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Sample records for ahr-calux assay comparison

  1. Comparison of Established and Emerging Biodosimetry Assays

    PubMed Central

    Rothkamm, K.; Beinke, C.; Romm, H.; Badie, C.; Balagurunathan, Y.; Barnard, S.; Bernard, N.; Boulay-Greene, H.; Brengues, M.; De Amicis, A.; De Sanctis, S.; Greither, R.; Herodin, F.; Jones, A.; Kabacik, S.; Knie, T.; Kulka, U.; Lista, F.; Martigne, P.; Missel, A.; Moquet, J.; Oestreicher, U.; Peinnequin, A.; Poyot, T.; Roessler, U.; Scherthan, H.; Terbrueggen, B.; Thierens, H.; Valente, M.; Vral, A.; Zenhausern, F.; Meineke, V.; Braselmann, H.; Abend, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid biodosimetry tools are required to assist with triage in the case of a large-scale radiation incident. Here, we aimed to determine the dose-assessment accuracy of the well-established dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in comparison to the emerging γ-H2AX foci and gene expression assays for triage mode biodosimetry and radiation injury assessment. Coded blood samples exposed to 10 X-ray doses (240 kVp, 1 Gy/min) of up to 6.4 Gy were sent to participants for dose estimation. Report times were documented for each laboratory and assay. The mean absolute difference (MAD) of estimated doses relative to the true doses was calculated. We also merged doses into binary dose categories of clinical relevance and examined accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the assays. Dose estimates were reported by the first laboratories within 0.3–0.4 days of receipt of samples for the γ-H2AX and gene expression assays compared to 2.4 and 4 days for the DCA and CBMN assays, respectively. Irrespective of the assay we found a 2.5–4-fold variation of interlaboratory accuracy per assay and lowest MAD values for the DCA assay (0.16 Gy) followed by CBMN (0.34 Gy), gene expression (0.34 Gy) and γ-H2AX (0.45 Gy) foci assay. Binary categories of dose estimates could be discriminated with equal efficiency for all assays, but at doses ≥1.5 Gy a 10% decrease in efficiency was observed for the foci assay, which was still comparable to the CBMN assay. In conclusion, the DCA has been confirmed as the gold standard biodosimetry method, but in situations where speed and throughput are more important than ultimate accuracy, the emerging rapid molecular assays have the potential to become useful triage tools. PMID:23862692

  2. Quantitative comparisons of in vitro assays for estrogenic activities.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, H; Tong, W; Perkins, R; Soto, A M; Prechtl, N V; Sheehan, D M

    2000-01-01

    Substances that may act as estrogens show a broad chemical structural diversity. To thoroughly address the question of possible adverse estrogenic effects, reliable methods are needed to detect and identify the chemicals of these diverse structural classes. We compared three assays--in vitro estrogen receptor competitive binding assays (ER binding assays), yeast-based reporter gene assays (yeast assays), and the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay (E-SCREEN assay)--to determine their quantitative agreement in identifying structurally diverse estrogens. We examined assay performance for relative sensitivity, detection of active/inactive chemicals, and estrogen/antiestrogen activities. In this examination, we combined individual data sets in a specific, quantitative data mining exercise. Data sets for at least 29 chemicals from five laboratories were analyzed pair-wise by X-Y plots. The ER binding assay was a good predictor for the other two assay results when the antiestrogens were excluded (r(2) is 0.78 for the yeast assays and 0.85 for the E-SCREEN assays). Additionally, the examination strongly suggests that biologic information that is not apparent from any of the individual assays can be discovered by quantitative pair-wise comparisons among assays. Antiestrogens are identified as outliers in the ER binding/yeast assay, while complete antagonists are identified in the ER binding and E-SCREEN assays. Furthermore, the presence of outliers may be explained by different mechanisms that induce an endocrine response, different impurities in different batches of chemicals, different species sensitivity, or limitations of the assay techniques. Although these assays involve different levels of biologic complexity, the major conclusion is that they generally provided consistent information in quantitatively determining estrogenic activity for the five data sets examined. The results should provide guidance for expanded data mining examinations and the selection of appropriate

  3. INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF CHOLINESTERASE ASSAY MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twelve wildlife toxicology laboratories participated in an interlaboratory survey of cholinesterase (ChE) assays to determine comparability of absolute ChE values and estimates of ChE inhibition from organophosphorus insecticide-dosed birds and to examine the type and consistency...

  4. Comparison of Different Promoter Methylation Assays in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suijkerbuijk, Karijn P. M.; Pan, Xiaojuan; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.; Vooijs, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Background: Promoter hypermethylation has emerged as a promising cancer biomarker. Currently, a large variety of quantitative and non-quantitative techniques is used to measure methylation in clinical specimens. Here we directly compared three commonly used methylation assays and assessed the influence of tissue fixation, target sequence location and the amount of DNA on their performance. Methods: We used Methylation-Specific PCR (MSP), Quantitative Multiplex MSP (QM-MSP) and Methylation-Specific Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MS-MLPA) to compare methylation of CCND2, SCGB3A1, RARB and RASSF1 on DNA from 40 breast carcinomas. Results: A comparison between MSP and QM-MSP on the same samples showed a high discrepancy: 20% of tumors that showed no methylation in MSP gave >10% methylation in QM-MSP. In contrast, QM-MSP correlated strongly with MS-MLPA when targeting the same sequence in DNA from paraffin embedded as well as fresh frozen tissue. This correlation declined when target sequences were non-overlapping. In titration experiments, MSP and MS-MLPA performed robust with 10 ng of DNA, while QM-MSP was at least ten-fold more sensitive. Conclusion: Despite the difference in molecular basis, QM-MSP and MS-MLPA showed moderate to strong correlations. In contrast, there was a poor concordance between either of these techniques and non-quantitative MSP. For biological samples with scarce DNA, QM-MSP is the method of choice. PMID:20978321

  5. Comparison of Five Assays for Detection of Clostridium difficile Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Kimberle C.; Dickenson, Roberta A.; Wu, Fongman; Andrea, Sarah B.

    2011-01-01

    Performance characteristics of five assays for detection of Clostridium difficile toxin were compared using fresh stool samples from patients with C. difficile infection (CDI). Assays were performed simultaneously and according to the manufacturers' instructions. Patients were included in the study if they exhibited clinical symptoms consistent with CDI. Nonmolecular assays included glutamate dehydrogenase antigen tests, with positive findings followed by the Premier Toxin A and B Enzyme Immunoassay (GDH/EIA), and the C. Diff Quik Chek Complete test. Molecular assays (PCR) included the BD GeneOhm Cdiff Assay, the Xpert C. difficile test, and the ProGastro Cd assay. Specimens were considered true positive if results were positive in two or more assays. For each method, the Youden index was calculated and cost-effectiveness was analyzed. Of 81 patients evaluated, 26 (32.1%) were positive for CDI. Sensitivity of the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay, the Xpert C. difficile test, the ProGastro Cd assay, C. Diff Quik Chek Complete test, and two-step GDH/EIA was 96.2%, 96.2%, 88.5%, 61.5%, and 42.3%, respectively. Specificity of the Xpert C. difficile test was 96.4%, and for the other four assays was 100%. Compared with nonmolecular methods, molecular methods detected 34.7% more positive specimens. Assessment of performance characteristics and cost-effectiveness demonstrated that the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay yielded the best results. While costly, the Xpert C. difficile test required limited processing and yielded rapid results. Because of discordant results, specimen processing, and extraction equipment requirements, the ProGastro Cd assay was the least favored molecular assay. The GDH/EIA method lacked sufficient sensitivity to be recommended. PMID:21704273

  6. Comparison of enzymatic and liquid chromatographic chloramphenicol assays

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.F.; Opheim, K.E.; Koup, J.R.; Smith, A.L.

    1981-02-01

    A radioenzymatic assay and a ''high-performance'' liquid chromatographic assay for chloramphenicol were compared by using 52 patient specimens, 24 mock unknowns, and 13 quality control samples. Both methods were found to be rapid, precise, accurate, and sensitive, and either would be suitable for monitoring chloramphenicol concentrations in small volumes of serum. Linear regression analysis of serum chloramphenicol concentrations in patients receiving chloramphenicol succinate yielded a regression equation of Y . 1.04X + 0.274 (X . high-performance liquid chromatographic assay; Y . radioenzymatic assay), with a correlation coefficient of 0.971.

  7. Comparison of Luminescence ADP Production Assay and Radiometric Scintillation Proximity Assay for Cdc7 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Toshimitsu; Shum, David; Parisi, Monika; Santos, Ruth E.; Radu, Constantin; Calder, Paul; Rizvi, Zahra; Frattini, Mark G.; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Several assay technologies have been successfully adapted and used in HTS to screen for protein kinase inhibitors; however, emerging comparative analysis studies report very low hit overlap between the different technologies, which challenges the working assumption that hit identification is not dependent on the assay method of choice. To help address this issue, we performed two screens on the cancer target, Cdc7-Dbf4 heterodimeric protein kinase, using a direct assay detection method measuring [33P]-phosphate incorporation into the substrate and an indirect method measuring residual ADP production using luminescence. We conducted the two screens under similar conditions, where in one, we measured [33P]-phosphate incorporation using scintillation proximity assay (SPA), and in the other, we detected luminescence signal of the ATP-dependent luciferase after regenerating ATP from residual ADP (LUM). Surprisingly, little or no correlation were observed between the positives identified by the two methods; at a threshold of 30% inhibition, 25 positives were identified in the LUM screen whereas the SPA screen only identified two positives, Tannic acid and Gentian violet, with Tannic acid being common to both. We tested 20 out of the 25 positive compounds in secondary confirmatory study and confirmed 12 compounds including Tannic acid as Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase inhibitors. Gentian violet, which was only positive in the SPA screen, inhibited luminescence detection and categorized as a false positive. This report demonstrates the strong impact in detection format on the success of a screening campaign and the importance of carefully designed confirmatory assays to eliminate those compounds that target the detection part of the assay. PMID:21564015

  8. Comparison of rapid screening assays using organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, S.A.; Robideau, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    In a continuation of a study presented last year using metals, the sensitivity of short term toxicity tests is examined using common organic chemicals. In toxicity testing, the focus has shifted from the traditional long-term studies utilizing the mortality of complex, multicellular eukaryotic organisms as the endpoint towards short-term studies in which transformation of biochemical pathways are monitored. The relative sensitivity of aquatic screening techniques are compared to the standardized 48-hr Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia, 96-hr fathead minnow and 96-hr algal acute assays. The short-term test procedures investigated are: dehydrogenase enzyme activity assays utilizing triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and resazurin as the calorimetric indicators; TOXI-Chromotest, inhibition of {beta}-galactosidase; reduction in bioluminescence output utilizing the Microtox{reg_sign} test; nitrification inhibition assays with a commercial preparation of nitrifying bacteria (Nitroseed{trademark}) and municipal activated sludge; respiration inhibition assays with a commercial preparation of heterotrophic bacteria (Polytox{reg_sign}) and activated sludge; inhibition of root growth in terrestrial plants; and galactosidase inhibition through the use of a fluorometrically tagged substrate with the Daphnia magna IQ{trademark} test. Toxicity values generated by this laboratory on commonly used organic chemicals are compared.

  9. Comparison of Six Automated Treponema-Specific Antibody Assays.

    PubMed

    Park, Borae G; Yoon, Jihoon G; Rim, John Hoon; Lee, Anna; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Six different Treponema (TP)-specific immunoassays were compared to the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test. A total of 615 samples were tested. The overall percent agreement, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity of each assay compared to the FTA-ABS test were as follows: Architect Syphilis TP, 99.2%, 96.8%, and 100%; Cobas Syphilis, 99.8%, 99.4%, and 100%; ADVIA Centaur Syphilis, 99.8%, 99.4%, and 100%; HISCL Anti-TP assay kit, 99.7%, 98.7%, and 100%; Immunoticles Auto3 TP, 99.0%, 97.5%, and 99.6%; Mediace TPLA, 98.0%, 98.1%, and 98.0%. All results that were discrepant between the TP-specific assays were associated with samples from noninfectious cases (11 immunoassay false positives and 7 from previous syphilis cases). Our study demonstrated that TP-specific immunoassays generally showed high sensitivities, specificities, and percentages of agreement compared to FTA-ABS, with rare cases of false-positive or false-negative results. Therefore, most TP-specific immunoassays are acceptable for use in screening for syphilis. However, it is important to perform a thorough review of a patient's clinical and treatment history for interpreting the results of syphilis serology. PMID:26560543

  10. Comparison of non-magnetic and magnetic beads in bead-based assays.

    PubMed

    Hansenová Maňásková, Silvie; van Belkum, Alex; Endtz, Hubert P; Bikker, Floris J; Veerman, Enno C I; van Wamel, Willem J B

    2016-09-01

    Multiplex bead-based flow cytometry is an attractive way for simultaneous, rapid and cost-effective analysis of multiple analytes in a single sample. Previously, we developed various bead-based assays using non-magnetic beads coated with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens for the detection of antibodies. Here, we compared the performance of the assay using non-magnetic beads with one based on the newly developed magnetic beads. We optimized the magnetic beads' coupling procedure and antibody detection assays for S. aureus and S. pneumoniae antigens and we measured IgG in human pooled serum against a series of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae-derived antigens in a singleplex and in a multiplex assay, respectively. For the multiplex assay, the comparison between magnetic and non-magnetic beads showed: i) in the majority of the cases (13 of the 17 tested S. pneumoniae antigens) significantly higher Median Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) values, ii) lower detection limits, iii) lower coefficient of variation (CV: 12% vs. 7% for non-magnetic vs. magnetic beads), so lower inter-assay variation and hence higher reproducibility. Magnetic bead coupling is cost effective, as we used 25% of the normal amount of antigen and only 50% of the beads in comparison to the non-magnetic beads. This optimized magnetic-based assay, which combines ease of use with an improved assay performance, allows detection of antibodies with a low titer that are potentially missed with the non-magnetic-based assay. PMID:27296810

  11. Comparison of two methods for assaying reducing sugars in the determination of carbohydrase activities.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, Alexander V; Kondratyeva, Elena G; Sinitsyn, Arkady P

    2011-01-01

    The Nelson-Somogyi (NS) and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) assays for reducing sugars are widely used in measurements of carbohydrase activities against different polysaccharides. Using twelve commercial enzyme preparations, the comparison of the NS and DNS assays in determination of cellulase, β-glucanase, xylanase, and β-mannanase activities was carried out. When cellulase activities against CMC were measured, the DNS assay gave activity values, which were typically 40-50% higher than those obtained with the NS assay. In the analysis of the xylanase, β-mannanase, and β-glucanase activities, the overestimations by the DNS assay were much more pronounced (the observed differences in the activities were 3- to 13-fold). Reasons for preferential use of the NS assay for measuring activities of carbohydrases other than cellulases are discussed. PMID:21647284

  12. Comparison of two immunoradiometric assays for serum thyrotropin

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinin, B.; Drew, H.; La France, N.; Ladenson, P.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    An ultra-sensitive TSH assay capable of detecting subnormal TSH levels would be useful in confirming suppressed pituitary function as seen in hyperthyroidism. Two sensitive immunoradiometric TSH assays (IRMA's) were studied to determine how well they distinguished thyrotoxic patients from normal subjects. Serono Diagnostics' method employs three monoclonal antibodies specific for different regions of the TSH molecule with a minimum detectable dose (MDD) limit of 0.1 ..mu..IU/ml. Precision studies using a low TSH control in the 1.8 ..mu..IU/ml range gave CV's of 15.0%. Boots-Celltech Diagnostics method is a two site IRMA using two monoclonal antibodies. The MDD limit is 0.05 ..mu..IU/ml with precision CV's of 29.3% at a TSH control range of 0.62 ..mu..IU/ml. In 24 chemically thyrotoxic patients, the mean serum TSH concentration was significantly lower than in the normal control subjects: for Serono, 0.19 ..mu..IU/ml vs. 2.34 ..mu..IU/ml and for Boots Celltech, 0.18 IU/ml vs 2.06 ..mu..IU/ml. The range of TSH was 0 to 0.5 ..mu..IU/ml in thyrotoxic patients using Serono with the exception of one patient having a TSH value of 0.8 ..mu..IU/ml. The normal range was 0.6 to 6.0 ..mu..IU/ml. For Boots Celltech the thyrotoxic range was 0 to 0.2 ..mu..IU/ml with that same thyrotoxic patient giving a TSH value of 0.7 ..mu..IU/ml with a normal range of 0.6 to 5.0 IU/ml. Serum TSH measurements using both procedures are highly sensitive for distinguishing thyrotoxic patients from normal subjects and are useful to confirm suppressed pituitary function.

  13. Comparison of three assays for genetic effects of antineoplastic drugs on cancer patients and their nurses

    SciTech Connect

    Krepinsky, A. ); Bryant, D.W.; Davison, L.; McCalla, D.R. ); Young, B. ); Heddle, J. ); Douglas, G. ); Michalko, K. )

    1990-01-01

    Three assays have been compared for their ability to detect genetic damage caused by antineoplastic drugs in cancer patients and possible damage in the nurses who administered these drugs. The assays were sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay on urine. Three comparisons were made: (1) patients before versus after treatment; (2) the administering nurses immediately after their work period versus after a few days off that followed (work and off-work); (3) the exposed nurses versus other nurses who did not administer antineoplastic drugs (controls). The SCE assay did not distinguish between the work and off-work samples in either the exposed or control nurses. Chromosomal aberration was the only assay which showed significant difference between the two samples of the exposed nurses and, consequently, between the exposed and control nurses. There is no evidence that the increase was connected to occupational exposure.

  14. Detection of circulating immune complexes by Raji cell assay: comparison of flow cytometric and radiometric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsmore, S.F.; Crockard, A.D.; Fay, A.C.; McNeill, T.A.; Roberts, S.D.; Thompson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Several flow cytometric methods for the measurement of circulating immune complexes (CIC) have recently become available. We report a Raji cell flow cytometric assay (FCMA) that uses aggregated human globulin (AHG) as primary calibrator. Technical advantages of the Raji cell flow cytometric assay are discussed, and its clinical usefulness is evaluated in a method comparison study with the widely used Raji cell immunoradiometric assay. FCMA is more precise and has greater analytic sensitivity for AHG. Diagnostic sensitivity by the flow cytometric method is superior in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients: however, diagnostic specificity is similar for both assays, but the reference interval of FCMA is narrower. Significant correlations were found between CIC levels obtained with both methods in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients and in longitudinal studies of two patients with cerebral SLE. The Raji cell FCMA is recommended for measurement of CIC levels to clinical laboratories with access to a flow cytometer.

  15. A data comparison between a traditional and the single-step β-galactosidase assay.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jorrit; Jovanovic, Goran; Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Buck, Martin

    2016-09-01

    This article describes reproducibility of a single-step automated β-galactosidase, and the equivalence of its data to the traditional assay ("Experiments in Molecular Genetics" [1]). This was done via a pairwise comparison of both methods using strains with Miller Unit [MU] values ranging from 0 to over 2000. The data presented in this article is associated with the research article entitled "A single-step method for mid to high throughput β-galactosidase assays in Escherichia coli using a microplate reader" [2]. PMID:27331113

  16. Quantitative comparison of DNA methylation assays for biomarker development and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation patterns are altered in numerous diseases and often correlate with clinically relevant information such as disease subtypes, prognosis and drug response. With suitable assays and after validation in large cohorts, such associations can be exploited for clinical diagnostics and personalized treatment decisions. Here we describe the results of a community-wide benchmarking study comparing the performance of all widely used methods for DNA methylation analysis that are compatible with routine clinical use. We shipped 32 reference samples to 18 laboratories in seven different countries. Researchers in those laboratories collectively contributed 21 locus-specific assays for an average of 27 predefined genomic regions, as well as six global assays. We evaluated assay sensitivity on low-input samples and assessed the assays' ability to discriminate between cell types. Good agreement was observed across all tested methods, with amplicon bisulfite sequencing and bisulfite pyrosequencing showing the best all-round performance. Our technology comparison can inform the selection, optimization and use of DNA methylation assays in large-scale validation studies, biomarker development and clinical diagnostics. PMID:27347756

  17. Comparison of various assay systems for prostate-specific antigen standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, M; Akimoto, S; Akaza, H; Arai, Y; Usami, M; Imai, K; Tanaka, Y; Yamazaki, H; Kawada, Y; Koiso, K

    1992-12-01

    To avoid confusion between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values among various assay systems, clinical studies on the possibility of conversion among detection values were performed. The assay kits used for the PSA comparisons were MARKIT-F PA, MARKIT-M PA, EIKEN PA, PA test WAKO, Ball ELSA PSA, E-Test Tosoh II PA, PROS-CHECK PSA, DELFIA PSA and TANDEM-R PSA. Using each kit, the standards attached to each assay system were detected, and 142 sera samples from benign hypertrophies or prostate cancers were assayed for serum PSA values. By detecting the standards for each kit, slopes were obtained which were almost identical to those obtained from original assay system. The coefficients of correlation among the PSA detection systems, using patients' sera, were very high, and linear regression lines were also obtained. The results suggest that almost identical serum PSA values may be detected either by multiplying by a coefficient to bring it to the standard or using the conversion formula. PMID:1283993

  18. Comparison between S+L- assay and LacZ marker rescue assay for detecting replication-competent gammaretroviruses.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto-Gotoh, A; Yoshikawa, R; Miyazawa, T

    2015-09-01

    To avoid contamination of adventitious gammaretroviruses in biological products such as vaccines, it is necessary to check the master seed cells for manufacturing. There are several assays to detect infectious gammaretroviruses. Among these, sarcoma-positive, leukemia-negative (S+L-) assay is a classical infectivity assay, which is often recommended in governmental guidelines. The S+L- cells used in S+L- assay generate unique focus upon the infection of replication-competent gammaretroviruses. Although S+L- assay is well recognized for the detection, their applicability is questionable in some cases. On the other hand, LacZ marker rescue (LMR) assay detects infectious gammaretroviruses by transducing LacZ marker gene to the target cells, which shows lacZ-positive foci if the infectious virus is present. In this study, we compared LMR and S+L- assays for detection of a variety of endogenous and exogenous gammaretroviruses. As results, LMR assay could detect all gammaretroviruses examined. On the other hand, S+L- assay using feline S+L- cells, termed QN10S, could not detect porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) subgroups A/B. Further, S+L- mink cells could not detect feline leukemia virus subgroups B in addition to PERV-A/B. These data indicate that LMR assay is better suited to detect wider range of gammaretroviruses. PMID:26164289

  19. Comparison between fibroblast wound healing and cell random migration assays in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ascione, Flora; Vasaturo, Angela; Caserta, Sergio; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Formisano, Pietro; Guido, Stefano

    2016-09-10

    Cell migration plays a key role in many biological processes, including cancer growth and invasion, embryogenesis, angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and tissue repair. In this work, we compare two well-established experimental approaches for the investigation of cell motility in vitro: the cell random migration (CRM) and the wound healing (WH) assay. In the former, extensive tracking of individual live cells trajectories by time-lapse microscopy and elaborate data processing are used to calculate two intrinsic motility parameters of the cell population under investigation, i.e. the diffusion coefficient and the persistence time. In the WH assay, a scratch is made in a confluent cell monolayer and the closure time of the exposed area is taken as an easy-to-measure, empirical estimate of cell migration. To compare WH and CRM we applied the two assays to investigate the motility of skin fibroblasts isolated from wild type and transgenic mice (TgPED) overexpressing the protein PED/PEA-15, which is highly expressed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our main result is that the cell motility parameters derived from CRM can be also estimated from a time-resolved analysis of the WH assay, thus showing that the latter is also amenable to a quantitative analysis for the characterization of cell migration. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative comparison of these two widely used techniques. PMID:27475838

  20. A comparison of in-house real-time LAMP assays with a commercial assay for the detection of pathogenic bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular detection of bacterial pathogens based on LAMP methods is a faster and simpler approach than conventional culture methods. Although different LAMP-based methods for pathogenic bacterial detection are available, a systematic comparison of these different LAMP assays has not been performed. ...

  1. Comparison of two rapid assays for Clostridium difficile Common antigen and a C difficile toxin A/B assay with the cell culture neutralization assay.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; Alcabasa, Romina C; Lema, Clara A; Carroll, Karen C

    2010-01-01

    We compared 3 rapid assays for Clostridium difficile with a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Of 600 stool samples, 46 were positive for toxigenic C difficile. Both rapid common antigen assays were highly sensitive (91.3%-100%) and, therefore, were appropriate screening tests. The rapid toxin assay had poor sensitivity (61%) but excellent specificity (99.3%). Testing stools for glutamate dehydrogenase (step 1) and those positive with a rapid toxin assay (step 2) would correctly classify 81% of submitted specimens within 2 hours, including during periods of limited staffing (evenings, nights, and weekends). CCNA could then be used as a third step to test rapid toxin-negative samples, thereby providing a final result for the remaining 19% of samples by 48 to 72 hours. The use of rapid assays as outlined could enhance timely diagnosis of C difficile. PMID:20023265

  2. An international evaluation of the murine local lymph node assay and comparison of modified procedures.

    PubMed

    Kimber, I; Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Gerberick, G F; Ryan, C A; Basketter, D A; Scholes, E W; Ladics, G S; Loveless, S E; House, R V

    1995-11-20

    The murine local lymph node assay is a predictive test for the identification of skin-sensitizing chemicals. The method has been the subject both of national inter-laboratory studies and of extensive comparisons with guinea pig tests. In the investigations reported here, the local lymph node assay has been evaluated further in the context of an international study comprising five independent laboratories. In addition, the influence of minor modifications to the standard assay procedure on the performance of the test has been examined. The modified procedures investigated were exposure of mice for 4 rather than 3 consecutive days, excision of lymph nodes 4 rather than 5 days after the initiation of exposure and the use of an alternative isotope. All five laboratories, irrespective of whether the standard or a modified protocol was used, were able to identify accurately, and with comparable sensitivity, potassium dichromate and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene as skin sensitizers. Using standard criteria, none of the laboratories recorded positive responses with methyl salicylate, a non-sensitizer. In the standard protocol, lymph nodes are pooled for each experimental group and the vigor of responses measured as a stimulation index relative to vehicle controls. A stimulation index of 3 or greater is considered to indicate skin-sensitizing potential. One further modification adopted by three of the laboratories was to analyze nodes from individual animals and, thereby, permit statistical evaluation. This allowed a direct comparison of statistical significance with the conventional stimulation index as criteria for a positive response. The data indicate that, while statistical evaluation may provide, in some instances, for small increases in sensitivity, this may be at the expense of some loss of selectivity. There are, however, insufficient data presently to draw firm conclusions regarding the relative value of statistical analysis. These studies demonstrate that the local

  3. Comparison of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with an Immunochromatographic Assay for Detection of Lincomycin in Milk and Honey.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shanshan; Song, Shanshan; Liu, Liqiang; Kong, Na; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunochromatographic assay were constructed for the detection of lincomycin (LIN) in both milk and honey samples based on the monoclonal antibody named 5F6. The half-maximum inhibition of ELISA was 0.3 ng/mL after optimizing pH and ionic strength conditions; the limit of detection was 0.07 ng/mL. The cross-reactivity with clindamycin was 0.6%. LIN recovery in spiked milk and honey samples ranged from 84.6% to 115.6% with intra-assay coefficient variations of 1.7-25.4% and inter-assay coefficient variations of 2.7-8.9%. The detection limits were estimated as 2.1 µg/L for milk and 2.1 µg/kg for honey samples. The immunochromatographic assay revealed a LIN cut-off value of 10 ng/mL in PBS, 5 ng/mL in milk, and 120 ng/g in honey, and a visual lower detection limit of 2.5 ng/mL, 1 ng/mL and 30 ng/g in PBS, milk and honey, respectively. The immunochromatographic assay is preferred for large-scale practical application for its simpler pretreatment and satisfied sensitivity compared with ELISA assay. PMID:26107744

  4. [Comparison of 3 assay kits of prostate specific antigen in serum of prostatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Akimoto, S; Akakura, K; Shimazaki, J

    1988-12-01

    The serum prostate specific antigen (PA) of the patients with prostatic cancer were determined with 3 assay kits, the Diagnostic Products Cooperation (DPC) kit, the Eiken kit and the Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co. (MARKIT F) kit. The first 2 assay kits involve radioimmunoassay and the latter EIA. For comparison, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and gamma-seminoprotein (gamma-Sm) were determined using an Eiken kit and Chugai kit. Efficiency of the DPC kit, Eiken kit and the MARKIT F kit for untreated prostatic cancer was 26, 25 and 36%, respectively. The PA level measured using the Eiken kit and the MARKIT F kit both well correlated to the PAP level, but with the DPC kit correlation was slightly low. The PA level measured using the 3 different kits correlated poorly with the gamma-Sm level. The PA values obtained with 3 different assays from patients with prostatic cancer were highly correlated, but showed great differences in the values measured. When the standards used in the DPC kit were analyzed by the Eiken kit, the DPC standards as measured by the Eiken kit had only about half of their assigned values. The same standards were analyzed by the MARKIT F kit, the standards yielded measured values about one third of their assigned values. When the standards used in the MARKIT F kit were analyzed by the Eiken kit, the MARKIT F standards yielded measured values about 2.5 fold of their assigned values. The differences between the values obtained with the 3 assay kits presented a serious problem in clinical use of PA. Standardization of these assay kits will be awaited. PMID:2467543

  5. Telomere length measurement by a novel Luminex-based assay: a blinded comparison to Southern blot.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brandon L; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Zhang, Chenan; Aviv, Abraham; Hunt, Steven C; Ahsan, Habibul; Kibriya, Muhammad G

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is a potential biomarker of aging and age-related disease risk. We recently published a novel Luminex-based method for high-throughput, low-cost TL measurement. Here we describe a blinded comparison of the Luminex method to Southern blot, the most precise TL measurement method. Luminex and Southern blot measurements for the same 50 DNA samples were taken in two independent laboratories; each sample was measured twice, several months apart. The inter-assay CV for Luminex ranged from 5.5 to 9.1 (depending on CV estimation method), and Southern blot CV from 1.0 to 1.7. Both measures were inversely associated with age. The correlation between the repeated measurements was 0.66 for Luminex and 0.97 for Southern blot. The correlation between Southern blot and Luminex was 0.65 in round 1 and 0.75 in round 2, and the relationship showed no evidence of non-linearity. Our results demonstrate that the Luminex assay is a valid and reproducible method for high-throughput TL measurement. The Luminex assay involves no DNA amplification, which may make Luminex an attractive alternative to PCR-based TL measurement. PMID:27186324

  6. Telomere length measurement by a novel Luminex-based assay: a blinded comparison to Southern blot

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Brandon L; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Zhang, Chenan; Aviv, Abraham; Hunt, Steven C; Ahsan, Habibul; Kibriya, Muhammad G

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is a potential biomarker of aging and age-related disease risk. We recently published a novel Luminex-based method for high-throughput, low-cost TL measurement. Here we describe a blinded comparison of the Luminex method to Southern blot, the most precise TL measurement method. Luminex and Southern blot measurements for the same 50 DNA samples were taken in two independent laboratories; each sample was measured twice, several months apart. The inter-assay CV for Luminex ranged from 5.5 to 9.1 (depending on CV estimation method), and Southern blot CV from 1.0 to 1.7. Both measures were inversely associated with age. The correlation between the repeated measurements was 0.66 for Luminex and 0.97 for Southern blot. The correlation between Southern blot and Luminex was 0.65 in round 1 and 0.75 in round 2, and the relationship showed no evidence of non-linearity. Our results demonstrate that the Luminex assay is a valid and reproducible method for high-throughput TL measurement. The Luminex assay involves no DNA amplification, which may make Luminex an attractive alternative to PCR-based TL measurement. PMID:27186324

  7. Comparison and evaluation of Renibacterium salmoninarum quantitative PCR diagnostic assays using field samples of Chinook and coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Sandell, Todd A; Jacobson, Kym C

    2011-01-21

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a Gram-positive bacterium causing bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in susceptible salmonid fishes. Several quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to measure R. salmoninarum infection intensity have been reported, but comparison and evaluation of these assays has been limited. Here, we compared 3 qPCR primer/probe sets for detection of R. salmoninarum in field samples of naturally exposed Chinook and coho salmon first identified as positive by nested PCR (nPCR). Additional samples from a hatchery population of Chinook salmon with BKD were included to serve as strong positive controls. The 3 qPCR assays targeted either the multiple copy major soluble antigen (msa) genes or the single copy abc gene. The msa/non-fluorescent quencher (NFQ) assay amplified R. salmoninarum DNA in 53.2% of the nPCR positive samples, whereas the abc/NFQ assay amplified 21.8% of the samples and the abc/TAMRA assay 18.2%. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) successfully quantified only 16.4% of the nPCR positive samples. Although the msa/NFQ assay amplified a greater proportion of nPCR positive samples, the abc/NFQ assay better amplified those samples with medium and high ELISA values. A comparison of the geometric mean quantity ratios highlighted limitations of the assays, and the abc/NFQ assay strongly amplified some samples that were negative in other tests, in contrast to its performance among the sample group as a whole. These data demonstrate that both the msa/NFQ and abc/NFQ qPCR assays are specific and effective at higher infection levels and outperform the ELISA. However, most pathogen studies will continue to require multiple assays to both detect and quantify R. salmoninarum infection. PMID:21381519

  8. A systematic comparison of three commercial estrogen receptor assays in a single clinical outcome breast cancer cohort.

    PubMed

    Kornaga, Elizabeth N; Klimowicz, Alexander C; Guggisberg, Natalia; Ogilvie, Travis; Morris, Don G; Webster, Marc; Magliocco, Anthony M

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancers are routinely assessed for estrogen receptor status using immunohistochemical assays to assist in patient prognosis and clinical management. Specific assays vary between laboratories, and several antibodies have been validated and recommended for clinical use. As numerous factors can influence assay performance, many laboratories have opted for ready-to-use assays using automated stainers to improve reproducibility and consistency. Three commonly used autostainer vendors-Dako, Leica, and Ventana-all offer such estrogen receptor assays; however, they have never been directly compared. Here, we present a systematic comparison of three platform-specific estrogen receptor ready-to-use assays using a retrospective, tamoxifen-treated, breast cancer cohort from patients who were treated in Calgary, Alberta, Canada from 1985 to 2000. We found all assays showed good intra-observer agreement. Inter-observer pathological scoring showed some variability: Ventana had the strongest agreement followed closely by Dako, whereas Leica only showed substantial agreement. We also analyzed each estrogen receptor assay with respect to 5-year disease-free survival, and found that all performed similarly in univariate and multivariate models. Determination of measures of test performance found that the Leica assay had a lower negative predictive value than Dako or Ventana, compared with the original ligand-binding assay, while other measures-sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy-were comparable between the three ready-to-use assays. When comparing against disease-free survival, the difference in negative predictive value between the vendor assays were not as extreme, but Dako and Ventana still performed slightly better than Leica. Despite some discordance, we found that all ready-to-use assays were comparable with or superior to the ligand-binding assay, endorsing their continued use. Our analysis also allowed for exploration of estrogen receptor

  9. TnI-Ultra assay measurements in cancer patients: comparison with the conventional assay and clinical implication.

    PubMed

    Salvatici, Michela; Cardinale, Daniela; Botteri, Edoardo; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Mauro, Cristian; Cassatella, Maria C; Lentati, Paola; Bottari, Fabio; Zorzino, Laura; Passerini, Rita; Cipolla, Carlo M; Sandri, Maria T

    2014-08-01

    The serial monitoring of cardiac troponin represents an effective approach for the early identification, assessment, and monitoring of chemotherapy-induced cardiac injury. Over the last few years new generations of troponin assays, referred to as sensitive and high sensitivity assays, able to detect very low concentrations of troponin, have been progressively released on different platforms. Some studies have assessed the comparability of the cTnI measurements with the new assays versus the conventional ones, but none of these in the oncological population. We compared the cTnI results determined on Stratus CS and ADVIA Centaur CP System in 70 breast cancer patients, for a total of 327 samples collected during different cycles of treatment. Correlation (Spearman = 0.732) and agreement (91.4%) between the assays were good (244 concordant negatives and 55 concordant positives), with a frequency of 8.6% discordant results among the cTnI measurements. Despite the well-known lack in the harmonization and standardization of the currently commercially available cTnI methods, we found a good clinical concordance of cTnI determination on both systems. PMID:24693994

  10. Dicentric assay: inter-laboratory comparison in Indian laboratories for routine and triage applications.

    PubMed

    Bakkiam, D; Bhavani, M; Anantha Kumar, A Arul; Sonwani, Swetha; Venkatachalam, P; Sivasubramanian, K; Venkatraman, B

    2015-05-01

    An Inter-Laboratory Comparison (ILC) study on Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) was carried out between two Indian biodosimetry labs. Human peripheral blood samples exposed to 10 different doses of X-rays up to 5Gy were shared between the labs to generate calibration data. Validation of calibration curves was done by dose estimation of coded samples exposed to X- or gamma radiation. Reliability of the DCA data for triage application was evaluated by scoring 20, 50 and 100 metaphases in the dose range of 0.5-3.0Gy. No significant difference was observed between labs regarding the established calibration data as well as the DCA triage dose assessments. Scoring of 20 metaphases (MP) was adequate to detect radiation exposure of >2Gy whereas 50 MP were sufficient to determine exposures of 0.5Gy. Both labs performed the DCA in a reliable manner and made the first step in setting up a biodosimetry network in India. PMID:25728004

  11. Comparison of Commercial Real-Time PCR Assays for Quantification of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Guillermo; Peña, Pilar; de Ory, Fernando; Echevarría, Juan Emilio

    2005-01-01

    Clinical research suggests a role for viral load measurement in predicting and monitoring Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the recently commercially available quantitative assays for EBV based on real-time PCR: the RealArt EBV LC PCR kit and the LightCycler EBV quantification kit. A total of 87 samples were analyzed: 67 samples were obtained from transplant recipients and patients with EBV-associated diseases, 8 samples were obtained from the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics 2002 EBV Proficiency Program, and 12 negative qualitative nested PCR samples were used as negative controls. Inter- and intra-assay variabilities were determined by running replicates of two samples. All samples were run in a LightCycler instrument. The differences between positive and negative results were not considered statistically significant (P = 0.5355). There were no false-positive results using either method for nested PCR negative-control samples. The difference in viral load values using the two different methods was considered statistically significant (P < 0.01). The logarithmic linear correlation for both assays was low (r = 0.449) but significant (P < 0.01). The LightCycler EBV quantification kit showed a wider dispersal in results but produced substantially more-accurate melting temperature profile curves. The bias towards lower measurements was considerable in comparison with higher viral load. The differences in PCR efficiency and the presence of mutations could explain the disparity between the two methods. It was concluded that confidence intervals would be required to report the results rather than plain absolute values of viral load for patient monitoring. PMID:15872221

  12. Destructive versus Nondestructive Assay Comparisons Using the SWEPP Gamma-ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, John Kelvin; Harker, Yale Deon; Killian, Elmo Wayne; Yoon, Woo Yong

    1998-11-01

    In support of data quality objectives for the INEEL Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) a series of 208-liter (55-gallon) waste drums containing inorganic sludge have been sampled and destructively analyzed. The drums were non-destructively assayed by the SWEPP PAN system and the SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SGRS) prior to sampling. This paper reports some of the conclusions from the destructive versus NDA comparisons, and additionally presents the results of an on-going effort to use the destructive analyses to validate absolute efficiency curves calculated using Monte-Carlo and analytical modeling for the SGRS. Destructive analysis results are available from radiochemical assay of 128 sludge-containing drums. The content codes represented are CC001 (42 items), CC002 (8), CC007 (48), CC800 (16), CC803 (3), and CC807 (11.) Each drum had two full-length vertical cores removed from designated radial positions. The entire length of each core was composited and submitted for analysis. All of the core composites were analyzed radiochemically for Am-241, Pu-239/240, and Pu-238, and by inductively-coupled mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for U-235 and U-238. Not only have the destructive analysis results been useful in documenting the performance of both the SGRS and the PAN system, but also have allowed the determination of certain absolute counting efficiency values for the SGRS. The values, in turn will allow us to validate SGRS counting efficiencies computed by MCNP and analytical modeling, and perhaps use the SGRS as an absolute assay technique.

