parameters were not. Conclusion Smoking adversely affects LTF in young asymptomatic current male smoker that further declines with severity of smoking and with duration regardless of type of smoking. With years to come, these alterations can largely be prevented by smoking cessation, at least theoretically. PMID:27134864
Nagarajan, R; Rajmohan, N; Mahendran, U; Senthamilkumar, S
As groundwater is a vital source of water for domestic and agricultural activities in Thanjavur city due to lack of surface water resources, groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural usage were evaluated. In this study, 102 groundwater samples were collected from dug wells and bore wells during March 2008 and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, major ions, and nitrate. Results suggest that, in 90% of groundwater samples, sodium and chloride are predominant cation and anion, respectively, and NaCl and CaMgCl are major water types in the study area. The groundwater quality in the study site is impaired by surface contamination sources, mineral dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation. Nitrate, chloride, and sulfate concentrations strongly express the impact of surface contamination sources such as agricultural and domestic activities, on groundwater quality, and 13% of samples have elevated nitrate content (>45 mg/l as NO(3)). PHREEQC code and Gibbs plots were employed to evaluate the contribution of mineral dissolution and suggest that mineral dissolution, especially carbonate minerals, regulates water chemistry. Groundwater suitability for drinking usage was evaluated by the World Health Organization and Indian standards and suggests that 34% of samples are not suitable for drinking. Integrated groundwater suitability map for drinking purposes was created using drinking water standards based on a concept that if the groundwater sample exceeds any one of the standards, it is not suitable for drinking. This map illustrates that wells in zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 are not fit for drinking purpose. Likewise, irrigational suitability of groundwater in the study region was evaluated, and results suggest that 20% samples are not fit for irrigation. Groundwater suitability map for irrigation was also produced based on salinity and sodium hazards and denotes that wells mostly situated in zones 2 and 3 are not suitable for
Deotare, Uday R.; Chudgar, Urmish; Bhagat, Eva
The data of 156 patients was presented from Hematology clinic, Ahmedabad. This hematology clinic caters large number of the population from Gujarat as well as from neighboring states such as Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Out of 156 patients, 146 (94%) patients were in chronic phase. Complete hematological response was seen in 90% of patients and overall survival was 82% at 5 years. PMID:24516308
Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Tuteja, Jaspreet Singh; Naik, Sachin; Satish, G.; Divya, K.T.
Background The population of older people, as well as the number of dependent older people, is steadily increasing; those unable to live independently at home are being cared for in a range of settings. Practical training for nurses and auxiliary care staff has frequently been recommended as a way of improving oral health care for functionally dependent elderly. The aim was improve oral hygiene in institutionalized elderly in Bangalore city by educating their caregivers. Methods The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with an elderly home as unit of randomization in which 7 out of 65 elderly homes were selected. Oral health knowledge of caregivers was assessed using a pre-tested pro forma and later oral-health education was provided to the caregivers of the study group. Oral hygiene status of elderly residents was assessed by levels of debris, plaque of dentate and denture plaque, and denture stomatitis of denture wearing residents, respectively. Oral-health education to the caregivers of control group was given at the end of six months Results There was significant improvement in oral-health knowledge of caregivers from the baseline and also a significant reduction of plaque score from baseline score of 3.17 ± 0.40 to 1.57 ± 0.35 post-intervention (p < .001), debris score 2.87 ± 0.22 to 1.49 ± 0.34 (p < .001), denture plaque score 3.15 ± 0.47 to 1.21 ± 0.27 (p < .001), and denture stomatitis score 1.43 ± 0.68 to 0.29 ± 0.53 (p < .001). Conclusions The result of the present study showed that there was a significant improvement in the oral-health knowledge among the caregivers and oral-hygiene status of the elderly residents. PMID:26495047
Grover, N; Nawange, Shesh Rao; Naidu, J; Singh, S M; Sharma, Archana
Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii were repeatedly isolated from decaying wood of trunk hollows in living trees growing in Jabalpur City in Central India. The isolation of C. gattii has been reported from decayed wood inside trunk hollow of Tamarindus indica (15.6%), Mangifera indica (2.2%), Pithecolobium dulce (12.5%), Syzygium cumini (14%), and one from bark of S. cumini. C. n. var. grubii was isolated from decaying wood debris of T. indica (4.4%), M. indica (13.3%), Terminalia arjuna (25%), S. cumini (2%), Cassia fistula (4.5%), and two from bark of S. cumini. The two species [corrected] never co-occurred in the same hollow. C. gattii [corrected] isolates belonged to serotype B. [corrected] The data strongly supported the colonization of the pathogen in decaying wood hollow of all six-tree species. Evidence of this was found by repeated isolation up to 820 days. P. dulce is being reported for the first time as natural habitat of C. gattii and T. arjuna and C. fistula as natural habitat for C. n. var. grubii. M. indica is being reported for the second time as the natural habitat of both species [corrected] (C. n. var. grubii and C. gattii). The population density of these pathogens from decaying wood debris of various tree species ranged between 0.5 x 10(3) cells/g and 6 x 10(5) cells/g. The seasonal variation has been seen in isolation of these pathogens. [corrected] Our result further reinforce the recently emerging evidence that the natural habitat of C. n. var. grubii and C. gattii is more generalized. PMID:17661160
Banerjee, A. ); Rao, K.L.N.
In Broach-Jambusar and Ahmedabad-Mehsana blocks of Cambay basin, India, the hydrocarbon generated (HCG) and hydrocarbon expelled (HCE) per unit area of four Paleogene formations were computed at 38 locations to select the best targets and thus reduce exploration risk. Fractional generation curves, which show relation between vitrinite reflectance and fraction of original generative potential converted to hydrocarbons, were constructed for study areas and used to calculate HCG through remaining generation potential (S[sub 2] of Rock-Eval) and the thickness of the sedimentary section. HCE was estimated by subtracting volatile hydrocarbon content (S[sub 1] of Rock-Eval), representing the unexpelled in-situ-generated bitumen, from the computed value of HCG. HCG and HCE, which combine source rock richness, thickness, and maturity, are useful for comparative evaluation of charging capacity of source rocks. Positive and negative HCEs characterize drainage and accumulation locales, respectively. In the study areas, the major generative depressions are at Sobhasan/Linch/Wadu and Ahmedabad in the Ahmedabad-Mehsana block and the Tankari and Broach depressions in the Broach-Jambusar block. In these areas, Paleogene source rocks have generated between 3 million and 12 million MT hydrocarbon/km[sup 2]. The major known oil and gas accumulations, which are in middle to lower Eocene sandstones in vicinity of the generative depressions, overlie 2 million to 7 million MT hydrocarbon/km[sup 2] and HCG contours in both blocks and correlate well with negative HCE in the reservoir. Isopach maps of several major middle to lower Eocene reservoir sandstones in conjunction with HCG maps for Paleogene section help to delineate favorable exploration locales. 23 refs., 31 figs.