  13. Destructive versus Nondestructive Assay Comparisons Using the SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    E. W. Killian; J. K. Hartwell; W. Yoon; Y. D. Harker

    1998-11-01

    In support of data quality objectives for the INEEL Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) a series of 208-liter (55-gallon) waste drums containing inorganic sludge have been sampled and destructively analyzed. The drums were non-destructively assayed by the SWEPP PAN system and the SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SGRS) prior to sampling. This paper reports some of the conclusions from the destructive versus NDA comparisons, and additionally presents the results of an on-going effort to use the destructive analyses to validate absolute efficiency curves calculated using Monte-Carlo and analytical modeling for the SGRS. Destructive analysis results are available from radiochemical assay of 128 sludge-containing drums. The content codes represented are CC001 (42 items), CC002 (8), CC007 (48), CC800 (16), CC803 (3), and CC807 (11.) Each drum had two full-length vertical cores removed from designated radial positions. The entire length of each core was composited and submitted for analysis. All of the core composites were analyzed radiochemically for Am-241, Pu-239/240, and Pu-238, and by inductively-coupled mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for U-235 and U-238. Not only have the destructive analysis results been useful in documenting the performance of both the SGRS and the PAN system, but also have allowed the determination of certain absolute counting efficiency values for the SGRS. The values, in turn will allow us to validate SGRS counting efficiencies computed by MCNP and analytical modeling, and perhaps use the SGRS as an absolute assay technique.

  14. Comparison of immunoradiometric assays for determination of thyroglobulin: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Tortajada-Genaro, L A; Cózar, M P; Frigols, J L Moreno; de Avila, C Romero

    2007-01-01

    In this study we compared and validated commercial immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) to determine thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in serum. From a set of 440 samples, 68 were selected to calculate the validation parameters and the clinical performance of the assays. The commercial kits evaluated were the Tg-CTK (DiaSorin), IRMAZenco Tg (ZenTech), and SELco-Tg (Medipan). We found that 21% of the collected samples were in the critical range of concentration. Detection limits were calculated as being below 3 microg/L. Intra- and inter-reproducibility were lower than 3.1% and 9.2%, respectively. Dilution and recovery studies provided quantitative determinations. Correlation regression coefficients from the results of the methods were obtained. The determined concentrations were compared with the clinical evidence of disease. Variation in the 125-iodine-labeled antibody concentration and control charts showed the robustness of the methods. Analysis time and the simplicity of the methods were also evaluated. Reliable Tg determination is important for monitoring patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), controlling other thyroid diseases, and assessing the quality of imaging techniques. A strategy for verification and comparison based on analytical parameters and clinical performance is proposed. PMID:17506473

  15. Comparison of a singleplex real‐time RT‐PCR assay and multiplex respiratory viral panel assay for detection of influenza “A” in respiratory specimens

    PubMed Central

    Pabbaraju, Kanti; Wong, Sallene; Lee, Bonita; Tellier, Raymond; Fonseca, Kevin; Louie, Marie; Drews, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Pabbaraju et al. (2011) Comparison of a singleplex real‐time RT‐PCR assay and multiplex respiratory viral panel assay for detection of influenza “A” in respiratory specimens. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 99–103. Background  Evaluation of different molecular tests for the detection of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus is important before the next wave of the pandemic. Objectives  To compare a hydrolysis probe‐based real‐time RT‐PCR assay recommended by the CDC to the xTAG® respiratory viral panel (RVP) (Luminex® Molecular Diagnostics) for the detection of influenza A. Methods  Eleven thousand eight hundred and ninety‐eight respiratory specimens were tested by the real‐time RT‐PCR and RVP assays for the detection of influenza A. The distribution of seasonal H1, H3 and pandemic H1N1 subtypes in these specimens was compared. Results  The RVP assay was generally unable to identify influenza A–positive samples with a low viral load, whereas the real‐time RT‐PCR assay detected most of these samples resulting in a subset of specimens that could not be confirmed as either seasonal or pandemic influenza A subtypes. Conclusions  When the prevalence of influenza A is high, the CDC recommended real‐time RT‐PCR has significant advantages as a frontline assay, namely higher sensitivity and shorter time to reporting a result. Anticipated scenarios would be during the peaks of the pandemic and episodes of seasonal influenza. Furthermore, the better sensitivity of the RT‐PCR makes it the preferred assay to detect influenza in patients with severe respiratory disease tested late in their clinical course. If pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus is not the dominant virus and there is a high proportion of other respiratory viruses circulating, laboratories will be faced with the decision to use the RVP assay for the detection of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. PMID:21244644

  16. A Comparison of In-House Real-Time LAMP Assays with a Commercial Assay for the Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deguo; Wang, Yongzhen; Xiao, Fugang; Guo, Weiyun; Zhang, Yongqing; Wang, Aiping; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Molecular detection of bacterial pathogens based on LAMP methods is a faster and simpler approach than conventional culture methods. Although different LAMP-based methods for pathogenic bacterial detection are available, a systematic comparison of these different LAMP assays has not been performed. In this paper, we compared 12 in-house real-time LAMP assays with a commercialized kit (Isothermal Master Mix) for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157, E. coli O26, E. coli O45, E. coli O103, E. coli O111, E. coli O121, E. coli O145 and Streptococcus agalactiae. False-positive results were observed in all 12 in-house real-time LAMP assays, while all the negative controls of Isothermal Master Mix remained negative after amplification. The detection limit of Isothermal Master Mix for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157, E. coli O26, E. coli O45, E. coli O103, E. coli O111, E. coli O121 and Streptococcus agalactiae was 1 pg, whereas the sensitivity of the commercialized kit for E. coli O145 was 100 pg. In conclusion, the 12 in-house real-time LAMP assays were impractical to use, while the commercialized kit Isothermal Master Mix was useful for the detection of most bacterial pathogens. PMID:26020698

  17. Comparison of cell-based and PCR-based assays as methods for measuring infectivity of Tulane virus.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lei; Yang, David; Wang, Dapeng; Tian, Peng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we used Tulane virus (TV) as a surrogate for HuNoV to evaluate for correlation between two cell-based assays and three PCR-based assays. Specifically, the cell-based plaque and TCID50 assays measure for infectious virus particles, while the PCR-based RNase exposure, porcine gastric mucin in-situ-capture qRT-PCR (PGM-ISC-qRT-PCR), and antibody in-situ-capture qRT-PCR (Ab-ISC-qRT-PCR) assays measure for an amplicon within encapsidated viral genome. Ten batches of viral stocks ranging from 3.41 × 10(5) to 6.67 × 10(6) plaque forming units (PFUs) were used for side by side comparison with PFU as a reference. The results indicate that one PFU was equivalent to 6.69 ± 2.34 TCID50 units, 9.75 ± 10.87 RNase-untreated genomic copies (GCs), 2.87 ± 3.05 RNase-treated GCs, 0.07 ± 0.07 PGM-ISC-qRT-PCR GCs, and 0.52 ± 0.39 Ab-ISC-qRT-PCR GCs. We observed that while the cell-based assays were consistent with each other, the TCID50 assay was more sensitive than the plaque assay. In contrast, the PCR-based assays were not always consistent with the cell-based assays. The very high variations in GCs as measured by both ISC-RT-qPCR assays made them difficult to correlate against the relatively small variations (<20-fold) in the PFUs or TCID50 units as measured by the cell-based assays. PMID:26875997

  18. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha And Human Androgen Receptor: Comparisons in the COS Whole Cell Binding Assay
    Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray, Jr. and Vickie S. Wilson
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle...

  19. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY.
    MC Cardon, PC Hartig,LE Gray, Jr. and VS Wilson.
    U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Typically, in vitro hazard assessments for ...

  20. Development of a Real-Time PCR Assay To Detect Treponema pallidum in Clinical Specimens and Assessment of the Assay's Performance by Comparison with Serological Testing▿

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, David E.; Azzato, Franca; Karapanagiotidis, Theo; Leydon, Jennie; Fyfe, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of infectious syphilis in men who have sex with men and human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients has increased steadily in Victoria, Australia, since 2002. A TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the polA gene of Treponema pallidum (TpPCR) was developed. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was estimated to be 1.75 target copies per reaction. Initially, the assay was used to test a variety of specimens (excluding blood) from 598 patients. Of the 660 tests performed, positive PCR results were obtained for 55 patients. TpPCR results were compared with serology results for 301 patients being investigated for early syphilis. Of these patients, 41 were positive by both TpPCR and serology, 246 were negative by both TpPCR and serology, 4 were TpPCR positive but negative by serology, and 10 were TpPCR negative but showed evidence of recent or active infection by serology. Directly compared with serology, TpPCR showed 95% agreement, with a sensitivity of 80.39% and a specificity of 98.40%. Potential factors leading to the discrepant results are discussed. Concurrent serology on 21 patients with TpPCR-positive primary syphilitic lesions demonstrated that a panel of current syphilis serological tests has high sensitivity for the detection of early syphilis. We found that TpPCR is a useful addition to serology for the diagnosis of infectious syphilis. Direct comparison with other T. pallidum PCR assays will be required to fully assess the limitations of the assay. PMID:17065262

  1. In vitro chemosensitivity in ovarian carcinoma: Comparison of three leading assays

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Burak; Boyraz, Gökhan; Selçuk, İlker; Doğan, Alper K.; Usubütün, Alp; Tuncer, Zafer Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Objective An alternative approach to the current therapy of ovarian carcinoma is the individualization of treatment by determining the sensitivity of tumoral tissue to chemotherapeutic agents before the initiation of chemotherapy. The objectives of the study are to determine the efficacy of in vitro chemosensitivity assays in ovarian carcinoma and to measure the correlation of three leading assays. Material and Methods Fresh tumoral tissue samples of 26 newly diagnosed primary ovarian cancer patients were studied with 3-(4,5-dimeth-ylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolyum bromide (MTT) assay, adenosine triphosphate-tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA) and differential staining cytotoxicity (DISC) assays. Chemosensitivity of tumors were studied for paclitaxel, carboplatin, docetaxel, topotecan, gemcitabine, and doxorubicin with each of the three assays. Subgroup analysis was performed for stage, grade, and histologic type. Results The in vitro chemosensitivity results of MTT, ATP, and DISC assays were found to be similar. The subgroups in which in vitro assays would be more useful were encountered for patients with advanced stage and serous histology ovarian carcinoma. Conclusions In vitro chemosensitivity can be determined in ovarian carcinoma with ATP, MTT, or DISC assays before the initiation of chemotherapy. These three assays correlate well with each other and are particularly useful for serous and advanced cancers. Large prospective studies comparing standard versus assay-directed therapy with an endpoint of overall survival are required before routine clinical utilization of these assays. PMID:27026777

  2. Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R.

    1999-03-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques.

  3. Comparison of Three Different FDA-Approved Plasma HIV-1 RNA Assay Platforms Confirms the Virologic Failure Endpoint of 200 Copies per Milliliter Despite Improved Assay Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Cheryl; Johnson, Victoria A.; Coombs, Robert W.; McKinnon, John E.; Bremer, James W.; Cobb, Bryan R.; Cloherty, Gavin A.; Mellors, John W.; Ribaudo, Heather J.

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies between HIV-1 RNA results assayed by different FDA-approved platforms have been reported. Plasma samples collected from 332 randomly selected clinical trial participants during the second year of antiretroviral treatment were assayed with three FDA-approved platforms: UltraSensitive Roche Amplicor Monitor, v1.5 (Monitor), the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 test on the m2000 system (Abbott), and the Roche TaqMan HIV-1 test, v2.0 (TaqMan). Samples from 61 additional participants with confirmed HIV-1 RNA levels of >50 copies/ml during trial follow-up were also included. Endpoints were HIV-1 RNA quantification of ≤50 copies/ml versus >50 copies/ml at an individual-sample level (primary) and determination of confirmed virologic failure (VF) from longitudinal samples. A total of 389 participants had results obtained from all assays on at least one sample (median = 6). Proportions of results of >50 copies/ml were 19% (Monitor), 22% (TaqMan), and 25% (Abbott). Despite indication of strong agreement (Cohen's kappa, 0.76 to 0.82), Abbott was more likely to detect HIV-1 RNA levels of >50 copies/ml than Monitor (matched-pair odds ratio [mOR] = 4.2; modified Obuchowski P < 0.001) and TaqMan (mOR = 2.1; P < 0.001); TaqMan was more likely than Monitor (mOR = 2.6; P < 0.001). Despite strong agreement in classifying VF across assay comparisons (kappa, 0.75 to 0.92), at a 50-copies/ml threshold, differences in the probability of VF classification (in the same direction as primary) were apparent (all McNemar's P < 0.007). At a 200-copies/ml VF threshold, no differences between assays were apparent (all P > 0.13). Despite strong agreement among assays, significant differences were observed with respect to detecting HIV-1 RNA levels of >50 copies/ml and identifying VF at the 50-copies/ml threshold. This has important implications for the definition of VF in clinical trials and clinical practice. PMID:26063861

  4. Comparison of Three Different FDA-Approved Plasma HIV-1 RNA Assay Platforms Confirms the Virologic Failure Endpoint of 200 Copies per Milliliter Despite Improved Assay Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lalama, Christina M; Jennings, Cheryl; Johnson, Victoria A; Coombs, Robert W; McKinnon, John E; Bremer, James W; Cobb, Bryan R; Cloherty, Gavin A; Mellors, John W; Ribaudo, Heather J

    2015-08-01

    Discrepancies between HIV-1 RNA results assayed by different FDA-approved platforms have been reported. Plasma samples collected from 332 randomly selected clinical trial participants during the second year of antiretroviral treatment were assayed with three FDA-approved platforms: UltraSensitive Roche Amplicor Monitor, v1.5 (Monitor), the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 test on the m2000 system (Abbott), and the Roche TaqMan HIV-1 test, v2.0 (TaqMan). Samples from 61 additional participants with confirmed HIV-1 RNA levels of >50 copies/ml during trial follow-up were also included. Endpoints were HIV-1 RNA quantification of ≤50 copies/ml versus >50 copies/ml at an individual-sample level (primary) and determination of confirmed virologic failure (VF) from longitudinal samples. A total of 389 participants had results obtained from all assays on at least one sample (median = 6). Proportions of results of >50 copies/ml were 19% (Monitor), 22% (TaqMan), and 25% (Abbott). Despite indication of strong agreement (Cohen's kappa, 0.76 to 0.82), Abbott was more likely to detect HIV-1 RNA levels of >50 copies/ml than Monitor (matched-pair odds ratio [mOR] = 4.2; modified Obuchowski P < 0.001) and TaqMan (mOR = 2.1; P < 0.001); TaqMan was more likely than Monitor (mOR = 2.6; P < 0.001). Despite strong agreement in classifying VF across assay comparisons (kappa, 0.75 to 0.92), at a 50-copies/ml threshold, differences in the probability of VF classification (in the same direction as primary) were apparent (all McNemar's P < 0.007). At a 200-copies/ml VF threshold, no differences between assays were apparent (all P > 0.13). Despite strong agreement among assays, significant differences were observed with respect to detecting HIV-1 RNA levels of >50 copies/ml and identifying VF at the 50-copies/ml threshold. This has important implications for the definition of VF in clinical trials and clinical practice. PMID:26063861

  5. Interlaboratory comparison program for nondestructive assay of prototype uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Trahey, N.M.; Smith, M.M.; Voeks, A.M.; Bracey, J.T.

    1986-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), New Brunswick Laboratory (NBS), designed and administered an interlaboratory comparison program based on the measurement of NBL-produced prototype uranium nondestructive assay (NDA) reference materials for scrap and waste. The objectives of the program were to evaluate the reliability of NDA techniques as applied to nuclear safeguards materials control and accountability needs and to investigate the feasibility of providing practical NDA scrap and waste reference materials for use throughout the nuclear safeguards community. Fourteen facilities representing seven DOE contractors, four US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees, one EURATOM Laboratory, and NBL, participated in this program. Three stable, well-characterized uranium reference materials were developed and certified for this program. Synthetic calcined ash, cellulose fiber, and ion-exchange resin simulate selected uranium scrap and waste forms which are often encountered in fabrication and recovery operations. The synthetic calcined ash represents an intermediate density inorganic matrix while the cellulose fiber and ion-exchange resin are representative of low-density organic matrices. The materials, containing from 0 to 13% uranium enriched at 93% /sup 235/U, were sealed in specially selected containers. Nineteen prototype reference samples, plus three empty containers, one to accompany each set, was circulated to the participants between August 1979 and May 1984. Triplicate measurements for /sup 235/U on each of the 19 filled containers were required. In addition, participants could opt to perform modular configuration measurements using containers from Sets IIA and IIB to simulate non-homogeneously dispersed uranium in waste containers. All data were reported to NBL for evaluation.

  6. Comparison of broad-scope assays of nucleotide sugar-dependent glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Bubner, Patricia; Czabany, Tibor; Luley-Goedl, Christiane; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are abundant in nature and diverse in their range of substrates. Application of GTs is, however, often complicated by their narrow substrate specificity. GTs with tailored specificities are highly demanded for targeted glycosylation reactions. Engineering of such GTs is, however, restricted by lack of practical and broad-scope assays currently available. Here we present an improvement of an inexpensive and simple assay that relies on the enzymatic detection of inorganic phosphate cleaved from nucleoside phosphate products released in GT reactions. This phosphatase-coupled assay (PCA) is compared with other GT assays: a pH shift assay and a commercially available immunoassay in Escherichia coli cell-free extract (CE). Furthermore, we probe PCA with three GTs with different specificities. Our results demonstrate that PCA is a versatile and apparently general GT assay with a detection limit as low as 1 mU. The detection limit of the pH shift assay is roughly 4 times higher. The immunoassay, by contrast, detected only nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) but had the lowest detection limit. Compared with these assays, PCA showed superior robustness and, therefore, appears to be a suitable general screening assay for nucleotide sugar-dependent GTs. PMID:26297818

  7. Comparison of arsenic bioaccessibility in housedust and contaminated soils based on four in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Bo; Li, Jie; Zhu, Ya-Guang; Juhasz, Albert L; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have assessed As bioaccessibility in housedust using different in vitro assays and compared to those in contaminated soils. We determined As bioaccessibility in 24 housedust samples (4.48-38.2 mg kg(-1)) using SBRC, IVG, DIN, and PBET assays and they averaged 73, 68, 53, and 48% in the gastric phase and 26, 46, 55 and 43% in the intestinal phase of the 4 assays. The corresponding As bioaccessibility in 34 As-contaminated soils (22-6899 mg kg(-1)) were 34, 25, 22, and 22% in the gastric phase and 18, 19, 21, and 20% in the intestinal phase, which was 1.5-2.7 fold lower than those in housedust possibly due to differences in contamination sources and properties. Based on the gastric phase of SBRC assay, As bioaccessibility was 44-96% in housedust and 2.3-80% in soils. Variation in As bioaccessibility among assays was similar for housedust and soils, with SBRC assay providing the highest bioaccessibility in gastric phase. In intestinal phase, dissolved As was probably adsorbed onto precipitated iron oxides, causing a sharp decrease in As bioaccessibility by SBRC assay. Unlike SBRC assay, gastric constituents (pepsin, mucin, phosphate, and citrate) in other 3 assays inhibited As adsorption and/or enhanced As dissolution, leading to greater As bioaccessibility. The greater As bioaccessibility in housedust than soil suggests the potential of greater health risk from As exposure to housedust than soil. PMID:26136157

  8. Clinical comparison of two assays for rapid detection of cytomegalovirus early nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Woods, G L; Johnson, A M; Thiele, G M

    1990-03-01

    Three methods for detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 218 clinical specimens were compared: (1) shell vial assay to detect the early nuclear antigen after incubation for 16 hours and 40 hours (Syva Company); (2) 24-well plate assay to detect the early nuclear antigen after incubation for 16 hours (DuPont); and (3) convention tissue cell culture. CMV was detected in 26 specimens (12%) by one or more of these methods. With the shell vial assay, 12 (46%) and 15 (58%) specimens were positive after incubation for 16 hours and 40 hours, respectively. CMV was detected in 17 specimens (65%) by the 24-well plate assay. There was no significant difference in the detection of CMV between these assays. CMV was identified by conventional tissue culture in 15 of 22 (68%) evaluable cultures after an average of 14.2 days. More specimens were positive by conventional culture than by the 16-hour shell vial assay (P = 0.035). For optimal detection of CMV in clinical specimens, both conventional tissue cell culture and an early antigen assay should be performed. The two early antigen assays evaluated in this study yielded comparable results. However, the 24-well plates are more easily manipulated, and the 24-well plate assay, as performed, was easier to interpret and more cost efficient. PMID:2155527

  9. 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D status: limitations in comparison and clinical interpretation of serum-levels across different assay methods.

    PubMed

    Enko, Dietmar; Fridrich, Leo; Rezanka, Erwin; Stolba, Robert; Ernst, Juliane; Wendler, Iris; Fabian, Daniel; Hauptlorenz, Susanne; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the last decade, clinical interest to evaluate human 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) serum levels has increased exponentially. In the present study, four chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA), one radioimmunoassy (RIA), and one high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method were compared and also with the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method in view of 25(OH)D serum level determination. Methods: For the method comparison, blood samples from 133 consecutive patients were prospectively collected. All participants gave written informed consent for their blood samples to be used in this study. They came to the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Central Hospital Steyr (Austria) for osteodensidometric measurement as part of their preventive medical check-up. Pearson's correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots, and paired t-tests were calculated. Assay-specific reference ranges were considered using blood samples from persons with normal parathormone, calcium, and total-protein values (n = 97). Results: The highest correlation was between the HPLC and the LC-MS/MS method (r = 0.96). The lowest correlation was between the cobas Vitamin D3 assay (Roche) and any of the evaluated assays (r = 0.46 - 0.63). Bland-Altman plots revealed a big negative mean bias in three assays (cobas Vitamin D3 assay [Roche]: -22.8; DiaSorin LIAISON [25[OH]D total CLIA [Diasorin]: -18.4; Diasorin 25[OH]D125 I RIA [Diasorin]: -23.8 [nmol/L]) and a much smaller positive mean bias in the other assays (ClinRep complete 25[OH]D2/D3 HPLC kit [Recipe]: 2.7; ADVIA Centaur Vitamin D total assay [Siemens]: 8.2; IDS total vitamin D assay [Immunodiagnostic Systems]: 12.1 [nmol/L]) compared to the LC-MS/MS method. Meanwhile, the manufacturer has withdrawn the cobas Vitamin D3 assay from the market. Conclusions: Poor antibody specificity with cross-reactivity to other vitamin D metabolites, incomplete extraction of the 25(OH)D analyte from the vitamin D

  10. Multicentre comparison of a diagnostic assay: aquaporin-4 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Patrick; Reindl, Markus; Saiz, Albert; Schanda, Kathrin; Tuller, Friederike; Kral, Vlastimil; Nytrova, Petra; Sobek, Ondrej; Nielsen, Helle Hvilsted; Barington, Torben; Lillevang, Søren T; Illes, Zsolt; Rentzsch, Kristin; Berthele, Achim; Berki, Tímea; Granieri, Letizia; Bertolotto, Antonio; Giometto, Bruno; Zuliani, Luigi; Hamann, Dörte; van Pelt, E Daniëlle; Hintzen, Rogier; Höftberger, Romana; Costa, Carme; Comabella, Manuel; Montalban, Xavier; Tintoré, Mar; Siva, Aksel; Altintas, Ayse; Deniz, Günnur; Woodhall, Mark; Palace, Jacqueline; Paul, Friedemann; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Aktas, Orhan; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Vedeler, Christian; Ruiz, Anne; Leite, M Isabel; Trillenberg, Peter; Probst, Monika; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Vincent, Angela; Marignier, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Objective Antibodies to cell surface central nervous system proteins help to diagnose conditions which often respond to immunotherapies. The assessment of antibody assays needs to reflect their clinical utility. We report the results of a multicentre study of aquaporin (AQP) 4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) assays in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Methods Coded samples from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMOSD (101) and controls (92) were tested at 15 European diagnostic centres using 21 assays including live (n=3) or fixed cell-based assays (n=10), flow cytometry (n=4), immunohistochemistry (n=3) and ELISA (n=1). Results Results of tests on 92 controls identified 12assays as highly specific (0–1 false-positive results). 32 samples from 50 (64%) NMO sera and 34 from 51 (67%) NMOSD sera were positive on at least two of the 12 highly specific assays, leaving 35 patients with seronegative NMO/spectrum disorder (SD). On the basis of a combination of clinical phenotype and the highly specific assays, 66 AQP4-Ab seropositive samples were used to establish the sensitivities (51.5–100%) of all 21 assays. The specificities (85.8–100%) were based on 92 control samples and 35 seronegative NMO/SD patient samples. Conclusions The cell-based assays were most sensitive and specific overall, but immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry could be equally accurate in specialist centres. Since patients with AQP4-Ab negative NMO/SD require different management, the use of both appropriate control samples and defined seronegative NMOSD samples is essential to evaluate these assays in a clinically meaningful way. The process described here can be applied to the evaluation of other antibody assays in the newly evolving field of autoimmune neurology. PMID:27113605

  11. Interlaboratory comparison of four in vitro assays for assessing androgenic and antiandrogenic activity of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Körner, Wolfgang; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Térouanne, Béatrice; Ma, Risheng; Wieloch, Carise; Schlumpf, Margret; Sultan, Charles; Soto, Ana M

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated and compared four in vitro assays to detect androgen agonists and antagonists in an international interlaboratory study. Laboratory 1 used a cell proliferation assay (assay 1) with human mammary carcinoma cells stably transfected with human androgen receptor. The other laboratories used reporter gene assays, two based on stably transfected human prostate carcinoma cells (assay 2) or human mammary carcinoma cells (assay 4), and the third based on transient transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (assay 3). Four laboratories received four coded compounds and two controls: two steroidal androgens, two antiandrogens, an androgenic control, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and an antiandrogenic control, bicalutamide (ICI 176,334). All laboratories correctly detected the androgenic activity of 4-androsten-3,17-dione and 17alpha-methyltestosterone. For both compounds, the calculated androgenic potencies relative to the positive control (RAPs) remained within one order of magnitude. However, laboratory 3 calculated a 50-fold higher RAP for 4-androsten-3,17-dione. All assays detected and quantified the antiandrogenic effect of vinclozolin [median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 1.1 times symbol 10(-7) M to 4.7 times symbol 10(-7) M]. In assays 2 and 3, vinclozolin showed partial androgenic activity at the highest concentrations tested. For vinclozolin, calculated antiandrogenic potencies relative to bicalutamide (RAAPs) differed no more than a factor of 10, and IC50 values matched those of bicalutamide. Similarly, we found antiandrogenic activity for tris-(4-chlorophenyl)methanol. RAAP values were between 0.086 and 0.37. Three assays showed cytotoxicity for this compound at or above 1 times symbol 10(-5) M. In summary, all assays proved sensitive screening tools to detect and quantify androgen receptor-mediated androgenic and antiandrogenic effects of these chemicals accurately, with coefficients of variation between 8 and 90%. PMID

  12. Comparison of enzyme immunoassay–based assays for environmental Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Charles; Portnoy, Jay; Sever, Michelle; Arbes, Samuel; Vaughn, Ben; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alternaria alternata–derived allergenic materials are causes of human disease. Several immunoassays exist to quantify these materials. Objective To compare methods for evaluating Alternaria content. Methods Four methods, including 1 monoclonal antibody (MAb)–based assay specific for recombinant Alt a 1, 1 MAb-based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, 1 polyclonal antibody (PAb)–based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, and 1 PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria extract, were evaluated. Environmental samples collected as part of the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing were examined. Alternaria spore counts were determined in dust by observation. Results The MAb-based assay for recombinant Alt a 1 detected Alternaria in few samples (25%); the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria proteins detected antigen in 97% of the samples. The PAb- and MAb-based assays for purified Alt a 1 detected antigen in 100% of the samples. There was a significant positive correlation between the 2 assays directed against purified Alt a 1. There was a positive correlation between the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria and the PAb-based assay for Alt a 1. Nearly all the dust samples contained Alternaria spores, and there was a strong positive correlation between counts and all assays. Conclusion Because of the multifaceted nature of Alternaria, the disparities between methods for quantifying Alternaria, the cross-reactivity between fungal allergens, and the documented genetic promiscuity of this fungus, enzyme immunoassays using PAbs against a range of Alternaria proteins will probably produce the most reliable estimation of overall Alternaria exposure in house dust. PMID:17042141

  13. A COMPARISON OF THREE ASSAY PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF WATERBORNE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    One criterion on which chlorine treatment of water may be based is the concentration (C) in mg/l multiplied by the time (t) in min of exposure or Ct values. We compared different Ct values on waterborne pathogenic bacteria by cultural assay for viability and 2 assays that mea...

  14. Comparison of quantitative PCR assays for Escherichia coli targeting ribosomal RNA and single copy genes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: Compare specificity and sensitivity of quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting single and multi-copy gene regions of Escherichia coli. Methods and Results: A previously reported assay targeting the uidA gene (uidA405) was used as the basis for comparing the taxono...

  15. COMPARISONS OF ELISA AND WESTERN BLOT ASSAYS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ANTIBODY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A seroprevalence survey was conducted using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assays for antibody to three Cryptosporidium antigens on 380 blood donors in Jackson County, Oregon. The purpose was to determine if either assay could detect serological evidence of an outbreak which occurre...

  16. Comparison of peptide cocktails and purified protein derivatives for use in the Bovigam assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the Bovigam™ assay is used as an official complementary test within the bovine tuberculosis eradication program. This assay measures Interferon-gamma (IFN-') produced by lymphocytes in response to specific antigens. The objectives of the present study were to compare in vitro antigen prep...

  17. Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for the Detection of Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays available to detect and enumerate fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and probes that target different rRNA genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in concentration es...

  18. A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, José Luis; Hernández-Inda, Zaira L; Pérez, Pilar; García-Grávalos, María D

    2002-01-01

    Background The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. It has also been suggested for screening pharmacological activities in plant extracts. However, we think that it is necessary to evaluate the suitability of the brine shrimp methods before they are used as a general bio-assay to test natural marine products for pharmacological activity. Material and Methods The bioactivity of the isopropanolic (2-PrOH) extracts of 14 species of marine invertebrates and 6 species of macroalgae was evaluated with the shrimp lethality assay (lethality assay), as well as with another assay based on the inhibition of hatching of the cyst (hatchability assay). The extracts were also assayed for cytotoxicity against two human cell lines, lung carcinoma A-549 and colon carcinoma HT-29, in order to assess the sensitivity of the shrimp assays to detect cytotoxic activity. Results Two sponges (Hyatella sp, Dysidea sp.), two gorgonians (Pacifigorgia adamsii, Muricea sp.), one tunicate (Polyclinum laxum), and three echinoderms (Holothuria impatiens, Pseudoconus californica and Pharia pyramidata) showed a strong cytostatic (growth inhibition) and cytotoxic effect. The hatchability assay showed a strong activity in 4 of the species active against the two human cell lines tested (Hyatella sp, Dysidea sp., Pacifigorgia adamsii and Muricea sp.), and the lethality assay also showed a high lethality in 4 of them (Pacifigorgia adamsii, Muricea sp., Polyclinum laxum, and Pharia pyramidata). Each bioassay detected activity in 50% of the species that were considered active against the two human cell lines tested. However, the simultaneous use of both bioassays increased the percentage to 75%. Conclusions Our results seem consistent with the correlation previously established between cytotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality in plant extracts. We suggest using both bioassays simultaneously to test natural marine products for pharmacological

  19. Comparison of the ames assay and mutatox in assessing the mutagenic potential of contaminated dredged material. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, A.S.

    1995-04-01

    The Ames assay and Mutatox were evaluated to compare their ability to identify the genotoxic potential of dredged sediments. The Ames assay has been used extensively in the testing of environmental contaminants. Mutatox, a bacterial bioluminescence test, was developed as a genotoxicity bioassay. Ten sediments with varying degrees of contamination were soxhlet extracted. These extracts were divided into crude and clean samples. Cleaned samples were prepared using silica-gel chromatography resulting in 20 extract samples. Both the Ames test (TA98 and TAl00) and Mutatox were conducted with and without S9 metabolic activation. TA98+S9 and TA1OO+S9 indicated a positive mutagenic response in 80 and 50 percent, respectively, of the sediment extracts. Half of the extracts indicated a positive mutagenic response with TA98-S9, while only 10 percent did so with TAlOO-S9. Mutatox indicated a positive mutagenic response with S9 activation in 75 percent of the extracts and no mutagenic response in any of the sediment extracts without metabolic activation. In a side-by-side comparison of the Ames assay (TA98+S9) and Mutatox, 80 percent of the sediment extracts had similar responses, both positive and negative. Fifty percent of the sediment extracts had similar responses when tested with TAlOO+S9 and Mutatox. Mutatox compared favorably with the Ames assay and shows promise as a screening tool to assess sediment genotoxicity when used with Ames assay as a confirmation.

  20. Comparison of three different anti-Xa assays in major orthopedic surgery patients treated with fondaparinux.

    PubMed

    Ikejiri, Makoto; Wada, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Toshio; Miyazaki, Shinichi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Hiroki; Asanuma, Kunihiro; Sakaguchi, Akane; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Ohishi, Kohshi; Fujimoto, Naoki; Yamada, Norikazu; Ito, Masaaki; Katayama, Naoyuki; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-05-01

    Anti-Xa assays are useful for monitoring the effects of selective anti-Xa drugs, such as fondaparinux, in the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis. In the present study, anti-Xa activity was measured using three different assays, Testzym(®) Heparin S, STA(®)-Liquid Anti-Xa and HemosIL(®) Liquid Heparin. Anti-Xa activity in each assay gradually increased from day one after administration to day eight, and still remained on day 15. Although there were significant differences in anti-Xa activity among the three assays, the activity showed significant correlation across assays. There were no significant differences in the anti-Xa activity between patients with and without DVT or between patients with and without massive bleeding on day one before and after administration, day four, day eight and day 15. Anti-Xa activity in each assay was weakly correlated with antithrombin (AT) activity. The AT activity in patients were significantly higher on days four, eight and 15 compared with day one before and after administration, suggesting that AT activity increases following the administration of fondaparinux. The three anti-Xa assay kits tested are useful for monitoring fondaparinux treatment in orthopedic surgery patients. PMID:26922193

  1. Comparison of 14 Molecular Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, Tjip S.; de Boer, Maria; de Beer, Jessica L.; Rahim, Zeaur; Rossen, John W. A.; van Soolingen, Dick; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van der Zanden, Adri G. M.