Nelliyanil, Maria; Rai, Sharada; Y.P., Raghavendra Babu; Kotian, Shashidhar M.; Ghosh, Tanima; Singh, Manisha
Context Fast foods are quite popular among children owing to taste, appearance and hype created by mass media. However, the increased incidence of lifestyle disorders seen now-a-days at an early age could be attributed to fast foods. Aim This study was done to assess the awareness of health hazards, consumption pattern of fast foods and to find out its association with overweight among high school students. Settings and Design This cross-sectional study was done among boys of 3 private schools in Mangalore city in March 2012. Materials and Methods Data was collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analysis was used for analysis. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant association. Results Mean age of boys was 13.5±0.9 years. Out of 300 participants, 41(13.7%) were overweight and 8 (2.7%) were obese. 292(97.3%) were fast food users of which 42(14.4%) consumed it every day. Majority of participants were introduced to fast foods through television commercials 193(64.3%). 73(57%) developed this habit as they were bored with home food. Awareness of harmful effects of fast food consumption was known to 186(62%) students and this was found to be associated with the perceived need to control its usage (p<0.001). Parental consumption of fast foods was found to influence fast food consumption among children (p=0.024). As many as 68(22.7%) and 206(68.7%) children were not eating vegetables and fruits respectively every day. Increased frequency of fast food consumption in a week was found to be associated with overweight or obesity among children after adjusting the effects of confounders (p=0.003). Conclusion Awareness on health hazards of fast foods needs to be taught at schools so as to minimize its consumption. Parents have to set an example themselves by not eating fast foods and improving home food to support discouragement of fast foods. This
Tiwari, S; Tiwari, Suresh; Hopke, P K; Attri, S D; Soni, V K; Singh, Abhay Kumar
The role of atmospheric aerosols in climate and climate change is one of the largest uncertainties in understanding the present climate and in capability to predict future climate change. Due to this, the study of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols over a mega city "New Delhi" which is highly polluted and populated were conducted for two years long to see the aerosol loading and its seasonal variability using sun/sky radiometer data. Relatively higher mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) (0.90 ± 0.38) at 500 nm and associated Angstrom exponent (AE) (0.82 ± 0.35) for a pair of wavelength 400-870 nm is observed during the study period indicating highly turbid atmosphere throughout the year. Maximum AOD value is observed in the months of June and November while minimum is in transition months March and September. Apart from this, highest value of AOD (AE) value is observed in the post-monsoon [1.00 ± 0.42 (1.02 ± 0.16)] season followed by the winter [0.95 ± 0.36 (1.02 ± 0.20)] attributed to significance contribution of urban as well as biomass/crop residue burning aerosol which is further confirmed by aerosol type discrimination based on AOD vs AE. During the pre-monsoon season, mostly dust and mixed types aerosols are dominated. AODs value at shorter wavelength observed maximum in June and November while at longer wavelength maximum AOD is observed in June only. For the better understanding of seasonal aerosol modification process, the aerosol curvature effect is studied which show a strong seasonal dependency under a high turbid atmosphere, which are mainly associated with various emission sources. Five days air mass back trajectories were computed. They suggest different patterns of particle transport during the different seasons. Results suggest that mixtures of aerosols are present in the urban environment, which affect the regional air quality as well as climate. The present study will be very much useful to the modeler for
... amending the Notice published at 78 FR 42505, July 16, 2013, regarding the U.S. Healthcare Education... the Application Deadline Date Recruitment for this Mission began in July 2013. Due to the government shutdown, it has been determined that additional time is needed to allow for additional recruitment...
Rengarajan, R.; Sudheer, A. K.; Sarin, M. M.
Daily variability in the chemical composition of atmospheric PM 2.5 and PM 10 has been studied from an urban site (Ahmedabad) in western India over a span of 30 days during winter. The PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass concentrations ranged from 32 to 106 μg m - 3 and 121 to 327 μg m - 3 , respectively. On average, PM 2.5 constitutes ~ 33% of PM 10, indicating dominance of coarse mode aerosols in the urban atmosphere. The particulate EC and OC show higher abundances in PM 2.5 (average: 3.0 ± 0.9 and 18.3 ± 5.9 μg m - 3 respectively) whereas those in PM 10 are 4.4 ± 2.4 and 29.8 ± 11.2 μg m - 3 respectively. A linear increasing trend and representative OC/EC ratio of 6.2 indicate their primary source from biomass burning emissions. The water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC: 4.0-14.7 μg m - 3 ) and its linear relationship with K + (0.6-1.7 μg m - 3 ) in PM 2.5 further support biomass burning emissions as a dominant source for carbonaceous aerosol. Among water-soluble inorganic species, SO 42- is the most abundant (range: 3.2-22.5 μg m - 3 ); almost all of it occurs in fine mode (PM 2.5) and exhibits near-quantitative neutralization with NH 4+ (r = 0.98, slope: 1.3). The water-soluble Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ mainly abundant in the coarse mode, suggest significant contribution from mineral dust. Documenting large temporal variability in the chemical composition of coarse and fine mode aerosol is essential in order to assess the changing regional emission scenario over mega-cities and their down-wind transport.
Gollakota, S.; Rao, N.; Staats, G.; Sinha, K.
The planned addition of over 100,000 MW power generation capacity in India in the next 10 years will provide attractive business opportunities for independent power producers, engineering and consulting companies, and equipment manufacturers in the US. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing, through the US Department of Energy (DOE), necessary technical and project development support to the government stakeholders (Indian Ministries of Power and Coal) and private stakeholders (Ahmedabad Electric Co. and Bombay Suburban Electric Supply) for identifying and promoting advanced clean coal technologies. Implementation of advanced technologies improves electric power generation efficiency and economics, and environmental management in India (e.g., reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and particulates, and increases byproduct utilization). This paper presents a brief overview of the coal-based power generation and related technical support activities being provided in India by the DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center and its support contractor, Burns and Roe Services Corporation.
Pruthvi Rani, K S; Paramesh, L; Chandrashekara, M S
The short-lived radon daughters ((218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m(-3) respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m(-1
Mallik, C.; Lal, S.
Demographic projections show that by the year 2025, 16 of the world's 29 megacities will be located in Asia, many of which have very basic problems in terms of air quality. Apart from being home to a burgeoning population, these regions of the globe are also major players in atmospheric chemistry as a result of myriad emission patterns combined with intense photochemistry. Like most of these Asian megacities, fast-paced development in some of the Indian cities has ramifications in increased emissions from industrial and transport sectors. These emissions release sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), in addition to several pollutants, into the ambient air and have the potential to impact the chemistry and radiative balance on a regional scale. Surface measurements of these two criteria pollutants by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India during 2005-2010 from 13 urban locations in India have been analyzed to get an insight into their temporal and spatial variability. Stations are chosen to represent the entire Indian region: Indo-Gangetic plain or 'IGP' (Jalandhar, Delhi, Kanpur, Durgapur, Kolkata, Guwahati), western India (Jodhpur, Ahmedabad, Surat), central India (Nagpur, Hyderabad) and southern India (Chennai, Trivandrum). The monthly averaged surface level SO2 and NO2 have also been compared with monthly columnar averages of these gases as detected by the Ozone monitoring Instrument (OMI) over these station grids. Mean SO2 concentrations are found to be the highest for Surat (7.5 ppbv), located in a highly industrialized region. Elevated levels of NO2, observed for Durgapur and Kolkata (31 ppbv each), are close to the 24-hour 'National Ambient Air Quality' standard (30 ppbv). The surface concentrations for both SO2 and NO2 concentrations are found to be the highest during winter. Columnar SO2 over many stations show a maximum during summer monsoon. For most IGP stations, columnar NO2 values are elevated during winter. Wavelet analyses
Nathani, B.; Blaha, U.; Das, P. K.; Kannan, D.