    2013-01-01

    We compared 14 molecular assays for their ability to detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples. Three approaches were followed. First, by using DNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG, we determined the detection limits of the assays using routine molecular methods. Second, in order to determine the analytical sensitivities of the assays, we added one of four M. tuberculosis isolates with various numbers of the insertion sequence IS6110 to N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NALC)-NaOH-treated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples in dilutions of 1:10 to 1:10,000,000. Third, intertest variabilities were measured and defined by the standard deviations for the quantitation cycle (Cq) values of three positive test results per dilution per assay. The 14 assays tested had similar analytical sensitivities, except for GeneXpert, which had an analytical sensitivity that was 10- to 100-fold lower than that of the other assays. The MP MTB/NTM test and the in-house TaqMan-10 revealed the best performances for the detection limit and had the highest analytical sensitivities. Most of the tests performed well regarding detection limit and analytical sensitivity for the detection of the M. tuberculosis complex in serial dilutions, and the differences were small. The MP MTB/NTM and the in-house TaqMan-10 assays revealed the best, and GeneXpert the worst, overall performances. PMID:23966510

  2. Performance evaluation of canine-associated Bacteroidales assays in a multi-laboratory comparison study.

    PubMed

    Schriewer, Alexander; Goodwin, Kelly D; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Cox, Annie M; Wanless, David; Bartkowiak, Jakob; Ebentier, Darcy L; Hanley, Kaitlyn T; Ervin, Jared; Deering, Louise A; Shanks, Orin C; Peed, Lindsay A; Meijer, Wim G; Griffith, John F; SantoDomingo, Jorge; Jay, Jennifer A; Holden, Patricia A; Wuertz, Stefan

    2013-11-15

    The contribution of fecal pollution from dogs in urbanized areas can be significant and is an often underestimated problem. Microbial source tracking methods (MST) utilizing quantitative PCR of dog-associated gene sequences encoding 16S rRNA of Bacteroidales are a useful tool to estimate these contributions. However, data about the performance of available assays are scarce. The results of a multi-laboratory study testing two assays for the determination of dog-associated Bacteroidales (DogBact and BacCan-UCD) on 64 single and mixed fecal source samples created from pooled fecal samples collected in California are presented here. Standardization of qPCR data treatment lowered inter-laboratory variability of sensitivity and specificity results. Both assays exhibited 100% sensitivity. Normalization methods are presented that eliminated random and confirmed non-target responses. The combination of standardized qPCR data treatment, use of normalization via a non-target specific Bacteroidales assay (GenBac3), and application of threshold criteria improved the calculated specificity significantly for both assays. Such measures would reasonably improve MST data interpretation not only for canine-associated assays, but for all qPCR assays used in identifying and monitoring fecal pollution in the environment. PMID:23916711

  3. A comparison of molecular assays for Mycoplasma pneumoniae in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Chou, Raymond C; Zheng, Xiaotian

    2016-05-01

    Three commercial molecular assays for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae were evaluated for their relative performances and hands-on time. They performed comparably well in clinical sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26830272

  4. A comparison of ALPHAScreen, TR-FRET, and TRF as assay methods for FXR nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Glickman, J Fraser; Wu, Xiang; Mercuri, Robert; Illy, Chantal; Bowen, Benjamin R; He, Yang; Sills, Matthew

    2002-02-01

    New developments in detection technologies are providing a variety of biomolecular screening strategies from which to choose. Consequently, we performed a detailed analysis of both separation-based and non-separation-based formats for screening nuclear receptor ligands. In this study, time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET), ALPHAScreen, and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) assays were optimized and compared with respect to sensitivity, reproducibility, and miniaturization capability. The results showed that the ALPHAScreen system had the best sensitivity and dynamic range. The TRF assay was more time consuming because of the number of wash steps necessary. The TR-FRET assay had less interwell variation, most likely because of ratiometric measurement. Both the ALPHAScreen and the TR-FRET assays were miniaturized to 8-microl volumes. Of the photomultiplier tube-based readers, the ALPHAScreen reader (ALPHAQuest) presented the advantage of faster reading times through simultaneous reading with four photomultiplier tubes. PMID:11897050

  5. Comparison of europium and chromium release assays: cytotoxicity in healthy individuals and patients with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    von Zons, P; Crowley-Nowick, P; Friberg, D; Bell, M; Koldovsky, U; Whiteside, T L

    1997-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell activities were measured in peripheral blood obtained from healthy women to compare a standard 51Cr release assay with a nonradioactive europium (Eu3+) release assay based on time-resolved fluorescence. The two types of cytotoxicity assays were first compared in paired determinations performed on 28 samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy women who had normal pap smears or no biopsy evidence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). Target cells (NK-sensitive K562 and NK-resistant Raji cell lines) were labeled with Eu3+ only, 51Cr only, or both labels and compared in cytotoxicity assays using fresh or interleukin 2 (IL-2)-activated effector cells. Spontaneous release in the Eu3+ release assay was comparable to that observed in the 51Cr release assay, but maximum Eu3+ release always exceeded that of 51Cr. In 4-h assays, specific release of Eu3+ from target cells was more rapid than that of 51Cr, consistently resulting in 30 to 40% higher levels of activity. However, a significant linear correlation (P < 0.001) was observed between cytotoxicity levels based on measurements of Eu3+ and 51Cr release in 4-h assays. The Eu3+ release assay was then used to measure NK and LAK activities in the peripheral blood of women with cervical SIL or cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Mean NK activity of women with advanced SIL (121 lytic units [LU]) or SCC (93 LU) was found to be similar to that of controls (101 LU) or patients with normal cervical biopsies (90 LU), as was the ability to generate IL-2-stimulated NK activity. However, LAK activity during 18 h of incubation in the presence of IL-2 was reduced in patients with cervical SCC (P < 0.05) compared with that in normal controls. Results of 51Cr assays performed in parallel with patient samples gave comparable results. Advantages of EU3+ release assays for routine evaluation of cytotoxicity are discussed. PMID:9067656

  6. The Comparison of MTT and CVS Assays for the Assessment of Anticancer Agent Interactions.

    PubMed

    Śliwka, Lidia; Wiktorska, Katarzyna; Suchocki, Piotr; Milczarek, Małgorzata; Mielczarek, Szymon; Lubelska, Katarzyna; Cierpiał, Tomasz; Łyżwa, Piotr; Kiełbasiński, Piotr; Jaromin, Anna; Flis, Anna; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław

    2016-01-01

    Multiple in vitro tests are widely applied to assess the anticancer activity of new compounds, including their combinations and interactions with other drugs. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay is one of the most commonly used assays to assess the efficacy and interactions of anticancer agents. However, it can be significantly influenced by compounds that modify cell metabolism and reaction conditions. Therefore, several assays are sometimes used to screen for potential anticancer drugs. However, the majority of drug interactions are evaluated only with this single method. The aim of our studies was to verify whether the choice of an assay has an impact on determining the type of interaction and to identify the source of discrepancies. We compared the accuracy of MTT and CVS (crystal violet staining) assays in the interaction of two compounds characterized by similar anticancer activity: isothiocyanates (ITCs) and Selol. Confocal microscopy studies were carried out to assess the influence of these compounds on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane potential, dead-to-live cell ratio and MTT-tetrazolium salt reduction rate. The MTT assay was less reliable than CVS. The MTT test of Selol and 2-oxoheptyl ITC, which affected the ROS level and MTT reduction rate, gave false negative (2-oxoheptyl ITC) or false positive (Selol) results. As a consequence, the MTT assay identified an antagonistic interaction between Selol and ITC, while the metabolism-independent CVS test identified an additive or synergistic interaction. In this paper, we show for the first time that the test assay may change the interpretation of the compound interaction. Therefore, the test method should be chosen with caution, considering the mechanism of action of the compound. PMID:27196402

  7. The Comparison of MTT and CVS Assays for the Assessment of Anticancer Agent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Śliwka, Lidia; Wiktorska, Katarzyna; Suchocki, Piotr; Milczarek, Małgorzata; Mielczarek, Szymon; Lubelska, Katarzyna; Cierpiał, Tomasz; Łyżwa, Piotr; Kiełbasiński, Piotr; Jaromin, Anna; Flis, Anna; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław

    2016-01-01

    Multiple in vitro tests are widely applied to assess the anticancer activity of new compounds, including their combinations and interactions with other drugs. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay is one of the most commonly used assays to assess the efficacy and interactions of anticancer agents. However, it can be significantly influenced by compounds that modify cell metabolism and reaction conditions. Therefore, several assays are sometimes used to screen for potential anticancer drugs. However, the majority of drug interactions are evaluated only with this single method. The aim of our studies was to verify whether the choice of an assay has an impact on determining the type of interaction and to identify the source of discrepancies. We compared the accuracy of MTT and CVS (crystal violet staining) assays in the interaction of two compounds characterized by similar anticancer activity: isothiocyanates (ITCs) and Selol. Confocal microscopy studies were carried out to assess the influence of these compounds on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane potential, dead-to-live cell ratio and MTT-tetrazolium salt reduction rate. The MTT assay was less reliable than CVS. The MTT test of Selol and 2-oxoheptyl ITC, which affected the ROS level and MTT reduction rate, gave false negative (2-oxoheptyl ITC) or false positive (Selol) results. As a consequence, the MTT assay identified an antagonistic interaction between Selol and ITC, while the metabolism-independent CVS test identified an additive or synergistic interaction. In this paper, we show for the first time that the test assay may change the interpretation of the compound interaction. Therefore, the test method should be chosen with caution, considering the mechanism of action of the compound. PMID:27196402

  8. Comparison of PCR and Plaque Assay for Detection and Enumeration of Coliphage in Polluted Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Rose, J. B.; Zhou, X.; Griffin, D. W.; Paul, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 68 marine samples from various sites impacted by sewage and storm waters were analyzed by both the plaque assay and a reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR technique for F(sup+)-specific coliphage. The coliphage levels detected by the plaque assay averaged 1.90 x 10(sup4) PFU/100.0 ml. Using a most probable number (MPN) PCR approach, the levels averaged 2.40 x 10(sup6) MPN-PCR units/100.0 ml. Two samples were positive by RT-PCR but negative by plaque assay, and 12 samples were positive by plaque assay but negative by RT-PCR (levels lower than 11.00 PFU/100.0 ml). The host system used for the plaque assay may detect somatic coliphage in addition to the F(sup+)-specific coliphage. When it is used as an indicator of pollution, contamination may be missed with more restrictive systems. The difference in results may be due to the sensitivity, specificity, or inhibition of RT-PCR in marine samples. This study provides information on quantifying PCR results by an MPN method and insights into interpretation of PCR data for detection of viruses in marine environments. PMID:16535737

  9. Rapid enzyme kinetic assays of individual Drosophila and comparisons of field-caught D. melanogaster and D. simulans.

    PubMed

    Clark, A G; Keith, L E

    1989-06-01

    Techniques for performing numerous enzyme kinetic assays with minimum time and effort would be valuable to studies of the evolutionary genetics of metabolic control and the quantitative genetics of determinants of kinetic parameters. Microtiter plate readers have been used for a variety of repetitious analytical techniques, and instruments are available that can take repetitive readings with sufficient speed to perform kinetic assays. The ability of these instruments to assay rapidly the kinetic properties of small samples makes them potentially useful for a number of problems in population genetics. While the ability to handle large numbers of samples is very attractive, the small sample volumes and optical imprecision of microtiter plates result in some sacrifice in accuracy. This paper presents methods for performing kinetic assays on individual field-caught Drosophila, quantifies the precision of these methods, and characterizes differences among Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans from samples caught in California and Pennsylvania. Comparisons between field-caught and laboratory reared D. melanogaster show that most of the characters are very similar, with the exception of alpha GPDH, which has a threefold higher mean activity among field-caught flies. The phenotypic correlations are presented with a brief discussion of their relevance to assessing the evolution of metabolic control of these enzymes. PMID:2508620

  10. Hepatitis C virus RNA assays: a comparison of SuperQuant and Monitor.

    PubMed

    Hadziyannis, E; Hadziyannis, A; Yen-Lieberman, B; Kiwi, M L; Hodnick, S; Spanou, F; Starkey, C; Younossi, Z M

    2001-07-01

    Hepatitis C RNA testing has been used extensively to assess the efficacy of antiviral therapy and has increasingly become an integral part of clinical management of patients with chronic hepatitis C. A variety of commercially available hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA tests are used to detect HCV RNA qualitatively or quantitatively. These commercial tests have fundamental differences that are reflected on the values they generate. We compared two widely used assays, HCV SuperQuant (SQ) and Amplicor HCV Monitor (M1 and M2), in sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C. A total of 506 sera from 79 patients were tested with both assays. The data were logarithmically transformed and analyzed by linear regression and measurement of agreement. Two hundred thirty-eight sera had HCV RNA values within the dynamic range of both assays. The correlation between the assays was fair, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.699. Overall, SQ generated higher values than M1 with a mean difference of 0.558 log (SD = 0.624). One hundred ninety-four (38%) and 121 (24%) of the sera were below the dynamic range of M1 and SQ, respectively. Seventy-three sera, undetectable by M1, were positive by SQ. The Amplicor HCV Monitor 2.0 (M2) was performed in 66 sera. All were positive by SQ and M2, but only 38 were within the dynamic range of M1. The correlations between these tests were good (r = 0.68-0.78), but the agreement was rather poor. In conclusion, this study confirms that both SQ and M2 are more sensitive than M1. Additionally, our results show rather poor agreements between these assays. The recent attempts in standardizing the reporting of these assays should make their results more easily interchangeable. PMID:11418790

  11. Comparison of Three Commercial Molecular Assays for Detection of Rifampin and Isoniazid Resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in a High-HIV-Prevalence Setting.

    PubMed

    Strydom, K; Ismail, F; Matabane, M M Z; Onwuegbuna, O; Omar, S V; Ismail, N

    2015-09-01

    In a head-to-head comparison of the MTBDRplus version 2.0 (Hain Lifescience), the Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid), and the Anyplex MTB/NTM (Seegene) assays, we demonstrated equal sensitivity (59/61; 96.7%) and specificity (53/54; 98.1%) for detecting rifampin resistance with further analysis of discordances. The Xpert assay does not detect isoniazid resistance while the Anyplex assay showed high false positivity. PMID:26135869

  12. Comparison of Three Commercial Molecular Assays for Detection of Rifampin and Isoniazid Resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in a High-HIV-Prevalence Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, F.; Matabane, M. M. Z.; Onwuegbuna, O.; Omar, S. V.; Ismail, N.

    2015-01-01

    In a head-to-head comparison of the MTBDRplus version 2.0 (Hain Lifescience), the Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid), and the Anyplex MTB/NTM (Seegene) assays, we demonstrated equal sensitivity (59/61; 96.7%) and specificity (53/54; 98.1%) for detecting rifampin resistance with further analysis of discordances. The Xpert assay does not detect isoniazid resistance while the Anyplex assay showed high false positivity. PMID:26135869

  13. Comparison of Extraction Solvents and Techniques Used for the Assay of Isoflavones from Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of extraction solvents and techniques on the assay of isoflavones from soybean was investigated. This systematic study was undertaken to address substantial variations in the solvents and procedures used for the extraction of isoflavones from soybeans by different research groups as descr...

  14. COMPARISON OF AN IN VIVO FISH VTG ASSAY WITH YES AND E-SCREEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compares the efficacy of two in vitro, estrogen-sensitive bioassays to rank the "relative estrogenicity" of five natural, pharmaceutical and xenoestrogens with a newly developed in vivo bioassay. The E-SCREEN (MCF-7 tumor cells) and YES (Yeast Estrogen Screen) assays w...

  15. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays.
    Why was it done?
    No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  16. Comparison of Tuberculin Activity in the Interferon-gamma Assay for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis still represent a serious regulatory and health concern in a variety of countries. Early diagnosis using the in vitro interferon gamma (IFN-g) assay has been applied for more than a decade. Briefly, IFN-g responses in whole blood cultures stimulated with puri...

  17. High-throughput assay comparison and standardization for metal chelating capacity screening: A proposal and application.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jânio Sousa; Alvarenga Brizola, Vitor Rafael; Granato, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Aiming to standardize the experimental protocols to assess the ability to chelate Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) using 96-well microplates, we analyzed Brazilian coffees (n=20) as a study-case in relation to their antioxidant activity using conventional methods (DPPH and FRAP assays) and correlated the results with the total phenolic content (TPC) using bivariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Complementarily, we assessed the repeatability, reproducibility, recovery, and linearity of both methods. Data showed that the proposed assays presented a good repeatability and reproducibility (<7% RSD) and mean recovery values of 96.66% and 98.91% for the iron and copper assays, respectively. Both methods were linear in the range of 0-100mg EDTA equivalents/L. Cu(2+)-chelating ability was significantly correlated to FRAP, DPPH, and TPC, while sparse (p<0.05) correlations were obtained with Fe(2+)-chelating ability. Overall, both micro assays can be used to assess the ability of plant-based extracts to chelate Fe(2+) and Cu(2+)in vitro. PMID:27507505

  18. Comparison of Tuberculin Activity in the Interferon-gamma Assay for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis still represent a serious regulatory and health concern in a variety of countries. Early diagnosis using the in vitro interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) assay has been applied for more than a decade. Briefly, IFN-gamma responses in whole blood cultures stimulated w...

  19. Comparison of a Real-Time Multiplex PCR and Sequetyping Assay for Pneumococcal Serotyping

    PubMed Central

    Robberts, Lourens; Wolter, Nicole; Nicol, Paul; Mafofo, Joseph; Africa, Samantha; Zar, Heather J.; Nicol, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal serotype identification is essential to monitor pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness and serotype replacement. Serotyping by conventional serological methods are costly, labour-intensive, and require significant technical expertise. We compared two different molecular methods to serotype pneumococci isolated from the nasopharynx of South African infants participating in a birth cohort study, the Drakenstein Child Health Study, in an area with high 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) coverage. Methods A real-time multiplex PCR (rmPCR) assay detecting 21 different serotypes/-groups and a sequetyping assay, based on the sequence of the wzh gene within the pneumococcal capsular locus, were compared. Forty pneumococcal control isolates, with serotypes determined by the Quellung reaction, were tested. In addition, 135 pneumococcal isolates obtained from the nasopharynx of healthy children were tested by both serotyping assays and confirmed by Quellung testing. Discordant results were further investigated by whole genome sequencing of four isolates. Results Of the 40 control isolates tested, 25 had a serotype covered by the rmPCR assay. These were all correctly serotyped/-grouped. Sequetyping PCR failed in 7/40 (18%) isolates. For the remaining isolates, sequetyping assigned the correct serotype/-group to 29/33 (88%) control isolates. Of the 132/135 (98%) nasopharyngeal pneumococcal isolates that could be typed, 69/132 (52%) and 112/132 (85%) were assigned the correct serotype/-group by rmPCR and sequetyping respectively. The serotypes of 63/132 (48%) isolates were not included in the rmPCR panel. All except three isolates (serotype 25A and 38) were theoretically amplified and differentiated into the correct serotype/-group with some strains giving ambigous results (serotype 13/20, 17F/33C, and 11A/D/1818F). Of the pneumococcal serotypes detected in this study, 69/91 (76%) were not included in the current PCV13. The most frequently

  20. Comparison of three multiplex PCR assays for the detection of respiratory viral infections: evaluation of xTAG respiratory virus panel fast assay, RespiFinder 19 assay and RespiFinder SMART 22 assay

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A broad spectrum of pathogens is causative for respiratory tract infections, but symptoms are mostly similar. Therefore, the identification of the causative viruses and bacteria is only feasible using multiplex PCR or several monoplex PCR tests in parallel. Methods The analytical sensitivity of three multiplex PCR assays, RespiFinder-19, RespiFinder-SMART-22 and xTAG-Respiratory-Virus-Panel-Fast-Assay (RVP), were compared to monoplex real-time PCR with quantified standardized control material. All assays include the most common respiratory pathogens. Results To compare the analytical sensitivity of the multiplex assays, samples were inoculated with 13 different quantified viruses in the range of 101 to 105 copies/ml. Concordant results were received for rhinovirus, whereas the RVP detected influenzavirus, RSV and hMPV more frequently in low concentrations. The RespiFinder-19 and the RespiFinder-SMART-22 showed a higher analytical sensitivity for adenoviruses and coronaviruses, whereas the RVP was incapable to detect adenovirus and coronavirus in concentrations of 104 copies/ml. The RespiFinder-19 and RespiFinder-SMART-22A did not detect influenzaviruses (104 copies/ml) and RSV (103 copies/ml). The detection of all 13 viruses in one sample was only achieved using monoplex PCR. To analyze possible competitive amplification reactions between the different viruses, samples were further inoculated with only 4 different viruses in one sample. Compared to the detection of 13 viruses in parallel, only a few differences were found. The incidence of respiratory viruses was compared in tracheal secretion (TS) samples (n = 100) of mechanically ventilated patients in winter (n = 50) and summer (n = 50). In winter, respiratory viruses were detected in 32 TS samples (64%) by RespiFinder-19, whereas the detection rate with RVP was only 22%. The most frequent viruses were adenovirus (32%) and PIV-2 (20%). Multiple infections were detected in 16 TS samples (32

  1. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and tritiated ligands for estrogen receptor assays in 241 breast cancer cytosols

    SciTech Connect

    Goussard, J.; Lechevrel, C.; Martin, P.M.; Roussel, G.

    1986-08-01

    Estrogen receptor determinations have been performed on 241 cytosols from 160 breast cancer tumors using both radioactive ligands ((/sup 3/H)-estradiol, (3H)R2858) and monoclonal antibodies (Abbott ER-EIA Kit) to compare the two methods and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the new immunological, simplified assay. Intra- and interassay reproducibility of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method was studied during a 6-month period on 35 standard curves with 4 different batches of monoclonal antibodies. Intraassay coefficients of variation studied on duplicates were smaller than 5% in most cases and reproducibility of the curves showed coefficients of variation lower than 10% except for standard 0 and 5 fmol/ml. Pooled cytosols used as control for the dextran coated charcoal method had interassay variation coefficients between 3.8 and 11.4%. Reproducibility has been studied on clinical specimens assayed twice at two different periods with either EIA or dextran coated charcoal methods. Slopes obtained were 1.05 and 0.96, respectively. A good stability of EIA results was obtained with protein concentrations in the range 4-0.15 mg/ml cytosol. No significant effects of dithiothreitol or monothioglycerol (1 mM) on EIA and dextran coated charcoal assay were observed. Eighty breast cancer cytosols were assayed with both EIA and Scatchard analysis. The slope of the regression curve obtained was 1.04 (r = 0.963). Cytosols were assayed by EIA and by a saturating concentration of tritiated ligand (5 nM). With 153 cytosols the EIA/5 nM slope was 1.34 (r = 0.978). This slope can be compared with the slope Scatchard/5 nM obtained with 90 cytosols: 1.29 (r = 0.985). Absence of cross-reactivity of monoclonal ER antibodies with progesterone receptor was observed.

  2. Comparison of the Freelite serum free light chain (SFLC) assay with serum and urine electrophoresis/immunofixation and the N Latex FLC assay.

    PubMed

    Sasson, S C; McGill, K; Wienholt, L; Carr, A; Brown, D A; Kelleher, A D; Breit, S N; Sewell, W A

    2015-10-01

    Few reports have compared available serum free light chain (SFLC) assays. Here, a retrospective audit of the Freelite SFLC assay compared results to electrophoresis (EP)/immunofixation (IFX) and the N Latex FLC assay.A total of 244 samples collected over 3.5 months were studied using the Freelite and N Latex FLC nephelometry assays. Results were compared with serum and/or urine EP/IFX. The precision and linearity of the N Latex FLC assay was examined.Detectable paraprotein by serum or urine EP/IFX was present in 94% of samples with kappa and 100% with lambda FLC restriction. The correlation between the assays was higher for kappa (rho = 0.97) than lambda (rho = 0.89) especially when lambda results were above the upper limit of normal (rho = 0.62). Agreement in the categorical diagnosis as measured by the Cohen's kappa statistic was good (0.70). The N Latex FLC assay displayed good precision and linearity. In discordant samples the Freelite and N Latex FLC assays had equivalent agreement with IFX.Traditional methods of EP/IFX detected paraproteins in the majority of cases. Correlation between the Freelite and N Latex FLC assay is better for kappa than lambda FLC. The two assays are not entirely equivalent. Care should be taken by interpreting physicians and laboratories considering switching assays. PMID:26352111

  3. A comparison of cell-collecting methods for the Comet assay in urinary bladders of rats.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kunio; Ohnuma, Aya; Kojima, Sayuri; Yoshida, Toshinori; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2012-02-18

    Conducting the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay in the urinary bladders of rodents is technically problematic because the bladder is small and thin, which makes it difficult to collect its mucosal cells by scraping. We performed the Comet assay using a simple mincing method in which tissues are minced with scissors. We then compared data obtained with this method with data obtained using the scraping method. Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were orally given twice the known carcinogens N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), or o-anisidine (OA). Three hours after the second administration, the bladder of each rat was divided into two parts and each part was processed by either the mincing or the scraping method. Both mincing and scraping methods detected DNA damage in MNU-, EMS-, but not OA-treated rats, and thus the mincing method had a sufficient capability to detect DNA damaging agents. The morphological analysis of the prepared cell suspensions revealed that more than 80% of the cells collected by the mincing method were from the epithelium. Because the mincing method requires only one-half of a bladder, the other half remains intact and can be used for histopathological examination. We conclude that the mincing method is easier and more appropriate for the Comet assay in urinary bladder tissue than the scraping method. PMID:22155339

  4. Immunochemical determination of oxytetracycline in fish: comparison between enzymatic and time-resolved fluorometric assays.

    PubMed

    Cháfer-Pericás, Consuelo; Maquieira, Angel; Puchades, Rosa; Miralles, Javier; Moreno, Amelia; Pastor-Navarro, Nuria; Espinós, Francisco

    2010-03-10

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with photometric detection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity, was developed in plate to detect oxytetracycline (OTC) in Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) samples. The results were compared to those obtained by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) using a secondary antibody with coproporphyrin of platinum (II) (PtCP) as marker. The limits of detection obtained in fish extract were 16 and 0.08 microg kg(-1) for photometric and fluorometric detections, respectively; therefore, they were suitable for fish quality control according to the maximum residue level established by the European Union. An extraction procedure using methanol:water 70:30 (v/v)+1 mL EDTA 0.1 M, and different clean-up procedures based on solid-phase extraction (C(18), polymeric reversed phase, SCX, Si) was assayed. The matrix effects were overcome by means of an average tetracycline-free fish extract calibration curve used for quantification. The OTC optimized ELISA can also be applied to determine tetracycline and chlortetracycline residues with good results. Thus, the developed immunoassay could be considered as a generic assay for the most used tetracyclines in aquaculture antibiotic treatments. In order to confirm the utility of the developed immunoassay as a semi-quantitative methodology, fish samples obtained from different supermarkets were analyzed. Results correlate well with those obtained with a reference HPLC method. PMID:20171317

  5. Comparison of microbial community assays for the assessment of stream biofilm ecology.

    PubMed

    Vinten, A J A; Artz, R R E; Thomas, N; Potts, J M; Avery, L; Langan, S J; Watson, H; Cook, Y; Taylor, C; Abel, C; Reid, E; Singh, B K

    2011-06-01

    We investigated a range of microbiological community assays performed on scrapes of biofilms formed on artificial diffusing substrates deployed in 8 streams in eastern Scotland, with a view to using them to characterize ecological response to stream water quality. The assays considered were: Multiplex Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism or M-TRFLP (a molecular method), Phospholipid Fatty Acid or PLFA analysis (a biochemical method) and MICRORESP™ (a physiological method) alongside TDI, diatom species, and chlorophyll a content. Four of the streams were classified as of excellent status (3-6μg/L Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP)) with respect to soluble P content under the EU Water Framework Directive and four were of borderline good/moderate or moderate status (43-577μg/L SRP). At each site, 3 replicates of 3 solute diffusion treatments were deployed in a Latin square design. Solute diffusion treatments were: KCl (as a control solute), N and P (to investigate the effect of nutrient enrichment), or the herbicide isoproturon (as a "high impact" control, which aimed to affect biofilm growth in a way detectable by all assays). Biofilms were sampled after 4weeks deployment in a low flow period of early summer 2006. The chlorophyll a content of biofilms after 4weeks was 2.0±0.29mg/m(2) (mean±se). Dry matter content was 16.0±13.1g/m(2). The M-TRFLP was successfully used for generating community profiles of cyanobacteria, algae and bacteria and was much faster than diatom identification. The PFLA and TDI were successful after an increase in the sample size, due to low counts. The MICRORESP(™) assays were often below or near detection limit. We estimated the per-sample times for the successful assays as follows: M-TRFLP: 20min, PLFA 40min, TDI 90min. Using MANOVA on the first 5 principal co-ordinates, all the assays except MICRORESP(™) showed significant differences between sites, but none of the assays showed a significant effect of either initial

  6. Comparison of the BD MAX® Enteric Bacterial Panel assay with conventional diagnostic procedures in diarrheal stool samples.

    PubMed

    Knabl, L; Grutsch, I; Orth-Höller, D

    2016-01-01

    Although infectious diarrhea is one of the most predominant diseases around the world, the identification of the causative microorganism is still challenging. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the BD MAX® Enteric Bacterial Panel assay in comparison to conventional diagnostic procedures concerning the detection of the enteric pathogens Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Shigella spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. For this purpose, 971 prospectively collected stool samples were evaluated. Utilization of the BD MAX Enteric Bacterial Panel elevated the overall detection rate from 5.26 % to 8.06 %. The positive percent agreement of the BD MAX Enteric Bacterial Panel assay and stool culture or enzyme immunoassay was 0.97 for Campylobacter spp., 0.75 for Salmonella spp., 1.00 for Shigella spp., and 0.88 for Shiga toxins. Furthermore, a negative percent agreement of 0.98 for Campylobacter spp., 0.99 for Salmonella spp., 0.99 for Shigella spp., and 0.99 for Shiga toxins has been demonstrated. This study highlighted the superior detection rate of molecular assays compared to conventional diagnostic procedures. PMID:26563899

  7. Comparison of Serum and Red Blood Cell Folate Microbiologic Assays for National Population Surveys123

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Zhang, Mindy; Lacher, David A.; Molloy, Anne M.; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Picciano, Mary-Frances; Johnson, Clifford L.

    2011-01-01

    Three laboratories participated with their laboratory-specific microbiologic growth assays (MA) in the NHANES 2007–2008 to assess whether the distributions of serum (n = 2645) and RBC folate (n = 2613) for the same one-third sample of participants were comparable among laboratories. Laboratory (L) 2 produced the highest and L1 the lowest serum and RBC folate geometric means (nmol/L) in the NHANES sample (serum: L1, 39.5; L2, 59.2; L3, 47.7; and RBC: L1, 1120; L2, 1380; L3, 1380). Each laboratory produced different reference intervals for the central 95% of the population. Pearson correlation coefficients were highest between L3 and L1 (serum, r = 0.95; RBC, r = 0.92) and lowest between L2 and L1 (serum, r = 0.81; RBC, r = 0.65). Notable procedural differences among the laboratories were the Lactobacillus rhamnosus microorganism (L1 and L3: chloramphenicol resistant, L2: wild type) and the calibrator [L1: [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), L2: [6R,S] 5-formyltetrahydrofolate ([6R,S] 5-formylTHF), L3: folic acid (FA)]. Compared with 5-methylTHF as calibrator, the folate results were 22–32% higher with FA as calibrator and 8% higher with 5-formylTHF as calibrator, regardless of the matrix (n = 30 serum, n = 28 RBC). The use of different calibrators explained most of the differences in results between L3 and L1 but not between L2 and L1. The use of the wild-type L. rhamnosus by L2 appeared to be the main reason for the differences in results between L2 and the other 2 laboratories. These findings indicate how assay variations influence MA folate results and how those variations can affect population data. To ensure data comparability, better assay harmonization is needed. PMID:21613453

  8. Development of a microplate-based, electrophoretic fluorescent protein kinase a assay: comparison with filter-binding and fluorescence polarization assay formats.

    PubMed

    Miick, Siobhan M; Jalali, Shila; Dwyer, Brian P; Havens, John; Thomas, Donald; Jimenez, Manuel A; Simpson, Mathew T; Zile, Betsy; Huss, Karen L; Campbell, Robert M

    2005-06-01

    A microplate-based electrophoretic assay has been developed for the serine/threonine kinase protein kinase A (PKA). The ElectroCapture PKA assay developed uses a positively charged, lissamine-rhodamine-labeled kemptide peptide substrate for the kinase reaction and Nanogen's ElectroCapture HTS Workstation and 384-well laminated membrane plates to electrophoretically separate the negatively charged phosphorylated peptide product from the kinase reaction mix. After the electrophoretic separation, the amount of rhodamine-labeled phosphopeptide product was quantified using a Tecan Ultra384 fluorescence reader. The ElectroCapture PKA assay was validated with both known PKA inhibitors and library compounds. The pK(iapp) results obtained in the ElectroCapture PKA assay were comparable to those generated with current radioactive filter-binding assay and antibody-based competitive fluorescence polarization PKA assay formats. PMID:15964934

  9. Comparison of the prognostic impact of serum anti-EBV antibody and plasma EBV DNA assays in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Twu, C.-W.; Wang, W.-Y.; Liang, W.-M.; Jan, J.-S.; Jiang, R.-S.; Chao, Jeffrey; Jin, Y.-T.; Lin, J.-C. . E-mail: jclin@vghtc.gov.tw

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been proven as an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cancer. Serum anti-EBV antibodies and plasma EBV DNA have been investigated as surrogate markers for NPC. A comparison of the prognostic impacts of both assays has never been reported. Methods and Materials: Paired serum and plasma samples from 114 previously untreated NPC patients were collected and subjected to an immunofluorescence assay for immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies against the viral capsid antigen (VCA) and a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for EBV DNA measurement. The effects of both assays on patient prognosis were thoroughly investigated. Results: Relapsed patients had significantly higher pretreatment EBV DNA concentration than patients without relapse (p 0.0006). No associations of VCA-IgA (p = 0.9669) or VCA-IgG (p = 0.6125) were observed between patients with and without relapse. The 4-year overall survival (60.3% vs. 93.1%, p < 0.0001) and relapse-free survival rates (54.4% vs. 77.9%, p = 0.0009) were significantly lower in patients with higher pretreatment EBV DNA load than in those with lower EBV DNA load. Patients with persistently detectable EBV DNA after treatment had significantly worse 4-year overall (30.8% vs. 84.6%, p < 0.0001) and relapse-free survival rates (15.4% vs. 74.0%, p < 0.0001) than those with undetectable EBV DNA. The VCA-IgA and VCA-IgG titer could not predict survivals (all p > 0.1). Cox multivariate analyses also showed the same results. Conclusion: Plasma EBV DNA is superior to serum EBV VCA antibodies in prognostic predictions for NPC.

  10. Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis: a comparison of three CSF anti-Borrelia antibody assays.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A J; Christiansson, M; Tjernberg, I; Löfgren, S; Matussek, A

    2014-05-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) requires the detection of intrathecal synthesis of Borrelia-specific antibodies, but in very early disease, the sensitivity may be low. We compared the performance of the second-generation IDEIA Lyme Neuroborreliosis test (Oxoid), based on purified native flagellum antigen, with two newly developed tests based on several recombinant antigens for the diagnosis of LNB. Patients investigated for LNB during 2003 through 2007 were included (n = 175); 52 with definite LNB, four with possible LNB and 119 non-LNB patients. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were analysed with the IDEIA Lyme Neuroborreliosis (Oxoid), VIDAS Lyme IgG (bioMérieux) and recomBead Borrelia IgM and IgG (Mikrogen) assays. Intrathecal antibody indices (AIs) were calculated according to the manufacturers' protocols. The IDEIA test performed with an overall sensitivity (IgM and IgG AIs taken together) of 88 % and a specificity of 99 %. The VIDAS test showed a sensitivity of 86 % and a specificity of 97 %. An overall sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 97 % were achieved by the recomBead test. We conclude that the three assays performed equally well regarding specificity, but our data suggest an improved diagnostic sensitivity with the recomBead Borrelia test. PMID:24263552

  11. Comparison of Automated Treponemal and Nontreponemal Test Algorithms as First-Line Syphilis Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae-Woo; Park, Seong Yeon; Chae, Seok Lae

    2016-01-01

    Background Automated Mediace Treponema pallidum latex agglutination (TPLA) and Mediace rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assays are used by many laboratories for syphilis diagnosis. This study compared the results of the traditional syphilis screening algorithm and a reverse algorithm using automated Mediace RPR or Mediace TPLA as first-line screening assays in subjects undergoing a health checkup. Methods Samples from 24,681 persons were included in this study. We routinely performed Mediace RPR and Mediace TPLA simultaneously. Results were analyzed according to both the traditional algorithm and reverse algorithm. Samples with discordant results on the reverse algorithm (e.g., positive Mediace TPLA, negative Mediace RPR) were tested with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA). Results Among the 24,681 samples, 30 (0.1%) were found positive by traditional screening, and 190 (0.8%) by reverse screening. The identified syphilis rate and overall false-positive rate according to the traditional algorithm were lower than those according to the reverse algorithm (0.07% and 0.05% vs. 0.64% and 0.13%, respectively). A total of 173 discordant samples were tested with TPPA by using the reverse algorithm, of which 140 (80.9%) were TPPA positive. Conclusions Despite the increased false-positive results in populations with a low prevalence of syphilis, the reverse algorithm detected 140 samples with treponemal antibody that went undetected by the traditional algorithm. The reverse algorithm using Mediace TPLA as a screening test is more sensitive for the detection of syphilis. PMID:26522755

  12. Quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin analysis. I. Comparison of an immunoradiometric assay and a radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.I.; Wu, T.F.; Ballon, S.C.; Lamb, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the quantitative analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was evaluated for specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The results were compared with those of the conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) used in our laboratory. The IRMA is a solid-phase, double-antibody immunoassay that sandwiches the intact hCG molecule between the two antibodies. It has specificity, accuracy, and precision which are similar to those of the RIA. The RIA is based upon the assumptions that the antigenicity of the tracer is not altered by the iodination process and that the antibody reacts equally with all of the antigens, including the radiolabeled antigen. The IRMA does not use radiolabeled antigens and thus is free of the assumptions made in the conventional RIA. The IRMA may be more accurate at the lower limits of the assay because it does not require logarithmic transformations. Since the IRMA does not measure the free beta-subunit of hCG, it cannot be endorsed as the sole technique to quantitate hCG in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia until the significance of the free beta-subunit in these patients is determined.

  13. Uric acid photo-oxidation assay: in vitro comparison of sunscreening agents.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, W C; Yamamoto, Y; Inoue, M; Kashiba-Iwatsuki, M; Yamaguchi, M; Tomita, K

    1998-02-01

    We present a new method to evaluate the photo-oxidative activity of sunscreening agents based on the photodynamic oxidation of uric acid. Uric acid was selected as the oxidant probe for its high reactivity to singlet oxygen and oxygen radicals, high sensitivity of detection using electrochemical (EC) techniques, low light absorptivity and high photochemical stability in the UVA/B region of interest, and stability to autoxidation. The method is demonstrated by the photodynamic oxidation of uric acid on co-irradiation with Rose Bengal, a highly efficient photosensitizing dye for the production of singlet oxygen (1O2). Using this assay we found that the relative photodynamic oxidation rates of UVB-absorbing sunscreens in 80% methanol on irradiation with >290 nm light decreased in the order 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (DMABA-2EH) > 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (MCA-2EH) and the experimental sunscreens, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-octanoyl-4,4-dimethyl- 1,4,5,6,-tetrahydropyridine (ICI-319) and 1-(2-methylpropyl)-3-propionyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (ICI-855). The relative photodynamic oxidation rates of UVA-absorbing sunscreens decreased in the order 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) and 4-(2-propyl)benzophenone (PB) > 2-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-benzophenone (HMB) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (DHMB). We have confirmed the photodynamic activity of DMABA-2EH for the production of singlet oxygen (1O2) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the reagent 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone (4-oxo-TEMP). We failed to detect the photodynamic production of the oxyradicals, superoxide (O2.-) and hydroxyl radical (HO.) using N-tert-butyl-a-phenylnitrone (PBN) and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolidine-1-oxide (DMPO) as a result of photochemical interference caused by these spin-trapping reagents. The uric acid photo-oxidation assay was also used to compare the photodynamic reactivity of light-reflective, microfine oxides TiO2, Zn

  14. Comparison of amino acid digestibility of feedstuffs determined with the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay and the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare amino acid digestibility of several feedstuffs using 2 commonly accepted methods: the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR) and the standardized ileal amino acid assay (SIAAD). Six corn, 6 corn distillers dried grains with or without s...

  15. A comparison of the potencies of several diluted and undiluted corticosteroid preparations using the vasoconstrictor assay.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, J; Gibson, J R; Darley, C R; Burke, C A

    1983-01-01

    10 subjects were assessed using the vasoconstrictor assay technique in a double-blind study in order to evaluate the relative potencies of several diluted and undiluted proprietary corticosteroid preparations. Dermovate ointment achieved a significantly higher score than any other preparation but there was no significant difference between the scores for Betnovate ointment (betamethasone valerate 0.1%), Propaderm Forte cream (beclomethasone dipropionate 0.5%), Propaderm ointment (beclomethasone dipropionate 0.025%), Nerisone Forte ointment (diflucortolone valerate 0.3%), and Nerisone ointment (diflucortolone valerate 0.1%). Furthermore, no significant difference in scores could be demonstrated between Adcortyl ointment (triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%), Ledercort ointment (triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%) and extemporaneous dilutions of these ointments 1 part in 4 in their recommended diluents (triamcinolone acetonide 0.025%). The relevance of these findings to clinical practice is discussed. PMID:6195026

  16. Application of the comet assay in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces): A methodological comparison

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The present study applied the comet assay to erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus with the aim of improving protocols to detect DNA damage in these cells, by using two distinct pHs (pH = 12.1 and pH > 13) and evaluating whether there is a correspondence between silver and ethidium bromide staining. Comets were visually examined and, the frequency of cells with and without damage was obtained, as well as the distribution of classes and scores. By using the Kruskal-Wallis test, our results revealed that pH 12.1 is more effective, although both pHs can be used. Our findings also suggest that silver staining can substitute ethidium bromide, an expensive and highly toxic stain that requires specific equipment for examination. PMID:21637662

  17. Comparison of DNA Fragmentation Assay in Frozen-Thawed Cat Epididymal Sperm.

    PubMed

    Kunkitti, P; Sjödahl, A; Bergqvist, A-S; Johannisson, A; Axnér, E

    2016-08-01

    DNA fragmentation of frozen-thawed feline epididymal sperm from corpus and cauda regions was evaluated by three different techniques. The DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was compared between techniques: the sperm chromatin structural assay (SCSA(®) ), acridine orange staining techniques (AOT) and the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD). There were significant differences in DFI among the techniques (p < 0.05) with no correlations. Only DFI values obtained from SCD revealed a significantly higher DFI in corpus compared with cauda spermatozoa (p < 0.05). The discrepancy between techniques might be due to the sensitivity of each technique, differences in severity of DNA damaged that can be detected. The difference in DFI between epididymal regions from SCD technique might indicate different maturational stages of spermatozoa, with less chromatin condensation of spermatozoa in corpus compared with cauda epididymis. PMID:27321406

  18. Comparison of immunodiffusion and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to four Aspergillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Froudist, J H; Harnett, G B; McAleer, R

    1989-01-01

    Antigenic extracts were prepared from Aspergillus fumigatus, A niger, A flavus and A terreus for use in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunodiffusion (ID) tests for Aspergillus antibodies to determine whether the use of antigenic extracts from species other than A fumigatus increased the sensitivity of the ELISA. ELISA titres correlated well with positive ID tests. Patient titres by ELISA were significantly higher than control titres for all species. Patient titres to A niger were also significantly higher than titres to the other species. Total number of ID bands to A fumigatus correlated significantly with anti-A fumigatus ELISA titres. It is concluded that the use of antigenic extracts from species other than A fumigatus improves the sensitivity of the ELISA. PMID:2511230

  19. Anti-vascular endothelial cell antibodies (AECA): comparison of two assay methods and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Meyer, O; Kaiser, P; Haim, T; Edgell, C J; Pasquier, C; de Bandt, M; Bridey, F; Sellak, H; Lansaman, J; Kahn, M F

    1995-12-01

    Vascular endothelial cells may be a target for autoantibodies (AECAs) against membrane antigens that are constitutively expressed, induced or bound to their surface. To test this hypothesis, we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with two types of human endothelial cells as the substrate, i.e., human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) or the hybrid cell line EAhy-926 obtained by fusion of HUVECs with the bronchial carcinoma cell line A549. A comparative functional study of these two cell types demonstrated that EAhy-926 cells produced only small amounts of VIII von Willebrand factor and tissular factor, did not contain Weibel Palade bodies visible under the electron microscope, and expressed ICAM-1 and selectin E in levels of no more than 15% of those expressed by human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells both after stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and under basal conditions. However, the two assay methods yielded similar IgG AECA titers when used on sera from patients with rheumatoid vasculitis or antiphospholipid syndrome. These antibodies did not exhibit cytotoxicity for cord vein or EAhy-926 cells. They were not specific for endothelium, since their activity decreased by a mean of 40% after incubation of sera with the epithelial cell line A549. A cross-sectional study of 565 sera demonstrated that anti-vascular IgG and IgM AECAs reactive with EAhy-926 cells occurred mainly in patients with dermatomyositis (IgG, 58%; IgM, 22%), systemic scleroderma (IgG, 48%; IgM, 18%), primary Sjögren's syndrome (IgG, 44%; IgM, 12%) and secondary and primary systemic vasculitides (IgG, 38%; IgM, 18%) including Wegener's granulomatosis. A longitudinal study in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis showed that AECAS were predictive of disease activity. PMID:8869215

  20. Comparison of Parasite Burden Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay and Limiting Dilution Assay in Leishmania major Infected Mouse

    PubMed Central

    GHOTLOO, Somayeh; HAJI MOLLAHOSEINI, Mostafa; NAJAFI, Ali; YEGANEH, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limiting dilution assay is considered as the gold standard method for quantifying the number of parasites in the animal model of Leishmania infection. Nowadays, real-time PCR is being increasingly applied to quantify infectious agents. In the present study, a real-time PCR assay was developed to estimate parasite burdens in lymph nodes of Leishmania major infected BALB/C mice. Enumeration of parasites was also performed by limiting dilution assay and compared with the results of real-time PCR based quantification. Methods: The SYBR Green based real-time PCR assay was performed to amplify a 75 bp fragment of superoxide dismutase B1 gene in the lymph nodes of L. major infected BALB/C mice 8 weeks post infection. Mice were infected subcutaneously at the base of their tail with 2 × 105 L. major promastigotes in the stationary phase of growth. To compare parasite burdens obtained by real-time PCR assay with those of limiting dilution assay, twelve 8-fold serial dilutions of the lymph node homogenates were prepared in the Schneider medium and incubated at 26°C. After 7 days, wells containing motile parasites were identified by direct observation under an inverted light microscope and the total number of parasites was estimated using the ELIDA software. Results: Spearman’s correlation coefficient of the parasite burdens between real-time PCR and limiting dilution assay was 0.72 (P value = 0.008). Conclusion: Real-time PCR assay is an appropriate replacement to existing limiting dilution assay in quantifying parasite burden in the experimental model of Leishmania infection. PMID:26811723

  1. Comparison of NIR FRET pairs for quantitative transferrin-based assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsuebphon, Nattawut; Bevington, Travis; Zhao, Lingling; Ken, Abe; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Transferrin (Tfn) is commonly used as a drug delivery carrier for cancer treatment. Tfn cellular internalization can be observed by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), which occurs when two fluorophores - donor and acceptor - are a few nanometers apart. Donor fluorescence lifetime can be used to sense and quantify FRET occurrence. In FRET state, the donor is quenched leading to a significant reduction in its lifetime. In this study, donor and acceptor near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore-labeled Tfn were used to quantify cellular internalization in breast cancer cell line (T47D). Based on donor lifetime, quantum yield and spectral data, seven NIR FRET pairs were chosen for this comparison. Performance of the different NIR FRET pairs was evaluated in vitro in multiwell plate settings and by analyzing the relationship between quenched donor fraction and acceptor:donor ratio. Additionally, we performed brightness comparison between each pairs. Several parameters, such as brightness, lifetime, R0 and FRET donor population values are used to identify the most suitable NIR FRET pair for in vivo studies in preclinical settings.

  2. Comparison of In Vitro Cell Culture and a Mouse Assay for Measuring Infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum

    PubMed Central

    Rochelle, Paul A.; Marshall, Marilyn M.; Mead, Jan R.; Johnson, Anne M.; Korich, Dick G.; Rosen, Jeffrey S.; De Leon, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    In vitro cell cultures were compared to neonatal mice for measuring the infectivity of five genotype 2 isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum. Oocyst doses were enumerated by flow cytometry and delivered to animals and cell monolayers by using standardized procedures. Each dose of oocysts was inoculated into up to nine replicates of 9 to 12 mice or 6 to 10 cell culture wells. Infections were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining in CD-1 mice, by reverse transcriptase PCR in HCT-8 and Caco-2 cells, and by immunofluorescence microscopy in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Infectivity was expressed as a logistic transformation of the proportion of animals or cell culture wells that developed infection at each dose. In most instances, the slopes of the dose-response curves were not significantly different when we compared the infectivity models for each isolate. The 50% infective doses for the different isolates varied depending on the method of calculation but were in the range from 16 to 347 oocysts for CD-1 mice and in the ranges from 27 to 106, 31 to 629, and 13 to 18 oocysts for HCT-8, Caco-2, and MDCK cells, respectively. The average standard deviations for the percentages of infectivity for all replicates of all isolates were 13.9, 11.5, 13.2, and 10.7% for CD-1 mice, HCT-8 cells, Caco-2 cells, and MDCK cells, respectively, demonstrating that the levels of variability were similar in all assays. There was a good correlation between the average infectivity for HCT-8 cells and the results for CD-1 mice across all isolates for untreated oocysts (r = 0.85, n = 25) and for oocysts exposed to ozone and UV light (r = 0.89, n = 29). This study demonstrated that in vitro cell culture was equivalent to the “gold standard,” mouse infectivity, for measuring the infectivity of C. parvum and should therefore be considered a practical and accurate alternative for assessing oocyst infectivity and inactivation. However, the high levels of variability displayed by all

  3. Comparison of Mycoplasma arthritidis strains by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and DNA restriction analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, L R; Voelker, L L; Ehle, L J; Hirsch, S; Dutenhofer, C; Olson, K; Beck, B

    1995-01-01

    Twenty Mycoplasma arthritidis strains or isolates were compared by a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by an antiserum adsorption technique, Western immunoblotting, and restriction analysis of chromosomal DNA. Antigenic markers that defined strains related to strains 158p10p9, PG6, and H606 were identified. In addition, restriction analysis allowed all 20 strains to be divided into six groups. Results of restriction analysis corresponded generally with antigenic similarities, although the former did not allow grouping with as fine a precision as the latter. However, intrastrain antigenic variability, which is common among many Mycoplasma species, including M. arthritidis, introduced a complicating factor into our attempts at antigenic analysis. While serologic and antigenic analyses remain useful, we recommend that they be used with caution and in combination with other techniques for identifying and characterizing new isolates and newly acquired strains. Combinations of these techniques have proven to be useful in our laboratory for quality control and for uncovering interesting relationships among strains subjected to animal passage and their less virulent antecedents and among strains originally classified as the same but obtained from different sources and maintained, sometimes for decades, in different laboratories. PMID:7494014

  4. Comparison of a TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Gallid herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J; Macklin, Kenneth S

    2012-01-01

    A TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay were developed to detect Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1, formerly Infectious laryngotracheitis virus). The standard curve of real-time PCR was established, and the sensitivity reached 10 copies/μl. In the current study, the conversion between viral titer and GaHV-1 genomic copy number was constructed. Six primers for LAMP assay amplified target gene at 65°C within 45 min, and the detection limit was 60 copies/μl. The 6 primers were highly specific, sensitive, and reproducible for detection of GaHV-1. Although the sensitivity of LAMP was lower than that of real-time PCR, LAMP was faster, less expensive, and did not require a thermocycler. The LAMP assay would be a viable alternative assay in diagnostic laboratories that do not employ real-time PCR technology. PMID:22362944

  5. Comparison of peptide mass mapping and electron capture dissociation as assays for histone posttranslational modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Freitas, Michael A.

    2004-05-01

    Posttranslational modifications of core histones play a critical role in the structure of chromatin and the regulation of gene activities. Improved techniques for determining these modification sites may lead to a better understanding of histone regulation at the molecular level. LC-MS peptide mass mapping was performed on pepsin, trypsin and Glu-C digests of bovine thymus H4 using a QqTOF instrument. The well established modification sites of H4 (acetylation of K8, 12, 16 and methylation of K20) were observed in addition to several recently discovered modifications including: methylation of K31, 44, 59 and acetylation of K20, 77, 79. For comparison, electron capture dissociation (ECD) was performed on intact H4 along with several peptides from enzymatic digestion. The results from the ECD experiments of histone H4 indicated the acetylation of K5, 12, 16, 31, 91 and the methylation of K20 and 59 in good agreement with the result from peptide mapping. The work is dedicated to Alan G. Marshall on his 60th birthday. His endeavors in the advancement of FT-ICR facilitated experiments reported herein.

  6. Comparison of an in-house PCR assay, direct fluorescence assay and the Roche AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis kit for detection of C. trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Poonam; Patel, Achchhe Lal; Sachdev, Divya; Ali, Mashook; Mittal, Aruna; Saluja, Daman

    2009-07-01

    To improve the control of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in India, a rapid, specific and cost-effective method is much needed. We developed an in-house PCR assay by targeting a unique genomic sequence encoding a protein from the C. trachomatis phospholipase D endonuclease superfamily that produces an amplified fragment of 368 bp. The specificity of the primers was confirmed using genomic DNA from other sexually transmitted disease-causing and related micro-organisms and from humans. The assay was highly sensitive and could detect as low as 10 fg C. trachomatis DNA. Clinical evaluation of the in-house-developed PCR was carried out using 450 endocervical specimens that were divided in two groups. In group I (n=274), in-house PCR was evaluated against the direct fluorescence assay. The resolved sensitivity of the in-house PCR method was 97.22 % compared with 88 % for the direct fluorescent antibody assay. In group II (n=176), the in-house PCR was compared with the commercial Roche AMPLICOR MWP CT detection kit. The resolved sensitivity of the in-house PCR assay reported here was 93.1 % and the specificity was 97.46 %, making it a cost-effective alternative for routine diagnosis of genital infection by C. trachomatis. The method should facilitate early detection leading to better prevention and treatment of genital infection in India. PMID:19502371

  7. Comparison of immunocytochemical estrogen receptor assay, estrogen receptor enzyme immunoassay, and radioligand-labeled estrogen receptor assay in human breast cancer and uterine tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Heubner, A.; Beck, T.; Grill, H.J.; Pollow, K.

    1986-08-01

    Determination of estrogen receptor content in 82 breast cancer specimens with immunocytochemical estrogen receptor assay (ER-EIA) (Abbott) was compared with our routinely used binding assay using /sup 125/I-estradiol as radioligand with Scatchard plot analysis of the binding data. Although the estrogen receptor content measured with the ER-EIA was approximately 2-fold higher compared with the binding assay, the immunochemical method proved to be a useful alternative for estrogen receptor determination. Furthermore, it is possible to detect estrogen receptors in FPLC Superose 12 (size exclusion column) eluates or in the fractions obtained after sucrose density centrifugation using the ER-EIA. Forty breast cancer samples were analyzed utilizing the immunocytochemical technique (ER-ICA) for visualization of the estrogen receptor content in frozen tumor tissues in relationship to the quantitative results obtained with the ER-EIA assay. Specific staining for estrogen receptor was confined only to the cell nucleus, was distributed irregularly among the tumor cells, and was variable in intensity. The staining intensity and the percentage of positively stained cells increased with increasing level of cytosolic estrogen receptor. In 27 of 40 cases the immunocytochemical results correlated well with the ER-EIA assay. Nine cases were ER-ICA negative with positive ER-EIA, and four were ER-ICA positive with negative ER-EIA.

  8. Electrochemical Measurement of the β-Galactosidase Reporter from Live Cells: A Comparison to the Miller Assay.

    PubMed

    Tschirhart, Tanya; Zhou, Xinyi Y; Ueda, Hana; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Kim, Eunkyoung; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2016-01-15

    In order to match our ability to conceive of and construct cells with enhanced function, we must concomitantly develop facile, real-time methods for elucidating performance. With these, new designs can be tested in silico and steps in construction incrementally validated. Electrochemical monitoring offers the above advantages largely because signal transduction stems from direct electron transfer, allowing for potentially quicker and more integrated measurements. One of the most common genetic reporters, β-galactosidase, can be measured both spectrophotometrically (Miller assay) and electrochemically. However, since the relationship between the two is not well understood, the electrochemical methods have not yet garnered the attention of biologists. With the aim of demonstrating the utility of an electrochemical measurement to the synthetic biology community, we created a genetic construct that interprets and reports (with β-galactosidase) on the concentration of the bacterial quorum sensing molecule autoinducer-2. In this work, we provide a correlation between electrochemical measurements and Miller Units. We show that the electrochemical assay works with both lysed and whole cells, allowing for the prediction of one from the other, and for continuous monitoring of cell response. We further present a conceptually simple and generalized mathematical model for cell-based β-galactosidase reporter systems that could aid in building and predicting a variety of synthetic biology constructs. This first-ever in-depth comparison and analysis aims to facilitate the use of electrochemical real-time monitoring in the field of synthetic biology as well as to facilitate the creation of constructs that can more easily communicate information to electronic systems. PMID:26542230

  9. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with enzyme-linked fluorescence assay with automated readers for detection of rubella virus antibody and herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Shekarchi, I C; Sever, J L; Nerurkar, L; Fuccillo, D

    1985-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) for the detection of rubella antibody and herpes simplex virus antigen. Test parameters, specimens, antigen or antibody, and conjugates for the two types of assays were identical except that p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used as the substrate for the ELISA and 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate was used as the substrate for ELFA. Automated readers were used for both assays. Antibody titers and sensitivity of antigen detection were quite similar for ELISA and ELFA. ELFA for rubella antibody, however, could be conducted with less antigen or shorter substrate incubation time (5 min for ELFA versus 30 min for ELISA). For herpes simplex virus antigen detection, ELFA could also be read after a shorter substrate incubation time (15 min for ELFA versus 30 min for ELISA). Clear polystyrene microtiter plates routinely used for ELISA could be used for ELFA, but clear polyvinyl chloride plates had high background fluorescence. Black polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride plates gave lower background fluorescence than did clear plates. ELFA is of particular value as a substitute for ELISAs in which long substrate incubations are required or antigens of only low titer are available. PMID:2981902

  10. [Use of procalcitonine in intensive care units: comparison of semi quantitative PCT-Q Brahms assay with automated PCT-Kryptor assay].

    PubMed

    Schuch, Géraldine; Duc-Marchand, Catherine; Venet, Cyrille; Mann, Hubert; Tixier, Anne; Bionda, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Procalcitonine (PCT) is recognized as a major and specific biomarker in diagnosis of bacterial infection. Used early in sepsis, it allows immediate administration of antibiotics and monitoring its effectiveness. Confronted on systemic inflammation response syndrom (SIRS), physicians must react quickly and effectively to evaluate bacterial infection and sepsis. The objective of this study was to compare analytical and clinical performances of semi-quantitative PCT-Q assay (Brahms) with quantitative and automated assay such on Kryptor (Brahms). Fifty blood samples of intensive care patients were compared. The analytical performance observed with PCT-Q assay is accurate: linear ratio kappa of 0.912 (95% CI 0.61, 0.97) and a good correlation between these techniques (p < 0.0001) (MedCalc software) were observed. Three discordances were observed and confirm the difficulties of reading for values close to 0.5 ng/mL. For these patients, PCT result showed its interest to discriminate local infection of a sepsis, to stop antibiotherapy with broad spectrum and to consolidate a therapeutic effectiveness in multi-visceral failure context. The semi-quantitative assay seems adapted for a fast and reliable evaluation of PCT in a general-purpose laboratory, not requiring neither dedicated analyzer, nor complex technicality but a control of the visual evaluation of results. It could be used for diagnosis of sepsis without monitoring precisely therapeutic follow-up. PMID:22123565

  11. Comparison of a PCR serotyping assay, Check&Trace assay for Salmonella, and Luminex Salmonella serotyping assay for the characterization of Salmonella enterica identified from fresh and naturally contaminated cilantro.

    PubMed

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, J; Ewing, L; Jarvis, K; Dudley, K; Grim, C; Gopinath, G; Flamer, M-L; Auguste, W; Jayaram, A; Elmore, J; Lamont, M; McGrath, T; Hanes, D E

    2014-09-01

    Salmonella enterica isolated from fresh cilantro samples collected through the USDA/AMS Microbiological Data Program (MDP) were used to compare a PCR serotyping assay against the Check&Trace assay and the Luminex (BioPlex) Salmonella serotyping assay. The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the three methods for serotyping Salmonella from both enrichment broth cultures and pure Salmonella cultures. In this investigation, Salmonella spp. serotyping was conducted using 24 h enrichment broth cultures and pure Salmonella cultures from cilantro samples, with the PCR serotyping assay. Conversely, the Check&Trace and Luminex for Salmonella assays required pure cultures for Salmonella serotyping. The cilantro samples contained S. enterica serovar Montevideo, Newport, Saintpaul, and Tennessee, identified by the PCR serotyping assay and Check&Trace for Salmonella, but the Luminex assay only identified two of the four serotypes of the cilantro samples. The anticipated impact from this study is that the PCR serotyping assay provides a time- and cost-effective means for screening, identifying and serotyping Salmonella using DNA extracted from 24 h enrichment cilantro samples. PMID:24929735

  12. COMPARISON OF IMMUNOFLUORESCENT ANTIBODY ASSAY (IFA) AND IMMUNOMAGNETIC ELECTROCHEMILUMINESCENCE (IM-ECL) IN DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM IN KARST WATER SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) and immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence (IM-ECL) were used for comparison of the percent of recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental water samples obtained from a spring draining a karst basin. The monoclonal antibodies to C. parvum, isotype IgG3...

  13. Inter- and Intralaboratory Comparison of JC Polyomavirus Antibody Testing Using Two Different Virus-Like Particle-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kardas, Piotr; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Weissbach, Fabian H.; Chen, Tingting; Hedman, Lea; Auvinen, Eeva; Hedman, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a debilitating, often fatal brain disease in immunocompromised patients. JCPyV-seropositive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab have a 2- to 10-fold increased risk of developing PML. Therefore, JCPyV serology has been recommended for PML risk stratification. However, different antibody tests may not be equivalent. To study intra- and interlaboratory variability, sera from 398 healthy blood donors were compared in 4 independent enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) measurements generating >1,592 data points. Three data sets (Basel1, Basel2, and Basel3) used the same basic protocol but different JCPyV virus-like particle (VLP) preparations and introduced normalization to a reference serum. The data sets were also compared with an independent method using biotinylated VLPs (Helsinki1). VLP preadsorption reducing ≥35% activity was used to identify seropositive sera. The results indicated that Basel1, Basel2, Basel3, and Helsinki1 were similar regarding overall data distribution (P = 0.79) and seroprevalence (58.0, 54.5, 54.8, and 53.5%, respectively; P = 0.95). However, intra-assay intralaboratory comparison yielded 3.7% to 12% discordant results, most of which were close to the cutoff (0.080 < optical density [OD] < 0.250) according to Bland-Altman analysis. Introduction of normalization improved overall performance and reduced discordance. The interlaboratory interassay comparison between Basel3 and Helsinki1 revealed only 15 discordant results, 14 (93%) of which were close to the cutoff. Preadsorption identified specificities of 99.44% and 97.78% and sensitivities of 99.54% and 95.87% for Basel3 and Helsinki1, respectively. Thus, normalization to a preferably WHO-approved reference serum, duplicate testing, and preadsorption for samples around the cutoff may be necessary for reliable JCPyV serology and PML risk stratification. PMID:25253664

  14. Comparison of the indirect immunobead, radiolabeled, and immunofluorescence assays for immunoglobulin G serum antibodies to human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, G.G. Jr.; D'Cruz, O.J.; DeBault, L.E. )

    1991-02-01

    The relative sensitivities of the indirect immunobead test, the indirect flo cytometric immunofluorescence assay, and an indirect radiolabeled antiglobulin assay were compared. Eighteen immunobead test positive sera and 18 negative sera were used as the standard for the other two assays. Of the 18 positive sera, 14 (77%) and 5 (27%) were positive in the immunofluorescence assay and the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay, respectively. Four (22%) of the low titer immunobead test positive sera were negative by both the immunofluorescence assay and the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay. However, there was a significant positive correlation between the results of the immunofluorescence assay and the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay (r = 0.73) and between the results of the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay and the titer of the immunobead test (r = 0.82). The use of an unselected sperm population in the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay and the classical indirect immunofluorescence method using methanol-fixed sperm gave false-positive results in the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay and the immunofluorescence assay. These results suggested that immunoglobulin G antisperm antibody positive sera may be reactive both to sperm surface and internalized sperm antigens.

  15. Comparison of Onclarity Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay with Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA Assay for Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 and 3 Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sideri, M.; Gulmini, C.; Igidbashian, S.; Tricca, A.; Casadio, C.; Carinelli, S.; Boveri, S.; Ejegod, D.; Bonde, J.; Sandri, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical and clinical performance validation is essential before introduction of a new human papillomavirus (HPV) assay into clinical practice. This study compares the new BD Onclarity HPV assay, which detects E6/E7 DNA from 14 high-risk HPV types, to the Hybrid Capture II (HC2) HPV DNA test, to concurrent cytology and histology results, in order to evaluate its performance in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. A population of 567 women, including 325 with ≥ASCUS (where ASCUS stands for atypical cells of undetermined significance) and any HC2 result and 242 with both negative cytology and negative HC2 results, were prospectively enrolled for the study. The overall agreement between Onclarity and HC2 was 94.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 92.3% to 96.2%). In this population with a high prevalence of disease, the relative sensitivities (versus adjudicated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 [CIN2+] histology endpoints) of the Onclarity and HC2 tests were 95.2% (95% CI, 90.7% to 97.5%) and 96.9% (95% CI, 92.9% to 98.7%), respectively, and the relative specificities were 50.3% (95% CI, 43.2% to 57.4%) for BD and 40.8% (95% CI, 33.9%, 48.1%) for HC2. These results indicate that the BD Onclarity HPV assay has sensitivity comparable to that of the HC2 assay, with a trend to an increased specificity. Moreover, as Onclarity gives the chance to discriminate between the different genotypes, we calculated the genotype prevalence and the absolute risk of CIN2+: HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype (19.8%) with an absolute risk of CIN2+ of 77.1%. PMID:25903574

  16. Comparison of Onclarity Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay with Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA Assay for Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 and 3 Lesions.

    PubMed

    Bottari, F; Sideri, M; Gulmini, C; Igidbashian, S; Tricca, A; Casadio, C; Carinelli, S; Boveri, S; Ejegod, D; Bonde, J; Sandri, M T

    2015-07-01

    Analytical and clinical performance validation is essential before introduction of a new human papillomavirus (HPV) assay into clinical practice. This study compares the new BD Onclarity HPV assay, which detects E6/E7 DNA from 14 high-risk HPV types, to the Hybrid Capture II (HC2) HPV DNA test, to concurrent cytology and histology results, in order to evaluate its performance in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. A population of 567 women, including 325 with ≥ASCUS (where ASCUS stands for atypical cells of undetermined significance) and any HC2 result and 242 with both negative cytology and negative HC2 results, were prospectively enrolled for the study. The overall agreement between Onclarity and HC2 was 94.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 92.3% to 96.2%). In this population with a high prevalence of disease, the relative sensitivities (versus adjudicated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 [CIN2+] histology endpoints) of the Onclarity and HC2 tests were 95.2% (95% CI, 90.7% to 97.5%) and 96.9% (95% CI, 92.9% to 98.7%), respectively, and the relative specificities were 50.3% (95% CI, 43.2% to 57.4%) for BD and 40.8% (95% CI, 33.9%, 48.1%) for HC2. These results indicate that the BD Onclarity HPV assay has sensitivity comparable to that of the HC2 assay, with a trend to an increased specificity. Moreover, as Onclarity gives the chance to discriminate between the different genotypes, we calculated the genotype prevalence and the absolute risk of CIN2+: HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype (19.8%) with an absolute risk of CIN2+ of 77.1%. PMID:25903574

  17. A comparison of the human buccal cell assay and the pollen abortion assay in assessing genotoxicity in an urban-rural gradient.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Alan da Silveira; Vieira, Mariana; Amantéa, Sergio Luís; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities and to compare plant biomonitoring with an established biomarker of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children. The areas of study were selected near a major street in 3 different regions. Areas A, B and C represent high, intermediate and low population densities, respectively. Micronucleus assay, an established biomarker of human exposure, was performed in children from these areas. For a plant biomonitoring assay, the pollen abortion assay was performed on Bauhinia variegata in these areas. NO2 and O3 concentrations were determined by passive sampling. We report here that the pollen abortion frequency in Bauhinia variegata is correlated with NO2 concentration (P = 0.004) and is strongly associated with vehicular flow and population density in the studied areas. Micronuclei frequency in buccal cells of children was higher in the regions with more degree of urbanization (P < 0.001) following the same pattern of O3 concentrations (P = 0.030). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high concentrations of air pollutants in Porto Alegre are related to both human and plant genotoxicity. Areas with different concentration of pollutants demonstrated to have an urbanization gradient dependent pattern which also reflected on genotoxic damage among these areas. PMID:25166920

  18. A Comparison of the Human Buccal Cell Assay and the Pollen Abortion Assay in Assessing Genotoxicity in an Urban-Rural Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fleck, Alan da Silveira; Vieira, Mariana; Amantéa, Sergio Luís; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities and to compare plant biomonitoring with an established biomarker of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children. The areas of study were selected near a major street in 3 different regions. Areas A, B and C represent high, intermediate and low population densities, respectively. Micronucleus assay, an established biomarker of human exposure, was performed in children from these areas. For a plant biomonitoring assay, the pollen abortion assay was performed on Bauhinia variegata in these areas. NO2 and O3 concentrations were determined by passive sampling. We report here that the pollen abortion frequency in Bauhinia variegata is correlated with NO2 concentration (P = 0.004) and is strongly associated with vehicular flow and population density in the studied areas. Micronuclei frequency in buccal cells of children was higher in the regions with more degree of urbanization (P < 0.001) following the same pattern of O3 concentrations (P = 0.030). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high concentrations of air pollutants in Porto Alegre are related to both human and plant genotoxicity. Areas with different concentration of pollutants demonstrated to have an urbanization gradient dependent pattern which also reflected on genotoxic damage among these areas. PMID:25166920

  19. Evaluation of a range of anti-proliferative assays for the preclinical screening of anti-psoriatic drugs: a comparison of colorimetric and fluorimetric assays with the thymidine incorporation assay.

    PubMed

    George, Suja Elizabeth; Anderson, Rosaleen J; Cunningham, Anne; Donaldson, Michael; Groundwater, Paul W

    2010-06-01

    Established treatments for psoriasis are generally based on antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, or differentiation-modifying activity, or a combination of these effects. New agents for the treatment of psoriasis could be identified by high-throughput screening (HTS) of large compound libraries using keratinocyte proliferation models. Although several new proliferation assays have been developed, the radioactive [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay is still considered to be the gold standard for the evaluation of keratinocyte proliferation in vitro. In this study, we compare a number of simple, and reliable, colorimetric (MTT, NRU, SRB, and CVS), and fluorimetric (CAM and AB) methods with the [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay for the measurement of keratinocyte proliferation in the exponential growth phase in 96-well formats. The concentrations that induced 50% growth inhibition (GI(50)) were determined by each assay for the established antipsoriatics, dithranol, and methotrexate. Strong correlations were observed between the percentage growth inhibitions determined by the radioactive and the colorimetric assays, with no significant differences (P > 0.05) between their GI(50) values. The colorimetric assays are thus suitable alternatives to the radioactive assay for quantifying keratinocyte growth inhibition. We have also validated the use of the HaCaT cell line as a representative of the hyperproliferative psoriatic epidermis, in the preclinical screening of experimental anti-psoriatic agents. PMID:20482335

  20. Comparison of outcomes obtained in murine local lymph node assays using CBA/J or CBA/Ca mice.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yosuke; Hirosaki, Haruka; Yakata, Naoaki; Takeyoshi, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice are the recommended strains for local lymph node assays (LLNAs). Here, we report quantitative and qualitative comparisons between both mouse strains to provide useful information for the strain selection of sensitization testing. LLNA was conducted, in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline No. 429, with CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice using five chemicals including typical contact sensitizers and non-sensitizers: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), isoeugenol, α-hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA), propylene glycol (PG), and hexane; then outcomes were compared based on the raw data (disintegrations per minute, DPM), stimulation index (SI) values, EC3 values and positive/negative decisions. Although a significant difference was noted between DPM values derived from each strain of mice, SI values exhibited no considerable difference. The EC3 values for DNCB in CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice were 0.04 and 0.03, those for isoeugenol were 1.4 and 0.9, and those for HCA were 7.7 and 6.0, respectively. All EC values derived from each test system were almost equivalent and were within the range of acceptance criteria of the ICCVAM performance standard for LLNA. Positive/negative outcomes for all test chemicals were consistent. In conclusion, no considerable differences were observed in the final outcomes derived from CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice in LLNA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26456381

  1. Application of PCR to multiple specimen types for diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: comparison with cell culture and shell vial assay.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Bovey, S; Pado, K; Bruckner, D A; Wagar, E A

    1994-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpesvirus that is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in congenitally infected infants and immunocompromised patients. Antiviral therapies are available, thus making timely diagnosis of significant importance to at-risk patients. A PCR system was devised. The newly devised system, unlike previously described systems, can be applied to a wide variety of specimen types in a clinical microbiology laboratory setting. Specimens from all sites routinely accepted for CMV culture were shown to be acceptable for CMV PCR. Sensitivity and specificity were established in comparison with those of both monolayer culture and shell vial assay (SVA). The sensitivity and specificity of PCR for detection of CMV in specimens exclusive of urine and blood were 97.5 (77 of 79 specimens) and 87.2% (41 of 47 specimens), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR for urine and blood specimens were 100 (10 of 10) and 95.7% (45 of 47) and 66.7 (4 of 6) and 78.8% (41 of 52), respectively. Discrepancies of positive PCR results with negative culture or SVA results occurred for specimens flanked chronologically by other culture- or SVA-positive specimens and were likely culture failures, increasing the specificity (100%) of PCR. Discrepancies of negative PCR results with positive culture or SVA results occurred in specimens with few cells or infectious foci by SVA or culture and may represent sampling variability associated with low virus titers. PMID:8126204

  2. Comparison of a PNA clamp PCR and an ARMS/Scorpion PCR assay for the detection of K-ras mutations.

    PubMed

    Nordgård, Oddmund; Oltedal, Satu; Janssen, Emiel A M; Gilje, Bjørnar; Kørner, Hartwig; Tjensvoll, Kjersti; Smaaland, Rune

    2012-03-01

    Point mutations in the K-ras gene have been shown to confer resistance against epidermal growth factor receptor-directed therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer. Accordingly, K-ras mutation testing has become mandatory in hospitals offering such treatment. We compared the performance and reagent costs of 2 sensitive methods for detection of K-ras mutations: a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and a commercially available amplification refractory mutation system/Scorpion (ARMS/S) PCR assay. Both methods were applied in parallel to 101 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor and metastasis samples from patients with colon cancer. The PNA clamp PCR assay detected K-ras mutations in 35% (35 of 101) of the samples, whereas the ARMS/S PCR assay detected mutations in 27% (27 of 101) of them. There was 92% (93 of 101) concordance between the 2 methods and the κ coefficient for the comparison was 0.82. The 8 discordant cases were exclusively positive by PNA clamp PCR. Finally, the reagent costs of the PNA clamp PCR assay were estimated to be at least 20 times lower than the ARMS/S assay. We concluded that the high performance and low costs associated with the PNA clamp PCR assay encourage its use in the administration of personalized epidermal growth factor receptor-directed therapy. PMID:22306670

  3. Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

  4. Comparison of vero cell plaque assay, TaqMan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction RNA assay, and VecTest antigen assay for detection of West Nile virus in field-collected mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Nasci, Roger S; Gottfried, Kristy L; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Kulasekera, Varuni L; Lambert, Amy J; Lanciotti, Robert S; Hunt, Ann R; Ryan, Jeffrey R

    2002-12-01

    Mosquitoes collected during the epidemic of West Nile virus (WN) in Staten Island, NY, during 2000 were identified to species, grouped into pools of up to 50 individuals, and tested for the presence of WN by using TaqMan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect West Nile viral RNA, Vero cell plaque assay to detect infectious virus, and VecTest WNV/SLE Antigen Panel Assay. A total of 10,866 specimens was tested in 801 pools. Analysis of results indicated that TaqMan RT-PCR detected 34 WN-positive pools, more than either of the other techniques. The plaque assay detected 74% of the pools positive by TaqMan, and VecTest detected 60% of the pools positive by TaqMan. The VecTest assay detected evidence of West Nile viral antigen in 67% of the pools that contained live virus detected by plaque assay. A WN enzyme immunoassay performed similarly to the VecTest WN assay. Differences in performance were related to relative sensitivity of the tests. Infection rates of WN in Culex pipiens and Cx. salinarius calculated by the 3 techniques varied, but each estimate indicated a high infection rate in the population. Positive and negative attributes of each procedure, which may influence how and where they are used in surveillance programs, are discussed. PMID:12542186

  5. Determination of ochratoxin A in food: comparison of a stable isotope dilution assay, liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Lindenmeier, Michael; Schieberle, Peter; Rychlik, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Quantitative results for the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), obtained by a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) were compared with two commonly used analytical methods for OTA quantitation. For this, different types of food, such as wheat, coffee, sultanas, and blood sausages, were analyzed. Because results obtained by the SIDA method were closest to the certified contents of an OTA reference material, data obtained by this method were considered as reference data. For liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection, a clean-up by solid phase extraction on silica was found to be necessary, and a correction for recovery had to be performed to match the data from the SIDA experiments. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) strongly overestimated the OTA content in coffee and nutmeg therefore an extract clean-up by immunoaffinity chromatography had to be used to match the SIDA results. Following this sample preparation, ELISA gave correct qualitative and semiquantitative results, and proved to be a suitable screening method. SIDA was also established as a valuable tool to quantify OTA in meat products, when using a clean-up procedure developed recently for blood samples. PMID:23605702

  6. Comparison of mutagenicity results for nine compounds evaluated at the hgprt locus in the standard and suspension CHO assays.