perpendicular to a busy inner city road in Mumbai, revealing MS values of ~650×10^-5 SI near the road and background values of ~500×10^-5 SI at a distance of ~10 m. Comparison of curbside MS values in Mumbai (India) and Tübingen (Germany) reveals similarities on the roadside accumulation patterns, at the same time showing significant differences in absolute MS values. The differences go along with different MS background values due to different geological settings, while climatic zones and different standards in road traffic play an additional role. In general, curbside zones seem to pose higher health risk to humans due to increased exposition to harmful dust particles from combustion processes, anthropogenic as well as natural dusts as seen from the roadside deposits. Test measurements with a quartz sand collector, at the curbside of a low traffic road nearby dust producing quarries in Navi Mumbai, reveal that moving vehicles re-suspend significant amounts of dusts, causing significant increase of MS rapidly.
Ganguly, Nandita D.
The changes in humidity levels during the Diwali festivities have been examined over a period of 13 years at three Indian metro cities: Ahmedabad, New Delhi and Kolkata. A small short term increase in relative humidity even in the absence of transport of humid air from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal has been observed. The relative humidity levels were found to be exceeding the ambient levels during night and lying below the ambient levels during morning hours, indicating an increase in the survival rates of viruses responsible for the transmission of viral infections, as well as triggering immune-mediated illnesses such as asthma during Diwali.
Manchanda, R. K.
The beginning of Space astronomy in India took place at TIFR in 1966, with the development of a small balloon borne X-ray astronomy payload. During the 1966-1976 period, studies in the X-ray and Gamma ray energy bands were pursued both at TIFR and PRL, Ahmedabad. Infrared astronomy made its beginning in 1975. The rapid progress of Space astronomy in the early years was mainly due to the availability of large plastic balloons and detector tools developed by the High altitude studies group of TIFR, which I joined in 1966 and initiated the fabrication of the X-ray payload. Balloon borne astronomy has thrived during the past 43 years while satellite opportunities during this period were few and only for piggyback payloads. At present, a full fledged multi-wavelength astronomy satellite mission named ASTROSAT is under fabrication and will be launched in 2011.
Patel, Atul K; Patel, Ketan K; Mehta, Minesh; Parikh, Tejas M; Toshniwal, Harsh; Patel, Kamlesh
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) has not been reportedly previously from India. Initial clinical features of dengue fever and CCHF are similar and it is very difficult to differentiate and diagnose CCHF. Common clinical features of CCHF include; high grade fever with chills, headache, body ache, myalgia, vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness and bleeding from multiple sites. Laboratory investigations showed cytopenia, raised prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), raised creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as altered liver and renal functions. Patients with above symptoms can rapidly progress to bleeding from multiple sites and death compared to dengue fever. It is crucial to recognize CCHF at early stage to institute ribavirin treatment and also to prevent nosocomial spread of disease to health care workers. We are describing first four cases of recent CCHF outbreak in Ahmedabad. PMID:22334974
Mallik, Chinmay; Chandra, Naveen; Venkataramani, S; Lal, Shyam
Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a major precursor for sulfate aerosols that play a critical role in climate regulation. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of COS measurements as a reliable means to constrain biospheric carbon assimilation. In a scenario of limited availability of COS data around the globe, we present gas-chromatographic measurements of atmospheric COS mixing ratios over Ahmedabad, a semi-arid, urban region in western India. These measurements, being reported for the first time over an Indian site, enable us to understand the diurnal and seasonal variation in atmospheric COS with respect to its natural, anthropogenic and photochemical sources and sinks. The annual mean COS mixing ratio over Ahmedabad is found to be 0.83±0.43ppbv, which is substantially higher than free tropospheric values for the northern hemisphere. Inverse correlation of COS with soil and skin temperature, suggests that the dry soil of the semi-arid study region is a potential sink for atmospheric COS. Positive correlations of COS with NO2 and CO during post-monsoon and the COS/CO slope of 0.78pptv/ppbv reveals influence of diesel combustion and tire wear. The highest concentrations of COS are observed during pre-monsoon; COS/CO2 slope of 44.75pptv/ppmv combined with information from air mass back-trajectories reveal marshy wetlands spanning over 7500km(2) as an important source of COS in Ahmedabad. COS/CO2 slopes decrease drastically (8.28pptv/ppmv) during post-monsoon due to combined impact of biospheric uptake and anthropogenic emissions. PMID:26907740
Mallick, Javed; Rahman, Atiqur; Singh, Chander Kumar
The present study is an assessment and identification of urban heat island (UHI) in the environment of one of the fastest urbanizing city of India, Delhi Metropolis, employing satellite image of ASTER and Landsat 7 ETM+ in the thermal infrared region 3-14 μm. Temporal (2001 and 2005) ASTER datasets were used to analyze the spatial structure of the thermal urban environment subsequently urban heat island (UHI) in relation to the urban surface characteristics and land use/land cover (LULC). The study involves derivation of parameters governing the surface heat fluxes, constructing statistics of ASTER thermal infrared images along with validation through intensive in situ measurements. The average images reveal spatial and temporal variations of land surface temperature (LST) of night-time and distinct microclimatic patterns. Central Business District (CBD) of Delhi, (Connaught Place, a high density built up area), and commercial/industrial areas display heat islands condition with a temperature greater than 4 °C compared to the suburbs. The small increase in surface temperature at city level is mainly attributed to cumulative impact of human activities, changes in LULC pattern and vegetation density. In this study the methodology takes into account spatially-relative surface temperatures and impervious surface fraction value to measure surface UHI intensity between the urban land cover and rural surroundings. Both the spatial and temporal variation in surface temperature associated with impervious surface area (ISA) has been evaluated to assess the effect of urbanization on the local climate.
Vyas, A.; Shastri, B.; Joshi, Y.
As per the current estimates, nearly half of the world's population lives in the cities, by 2030 it is calculated to increase to 70%. This calls for a need of more sustainable structure in the urban areas as to support increase in the urban population. Urban Heat Island is one such conspicuous phenomenon which has its significance at local regional and also at the global levels. It is a microscale temperature variation between urban and rural areas, in which urban area are warmer compare to surrounding rural area. The temperature difference between the urban and the rural areas are usually modest, averaging less than 1°C, but occasionally rising to several degrees when urban, topographical and meteorological conditions are favorable for the UHI to develop. It is defined as the phenomena where in the occurrence of surface and atmospheric modifications due to the urbanization causes modification in the thermal climatic conditions which results into warmer areas as compared to the surrounding non urbanized areas, particularly in night. In that case urban built forms such as buildings, roofs, pavements etc. absorb more solar heat/radiation and remain warmer throughout the day time and slowly release energy during night time. The two major causes are rapid urbanization and anthropogenic heat generated due to transport and industrial activities. Urban Heat Island is a crucial subject for global environment. Urbanization has significant effects on local weather and climate. Among these effects one of the most popular is the urban heat island, for which the temperatures of the central urban locations are several degrees higher than those of nearby rural areas of similar elevation. Satellite data provides important inputs for estimating regional surface albedo and evapo-transpiration required in the studies related to surface energy balance. The phenomenon of UHI affects environment and population in so many ways it can also be considered as an active element that cause
Examines several simple models of cities, discussing possible future changes in city design. The concepts of the megalopolis, linear city, tower block, imploded or miniaturized city, and dispersed city are described. (CS)
Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.
The occurrence of two M >7.5 earthquakes in 1819 and 2001, is unexpected in the mid-plate setting of the Kachchh basin, a Mesozoic rift system in northwestern India,. Three issues are recognized as central to the assessment of future seismic hazards in the region. First, the perceived inactivity of surface structures may result from long interseismic intervals. Second, potentially active structures, as exemplified by the Bhuj earthquake (whose rupture terminate below 9 km depth), may lie hidden beneath surface geology. Finally, seismic source zones may be characterized by varying recurrence rates and styles of deformation. The study of past seismicity in the Kachchh region is facilitated by an exceptionally rich >5000 year archaeological and historical database, with paleoseismological data providing additional constraints (Rajendran and Rajendran, 2001). We report here evidence for three earlier earthquakes in 893 AD, c. 30 AD and 2500-2200 BC . Trench investigations indicate that an earthquake sharing similar deformational characteristics as that of the 1819 event occurred in 893 AD (Rajendran and Rajendran, 2002). Evidence for a still older event (30 AD) has been obtained from archaeological excavations near Dwarka, a coastal town 200 km SW of the 1819 and 2001 earthquake sources, suggesting a millennium-long interval between events. In contrast, trenching excavations in the meizoseismal area of the 2001 earthquake, and the pattern of documented damage to historical and ancient monuments, suggest that the 2001 source region may be associated with a much longer recurrence interval. Ancient ruins at Dholavira, a major Harappan city (2600 to 1600 BC) about 60 km from Bhuj epicenter, is the oldest structure in the 2001 epicentral area. Archaeologists attribute repairs undertaken during Stage III of this settlement (2500- 2200 BC) to earthquake related damage (Joshi and Bisht, 1994). Paleoliquefaction features near Ahmedabad, a site located within the Cambay basin
Rajamanikam, Ramamoorthy; Poyyamoli, Gopalsamy; Kumar, Sunil; R, Lekshmi
Poorly planned and uncontrolled urbanization in India has caused a variety of negative, often irreversible, environmental impacts. The impacts appear to be unavoidable and not easily mitigable due to the mounting public health problems caused by non-segregation of solid wastes at source and their subsequent improper management. Recently in India, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other civil society organizations have increasingly started to get involved in improving waste management services. Municipal solid waste management being a governmental function, the contribution of NGOs in this field has not been well documented. This study highlights the activities and services of Shuddham, an NGO functioning in the town of Puducherry within the Union Territory of Puducherry in South India. The NGO program promoted much needed awareness and education, encouraged source separation, enhanced door-to-door collection, utilized wastes as raw materials and generated more job opportunities. Even though source separation prior to door-to-door collection is a relatively new concept, a significant percentage of residents (39%) in the study area participated fully, while a further 48% participated in the collection service. The average amount of municipal solid waste generated by residential units in the Raj Bhavan ward was 8582 kg/month of which 47% was recovered through active recycling and composting practices. The study describes the features and performance of NGO-mediated solid waste management, and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats of this system to see whether this model can sustainably replace the low-performance conventional solid waste management in practice in the town of Puducherry. The experiences from this case study are expected to provide broad guidelines to better understand the role of NGOs and their contributions towards sustainable waste management practices in urban areas. PMID:25125511
Garg, J K
Satellite remote sensing and GIS have emerged as the most powerful tools for inventorying, monitoring and management of natural resources and environment. In the special context of wetland ecosystems, remotely sensed data from orbital platforms have been extensively used in India for the inventory, monitoring and preparation of action plans for conservation and management. First scientific inventory of wetlands in India was carried out in 1998 by Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad using indigenous IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) data of 1992-93 timeframe, which stimulated extensive use of geospatial techniques for wetland conservation and management. Subsequently, with advances in GIS, studies were carried out for development of Wetland Information System for a state (West Bengal) and for Loktak lake wetland (a Ramsar site) as a prelude to National Wetland Information System. Research has also been carried out for preparation of action plans especially for Ramsar sites in the country. In a novel research, use of the geospatial technology has also been demonstrated for biodiversity conservation using landscape ecological metrics. A country-wide estimate of emission of methane, a Green House Gas, from wetlands has also been made using MODIS data. Present article critically reviews the work carried out in India for wetland conservation and management using geospatial techniques. PMID:24486190
Bansal, B. K.; Gupta, G. D.; Srivastava, H. N.
During the last two decades strong motion arrays have been installed in the various parts of Himalaya including N-E India through the Department of Science &Technology. Several moderate earthquakes have been recorded by these networks, which have brought out interesting results about the pattern of attenuation of ground acceleration in these regions. The networks are being strengthened further covering the entire Indian region. Significant improvement in the strong motion data have been made possible with the installation of digital accelerographs with GPS timing systems. The paper presents the strong motion results of Bhuj (2001) and other earthquakes recorded at Delhi, Ahmedabad, Koyna region, besides Himalaya and NE India. The most interesting results pertain to the distinct difference in the attenuation characteristics in the Himalayan region vis-à-vis NE India. The paper also summarizes the methods used to synthesize expected ground motions by random summation of the Empirical Green's Function and the stochastic methods for different site conditions in Delhi due to a possible great earthquake (M=8.0) in the central Himalayas. It is concluded that for reliable assessment of strong ground acceleration, the network of stations needs further improvement.
Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Jawahar, Puja
A prerequisite to an air quality management plan for a city is some idea of the main sources of pollution and their contributions for a city. This paper presents the results of an application of the SIM-air modeling tool in six Indian cities - Pune, Chennai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Surat, and Rajkot. Using existing and publicly available data, we put together a baseline of multi-pollutant emissions for each of the cities and then calculate concentrations, health impacts, and model alternative scenarios for 2020. The measured annual PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 micron meter) concentrations in μg m-3 averaged 94.7 ± 45.4 in Pune, 73.1 ± 33.7 in Chennai, 118.8 ± 44.3 in Indore, 94.0 ± 20.4 in Ahmedabad, 89.4 ± 12.1 in Surat, and 105.0 ± 25.6 in Rajkot, all exceeding the annual standard of 60 μg m-3. The PM10 inventory in tons/year for the year 2010 of 38,400 in Pune, 50,200 in Chennai, 18,600 in Indore, 31,900 in Ahmedabad, 20,000 in Surat, and 14,000 in Rajkot, is further spatially segregated into 1 km grids and includes all known sources such as transport, road dust, residential, power plants, industries (including the brick kilns), waste burning, and diesel generator sets. We use the ATMoS chemical transport model to validate the emissions inventory and estimate an annual premature mortality due to particulate pollution of 15,200 for the year 2010 for the six cities. Of the estimated 21,400 premature deaths in the six cities in 2020, we estimate that implementation of the six interventions in the transport and brick kiln sectors, can potentially save 5870 lives (27%) annually and result in an annual reduction of 16.8 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities.