    PubMed

    Moore, M M; Parker, L; Huston, J; Harrington-Brock, K; Dearfield, K L

    1991-01-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) assay, which measures newly induced mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hgprt) locus, has been widely used for mutagenesis testing. The insensitivity of the standard assay to some genotoxic agents has been speculated to be due to the relatively small number of cells used in the assay. In the present study, we have compared the standard monolayer assay with a suspension adapted CHO assay that uses cell numbers comparable to that of the L5178Y mouse lymphoma assay. Nine compounds, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), 2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-[3-(ethyl-2-chloroethyl)-aminopropylamino]-acridine 2HCl (ICR 170), methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, tetraethylene glycol diacrylate, trimethylolpropane triacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and dicyclopentenyloxyethyl methacrylate were evaluated in the monolayer and suspension assays. Both assays gave the same overall qualitative results for the test compounds. There were some quantitative differences in the mutant frequency for the three compounds found to be mutagenic (EMS, MMS and ICR 170). The acrylates (many of which appear to exert their genotoxic effect through a clastogenic mechanism) were negative in both test systems. The use of the suspension assay did not improve the ability of the hgprt locus to detect the genotoxicity of the acrylates. Thus, increasing the number of cells does not improve the ability of the CHO/HGPRT assay to detect compounds that act primarily by a clastogenic mechanism. PMID:1710014

  7. Comparison of two poultry litter qPCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Elk, Michael; Khan, Izhar U H; Harwood, Valerie J; Molina, Marirosa; Edge, Thomas A; Domingo, Jorge Santo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken feces commonly contain human pathogens and are also important sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. Consequently, methods that can detect chicken fecal pollution are needed in public health and environmental monitoring studies. In this study, we compared a previously developed SYBR green qPCR assay (LA35) to a novel TaqMan qPCR assay (CL) for the environmental detection of poultry-associated fecal pollution. We tested both assays against chicken litter (n = 40), chicken fecal samples (n = 186), non-chicken fecal sources (n = 484), and environmental water samples (n = 323). Most chicken litter samples (i.e., ≥ 98%) were positive for both assays with relatively high signal intensities, whereas only 23% and 12% of poultry fecal samples (n = 186) were positive with the LA35 and the CL assays, respectively. Data using fecal samples from non-target animal species showed that the assays are highly host-associated (≥ 95%). Bayesian statistical models showed that the two assays are associated with relatively low probability of false-positive and false-negative signals in water samples. The CL marker had a lower prevalence than the LA35 assay when tested against environmental water samples (i.e., 21% vs. 31% positive signals). However, by combining the results from the two assays the detection levels increased to 41%, suggesting that using multiple assays can improve the detection of chicken-fecal pollution in environmental waters. PMID:24169514

  8. Comparison of a rapid point-of-care and two laboratory-based CYP2C19*2 genotyping assays for personalisation of antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Francesca; Zahra, Graziella; Xuereb, Robert G; Barbara, Christopher; Fenech, Albert; Azzopardi, Lilian M

    2016-04-01

    Background A quick CYP2C19*2 genotyping assay can be useful in personalised antiplatelet-therapy. Objective To apply a rapid point-of-care (POC) CYP2C19*2 genotyping assay for personalisation of antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to compare this POC assay to two laboratory-based CYP2C19*2 genotyping assays. Setting Cardiac Catheterisation Suite and Molecular Diagnostics Unit in a general hospital. Methods A buccal sample was collected for POC CYP2C19*2 genotyping with the Spartan™ RX system (Spartan Bioscience). A whole blood sample was collected from the same patients for laboratory-based CYP2C19*2 genotyping with a TaqMan(®) allelic discrimination assay (Life Technologies) using real-time quantitative PCR and with the GenID(®) reverse dot-blot hybridisation assay (Autoimmun Diagnostika GmbH). Each patient was genotyped as a non-carrier of CYP2C19*2 (*1/*1), a carrier of one CYP2C19*2 allele (*1/*2), or a carrier of two CYP2C19*2 alleles (*2/*2). Genotyping, interpretation and communication of genotype results (*1/*2, *2/*2) to the consultant cardiologist was undertaken by a clinical pharmacist researcher. Quantitative and qualitative comparison between the three assays was carried out. Main outcome measures Application of a rapid POC CYP2C19*2 genotyping assay for antiplatelet therapy individualisation; comparison of the POC CYP2C19*2 genotyping assay to two laboratory-based assays. Results The total sample consisted of 34 Caucasian patients. With the POC assay, 21 patients were genotyped as non-carriers of CYP2C19*2, 12 patients as carriers of one CYP2C19*2 allele and one patient as a carrier of two CYP2C19*2 alleles. With both laboratory-based assays, the same 21 patients were genotyped as non-carriers of CYP2C19*2, however 13 patients were genotyped as carriers of one CYP2C19*2 allele and no patients were genotyped as carriers of two CYP2C19*2 alleles. Agreement in genotype results was 97 % (κ = 0

  9. Comparison of an Industry-Derived LCx Chlamydia pneumoniae PCR Research Kit to In-House Assays Performed in Five Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Chernesky, Max; Smieja, Marek; Schachter, Julius; Summersgill, James; Schindler, Laura; Solomon, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Campbell, LeeAnn; Cappuccio, Alison; Gaydos, Charlotte; Chong, Sylvia; Moncada, Jeanne; Phillips, Jack; Jang, Dan; Wood, Billie Jo; Petrich, Astrid; Hammerschlag, Margaret; Cerney, Mike; Mahony, James

    2002-01-01

    In a multicenter comparison of PCR assays utilizing 120 quantitated samples of 16 Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates, an LCx research-use-only (RUO) PCR developed by Abbott Laboratories demonstrated 100% sensitivity on 48 samples with >1 copy of DNA per μl of specimen. The sensitivities of five in-house PCR assays ranged from 54 to 94% for the same samples. All six assays showed decreased sensitivities as the DNA copy numbers of the samples decreased. Overall, sensitivities ranged from 68% for the LCx PCR assay to 29% for one of the in-house tests. The LCx RUO PCR and three of the five in-house PCR tests reported no false positives with the 24 negative samples. Increasing the number of replicates tested increased the sensitivities of all of the assays, including the LCx PCR. The LCx RUO assay showed high reproducibility for a single technologist and between technologists, with a kappa agreement of 0.77. The within-center agreements of the five in-house PCR tests varied from 0.19 to 0.74 on two challenges of 60 specimens 1 month apart. The LCx C. pneumoniae RUO PCR shows excellent potential for use in clinical studies, which could enable standardization of results in the field. PMID:12089248

  10. Evaluation and comparison of fluorescence polarization assay with three of the currently used serological tests in diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, A; Minas, A; Pournaras, S; Kansouzidou, A; Papastergiou, P; Maniatis, A; Stathakis, N; Hadjichristodoulou, C

    2007-10-01

    Fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) is a method that has been used for the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals for many years. To test its possible usefulness for the diagnosis of human brucellosis, 230 sera from patients with clinical signs of brucellosis and positive serological tests (Rose Bengal, Standard Agglutination Test, iELISA), and 305 sera from a healthy population with no clinical/epidemiological/serological evidence were examined with FPA. By using ROC analysis, the cut-off value was estimated at 99 mP, with 93.5% sensitivity (95% CI 89.5-96.3) and 96.1% specificity (95% CI 93.2-97.9). The pairwise comparison of ROC curves between FPA and iELISA and between FPA and RBT revealed no significant statistic difference (P < 0.05). On the contrary it revealed a significant statistic difference between FPA and SAT (P > 0.05). SAT also had the lowest sensitivity (81.7%) among the three tests used in case definition while iELISA had a sensitivity of 90.8% and RBT a sensitivity of 88.7%. The Kappa analysis showed that FPA has a very good agreement (0.92) with the "status of the disease" and with iELISA (0.837). According to our results, FPA seems to be a valuable method for the diagnosis of brucellosis in humans. Taking into consideration the advantages of the method such as the speed of results obtaining, the objectivity of results interpretation, as well as the cost, FPA could be considered as a replacement for other established methods. However, further studies are needed to assess the reproducibility of FPA. PMID:17665230

  11. Multilaboratory Comparison of Quantitative PCR Assays for Detection and Quantification of Fusarium virguliforme from Soybean Roots and Soil.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Yuba R; Haudenshield, James S; Srour, Ali Y; Islam, Kazi Tariqul; Fakhoury, Ahmad M; Santos, Patricia; Wang, Jie; Chilvers, Martin I; Hartman, Glen L; Malvick, Dean K; Floyd, Crystal M; Mueller, Daren S; Leandro, Leonor F S

    2015-12-01

    The ability to accurately detect and quantify Fusarium virguliforme, the cause of sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean, in samples such as plant root tissue and soil is extremely valuable for accurate disease diagnoses and to address research questions. Numerous quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays have been developed for this pathogen but their sensitivity and specificity for F. virguliforme have not been compared. In this study, six qPCR assays were compared in five independent laboratories using the same set of DNA samples from fungi, plants, and soil. Multicopy gene-based assays targeting the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) or the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) showed relatively high sensitivity (limit of detection [LOD] = 0.05 to 5 pg) compared with a single-copy gene (FvTox1)-based assay (LOD = 5 to 50 pg). Specificity varied greatly among assays, with the FvTox1 assay ranking the highest (100%) and two IGS assays being slightly less specific (95 to 96%). Another IGS assay targeting four SDS-causing fusaria showed lower specificity (70%), while the two mtSSU assays were lowest (41 and 47%). An IGS-based assay showed consistently highest sensitivity (LOD = 0.05 pg) and specificity and inclusivity above 94% and, thus, is suggested as the most useful qPCR assay for F. virguliforme diagnosis and quantification. However, specificity was also above 94% in two other assays and their selection for diagnostics and research will depend on objectives, samples, and materials used. These results will facilitate both fundamental and disease management research pertinent to SDS. PMID:26368513

  12. Determining antioxidant activities of lactobacilli cell-free supernatants by cellular antioxidant assay: a comparison with traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jiali; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Liu, Xiaoming; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria is associated with multiple health-protective effects. Traditional indexes of chemical antioxidant activities poorly reflect the antioxidant effects of these bacteria in vivo. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used in this study to determine the antioxidant activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs) of 10 Lactobacillus strains. The performance of the CAA assay was compared with that of four chemical antioxidant activity assays, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS), reducing power (RP), and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ILAP). Results of the CAA assay were associated with those of DPPH and ILAP assays, but not with those of RP and HRS assays. The inter- and intra-specific antioxidant activities of CFS were characterized by chemical and CAA assays. L. rhamnosus CCFM 1107 displayed a high antioxidative effect similar to positive control L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in all of the assays. The CAA assay is a potential method for the detection of antioxidant activities of lactobacilli CFSs. PMID:25789875

  13. Determining Antioxidant Activities of Lactobacilli Cell-Free Supernatants by Cellular Antioxidant Assay: A Comparison with Traditional Methods

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jiali; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Liu, Xiaoming; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria is associated with multiple health-protective effects. Traditional indexes of chemical antioxidant activities poorly reflect the antioxidant effects of these bacteria in vivo. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used in this study to determine the antioxidant activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs) of 10 Lactobacillus strains. The performance of the CAA assay was compared with that of four chemical antioxidant activity assays, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS), reducing power (RP), and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ILAP). Results of the CAA assay were associated with those of DPPH and ILAP assays, but not with those of RP and HRS assays. The inter- and intra-specific antioxidant activities of CFS were characterized by chemical and CAA assays. L. rhamnosus CCFM 1107 displayed a high antioxidative effect similar to positive control L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in all of the assays. The CAA assay is a potential method for the detection of antioxidant activities of lactobacilli CFSs. PMID:25789875

  14. Comparison of Droplet Digital PCR and Quantitative PCR Assays for Quantitative Detection of Xanthomonas citri Subsp. citri.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; Xia, Qingyan; Yin, Youping; Wang, Zhongkang

    2016-01-01

    Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a novel molecular biology technique providing absolute quantification of target nucleic acids without the need for an external calibrator. Despite its emerging applications in medical diagnosis, there are few reports of its use for the detection of plant pathogens. This work was designed to assess the diagnosis potential of the ddPCR for absolute quantitative detection of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, a quarantine plant pathogenic bacterium that causes citrus bacterial canker in susceptible Citrus species. We transferred an established quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for citrus bacterial canker diagnosis directly to the ddPCR format and compared the performance of the two methods. The qPCR assay has a broader dynamic range compared to the ddPCR assay and the ddPCR assay has a significantly higher degree of sensitivity compared to the qPCR assay. The influence of PCR inhibitors can be reduced considerably in the ddPCR assay because the collection of end-point fluorescent signals and the counting of binomial events (positive or negative droplets) are associated with a Poisson algorithm. The ddPCR assay also shows lower coefficient of variation compared to the qPCR assay especially in low target concentration. The linear association of the measurements by ddPCR and qPCR assays is strong (Pearson correlation = 0.8633; P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicates the ddPCR methodology is a more robust approach for diagnosis of citrus bacterial canker. In summary, the results demonstrated that the ddPCR assay has the potential for the quantitative detection of X. citri subsp. citri with high precision and accuracy as compared with the results from qPCR assay. Further studies are required to evaluate and validate the value of ddPCR technology in the diagnosis of plant disease and quarantine applications. PMID:27427975

  15. Comparison of Droplet Digital PCR and Quantitative PCR Assays for Quantitative Detection of Xanthomonas citri Subsp. citri

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Youping; Wang, Zhongkang

    2016-01-01

    Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a novel molecular biology technique providing absolute quantification of target nucleic acids without the need for an external calibrator. Despite its emerging applications in medical diagnosis, there are few reports of its use for the detection of plant pathogens. This work was designed to assess the diagnosis potential of the ddPCR for absolute quantitative detection of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, a quarantine plant pathogenic bacterium that causes citrus bacterial canker in susceptible Citrus species. We transferred an established quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for citrus bacterial canker diagnosis directly to the ddPCR format and compared the performance of the two methods. The qPCR assay has a broader dynamic range compared to the ddPCR assay and the ddPCR assay has a significantly higher degree of sensitivity compared to the qPCR assay. The influence of PCR inhibitors can be reduced considerably in the ddPCR assay because the collection of end-point fluorescent signals and the counting of binomial events (positive or negative droplets) are associated with a Poisson algorithm. The ddPCR assay also shows lower coefficient of variation compared to the qPCR assay especially in low target concentration. The linear association of the measurements by ddPCR and qPCR assays is strong (Pearson correlation = 0.8633; P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicates the ddPCR methodology is a more robust approach for diagnosis of citrus bacterial canker. In summary, the results demonstrated that the ddPCR assay has the potential for the quantitative detection of X. citri subsp. citri with high precision and accuracy as compared with the results from qPCR assay. Further studies are required to evaluate and validate the value of ddPCR technology in the diagnosis of plant disease and quarantine applications. PMID:27427975

  16. Comparison of the host specificities of two bacteroidales quantitative PCR assays used for tracking human fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Sercu, Bram; Holden, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    The sewage-associated real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays BacHum and HF183 SYBR were compared for specificity against local fecal sources. Both assays were equally sensitive to sewage, but BacHum showed substantially more false-positive results for cat, dog, gull, and raccoon feces. PMID:21742921

  17. QUANTIFICATION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN: COMPARISON OF SLOT-IMMUNOBINDING ASSAYS WITH A NOVEL SANDWICH ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed protocols are presented for assaying glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte localized protein rich serves as a quantitative marker of toxicant- induced injury to the central nervous system. wo different solid-phase assay procedures are described: 1) a nitro...

  18. COMPARISON OF MUTAGENICITY RESULTS FOR NINE COMPOUNDS EVALUATED AT THE HGPRT LOCUS IN THE STANDARD AND SUSPENSION CHO ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) assay which measures newly induced mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hgprt) locus has been widely used for mutagenesis testing. he insensitivity of the standard assay to some genotoxic agents has been speculated to be...

  19. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Applegate, L.J.; Murray, A.L.; Purcell, M.K.; McKibben, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  20. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture.

    PubMed

    Elliott, D G; Applegate, L J; Murray, A L; Purcell, M K; McKibben, C L

    2013-09-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test. PMID:23346868

  1. Comparison of Illumigene, Simplexa, and AmpliVue Clostridium difficile Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of C. difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S. A.; Humphries, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    We compared the performance of the Simplexa Universal Direct (Focus Diagnostics) and AmpliVue (Quidel Corporation) assays to that of the Illumigene assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection. Two hundred deidentified remnant diarrheal stool specimens were tested by the Simplexa, AmpliVue, and Illumigene methods. Specimens with discrepant results among the three assays and a representative number of concordant specimens were further evaluated by toxigenic culture. The sensitivity and specificity were 98 and 100% and 96 and 100% for the Simplexa Universal Direct and AmpliVue assays, respectively. Both assays are easy to perform, with rapid turn-around-times, supporting their utility in the clinical laboratory as routine diagnostic platforms. PMID:24352999

  2. Detection of direct-acting mutagens in ambient air: A comparison of two highly sensitive mutagenicity assays

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; Goto, S.; Endo, O.; Claxton, L.D.; Lewtas, J.; Matsushita, H. )

    1992-01-01

    Ambient air has been shown to contain numerous hazardous pollutants, many of which are known or suspected carcinogens and mutagens. Bioassays play a prominent role in the characterization of these genotoxic pollutants, and as new test methods are developed, it is incumbent upon researchers to evaluate assay performance and report relative merits. In this study, two Salmonella test methods (the spiral and preincubation assays) were assessed to determine their usefulness as screening methods for monitoring direct-acting mutagens in ambient air. The spiral assay automates the conventional plate-incorporation assay and has been shown to reduce the labor, materials, and sample mass required to perform mutagenicity testing. The preincubation assay has been shown to enhance test sensitivity for certain classes of compound, thereby reducing the amount of sample required for dose-response analysis. Both assays were used to test organic extracts of airborne particulate matter collected in Tokyo during the winters of 1988 and 1990. In addition to the conventional tester strains TA98 and TA100, two newly developed YG strains were evaluated. Strains YG1024 and YG1029-derived from TA98 and TA100, respectively-contain an acetyltransferase plasmid that confers upon the strains greater sensitivity towards nitroarenes. Results from this study indicated that both assays were able to detect direct-acting mutagens in the Tokyo air samples. The mutagenic activity associated with the samples was directly related to the particle mass present in a given volume of air. Mutagenic response was greater in the spiral assay relative to the preincubation assay, especially when YG tester strains were used. The YG strains were significantly more sensitive to mutation than the TA strains in both assays, which suggests that nitroaromatics are an important class of genotoxic contaminant present in Tokyo air.

  3. Confirmational identification of Escherichia coli, a comparison of genotypic and phenotypic assays for glutamate decarboxylase and beta-D-glucuronidase.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniels, A E; Rice, E W; Reyes, A L; Johnson, C H; Haugland, R A; Stelma, G N

    1996-01-01

    Genotypic and phenotypic assays for glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and beta-D-glucuronidase (GUD) were compared for their abilities to detect various strains of Escherichia coli and to discriminate among other bacterial species. Test strains included nonpathogenic E. coli, three major groups of diarrheagenic E. coli, three other non-coli Escherichia species, and various other gram-negative and -positive bacteria found in water. The genotypic assays were performed with hybridization probes generated by PCR amplification of 670- and 623-bp segments of the gadA/B (GAD) and uidA (GUD) genes, respectively. The GAD enzymes catalyze the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to yield gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide, which are detected in the phenotypic assay by a pH-sensitive indicator dye. The phenotypic assay for GUD involves the transformation of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide to the fluorogenic compound 4-methylumbelliferone. The GAD phenotypic assay detected the majority of the E. coli strains tested, whereas a number of these strains, including all representatives of the O157:H7 serotype and several nonpathogenic E. coli strains, gave negative results in the GUD assay. Both phenotypic assays detected some but not all strains from each of the four Shigella species. A strain of Citrobacter freundii was also detected by the GUD assay but not by the GAD assay. All E. coli and Shigella strains were detected with both the gadA/B and uidA probes. A few Escherichia fergusonii strains gave weak hybridization signals in response to both probes at 65 degrees C but not at 68 degrees C. None of the other bacterial species tested were detected by either probe. These results were consistent with previous reports which have indicated that the GAD phenotypic assay detects a wider range of E. coli strains than does the GUD assay and is also somewhat more specific for this species. The genotypic assays for the two enzymes were found to be equivalent in both of

  4. Comparison of Quantitative PCR and Droplet Digital PCR Multiplex Assays for Two Genera of Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis

    PubMed Central

    Te, Shu Harn; Chen, Enid Yingru

    2015-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms, often linked to deteriorated water quality and adverse public health effects, has become a worldwide concern in recent decades. The use of molecular techniques such as real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become increasingly popular in the detection and monitoring of harmful cyanobacterial species. Multiplex qPCR assays that quantify several toxigenic cyanobacterial species have been established previously; however, there is no molecular assay that detects several bloom-forming species simultaneously. Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis are the two most commonly found genera and are known to be able to produce microcystin and cylindrospermopsin hepatotoxins. In this study, we designed primers and probes which enable quantification of these genera based on the RNA polymerase C1 gene for Cylindrospermopsis species and the c-phycocyanin beta subunit-like gene for Microcystis species. Duplex assays were developed for two molecular techniques—qPCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). After optimization, both qPCR and ddPCR assays have high linearity and quantitative correlations for standards. Comparisons of the two techniques showed that qPCR has higher sensitivity, a wider linear dynamic range, and shorter analysis time and that it was more cost-effective, making it a suitable method for initial screening. However, the ddPCR approach has lower variability and was able to handle the PCR inhibition and competitive effects found in duplex assays, thus providing more precise and accurate analysis for bloom samples. PMID:26025892

  5. Comparison of Quantitative PCR and Droplet Digital PCR Multiplex Assays for Two Genera of Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis.

    PubMed

    Te, Shu Harn; Chen, Enid Yingru; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2015-08-01

    The increasing occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms, often linked to deteriorated water quality and adverse public health effects, has become a worldwide concern in recent decades. The use of molecular techniques such as real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become increasingly popular in the detection and monitoring of harmful cyanobacterial species. Multiplex qPCR assays that quantify several toxigenic cyanobacterial species have been established previously; however, there is no molecular assay that detects several bloom-forming species simultaneously. Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis are the two most commonly found genera and are known to be able to produce microcystin and cylindrospermopsin hepatotoxins. In this study, we designed primers and probes which enable quantification of these genera based on the RNA polymerase C1 gene for Cylindrospermopsis species and the c-phycocyanin beta subunit-like gene for Microcystis species. Duplex assays were developed for two molecular techniques-qPCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). After optimization, both qPCR and ddPCR assays have high linearity and quantitative correlations for standards. Comparisons of the two techniques showed that qPCR has higher sensitivity, a wider linear dynamic range, and shorter analysis time and that it was more cost-effective, making it a suitable method for initial screening. However, the ddPCR approach has lower variability and was able to handle the PCR inhibition and competitive effects found in duplex assays, thus providing more precise and accurate analysis for bloom samples. PMID:26025892

  6. Comparison of VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays for detection of specific IgE antibodies in allergic children.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myung Hyun; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    In vitro determination of specific IgE antibodies in serum is the most frequently used method, besides the skin test, for diagnosing allergies. Standardized and reproducible assays of specific IgE antibodies contribute to the quality of diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. This study compared the results and performance characteristics of the Pharmacia CAP system and a new specific IgE method using the VIDAS Stallertest (manufactured by bioMériux). To evaluate their clinical efficiency, the results of the CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were compared with skin prick test (SPT) results. After allergic patients completed SPTs, serum samples were collected and CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were performed to determine specific IgEs for Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, cockroach, and alternaria. For egg and milk, we measured only the correlation between the 2 in vitro assays. When SPT was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the CAP assay was a little higher in respect to all inhalant allergens. There were significant correlations between the results of VIDAS Stallertest and CAP assays for IgE antibodies to inhalant and food allergens. This study indicates that the VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays are feasible and replicable for measuring allergen-specific IgE. PMID:16081590

  7. Long-term effects of cytostatic agents on the hemopoietic stroma: a comparison of four different assays.

    PubMed

    Nikkels, P G; de Jong, J P; Ploemacher, R E

    1987-01-01

    We have compared four assays to detect hemopoietic stromal damage induced by various cytostatic agents in young (4-week old) and adult (12-week old) mice. These assays included: (a) quantitation of the hemopoietic stem cell content of subcutaneously implanted spleens and femurs, (b) quantitation of fibroblastic colony-forming units per femur and spleen, (c) quantitation of the growth of normal hemopoietic progenitor cells in irradiated cytostatic drug-treated mice, and (d) measurement of splenic hemopoietic stem cell accumulation in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced hemopoietic stress. Busulfan caused a short- and long-term hemopoietic stromal defect. However, the four assays used showed different kinetics and severity of the stromal damage. Cyclophosphamide treatment resulted in a short-term stromal damage which was repaired within one week to three months, depending on the assay used. Methotrexate and vincristine did not cause long-term stromal damage as measured by the four assays used, whereas a short-term splenic stromal damage was detected using the subcutaneous implantation technique. No significant differences in stromal sensitivity to drug treatment were observed between young and adult mice. The presented data suggest that the four assays used to study stromal integrity measure different components of the hemopoietic microenvironment, and indicate that the use of a single assay may well lead to erroneous interpretations. PMID:3669711

  8. Use of limited protocols to evaluate the genotoxicity of hazardous wastes in mammalian cell assays: comparison to Salmonella

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Brusick, D.J.; Lewtas, J.

    1987-01-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of four diverse hazardous wastes (coke plant, herbicide manufacturing, pulp and paper, and oil refining) were evaluated for mutagenicity in strains TA98 and TA100 of Salmonella. These extracts also were tested for biological activity in short-term mammalian cell assays, including mutagenicity in L5178Y/TK +/- mouse lymphoma cells, chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, morphological transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells, and teratogenic potential in mouse limb bud cells. The mammalian cell assays were performed using limited protocols that consisted of a preliminary testing of the extracts for cytotoxicity in CHO cells in order to estimate the appropriate dose range for the other assays. These assays were then performed once with only a few doses of extract; all but the mouse limb bud assay were performed in the presence of metabolic activation. Although all four of the wastes were presumptively positive for either mutation or cytogenetic effects, none of the wastes transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells. Further studies are needed to establish which mammalian cell assays, if any, might be useful complements to the Salmonella assay for the purpose of screening hazardous wastes.

  9. Comparison of immunofluorescence assay and immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence in detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in karst water samples.

    PubMed

    Kuczynska, Ewa; Boyer, Douglas G; Shelton, Daniel R

    2003-04-01

    Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence (IM-ECL) were used for comparison of the percent recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental water samples obtained from a spring draining a karst basin. The monoclonal antibodies to C. parvum, isotype IgG3 were used for optimization of the IM-ECL protocol. The combination of biotinylated and TAG-labeled anti-C. parvum antibodies with the streptavidin beads gave a linear regression slope for log ECL vs. log fresh oocysts of 0.79 (from 5 to 5,000 oocysts), which indicates a constant ECL signal per oocyst. Standard curves gave a dynamic range of 5 to 5,000 oocysts/ml (fresh) and 10 to 100,000 cells/ml (4-month-old oocysts) with the maximum limit of linear detection higher than 100,000. The linear slope of 4-month-old oocysts decreased to 0.62, which indicates that ECL signal is a function of oocyst age. The experiment associated with bead storage time shows that even after 4 months of storage of the biotinylated antibodies, the complex retains the ability for binding the oocysts and generating the ECL signal. Based on the IFA results in the experiment evaluating different protocols for oocysts recovery from karst water samples, the most efficient protocol involved dispersion, followed by flotation and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) (24% recovery). The ECL results obtained in that experiment were very similar to the results obtained in the IFA method, which indicates that the IM-ECL method is accurate. Results of the IFA in the study of the prevalence of C. parvum in the groundwater showed that oocysts were present in 78% of 1 L water samples with average number of oocysts of 6.4+/-5.5 and ranged from 0 (13 samples) to 23.3 (2 samples). The ECL signal generated from these water samples ranged from 3,771 to 622 (average 1,620+/-465). However, the background value estimated in groundwater samples with low number of oocysts detected by IFA was highly variable and elevated (from 3,702 to

  10. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) in a Korean population: comparison of two commercial anti-HEV assays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as an important cause of epidemic and sporadic acute viral hepatitis worldwide. This study investigated the seroprevalence of anti-HEV in a Korean population and compared the performance of two commercially available anti-HEV assays. Methods A total 147 health-check examinees were randomly sampled as matched to the age- and sex- adjusted standard population based on the Korean National Census of 2007. Serum immunoglobulin G anti-HEV was determined by using the Genelabs assay (Genelabs, Singapore) and the Wantai assay (Wantai, Beijing, China). Results The overall anti-HEV seroprevalence was 23.1% (95% CI, 16.1-30.1%) using the Wantai assay and 14.3% (95% CI, 8.3-20.3%) using the Genelabs assay. Only 12 samples (8.1%) were positive for anti-HEV as measured by both assays; agreement between the two assays was poor (kappa value of 0.315). The anti-HEV seroprevalence increased with age from 2% and 3% in the people younger than 20-years-of-age to 34.6% and 42.3% in those over 59-years-of-age by the Genelabs and Wantai assay, respectively. Conclusions The HEV seroprevalence in Korean population is about 20% overall, with seroprevalence increasing in this population with increasing age. There was poor concordance in the results of the Genelabs and Wantai assays, which warrants further study concerning a reliable diagnostic test for the diagnosis of hepatitis E. PMID:22726615

  11. HPV16 Seropositivity and Subsequent HPV16 Infection Risk in a Naturally Infected Population: Comparison of Serological Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Wen; Ghosh, Arpita; Porras, Carolina; Markt, Sarah C.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Wacholder, Sholom; Kemp, Troy J.; Pinto, Ligia A.; Gonzalez, Paula; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Esser, Mark T.; Matys, Katie; Meuree, Ariane; Quint, Wim; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Several serological assays have been developed to detect antibodies elicited against infections with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. The association between antibody levels measured by various assays and subsequent HPV infection risk may differ. We compared HPV16-specific antibody levels previously measured by a virus-like particle (VLP)-based direct enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) with levels measured by additional assays and evaluated the protection against HPV16 infection conferred at different levels of the assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Replicate enrollment serum aliquots from 388 unvaccinated women in the control arm of the Costa Rica HPV vaccine trial were measured for HPV16 seropositivity using three serological assays: a VLP-based direct ELISA; a VLP-based competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA); and a secreted alkaline phosphatase protein neutralization assay (SEAP-NA). We assessed the association of assay seropositivity and risk of subsequent HPV16 infection over four years of follow-up by calculating sampling-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and HPV16 seropositivity based on standard cutoff from the cLIA was significantly associated with protection from subsequent HPV16 infection (OR = 0.48, CI = 0.27–0.86, compared with seronegatives). Compared with seronegatives, the highest seropositive tertile antibody levels from the direct ELISA (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.28–0.90) as well as the SEAP-NA (OR = 0.20, CI = 0.06, 0.64) were also significantly associated with protection from HPV16 infection. Conclusions/Significance Enrollment HPV16 seropositivity by any of the three serological assays evaluated was associated with protection from subsequent infection, although cutoffs for immune protection were different. We defined the assays and seropositivity levels after natural infection that better measure and translate to protective immunity. PMID:23301022

  12. Comparison of three quantification methods for the TZM-bl pseudovirus assay for screening of anti-HIV-1 agents.

    PubMed

    Xing, Liying; Wang, Shunyi; Hu, Qin; Li, Jingtao; Zeng, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The TZM-bl pseudovirus assay is commonly used to evaluate the efficacy of neutralizing antibodies and small molecular inhibitors in HIV-1 research. Here, to determine the optimal measurement method for screening anti-HIV-1 inhibitors, we compared three measurement methods based on firefly luciferase and β-galactosidase activities. The 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of the pseudoviruses were determined using the luciferase, β-galactosidase colorimetric, and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal) staining assays. Three commercial reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (azidothymidine, nevirapine, and lamivudine) were tested as reference drugs to compare the reproducibility, linear correlation, and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values determined using these methods. In the TCID50 assay, the sensitivity of β-galactosidase colorimetric assay was almost 562 times lower than that of the other two methods. Reproducible dose-response curves were obtained for the inhibitors with all methods; the IC50 values of the inhibitors were not significantly different. Linear regression analysis showed linear correlation between methods. Compared to the β-galactosidase colorimetric assay, the other two methods have the advantage of high sensitivity and are less affected by interference. In conclusion, the luciferase and X-gal staining assays, which can be applied either alone or combined, are recommended for anti-HIV-1 inhibitor screening. PMID:27016178

  13. Bicentric evaluation of Access Toxo immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG assays and IMx toxo IgM and IgG assays and comparison with Platelia Toxo IgM and IgG assays.

    PubMed Central

    Decoster, A; Lecolier, B

    1996-01-01

    The recent Access immunoanalysis system (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur) for the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was compared with the Abbott Toxo IMx EIA system, taking the Platelia Toxo immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Platelia Toxo IgM systems as references and using as confirmation methods an indirect fluorescence assay or a dye test for IgG and an immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA) for IgM. A total of 1,461 serum samples were studied, of which 128 were collected from 42 recently seroconverted patients. Sensitivity and specificity rates of the Access system were 97.7 and 99.5%, respectively, for IgM and 98.6 and 100%, respectively, for IgG. Sensitivity and specificity rates of the Abbott IMx EIA system were 91 and 100%, respectively, for IgM and 92.5 and 100%, respectively, for IgG. The Access Toxo IgG and IgM EIA systems were found to be more sensitive than the Abbott Toxo IgG and IgM IMx EIA systems. PMID:8784554

  14. Mumps virus-specific antibody titers from pre-vaccine era sera: comparison of the plaque reduction neutralization assay and enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, Jeremy; Carbone, Kathryn; Hsu, Henry; Yolken, Robert; Rubin, Steven

    2005-09-01

    Mumps virus-neutralizing antibodies are believed to be the most predictable surrogate marker of protective immunity. However, assays used to detect neutralizing antibodies, such as the plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assay, are labor- and time-intensive and consequently are often supplanted by the more rapid and inexpensive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique. For virus infections for which international antibody standards exist and are bridged to clinical studies of protection (e.g., measles and rubella), the EIA has been successfully used to determine immune surrogate endpoints, yet no such international reference exists for mumps serology. Since both virus-neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies are measured in the EIA, in the absence of a mumps serological standard, the EIA may be prone to yielding false-positive results when utilized for assessing surrogate markers of protective immunity. Moreover, since mumps virus-specific antibody titers are generally low in comparison to antibody levels induced by other viruses and EIA procedures often employ relatively high serum dilution factors, the EIA may be prone to yielding false-negative results. To examine these issues, a PRN assay and two commercially available EIA kits were used to evaluate wild-type mumps virus serological responses in human serum samples from the pre-mumps vaccine era. Our results indicate that the PRN assay is a more sensitive and specific method of measuring serological responses to wild-type mumps virus. PMID:16145156

  15. Prognosis in threatened abortion: a comparison between predictions made by sonar urinary hormone assays and clinical judgement.

    PubMed

    Duff, G B

    1975-11-01

    One hundred patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of threatened abortion were assessed by means of sonar, urinary oestrogen, pregnanediol and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) assays and clinical examination. Assay of oestrogen excretion was the most accurate (86-5 per cent) in predicting the ultimate outcome of pregnancy, but did not give as much information as sonar examination which gave an accurate prognosis in 84 per cent of cases and was much quicker to perform The reasons for the sonar failures are discussed. Assay of urinary pregnanediol excretion gave an accurate indication of outcome in 74 per cent of cases and 24-hour urinary HCG in 70 per cent although random urinary HCG estimations provided an accurate prediciton in only 54-5 per cent of cases. Clinical examination presented the usual difficulties in assessing uterine size and predicting abortion from the amount of bleeding and pain. PMID:1191599

  16. An Improved Neutral α-Glucosidase Assay for Assessment of Epididymal Function—Validation and Comparison to the WHO Method

    PubMed Central

    Eertmans, Frank; Bogaert, Veerle; Van Poecke, Tanita; Puype, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Neutral α-glucosidase (NAG) activity in human seminal plasma is an important indicator for epididymis functionality. In the present study, the classic World Health Organization (WHO) method has been adapted to enhance assay robustness. Changes include modified enzyme reaction buffer composition and usage of an alternative enzyme inhibitor for background correction (glucose instead of castanospermine). Both methods have been tested in parallel on 144 semen samples, obtained from 94 patients/donors and 50 vasectomized men (negative control), respectively. Passing-Bablok regression analysis demonstrated equal assay performance. In terms of assay validation, analytical specificity, detection limit, measuring range, precision, and cut-off values have been calculated. These data confirm that the adapted method is a reliable, improved tool for NAG analysis in human semen. PMID:26852674

  17. Comparison of a High-Resolution Melting Assay to Next-Generation Sequencing for Analysis of HIV Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Matthew M.; Ou, San-San; Wawer, Maria J.; Munshaw, Supriya; Swan, David; Magaret, Craig A.; Mullis, Caroline E.; Serwadda, David; Porcella, Stephen F.; Gray, Ronald H.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Donnell, Deborah; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has recently been used for analysis of HIV diversity, but this method is labor-intensive, costly, and requires complex protocols for data analysis. We compared diversity measures obtained using NGS data to those obtained using a diversity assay based on high-resolution melting (HRM) of DNA duplexes. The HRM diversity assay provides a single numeric score that reflects the level of diversity in the region analyzed. HIV gag and env from individuals in Rakai, Uganda, were analyzed in a previous study using NGS (n = 220 samples from 110 individuals). Three sequence-based diversity measures were calculated from the NGS sequence data (percent diversity, percent complexity, and Shannon entropy). The amplicon pools used for NGS were analyzed with the HRM diversity assay. HRM scores were significantly associated with sequence-based measures of HIV diversity for both gag and env (P < 0.001 for all measures). The level of diversity measured by the HRM diversity assay and NGS increased over time in both regions analyzed (P < 0.001 for all measures except for percent complexity in gag), and similar amounts of diversification were observed with both methods (P < 0.001 for all measures except for percent complexity in gag). Diversity measures obtained using the HRM diversity assay were significantly associated with those from NGS, and similar increases in diversity over time were detected by both methods. The HRM diversity assay is faster and less expensive than NGS, facilitating rapid analysis of large studies of HIV diversity and evolution. PMID:22785188

  18. Validation of the MycAssay Pneumocystis kit for detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens by comparison to a laboratory standard of direct immunofluorescence microscopy, real-time PCR, or conventional PCR.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Wengenack, Nancy L; Richardson, Susan E

    2012-06-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients as well as those with non-HIV immunosuppressive diseases. To aid diagnosis, the commercial MycAssay Pneumocystis real-time PCR assay (Myconostica, Ltd., Manchester, United Kingdom) targeting the mitochondrial ribosomal large subunit (mtLSU) has been developed to detect P. jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens. Here, we validated this assay against a laboratory standard of direct immunofluorescence microscopy, a cdc2 real-time PCR assay, or conventional PCR and sequencing of mtLSU. While more sensitive than any of these three assays analyzed individually, the MycAssay Pneumocystis assay demonstrated 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a 100% negative predictive value, and a 100% positive predictive value for detecting the presence of P. jirovecii in BAL specimens compared to the laboratory standard. Of note, two samples with positive cycle threshold (C(T)) values according to the MycAssay Pneumocystis assay lacked exponential amplification curves and thus were deemed negative. Also negative according to the laboratory standard, these samples highlight the importance of examining the amplification curves, in addition to noting the C(T) values, when interpreting positive results. Comparison of the MycAssay Pneumocystis assay to a laboratory standard establishes this assay to be a highly sensitive and specific method for the detection of P. jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. The approach may also be useful for the clinical laboratory validation of other sensitive real-time PCR assays. PMID:22422855

  19. High performance liquid chromatography with two simultaneous on-line antioxidant assays: Evaluation and comparison of espresso coffees.

    PubMed

    Mnatsakanyan, Mariam; Goodie, Tiffany A; Conlan, Xavier A; Francis, Paul S; McDermott, Geoffrey P; Barnett, Neil W; Shock, David; Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2010-05-15

    The antioxidant profiles of various espresso coffees were established using HPLC with UV-absorbance detection and two rapid, simultaneous, on-line chemical assays that enabled the relative reactivity of sample components to be screened. The assays were based on (i) the colour change associated with reduction of the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*); and (ii) the emission of light (chemiluminescence) upon reaction with acidic potassium permanganate. Results from the two approaches were similar and reflected the complex array of antioxidant species present in the samples. However, some differences in selectivity were observed. Chromatograms generated with the chemiluminescence assay contained more peaks, which was ascribed to the greater sensitivity of the reagent towards minor, readily oxidisable sample components. The three coffee samples produced closely related profiles, signifying their fundamentally similar chemical compositions and origin. Nevertheless, the overall intensity and complexity of the samples in both UV absorption and antioxidant assay chromatograms were aligned with the manufacturers description of flavour intensity and character. PMID:20298862

  20. COMPARISON OF BIOASSAY AND ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR QUANTIFICATION OF 'SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA' NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard curves with known amounts of Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) in soil were established with a bioassay and with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The bioassay detected as few as 4 x 10 to the 4th power polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB)/g...

  1. Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods available to detect and enumerate human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and/or probes and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method ...

  2. Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods available to detect and enumerate human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and/or probes and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method p...

  3. ASSAYS FOR ENDOGENOUS COMPONENTS OF HUMAN MILK: COMPARISON OF FRESH AND FROZEN SAMPLES AND CORRESPONDING ANALYTES IN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breast milk is a primary source of nutrition that contains many endogenous compounds that may affect infant development. The goals of this study were to develop reliable assays for selected endogenous breast milk components and to compare levels of those in milk and serum collect...

  4. DETECTION OF DIRECTOR-ACTING MUTAGENS IN AMBIENT AIR - A COMPARISON OF TWO HIGHLY SENSITIVE MUTAGENICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air has been shown to contain numerous hazardous pollutants, many of which are carcinogens and mutagens. n this study, 2 Salmonella test methods (the spiral an preincubation assays) were assessed to determine their usefulness as screening methods for monitoring mutagens i...

  5. Time-dependent inhibition of phospholipase C beta-catalysed phosphoinositide hydrolysis: a comparison of different assays.

    PubMed Central

    James, S R; Smith, S; Paterson, A; Harden, T K; Downes, C P

    1996-01-01

    The properties of three different beta-isoforms of phospholipase C (PLC) were analysed using substrate lipids dispersed in phospholipid vesicles, phospholipid-detergent mixed micelles and phospholipid monolayers spread at an air-water interface. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis went virtually to completion in monolayers, but inositol trisphosphate production was curtailed prematurely in vesicular and micellar assays. Assays were linear for less than 2 min with vesicles; the linear portion could be significantly extended in micelles by increasing the ratio of micelles to enzyme molecules. However, onset of a second lower rate of substrate hydrolysis always occurred when < or = 10% of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) had been utilized. This was not due to enzyme inactivation in the micellar interface, determined by addition of fresh substrate or fresh enzyme after the slow phase of activity had started, nor was it due to overt product inhibition of PLC or apparent entrapment of PLC at the micelle surface. These results are similar to those seen in assays using bacterial PLC and we suggest that the biphasic kinetics may be due to product-dependent changes in the presentation of substrate lipic to PLC in lamellar assays, leading to reduced activity. PMID:8615789

  6. CONFIRMATIONAL IDENTIFICATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, A COMPARISON OF GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC ASSAYS FOR GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE AND B-D-GLUCURONIDASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotypic and phenotypic assays for glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and B-D-glucuronidase (GUD) were compared for their abilities to detect various strains of Escherichia coli and to discriminate among other bacterial species. Test strains included nonpathogenic E.coli, three major...

  7. Comparison of In Vitro Activities of 17 Antifungal Drugs against a Panel of 20 Dermatophytes by Using a Microdilution Assay

    PubMed Central

    Favre, Bertrand; Hofbauer, Bettina; Hildering, Kwang-Soo; Ryder, Neil S.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro activities of 17 antifungal drugs against a panel of 20 dermatophytes comprising 6 different species were determined using a microdilution assay according to the NCCLS M38-P method with some modifications. Terbinafine was the most potent systemic drug while tolnaftate and amorolfine were the most active topical agents. PMID:14532230

  8. Multi-laboratory comparison of quantitative PCR assays for detection and quantification of Fusarium virguliforme from soybean roots and soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate identification and quantification of Fusarium virguliforme, the cause of sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean, within root tissue and soil are important tasks. Several quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays have been developed but there are no reports comparing their use in sensitive and specific...

  9. Comparison of electrophysiological data from human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes to functional preclinical safety assays.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kate; Aylott, Mike; Cui, Yi; Louttit, James B; McMahon, Nicholas C; Sridhar, Arun

    2013-08-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are a potential source to develop assays for predictive electrophysiological safety screening. Published studies show that the relevant physiology and pharmacology exist but does not show the translation between stem cell cardiomyocyte assays and other preclinical safety screening assays, which is crucial for drug discovery and safety scientists and the regulators. Our studies are the first to show the pharmacology of ion channel blockade and compare them with existing functional cardiac electrophysiology studies. Ten compounds (a mixture of pure hERG [E-4031 and Cisapride], hERG and sodium [Flecainide, Mexiletine, Quinidine, and Terfenadine], calcium channel blockers [Nifedipine and Verapamil], and two proprietary compounds [GSK A and B]) were tested, and results from hiPSC-CMs studied on multielectrode arrays (MEA) were compared with other preclincial models and clinical drug concentrations and effects using integrated risk assessment plots. All ion channel blockers produced (1) functional effects on repolarization and depolarization around the IC25 and IC50 values and (2) excessive blockade of hERG and/or blockade of sodium current precipitated arrhythmias. Our MEA data show that hiPSC-CMs demonstrate relevant pharmacology and show excellent correlations to current functional cardiac electrophysiological studies. Based on these results, MEA assays using iPSC-CMs offer a reliable, cost effective, and surrogate to preclinical in vitro testing, in addition to the 3Rs (refine, reduce, and replace animals in research) benefit. PMID:23690542

  10. High performance liquid chromatography with two simultaneous on-line antioxidant assays: Evaluation and comparison of espresso coffees

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Neil W; Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A; Shalliker, R. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant profiles of various espresso coffees were established using HPLC with UV-absorbance detection and two rapid, simultaneous, on-line chemical assays that enabled the relative reactivity of sample components to be screened. The assays were based on (i) the colour change associated with reduction of the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH{sm_bullet}); and (ii) the emission of light (chemiluminescence) upon reaction with acidic potassium permanganate. Results from the two approaches were similar and reflected the complex array of antioxidant species present in the samples. However, some differences in selectivity were observed. Chromatograms generated with the chemiluminescence assay contained more peaks, which was ascribed to the greater sensitivity of the reagent towards minor, readily oxidisable sample components. The three coffee samples produced closely related profiles, signifying their fundamentally similar chemical compositions and origin. Nevertheless, the overall intensity and complexity of the samples in both UV absorption and antioxidant assay chromatograms were aligned with the manufacturers description of flavour intensity and character.

  11. Comparison of mRNA Splicing Assay Protocols across Multiple Laboratories: Recommendations for Best Practice in Standardized Clinical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Phillip J.; de la Hoya, Miguel; Thomassen, Mads; Becker, Alexandra; Brandão, Rita; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Montagna, Marco; Menéndez, Mireia; Quiles, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; De Leeneer, Kim; Tenés, Anna; Montalban, Gemma; Tserpelis, Demis; Yoshimatsu, Toshio; Tirapo, Carole; Raponi, Michela; Caldes, Trinidad; Blanco, Ana; Santamariña, Marta; Guidugli, Lucia; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Wong, Ming; Tancredi, Mariella; Fachal, Laura; Ding, Yuan Chun; Kruse, Torben; Lattimore, Vanessa; Kwong, Ava; Chan, Tsun Leung; Colombo, Mara; De Vecchi, Giovanni; Caligo, Maria; Baralle, Diana; Lázaro, Conxi; Couch, Fergus; Radice, Paolo; Southey, Melissa C.; Neuhausen, Susan; Houdayer, Claude; Fackenthal, Jim; Van Overeem Hansen, Thomas; Vega, Ana; Diez, Orland; Blok, Rien; Claes, Kathleen; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Walker, Logan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Brown, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of unclassified sequence variants in cancer predisposition genes is essential for clinical management and depends on a multifactorial analysis of clinical, genetic, pathologic, and bioinformatic variables and assays of transcript length and abundance. The integrity of assay data in turn relies on appropriate assay design, interpretation, and reporting. Methods We conducted a multicenter investigation to compare mRNA splicing assay protocols used by members of the ENIGMA (Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium. We compared similarities and differences in results derived from analysis of a panel of breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene variants known to alter splicing (BRCA1: c.135-1G>T, c.591C>T, c.594-2A>C, c.671-2A>G, and c.5467+5G>C and BRCA2: c.426-12_8delGTTTT, c.7988A>T, c.8632+1G>A, and c.9501+3A>T). Differences in protocols were then assessed to determine which elements were critical in reliable assay design. Results PCR primer design strategies, PCR conditions, and product detection methods, combined with a prior knowledge of expected alternative transcripts, were the key factors for accurate splicing assay results. For example, because of the position of primers and PCR extension times, several isoforms associated with BRCA1, c.594-2A>C and c.671-2A>G, were not detected by many sites. Variation was most evident for the detection of low-abundance transcripts (e.g., BRCA2 c.8632+1G>A Δ19,20 and BRCA1 c.135-1g>t Δ5q and Δ3). Detection of low-abundance transcripts was sometimes addressed by using more analytically sensitive detection methods (e.g., BRCA2 c.426-12_8delGTTTT ins18bp). Conclusions We provide recommendations for best practice and raise key issues to consider when designing mRNA assays for evaluation of unclassified sequence variants. PMID:24212087

  12. Development of a colorimetric inhibition assay for microcystin-LR detection: comparison of the sensitivity of different protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Sassolas, Audrey; Catanante, Gaëlle; Fournier, Didier; Marty, Jean Louis

    2011-10-15

    A colorimetric protein phosphatase (PP) inhibition test for the detection of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been developed. Three PP2As, one recombinant and two natural versions, as well as one PP1 produced by molecular engineering, were tested. First, assays were performed using the enzymes in solution to compare their sensitivity to MC-LR. The PP2A purchased from ZEU Immunotec and PP1 appeared more sensitive to the toxin than the other enzymes. With PP2A from ZEU Immunotec, the colorimetric test showed a detection limit of 0.0039 μg L(-1) and an IC(50) value of 0.21 μg L(-1). With PP1, the assay gave a detection limit of 0.05 μg L(-1) and an IC(50) value of 0.56 μg L(-1). Therefore, this assay allowed the detection of lower microcystin-LR (MC-LR) concentrations than the maximum level (1 μg L(-1)) recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The main drawback of this PP-based approach in solution is poor enzyme stabilisation. To overcome this problem, enzymes were entrapped within either a photopolymer or an agarose gel. PP2A from ZEU Immunotec and PP1 were immobilised at the bottom of microwells. The agarose-based tests performed better than the photopolymer-based assay for all of the enzymes. Therefore, the agarose gel is a good candidate to replace the photopolymer, which is generally used in PP-immobilising membranes. The assays based on enzyme-entrapping agarose gels showed detection limits equal to 0.17 μg L(-1) and 0.29 μg L(-1) with immobilised PP2A from ZEU and PP1, respectively. In view of these performances, these tests can potentially be used for monitoring water quality. PMID:21962674

  13. Assay and purity control of oxytetracycline and doxycycline by thin-layer chromatography--a comparison with liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weng Naidong; Geelen, S; Roets, E; Hoogmartens, J

    1990-01-01

    A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method using densitometry is described for the assay and purity control of oxytetracycline and doxycycline. With a mobile phase of dichloromethane-methanol-water (59:35:6, v/v/v) and a silica gel thin-layer, previously sprayed with 10% sodium edetate solution adjusted to pH 9.0, all the potential impurities of oxytetracycline or doxycycline are well separated from the main components and from each other. Results obtained with TLC are compared with those obtained by previously established liquid chromatography (LC) methods using poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) stationary phases. A good correlation was obtained (r greater than 0.9999). For TLC the relative standard deviation (RSD) for the assay of the main component was less than 2%, for LC the RSD was less than 1%. PMID:2100638

  14. Pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials: a critical comparison of published in vitro assays and in vivo inhalation or instillation studies.

    PubMed

    Landsiedel, Robert; Sauer, Ursula G; Ma-Hock, Lan; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Wiemann, Martin

    2014-11-01

    To date, guidance on how to incorporate in vitro assays into integrated approaches for testing and assessment of nanomaterials is unavailable. In addressing this shortage, this review compares data from in vitro studies to results from in vivo inhalation or intratracheal instillation studies. Globular nanomaterials (ion-shedding silver and zinc oxide, poorly soluble titanium dioxide and cerium dioxide, and partly soluble amorphous silicon dioxide) and nanomaterials with higher aspect ratios (multiwalled carbon nanotubes) were assessed focusing on the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) reference nanomaterials for these substances. If in vitro assays are performed with dosages that reflect effective in vivo dosages, the mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity can be assessed. In early tiers of integrated approaches for testing and assessment, knowledge on mechanisms of toxicity serves to group nanomaterials thereby reducing the need for animal testing. PMID:25490426

  15. Performance comparison of immunodiffusion, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunochromatography and hemagglutination for serodiagnosis of human pythiosis.

    PubMed

    Chareonsirisuthigul, Takol; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Intaramat, Akarin; Inkomlue, Ruchuros; Sriwanichrak, Kanchana; Piromsontikorn, Savittree; Kitiwanwanich, Sureewan; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Banyong, Ramrada; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Krajaejun, Theerapong

    2013-05-01

    Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the fungus-like organism Pythium insidiosum. Morbidity and mortality rates of pythiosis are high. The treatment of choice for pythiosis is surgical debridement of infected tissue. Early and accurate diagnosis is critical for effective treatment. In-house serodiagnostic tests, including immunodiffusion (ID), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunochromatography (ICT) and hemagglutination (HA) have been developed to detect antibodies against P. insidiosum in sera. This study compares the diagnostic performance of ID, ELISA, ICT, and HA, using sera from 37 pythiosis patients and 248 control subjects. ICT and ELISA showed optimal diagnostic performance (100% sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value). ICT was both rapid and user-friendly. ELISA results were readily quantitated. ID is relatively insensitive. HA was rapid, but diagnostic performance was poor. Understanding the advantages offered by each assay facilitates selection of an assay that is circumstance-appropriate. This will promote earlier diagnoses and improved outcomes for patients with pythiosis. PMID:23537786

  16. Comparison of two molecular assays for detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in whole blood and plasma samples from transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristina; Sidoti, Francesca; Mantovani, Samantha; Gregori, Gabriella; Proietti, Alex; Ghisetti, Valeria; Cavallo, Rossana

    2016-09-01

    In immunosuppressed patients, pre-emptive therapy and a strict follow-up of CMV infection are the standard of care for the prevention of CMV disease. Several real-time PCR assays for CMV DNA quantification on whole blood (WB) and plasma (PL) are commercially available. This study compared and correlated CMV viral loads obtained by the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) platform on plasma specimens with those obtained on corresponding whole blood specimens by the real-time PCR assay (ELITe MGB-CMV) in 185 sequential samples from 41 immunosuppressed patients. Correlation between the two assays was good. Kinetics of CMV DNA within the same patient was similar, but PL viral load was constantly 1 log lower than WB. In patients under antiviral therapy, low level of CMV DNA persisted in WB, while it was absent in PL. The good correlation between CMV DNA detected on both PL and WB supports the reliability of the two matrices for viral monitoring and the therapeutic management of CMV infection. Nevertheless, due to significant quantification differences between PL and WB CMV DNA, the same biological specimen should be used for a sequential and reliable follow-up of patients at high risk of CMV infection. PMID:27602416

  17. Comparison of methods of immobilization to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates for the detection of sugar chains.

    PubMed

    Satoh, A; Fukui, E; Yoshino, S; Shinoda, M; Kojima, K; Matsumoto, I

    1999-11-15

    The immobilization of carbohydrates for solid-phase assays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), is difficult because they are hydrophilic. We developed four new methods for the immobilization of oligosaccharides. ELISA plates were first coated with methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer (MMAC) and an excess of active anhydride groups was introduced. They were subsequently reacted, in four different ways, to bind oligosaccharides. In method 1, the anhydride groups were reacted with hydrazide groups, in the presence of adipic acid dihydrazide, and then coupled to the reducing ends of sugar chains by reductive amination. In method 2, the anhydride groups were reacted with p-aminophenyl glycoside obtained by reduction with p-nitrophenyl glycoside. In method 3, the anhydride groups were reacted with 1, 6-hexamethylenediamine. Aminooxy groups were coupled to the amino groups introduced and then aminooxyacetic acid with carbodiimide and ligated to oligosaccharides by oxime formation. In method 4, stereospecifically aminated oligosaccharides reacted with the anhydride groups. We compared, in solid-phase assays systems, the ability of lectins to detect oligosaccharides immobilized with either one of these four new methods or one of the two methods previously described. Detection of sugars with lectins is useful because, in most cases, they recognize sugars stereospecifically. The immobilization method should therefore be carefully selected to avoid changing the configuration and substitution in C-1. PMID:10552909

  18. Comparison of the sensitivities of three commercial assays for detection of the high risk HPV types 16, 18 and 45.

    PubMed

    Cuschieri, Kate; Hardie, Alison; Hovland, Siri; Hoaas, Bente; Karlsen, Frank; Cubie, Heather

    2013-10-01

    The relative and analytical sensitivity of the APTIMA HPV test (AHPV, broad-spectrum, target amplification) and the PreTect HPV-Proofer (type-specific, target amplification) for the detection of HPV mRNA in various cell lines was compared. Equivalent relative sensitivity for the HPV 16-containing cell lines (2.5 cells/ml with both CaSki and SiHa) was observed for the mRNA assays--and similar sensitivities were observed for the detection of HPV 18 (HeLa) and 45 (MS751); ranging from 2.5 cells/ml (Proofer) to 25 cells/ml (APTIMA). In relation to analytical sensitivity, again, the mRNA assays showed similar sensitivities to each other, ranging from 0.1 to 1 cell per reaction for APTIMA and 0.1 to 10 cells per reaction for PreTect HPV-Proofer (depending on cell line). Both mRNA assays consistently achieved a higher analytical sensitivity than a DNA based comparator--the Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (hc2). This study indicates that mRNA tests had high analytical sensitivity, higher than a well established DNA-test based when using cell lines as target. Implications for clinical application are discussed. PMID:23727117

  19. Comparison of ESwab and Wound Fiber Swab Specimen Collection Devices for Use with Xpert SA Nasal Complete Assay.

    PubMed

    Beck, Eric T; Buchan, Blake W; Reymann, Garrett C; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2016-07-01

    Paired nasal swab specimens were collected from patients who were undergoing routine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening prior to elective cardiac or orthopedic procedures. Each patient was swabbed using a traditional wound fiber liquid Stuart swab and an ESwab device, a flocked swab with a modified liquid Amies microbiology transport medium. The two specimens were tested using the Cepheid Xpert SA Nasal Complete assay. Results demonstrated a 95.5% agreement between the ESwab and the FDA-cleared wound fiber swab collection device. PMID:27122376

  20. Comparison of ESwab and Wound Fiber Swab Specimen Collection Devices for Use with Xpert SA Nasal Complete Assay

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Eric T.; Reymann, Garrett C.

    2016-01-01

    Paired nasal swab specimens were collected from patients who were undergoing routine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening prior to elective cardiac or orthopedic procedures. Each patient was swabbed using a traditional wound fiber liquid Stuart swab and an ESwab device, a flocked swab with a modified liquid Amies microbiology transport medium. The two specimens were tested using the Cepheid Xpert SA Nasal Complete assay. Results demonstrated a 95.5% agreement between the ESwab and the FDA-cleared wound fiber swab collection device. PMID:27122376

  1. Measurement of β-(1,3)-glucan in household dust samples using Limulus amebocyte assay and enzyme immunoassays: an inter-laboratory comparison.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Collin R; Siebers, Rob; Crane, Julian; Noss, Ilka; Wouters, Inge M; Sander, Ingrid; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Thorne, Peter S; Metwali, Nervana; Douwes, Jeroen

    2013-02-01

    Environmental levels of β-(1,3)-glucan, an inflammatory fungal cell wall component, have been suggested to be related to respiratory symptoms. However there is currently little data comparing β-(1,3)-glucan detection methods and/or results obtained in different laboratories. The aim of this study was to compare levels of β-(1,3)-glucans detected in household dust samples (n = 40) using different extraction/detection methods (Limulus amebocyte assay (LAL), inhibition enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and sandwich EIA) in five different laboratories. Dust sample aliquots were sent to participating centres, extracted and analysed for β-(1,3)-glucan according to standard in-house procedures. Significant differences in the levels of β-(1,3)-glucan were observed between all laboratories (geometric mean levels ranging from 15.4 μg g (-1) to 4754 μg g(-1) dust; p < 0.0001) with the exception of those using a similar LAL method. The inhibition EIA used in laboratory D produced mean β-(1,3)-glucan measurements 80-100 times higher than the LAL assays, 4 times higher than the sandwich EIA in the same lab, 17.6 times those obtained with the EIA in lab E and 363 times those obtained in the EIA in laboratory C. Pearson's correlations generally showed significant associations between methods and laboratories, particularly those using similar methodology (R ranging from 0.5 to 0.8; p < 0.001), although some poor and even inverse correlations were observed. Bland-Altman analyses showed moderate to good agreement between most assays, although clear absolute differences were observed. In conclusion, although results obtained with different methods were often significantly correlated and therefore comparable in relative terms, direct comparison of results between laboratories and assays may be inappropriate. PMID:25208705

  2. International Laboratory Comparison of Influenza Microneutralization Assays for A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and A(H5N1) Influenza Viruses by CONSISE.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Karen L; Engelhardt, Othmar G; Wood, John; Heath, Alan; Katz, Jacqueline M; Peiris, Malik; Hoschler, Katja; Hungnes, Olav; Zhang, Wenqing; Van Kerkhove, Maria D

    2015-08-01

    The microneutralization assay is commonly used to detect antibodies to influenza virus, and multiple protocols are used worldwide. These protocols differ in the incubation time of the assay as well as in the order of specific steps, and even within protocols there are often further adjustments in individual laboratories. The impact these protocol variations have on influenza serology data is unclear. Thus, a laboratory comparison of the 2-day enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 3-day hemagglutination (HA) microneutralization (MN) protocols, using A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and A(H5N1) viruses, was performed by the CONSISE Laboratory Working Group. Individual laboratories performed both assay protocols, on multiple occasions, using different serum panels. Thirteen laboratories from around the world participated. Within each laboratory, serum sample titers for the different assay protocols were compared between assays to determine the sensitivity of each assay and were compared between replicates to assess the reproducibility of each protocol for each laboratory. There was good correlation of the results obtained using the two assay protocols in most laboratories, indicating that these assays may be interchangeable for detecting antibodies to the influenza A viruses included in this study. Importantly, participating laboratories have aligned their methodologies to the CONSISE consensus 2-day ELISA and 3-day HA MN assay protocols to enable better correlation of these assays in the future. PMID:26108286

  3. International Laboratory Comparison of Influenza Microneutralization Assays for A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and A(H5N1) Influenza Viruses by CONSISE

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Othmar G.; Wood, John; Heath, Alan; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Peiris, Malik; Hoschler, Katja; Hungnes, Olav; Zhang, Wenqing; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.

    2015-01-01

    The microneutralization assay is commonly used to detect antibodies to influenza virus, and multiple protocols are used worldwide. These protocols differ in the incubation time of the assay as well as in the order of specific steps, and even within protocols there are often further adjustments in individual laboratories. The impact these protocol variations have on influenza serology data is unclear. Thus, a laboratory comparison of the 2-day enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 3-day hemagglutination (HA) microneutralization (MN) protocols, using A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and A(H5N1) viruses, was performed by the CONSISE Laboratory Working Group. Individual laboratories performed both assay protocols, on multiple occasions, using different serum panels. Thirteen laboratories from around the world participated. Within each laboratory, serum sample titers for the different assay protocols were compared between assays to determine the sensitivity of each assay and were compared between replicates to assess the reproducibility of each protocol for each laboratory. There was good correlation of the results obtained using the two assay protocols in most laboratories, indicating that these assays may be interchangeable for detecting antibodies to the influenza A viruses included in this study. Importantly, participating laboratories have aligned their methodologies to the CONSISE consensus 2-day ELISA and 3-day HA MN assay protocols to enable better correlation of these assays in the future. PMID:26108286

  4. Comparison of two GM1-erythrocyte assays to detect heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin in stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Germani, Y; Guesdon, J L; Phalente, L; Begaud, E; Moreau, J P

    1988-05-01

    Two erythrocyte immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTh) in stool supernatants and cell-free culture supernatants were compared. In the competitive assay, GM1 ganglioside was coated onto V-shaped-well microdilution plates and enterotoxin was coupled to sheep erythrocytes. As little as 0.8 ng of LTh per ml was detected by this method, which was based on the competition between the LTh of the test sample and the sensitized erythrocytes. The second assay made use of chimera antibody prepared by coupling polyclonal anti-LTh antibody to a monoclonal antibody specific for sheep erythrocytes. In this case, LTh, which was specifically bound to a GM1 ganglioside-coated plate, was detected by successively adding the chimera antibody and sheep erythrocytes. The limit of detection of the chimera antibody erythrocyte immunoassay was 0.2 ng/ml. Stool samples were collected from 167 infants hospitalized for diarrhea in the hospital of Noumea, New Caledonia. False-negative reactions due to proteases present in the stool samples were avoided by the addition of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. PMID:3290242

  5. Evaluation of DNA recombinant methodologies for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and their comparison with the microscopy assay.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta, L; Guevara, P; Ramirez, J L

    1998-01-01

    Since 1984, DNA tests based on the highly repeated subtelomeric sequences of Plasmodium falciparum (rep 20) have been frequently used in malaria diagnosis. Rep 20 is very specific for this parasite, and is made of 21 bp units, organized in repeated blocks with direct and inverted orientation. Based in this particular organization, we selected a unique consensus oligonucleotide (pf-21) to drive a PCR reaction coupled to hybridization to non-radioactive labeled probes. The pf-21 unique oligo PCR (pf-21-I) assay produced DNA amplification fingerprints when was applied on purified P. falciparum DNA samples (Brazil and Colombia), as well as in patient's blood samples from a large area of Venezuela. The performance of the Pf-21-I assay was compared against Giemsa stained thick blood smears from samples collected at a malaria endemic area of the Bolivar State, Venezuela, at the field station of Malariología in Tumeremo. Coupled to non-radioactive hybridization the pf-21-I performed better than the traditional microscopic method with a r = 1.7:1. In the case of mixed infections the r value of P. falciparum detection increased to 2.5:1. The increased diagnostic sensitivity of the test produced with this homologous oligonucleotide could provide an alternative to the epidemiological diagnosis of P. falciparum being currently used in Venezuela endemic areas, where low parasitemia levels and asymptomatic malaria are frequent. In addition, the DNA fingerprint could be tested in molecular population studies. PMID:9830531

  6. Comparison of Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay with LC-MS/MS for Diagnosis of Microcystin Toxicosis in Veterinary Cases

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Caroline E.; Juan, Jeanette; Lin, Yanping; Gaskill, Cynthia L.; Puschner, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Microcystins are acute hepatotoxins of increasing global concern in drinking and recreational waters and are a major health risk to humans and animals. Produced by cyanobacteria, microcystins inhibit serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). A cost-effective PP1 assay using p-nitrophenyl phosphate was developed to quickly assess water and rumen content samples. Significant inhibition was determined via a linear model, which compared increasing volumes of sample to the log-transformed ratio of the exposed rate over the control rate of PP1 activity. To test the usefulness of this model in diagnostic case investigations, samples from two veterinary cases were tested. In August 2013 fifteen cattle died around two ponds in Kentucky. While one pond and three tested rumen contents had significant PP1 inhibition and detectable levels of microcystin-LR, the other pond did not. In August 2013, a dog became fatally ill after swimming in Clear Lake, California. Lake water samples collected one and four weeks after the dog presented with clinical signs inhibited PP1 activity. Subsequent analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detected microcystin congeners -LR, -LA, -RR and -LF but not -YR. These diagnostic investigations illustrate the advantages of using functional assays in combination with LC-MS/MS. PMID:27005635

  7. Comparison of Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay with LC-MS/MS for Diagnosis of Microcystin Toxicosis in Veterinary Cases.

    PubMed

    Moore, Caroline E; Juan, Jeanette; Lin, Yanping; Gaskill, Cynthia L; Puschner, Birgit

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins are acute hepatotoxins of increasing global concern in drinking and recreational waters and are a major health risk to humans and animals. Produced by cyanobacteria, microcystins inhibit serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). A cost-effective PP1 assay using p-nitrophenyl phosphate was developed to quickly assess water and rumen content samples. Significant inhibition was determined via a linear model, which compared increasing volumes of sample to the log-transformed ratio of the exposed rate over the control rate of PP1 activity. To test the usefulness of this model in diagnostic case investigations, samples from two veterinary cases were tested. In August 2013 fifteen cattle died around two ponds in Kentucky. While one pond and three tested rumen contents had significant PP1 inhibition and detectable levels of microcystin-LR, the other pond did not. In August 2013, a dog became fatally ill after swimming in Clear Lake, California. Lake water samples collected one and four weeks after the dog presented with clinical signs inhibited PP1 activity. Subsequent analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detected microcystin congeners -LR, -LA, -RR and -LF but not -YR. These diagnostic investigations illustrate the advantages of using functional assays in combination with LC-MS/MS. PMID:27005635

  8. Shining a light on LAMP assays--a comparison of LAMP visualization methods including the novel use of berberine.

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Jens; Xander, Nina Carolin; Frohme, Marcus; Glökler, Jörn Felix

    2015-04-01

    The need for simple and effective assays for detecting nucleic acids by isothermal amplification reactions has led to a great variety of end point and real-time monitoring methods. Here we tested direct and indirect methods to visualize the amplification of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and compared features important for one-pot in-field applications. We compared the performance of magnesium pyrophosphate, hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB), calcein, SYBR Green I, EvaGreen, and berberine. All assays could be used to distinguish between positive and negative samples in visible or UV light. Precipitation of magnesium-pyrophosphate resulted in a turbid reaction solution. The use of HNB resulted in a color change from violet to blue, whereas calcein induced a change from orange to yellow-green. We also investigated berberine as a nucleic acid-specific dye that emits a fluorescence signal under UV light after a positive LAMP reaction. It has a comparable sensitivity to SYBR Green I and EvaGreen. Based on our results, an optimal detection method can be chosen easily for isothermal real-time or end point screening applications. PMID:25861931

  9. HLA-B27 detection – comparison of genetic sequence-based method and flow cytometry assay

    PubMed Central

    Kozakiewicz, Anna; Maśliński, Włodzimierz; Jurkowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The presence of human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis. HLA-B27 testing is routinely applied in the diagnosis of this disease. The aim of the present study was to compare two methods of HLA-B27 detection – a genetic sequence-based method and a flow cytometry assay. Material and methods Peripheral blood was obtained from 300 individuals with suspected spondyloarthropathy. Expression of HLA-B27 on the T cell surface was analysed by flow cytometry assay using GS145.2 monoclonal antibody specific for HLA-B27. DNA was isolated from the whole blood. Genes coding for HLA-B27, -B40 and -B47:01 were detected by polymerase chain reaction using the MW02/MW09 primer pair. Then, positive samples were sequenced in order to discriminate allelic variations of the HLA-B27 gene. Results of sequencing were analysed using Chromas LITE 2.1.1 software, BLAST software and the IMGT/HLA database. Ambiguous samples were additionally analysed by polymerase chain reaction using E91 and E136 primers amplifying a 135-bp fragment of the human HLA-B27 gene. Results Among 300 samples, 76 were HLA-B27-positive on the basis of flow cytometry analysis. Genetic sequence analysis confirmed positivity of 73 from among 76 samples. Two hundred twenty six samples were HLA-B27-negative, whereas the result of one sample analysis was ambiguous. Fifty-three samples were identified as allelic variation 27:05, 19 samples as allelic variation 27:02, and one sample as allelic variation 27:07. Conclusions This study shows that the genetic sequence-based method and the flow cytometry assay give consistent results in 99% of cases. The performed genetic analysis proves that the majority of HLA-B27-positive samples belong to the 27:05 allelic variation, which is strongly associated with high risk of ankylosing spondylitis.

  10. Comparison of the antiinflammatory effects of Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera madagascariensis in the HET-CAM assay.

    PubMed

    Paper, Dietrich H; Karall, Elisabeth; Kremser, Michaela; Krenn, Liselotte

    2005-04-01

    The antiinflammatory effects of ethanol and aqueous extracts from Drosera rotundifolia and from Drosera madagascariensis were compared in vivo in the HET-CAM assay. Both extracts from D. rotundifolia and the ethanol extract from D. madagascariensis showed remarkable efficacy at doses of 500 microg/pellet. The inhibition of the inflammation by the extracts was stronger than that by 50 microg hydrocortisone/pellet. In contrast, there was only a very weak effect observed at a dose of 500 microg/pellet of the water extract from D. madagascariensis. The chemical analyses of the extracts showed that the effect cannot be attributed to naphthoquinones, but might be due to flavonoids. Ellagic acid obviously plays an important role in the antiangiogenic effect of the Drosera extracts. PMID:16041727

  11. Comparison of saliva and serum for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody testing in Uganda using a rapid recombinant assay.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, R M; Piwowar, E M; Katongole-Mbidde, E; Muzawalu, W; Rugera, S; Abima, J; Stramer, S L; Kataaha, P; Jackson, B

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy and acceptability of saliva human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody testing were compared with serum testing in a study of paired specimens from HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative Ugandan adults attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Saliva collection was performed with the Omni-sal device (Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Vancouver, Wash.), and antibody testing was performed by a rapid filter paper assay (Test-Pack; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.). Relative to serum testing, the sensitivity of saliva testing was 95% (195 of 205) and the specificity was 99% (295 of 297). The sensitivity of saliva testing was higher for patients with elevated levels of beta-2 microglobulin in sera and greater numbers of HIV-1-related symptoms. Pre- and poststudy interviews indicated that saliva testing did not foster inordinate fears of saliva exposure. The development of saliva tests that are inexpensive and do not require electricity is needed. PMID:8914752

  12. Comparison of a fluorogenic assay with a conventional method for rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, K; Kurusu, T; Satake, M; Shinoda, S

    1996-01-01

    A conventional method and a fluorogenic assay for the detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were compared. Among 29 seafood samples examined for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus, 17 samples harbored V. parahaemolyticus, and trypsinlike activity was noticed in 19 seafoods. The added fluorogenic substrate was cleaved in single samples of shrimp, turbo, and cuttlefish from which V. parahaemolyticus could not be isolated by the conventional method. Vibrio alginolyticus, in addition to V. parahaemolyticus, was found to exhibit intracellular trypsinlike activity. Trypsinlike activity in seafoods was observed after the most probable number for the initial density of V. parahaemolyticus-like organisms was found to have reached > 10(2) per g. A V. parahaemolyticus inoculum at 10(4) CFU/ml in arabinose-glucuronate medium was required to attain growth to 10(6) CFU/ml, which is the level necessary for the release of detectable amounts of fluorescent compound from the added substrate. PMID:8795246

  13. Comparison of nested PCR with immunofluorescent-antibody assay for detection of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs treated with doxycycline.