Basavarajappa, T. H.
Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering
Sudheer, A. K.; Aslam, M. Y.; Upadhyay, M.; Rengarajan, R.; Bhushan, R.; Rathore, J. S.; Singh, S. K.; Kumar, S.
Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC)) and water-soluble inorganic species (Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -) in PM10 and PM2.5 from Ahmedabad and Jodhpur (urban and semi-urban locations, respectively) in western India were measured during May-September, 2011. Stable isotope composition of carbonaceous aerosol (δ13C of TC) in PM10 samples was also determined. Average EC concentration in PM10 at Ahmedabad was 1 μg m- 3 (range: 0.34 to 3.4 μg m- 3), almost 80% of which remained in PM2.5. Similarly, 70% of EC in PM10 (average: 0.9 μg m- 3) resided in PM2.5 at Jodhpur. Average OC concentration at Ahmedabad was 6.4 μg m- 3 and ~ 52% of this was found in PM2.5. On the contrary, OC concentration at Jodhpur was 40 μg m- 3, 80% of which was found in coarse particles contributing substantially to aerosol mass. δ13C of TC (average: - 27.5‰, range: - 29.6 to - 25.8‰) along with WSOC/EC ratio shows an increasing trend at Jodhpur suggesting the possibility of aging of aerosol, since aging results in enrichment of heavier isotope. OC and WSOC show significant correlations with K+ and not with EC, indicating biogenic origin of OC. Different size distributions are also exhibited by WSOC at the two stations. On the other hand, δ13C exhibits an inverse trend with sea-salt constituents at Ahmedabad, indicating the influence of air masses transported from the western/south-western region on carbonaceous aerosol. These results suggest that a strong heterogeneity exists in the sources of carbonaceous aerosol over this region and potential sources of non-combustion emissions such as bio-aerosol that need further investigation.
... MISR Data Reveal Immense Pollution Pool over Bihar, India View Larger Image ... a tongue of pollution extending across the middle of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther ...
Lorway, Robert; Hwang, Sandra D H; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Pasha, Akram; Rahman, Syed Hafeez Ur; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James
Employing community-based approaches, the spatialization of sexual risk among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) at local cruising spots was explored in South India. To move beyond individualistic and structural deterministic understandings of sexual risk the study examined how erotic associations and networks formed and dissolved as social actors connect to each other through their material world (which includes other bodies). Crowding was important for safely establishing intimacy in public but also created contexts of discrimination and violence, particularly for feminine-acting males. Risk itineraries drawn by MSM anticipated fluctuating levels of risk, enabling them to avoid dangerous situations. Although sexual typologies connected gender nonconforming males to HIV prevention networks, they reinforce the exclusion of men who did not identify with sexual minority identities. Future work must therefore address the HIV prevention needs of men whose identities cannot be readily separated from "the general population". PMID:21703909
Saha, J K; Panwar, N; Singh, M V
A study was conducted to investigate physico-chemical properties, fertilizing potential and heavy metal polluting potentials of municipal solid waste composts produced in 29 cities of the country. Results indicated that except a very few samples, all other samples have normal pH and EC. Organic matter as well as major nutrients N and P contents in MSW composts are generally low as compared to the composts prepared from rural wastes. Heavy metal contents in composts from bigger cities (>1 million population) were higher by about 86% for Zn, 155% for Cu, 194% for Cd, 105% for Pb, 43% for Ni and 132% for Cr as compared to those from smaller cities (<1 million population). Composts prepared from source separated biogenos wastes contained, on average, higher organic matter (by 57%), total N (by 77%) and total P (by 78%), but lower concentrations of heavy metals Zn (by 63%), Cu (by 78%), Cd (by 64%), Pb (by 84%), Ni (by 50%), and Cr (by 63%) as compared to those prepared from mixed wastes. Partial segregation at the site of composting did not improve quality of compost significantly in terms of fertilizing parameters and heavy metal contents. Majority of MSW composts did not conform to the quality control guideline of 'The Fertilizer (Control) Order 1985' in respect of total organic C, total P, total K as well as heavy metals Cu, Pb and Cr. In order to enable the relevant stakeholders to judge overall quality, a scheme has been proposed for the categorization of composts into different marketable classes (A, B, C, and D) and restricted use classes (RU-1, RU-2, and RU-3) on the basis their fertilizing potential and as well as potential for contaminating soil and food chain. Under the scheme, 'Fertilizing index' was calculated from the values of total organic C, N, P, K, C/N ratio and stability parameter, and 'Clean index' was calculated from the contents of heavy metals, taking the relative importance of each of the parameters into consideration. As per the scheme
Kumar, Vinod; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sachan, Himanshu; Kumar, Devender; Sinha, Baerbel
residue burning is practiced during harvesting months (April-May) displays enhanced seasonal average PM10 loadings. Average PM10 loadings are approximately 40 μg/m3 higher compared to average PM10 loadings in the Eastern IGP, where crop residue burning is not practiced. PM10 loading in Patiala (Central Punjab) are underpredicted by a factor of 1.8 with respect to the seasonal average and a factor of 2.5 for the harvesting season only. A comparison between 1992-1995 and 2000-2003 shows that PM10 loadings over entire India decreased with the strongest decrease (-150 μg/m3) over the mining areas in Madhya Pradesh and in Chhattisgarh, providing confidence in environmental protection norms put in place by government regulatory authorities. TSP mass loadings decreased over Central India, the Eastern IGB and the Bay of Bengal (-300 μg/m3) but increased over the Southern Indus plains (+ 200 μg/m3) and the Thar Desert. In general there is an increase of TSP from windblown desert dust which is most apparent over the dust source regions but also impacts TSP loadings over the NW-IGB. References: Gupta and Kumar: Trends of particulate matter in four cities in India. Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 2552-2566. Acknowledgement: Vinod Kumar and Himanshu Sachan acknowledge the DST INSPIRE Fellowship programme. Chinmoy Sarkar thanks the Max Planck-DST India Partner Group on Tropospheric OH reactivity and VOCs for funding
Ray, Rajdeep; Khondekar, Mofazzal Hossain; Ghosh, Koushik; Bhattacharjee, Anup Kumar
Enterprising endeavour has been taken in this work to realize and estimate the persistence in memory of the daily mean dew point time series obtained from seven different weather stations viz. Kolkata, Chennai (Madras), New Delhi, Mumbai (Bombay), Bhopal, Agartala and Ahmedabad representing different geographical zones in India. Hurst exponent values reveal an anti-persistent behaviour of these dew point series. To affirm the Hurst exponent values, five different scaling methods have been used and the corresponding results are compared to synthesize a finer and reliable conclusion out of it. The present analysis also bespeaks that the variation in daily mean dew point is governed by a non-stationary process with stationary increments. The delay vector variance (DVV) method has been exploited to investigate nonlinearity, and the present calculation confirms the presence of deterministic nonlinear profile in the daily mean dew point time series of the seven stations.
Shalini, Shenoy; Vaman, Kulkarni
Background HIV/AIDS and Diabetes Mellitus are the diseases’ known to supress cell mediated immunity and predispose patients for opportunistic infections. Hence, we conducted a study to compare the common opportunistic infections (OIs) between People Living with HIV with DM (PLHIV-DM) and PLHIV without DM (PLHIV). Methodology PLHIV with DM and without DM (1:1) were prospectively included in the study from January 2011 to January 2012 at a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore city. Patients were classified as Diabetic if their fasting plasma glucose was ≥ 7.0mmol/l (126mg/dl) or 2–h plasma glucose was ≥11.1mmol/l (200mg/dl). Standard procedures and techniques were followed for diagnosis of OIs as per WHO guidelines. The data was entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. Findings The study included 37 PLHIV with DM and 37 PLHIV without DM and both groups were treated with Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART). The median age was 47 years (IQR: 41-55years) for PLHIV-DM as compared to 40 years (IQR: 35–45.5 years) for PLHIV (p<0.0001). PLHIV-DM had median CD4 counts of 245 (IQR: 148–348) cells/μl compared to 150(IQR: 70–278) cells/μl for PLHIV (p = 0.02). Common OIs included oral candidiasis (49% of PLHIV-DM and 35% of PLHIV); Cryptococcal meningitis (19% of PLHIV-DM and 16% of PLHIV); Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (5% of PLHIV-DM and 18% of PLHIV); extra pulmonary tuberculosis (22% of PLHIV-DM and 34.5% of PLHIV); and Cerebral toxoplasmosis (11% of PLHIV–DM and 13.5% of PLHIV). Microbiological testing of samples from PLHIV- DM, C krusei was the most common Candida species isolated from 9 out of 18 samples. Out of six pulmonary TB samples cultured, four grew Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) and two Mycobacterium tuberculosis complexes. Conclusions Study did not identify any significant difference in profile of opportunistic infections (OIs) between PLHIV with and without Diabetes. PMID:26287949
Mathur, Meena; Rathore, Prachi; Mathur, Monika
Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey were to examine the prevalence, type and intensity of abuse in street children in Jaipur city, India. Method: Based on purposive random sampling, 200 street children, inclusive of equal number of boys and girls, were selected from the streets of Jaipur city, India, and administered an in-depth…
... title: Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...
... article title: Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...
In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…
This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data
Singh, Birbal; Kushwah, Vinod; Singh, O. P.; Lakshmi, D. R.; Reddy, B. M.
The effects of six major earthquakes that occurred in India during the last 13 years between 1988 and 2001 at locations of Bihar-Nepal border, Uttarkashi, Latur, Jabalpur, Chamoli, and Bhuj are examined on the nighttime (18.00-06.00 h LT) ionospheric parameter f0F2 by employing the digital ionosonde data obtained from Ahmedabad (Geographic latitude 23.01°N, longitude 72.36°E). The percent deviations of f0F2 from monthly median are determined for pre-midnight (18.00-00.00 h LT) and post-midnight (00.00-06.00 h LT) sectors and then three days running mean for the peak reduction in percent deviation in the two time sectors are examined critically. The results show that f0F2 are reduced in both the time sectors prior to the occurrence of main shocks. In pre-midnight sector the reduction is between 24% and 35%, 0-4 days before the main shocks and in the post-midnight sector it is between 18% and 30%, 1-15 days before the main shocks. The statistical analysis carried out by using mean and standard deviations from 10 years of data for 24 h periods shows morning, evening, and late evening reductions in all but one case. The effects of magnetic storms in reducing the f0F2 are identified clearly and they do not vitiate the effects of earthquakes.
Pahl, Ronald H.
Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)
Gutch, Manish; Razi, Syed Mohd; Kumar, Sukriti; Gupta, Keshav Kumar
Diabetes mellitus is becoming a global health issue with more than 80% diabetics living in developing countries. India accounts for 62.4 million diabetics (2011). Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (ICMR-INDIAB) study showed highest weighted prevalence rate in the north India among all studied regions. Diabetes in north India has many peculiarities in all aspects from risk factors to control programmers. North Indians are becoming more prone for diabetes and dyslipidemia because rapid westernization of living style and diet due rapid migration to metropolitan cities for employment. North Indian diabetes is plagued with gender bias against females, poor quality of health services, myths, and lack of disease awareness compounded with small number of prevention and awareness programmers that too are immature to counteract the growing pandemic. PMID:25285295
The report of a survey organized by the Nutrition Foundation of India indicated that, although breastfeeding is the traditional standard of infant nutrition in India, good infant feeding practices depend on education provided by health services. Interviews with 4926 mothers with infants under 1 year indicated that over 97% motherrs suckle their infants, and 75% or more in most centers are still breastfeeding when the infant is 1 year old. At age 5 months 30-40% of infants are fed entirely from the breast; at age 1, 5-10% were getting no other food. Of the very small number of mothers who never breastfed their infants, most belonged to the highest income group. Causes of lactation failure in India and other countries seem to be social and psychological and not physiological. Most Indian babies grow well at first, but by the age of 6 months are growth retarded. Growth retardation may be caused by insufficient breast milk and repeated gastrointestinal and respiratory infections associated with poor hygiene and abject poverty, both more prevalent in Calcutta than in Bombay and Madras. Because of risk of infection, dietary supplements should be given to the mother (rather than to the infant) during the 1st 6 months of lactation. Traditional cow and buffalo milk was the main supplement given to 1955 of infants surveyed, but 1531 were given commerical milk formulas. Commercial milk was used mainly by the wealthy in big cities but some was used in rural areas, where some of the poorest mothers spend 10% of family income on commerical milk. It is important that fresh animal milk be made available to the poor at reasonable prices. Indian mothers are reluctant to give older infants any normal family foods except cereals. Manuals should be prepared for use by health workers to teach practical nutrition education in different regions. PMID:6147646
Virmani, Nitin; Bera, Bidhan C; Gulati, Baldev R; Karuppusamy, Shanmugasundaram; Singh, Birendra K; Kumar Vaid, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajendra; Malik, Parveen; Khurana, Sandeep K; Singh, Jitender; Manuja, Anju; Dedar, Ramesh; Gupta, Ashok K; Yadav, Suresh C; Chugh, Parmod K; Narwal, Partap S; Thankur, Vinod L N; Kaul, Rakesh; Kanani, Amit; Rautmare, Sunil S; Singh, Raj K
Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e., horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir) and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples) before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s). The virus (H3N8) was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka), Ahmedabad (Gujarat), Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand) and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740) of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1074 (22.65%) samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8). PMID:21120800
As part of a large study on assessing the impact of environmental contaminants in Indian avifauna, the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in liver tissues of 16 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India during 2005-2007 was quantified. The higher concentrations of total organochlorine pesticides were detected in livers of shikra Accipiter badius (3.43 ± 0.99 μg/g wet wt) and the lower levels in white ibis Pseudibis papillosa (0.02 ± 0.01 μg/g wet wt). Marked differences in the concentrations of total OCPs occurred among species (p < 0.05). Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and isomers, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were lower than the concentrations reported for various species of birds in India. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides in birds was, in general, in the order HCH > DDT > heptachlor epoxide > dieldrin. Among various pesticides analyzed, p,p'-DDE and β-HCH contributed maximum towards the total OCPs and study indicates the continuous use of lindane and DDT for agriculture and public health purpose, respectively. Although no serious threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected in the present study species, continued monitoring is recommended. PMID:23054790
Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.