    PubMed Central

    Wen, B; Rikihisa, Y; Mott, J M; Greene, R; Kim, H Y; Zhi, N; Couto, G C; Unver, A; Bartsch, R

    1997-01-01

    A partial 16S rRNA gene was amplified in Ehrlichia canis-infected cells by nested PCR. The assay was specific and did not amplify the closely related Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia muris, Neorickettsia helminthoeca, and SF agent 16S rRNA genes. The assay was as sensitive as Southern hybridization, detecting as little as 0.2 pg of E. canis DNA. By this method, all blood samples from four dogs experimentally infected with E. canis were positive as early as day 4 postinoculation, which was before or at the time of seroconversion. One hundred five blood samples from dogs from Arizona and Texas (areas of E. canis endemicity) and 30 blood samples from dogs from Ohio (area of E. canis nonendemicity) were examined by nested PCR and immunofluorescent-antibody (IFA) test. Approximately 84% of dogs from Arizona and Texas had been treated with doxycycline before submission of blood specimens. Among Arizona and Texas specimens, 46 samples were PCR positive (44%) and 80 were IFA positive (76%). Forty-three of 80 IFA-positive samples (54%) were PCR positive, and 22 of 25 IFA-negative samples (88%) were negative in the nested PCR. None of the Ohio specimens were IFA positive, but 5 specimens were PCR positive (17%). Our results indicate that the nested PCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of E. canis and may be more useful in assessing the clearance of the organisms after antibiotic therapy than IFA, especially in areas in which E. canis is endemic. PMID:9196207

  14. Comparison of Meldola's Blue Staining and Hatching Assay with Potato Root Diffusate for Assessment of Globodera sp. Egg Viability.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Duncan; Zasada, Inga A; Ingham, Russell E

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory-based methods to test egg viability include staining with Meldola's Blue and/or juvenile (J2) hatching assays using potato root diffusate (PRD). These two methods have not been tested under identical conditions to directly compare their assessments of Globodera egg viability. Using two bioassay strategies, cysts from a Globodera sp. population found in Oregon were subjected to both viability assessment methods. In strategy one, intact cysts were first stained with Meldola's Blue (primary staining) and eggs were then transferred to PRD (secondary hatching). In the second strategy, intact cysts were exposed to PRD (primary hatching) and then unhatched eggs were transferred to Meldola's Blue (secondary staining). Two different cohorts of cysts were evaluated using these experimental strategies: cohort 1 was comprised of cysts produced on potato in the greenhouse that exhibited low hatch when exposed to PRD and cohort 2 consisted of field-collected cysts whose eggs yielded significant hatch when exposed to PRD. Percentage viability was calculated and is expressed as the number of hatched J2 or unstained eggs/total number of eggs within a cyst. With field-produced cysts, primary staining with Meldola's Blue and hatching with PRD produced similar viability estimates, with averages of 74.9% and 76.3%, respectively. In contrast, with greenhouse-produced cysts the two methods yielded much lower and unequal estimates 32.4% to 2.2%, respectively for primary hatching and staining methods. In addition, J2 hatch from unstained (viable) greenhouse-produced eggs was 13.7% after secondary exposure to PRD compared to 61.5% for field-produced eggs. The majority of eggs remaining unhatched after primary exposure to PRD (> 87%) stained with Meldola's Blue regardless of cyst cohort. Staining with Meldola's Blue provided a conservative assessment of egg viability compared to hatch assay with PRD regardless of diapause. PMID:23429205

  15. Comparison of Seven Commercial Antigen and Antibody Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Acute Dengue Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Richard G.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Mammen, Mammen P.; Nisalak, Ananda; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Bailey, Mark S.; Premaratna, Ranjan; de Silva, H. Janaka; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Lalloo, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Seven commercial assays were evaluated to determine their suitability for the diagnosis of acute dengue infection: (i) the Panbio dengue virus Pan-E NS1 early enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), second generation (Alere, Australia); (ii) the Panbio dengue virus IgM capture ELISA (Alere, Australia); (iii) the Panbio dengue virus IgG capture ELISA (Alere, Australia); (iv) the Standard Diagnostics dengue virus NS1 antigen ELISA (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea); (v) the Standard Diagnostics dengue virus IgM ELISA (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea); (vi) the Standard Diagnostics dengue virus IgG ELISA (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea); and (vii) the Platelia NS1 antigen ELISA (Bio-Rad, France). Samples from 239 Thai patients confirmed to be dengue virus positive and 98 Sri Lankan patients negative for dengue virus infection were tested. The sensitivities and specificities of the NS1 antigen ELISAs ranged from 45 to 57% and 93 to 100% and those of the IgM antibody ELISAs ranged from 85 to 89% and 88 to 100%, respectively. Combining the NS1 antigen and IgM antibody results from the Standard Diagnostics ELISAs gave the best compromise between sensitivity and specificity (87 and 96%, respectively), as well as providing the best sensitivity for patients presenting at different times after fever onset. The Panbio IgG capture ELISA correctly classified 67% of secondary dengue infection cases. This study provides strong evidence of the value of combining dengue virus antigen- and antibody-based test results in the ELISA format for the diagnosis of acute dengue infection. PMID:22441389

  16. Pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime in normal and impaired renal function: comparison of high-pressure liquid chromatography and microbiological assays.

    PubMed Central

    Bundtzen, R W; Toothaker, R D; Nielson, O S; Madsen, P O; Welling, P G; Craig, W A

    1981-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime were studied after a single dose of 750 mg was given intravenously to each of 21 male volunteers grouped according to their creatinine clearances; these clearances were 60 to 120, 20 to 59, and less than 20 ml/min per 1.73 m,2 respectively, for groups 1 (12 subjects), 2 (4 subjects), and 3 (5 subjects). Cefuroxime obeyed two-compartment model kinetics in all three groups. Initial serum levels of cefuroxime were approximately 130 microgram/ml in group 1 and 2 and 80 microgram/ml in group 3. the levels then declined rapidly for 0.5 to 1 h after injection. After that time, cefuroxime levels declined more slowly, and the elimination rate became monoexponential. The mean serum half-lives for cefuroxime in groups 2, 2, and 3 were 1.7, 2.4, and 17.6 h, respectively. Mean cefuroxime levels in serum were greater than 8 microgram/ml for 3 h in group 1, for 6 h in group 2, and for 30 h in group 3. Cumulative 24-h urinary excretion accounted for essentially 100% of the dose in group 1 and 2, and for 40% in group 3. Urine levels exceeded the minimal inhibitory concentration for susceptible organisms for more than 12 h in all groups. Cefuroxime distribution characteristics were independent of renal function. In patients with creatinine clearances less than 20 ml/min per 1.73 m2, doses of cefuroxime needs to be reduced. A microbiological disk diffusion assay and a high-pressure liquid chromatography assay for cefuroxime yielded statistically identical results, except for serum levels in uremic patients (group 3). PMID:7247369

  17. Comparison of HIV Testing Uptake in an Urban Academic Emergency Department Using Different Testing Assays and Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Nyaku, Amesika N; Williams, Lisa M; Galvin, Shannon R

    2016-04-01

    Despite 2006 recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for opt-out HIV testing in all healthcare settings, Emergency Department (ED) testing has been limited. We conducted an observational cohort study to assess the impact of two workflow interventions on the proportion of HIV tests ordered in an urban academic ED. First, a 4(th)-generation HIV antigen/antibody combination test replaced the existing assay, and ED staff continued to notify patients of their reactive tests. Six months later, the HIV Rapid Diagnosis Team, composed of an Infectious Diseases (ID) physician and the HIV Advanced Practice Nurse, immediately assisted with disclosure of positive results to the patients and facilitated linkage to outpatient care. The new assay did not change the proportion of HIV tests ordered (0.14-0.11%, χ2, p = 0.2). However, ID support was associated with a statistically significant increase in the proportion of HIV tests ordered (0.14-0.43%, χ2, p < 0.00010) and a nonstatistically significant increase in the proportion of new HIV diagnoses (1.6-6.8%, Fisher exact test = 0.113). Male gender and lack of insurance were associated with a reactive HIV test. Reduction of barriers to linkage to outpatient HIV care through a collaborative relationship between the ED and ID team increased HIV testing and diagnosis. The role of this model as a component of a universal HIV screening program will need to be further assessed. PMID:26982908

  18. Monitoring of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibody Seroconversion in Asymptomatically Infected Blood Donors: Systematic Comparison of Nine Commercial Anti-HEV IgM and IgG Assays

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is usually determined serologically by detection of the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies or rising anti-HEV IgG titers. However, serological assays have demonstrated a significant variation in their sensitivities and specificities. In this study, we present the systematic comparison of different immunological anti-HEV assays using complete seroconversion panels of 10 virologically confirmed HEV genotype 3 infected individuals. Assay sensitivities were further evaluated by testing serially diluted World Health Organization (WHO) reference reagent for hepatitis E virus antibody and one patient sample infected with HEV genotype 3. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibody presence was determined using the immunological assays Wantai HEV IgM/IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Sanbio, Uden, The Netherlands), recomWell HEV IgM/IgG (Mikrogen, Neuried, Germany), HEV IgM ELISA 3.0, HEV ELISA, HEV ELISA 4.0, Assure HEV IgM Rapid Test (all MP Biomedicals Europe, Illkirch Cedex, France) and Anti-HEV ELISA (IgM/IgG, Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany). The assays showed differences regarding their analytical and diagnostic sensitivities, with anti-HEV IgM assays (n = 5) being more divergent compared to anti-HEV IgG (n = 4) assays in this study. Considerable variations were observed particularly for the detection period of IgM antibodies. This is the first study systematically characterizing serologic assays on the basis of seroconversion panels, providing sample conformity for a conclusive comparison. Future studies should include the assay comparison covering the four different genotypes. PMID:27556482

  19. Monitoring of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibody Seroconversion in Asymptomatically Infected Blood Donors: Systematic Comparison of Nine Commercial Anti-HEV IgM and IgG Assays.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is usually determined serologically by detection of the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies or rising anti-HEV IgG titers. However, serological assays have demonstrated a significant variation in their sensitivities and specificities. In this study, we present the systematic comparison of different immunological anti-HEV assays using complete seroconversion panels of 10 virologically confirmed HEV genotype 3 infected individuals. Assay sensitivities were further evaluated by testing serially diluted World Health Organization (WHO) reference reagent for hepatitis E virus antibody and one patient sample infected with HEV genotype 3. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibody presence was determined using the immunological assays Wantai HEV IgM/IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Sanbio, Uden, The Netherlands), recomWell HEV IgM/IgG (Mikrogen, Neuried, Germany), HEV IgM ELISA 3.0, HEV ELISA, HEV ELISA 4.0, Assure HEV IgM Rapid Test (all MP Biomedicals Europe, Illkirch Cedex, France) and Anti-HEV ELISA (IgM/IgG, Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany). The assays showed differences regarding their analytical and diagnostic sensitivities, with anti-HEV IgM assays (n = 5) being more divergent compared to anti-HEV IgG (n = 4) assays in this study. Considerable variations were observed particularly for the detection period of IgM antibodies. This is the first study systematically characterizing serologic assays on the basis of seroconversion panels, providing sample conformity for a conclusive comparison. Future studies should include the assay comparison covering the four different genotypes. PMID:27556482

  20. In vitro antioxidant assay of medium chain fatty acid rich rice bran oil in comparison to native rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2015-08-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) rich-rice bran oils in comparison with native rice bran oil. Different in vitro methods were used to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity, metal chelation activity, reducing acitivity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and so on at different concentrations of the oils such as 10-100 μg/mL. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was evaluated measuring thiobarbituric acid responsive substance (TBARS) and conjugated diene formation. All the oils showed potent antioxidant activity at 100 μg/mL concentration. TBARS formation and conjugated diene formation was lower with MCFA rich oils i.e. the inhibition of lipid peroxidation was more in MCFA rich oils than original rice bran oil. Caprylic acid rich rice bran oil showed maximum antioxidant activity in comparison to capric- and lauric acid rich rice bran oils. Overall the MCFA rich rice bran oils showed to be more potent antioxidant than rice bran oil due to their lower unsaturated fatty acid content. PMID:26243941

  1. Comparison of four different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serological diagnosis of Salmonella enteritidis infections in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed Central

    van Zijderveld, F G; van Zijderveld-van Bemmel, A M; Anakotta, J

    1992-01-01

    The program for the eradication of Salmonella enteritidis from chickens in The Netherlands is based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need for a specific and sensitive serological screening test. For that purpose, we developed four different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), i.e., an indirect ELISA with S. enteritidis flagellin, an indirect ELISA with S. enteritidis lipopolysaccharide, a double-antibody sandwich blocking ELISA that uses monoclonal antibodies against S. enteritidis flagellin (GM-DAS blocking ELISA), and a double-antibody sandwich ELISA that uses monoclonal antibodies against S. enteritidis lipopolysaccharide. In the present study, we compare the results of those ELISAs with sera from experimentally infected 1-day-old chickens and with sera and eggs from experimentally infected laying hens. Experimental infections were induced with strains of S. enteritidis phage types 1 and 2, S. typhimurium, and S. panama. Sera were collected up to days 44 and 39 after infection from 1-day-old chickens and laying hens, respectively. Only the GM-DAS blocking ELISA was able to discriminate between S. enteritidis infections and infections with the other serotypes. This ELISA had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% for all serum samples from experimentally infected chickens. A field study is in progress to evaluate whether this test can be implemented in the Dutch S. enteritidis eradication program. PMID:1400954

  2. Comparison of axillary bud growth and patatin accumulation in potato leaf cuttings as assays for tuber induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Hannapel, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    Single-node leaf cuttings from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Norland, Superior, Norchip, and Kennebec, were used to assess tuber induction in plants grown under 12, 16, and 20 h daily irradiation (400 micromol s-1 m-2 PPF). Leaf cuttings were taken from plants at four, six and 15 weeks after planting and cultured for 14 d in sand trays in humid environments. Tuber induction was determined by visually rating the type of growth at the attached axillary bud, and by measuring the accumulation of the major tuber protein, patatin, in the base of the petioles. Axillary buds from leaf cuttings of plants grown under the 12 h photoperiod consistently formed round, sessile tubers at the axils for all four cultivars at all harvests. Buds from cuttings of plants grown under the 16 and 20 h photoperiods exhibited mixed tuber, stolon, and leafy shoot growth. Patatin accumulation was highest in petioles of cuttings taken from 12 h plants for all cultivars at all harvests, with levels in 16 and 20 h cuttings approx. one-half that of the 12 h cuttings. Trends, both in visual ratings of axillary buds and in petiole patatin accumulation, followed the harvest index (ratio of tuber to total plant dry matter), suggesting that either method is an acceptable assay for tuber induction in the potato.

  3. Comparison of rapid immunodiagnosis assay kit with molecular and immunopathological approaches for diagnosis of rabies in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ajaz; Singh, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Presently, diagnosis of rabies is primarily based on, conventional fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), immunopathological and molecular techniques. Recently, rapid immunodiagnostic assay (RIDA) - A monoclonal antibody-based technique has been introduced for rapid diagnosis of rabies. The present investigation is envisaged to study the efficacy of RIDA kit for the diagnosis of rabies in cattle. Materials and Methods: About 11 brain samples from cattle, clinically suspected for rabies, were screened by the FAT, Heminested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (HnRT-PCR), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), and RIDA. Results: The sensitivity for detection of rabies from brain tissue by RIDA was 85.7% as compared to 100% by IHC as well as HnRT-PCR. The accuracy of detection of rabies by RIDA was 91.6% as compared to 100% that of IHC and HnRT-PCR, whereas specificity of RIDA was 100% like that of the IHC and HnRT-PCR. Conclusion: Despite a comparatively low-sensitivity and accuracy of RIDA, latter can still be useful in screening a large number of field samples promptly. However, it is recommended that negative results with RIDA in cattle need to be authenticated by suitable alternative diagnostic approaches. PMID:27051193

  4. High-throughput fluorescence screening assay for the identification and comparison of antimicrobial peptides' activity on various yeast species.

    PubMed

    Kodedová, Marie; Sychrová, Hana

    2016-09-10

    New antifungal compounds that circumvent the resistance of the pathogen by directly damaging yeast cell surface structures are promising agents for the treatment of fungal infections, due to their different mechanism of action from current clinically used antifungal drugs. We present here a rapid and cost-effective fluorescence method suitable for identifying new potent drugs that directly target yeast cell surface structures, causing cell permeabilization and thus bypassing the multidrug resistance mechanisms of pathogens. The fluorescence assay enabled us to detect with high sensitivity damage to the Candida plasma membrane (its hyperpolarization and permeabilization) as a result of short-term exposure to the antifungal compounds. Results can be obtained in 1-2h with minimal effort and consumption of the tested compounds, also 96 samples can be analysed simultaneously. We used this method to study antimicrobial peptides isolated from the venom of bees and their synthetic analogs, compare the potency of the peptides and determine their minimal effective concentrations. The antimicrobial peptides were able to kill yeast cells at low concentrations within a 15-min treatment, the LL-III peptide exhibited a broad spectrum of antifungal activity on various Saccharomyces, pathogenic Candida and osmotolerant yeast species. PMID:27369550

  5. Comparison between Culture and a Multiplex Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay Detecting Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum

    PubMed Central

    Frølund, Maria; Björnelius, Eva; Lidbrink, Peter; Ahrens, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2014-01-01

    A novel multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for simultaneous detection of U. urealyticum and U. parvum was developed and compared with quantitative culture in Shepard's 10 C medium for ureaplasmas in urethral swabs from 129 men and 66 women, and cervical swabs from 61 women. Using culture as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the qPCR was 96% and 95% for female urethral and cervical swabs, respectively. In male urethral swabs the sensitivity was 89%. The corresponding specificities were 100%, 87% and 99%. The qPCR showed a linear increasing DNA copy number with increasing colour-changing units. Although slightly less sensitive than culture, this multiplex qPCR assay detecting U. urealyticum and U. parvum constitutes a simple and fast alternative to the traditional methods for identification of ureaplasmas and allows simultaneous species differentiation and quantitation in clinical samples. Furthermore, specimens overgrown by other bacteria using the culture method can be evaluated in the qPCR. PMID:25047036

  6. Comparison of the Simplexa™ Flu A/B & RSV kit (nucleic acid extraction-dependent assay) and the Prodessa ProFlu+™ assay for detecting influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Suresh B; Bambach, Adrienne V; Leber, Amy L; Patru, Maria-Magdalena; Patel, Anami; Menegus, Marilyn A

    2014-09-01

    The relative performance of 2 widely used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, the Focus diagnostics Simplexa™ Flu A/B & RSV kit (nucleic acid extraction-dependent assay) and the Prodessa Proflu+™ assay, was evaluated using 735 prospectively and retrospectively collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Overall, the assays showed positive and negative agreements of 100% and 99.7% for influenza A, 98.1% and 99.9% for influenza B, and 99.3% and 99.5% for respiratory syncytial virus. The relative analytical sensitivity of the 2 assays was also similar. PMID:25209363

  7. Comparison of an HPTLC method with the Reflectoquant assay for rapid determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey.

    PubMed

    Hošťálková, Anna; Klingelhöfer, Ines; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2013-11-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was analyzed in 17 botanical varieties of honey from 12 countries. A recently developed high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was limited because of increased matrix effects at higher honey sample loading. Therefore, the method was modified to achieve higher sensitivity and eliminate matrix interference by use of rectangular application combined with a focusing step. The HPTLC results were compared with results from the new spectrophotometric Reflectoquant hydroxymethylfurfural assay. Both methods had quantification limits of 4 mg kg(-1) and were suitable for rapid quantification of HMF in honey at the strictest regulated level of 15 mg kg(-1). Comparable results were obtained for the 17 honey samples, with a mean deviation of 2.9 mg kg(-1) (15%). The optimized HPTLC method was proved to be highly matrix-robust and was validated for the 17 different honey matrices (correlation coefficients ≥0.9994 (n = 6), mean intra-day precision 3.2% (n = 3 within a plate; n = 2 repeated within a day), mean inter-day precision 3.7% (n = 3), mean reproducibility over the whole procedure including sample preparation 4.1% (n = 2), and mean recovery 106.9% (n = 5 different concentrations; n = 4 different honey matrices). Recovery for a range of different application volumes, and thus for different honey matrix loading, differed by only ≤4.2%. HMF results when calculated by use of external calibration and by use of the standard addition method varied by 8.8%. Both revealed that any matrix effect was minor and that the original matrix interference problem was successfully solved. PMID:24091734

  8. Toxoplasma gondii exposure in arctic-nesting geese: A multi-state occupancy framework and comparison of serological assays

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Stacey A.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Milhous, Jared; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Gajadhar, Alvin A.; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, has a worldwide distribution and a cosmopolitan suite of hosts. In arctic tundra regions, the definitive felid hosts are rare to absent and, while the complete transmission routes in such regions have yet to be fully elucidated, trophic and vertical routes are likely to be important. Wild birds are common intermediate hosts of T. gondii, and in the central Canadian arctic, geese are probable vectors of the parasite from temperate latitudes to the arctic regions. Our objective was to estimate seroprevalence of T. gondii in Ross’s and Lesser Snow Geese from the Karrak Lake ecosystem in Nunavut, Canada. After harvesting geese by shotgun, we collected blood on filter paper strips and tested the eluate for T. gondii antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and direct agglutination test (DAT). We estimated seroprevalence using a multi-state occupancy model, which reduced bias by accounting for imperfect detection, and compared these estimates to a naïve estimator. Ross’s Geese had a 0.39 probability of seropositivity, while for Lesser Snow Geese the probability of positive for T. gondii antibodies was 0.36. IFAT had a higher antibody detection probability than DAT, but IFAT also had a higher probability of yielding ambiguous or unclassifiable results. The results of this study indicate that Ross’s Geese and Lesser Snow Geese migrating to the Karrak Lake region of Nunavut are routinely exposed to T. gondii at some point in their lives and that they are likely intermediate hosts of the parasite. Also, we were able to enhance our estimation of T. gondii seroprevalence by using an occupancy approach that accounted for both false-negative and false-positive detections and by using multiple diagnostic tests in the absence of a gold standard serological assay for wild geese. PMID:25161913

  9. Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with indirect hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition for determination of rubella virus antibody: evaluation of immune status with commercial reagents in a clinical laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Truant, A L; Barksdale, B L; Huber, T W; Elliott, L B

    1983-01-01

    Comparative evaluations of immune status for rubella virus are described for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hemagglutination inhibition, and indirect hemagglutination. A 92.1% agreement between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect hemagglutination assay was demonstrated for rubella immune status. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition demonstrated a 92.6% agreement and were compared in an attempt to define the quantitative usefulness of comparisons of single sera for determining immune status. These data support the relative lack of correlation between single enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition quantitative values. Enzyme immunoassay was, however, an acceptable alternative to hemagglutination inhibition for the determination of immune status to rubella virus. PMID:6338030

  10. Partial comparison of the NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel Assay with the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Panel Fast Assay V2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Scala, Alessia; Bianchini, Sonia; Presicce, Maria Lory; Mori, Alessandro; Sciarrabba, Calogero Sathya; Fior, Giulia; Principi, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 185 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the Luminex NxTAG (NxTAG) Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RPP) Assay with those of the Luminex Respiratory Virus Panel (RVP) Fast Assay v2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The NxTAG Assay identified at least one infectious agent in 164 (88.7%) of the swabs. In 91 (6.2%) tests with negative results with the RVP Fast Assay v2, a virus was identified by the NxTAG (P < 0.001). With the NxTAG Assay, the detection rates were significantly higher for respiratory syncytial virus (P = 0.003), human metapneumovirus (P < 0.001), human rhinovirus/human enterovirus (P = 0.009) and human adenovirus (P < 0.001). Finally, the NxTAG Assay identified M. pneumoniae in 32 of 44 (72.7%) PCR-positive samples. However, the concordance with real-time PCR results was low for both assays. In conclusion, the results indicate that the NxTAG Assay overcomes some of the limitations of previous Luminex assays, although further studies are needed for a more complete evaluation of the new assay. PMID:27401400

  11. Radioimmunoassay for somatomedin C: comparison with radioreceptor assay in patients with growth-hormone disorders, hypothyroidism, and renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, R.C.; Brown, A.S.; Turtle, J.R.

    1982-03-01

    An antiserum (Tr4) was raised in rabbits against a basic somatomedin C-like peptide preparation. Using high-immunoreactivity somatomedin C tracer, we compared the performance of radioimmunoassays in which we used the Tr4 antiserum distributed by the National Pituitary Agency (NPA) with that of the human placental-membrane somatomedin radioreceptor asay (RRA). In their cross reactivity towards various somatomedin-like and unrelated peptides, the two radioimmunoassay methods were almost identical, although NPA antiserum, with about fourfold higher titer than Tr4 antiserum, showed a slightly greater sensitivity for most peptides tested. Radioimmunoassay of acid-ethanol-extracted plasma samples from normal persons and acromegalic, hypopituitary, hypothyroid, and renal-failure patients revealed no analytical differences between the antisera (for 122 samples, r = 0.979 between methods). Somatomedin values for acromegalic and hypopituitary samples showed no overlap with normals. Values for hypothyroid and pre-dialysis renal-failure samples were significantly lower than normal. By comparison, the RRA showed greater cross reactivity towards some somatomedin-like peptides and gave significantly lower values than radioimmunoassay for acromegalic and hypothyroid plasma extracts, and significantly higher values for hypopituitary and renal-failure samples. We conclude that the radioimmunoassay methods clearly are of greater diagnostic value than RRA for clinical somatomedin measurement.

  12. Determination of free insulin-like growth factor-I in human serum: comparison of ultrafiltration and direct immunoradiometric assay.

    PubMed

    Frystyk, J; Ivarsen, P; Støving, R K; Dall, R; Bek, T; Hagen, C; Ørskov, H

    2001-04-01

    Two fundamentally different methods are currently used for the determination of free insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I): ultrafiltration by centrifugation (UF) and direct immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). The aim was to evaluate a commercial IRMA (DSL, Webster, TX, USA) and to compare it with UF. In the IRMA it is recommended that samples be incubated for 2 h at 5;C. When comparing samples (n = 8) incubated for 1 and 2 h, levels increased by 27 +/- 5% (P< 0.0001). When incubating samples at 22;C instead of 5;C, levels increased by 192 +/- 32% (P< 0.0001). Addition of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) to normal sera (n = 6) dose-dependently decreased ultrafiltered free IGF-I only (P< 0.0007). Similarly, UF was more sensitive than IRMA to addition of IGFBP-2 (P< 0.05). In healthy subjects (n = 35) IRMA yielded 20% higher levels than UF (1.09 +/- 0.09 vs 0.91 +/- 0.12 microg/L; P< 0.0001). IRMA and UF yielded similar results in healthy subjects treated with IGF-I (n = 5) or growth hormone (n = 7) and in acromegalic patients (n = 6) before and after somatostatin analogue treatment. However, marked differences were observed in conditions with elevated IGFBP-1 and -2. In type-1 diabetics (n = 23) ultrafiltered free IGF-I was more reduced than IRMA free IGF-I (38 +/- 9 vs 76 +/- 7% of matched controls (n = 13); P< 0.0001). In patients with chronic renal failure (n = 25), IRMA free IGF-I was identical to control levels (n = 13), whereas ultrafiltered free IGF-I was decreased by 51 +/- 7% (P< 0.0001). Similarly, women with anorexia nervosa (n = 9) studied before and after weight gain showed significant changes in ultrafiltered free IGF-I only (P< 0.03). In conclusion, IRMA was not very robust with respect to variations in sample incubation and this may bias results. IRMA generally yielded higher levels than UF, in accordance with the knowledge that IRMA measures free plus readily dissociable IGF-I. IRMA was less affected than UF by added IGFBP-1 and -2, and reductions in free

  13. Evaluation of Xpert® Norovirus Assay performance in comparison with real-time RT-PCR in hospitalized adult patients with acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Francesca; Premoli, Marta; Campanini, Giulia; Sarasini, Antonella; Baldanti, Fausto

    2016-08-01

    Xpert® Norovirus Assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) was compared with a laboratory-developed real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Norovirus GI and GII in hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis. The two assays showed a high level of concordance but Xpert® Norovirus Assay allowed faster detection of Norovirus and a simpler sample handling. PMID:27233425

  14. A Comparison of Microscopy and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in Human Faecal Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Khatoon, Razia; Ahmad, Siraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Giardia lamblia, a flagellate protozoa, is a common causative agent of parasitic diarrhoeal diseases of humans. Laboratory diagnosis mainly consists of direct microscopic examination of stool specimen for trophozoite and cysts of Giardia. However, due to intermittent faecal excretion of parasite, the case may be miss diagnosed and the patient may continue excreting the parasite and infecting others. Therefore, other mode of diagnosis should be looked for, which overcome the above drawbacks of microscopy used alone for diagnosis. Objectives: The present study was done to evaluate the efficacy of RIDASCREEN Giardia (ELISA) test in comparison to direct microscopy in the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in stool specimens from patients with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Materials and Methods: A total of 1680 patients were included in the study and three faecal specimens were taken from each patient which was divided into two parts. One part was used for direct wet mount examination and second part was used to put ELISA by using RIDASCREEN Giardia test. Results: Out of 1680 stool samples, 380 specimens (22.6%) were found to be positive for Giardia lamblia. Maximum cases were detected by RIDASCREEN Giardia (ELISA) test with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 91.5%. Maximum cases of giardiasis were detected in children less than 10 y of age (12.8%). Conclusion: RIDASCREEN Giardia test is a rapid and effective method with high sensitivity and specificity and detects Giardia antigens in stool specimens even when the count of parasite is low, thus reducing the chances of missing even the asymptomatic cases. PMID:25584215

  15. Comparison of Schistosoma mansoni Prevalence and Intensity of Infection, as Determined by the Circulating Cathodic Antigen Urine Assay or by the Kato-Katz Fecal Assay: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kittur, Nupur; Castleman, Jennifer D.; Campbell, Carl H.; King, Charles H.; Colley, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between results from Kato-Katz (KK) fecal microscopy and urine-based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) assays for Schistosoma mansoni infection remains a critical issue. This systematic literature review of 25 published papers compares prevalence of S. mansoni infection by KK with that by the POC-CCA assay. Nineteen published studies met our inclusion criteria for data extraction and analysis. Above a prevalence of 50% by KK, KK and POC-CCA results yielded essentially the same prevalence. Below 50% prevalence by KK, the prevalence by the POC-CCA assay was between 1.5- and 6-fold higher and increased as prevalence by KK decreased. Five of nine publications met inclusion criteria for extractable data on intensity of S. mansoni infection by KK assay and visual band density using the POC-CCA assay. A clear positive relationship exists between intensity by the KK and POC-CCA assays. This systematic review indicates that below 50% prevalence, the POC-CCA assay is much more sensitive than the KK assay. However, the existing data are inadequate to precisely define the relationship between POC-CCA and KK at lower levels of KK prevalence. More studies directly comparing the two assays in low-prevalence areas are essential to inform decision-making by national schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:26755565

  16. Comparison of Schistosoma mansoni Prevalence and Intensity of Infection, as Determined by the Circulating Cathodic Antigen Urine Assay or by the Kato-Katz Fecal Assay: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kittur, Nupur; Castleman, Jennifer D; Campbell, Carl H; King, Charles H; Colley, Daniel G

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between results from Kato-Katz (KK) fecal microscopy and urine-based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) assays for Schistosoma mansoni infection remains a critical issue. This systematic literature review of 25 published papers compares prevalence of S. mansoni infection by KK with that by the POC-CCA assay. Nineteen published studies met our inclusion criteria for data extraction and analysis. Above a prevalence of 50% by KK, KK and POC-CCA results yielded essentially the same prevalence. Below 50% prevalence by KK, the prevalence by the POC-CCA assay was between 1.5- and 6-fold higher and increased as prevalence by KK decreased. Five of nine publications met inclusion criteria for extractable data on intensity of S. mansoni infection by KK assay and visual band density using the POC-CCA assay. A clear positive relationship exists between intensity by the KK and POC-CCA assays. This systematic review indicates that below 50% prevalence, the POC-CCA assay is much more sensitive than the KK assay. However, the existing data are inadequate to precisely define the relationship between POC-CCA and KK at lower levels of KK prevalence. More studies directly comparing the two assays in low-prevalence areas are essential to inform decision-making by national schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:26755565

  17. Development and Comparison of TaqMan-Based Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Differentiation of Ralstonia solanacearum strains.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Michael J; Rascoe, John; Li, Wenbin; Yan, Zonghe; Nakhla, Mark K; Huang, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is destructive to many plant species worldwide. The race 3 biovar 2 (r3b2) strains of R. solanacearum infect potatoes in temperate climates and are listed as select agents by the U.S. government. TaqMan-based real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is commonly used in federal and state diagnostic laboratories over conventional PCR due to its speed and sensitivity. We developed the Rs16S primers and probe set and compared it with a widely used set (RS) for detecting R. solanacearum species complex strains. We also developed the RsSA3 primers and probe set and compared it with the previously published B2 and RsSA2 sets for specific detection of r3b2 strains. Both comparisons were done under standardized qPCR master mix and cycling conditions. The Rs16S and RS assays detected all 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains and none of the five outgroups, but the former was more sensitive than the latter. For r3b2 strain detection, the RsSA2 and RsSA3 sets specifically detected the 34 r3b2 strains and none of the 56 R. solanacearum non-r3b2 strains or out-group strains. The B2 set, however, detected five non-r3b2 R. solanacearum strains and was less sensitive than the other two sets under the same testing conditions. We conclude that the Rs16S, RsSA2, and RsSA3 sets are best suited under the standardized conditions for the detection of R. solanacearum species complex and r3b2 strains by TaqMan-based qPCR assays. PMID:27402488

  18. UPLC-MRM Mass Spectrometry Method for Measurement of the Coagulation Inhibitors Dabigatran and Rivaroxaban in Human Plasma and Its Comparison with Functional Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Joachim; Gripp, Tatjana; Flieder, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; Hendig, Doris; Busse, Jessica; Knabbe, Cornelius; Birschmann, Ingvild

    2015-01-01

    °C and even at RT for at least one week. A method comparison between our UPLC-MRM MS method, the commercially available automated Direct Thrombin Inhibitor assay (DTI assay) for dabigatran measurement from CoaChrom Diagnostica, as well as the automated anti-Xa assay for rivaroxaban measurement from Chromogenix both performed by ACL-TOP showed a high degree of correlation. However, UPLC-MRM MS measurement of dabigatran and rivaroxaban has a much better selectivity than classical functional assays measuring activities of various coagulation factors which are susceptible to interference by other coagulant drugs. Conclusions Overall, we developed and validated a sensitive and specific UPLC-MRM MS assay for the quick and specific measurement of dabigatran and rivaroxaban in human plasma. PMID:26699714

  19. Ileal amino acid digestibility assay for the growing meat chicken--comparison of ileal and excreta amino acid digestibility in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Kadim, I T; Moughan, P J; Ravindran, V

    2002-09-01

    1. The apparent and true amino acid digestibilities in sorghum, wheat, soyabean meal, meat-and-bone meal, fish meal and blood meal for growing meat chickens were determined using an assay based on the collection of digesta from the terminal ileum and comparison was made with digestibility values determined using an excreta-based assay. 2. Five-week-old meat chickens were given maize-soyabean meal basal diet or mixtures of the basal diet and test diets containing the 6 ingredients as the sole source of dietary protein (50:50 on weight basis). Apparent amino acid digestibility values of assay diets at ileal and excreta levels were calculated using chromic oxide as the indigestible marker. True digestibility values were calculated using endogenous outputs determined by feeding a protein-free diet. Amino acid digestibilities of the ingredients were calculated by difference. 3. The site of measurement had no influence on endogenous amino acid output, the exceptions being aspartic acid and glutamic acid. The output of these two amino acids was higher in the excreta. 4. Significant differences were found between ileal and excreta-based digestibility of certain amino acids in some ingredients, with excreta values being usually higher than the ileal values, indicating a net catabolism of amino acids in the large intestine. The degree of net amino acid disappearance was found to be variable among amino acids and ingredients. In general, threonine had the lowest digestibility at the ileal level and, compared with other amino acids, the highest degredation during passage through the hindgut. 5. The results showed that digestibility determination based on excreta collection will overestimate the uptake for some amino acids in some feeds. The degree of overestimation was often considerable, ranging from 8.9% (apparent digestibility of threonine in soyabean meal) to 56% (apparent digestibility of aspartic acid in wheat). It is concluded that digestibility values measured at the

  20. Quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--Part II. Quality control: comparison of two charting methods to monitor assay performance.

    PubMed

    Goris, N; De Clercq, K

    2005-12-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are increasingly required to meet stringent quality standards, and validated assays are needed to achieve formal accreditation. Validation of test methods is often considered to be finalised when the assay parameters and characteristics have been established. However, like any process, diagnostic assays are subject to random variation resulting in shifts in the mean test values. Continuous monitoring of assays using control charts will alert the interpreter of changes in performance. For this purpose, several charting methods have been developed and implemented. This paper compares the Shewhart and the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts with respect to the day to day monitoring of internal quality control samples for the foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both chart types are equally sensitive to shifts, but the EWMA method seems to provide the best balance between false rejection and false acceptance. PMID:16642771

  1. Topoisomerase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nitiss, John L.; Soans, Eroica; Rogojina, Anna; Seth, Aman; Mishina, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that play essential roles in DNA replication, transcription, chromosome segregation, and recombination. All cells have two major forms of topoisomerases: type I, which makes single-stranded cuts in DNA, and type II enzymes, which cut and pass double-stranded DNA. DNA topoisomerases are important targets of approved and experimental anti-cancer agents. The protocols described in this unit are of assays used to assess new chemical entities for their ability to inhibit both forms of DNA topoisomerase. Included are an in vitro assay for topoisomerase I activity based on relaxation of supercoiled DNA and an assay for topoisomerase II based on the decatenation of double-stranded DNA. The preparation of mammalian cell extracts for assaying topoisomerase activity is described, along with a protocol for an ICE assay for examining topoisomerase covalent complexes in vivo and an assay for measuring DNA cleavage in vitro. PMID:22684721

  2. Comparison of growth and drug response of human tumor cells in serum-free and serum-supplemented media in human tumor-clonogenic assay.