"Greater India" is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India-Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924) [Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171-372.] and Arthur Holmes (1965) [Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Second Edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1128.] thought that the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau had been raised due to the northern edge of the Indian craton under-thrusting the entire region. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory, Greater India proposals have been based principally on three lines of logic. One group of workers has added various amounts of continental lithosphere to India as part of their Mesozoic Gondwana models. A second form of reconstruction is based on Himalayan crustal-shortening estimates. A third body of researchers has used India continent extensions as means of allowing initial contact between the block and the Eurasian backstop plate in southern Tibet to take place at various times between the Late Cretaceous and late Eocene in what we call "fill-the-gap" solutions. The Indian craton and the southern edge of Eurasia were almost invariably some distance from one another when the collision was supposed to have started; extensions to the sub-continent were used to circumvent the problem. Occasionally, Greater India extensions have been based on a combination of fill-the-gap and shortening estimate arguments. In this paper, we exhume and re-examine the key Greater India proposals. From our analysis, it is clear that many proponents have ignored key information regarding the sub-continent's pre break-up position within Gondwana and the bathymetry of the Indian Ocean
2008-01-01Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
Jayaraman, K S
The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV. PMID:8782442
... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...
Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve
Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)
This paper details the Indian Solar City Programme, provides an overview of one city's Master Plan and implementation progress, describes NREL's support of the Indian Solar City Programme, and outlines synergies and differences between the Indian and American programs including unique challenges and opportunities India is facing.
Hausler, E.; Petal, M.; Tobin, T.; Tucker, B.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.; Shaw, R.
In the fall of 2002, GeoHazards International (GHI), a California-based nonprofit organization, launched two 3-year projects, each funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, to improve the earthquake risk management of 23 cities in Central Asia and India. The objectives of these projects are to: * Assess the earthquake risk of each city, * Identify the most effective risk mitigation options for each city, * Raise awareness of that risk and those mitigation options, and * Initiate mitigation activities in some of these cities. A critical characteristic of these projects is that leaders of each local community will be deeply involved in realizing all four objectives. GHI will work with, in addition to local authorities, national government, academic and non-governmental organizations. In India, GHI’s partners are the Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) of Kobe, Japan, and the Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS), of Delhi, India. In India, we will work in 20 cities that were chosen, in a February 1, 2002 workshop (sponsored by Munich Reinsurance Company) in Delhi; the cities were selected by Indian earthquake professionals on the basis of the cities’ population, hazard, and economic, cultural and political significance. In Central Asia, we will focus on Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan; and Almaty, Kazakstan. GHI and its partners are looking for other organizations that would like to collaborate on these projects.
Ahmad, Sohail; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Creutzig, Felix
India hosts the world's second largest population and offers the world's largest potential for urbanization. India's urbanization trajectory will have crucial implications on its future GHG emission levels. Using household microdata from India's 60 largest cities, this study maps GHG emissions patterns and its determinants. It also ranks the cities with respect to their household actual and "counter-factual" GHG emissions from direct energy use. We find that household GHG emissions from direct energy use correlate strongly with income and household size; population density, basic urban services (municipal water, electricity, and modern cooking-fuels access) and cultural, religious, and social factors explain more detailed emission patterns. We find that the "greenest" cities (on the basis of household GHG emissions) are Bareilly and Allahabad, while the "dirtiest" cities are Chennai and Delhi; however, when we control for socioeconomic variables, the ranking changes drastically. In the control case, we find that smaller lower-income cities emit more than expected, and larger high-income cities emit less than expected in terms of counter-factual emissions. Emissions from India's cities are similar in magnitude to China's cities but typically much lower than those of comparable U.S. cities. Our results indicate that reducing urban heat-island effects and the associated cooling degree days by greening, switching to modern nonsolid cooking fuels, and anticipatory transport infrastructure investments are key policies for the low-carbon and inclusive development of Indian cities. PMID:26359859
The southern Indian city of Bangalore is extolled as India's "Silicon Valley," emerging over the past decade as a premier site for capital flows into India's Information Technology (IT) sector. In the dominant narrative of globalization Bangalore is lauded as an aspiring "global city" that attracts sizeable quantities…
Hegde, Archana V.; Cassidy, Deborah J.
The study assessed kindergarten teachers' beliefs, stated practices and actual practices regarding developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) in India. Forty kindergarten teachers from the urban city of Mumbai (India) participated in the study. Overall, the results indicated that teachers' beliefs were more developmentally appropriate than their…
Saravanabhavan, Sheila; Saravanabhavan, Rc.
The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge level of learning disabilities (LD) among teachers in India. A survey was distributed among 144 teachers in two regular high schools, 38 teachers in two special schools, and 165 pre-service teachers in a teacher education college in a metropolitan city in a southern state in India. One-way…
Wilson, Stephanie L.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Salvina, Jennifer; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Panchal, Ila N.
The present study compared 6- to 9-year-old children's reports of their decisions to express anger, sadness, and physical pain; methods of controlling and communicating felt emotion; and reasons for doing so in response to hypothetical situations across three groups: old-city India (n = 60), suburban India (n = 60), and suburban United States (n =…
Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron; Brownson, Ross C.
Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394
Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron; Brownson, Ross C
Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2-3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48-0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394
Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.
This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to
Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…
This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…
Dhiman, Ramesh C
The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions. PMID:25325052
Dhiman, Ramesh C.
The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions. PMID:25325052
Sharma, Som Kumar; Vaishnav, Rajesh; Kumar, Prashant; Jethava, Chintan
Long term variations of middle atmospheric thermal structure in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere (20 km to 90 km) have been studied over Ahmedabad (23.1o N, 72.3o E, 55 m amsl), India using SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) onboard TIMED (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics)observations during year 2002 to year 2014. For the same period, three different atmospheric models show over-estimation of temperature (~10 K) in stratopause and in upper mesosphere, and a signature of under-estimation is seen above mesopause when compared against SABER measured temperature profile. Estimation of monthly temperature anomalies reveals a downward trend of lower temperature from mesosphere to stratosphere during January to December. Moreover, Lomb Scargle periodogram (LSP) and Wavelet transform techniques are employed to characterize the semi-annual, annual and quasi-biennial oscillations to diagnose the wave dynamics in the stratosphere-mesosphere system. Results suggested that semi-annual, annual and quasi-biennial oscillations are exist in stratosphere, whereas, semi-annual and annual oscillations are observed in mesosphere. In lower mesosphere, LSP analyses revealed conspicuous absence of annual oscillations in altitude range of ~55 to 65 km, and semi-annual oscillations are not exist in 35 to 45 km. Four monthly oscillations are also reported in the altitude range of about 45 to 65 km.The temporal localization of oscillations using wavelet analysis shows strong annual oscillation during year 2004-2006 and 2009-2011.
Young Children, 2007
Mobile Creche ("creche" means "day nursery") was founded on one woman's determination to change life for India's most vulnerable children. Within its first decade, Mobile Creches' network of child care centers spread from construction sites to urban slums and from the capital city of Delhi to the commercial and cultural centers of Mumbai and Pune.…
Concerns about deterioration of the quality of life in mega-cities in India, thought to be due to in-migration, are shown to be misplaced in this essay. Not only is the deterioration due merely to rising expectations, but its causes are problems on a national level. It is true that population growth in the 12 largest cities in India, 3.35%, is more rapid than growth rates in the country as a whole, 2.22%. Bangalore is growing the fastest, 5.68% annually, but generally Indian cities are growing less rapidly that many other Asian cities, e.g. Dacca, 7.37%. Urbanization to the extent of 60.70% of the population is in fact necessary for development. The primary reason for in-migration is employment for men, and marriage accompanying employed husbands for women. Contrary to common opinion, the educational status of in- migrants is higher than that of the region, and female literacy is higher in cities than in the rest of the state, e.g., 61% for Bombay, vs. 35% in Maharashtra State. The occupational status is frequently high: production, transport equipment operator, laborer, professional, technical executive managerial, sales and service. Furthermore, as urbanization proceeds, construction laborers and service workers are in demand. Quality of life defined by infant and maternal mortality is higher in cities than in the surrounding rural area. This quality of life is the reason why people migrate to the city. Unfortunately, frustrations are also rising as expectations for improved housing, water, air, transportation and consumer-durables rise faster than they can be supplied. PMID:12343049
Mukhopadhyay, K K
This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002
McMillin, Divya C.
Examines the role of television advertising among unskilled female factory laborers in Bangalore, India. Demonstrates that television in the global city provides spaces for the expression of urban and gendered identities that could be accessed through the economic benefits of factory labor. Concludes that participatory communication and further…
Virmani, Nitin; Bera, B C; Singh, B K; Shanmugasundaram, K; Gulati, B R; Barua, Sanjay; Vaid, R K; Gupta, A K; Singh, R K
An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) was reported in India in June, 2008 after a gap of two decades. The outbreak started from Jammu and Kashmir (Katra), northern state of India and spread to the other parts of the country affecting equines in 11 states. The virus (H3N8) was isolated from nasal swabs obtained from clinical cases in various locations in the country including Katra (Jammu and Kashmir), Mysore (Karnataka) and Ahmedabad (Gujarat) using embryonated chicken eggs. The virus isolates were identified as H3N8 by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test titration with standard serum and by sequencing of full-length haemagglutinin (HA) gene and partial sequence of neuraminidase (NA) gene. Paired serum samples (n=271) showing more than fourfold rise in antibody titres tested from 11 states confirmed equine influenza. Serum samples (n=2517) of equines from 13 states of the country screened by HI test revealed 687 (26.85%) samples positive for antibodies to EI (H3N8). Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene confirmed the virus to be closely related to Clade 2 of the Florida sublineage in American lineage. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequence of HA gene with EIV isolates from various lineages showed substitutions in the antigenic regions C and D. HA1 gene sequence had highest amino acid identity to A/eq/Gansu/7/08 and A/eq/Hubei/6/08 isolates from China and Inner-Mongolia isolate, while the complete HA gene sequence was closest to A/eq/A/eq/Newmarket/5/03, A/eq/Bari/05 and A/eq/Kentucky/05/02 isolates. Recent outbreaks of Mongolia, China and India by clade 2 EI viruses imply their predominance in Asia in addition to Europe. PMID:20053509
This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…
Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.
This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…
According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…
Interviews children and adults living in rural areas in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India regarding education, revealing individuals' hopes and dreams against a backdrop of severe class, caste, and gender stratification. Examines the promise of schooling and literacy in India, the relationship of schooling and literacy to work, and of…
Day, Frederick A.
Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…
This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?
Dixit, J.; Dewaikar, D. M.; Jangid, R. S.
Mumbai city is the financial capital of India and is fifth most densely populated city in the world. Seismic soil liquefaction is evaluated for Mumbai city in terms of the factors of safety against liquefaction (FS) along the depths of soil profiles for different earthquakes with 2% probability of exceedance in 50 yr using standard penetration test (SPT)-based simplified empirical procedure. This liquefaction potential is evaluated at 142 representative sites in the city using the borehole records from standard penetration tests. Liquefaction potential index (LPI) is evaluated at each borehole location from the obtained factors of safety (FS) to predict the potential of liquefaction to cause damage at the surface level at the site of interest. Spatial distribution of soil liquefaction potential is presented in the form of contour maps of LPI values. As the majority of the sites in the city are of reclaimed land, the vulnerability of liquefaction is observed to be very high at many places.
Community development projects in India during the 1950s and 60s viewed women as beneficiaries, but in fact few women benefitted measurably. The realization among field motivators of the necessity of improving the status of women prompted formation of women's organizations based on the participation of women in development. Non-government organizations and militant organizations have had greater success than government sponsored organizations in creation of employment for women. Some employment-generating organizations directed by high caste women or by men merely continue the oppression of poor women, providing abysmal pay for long hours, but a women's cooperative serving textile workers in Bombay has been successful because of the large number of unaccompanied males migrating to the city who desire reasonably priced home-cooked food. Other organizations have attempted to mobilize women to allow them to benefit from development. Struggles of women in the electronics, pharmaceutical, textile, mining, clothing, and other small scale industries have been supported by women's organizatinns. Rural women's organizations have forced village authorities to provide drinkig water and have demanded creation of employment for unemployed rural workers. The "Self-Employed Women's Association" supports negotiations of such women in their respective professions, and others struggling for women's rights have also undertaken development projects in health, education, and employment with a view to increasing women's independence. Some organizations provide child care services and others assist women in obtaining credit. Numerous cooperatives for food and housework have been formed but their ultimate effect on the distribution of power between castes and classes remains uncertain. Government sponsored cooperatives and women's organizations have benefitted mainly the intermediaries and have tended to use women as a source of cheap labor. A strategic plan for the emancipation of women
Bailey, Stephen K.
The author gives a rationale for utilizing the city as a place to learn. The city has many problems and although logistics require that we conduct most education in the school building, the author argues for putting out best brains to the task of bringing the city to the classroom and to exploiting the city as a classroom when appropriate.…
A general discussion of training programs which resulted from India's decision to expand television as a nationwide network and a vastly expanded use of educational technology within the educational system. (Author/HB)
Narasimhan, Gomathy; Kota, Venugopal; Rela, Mohamed
Liver transplantation as an established form of treatment for end-stage liver disease has gained acceptance in India over the last 10 years. Liver transplantation in India has unique features that have contributed to the growth of both deceased donor and living donor transplantations of which living donor currently dominates the picture. Living donor contributes to 80% and deceased donor to 20% of the liver transplants currently performed in India. The majority of these transplants are performed within the private sector with public sector hospitals lagging behind significantly. This article gives an overview of the evolution of liver transplantation in India and the potential future challenges. Liver Transplantation 22 1019-1024 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082718
With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.