    PubMed

    Zirvi, K A; Hill, G J

    1988-06-01

    A comparison was made of growth and drug-response of five human tumor cell lines (HT-29, colon carcinoma; TWI, melanoma; A-549, lung carcinoma; Panc-1, pancreatic carcinoma; and EJ, bladder carcinoma) in serum-free media (SFM) and in serum-supplemented media (SSM) using the human tumor-clonogenic assay (HTCA) system. HT-29 cells, which had the highest plating efficiency in both SFM and SSM, were used to obtain dose-response curves for four drugs (adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and BCNU) in the HTCA. Three of the drugs (adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil, and cisplatin) produced identical drug-response curves in both SFM and SSM. These results suggest that, for some chemotherapeutic agents, results comparable to those obtained with SSM in the HTCA can be achieved using SFM. Step-by-step addition of growth factors and hormones to SFM may be a useful technique to improve some of the technical and logistic problems associated with the HTCA. PMID:3379971

  3. Comparison of Gull Feces-specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Gene of Catellicoccus Marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two novel gull-specific qPCR assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR-green-based assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (i.e., gull3) and a TaqMan qPCR assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (i.e., gull4). The main objectives ...

  4. Comparison of antibody assays for detection of autoantibodies to Ro 52, Ro 60 and La associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Nielsen, Inger Ødum; Friis, Tina; Houen, Gunnar; Theander, Elke

    2016-06-01

    Anti-Ro(52/60) and anti-La constitute the hallmark autoantibodies in primary Sjögren's syndrome, being present in 40-70% of sera. Several anti-Ro/La assays exist, but antibody detection appears to be assay-specific, thus the aim of this study was to compare several anti-Ro/La assays. In total, 96 sera from individuals with primary Sjögren's syndrome and 114 healthy controls were tested for anti-Ro 52/60 and anti-La in 17 immunoassays. Especially the immunoassays used for detection of anti-Ro 52 differed in their sensitivity (48-79%), while only small differences in sensitivities were observed for the anti-Ro 60 (69-77%) anti-La (39-44%) assays. Concordances of 65%, 79% and 73% for the anti-Ro 52, anti-Ro 60 and anti-La assays were found, respectively. The majority of the assays yielded high specificities, primarily ranging from 97 to 100%, except from a single anti-Ro 60 assay, which yielded a specificity of 79%. Occasionally, reactivity levels were increased in a few assays, indicating that false-positive results can be obtained when applying assays of reduced specificity. In general, the commercial assays appeared to perform better than the in-house analyses. When correcting the in-house assays for background reactivity, sensitivities were reduced by approximately 7%, 17%, and 19% for anti-Ro 52, anti-Ro 60 and anti-La assays, respectively, illustrating the pitfalls when applying immunoassays for detection of autoantibodies, which in theory may apply to commercial assays as well. Finally, increased total sensitivities were obtained when combining assays. These studies contribute to clarify the clinical utility of immunoassays for detection of autoantibodies of Ro 52, Ro 60 and La and illustrate that the most efficient strategy to maximize antibody sensitivity is to combine several assays. PMID:26956184

  5. Comparison of the Luminex xTAG RVP Fast Assay and the Idaho Technology FilmArray RP Assay for Detection of Respiratory Viruses in Pediatric Patients at a Cancer Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Peter; Stiles, Jeffrey; Brennan, Carrie; Li, Haijing; Shuptar, Susan; Stratton, Charles W.; Tang, Yi-Wei; Kamboj, Mini

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory viruses are increasingly recognized as serious causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory viruses is essential for the early diagnosis and administration of appropriate antiviral therapy, as well as for the effective implementation of infection control measures. We compared the performance of two commercial assays, xTAG RVP Fast (Luminex Diagnostics, Toronto, Canada) and FilmArray RVP (FA RVP; Idaho Technology, Salt Lake City, UT), in pediatric patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. These assays detect the following viruses: respiratory syncytial virus; influenza A and B viruses; parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4; human metapneumovirus; adenovirus; enterovirus-rhinovirus; coronaviruses NL63, HKU1, 229E, and OC43; and bocavirus. We tested a total of 358 respiratory specimens from 173 pediatric patients previously tested by direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and viral culture. The overall detection rate (number of positive specimens/total specimens) for viruses tested by all methods was 24% for DFA/culture, 45% for xTAG RVP Fast, and 51% for FA RVP. The agreement between the two multiplex assays was 84.5%, and the difference in detection rate was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Overall, the FA RVP assay was more sensitive than the xTAG RVP Fast assay and had a turnaround time of approximately 1 h. The sensitivity, simplicity, and random-access platform make FA RVP an excellent choice for laboratory on-demand service with low to medium volume. PMID:22518855

  6. Comparison of Analytical and Clinical Performance of HPV 9G DNA Chip, PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip, and Hybrid-Capture II Assay in Cervicovaginal Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ho Young; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Hyo Bin; Oh, Seo Young; Lee, Sun-Joo; Kim, Wook Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can be detected by using several molecular methods, including Hybrid-Capture II (HC2) assay and variable HPV DNA chip tests, although each method has different sensitivities and specificities. Methods: We performed HPV 9G DNA Chip (9G) and PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip (PANArray) tests on 118 cervicovaginal swabs and compared the results with HC2, cytology, histology, and direct sequencing results. Results The overall and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) positivity rates were 62.7% and 44.9% using 9G, and 61.0% and 30.5% using PANArray, respectively. The positivity rates for HR-HPV with these two chips were significantly lower than 55.1% when HC2 was used. The sensitivity of overall HPV positivity in detecting histologically confirmed low-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions or higher was 88.7% for all three tests. The specificity was 58.5% for 9G and 61.5% for PANArray, which was significantly lower than the 72.3% for HC2. With the HR-HPV+ genotype threshold, the sensitivity decreased to 75.5% for 9G and 52.8% for PANArray, which was significantly lower than the 88.7% for HC2. Comparison of the two chips showed concordant results in 55.1% of the samples, compatible results in 16.9%, and discordant results in 28.0%, exhibiting poor agreement in detecting  certain HPV genotypes. Compared with direct sequencing, 9G yielded no discordant results, whereas PANArray yielded 31 discordant results (26.7%). Conclusions Compared with HC2, the HPV genotyping tests showed lower sensitivity in histologic correlation. When the two chips were compared, the 9G was more sensitive and accurate for detecting HR-HPV than the PANArray. PMID:26763506

  7. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of 10 selected dietary/environmental compounds with the in vitro micronucleus cytokinesis-block assay in an interlaboratory comparison.

    PubMed

    Katic, Jelena; Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Laubenthal, Julian; Bassano, Irene; Stølevik, Solvor B; Granum, Berit; Namork, Ellen; Nygaard, Unni C; Løvik, Martinus; van Leeuwen, Danitsja; Vande Loock, Kim; Anderson, Diana; Fucić, Aleksandra; Decordier, Ilse

    2010-10-01

    Complex exposure to xenobiotics is one of the reasons for the reported increase of respiratory diseases, cancer and immunological disturbances. Among such xenobiotics there are food mutagens whose effects on human health in the low level and/or chronic exposure still remains unknown. In the present manuscript, the compounds ethanol (EtOH), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), malondialdehyde (MDA), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazol[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and acrylamide (AA) were evaluated in an interlaboratory comparison in the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) with objective of assessing the induction of micronuclei, buds and nucleoplasmic bridges in dose responses. Statistically significant increase in MNBN frequency in binucleated cells was recorded by both laboratories for the compound PhIP (2.5μM). The compounds PCB (250 microM) and AA (500 microM) induced statistically significant increase of MNBN although it was recorded by one of the two laboratories. Induction of buds and nucleoplasmic bridges was only observed for BaP (100 microM) and AA (500 microM) by one of the laboratories. Data generated in this study may assist in the interpretation of the mother/newborn biomonitoring study being carried out within project NewGeneris and will contribute to overall knowledge on the genotoxic potential of dietary/environmental toxicants. PMID:20600534

  8. Use of Whole-Genome Phylogeny and Comparisons for Development of a Multiplex PCR Assay To Identify Sequence Type 36 Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey A.; Xu, Feng; Ilyas, Saba; Siwakoti, Puskar; Cooper, Vaughn S.; Jones, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus sequence type 36 (ST36) strains that are native to the Pacific Ocean have recently caused multistate outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to shellfish harvested from the Atlantic Ocean. Whole-genome comparisons of 295 genomes of V. parahaemolyticus, including several traced to northeastern U.S. sources, were used to identify diagnostic loci, one putatively encoding an endonuclease (prp), and two others potentially conferring O-antigenic properties (cps and flp). The combination of all three loci was present in only one clade of closely related strains of ST36, ST59, and one additional unknown sequence type. However, each locus was also identified outside this clade, with prp and flp occurring in only two nonclade isolates and cps in four. Based on the distribution of these loci in sequenced genomes, prp identified clade strains with >99% accuracy, but the addition of one more locus increased accuracy to 100%. Oligonucleotide primers targeting prp and cps were combined in a multiplex PCR method that defines species using the tlh locus and determines the presence of both the tdh and trh hemolysin-encoding genes, which are also present in ST36. Application of the method in vitro to a collection of 94 clinical isolates collected over a 4-year period in three northeastern U.S. states and 87 environmental isolates revealed that the prp and cps amplicons were detected only in clinical isolates identified as belonging to the ST36 clade and in no environmental isolates from the region. The assay should improve detection and surveillance, thereby reducing infections. PMID:25832299

  9. Use of Whole-Genome Phylogeny and Comparisons for Development of a Multiplex PCR Assay To Identify Sequence Type 36 Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Whistler, Cheryl A; Hall, Jeffrey A; Xu, Feng; Ilyas, Saba; Siwakoti, Puskar; Cooper, Vaughn S; Jones, Stephen H

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus sequence type 36 (ST36) strains that are native to the Pacific Ocean have recently caused multistate outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to shellfish harvested from the Atlantic Ocean. Whole-genome comparisons of 295 genomes of V. parahaemolyticus, including several traced to northeastern U.S. sources, were used to identify diagnostic loci, one putatively encoding an endonuclease (prp), and two others potentially conferring O-antigenic properties (cps and flp). The combination of all three loci was present in only one clade of closely related strains of ST36, ST59, and one additional unknown sequence type. However, each locus was also identified outside this clade, with prp and flp occurring in only two nonclade isolates and cps in four. Based on the distribution of these loci in sequenced genomes, prp identified clade strains with >99% accuracy, but the addition of one more locus increased accuracy to 100%. Oligonucleotide primers targeting prp and cps were combined in a multiplex PCR method that defines species using the tlh locus and determines the presence of both the tdh and trh hemolysin-encoding genes, which are also present in ST36. Application of the method in vitro to a collection of 94 clinical isolates collected over a 4-year period in three northeastern U.S. states and 87 environmental isolates revealed that the prp and cps amplicons were detected only in clinical isolates identified as belonging to the ST36 clade and in no environmental isolates from the region. The assay should improve detection and surveillance, thereby reducing infections. PMID:25832299

  10. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gas chromatography procedures for the detection of cyanazine and metolachlor in surface water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schraer, S.M.; Shaw, D.R.; Boyette, M.; Coupe, R.H.; Thurman, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) data from surface water reconnaissance were compared to data from samples analyzed by gas chromatography for the pesticide residues cyanazine (2-[[4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-methylpropanenitrile ) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide). When ELISA analyses were duplicated, cyanazine and metolachlor detection was found to have highly reproducible results; adjusted R2s were 0.97 and 0.94, respectively. When ELISA results for cyanazine were regressed against gas chromatography results, the models effectively predicted cyanazine concentrations from ELISA analyses (adjusted R2s ranging from 0.76 to 0.81). The intercepts and slopes for these models were not different from 0 and 1, respectively. This indicates that cyanazine analysis by ELISA is expected to give the same results as analysis by gas chromatography. However, regressing ELISA analyses for metolachlor against gas chromatography data provided more variable results (adjusted R2s ranged from 0.67 to 0.94). Regression models for metolachlor analyses had two of three intercepts that were not different from 0. Slopes for all metolachlor regression models were significantly different from 1. This indicates that as metolachlor concentrations increase, ELISA will over- or under-estimate metolachlor concentration, depending on the method of comparison. ELISA can be effectively used to detect cyanazine and metolachlor in surface water samples. However, when detections of metolachlor have significant consequences or implications it may be necessary to use other analytical methods.

  11. Comparison of BD GeneOhm Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR versus the CHROMagar MRSA Assay for Screening Patients for the Presence of MRSA Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, John M.; Havill, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the BD GeneOhm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) real-time PCR assay with the CHROMagar MRSA assay for the detection of MRSA in 286 nasal surveillance specimens. Compared with the CHROMagar MRSA assay, PCR had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of 100%, 98.6%, 95.8%, and 100%, respectively. The mean PCR turnaround time was 14.5 h. PMID:18032616

  12. Comparison of the Binax NOW Flu A Enzyme Immunochromatographic Assay and R-Mix Shell Vial Culture for the 2003-2004 Influenza Season

    PubMed Central

    Fader, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    The Binax NOW Flu A enzyme immunochromatographic assay was compared to viral culture with R-Mix shell vials for 455 nasal-wash or nasal-aspirate specimens. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the assay were 64.9%, 98.4%, 89.3%, and 93.2%, respectively. However, the assay sensitivity decreased significantly with increasing patient age. PMID:16333112

  13. Comparison of Gull Feces-Specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Genes of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hodon; Griffith, John F.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Hill, Stephen; Edge, Thomas A.; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Two novel gull-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR green assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (gull3) and a hydrolysis TaqMan assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (gull4). The objectives of this study were to compare the host specificity of a previous C. marimammalium qPCR assay (gull2) with that of the new markers and to examine the presence of the three gull markers in environmental water samples from different geographic locations. Most of the gull fecal samples tested (n = 255) generated positive signals with the gull2 and gull4 assays (i.e., >86%), whereas only 28% were positive with gull3. Low prevalence and abundance of tested gull markers (0.6 to 15%) were observed in fecal samples from six nonavian species (n = 180 fecal samples), whereas the assays cross-reacted to some extent (13 to 31%) with other (nongull) avian fecal samples. The gull3 assay was positive against fecal samples from 11 of 15 avian species, including gull. Of the presumed gull-impacted water samples (n = 349), 86%, 59%, and 91% were positive with the gull2, the gull3, and the gull4 assays, respectively. Approximately 5% of 239 non-gull-impacted water samples were positive with the gull2 and the gull4 assays, whereas 21% were positive witg the gull3 assay. While the relatively high occurrence of gull2 and gull4 markers in waters impacted by gull feces suggests that these assays could be used in environmental monitoring studies, the data also suggest that multiple avian-specific assays will be needed to accurately assess the contribution of different avian sources in recreational waters. PMID:22226950

  14. Comparison of gull feces-specific assays targeting the 16S rRNA genes of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Griffith, John F; Khan, Izhar U H; Hill, Stephen; Edge, Thomas A; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel; Santo Domingo, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    Two novel gull-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR green assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (gull3) and a hydrolysis TaqMan assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (gull4). The objectives of this study were to compare the host specificity of a previous C. marimammalium qPCR assay (gull2) with that of the new markers and to examine the presence of the three gull markers in environmental water samples from different geographic locations. Most of the gull fecal samples tested (n = 255) generated positive signals with the gull2 and gull4 assays (i.e., >86%), whereas only 28% were positive with gull3. Low prevalence and abundance of tested gull markers (0.6 to 15%) were observed in fecal samples from six nonavian species (n = 180 fecal samples), whereas the assays cross-reacted to some extent (13 to 31%) with other (nongull) avian fecal samples. The gull3 assay was positive against fecal samples from 11 of 15 avian species, including gull. Of the presumed gull-impacted water samples (n = 349), 86%, 59%, and 91% were positive with the gull2, the gull3, and the gull4 assays, respectively. Approximately 5% of 239 non-gull-impacted water samples were positive with the gull2 and the gull4 assays, whereas 21% were positive witg the gull3 assay. While the relatively high occurrence of gull2 and gull4 markers in waters impacted by gull feces suggests that these assays could be used in environmental monitoring studies, the data also suggest that multiple avian-specific assays will be needed to accurately assess the contribution of different avian sources in recreational waters. PMID:22226950

  15. Comparison of the next-generation Xpert MRSA/SA BC assay and the GeneOhm StaphSR assay to routine culture for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in positive-blood-culture broths.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Blake W; Allen, Stephen; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Davis, Thomas; Levi, Michael; Mayne, Donna; Pancholi, Preeti; Relich, Ryan F; Thomson, Richard; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2015-03-01

    A bloodstream infection with Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a serious condition that carries a high mortality rate and is also associated with significant hospital costs. The rapid and accurate identification and differentiation of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA directly from positive blood cultures has demonstrated benefits in both patient outcome and cost-of-care metrics. We compare the next-generation Xpert MRSA/SA BC (Xpert) assay to the GeneOhm StaphSR (GeneOhm) assay for the identification and detection of S. aureus and methicillin resistance in prospectively collected blood culture broths containing Gram-positive cocci. All results were compared to routine bacterial culture as the gold standard. Across 8 collection and test sites, the Xpert assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 99.6% (range, 96.4% to 100%) and a specificity of 99.5% (range, 98.0% to 100%) for identifying S. aureus, as well as a sensitivity of 98.1% (range, 87.5% to 100%) and a specificity of 99.6% (range, 98.3% to 100%) for identifying MRSA. In comparison, the GeneOhm assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 99.2% (range, 95.2% to 100%) and a specificity of 96.5% (range, 89.2% to 100%) for identifying S. aureus, as well as a sensitivity of 94.3% (range, 87.5% to 100%) and a specificity of 97.8% (range, 96.1% to 100%) for identifying MRSA. Five of six cultures falsely reported as negative for MRSA by the GeneOhm assay were correctly identified as positive by the Xpert assay, while one culture falsely reported as negative for MRSA by the Xpert assay was correctly reported as positive by the GeneOhm assay. PMID:25540397

  16. Comparison of chemical binding to recombinant fathead minnow and human estrogen receptors alpha in whole cell and cell-free binding assays.

    PubMed

    Rider, Cynthia V; Hartig, Phillip C; Cardon, Mary C; Wilson, Vickie S

    2009-10-01

    Mammalian receptors and assay systems are generally used for in vitro screening of endocrine-disrupting chemicals with the assumption that minor differences in amino acid sequences among species do not translate into significant differences in receptor function. Objectives of the present study were to evaluate the performance of two different in vitro assay systems (a whole cell and a cell-free competitive binding assay) in assessing whether binding of chemicals differs significantly between full-length recombinant estrogen receptors from fathead minnows (fhERalpha) and those from humans (hERalpha). It was confirmed that 17beta-estradiol displays a reduction in binding to fhERalpha at an elevated temperature (37 degrees C), as has been reported with other piscine estrogen receptors. Several of the chemicals (17beta-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, alpha-zearalanol, fulvestrant, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, and cadmium chloride) displayed higher affinity for fhERalpha than for hERalpha in the whole cell assay, while only dibutyl phthalate had a higher affinity for fhERalpha than for hERalpha in the cell-free assay. Both assays were effective in identifying strong binders, weak binders, and nonbinders to the two receptors. However, the cell-free assay provided a less complicated and more efficient binding platform and is, therefore, recommended over the whole cell binding assay. In conclusion, no strong evidence showed species-specific binding among the chemicals tested. PMID:19453209

  17. Validation and comparison of two commercial ELISA kits and three in-house developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of potentially allergenic mustard in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Hochegger, Rupert; Štumr, Stepan; Korycanova, Kveta; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-05-01

    The study compares the applicability of two commercial mustard ELISA kits (Mustard ELISA Kit-specific and Mustard ELISA Kit-total) and three in-house developed real-time PCR assays (singleplex assay for white mustard, singleplex assay for black/brown mustard and duplex assay for the detection of white, black and brown mustard). Analyses of raw and brewed model sausages containing white and black/brown mustard in the range from 1 to 50 ppm indicate that both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays allow the detection of traces of mustard in raw and in brewed sausages. The ELISAs were found to be more sensitive than the real-time PCR assays. When the ELISAs and real-time PCR assays were applied to the analysis of 15 commercial foodstuffs differing in their labelling concerning mustard, in one sample mustard was detected with both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays although mustard was not indicated on the food ingredient list. PMID:25529654

  18. Use of an improved E. coli method for the measurement of cobalamin in serum: comparison with the E. gracilis assay results.

    PubMed Central

    Sourial, N A

    1981-01-01

    Owing to the higher serum cobalamin results that are obtained by R-binder radioisotopic dilution assay compared to microbiological assays (E. gracilis and L. leichmannii) it was suggested that serum contained a cobamide(s) that could not be detected by the more specific microbiological assays and that a much less specific test organism, which responds to most naturally occurring cobamides, such as the cobamide-dependent E. coli mutant, might respond to these cobamide(s) in serum. In an attempt to investigate this possibility an improved and simplified E. coli assay for the measurement of cobamide in serum was developed. The method is described, and the results obtained in normal subjects, in patients with megaloblastic anemia, and in anaemic pregnant women not suffering from megaloblastic anaemia are reported and compared with E. gracilis assay results. PMID:6787097

  19. Comparison of five different in vitro assays for assessment of sodium metavanadate cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 line).

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare five different in vitro cytotoxicity assays for their power in revealing vanadium-mediated toxicity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. The cells were exposed to sodium metavanadate (NaVO(3)) in the range of 10-1000 µM for 24 h and thereafter the cytotoxic effects of NaVO(3) were measured by colorimetric in vitro assays: the neutral red (NR) test, the 2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt (XTT) assay, the resazurin assay, the sulforhodamine B (SR-B) assay, and by microscopic assessment of cell viability using the trypan blue (TB) staining method. Among the assays used, the NR test was the most sensitive, since it revealed metavanadate cytotoxicity at the lowest NaVO(3) dose (=50 µM). Also, NaVO(3) cytotoxicity expressed as inhibitory concentration (IC) showed the lowest values for the NR test. Three other tests XTT, resazurin, and SR-B assays showed intermediate sensitivity revealing the cytotoxicity of NaVO(3) at 100 µM. The corresponding IC10 and IC50 values calculated for the XTT, resazurin, and SR-B tests were similar. The TB staining method was the least sensitive, since it recorded metavanadate cytotoxicity at the highest NaVO(3) concentration tested (=600 µM). Based on the cytotoxicity end points measured with the above assays, it can be concluded that lysosomal/Golgi apparatus damage (measured by NR assay) may be the primary effect of NaVO(3) on CHO-K1 cells. The disintegration of mitochondria (assessed with the XTT and resazurin assays) probably follows lysosomal impairment. Plasma membrane permeability (staining with TB) occurs at a late stage of NaVO(3)-induced cytotoxicity on CHO-K1 cells. The results obtained in this research work show that the NR test can be recommended as a very sensitive assay for the assessment of NaVO(3) cytotoxicity in the CHO-K1 cell culture model. Considering the convenience of assay performance along with adequate sensitivity

  20. A comparison of two West Nile virus detection assays (TaqMan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and VecTest antigen assay) during three consecutive outbreaks in northern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lampman, Richard L; Krasavin, Nina M; Szyska, Michael; Novak, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    Mosquitoes identified as female Culex (Culex) species, primarily mixtures or uniform batches of Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were collected daily from gravid traps by 2 mosquito abatement districts (MADs) in Cook County, Illinois. From 2002 through 2004, batches (pools) of mosquitoes were tested by the MADs for West Nile virus (WNV) by using VecTest WNV antigen assays and the same samples were retested, usually within 1-2 wk, for WNV RNA by the TaqMan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). There were 952 TaqMan-positive pools out of 3,953 pools over the 3 years, and about one half of that number were VecTest-positive. The difference between the 2 detection assays varied between and within years. The VecTest assays detected about 57% and 69% of the TaqMan RT-PCR-positive pools from Des Plaines Valley MAD and Northwest MAD in 2002, but only about 40% and 46% in 2003, and 36% and 55% in 2004, respectively. Based on a subset of the 2004 data, a linear relationship was found between VecTest detection of WNV and TaqMan cycle threshold between 18 and 28 cycles. A temporal decrease in the difference between the 2 assays was observed in 2003 and 2004, which we conjecture is due, at least partially, to a seasonal decline in the proportion of recently infected mosquitoes. This trend was not observed in 2002 because infection rates indicated a high likelihood of more than 1 infected mosquito per pool at the peak of transmission. Unlike a previous study, the 95% confidence intervals of infection rates based on the 2 detection methods did not always overlap. The highest infection rates occurred in 2002 when mean monthly temperatures were above average. PMID:16646326

  1. Development and comparison of a Primer-Probe Energy Transfer based assay and a 5' conjugated Minor Groove Binder assay for sensitive real-time PCR detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    McMenamy, M J; McKillen, J; Hjertner, B; Kiss, I; Yacoub, A; Leijon, M; Duffy, C; Belák, S; Welsh, M; Allan, G

    2011-08-01

    In this study the design and development of two real-time PCR assays for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) DNA is described. A Primer-Probe Energy Transfer (PriProET) assay and 5' conjugated Minor Groove Binder (MGB) method are compared and contrasted. Both have been designed to target the thymidine kinase gene of the ILTV genome. Both PriProET and MGB assays are capable of detecting 20 copies of a DNA standard per reaction and are linear from 2×10(8) to 2×10(2)copies/μl. Neither PriProET, nor MGB reacted with heterologous herpesviruses, indicating a high specificity of the two methods as novel tools for virus detection and identification. This study demonstrates the suitability of PriProET and 5' conjugated MGB probes as real-time PCR chemistries for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases caused by ILTV. PMID:21539859

  2. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N; Yartsev, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} can be reconstructed from the tumor volume

  3. Ability of Two Commercially Available Assays (Abbott RealTime HIV-1 and Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Version 2.0) To Quantify Low HIV-1 RNA Levels (<1,000 Copies/Milliliter): Comparison with Clinical Samples and NIBSC Working Reagent for Nucleic Acid Testing Assays

    PubMed Central

    Marsella, Patrizia; Bloisi, Maria; Forbici, Federica; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    Concordance between molecular assays may be suboptimal at low HIV-1 viremia levels (<1,000 copies/ml); therefore, it may be difficult to define and compare virologic endpoints for successful and failed therapy. We compared two commercial assays (the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 and the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/TaqMan HIV-1 version 2.0) for their ability to detect and quantify low viral loads. A comparison was performed using 167 residual clinical samples (with values ranging from “not detected” to 1,000 copies/ml, as measured by the Abbott assay) and the National Institute and Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) HIV-1 RNA working reagent 1 for nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) assays (serially diluted to a range from 1 to 1,000 copies/ml). Quantitative results were compared using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and a Bland-Altman plot. Concordance with the qualitative results was measured by Cohen's kappa statistic. With clinical samples, the degree of interassay concordance of the qualitative results at a 40-copies/ml HIV-1 RNA threshold was substantial (κ = 0.762); the correlation among the quantified samples was suboptimal (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.728; P < 0.0001); the mean difference of the values between the Roche and Abbott assays was 0.193 log10 copies/ml. Using the HIV-1 RNA working reagent 1 for NAT assays, the results provided by the Roche assay were, on average, 3 times higher than expected, while the Abbott assay showed high accuracy. The Roche assay was highly sensitive, being able to detect a level as low as 3.5 copies/ml HIV-1 RNA with 95% probability. The performance characteristics of each molecular assay should be taken into account when HIV-1 RNA threshold values for “virologic suppression,” “virologic failure,” “persistent low viral loads,” etc., are defined and indicated in the support of clinical decisions. PMID:24671791

  4. Application of the neuroblastoma assay for paralytic shellfish poisons to neurotoxic freshwater cyanobacteria: interlaboratory calibration and comparison with other methods of analysis.

    PubMed

    Humpage, Andrew R; Ledreux, Aurélie; Fanok, Stella; Bernard, Cécile; Briand, Jean-François; Eaglesham, Geoff; Papageorgiou, John; Nicholson, Brenton; Steffensen, Dennis

    2007-07-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) are produced by freshwater cyanobacteria and pose a threat to human and animal drinking-water supplies. The wide range of toxin analogues (and the likelihood that further analogues remain to be discovered) means that chromatographic methods are not always reliable indicators of toxicity. Although the mouse bioassay remains the method of choice in the seafood industry, its use is increasingly being questioned on ethical grounds. The cell-based Neuro-2A neuroblastoma toxicity assay is an alternative bioassay validated for testing shellfish extracts, so it was of interest to determine its applicability with the different suite of toxin analogues produced by cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial bloom samples from Australia, Brazil, and France were assayed using the neuroblastoma assay, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection, and the Jellett Rapid Test for PSP. To assess interlaboratory variability, the neuroblastoma assay was set up in laboratories in Paris (France) and Adelaide (Australia). Neuroblastoma and chromatographic methods gave comparable results except in the case of the neurotoxic Brazilian samples: LC-MS/MS did not detect the putative new PSPs contained in these samples. Inter- and intralaboratory variability of the neuroblastoma assay was typical of biological assays but no greater than that found for interassay variability between different chromatographic determinations. The batch of Jellett Rapid Tests for PSP used did not yield quantitative results. Overall, the neuroblastoma assay was useful as a screening assay for determination of toxicity caused by saxitoxin neurotoxins in freshwater cyanobacteria, having the advantage of being sensitive to unidentified toxins that currently cannot be quantified by chromatographic means. PMID:17665694

  5. Comparison of Culture and a Novel 5′ Taq Nuclease Assay for Direct Detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in Clinical Specimens from Cattle

    PubMed Central

    McMillen, Lyle; Fordyce, Geoffry; Doogan, Vivienne J.; Lew, Ala E.

    2006-01-01

    A Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis-specific 5′ Taq nuclease PCR assay using a 3′ minor groove binder-DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) was developed based on a subspecies-specific fragment of unknown identity (S. Hum, K. Quinn, J. Brunner, and S. L. On, Aust. Vet. J. 75:827-831, 1997). The assay specifically detected four C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains with no observed cross-reaction with C. fetus subsp. fetus-related Campylobacter species or other bovine venereal microflora. The 5′ Taq nuclease assay detected approximately one single cell compared to 100 and 10 cells in the conventional PCR assay and 2,500 and 25,000 cells from selective culture from inoculated smegma and mucus, respectively. The respective detection limits following the enrichments from smegma and mucus were 5,000 and 50 cells/inoculum for the conventional PCR compared to 500 and 50 cells/inoculum for the 5′ Taq nuclease assay. Field sampling confirmed the sensitivity and the specificity of the 5′ Taq nuclease assay by detecting an additional 40 bulls that were not detected by culture. Urine-inoculated samples demonstrated comparable detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis by both culture and the 5′ Taq nuclease assay; however, urine was found to be less effective than smegma for bull sampling. Three infected bulls were tested repetitively to compare sampling tools, and the bull rasper proved to be the most suitable, as evidenced by the improved ease of specimen collection and the consistent detection of higher levels of C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The 5′ Taq nuclease assay demonstrates a statistically significant association with culture (χ2 = 29.8; P < 0.001) and significant improvements for the detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis-infected animals from crude clinical extracts following prolonged transport. PMID:16517880

  6. Comparison of culture and a novel 5' Taq nuclease assay for direct detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in clinical specimens from cattle.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Lyle; Fordyce, Geoffry; Doogan, Vivienne J; Lew, Ala E

    2006-03-01

    A Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis-specific 5' Taq nuclease PCR assay using a 3' minor groove binder-DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) was developed based on a subspecies-specific fragment of unknown identity (S. Hum, K. Quinn, J. Brunner, and S. L. On, Aust. Vet. J. 75:827-831, 1997). The assay specifically detected four C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains with no observed cross-reaction with C. fetus subsp. fetus-related Campylobacter species or other bovine venereal microflora. The 5' Taq nuclease assay detected approximately one single cell compared to 100 and 10 cells in the conventional PCR assay and 2,500 and 25,000 cells from selective culture from inoculated smegma and mucus, respectively. The respective detection limits following the enrichments from smegma and mucus were 5,000 and 50 cells/inoculum for the conventional PCR compared to 500 and 50 cells/inoculum for the 5' Taq nuclease assay. Field sampling confirmed the sensitivity and the specificity of the 5' Taq nuclease assay by detecting an additional 40 bulls that were not detected by culture. Urine-inoculated samples demonstrated comparable detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis by both culture and the 5' Taq nuclease assay; however, urine was found to be less effective than smegma for bull sampling. Three infected bulls were tested repetitively to compare sampling tools, and the bull rasper proved to be the most suitable, as evidenced by the improved ease of specimen collection and the consistent detection of higher levels of C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The 5' Taq nuclease assay demonstrates a statistically significant association with culture (chi2 = 29.8; P < 0.001) and significant improvements for the detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis-infected animals from crude clinical extracts following prolonged transport. PMID:16517880

  7. In vitro 3D angiogenesis assay in egg white matrix: comparison to Matrigel, compatibility to various species, and suitability for drug testing.

    PubMed

    Mousseau, Yoanne; Mollard, Séverine; Qiu, Hao; Richard, Laurence; Cazal, Raphael; Nizou, Angélique; Vedrenne, Nicolas; Rémi, Séverine; Baaj, Yasser; Fourcade, Laurent; Funalot, Benoit; Sturtz, Franck G

    2014-03-01

    In vitro angiogenesis assays are commonly used to assess pro- or anti-angiogenic drug properties. Extracellular matrix (ECM) substitutes such as Matrigel and collagen gel became very popular in in vitro 3D angiogenesis assays as they enable tubule formation by endothelial cells from culture or aortic rings. However, these assays are usually used with a single cell type, lacking the complex cellular interactions occurring during angiogenesis. Here, we report a novel angiogenesis assay using egg white as ECM substitute. We found that, similar to Matrigel, egg white elicited prevascular network formation by endothelial and/or smooth muscle cell coculture. This matrix was suitable for various cells from human, mouse, and rat origin. It is compatible with aortic ring assay and also enables vascular and tumor cell coculture. Through simple labeling (DAPI, Hoechst 33258), cell location and resulting prevascular network formation can easily be quantified. Cell transfection with green fluorescent protein improved whole cell visualization and 3D structure characterization. Finally, egg-based assay dedicated to angiogenesis studies represents a reliable and cost-effective way to produce and analyze data regarding drug effects on vascular cells. PMID:24395110

  8. Comparison of gene expression regulation in mouse- and human embryonic stem cell assays during neural differentiation and in response to valproic acid exposure.

    PubMed

    Schulpen, Sjors H W; Theunissen, Peter T; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Piersma, Aldert H

    2015-08-15

    Embryonic stem cell tests (EST) are considered promising alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing. Classical mouse derived assays (mEST) are being replaced by human derived assays (hEST), in view of their relevance for human hazard assessment. We have compared mouse and human neural ESTn assays for neurodevelopmental toxicity as to regulation of gene expression during cell differentiation in both assays. Commonalities were observed in a range of neurodevelopmental genes and gene ontology (GO) terms. The mESTn showed a higher specificity in neurodevelopment than the hESTn, which may in part be caused by necessary differences in test protocols. Moreover, gene expression responses to the anticonvulsant and human teratogen valproic acid were compared. Both assays detected pharmacological and neurodevelopmental gene sets regulated by valproic acid. Common significant expression changes were observed in a subset of homologous neurodevelopmental genes. We suggest that these genes and related GO terms may provide good candidates for robust biomarkers of neurodevelopmental toxicity in hESTn. PMID:26072468

  9. Comparison of three serological assays to determine the cross-reactivity of antibodies from eight genetically diverse U.S. swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Leuwerke, Brad; Kitikoon, Pravina; Evans, Richard; Thacker, Eileen

    2008-07-01

    Swine influenza virus is an economically important pathogen to the U.S. swine industry. New influenza subtypes and isolates within subtypes with different genetic and antigenic makeup have recently emerged in U.S. swineherds. As a result of the emergence of these new viruses, diagnosticians' ability to accurately diagnose influenza infection in pigs and develop appropriate vaccine strategies has become increasingly difficult. The current study compares the ability of subtype-specific commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and serum neutralization (SN) assays to detect antibodies elicited by multiple isolates within different subtypes of influenza virus. Pigs were infected with genetically and antigenically different isolates of the 3 major circulating subtypes within populations of swine (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2). Serum was collected when all pigs within a group collectively reached HI reciprocal titers >or=160 against that group's homologous challenge virus. The antibody cross-reactivity of the sera between isolates was determined using ELISA, HI, and SN assays. In addition, the correlation between the 3 assays was determined. The assays differed in their ability to detect antibodies produced by the viruses used in the study. The results provide important information to diagnostic laboratories, veterinarians, and swine producers on the ability of 3 common serological assays used in identifying infection with influenza in pigs. PMID:18599846

  10. Evaluation of the Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay for HIV-1 RNA viral load detection and quantitation in plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals: A comparison with Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Alessandra; Pisciotta, Maria; Aleo, Loredana; Ferraioli, Valeria; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-09-01

    The Hologic Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima HIV) is a real-time transcription-mediated amplification method CE-approved for use in diagnosis and monitoring of HIV-1 infection. The analytical performance of this new assay was compared to the FDA-approved Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime). The evaluation was performed using 220 clinical plasma samples, the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard, and the QCMD HIV-1 RNA EQA. Concordance on qualitative results, correlation between quantitative results, accuracy, and reproducibility of viral load data were analyzed. The ability to measure HIV-1 subtypes was assessed on the second WHO International Reference Preparation Panel for HIV-1 Subtypes. With clinical samples, inter-assay agreement for qualitative results was high (91.8%) with Cohen's kappa statistic equal to 0.836. For samples with quantitative results in both assays (n = 93), Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.980 (P < 0.0001) and mean differences of measurement, conducted according to Bland-Altman method, was low (0.115 log10  copies/ml). The Aptima HIV quantified the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard diluted from 2000 to 31 cp/ml (5,700-88 IU/ml) at expected values with excellent linearity (R(2)  > 0.970) and showed higher sensitivity compared to RealTime being able to detect HIV-1 RNA in 10 out of 10 replicates containing down to 7 cp/ml (20 IU/ml). Reproducibility was very high, even at low HIV-1 RNA values. The Aptima HIV was able to detect and accurately quantify all the main HIV-1 subtypes in both reference panels and clinical samples. Besides excellent performance, Aptima HIV shows full automation, ease of use, and improved workflow compared to RealTime. J. Med. Virol. 88:1535-1544, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864171